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Sample records for exploratory mixed method

  1. Policy and Persistence: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Case Study of "Last Mile" Students at Portland State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbold, Joseph Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an extension of educational attainment research, this exploratory mixed- methods case study examines the influence of institutional policies on the behavior of five cohorts (n = 925) of traditional first time, full time (FTFT) freshmen--called "Last Mile" students--at one urban research university located in the Pacific Northwest.…

  2. Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: a comparative methods study.

    PubMed

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-09-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitative methods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions.

  3. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  4. Testosterone and sexual risk among transmen: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dadasovich, Rand; Auerswald, Coco; Minnis, Alexandra M; Raymond, H Fisher; McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-02-01

    Little research has explored the link between the behavioural effects of testosterone use among transmen and HIV risk. We conducted a mixed methods study to explore testosterone use among transmen and the behavioural effects on HIV risk. A sample of 122 transmen from San Francisco participated in a cross-sectional quantitative survey and 14 transmen participated in 2 focus group discussions. Most participants (81.9%) were currently taking hormones. Participants attributed testosterone use to new sexual behaviours among 69% of transmen, changes in sexual attraction (49%), and increased frequency of sexual activity (72%). Among current testosterone users, 3.3% had cisgender men as partners before starting testosterone, whereas after starting testosterone, 25.4% did. Similarly, 4.1% had a transgender woman as a sexual partner before starting testosterone and 13.9% after starting testosterone. Findings suggest that testosterone's side effects were associated with transmen's desires for sex with cisgender men who have sex with men. The reported increase in attraction to and sex with partners from populations with a high HIV prevalence may have important implications for HIV risk among transmen, especially as the availability of transgender health services may draw transmen to a context in which HIV prevalence is high.

  5. The Obstacles for the Teaching of 8th Grade TR History of Revolution and Kemalism Course According to the Constructivist Approach (An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Design)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Yavuz; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the problems social studies teachers face in the teaching of topics covered in 8th grade TRHRK Course. The study was conducted in line with explanatory sequential mixed method design, which is one of the mixed research method, was used. The study involves three phases. In the first step, exploratory process…

  6. Occupational fatigue and other health and safety issues for young Australian workers: an exploratory mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica Louise; Clarkson, Larissa; Rainbird, Sophia; Etherton, Hayley; Blewett, Verna

    2015-01-01

    Youth are vulnerable to sleep loss and fatigue due to biological, social and psychological factors. However, there are few studies addressing the risk that sleep loss and fatigue pose for youth in the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore work health and safety (WHS) issues for young workers and develop strategies and solutions for improved WHS outcomes, with a focus on issues related to fatigue, using a mixed-method, multi-stage approach. Participants either completed a survey (n=212) or took part in focus groups (n=115) addressing WHS for young workers, or attended a Future Inquiry Workshop (n=29) where strategies for improving youth WHS were developed. Fatigue was identified as a significant problem by the majority of young workers and was associated with unpredictable working time arrangements, precarious employment, high workload, working overtime and limited ability to self-advocate. Participants identified six key areas for action to improve WHS outcomes for young workers; 1) develop expertise, 2) give young workers a voice, 3) improve education and training, 4) build stakeholder engagement, 5) increase employer awareness of WHS responsibilities and, 6) improve processes for employers to manage and monitor WHS outcomes. The application of these directives to fatigue is discussed.

  7. Female health workers in Gujarat: Examining human resource actions and workforce objectives-an exploratory mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Veena

    2013-01-01

    Background. Female health workers (FHWs), posted at subcentres, each serving a rural population of 3000 to 5000, are the final points of contact between the people and the health system. This study assesses a selected sample of FHWs using the 'managing for performance' framework. Methods. Twenty-two FHWs and their supervisors at five primary health centres near Ahmedabad were purposively selected for this mixed methods study. They were administered a semi-structured questionnaire, which also guided 12 individual interviews and four focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analysed using Epi Info and Excel. Content analysis of the qualitative data was done using Microsoft Word. Results. In spite of increased FHW strength due to recent recruitments, one-third of these FHWs were carrying out additional responsibilities of another FHW or supervisor. Planning of tasks was the most popular activity while the chief demotivating factor at work was meeting targets. Recent trainings have been useful but failed to build specific competence as required. About 37% of routine person-tasks carried out by FHWs were graded below 60 points by supervisors. They rated the FHWs highly for their collaboration with community leaders although FHWs themselves did not consider community leaders to be a helpful resource. Conclusion. Mapping age, skill levels and locations of existing FHWs and soon-to-be retirees would be useful when planning future expansion of the FHW cadre. The natural elasticity of base populations due to migration as well as unpredictability of their work schedules need to be taken into account when monitoring the work performance of FHWs. District training centres need to be developed to provide a wide range of competencies.

  8. Life Course Socioeconomic Transition and its Association with Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Sequential Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Raman, V Kutty; Nochikattil, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of early onset type 2 diabetes (Diabetes below the age of 45 years) is increasing worldwide. Transition in socio-economic position–i.e. Life Course Socio-Economic Transition (LSET) - may contribute to the development of early onset T2D through complex processes involving economic and occupational opportunities as well as individual life style choices. Aim To develop and validate the life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and to know the association between life courses socioeconomic transition and early onset type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods This study follows sequential exploratory mixed method study design. It consists of one qualitative strand followed by two quantitative strands. Qualitative strand consist of in- depth interview among the community dwellers to develop a tool for measuring LSET. Two quantitative strands consist of the validation of the questionnaire by conducting cross-sectional survey among 200 randomly selected community dwellers and a hospital based case control study using the same questionnaire. Results Those who have a history of lower SEP during his childhood period and enjoying higher SEP during his adulthood period have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes at their younger age (18-45 years). Conclusion This study will help to develop a validated life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and application of that tool in an epidemiological study. PMID:27504317

  9. A protocol for an exploratory phase I mixed-methods study of enhanced integrated care for care home residents with advanced dementia: the Compassion Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Margaret; Harrington, Jane; Moore, Kirsten; Davis, Sarah; Kupeli, Nuriye; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Gola, Anna; Candy, Bridget; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Jones, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the UK approximately 700 000 people are living with, and a third of people aged over 65 will die with, dementia. People with dementia may receive poor quality care towards the end of life. We applied a realist approach and used mixed methods to develop a complex intervention to improve care for people with advanced dementia and their family carers. Consensus on intervention content was achieved using the RAND UCLA appropriateness method and mapped to sociological theories of process and impact. Core components are: (1) facilitation of integrated care, (2) education, training and support, (3) investment from commissioners and care providers. We present the protocol for an exploratory phase I study to implement components 1 and 2 in order to understand how the intervention operates in practice and to assess feasibility and acceptability. Methods and analysis An ‘Interdisciplinary Care Leader (ICL)’ will work within two care homes, alongside staff and associated professionals to facilitate service integration, encourage structured needs assessment, develop the use of personal and advance care plans and support staff training. We will use qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data for a range of outcome and process measures to detect effects on individual residents, family carers, care home staff, the intervention team, the interdisciplinary team and wider systems. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising process and care home level data, individual demographic and clinical characteristics and data on symptom burden, clinical events and quality of care. Qualitative data will be explored using thematic analysis. Findings will inform a future phase II trial. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted (REC reference 14/LO/0370). We shall publish findings at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on the Marie Curie Cancer Care website and prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with end

  10. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  11. Epistemic Beliefs of Middle and High School Students in a Problem-Based, Scientific Inquiry Unit: An Exploratory, Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Jiangyue

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a…

  12. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed.

  13. Alternate assessment use with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: an exploratory mixed-methods analysis of portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level test formats.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Wurtz, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings on alternate assessments for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). Drawn from the results of the "Second National Survey of Assessments and Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing," this study investigated three alternate assessment formats: portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level testing. Analysis includes descriptive data of alternate assessment use across all three formats, qualitative analyses of teacher perspectives, and an exploratory logistic regression analysis on predictors of alternate assessment use. This exploratory analysis looks at predictors such as state policy, educational setting, grades served, language of instruction, and participant perspectives. Results indicate that predictors at the student, teacher, and system level may influence alternate assessment use for SDHH.

  14. A community-based approach to indigent selection is difficult to organize in a formal neighbourhood in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In most African countries, indigents treated at public health centres are supposed to be exempted from user fees. In Africa, most of the available knowledge has to do with targeting processes in rural areas, and little is known about how to select the worst-off in an urban area. In rural communities of Burkina Faso, trials of participatory community-based selection of indigents have been effective. However, the process for selecting indigents in urban areas is not yet clear. Methods This study evaluates a community-funded participatory indigent selection process in both a formal (loti) and an informal (non-loti) neighbourhood in the urban setting of Burkina Faso’s capital. This was an exploratory study to evaluate the processes and effectiveness of participatory targeting. We conducted individual interviews (n = 26) and analyzed secondary qualitative data (eight focus groups, 16 individual interviews). We also used the results of a socioeconomic survey (carried out by the Ouaga HDSS in 2011) of all the households established in the areas, including those of selected indigents. Results The coverage of indigent targeting was very low: 0.33% (loti) and 0.22% (non loti). In the non loti neighbourhood, the level of poverty among people selected was higher than the mean level of the poor who were not selected. Some indigents selected in the loti neighbourhood were not among the worst-off. The process was difficult to organize in the loti neighbourhood; people knew each other less well and were not very available, and there were cases of collusion. The process worked well in the non loti neighbourhood. Conclusions This intervention research provides new evidence about the feasibility of a community-based selection process in an urban setting in Africa by comparing two different urban settings. The participatory community-based selection process appeared to be suitable for the non loti neighbourhood, but other targeting strategies need to be found for loti

  15. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  16. An Exploratory, Population-Based, Mixed-Methods Program Evaluation of User Satisfaction of Services Provided by a Regional Extension Center (REC)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, D.; Rutala, M.; Ihde, C.; Bills, A.; Mollon, L.; Warholak, T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To evaluate user satisfaction among practices receiving services provided by the Arizona Regional Extension Center (REC). Methods This program evaluation utilized a mixed-methods approach including: 1) a mail-based survey targeting all 489 REC member practices; and 2) a series of telephone-based focus groups using a convenience sample of rural and urban REC member practices. Targeted respondents were key contacts who handle interactions with the REC at each practice. Program evaluators at the University of Arizona and experts at Arizona Health-e Connection (AzHeC) created the questionnaires, focus group script, participant invitation and follow up documents via a collaborative process. Regression and Rasch analyses were used to identify key factors associated with satisfaction with REC and to assess questionnaire validity, respectively. Results Responses from both the focus groups and survey revealed that most of the respondents were satisfied with the current services, despite the presence of satisfaction gaps between practices of various characteristics: respondents that were clinicians, practices using web-based electronic health record systems (EHRs), and practices that had achieved Stage 1 Meaningful Use had a higher level of satisfaction compared with their respective counterparts. Focus group participants provided suggestions for improving REC services. Conclusions Most respondents reported being satisfied with REC services. Specialized representatives may be needed for practices at different stages of Meaningful Use to further improve REC satisfaction in order to facilitate more efficient adoption of EHRs. PMID:24734121

  17. Epistemic beliefs of middle and high school students in a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit: An exploratory, mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiangyue

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit, (b) How do middle and high school students' epistemic beliefs contribute to the construction of students' problem solving processes, and (c) how and why do students' epistemic beliefs change by engaging in PBL. Twenty-one middle and high school students participated in a summer science class to investigate local water quality in a 2-week long problem-based learning (PBL) unit. The students worked in small groups to conduct water quality tests at in their local watershed and visited several stakeholders for their investigation. Pretest and posttest versions of the Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted to assess students' self-reported epistemic beliefs before and after the unit. I videotaped and interviewed three groups of students during the unit and conducted discourse analysis to examine their epistemic beliefs revealed from scientific inquiry activities and triangulate with their self-reported data. There are three main findings from this study. First, students in this study self-reported relatively sophisticated epistemic beliefs on the pretest. However, the comparison between their self-reported beliefs and beliefs revealed from practice indicated that some students were able to apply sophisticated beliefs during the unit while others failed to do so. The inconsistency between these two types of epistemic beliefs may due to students' inadequate cognitive ability, low validity of self-report measure, and the influence of contextual factors. Second, qualitative analysis indicated that students' epistemic beliefs of the nature of knowing influenced their problem

  18. Can social capital help explain enrolment (or lack thereof) in community-based health insurance? Results of an exploratory mixed methods study from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Soors, Werner; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    CBHI has achieved low population coverage in West Africa and elsewhere. Studies which seek to explain this point to inequitable enrolment, adverse selection, lack of trust in scheme management and information and low quality of health care. Interventions to address these problems have been proposed yet enrolment rates remain low. This exploratory study proposes that an under-researched determinant of CBHI enrolment is social capital. Fieldwork comprising a household survey and qualitative interviews was conducted in Senegal in 2009. Levels of bonding and bridging social capital among 720 members and non-members of CBHI across three case study schemes are compared. The results of the logistic regression suggest that, controlling for age and gender, in all three case studies members were significantly more likely than non-members to be enrolled in another community association, to have borrowed money from sources other than friends and relatives and to report having control over all community decisions affecting daily life. In two case studies, having privileged social relationships was also positively correlated with enrolment. After controlling for additional socioeconomic and health variables, the results for borrowing money remained significant. Additionally, in two case studies, reporting having control over community decisions and believing that the community would cooperate in an emergency were significantly positively correlated with enrolment. The results suggest that CBHI members had greater bridging social capital which provided them with solidarity, risk pooling, financial protection and financial credit. Qualitative interviews with 109 individuals selected from the household survey confirm this interpretation. The results ostensibly suggest that CBHI schemes should build on bridging social capital to increase coverage, for example by enrolling households through community associations. However, this may be unadvisable from an equity perspective. It is

  19. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  20. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  1. Error Estimates for Mixed Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    This paper presents abstract error estimates for mixed methods for the approximate solution of elliptic boundary value problems. These estimates are...then applied to obtain quasi-optimal error estimates in the usual Sobolev norms for four examples: three mixed methods for the biharmonic problem and a mixed method for 2nd order elliptic problems. (Author)

  2. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It: "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  3. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  4. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  5. Mixed jamming method for SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yong-sheng

    2007-11-01

    The mixed jamming method of synthetic aperture radar is analyzed and discussed. The methods of active noise and deception jamming and the signal model of transmitting is described. The raw echo signal of SAR and the model of jammed echo signal are expatiated, the characteristic of SAR and the evaluating method of jamming effect are established. Finally, the mixed jamming imaging of SAR is simulated.

  6. Mixed Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…

  7. A Recursive Approach to Mixed Methods Research in a Longitudinal Study of Postsecondary Education Disability Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed methods research has increased in popularity over the past 20 years. Literature reveals that exploratory qualitative analysis followed by confirmatory survey research is common and concurrent studies outnumber longitudinal design. Longitudinal studies using quantitative and qualitative methods in sequence for exploratory purposes are rare,…

  8. Sliding doors: Did drama-based inter-professional education improve the tensions round person-centred nursing and social care delivery for people with dementia: A mixed method exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Lindsay; Fenton, Jane; Kelly, Timothy B; Lee, John

    2017-04-01

    This educational intervention takes place when the population of older people with dementia is increasing. Health and Social care professionals must work jointly in increasingly complex contexts. Negative attitudes towards older people are cited as a contributor to poor care delivery, including the use of dismissive and/or patronising language, failing to meet fundamental needs and afford choice. 'Sliding Doors to Personal Futures' is a joint, drama-based, educational initiative between NHS Education Scotland and the Scottish Social Services Council, delivered using interprofessional education (IPE) towards encouraging person-centred health and social care. This paper considers whether 'Sliding Doors' had an impact on social work and nursing students' attitudes to older people, person-centred care and interprofessional collaboration. Two groups of third year students were studied; one from nursing and one from social work. A mixed methods approach was taken and attitudes and attitudinal shifts measured and discussed. Quantitative results demonstrated that social work students made positive attitudinal shifts in some questionnaire items and collectively the social work students were more person-centred than nursing students in their care approaches. The qualitative data however, drawn from focus groups, illuminated these results and highlighted the link between the ability for a professional to be person-centred and the conceptual view of risk within the particular profession. Risk acceptance, the theoretical position of social work, may facilitate person-centred care, whereas the perceived risk-averse nature of the nursing profession may inhibit it. Students' attempts to understand the quantitative results, without understanding the restrictions and parameters of each other's profession, led them to revert to stereotypes and negative views of each other as practitioners. The paper concludes that there is an important difference between nurses' and social workers

  9. Educator Perspectives on the Use of Alternative Assessment Methods within Taught Masters Programmes: An Exploratory Study Using Activity Theory and Q Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deignan, Tim; Brown, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory two-stage sequential mixed methods research study that investigated the views of university educators on the introduction of assessment methods other than essays, exams and dissertations within taught Masters programmes. In the first stage, interviews were conducted internationally with 45 participants and…

  10. Mixed methods, mixed methodology health services research in practice.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, P Lynne

    2004-02-01

    Mixed methods, mixed methodology research is a little documented but increasingly accepted approach employed to investigate organizational phenomena. The author presents a synthesis of literature that informed the decision to adopt a mixed methods, mixed methodology, dominantly naturalistic study approach to health services research in which she explored the process and organizational consequences of new artifact adoption in surgery. She describes the way whereby a collective case study involving five Australian hospitals yielded quantitative and qualitative data that were analyzed using inductive and/or deductive reasoning. She goes beyond the theoretical rational for employing a mixed methods, mixed methodology approach to present a summative conceptual model of the research process and describe the structural aspects of the dissertation in which the research was reported that should benefit researchers contemplating the value of such an approach.

  11. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  12. Pragmatism, Evidence, and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been…

  13. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  14. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced…

  15. Development and Initial Evaluation of the Web-Based Self-Management Program “Partner in Balance” for Family Caregivers of People With Early Stage Dementia: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    de Vugt, Marjolein E; Withagen, Hanneke EJ; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; Verhey, Frans RJ

    2016-01-01

    Background People with dementia increasingly depend on informal caregivers. Internet-based self-management interventions hold considerable promise for meeting the educational and support needs of early stage dementia caregivers (EDCs) at a reduced cost. Objective This study aimed to (1) develop an online self-management program for EDC to increase self-efficacy and goal attainment, and (2) evaluate the program’s feasibility and report preliminary data on effectiveness. Methods Based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, a stepwise approach was adopted to explore potential user needs and develop and validate the content by means of (1) focus group discussions with dementia caregivers (N=28), (2) interviews with dementia care professionals (N=11), and (3) individual think-aloud usability tests with EDC (N=2) and experts (N=2). A pilot evaluation was conducted with EDC (N=17) to test the feasibility and establish preliminary effects. Self-report measures of feasibility were completed after the completion of intervention. Self-efficacy and goal attainment were evaluated before and after the intervention. Results The different steps provided useful information about the needs of potential users regarding the content and delivery of the program. This resulted in the newly developed “Partner in Balance” program. At the start, system failures resulted in a high noncompleter rate (7/17, 41%), but at the end, an acceptable feasibility score of 209 (range 54-234) was found. The convenience of completing the program at home, the tailored content, and the guidance (face-to-face and online) were appraised positively. Preliminary effects on caregiver self-efficacy (P<.05) and goal attainment (T>50) were promising. Conclusions Adaptations were made to the program to limit the amount of system failures and prevent high noncompleter rates. As recommended by the MRC framework, confirming the feasibility and

  16. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  17. Exploring Top-Rated MBA Programs for Best Practices in Internationalizing Curricula: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if, and how, curriculum developers are incorporating opportunities to develop global competence into business curricula, the Exploratory Design: Taxonomy Development Model (Qualitative Emphasized) was conducted on top-rated MBA programs. This three-phase mixed methods approach revealed 11 global competencies (or taxonomies) and 84…

  18. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods.

  19. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  20. Mixed Methods, Triangulation, and Causal Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates…

  1. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  2. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  3. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  4. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  5. Mixed-methods exploration of parents' health information understanding.

    PubMed

    Lehna, Carlee; McNeil, Jack

    2008-05-01

    Health literacy--the ability to read, understand, and use health information to make health care decisions--affects health care outcomes, hospitalization costs, and readmission. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study is to determine how two different parent groups (English speaking and Spanish speaking) understand medical care for their children and the procedural and research consent forms required by that care. Quantitative and qualitative data are gathered and compared concurrently. Differences between groups are found in age, grade completed, Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults scores, and ways of understanding health information. Identifying how parents understand health information is the first step in providing effective family-centered health care education.

  6. Using Horn's Parallel Analysis Method in Exploratory Factor Analysis for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Koçak, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the number of factors obtained from parallel analysis, a method used for determining the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis, was compared to that of the factors obtained from eigenvalue and scree plot--two traditional methods for determining the number of factors--in terms of consistency. Parallel analysis is based on…

  7. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel’s hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution’s kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types. PMID:26549938

  8. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel's hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution's kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types.

  9. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel’s hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution’s kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types.

  10. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Zhang, Chuanlun; Roh, Yul

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  11. Description and Critique of Quantitative Methods for the Allocation of Exploratory Development Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper analyzes ten methods for planning the allocation of resources among projects within the exploratory development category of the Defense...research, development, test and evaluation program. Each method is described in terms of a general framework of planning methods and of the factors that...influence the allocation of development resources. A comparative analysis is made of the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods . The more

  12. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  13. Mixed Method Research in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    This paper addresses the conditions under which quantitative and qualitative research methods could be combined in special education. The paper asserts that qualitative designs have not had a significant effect on special education research and speculates that mixed-method research might be more acceptable to special education researchers or…

  14. From Ethnography to Items: A Mixed Methods Approach to Developing a Survey to Examine Graduate Engineering Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2013-01-01

    As part of a sequential exploratory mixed methods study, 9 months of ethnographically guided observations and interviews were used to develop a survey examining graduate engineering student retention. Findings from the ethnographic fieldwork yielded several themes, including international diversity, research group organization and climate,…

  15. An Emic, Mixed-Methods Approach to Defining and Measuring Positive Parenting among Low-Income Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, Christine M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Green Wright, Linnie E.; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Harris, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This within-group exploratory sequential mixed-methods investigation sought to identify how ethnically diverse, urban-residing, low-income Black families conceptualize positive parenting. During the item development phase 119 primary caregivers from Head Start programs participated in focus groups and interviews. These…

  16. A novel exploratory method for visual recombination detection

    PubMed Central

    Strimmer, Korbinian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Holland, Barbara; Moulton, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    A versatile visual approach for detecting recombination and identifying recombination breakpoints within a sequence alignment is presented. The method is based on two novel diagrams - the highway plot and the occupancy plot - that graphically portray phylogenetic inhomogeneity along an alignment, and can be viewed as a synthesis of two widely used but unrelated methods: bootscanning and quartet-mapping. To illustrate the method, simulated data and HIV-1 and influenza A datasets are investigated. PMID:12734013

  17. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  18. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  19. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight.

  20. Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An Exploratory Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-22

    M T R 1 4 0 4 4 3 R 2 M I T R E T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Text extraction

  1. Exploratory Solid-State Synthesis of Uranium Chalcogenides and Mixed Anion Uranium Chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Matthew David

    Several uranium chalcogenides and mixed anion uranium chalcogenides have been synthesized by solid-state synthetic methods. Structural determinations were carried out via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Some of these compounds have been further characterized by magnetic measurements, optical properties measurements, Raman spectroscopy, resistivity measurements, XANES and XPS. Eight compounds of the composition MU8Q17 were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of these compounds crystallize in the CrU8S17 structure type. XANES measurements indicate that ScU8S17 contains Sc3+ and must be charge balanced with some amount of U 3+. Two compounds of the composition ATiU3Te9 crystallize as black rectangular plates. From single-crystal magnetic measurements, CsTiU 3Te9 is consistent with antiferromagnetic coupling between magnetic U atoms. The uranium chalcogenide compounds NiUS3 and Cr4US 8 were synthesized from reaction of the elements in various fluxes. NiUS3 crystallizes in the GdFeO3 structure type. Cr 4US8 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group D - Pnma and its structure is related to that of Li4UF 8. The compounds Rh2U6S15, Cs 2Ti2U6Se15, and Cs2Cr 2U6Se15 crystallize as black prisms in the cubic space group O-Im3m. Magnetic measurements on Cs 2Cr2U6Se15 give a value for the Weiss temperature, θWeiss, of 57.59 K, indicative of ferromagnetic coupling. Black plates of CsScU(Se2)Se3 were synthesized from the reaction of the elements in a CsCl flux. CsScU(Se2)Se 3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group D- Cmcm . Magnetic susceptibility measurements on CsScU(Se2)Se 3 indicate three regions of magnetic response. The uranium double salt Cs5[U2(μ-S 2)2Cl8]I crystallizes as red plates. Cs 5[U2(μ-S2)2Cl 8]I displays optical anisotropy with band gap energies of 1.99 eV and 2.08 eV along the [001] and [100] polarizations. The uranium oxychalcogenides U7O2Se12 and Na2Ba2(UO2)S4 were synthesized by intentional oxygen contamination

  2. Exploratory Work With Pre-Mixing Injectors for Nitric Acid-Kerosene Rocket Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-03-01

    container as shown in Fig.3. The fluid used was W.A.F.1, a mixture of 7C% furfuryl alcohol and 30% aniline by volume, the ignition delay of which with...information relating to tests of pre-mixing injectors for the liquid oxygen- alcohol combination carried out by the Bell Aircraft Corporation. The individual...out in a water-cooled chamber with an uncooled copper nozzle at combustion pressures of 135 to 150 l/sq in. Apart from harsh ignition, these -14

  3. Highway accident severities and the mixed logit model: an exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Milton, John C; Shankar, Venky N; Mannering, Fred L

    2008-01-01

    Many transportation agencies use accident frequencies, and statistical models of accidents frequencies, as a basis for prioritizing highway safety improvements. However, the use of accident severities in safety programming has been often been limited to the locational assessment of accident fatalities, with little or no emphasis being placed on the full severity distribution of accidents (property damage only, possible injury, injury)-which is needed to fully assess the benefits of competing safety-improvement projects. In this paper we demonstrate a modeling approach that can be used to better understand the injury-severity distributions of accidents on highway segments, and the effect that traffic, highway and weather characteristics have on these distributions. The approach we use allows for the possibility that estimated model parameters can vary randomly across roadway segments to account for unobserved effects potentially relating to roadway characteristics, environmental factors, and driver behavior. Using highway-injury data from Washington State, a mixed (random parameters) logit model is estimated. Estimation findings indicate that volume-related variables such as average daily traffic per lane, average daily truck traffic, truck percentage, interchanges per mile and weather effects such as snowfall are best modeled as random-parameters-while roadway characteristics such as the number of horizontal curves, number of grade breaks per mile and pavement friction are best modeled as fixed parameters. Our results show that the mixed logit model has considerable promise as a methodological tool in highway safety programming.

  4. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  5. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Michael L.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.; Chapman, Chris C.; Peters, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  6. Mixed Finite Element Method for Melt Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taicher, A. L.; Hesse, M. A.; Arbogast, T.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium. Therefore, a numerical method must also carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. The finite element framework provides support for additional analysis of error and convergence. Moreover, both mesh refinement and anisotropy are naturally incorporated into finite elements. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. Mixed methods also produce discretely conservative fluxes that are required for the transport problem to remains stable without violating conservation of mass. Based preliminary investigations in 1D and derived energy estimates, we present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, using novel elements of lowest order and

  7. Mixed Finite Element Methods for Melt Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taicher, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium so must carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. We present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, we present novel elements of lowest order and compatible with both Darcy and Stokes flow Finally, we present our 2D mixed FEM code result for solving Stokes and Darcy flow as well as the coupled Darcy-Stokes system the mid-ocean ridge or corner flow problem.

  8. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  9. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  10. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  11. A Mapping method for mixing with diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Conor P.; Christov, Ivan C.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2012-11-01

    We present an accurate and efficient computational method for solving the advection-diffusion equation in time-periodic chaotic flows. The method uses operator splitting which allows advection and diffusion steps to be treated independently. Taking advantage of flow periodicity, the advection step is solved with a mapping method, and diffusion is added discretely after each iteration of the advection map. This approach allows for a ``composite'' mapping matrix to be constructed for an entire period of a chaotic advection-diffusion process, which provides a natural approach to the spectral analysis of mixing. To test the approach, we consider the two-dimensional time-periodic sine flow. When compared to the exact solution for this simple velocity field, the operator splitting method exhibits qualitative agreement (overall concentration structure) for large time steps and is quantitatively accurate (average and maximum error) for small time steps. We extend the operator splitting approach to three-dimensional chaotic flows. Funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000469. Present affiliation: Princeton University. Supported by NSF Grant DMS-1104047.

  12. Mixed methods for fitting the GEV distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailliot, Pierre; Thompson, Craig; Thomson, Peter

    2011-05-01

    The generalized extreme-value (GEV) distribution is widely used for modeling and characterizing extremes. It is a flexible three-parameter distribution that combines three extreme-value distributions within a single framework: the Gumbel, Frechet, and Weibull. Common methods used for estimating the GEV parameters are the method of maximum likelihood and the method of L-moments. This paper generalizes the mixed maximum likelihood and L-moments GEV estimation procedures proposed by Morrison and Smith (2002) and derives the asymptotic properties of the resulting estimators. Analytic expressions are given for the asymptotic covariance matrices in a number of important cases, including the estimators proposed by Morrison and Smith (2002). These expressions are verified by simulation and the efficiencies of the various estimators established. The asymptotic results are compared to those obtained for small to medium-size samples by simulation with the estimated parameters and quantiles assessed for accuracy and bias. Using simplified constraints for the support of the log likelihood, computational strategies and graphical tools are developed which lead to computationally efficient, numerically robust, estimation procedures suitable for automatic batch processing of many data sets. The methods are illustrated by application to annual maximum rainfall data at a large number of New Zealand locations. For Wellington, 24 h annual maximum rainfall over the period 1940-1999 is also considered within each phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation.

  13. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2007-01-01

    A sequential design utilizing identical samples was used to classify mixed methods studies via a two-dimensional model, wherein sampling designs were grouped according to the time orientation of each study's components and the relationship of the qualitative and quantitative samples. A quantitative analysis of 121 studies representing nine fields…

  14. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  15. Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

  16. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  17. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    PubMed Central

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  18. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem.

    PubMed

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry.

  19. Discontinuous Mixed Covolume Methods for Parabolic Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ailing

    2014-01-01

    We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L2. PMID:24983008

  20. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  1. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, F.; Njiki-Menga, G.-H.; Witschger, O.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  2. The emergence of mixing methods in the field of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jennifer C

    2015-06-01

    When and how did the contemporary practice of mixing methods in social inquiry get started? What events transpired to catalyze the explosive conceptual development and practical adoption of mixed methods social inquiry over recent decades? How has this development progressed? What "next steps" would be most constructive? These questions are engaged in this personally narrative account of the beginnings of the contemporary mixed methods phenomenon in the field of evaluation from the perspective of a methodologist who was there.

  3. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  4. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  5. Method of chaotic mixing and improved stirred tank reactors

    DOEpatents

    Muzzio, F.J.; Lamberto, D.J.

    1999-07-13

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for efficiently achieving a homogeneous mixture of fluid components by introducing said components having a Reynolds number of between about [le]1 to about 500 into a vessel and continuously perturbing the mixing flow by altering the flow speed and mixing time until homogeneity is reached. This method prevents the components from aggregating into non-homogeneous segregated regions within said vessel during mixing and substantially reduces the time the admixed components reach homogeneity. 19 figs.

  6. Method of chaotic mixing and improved stirred tank reactors

    DOEpatents

    Muzzio, Fernando J.; Lamberto, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for efficiently achieving a homogeneous mixture of fluid components by introducing said components having a Reynolds number of between about .ltoreq.1 to about 500 into a vessel and continuously perturbing the mixing flow by altering the flow speed and mixing time until homogeniety is reached. This method prevents the components from aggregating into non-homogeneous segregated regions within said vessel during mixing and substantially reduces the time the admixed components reach homogeneity.

  7. RO1 Funding for Mixed Methods Research: Lessons learned from the Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression Project

    PubMed Central

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled “The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression.” We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, the quantitative and qualitative data sources informing the study, and overview of the mixing of the two studies. Finally, we examine reviewer's comments and our insights related to writing mixed method proposal successful for achieving RO1 level funding. PMID:25419196

  8. Commentary: Using Mixed Methods to Transform Special Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Klingner and Boardman (this issue) offer a cogent and compelling argument for opening the door for the acceptance and use of mixed methods in special education research. Self-identifying as pragmatists, they embody this paradigmatic view by focusing on the utility, efficacy, and accuracy of mixed methods, an argument that should appeal to the…

  9. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  10. Analysis of Mixed Methods Using Mesh Dependent Norms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the analysis of mixed methods for the approximate solution of 4th order elliptic boundary value problems. In...formulation of this lower order system, thereby obtaining direct approximations to both the original and auxiliary variables. Three particular mixed methods for the approximate solution of the biharmonic problem are examined in detail.

  11. Mixed Methods in VET Research: Usage and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods had been heralded as the third methodological movement with several authorities from across an array of discipline fields contributing to a growing body of literature and theoretical developments. The discipline fields which are showing high levels of acceptance for mixed methods are those related to education, health and nursing,…

  12. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  13. Use of the Transformative Framework in Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, David; Badiee, Manijeh; Creswell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    A concern exists that mixed methods studies do not contain advocacy stances. Preliminary evidence suggests that this is not the case, but to address this issue in more depth the authors examined 13 mixed methods studies that contained an advocacy, transformative lens. Such a lens consisted of incorporating intent to advocate for an improvement in…

  14. What Can Mixed Methods Designs Offer Professional Development Program Evaluators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Victoria; Nevin, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the benefits and pitfalls of mixed methods designs. They argue that mixed methods designs may be preferred when evaluating professional development programs for p-K-12 education given the new call for accountability in making data-driven decisions. They summarize and critique the studies in terms of limitations…

  15. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  16. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  17. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  18. Analysis of the Performance of Mixed Finite Element Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    October 1986 SUMMARY The initial goal of this project is to analyze various mixed methods based on the p- and h-p versions of the finite element methods...The convergence of mixed methods depends on two factors: (1) Approximability of polynomial spaces used (2) Stability. In the past year, the question...significant portion of the research is geared towards the investigation of mixed methods based on the ’p’ and ’h-p’ versions of the finite element method

  19. Haptic exploratory behavior during object discrimination: a novel automatic annotation method.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sander E M; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2015-01-01

    In order to acquire information concerning the geometry and material of handheld objects, people tend to execute stereotypical hand movement patterns called haptic Exploratory Procedures (EPs). Manual annotation of haptic exploration trials with these EPs is a laborious task that is affected by subjectivity, attentional lapses, and viewing angle limitations. In this paper we propose an automatic EP annotation method based on position and orientation data from motion tracking sensors placed on both hands and inside a stimulus. A set of kinematic variables is computed from these data and compared to sets of predefined criteria for each of four EPs. Whenever all criteria for a specific EP are met, it is assumed that that particular hand movement pattern was performed. This method is applied to data from an experiment where blindfolded participants haptically discriminated between objects differing in hardness, roughness, volume, and weight. In order to validate the method, its output is compared to manual annotation based on video recordings of the same trials. Although mean pairwise agreement is less between human-automatic pairs than between human-human pairs (55.7% vs 74.5%), the proposed method performs much better than random annotation (2.4%). Furthermore, each EP is linked to a specific object property for which it is optimal (e.g., Lateral Motion for roughness). We found that the percentage of trials where the expected EP was found does not differ between manual and automatic annotation. For now, this method cannot yet completely replace a manual annotation procedure. However, it could be used as a starting point that can be supplemented by manual annotation.

  20. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  1. Mixed-Methods Research in the Discipline of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Harrison, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of 294 mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing. Creswell and Plano Clark's typology was most frequently used along with concurrent timing. Bivariate statistics was most often the highest level of statistics reported in the results. As for qualitative data analysis, content analysis was most frequently used. The majority of nurse researchers did not specifically address the purpose, paradigm, typology, priority, timing, interaction, or integration of their mixed-methods studies. Strategies are suggested for improving the design, conduct, and reporting of mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing.

  2. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research.

  3. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    PubMed

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  4. Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; O’Cathain, Alicia; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods studies, in which qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single program of inquiry, can be valuable in biomedical and health services research, where the complementary strengths of each approach can yield greater insight into complex phenomena than either approach alone. Although interest in mixed methods is growing among science funders and investigators, written guidance on how to conduct and assess rigorous mixed methods studies is not readily accessible to the general readership of peer-reviewed biomedical and health services journals. Furthermore, existing guidelines for publishing mixed methods studies are not well known or applied by researchers and journal editors. Accordingly, this paper is intended to serve as a concise, practical resource for readers interested in core principles and practices of mixed methods research. We briefly describe mixed methods approaches and present illustrations from published biomedical and health services literature, including in cardiovascular care, summarize standards for the design and reporting of these studies, and highlight four central considerations for investigators interested in using these methods. PMID:23322807

  5. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

  6. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  7. Analytical chemistry methods for mixed oxide fuel, March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of materials used to produce mixed oxide fuel. These materials are ceramic fuel and insulator pellets and the plutonium and uranium oxides and nitrates used to fabricate these pellets.

  8. Text-in-Context: A Method for Extracting Findings in Mixed-Methods Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. Background International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. Data source The data extraction challenges described here were encountered and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011–2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. Discussion To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. Implications for nursing The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. Conclusion This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. PMID:22924808

  9. New mixed quantum/semiclassical propagation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Dimitri; Gelman, David; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2007-05-01

    The authors developed a new method for calculating the quantum evolution of multidimensional systems, for cases in which the system can be assumed to consist of a quantum subsystem and a bath subsystem of heavier atoms. The method combines two ideas: starting from a simple frozen Gaussian description of the bath subsystem, then calculate quantum corrections to the propagation of the quantum subsystem. This follows from recent work by one of them, showing how one can calculate corrections to approximate evolution schemes, even when the Hamiltonian that corresponds to these approximate schemes is unknown. Then, they take the limit in which the width of the frozen Gaussians approaches zero, which makes the corrections to the evolution of the quantum subsystem depend only on classical bath coordinates. The test calculations they present use low-dimensional systems, in which comparison to exact quantum dynamics is feasible.

  10. The MIXED framework: A novel approach to evaluating mixed-methods rigor.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Ann L; DeVon, Holli A

    2017-02-09

    Evaluation of rigor in mixed-methods (MM) research is a persistent challenge due to the combination of inconsistent philosophical paradigms, the use of multiple research methods which require different skill sets, and the need to combine research at different points in the research process. Researchers have proposed a variety of ways to thoroughly evaluate MM research, but each method fails to provide a framework that is useful for the consumer of research. In contrast, the MIXED framework is meant to bridge the gap between an academic exercise and practical assessment of a published work. The MIXED framework (methods, inference, expertise, evaluation, and design) borrows from previously published frameworks to create a useful tool for the evaluation of a published study. The MIXED framework uses an experimental eight-item scale that allows for comprehensive integrated assessment of MM rigor in published manuscripts. Mixed methods are becoming increasingly prevalent in nursing and healthcare research requiring researchers and consumers to address issues unique to MM such as evaluation of rigor.

  11. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  12. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings. PMID:24722814

  13. Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Chiara F.

    2001-01-01

    As for all materials, the performance of concrete is determined by its microstructure. Its microstructure is determined by its composition, its curing conditions, and also by the mixing method and mixer conditions used to process the concrete. This paper gives an overview of the various types of mixing methods and concrete mixers commercially available used by the concrete industry. There are two main types of mixers used: batch mixers and continuous mixers. Batch mixers are the most common. To determine the mixing method best suited for a specific application, factors to be considered include: location of the construction site (distance from the batching plant), the amount of concrete needed, the construction schedule (volume of concrete needed per hour), and the cost. Ultimately, the quality of the concrete produced determines its performance after placement. An important measure of the quality is the homogeneity of the material after mixing. This paper will review mixing methods in regards to the quality of the concrete produced. Some procedures used to determine the effectiveness of the mixing will be examined. PMID:27500029

  14. Assessing and evaluating multidisciplinary translational teams: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kevin C; Rose, Robert M; Ostir, Glenn V; Calhoun, William J; Ameredes, Bill T; Brasier, Allan R

    2014-03-01

    A case report illustrates how multidisciplinary translational teams can be assessed using outcome, process, and developmental types of evaluation using a mixed-methods approach. Types of evaluation appropriate for teams are considered in relation to relevant research questions and assessment methods. Logic models are applied to scientific projects and team development to inform choices between methods within a mixed-methods design. Use of an expert panel is reviewed, culminating in consensus ratings of 11 multidisciplinary teams and a final evaluation within a team-type taxonomy. Based on team maturation and scientific progress, teams were designated as (a) early in development, (b) traditional, (c) process focused, or (d) exemplary. Lessons learned from data reduction, use of mixed methods, and use of expert panels are explored.

  15. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  16. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of total cholesterol measured in five Israeli populations.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T; Carmelli, D; Cameron, E

    1985-07-01

    Three structured exploratory data analysis-functionals are applied to plasma total cholesterol concentrations measured for 2,480 young men and women aged 17-18 years and living in Jerusalem, and for their parents. These triad families are divided into five groups according to whether both parents were born in Asia, North Africa, Europe-America, or Israel or whether they were of mixed "origins." The significances of the functionals were determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffled the trait values across families in order to systematically alter certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. These analyses suggest that generational differences and various distributional effects influence patterns of spouse and parent-offspring interactions within these families and that the nature and forms of these effects and interactions may differ according to the origin of the parents. Results are discussed in relationship to historical and cultural differences among groups.

  17. Understanding fruit and vegetable intake of Native American children: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sinley, Rachel C; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Native American children experience greater rates of obesity and risk for chronic diseases in comparison to their counterparts in other ethnic groups. Contributing to this risk may be inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate the fruit and vegetable consumption of Native American children between the ages of 2 and 5 by using an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. This study first collected qualitative data from caregivers of Native American children (n = 45) and stakeholders in Native American communities (n = 10) to gain perspectives of fruit and vegetable consumption. Data was then utilized to develop a fruit and vegetable survey which was administered with a fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire. These quantitative assessments were administered to caregivers of Native American children (n = 92) to gain an understanding of predictors of fruit and vegetable intake among this population. This study was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior. Findings from the mixed methods analysis demonstrate that, while the IMB model may be a useful tool to utilize in explaining the complex relationship between factors that impact fruit and vegetable consumption among Native American children, a revised model may be appropriate to use in future intervention development.

  18. Mixing Interview and Questionnaire Methods: Practical Problems in Aligning Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lois R.; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are often used in mixed method studies to generate confirmatory results despite differences in methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. A review of 19 questionnaire-interview comparison studies found that consensus and consistency statistics were generally weak between…

  19. Combining the power of stories and the power of numbers: mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews.

    PubMed

    Pluye, Pierre; Hong, Quan Nha

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews. These two approaches are used to combine the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods and to compensate for their respective limitations. This article is structured in three main parts. First, the epistemological background for mixed methods will be presented. Afterward, we present the main types of mixed methods research designs and techniques as well as guidance for planning, conducting, and appraising mixed methods research. In the last part, we describe the main types of mixed studies reviews and provide a tool kit and examples. Future research needs to offer guidance for assessing mixed methods research and reporting mixed studies reviews, among other challenges.

  20. An explicit mixed numerical method for mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, H.-M.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed numerical method has been developed for mesoscale models. The technique consists of a forward difference scheme for time tendency terms, an upstream scheme for advective terms, and a central scheme for the other terms in a physical system. It is shown that the mixed method is conditionally stable and highly accurate for approximating the system of either shallow-water equations in one dimension or primitive equations in three dimensions. Since the technique is explicit and two time level, it conserves computer and programming resources.

  1. A mixed method for axisymmetric div-curl systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Dylan M.; Gopalakrishnan, Jayadeep; Pasciak, Joseph E.

    2008-12-01

    We present a mixed method for a three-dimensional axisymmetric div-curl system reduced to a two-dimensional computational domain via cylindrical coordinates. We show that when the meridian axisymmetric Maxwell problem is approximated by a mixed method using the lowest order elements (for the vector variable) and linear elements (for the Lagrange multiplier), one obtains optimal error estimates in certain weighted Sobolev norms. The main ingredient of the analysis is a sequence of projectors in the weighted norms satisfying some commutativity properties.

  2. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  3. Addressing gaps in the contraceptive method mix: methods in development.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Callahan, Rebecca; Dorflinger, Laneta

    2015-11-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of contraceptive methods, millions of women still have an unmet need for contraceptive choices. Short-acting methods are plagued by issues with adherence, leading to imperfect or inconsistent use and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraceptive methods such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, while providing highly effective and safe contraception, do not meet the needs of all women, often due to cost, access or acceptability issues. Several new methods are in various stages of development and are designed to address the shortcomings of current methods. Providers should be aware of these future options and how they might better meet women's needs.

  4. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  5. Creating and Supporting a Mixed Methods Health Services Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. Methods. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Results. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Conclusions. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. PMID:24138774

  6. Realist explanatory theory building method for social epidemiology: a protocol for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    A recent criticism of social epidemiological studies, and multi-level studies in particular has been a paucity of theory. We will present here the protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of the social epidemiology of maternal depression. We use a critical realist approach which is trans-disciplinary, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative traditions, and that assumes both ontological and hierarchical stratification of reality. We describe a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: 1) emergent phase, 2) construction phase, and 3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design is described. The Emergent Phase uses: interviews, focus groups, exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, and multilevel Bayesian spatial data analysis to detect and describe phenomena. Abductive and retroductive reasoning will be applied to: categorical principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, coding of concepts and categories, constant comparative analysis, drawing of conceptual networks, and situational analysis to generate theoretical concepts. The Theory Construction Phase will include: 1) defining stratified levels; 2) analytic resolution; 3) abductive reasoning; 4) comparative analysis (triangulation); 5) retroduction; 6) postulate and proposition development; 7) comparison and assessment of theories; and 8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The strength of the critical realist methodology described is the extent to which this paradigm is able to support the epistemological, ontological, axiological, methodological and rhetorical positions of both quantitative and qualitative research in the field of social epidemiology. The extensive multilevel Bayesian studies, intensive qualitative studies, latent variable theory, abductive triangulation, and Inference to Best Explanation provide a strong foundation for Theory

  7. Mixed method nursing studies: a critical realist critique.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Mixed method study designs are becoming increasingly popular among nurse researchers. Mixed studies can have advantages over single method or methodological investigative designs. However, these advantages may be squandered where researchers fail to think through and justify their theoretic decisions. This paper argues that nurse researchers do not always pay sufficient heed to the philosophic and theoretic elements of research design and, in consequence, some mixed study reports lack argumentative coherence and validity. It is here suggested that Hempel's concept of equivalence can be stretched to usefully illustrate one of the main threats to argumentative coherence in mixed study design. The critical realist theory of Roy Bhaskar is then introduced and this, it is proposed, offers one means by which Hempel's equivalence dilemma can be overcome. Critical realists recognize the existence of logical connections between the ontological, epistemological, and methodological premises that underpin their work. They are therefore more likely to produce coherent studies than uncritical pragmatists who ignore such linkages and, paradoxically, critical realists can be epistemological pluralists because, in re-conceptualizing the ontological basis of inquiry, problems associated with the mixing of alternative metaphysics are circumvented.

  8. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  9. Prevalence of Mixed Methods Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Amanda A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In wake of federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that have called for "scientifically based research in education," this study examined the possible trends in mixed methods research articles published in 2 peer-reviewed mathematics education journals (n = 87) from 2002 to 2006. The study also illustrates how…

  10. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  11. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  12. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of…

  13. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  14. Motivational Engagement and Video Gaming: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby; Nadelson, Louis

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods design was used to identify factors associated with motivational engagement in video gaming. Self-report instruments were administered to 189 video game players to assess goal orientations, affect, need for cognition, and perceptions of engagement and flow. Simultaneously, a sub-set of 25 participants were interviewed and results…

  15. Consent, Informal Organization and Job Rewards: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Marty

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a mixed methods approach to workplace dynamics. Ethnographic observations show that the consent deal underlies an informal stratification that divides the workplace into an "informal periphery," a "conventional core" and an "administrative clan." The "consent deal" is defined as an exchange of autonomy, voice and schedule…

  16. Assessing Affective Constructs in Reading: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradi, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating affective dimensions in reading has long been plagued by vaguely defined constructs and, consequently, by an array of potentially problematic instruments designed to measure them. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship among three popular group-administered instruments intended to tap affective constructs in…

  17. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  18. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study utilized the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, responses to open-ended questions, and in-depth interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities that were present among principals in Alberta, Canada. The first quantitative phase consisted of a random sample of 135 schools (with…

  19. Libraries in Online Elementary Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Laura; Franklin, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    School libraries serve an important role; however, elementary students who attend schools online typically do not have a school library. This study followed an online school's inaugural year in instituting a library. A mixed methods approach examined data from focus groups, interviews, surveys, library-use records and oral reading fluency scores.…

  20. Mixed Methods and Credibility of Evidence in Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.; Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2013-01-01

    We argue for a view of credible evidence that is multidimensional in philosophical and methodological terms. We advocate for the importance of deepening the meaning of credible evaluation practice and findings by bringing multiple philosophical and theoretical lenses to the evaluation process as a basis for the use of mixed methods in evaluation,…

  1. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, W.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  2. A Mixed Methods Approach to Understanding School Counseling Program Evaluation: High School Counselors' Methods and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucoin, Jennifer Mangrum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods concurrent triangulation study was to examine the program evaluation practices of high school counselors. A total of 294 high school counselors in Texas were assessed using a mixed methods concurrent triangulation design. A researcher-developed survey, the School Counseling Program Evaluation Questionnaire…

  3. The role of mixed methods in improved cookstove research.

    PubMed

    Stanistreet, Debbi; Hyseni, Lirije; Bashin, Michelle; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Pope, Daniel; Sage, Michael; Bruce, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of promoting access to clean and efficient household energy for cooking and heating is a critical issue facing low- and middle-income countries today. Along with clean fuels, improved cookstoves (ICSs) continue to play an important part in efforts to reduce the 4 million annual premature deaths attributed to household air pollution. Although a range of ICSs are available, there is little empirical evidence on appropriate behavior change approaches to inform adoption and sustained used at scale. Specifically, evaluations using either quantitative or qualitative methods provide an incomplete picture of the challenges in facilitating ICS adoption. This article examines how studies that use the strengths of both these approaches can offer important insights into behavior change in relation to ICS uptake and scale-up. Epistemological approaches, study design frameworks, methods of data collection, analytical approaches, and issues of validity and reliability in the context of mixed methods ICS research are examined, and the article presents an example study design from an evaluation study in Kenya incorporating a nested approach and a convergent case oriented design. The authors discuss the benefits and methodological challenges of mixed-methods approaches in the context of researching behavior change and ICS use recognizing that such methods represent relatively uncharted territory. The authors propose that more published examples are needed to provide frameworks for other researchers seeking to apply mixed methods in this context and suggest a comprehensive research agenda is required that incorporates integrated mixed-methods approaches, to provide best evidence for future scale-up.

  4. The random card sort method and respondent certainty in contingent valuation: an exploratory investigation of range bias.

    PubMed

    Shackley, Phil; Dixon, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) values derived from contingent valuation surveys are prone to a number of biases. Range bias occurs when the range of money values presented to respondents in a payment card affects their stated WTP values. This paper reports the results of an exploratory study whose aim was to investigate whether the effects of range bias can be reduced through the use of an alternative to the standard payment card method, namely, a random card sort method. The results suggest that the random card sort method is prone to range bias but that this bias may be mitigated by restricting the analysis to the WTP values of those respondents who indicate they are 'definitely sure' they would pay their stated WTP.

  5. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-07-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results.

  6. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-01-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results. PMID:6475959

  7. The Use of Mixed Methods for Therapeutic Massage Research

    PubMed Central

    Porcino, Antony Joseph; Verhoef, Marja J.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research is the integration of quantitative and qualitative components in a research project. Whether you are reading or designing a mixed methods research project, it is important to be familiar with both qualitative and quantitative research methods and the specific purposes for which they are brought together in a study: triangulation, complementarity, expansion, initiation, or development. In addition, decisions need to be made about the sequencing and the priority or importance of each qualitative and quantitative component relative to the other components, and the point or points at which the various qualitative and quantitative components will be integrated. Mixed methods research is increasingly being recognized for its ability to bring multiple points of view to a research project, taking advantage of the strengths of each of the quantitative and qualitative components to explain or resolve complex phenomena or results. This ability becomes critical when complex healing systems such as therapeutic massage are being studied. Complex healing systems may have multiple physiologic effects, often reflected in changes throughout the patient’s body. Additionally, the patient’s experience of the treatment may be an important outcome. PMID:21589698

  8. Laminated microchannel devices, mixing units and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA

    2002-10-17

    A laminated microchannel device is described in which there is a unit operation process layer that has longitudinal channel. The longitudinal channel is cut completely through the layer in which the unit process operation resides. Both the device structure and method of making the device provide significant advantages in terms of simplicity and efficiency. A static mixing unit that can be incorporated in the laminated microchannel device is also described.

  9. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  10. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C S

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  11. Mixed-Methods Research in Nutrition and Dietetics.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Harris, Jeffrey E

    2017-03-08

    This work focuses on mixed-methods research (MMR) and is the 11th in a series exploring the importance of research design, statistical analysis, and epidemiologic methods as applied to nutrition and dietetics research. MMR research is an investigative technique that applies both quantitative and qualitative data. The purpose of this article is to define MMR; describe its history and nature; provide reasons for its use; describe and explain the six different MMR designs; describe sample selection; and provide guidance in data collection, analysis, and inference. MMR concepts are applied and integrated with nutrition-related scenarios in real-world research contexts and summary recommendations are provided.

  12. Preconditioned Mixed Spectral Element Methods for Elasticity and Stokes Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavarino, Luca F.

    1996-01-01

    Preconditioned iterative methods for the indefinite systems obtained by discretizing the linear elasticity and Stokes problems with mixed spectral elements in three dimensions are introduced and analyzed. The resulting stiffness matrices have the structure of saddle point problems with a penalty term, which is associated with the Poisson ratio for elasticity problems or with stabilization techniques for Stokes problems. The main results of this paper show that the convergence rate of the resulting algorithms is independent of the penalty parameter, the number of spectral elements Nu and mildly dependent on the spectral degree eta via the inf-sup constant. The preconditioners proposed for the whole indefinite system are block-diagonal and block-triangular. Numerical experiments presented in the final section show that these algorithms are a practical and efficient strategy for the iterative solution of the indefinite problems arising from mixed spectral element discretizations of elliptic systems.

  13. Staffing levels in rural nursing homes: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Towsley, Gail L; Beck, Susan L; Dudley, William N; Pepper, Ginette A

    2011-07-01

    This mixed methods study used multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of organizational and market characteristics on staffing hours and staffing mix, and qualitative interview to explore the challenges and facilitators of recruiting and retaining qualified staff. Rural nursing homes (NHs) certified by Medicare or Medicaid (N = 161) were sampled from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting system. A subsample (n = 23) was selected purposively for the qualitative analysis. Smaller NHs or government-affiliated homes had more total nursing hours per resident day and more hours of care by certified nursing assistants and RNs than larger and nongovernment-affiliated homes; however, almost 87% of NHs in this study were below the national recommendation for RN hours. Informants voiced challenges related to enough staff, qualified staff, and training staff. Development of nursing resources is critical, especially in rural locales where aging resources may not be well developed.

  14. Role of Religion in Preventing Youth Sexual Activity in Malaysia: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani

    2016-01-25

    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.

  15. Understanding Post-Deployment Reintegration Concerns Among En Route Care Nurses: A Mixed-Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Felecia M; Dukes, Susan; Hatzfeld, Jennifer; Yoder, Linda H; Gordon, Sandra; Simmons, Angela

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the post-deployment behavior health symptoms and readjustment/reintegration experienced by military nurses who provided en route care while serving in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Employing an exploratory, concurrent, mixed-methods design with an electronic survey consisting of several valid instruments and single, face-to-face interviews; data were gathered from 119 surveys and 22 interviews. Four qualitative themes aligned with the Post-Deployment Readjustment Inventory items. Findings from interviews support and illuminate the outcomes of the Post-Deployment Readjustment Inventory. Behavioral health usage was high in the quantitative sample. Nearly 74% (n = 88) of respondents indicating they had used Military Behavioral Health services following deployment. Statistically significant differences were noted among all subscales except Intimate Relationship Problems. Combined results indicated en route care nurses encountered difficulties when attempting to return to predeployment roles; behavioral health problems mirrored those of combat warriors. Interventions to assist post-deployment reintegration of en route care nurses should be conducted at the peer, leader, and health care provider levels. Embedding military mental health providers into en route care units is needed. It is imperative to gather lessons learned and identify ways to improve preparation for future conflicts and behavioral health of en route care nurses.

  16. Mixed mode control method and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Kesse, Mary L.; Duffy, Kevin P.

    2007-04-10

    A method of mixed mode operation of an internal combustion engine includes the steps of controlling a homogeneous charge combustion event timing in a given engine cycle, and controlling a conventional charge injection event to be at least a predetermined time after the homogeneous charge combustion event. An internal combustion engine is provided, including an electronic controller having a computer readable medium with a combustion timing control algorithm recorded thereon, the control algorithm including means for controlling a homogeneous charge combustion event timing and means for controlling a conventional injection event timing to be at least a predetermined time from the homogeneous charge combustion event.

  17. A mixed methods assessment of coping with pediatric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child coping and parent coping assistance with cancer-related stressors during treatment. Fifteen children (aged 6-12) with cancer and their parents (N = 17) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess coping and coping assistance. Results suggest families utilized a broad array of approach and avoidance strategies to manage cancer and its treatment. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping among children with cancer and their parents. Using a mixed methods approach to assess coping provides a richer understanding of families’ experiences, which can better inform clinical practice. PMID:24428250

  18. A mixed model reduction method for preserving selected physical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Gangtie

    2017-03-01

    A new model reduction method in the frequency domain is presented. By mixedly using the model reduction techniques from both the time domain and the frequency domain, the dynamic model is condensed to selected physical coordinates, and the contribution of slave degrees of freedom is taken as a modification to the model in the form of effective modal mass of virtually constrained modes. The reduced model can preserve the physical information related to the selected physical coordinates such as physical parameters and physical space positions of corresponding structure components. For the cases of non-classical damping, the method is extended to the model reduction in the state space but still only contains the selected physical coordinates. Numerical results are presented to validate the method and show the effectiveness of the model reduction.

  19. A mixed methods investigation of bicycle exposure in crash rates.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Nicholas; Christofa, Eleni; Knodler, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Crash rates are an essential tool enabling researchers and practitioners to assess whether a location is truly more dangerous, or simply serves a higher volume of vehicles. Unfortunately, this simple crash rate is far more difficult to calculate for bicycles due to data challenges and the fact that they are uniquely exposed to both bicycle and automobile volumes on shared roadways. Bicycle count data, though increasingly more available, still represents a fraction of the available count data for automobiles. Further compounding on this, bicycle demand estimation methods often require more data than automobiles to account for the high variability that bicycle demand is subject to. This paper uses a combination of mixed methods to overcome these challenges and to perform an investigation of crash rates and exposure to different traffic volumes.

  20. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  1. A Preliminary Mixed-Method Investigation of Trust and Hidden Signals in Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Iannello, Paola; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Schulz, Peter J.; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP) consultations. Objective We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated. Method A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy. Results The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social “honest signals” rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more. Conclusions This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the importance of analysing

  2. Reducing the blame culture through clinical audit in nuclear medicine: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Ross, P; Hubert, J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the barriers and facilitators of doctors’ engagement with clinical audit and to explore how and why these factors influenced doctors’ decisions to engage with the NHS National Clinical Audit Programme. Design A single-embedded case study. Mixed methods sequential approach with explorative pilot study and follow-up survey. Pilot study comprised 13 semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected consultant doctors over a six-month period. Interview data coded and analysed using directed thematic content analysis with themes compared against the study’s propositions. Themes derived from the pilot study informed the online survey question items. Exploratory factor analysis using STATA and descriptive statistical methods applied to summarise findings. Data triangulation techniques used to corroborate and validate findings across the different methodological techniques. Setting NHS National PET-CT Clinical Audit Programme. Participants Doctors reporting on the Audit Programme. Main Outcome measures Extent of engagement with clinical audit, factors that influence engagement with clinical audit. Results Online survey: 58/59 doctors responded (98.3%). Audit was found to be initially threatening (79%); audit was reassuring (85%); audit helped validate professional competence (93%); participation in audit improved reporting skills (76%). Three key factors accounted for 97.6% of the variance in survey responses: (1) perception of audit’s usefulness, (2) a common purpose, (3) a supportive blame free culture of trust. Factor 1 influenced medical engagement most. Conclusions The study documents performance feedback as a key facilitator of medical engagement with clinical audit. It found that medical engagement with clinical audit was associated with reduced levels of professional anxiety and higher levels of perceived self-efficacy. PMID:28210493

  3. Prevalence and correlates of suicide ideation in patients with COPD: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Fleehart, Sara; Fan, Vincent S; Nguyen, Huong Q; Lee, Jungeun; Kohen, Ruth; Herting, Jerald R; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Adams, Sandra G; Pagalilauan, Genevieve; Borson, Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation (SI) in patients with stable moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients and methods We conducted an exploratory mixed methods analysis of data from participants in a longitudinal observational study of depression in COPD. We measured depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), which includes an item on SI. We compared participants with and without SI in relation to sociodemographics, symptoms, anxiety, and healthcare resource use with independent t-tests and chi-square tests. Content analysis was performed on qualitative data gathered during a structured SI safety assessment. Results Of 202 participants, 121 (60%) had depressive symptoms (PHQ ≥6); 51 (25%) had a PHQ-9 ≥10, indicating a high likelihood of current major depression; and 22 (11%) reported SI. Compared to the 99 depressed participants without SI, those with SI were more likely to be female (59% vs 27%, P=0.004); had worse dyspnea (P=0.009), depression (P<0.001), and anxiety (P=0.003); and were also more likely to have received treatment for depression and/or anxiety (82% vs 40%, P<0.001) and more hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations (P=0.03) but had similar levels of airflow obstruction and functioning than participants without SI. Themes from the qualitative analysis among those with SI included current or prior adverse life situations, untreated or partially treated complex depression, loss of a key relationship, experience of illness and disability, and poor communication with providers. Conclusion Our findings suggest that current SI is common in COPD, may occur disproportionately in women, can persist despite mental health treatment, and has complex relationships with both health and life events. Adequate management of SI in COPD may therefore require tailored, comprehensive treatment approaches that integrate medical and mental health

  4. Gender-based sexual roles: A mixed methods study in Iranian families

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Hasan; Montazeri, Ali; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Karimi, Yousef; Homami, Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender role attitudes toward sexual matters may define suitable and appropriate roles for men and women during a sexual relationship. This study aimed to explore and assess gender-based sexual roles in Iranian families. Materials and Methods: This was an exploratory mixed methods study in which perceptions and experiences of 21 adult Iranian participants about gender-based sexual roles have been explored in three provinces of Iran in 2010-2011, to generate items for developing a culture-oriented instrument to assess gender role attitudes. The developed and validated instrument, then, was applied to 390 individuals of general population of Tehran, Iran in 2012. Results: In content analysis of the qualitative phase data, four categories emerged as the main gender-based sexual roles: Decision making, relationships, care, and supervision and control. After passing the stages of item reduction, seven items remained for the instrument. In the quantitative phase, results showed that most of the participants (78.9%) believed in shared sexual roles for both genders. Consideration of a sexual role as “entirely masculine” or “preferably masculine” was the second prevalent attitude in 71.43% of gender-based sexual roles, whereas “entirely” or “preferably feminine role” was the second next most dominant attitude (14.28%). Conclusions: The results of the present study have revealed some new gender-based sexual roles within Iranian families; which may be applicable to show the capacity for achieving some domains of reproductive rights in Iran. PMID:24554957

  5. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling.

    PubMed

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis.

  6. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  7. Mixed Methods Analysis of Medical Error Event Reports: A Report from the ASIPS Collaborative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    mixed methods approach to analyzing narrative error event reports. Mixed methods studies integrate one or more qualitative and quantitative techniques for...authors present a protocol for applying a mixed methods approach to the study of patient safety reporting data to inform the development of interventions...Using mixed methods to study patient safety is an effective and efficient approach to data analysis that provides both information and motivation for developing and implementing patient safety

  8. A mixed methods study of Canadian adolescents’ perceptions of health

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, William; Vandemeer, Eleanor; Taylor, Brian; Davison, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Health perceptions adopted during childhood lay foundations for adult health trajectories and experiences. This study used a sequential mixed methods design to generate new evidence about child perceptions of health in two samples of Canadian children. A core qualitative study was followed by a complementary quantitative analysis to aid interpretation. Generational theory was used as a lens through which to interpret all data. Findings suggested that good health is perceived as customized and subjective. The strengths and liabilities of these perceptions are discussed, as well as implications for health promotion and prevention strategies. Through intentional consideration of the perspectives of this population group, this study makes both empirical and theoretical contributions to appreciating how cultural environments shape health perceptions. PMID:27741955

  9. A mixed methods study of Canadian adolescents' perceptions of health.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; Vandemeer, Eleanor; Taylor, Brian; Davison, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Health perceptions adopted during childhood lay foundations for adult health trajectories and experiences. This study used a sequential mixed methods design to generate new evidence about child perceptions of health in two samples of Canadian children. A core qualitative study was followed by a complementary quantitative analysis to aid interpretation. Generational theory was used as a lens through which to interpret all data. Findings suggested that good health is perceived as customized and subjective. The strengths and liabilities of these perceptions are discussed, as well as implications for health promotion and prevention strategies. Through intentional consideration of the perspectives of this population group, this study makes both empirical and theoretical contributions to appreciating how cultural environments shape health perceptions.

  10. How and Why Do IT Entrepreneurs Leave Their Salaried Employment to Start a SME? A Mixed Methods Research Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourmant, Gaëtan

    This method paper addresses an untapped but important type of IT turnover: IT entrepreneurship. We seek to develop a mixed methods research (MMR) design to understand the factors and processes that influence turnover behavior of prospective (nascent) IT entrepreneurs. To do this, we review two prior streams of research: the entrepreneurship literature and IT employee turnover. We incorporate the results of this literature review into a conceptual framework describing how the relevant factors leading to entrepreneurial and turnover behavior change over time, either gradually or suddenly, in response to specific events. In addition, we also contribute to the research by arguing that mixed methods research (MMR) is appropriate to bridge the gap between entrepreneurial literature and the IT turnover literature. A third important contribution is the design of the MMR, combining a longitudinal approach with a retrospective approach; a qualitative with a quantitative approach and, the exploratory design with the triangulation design [1]. Finally, we discuss practical implications for IT managers and IT entrepreneurs.

  11. Bisexuality, poverty and mental health: A mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; O'Gorman, Laurel; MacLeod, Melissa A; Bauer, Greta R; MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    Bisexuality is consistently associated with poor mental health outcomes. In population-based data, this is partially explained by income differences between bisexual people and lesbian, gay, and/or heterosexual individuals. However, the interrelationships between bisexuality, poverty, and mental health are poorly understood. In this paper, we examine the relationships between these variables using a mixed methods study of 302 adult bisexuals from Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling to complete an internet-based survey including measures of psychological distress and minority stress. A subset of participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview to contextualize their mental health experiences. Using information regarding household income, number of individuals supported by the income and geographic location, participants were categorized as living below or above the Canadian Low Income Cut Off (LICO). Accounting for the networked nature of the sample, participants living below the LICO had significantly higher mean scores for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and reported significantly more perceived discrimination compared to individuals living above the LICO. Grounded theory analysis of the qualitative interviews suggested four pathways through which bisexuality and poverty may intersect to impact mental health: through early life experiences linked to bisexuality or poverty that impacted future financial stability; through effects of bisexual identity on employment and earning potential; through the impact of class and sexual orientation discrimination on access to communities of support; and through lack of access to mental health services that could provide culturally competent care. These mixed methods data help us understand the income disparities associated with bisexual identity in population-based data, and suggest points of intervention to address their impact on bisexual mental

  12. The Structure of Mixed Method Studies in Educational Research: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lauren H.

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers are beginning to use mixed methods designs to answer complex research questions. This content analysis investigates the structure and use of mixed methods in educational research in order to work toward a more standardized presentation. I used a concurrent mixed methods approach to analyze 30 studies from three prominent…

  13. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Roest, Jan-Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport management research. The results indicate that mixed…

  14. Validity in Mixed Methods Research in Education: The Application of Habermas' Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods approach has developed into the third methodological movement in educational research. Validity in mixed methods research as an important issue, however, has not been examined as extensively as that of quantitative and qualitative research. Additionally, the previous discussions of validity in mixed methods research focus on research…

  15. Student Characteristics, Prior Experiences, and the Perception of Mixed Methods as an Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sydney E.

    2014-01-01

    There are persistent challenges to teaching mixed methods and innovative solutions are sought in order to address the needs of an increasingly diverse global audience seeking mixed methods instruction. This mixed methods study was conducted to gain insights to course design by more fully understanding the relationships among graduate student…

  16. A Case Study of a Mixed Methods Study Engaged in Integrated Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiazza, Daniela Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nascent field of mixed methods research has yet to develop a cohesive framework of guidelines and procedures for mixed methods data analysis (Greene, 2008). To support the field's development of analytical frameworks, this case study reflects on the development and implementation of a mixed methods study engaged in integrated data analysis.…

  17. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  18. Development of a resilience scale for Thai substance-dependent women: A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Sakunpong, Nanchatsan; Choochom, Oraphin; Taephant, Nattasuda

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a resilience scale based on the experiences of substance-dependent women in Thailand and evaluate its validity and reliability. A sequential exploratory mixed methods design was employed as the main methodology to develop the resilience scale according to the results from qualitative data by analyzing focus group discussions of 13 participants. Then, the scale was administered to 252 substance-dependent women from four substance-treatment centers. The psychometric properties were explored with an index of item objective congruence (IOC), Pearson correlation, second-order confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha coefficient to estimate the quantitative data. The qualitative results showed that resilience is defined by three themes: individual, family and community factors, consisted of 13 different categories. The quantitative results also revealed that all 71 items in the resilience scale passed the IOC criteria, convergence and construct validity. The goodness-of-fit indices demonstrated that the resilience model was consistent with the empirical data. (Chi-square=74.28, df=59, p-value=0.08, RMSEA=0.03, SRMR=0.04, NNFI=0.99, CFI=0.99, GFI=0.96). The internal consistency, assessed by a Cronbach's alpha score of 0.92, can be interpreted as demonstrating high reliability. Furthermore, the structure of the resilience scale was confirmed by the available resilience literature. This study can help clinicians gain a more comprehensive understanding regarding the complex process of resilience among substance-dependent women and aid them in providing these women with the appropriate interventions.

  19. XFEM: Exploratory Research into the Extended Finite-Element Method, FY02 LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    MISH, K

    2003-02-26

    This report is one of two components, the first an overview document outlining the goals and results of the XFEM LDRD project, and the other (titled ''Structured Extended Finite Element Methods of Solids defined by Implicit Surfaces'') detailing the scientific advances developed under FY01/FY02 LDRD funding. The XFEM (Extended Finite-Element Method) Engineering LDRD/ER Project was motivated by three research and development goals: (1) the extensions of standard finite-element technology into important new research venues of interest to the Engineering Directorate, (2) the automation of much of the engineering analysis workflow, so as to improve the productivity of mesh-generation and problem setup processes, and (3) the development of scalable software tools to facilitate innovation in XFEM analysis and methods development. The driving principle behind this LDRD project was to demonstrate the computational technology required to perform mechanical analysis of complex solids, with minimal extra effort required on the part of mechanical analysts. This need arises both from the growing workload of LLNL analysts in problem setup and mesh generation, and from the requirement that actual as-built mechanical configurations be analyzed. Many of the most important programmatic drivers for mechanical analysis require that the actual (e.g., deformed, aged, damaged) geometric configuration of the solid be deduced and then accurately modeled: for this programmatic need, XFEM provides one of the only accurate methods available that can provide high-fidelity results.

  20. An Exploratory Study of Child Molesters Relationship Patterns Using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Martin; de Roten, Yves; Korner, Annett

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship patterns of N = 20 child molesters (CM) using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method. The relationship patterns of the CMs were compared with those of a control group of N = 20 subjects from an out patient counseling service. Results showed that CMs had significantly less wish to be controlled,…

  1. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  2. Changing Perspectives: Validation Framework Review of Examples of Mixed Methods Research into Culturally Relevant Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Patrick Dean

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research becomes more utilized in education research every year. As this pluralist paradigm begins to take hold, it becomes more and more necessary to take a critical eye to studies making use of different mixed methods approaches. An area of education research that has yet struggled to find a foothold with mixed methodology is…

  3. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods…

  4. Student Satisfactions in Four Mixed Courses in Elementary Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Qiuyun

    2008-01-01

    Mixed or hybrid method has become an increasingly popular course delivery model in recent years, but research regarding the effect of mixed learning is limited because of its recent debut in the landscape of educational technology. This one-year exploratory study looked at 78 elementary teacher candidates' view of learning in four mixed courses…

  5. The evolution of rotating stars. 1: Method and exploratory calculations for a 7 solar mass star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method was developed which allows us to study the evolution of rotating stars beyond the main sequence stage. Four different cases of redistribution of angular momentum in an evolving star are considered. Evolutionary sequences for a 7 solar mass star, rotating according to these different cases, were computed from the ZAMS to the double shell source stage. Each sequence was begun with a (typical) equatorial velocity of 210 km/sec. On the main sequence, the effects of rotation are of minor importance. As the core contracts during later stages, important effects arise in all physically plausible cases. The outer regions of the cores approach critical velocities and develop unstable angular velocity distributions. The effects of these instabilities should significantly alter the subsequent evolution.

  6. Using Single Free Sorting and Multivariate Exploratory Methods to Design a New Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Emma; Velez, Martin; Guinard, Jean‐Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy‐two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry. PMID:27861864

  7. Looking-Free Mixed hp Finite Element Methods for Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Elasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-09

    element method. Particu- lar areas of interest : hp versions, mixed methods , nearly incompressible materials, curvilinear domains, nonlinear elasticity...1 Introduction 1 2 Preliminaries 10 2.1 The Standard and Mixed Methods for Linear Elasticity .......... 10 2.2 Locking...be used to denote pressure, we use k to denote polynomial degree. 4 Mixed methods have also been used to avoid locking. In these methods, an aux

  8. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach.

    PubMed

    Ono, Mutsumi; Kennedy, Eileen; Reeves, Sue; Cronin, Linda

    2012-02-01

    An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs.

  9. Cobalt silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites by modified sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Serena; Turco, Maria; Ramis, Gianguido; Bagnasco, Giovanni; Pernice, Pasquale; Pagliuca, Concetta; Bevilacqua, Maria; Aronne, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Cobalt-silicon mixed oxide materials (Co/Si=0.111, 0.250 and 0.428) were synthesised starting from Co(NO 3) 2·6H 2O and Si(OC 2H 5) 4 using a modified sol-gel method. Structural, textural and surface chemical properties were investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy and N 2 adsorption at -196 °C. The nature of cobalt species and their interactions with the siloxane matrix were strongly depending on both the cobalt loading and the heat treatment. All dried gels were amorphous and contained Co 2+ ions forming both tetrahedral and octahedral complexes with the siloxane matrix. After treatment at 400 °C, the sample with lowest Co content appeared amorphous and contained only Co 2+ tetrahedral complexes, while at higher cobalt loading Co 3O 4 was present as the only crystalline phase, besides Co 2+ ions strongly interacting with siloxane matrix. At 850 °C, in all samples crystalline Co 2SiO 4 was formed and was the only crystallising phase for the nanocomposite with the lowest cobalt content. All materials retained high surface areas also after treatments at 600 °C and exhibited surface Lewis acidity, due to cationic sites. The presence of cobalt affected the textural properties of the siloxane matrix decreasing microporosity and increasing mesoporosity.

  10. Obesity in social media: a mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Prestin, Abby; Kunath, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    The escalating obesity rate in the USA has made obesity prevention a top public health priority. Recent interventions have tapped into the social media (SM) landscape. To leverage SM in obesity prevention, we must understand user-generated discourse surrounding the topic. This study was conducted to describe SM interactions about weight through a mixed methods analysis. Data were collected across 60 days through SM monitoring services, yielding 2.2 million posts. Data were cleaned and coded through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, yielding popular themes and the most retweeted content. Qualitative analyses of selected posts add insight into the nature of the public dialogue and motivations for participation. Twitter represented the most common channel. Twitter and Facebook were dominated by derogatory and misogynist sentiment, pointing to weight stigmatization, whereas blogs and forums contained more nuanced comments. Other themes included humor, education, and positive sentiment countering weight-based stereotypes. This study documented weight-related attitudes and perceptions. This knowledge will inform public health/obesity prevention practice.

  11. Diet behaviour among young people in transition to adulthood (18–25 year olds): a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    Poobalan, Amudha S.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results: 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were ‘self-appearance’ and having ‘variety of food’. There were mixed opinions on ‘cost’ of food and ‘taste’. Conclusion: Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the

  12. To Flip or Not to Flip? An Exploratory Study Comparing Student Performance in Calculus I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Larissa B.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, mixed-methods study was to compare student performance in flipped and non-flipped sections of Calculus I. The study also examined students' perceptions of the flipping pedagogy. Students in the flipped courses reported spending, on average, an additional 1-2 hours per week outside of class on course content.…

  13. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.

    2009-01-01

    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  14. Life in the Middle: An Exploratory Study of California Community College Instructional Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sill, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This two-phase sequential mixed methods exploratory study examined the perceived skill deficits of instructional deans at California community colleges to better understand the training and development needs that are necessary to support dean success and to prepare them for advancement in a timelier manner. This study is grounded in the…

  15. Evaluating outpatient transition clinics: a mixed-methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sattoe, Jane N T; Peeters, Mariëlle A C; Hilberink, Sander R; Ista, Erwin; van Staa, AnneLoes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To support young people in their transition to adulthood and transfer to adult care, a number of interventions have been developed. One particularly important intervention is the transition clinic (TC), where paediatric and adult providers collaborate. TCs are often advocated as best practices in transition care for young people with chronic conditions, but little is known about TC models and effects. The proposed study aims to gain insight into the added value of a TC compared with usual care (without a TC). Methods and analysis We propose a mixed-methods study with a retrospective controlled design consisting of semistructured interviews among healthcare professionals, observations of consultations with young people, chart reviews of young people transferred 2–4 years prior to data collection and questionnaires among the young people included in the chart reviews. Qualitative data will be analysed through thematic analysis and results will provide insights into structures and daily routines of TCs, and experienced barriers and facilitators in transitional care. Quantitatively, within-group differences on clinical outcomes and healthcare use will be studied over the four measurement moments. Subsequently, comparisons will be made between intervention and control groups on all outcomes at all measurement moments. Primary outcomes are ‘no-show after transfer’ (process outcome) and ‘experiences and satisfaction with the transfer’ (patient-reported outcome). Secondary outcomes consider clinical outcomes, healthcare usage, self-management outcomes and perceived quality of care. Ethics The Medical Ethical Committee of the Erasmus Medical Centre approved the study protocol (MEC-2014-246). Dissemination Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conferences. The study started in September 2014 and will continue until December 2016. The same study design will be used in a national study in 20 diabetes settings (2016

  16. Planning for retirement from medicine: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Pannor Silver, Michelle; Easty, Laura K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests there are important personal and social consequences associated with inadequate retirement planning for physicians. We evaluated whether academic physicians felt satisfied with their retirement planning, and identified obstacles to retirement planning and a set of factors to facilitate retirement planning. Methods: We applied a sequential mixed-methods research design to explore and examine factors that facilitate academic physician retirement planning using data collected from multiple sources (including 7 focus groups, an internet-based survey and 23 in-depth interviews). We examined survey results regarding retirement planning satisfaction and preferences for complete versus gradual retirement. We used thematic analysis to examine verbatim transcripts and notes from the focus groups and interviews. Results: Survey data (response rate 51%) indicated that 10% of respondents were very satisfied with their retirement planning and 89.5% would prefer to retire gradually rather than stop work completely. Key barriers to retirement planning that emerged included poor personal financial management, rigid institutional structures and professional norms. Facilitators included financial planning resources for physicians at multiple career stages, opportunities and resources for later-career transitions and later-career mentorship support for intergenerational collaboration, and recognition of retirees. Interpretation: Key findings highlight perceived barriers to retirement planning at various career stages in addition to factors that can enhance physicians' retirement planning, including creating gradual and flexible retirement options, supporting ongoing discussions about financial planning and later career transitions, and fostering a culture that continues to honour and involve retirees. Medical institutions could foster innovative models for later-career transitions from medicine in ways that address physicians' needs at various career

  17. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality-an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome-deaths of strangers-by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the "Time Travel" condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a "Repetition" condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of "time travel" provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number.

  18. A Randomized Exploratory Study to Evaluate Two Acupuncture Methods for the Treatment of Headaches Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bellanti, Dawn M.; Paat, Charmagne F.; Boyd, Courtney C.; Duncan, Alaine; Price, Ashley; Zhang, Weimin; French, Louis M.; Chae, Heechin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Headaches are prevalent among Service members with traumatic brain injury (TBI); 80% report chronic or recurrent headache. Evidence for nonpharmacologic treatments, such as acupuncture, are needed. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine if two types of acupuncture (auricular acupuncture [AA] and traditional Chinese acupuncture [TCA]) were feasible and more effective than usual care (UC) alone for TBI–related headache. Materials and Methods: Design: This was a three-armed, parallel, randomized exploratory study. Setting: The research took place at three military treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Patients: The subjects were previously deployed Service members (18–69 years old) with mild-to-moderate TBI and headaches. Intervention: The interventions explored were UC alone or with the addition of AA or TCA. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was the Headache Impact Test (HIT). Secondary outcomes were the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Medical Outcome Study Quality of Life (QoL), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, and expectancy of outcome and acupuncture efficacy. Results: Mean HIT scores decreased in the AA and TCA groups but increased slightly in the UC-only group from baseline to week 6 [AA, −10.2% (−6.4 points); TCA, −4.6% (−2.9 points); UC, +0.8% (+0.6 points)]. Both acupuncture groups had sizable decreases in NRS (Pain Best), compared to UC (TCA versus UC: P = 0.0008, d = 1.70; AA versus UC: P = 0.0127, d = 1.6). No statistically significant results were found for any other secondary outcome measures. Conclusions: Both AA and TCA improved headache-related QoL more than UC did in Service members with TBI. PMID:27458496

  19. Searching for rigour in the reporting of mixed methods population health research: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; Elliott, S J; Leatherdale, S T; Robertson-Wilson, J

    2015-12-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing rigour in quantitative and qualitative research, there is poor consensus regarding rigour in mixed methods. Using the empirical example of school-based obesity interventions, this methodological review examined how mixed methods have been used and reported, and how rigour has been addressed. Twenty-three peer-reviewed mixed methods studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases and appraised using the guidelines for Good Reporting of a Mixed Methods Study. In general, more detailed description of data collection and analysis, integration, inferences and justifying the use of mixed methods is needed. Additionally, improved reporting of methodological rigour is required. This review calls for increased discussion of practical techniques for establishing rigour in mixed methods research, beyond those for quantitative and qualitative criteria individually. A guide for reporting mixed methods research in population health should be developed to improve the reporting quality of mixed methods studies. Through improved reporting, mixed methods can provide strong evidence to inform policy and practice.

  20. Mixed-bed affinity chromatography: principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-bed chromatography is far from being a well-established technology within the panoply of bioseparation tools. Composed of an assembly of distinct sorbents that are mixed in a single bed, they have been mostly developed in the last decade for the reduction of dynamic concentration range where they allowed discovering many low-copy proteins within very complex proteomes. Other interesting preparative applications of mixed-bed chromatography have since been developed. In this chapter the basic concepts first and then detailed application recipes are described for (1) the reduction of protein dynamic concentration range, (2) the removal of impurity traces at the last stage of a biopurification process, and (3) the selection and use of sorbents as mixed bed in protein purification.

  1. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G; Boyd, Stephen J; Kopak, Albert

    2010-09-20

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with "deep structure" explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.

  2. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  3. Engaging patients through open notes: an evaluation using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Tobias; Mejilla, Roanne; Anselmo, Melissa; Podtschaske, Beatrice; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (A) To gain insights into the experiences of patients invited to view their doctors’ visit notes, with a focus on those who review multiple notes; (B) to examine the relationships among fully transparent electronic medical records and quality of care, the patient-doctor relationship, patient engagement, self-care, self-management skills and clinical outcomes. Design Mixed methods qualitative study: analyses of survey data, including content analysis of free-text answers, and quantitative-descriptive measures combined with semistructured individual interviews, patient activation measures, and member checks. Setting Greater Boston, USA. Participants Patients cared for by primary care physicians (PCPs) at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center who had electronic access to their PCP visit notes. Among those submitting surveys, 576 free-text answers were identified and analysed (414 from female patients, 162 from male patients; 23–88 years). In addition, 13 patients (9 female, 4 male; 58–87 years) were interviewed. Results Patient experiences indicate improved understanding (of health information), better relationships (with doctors), better quality (adherence and compliance; keeping track) and improved self-care (patient-centredness, empowerment). Patients want more doctors to offer access to their notes, and some wish to contribute to their generation. Those patients with repeated experience reviewing notes express fewer concerns and more perceived benefits. Conclusions As the use of fully transparent medical records spreads, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of possible benefits or harms, and to characterise target populations that may require varying modes of delivery. Patient desires for expansion of this practice extend to specialty care and settings beyond the physician's office. Patients are also interested in becoming involved actively in the generation of their medical records. The OpenNotes movement may increase patient

  4. Tweets about hospital quality: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Felix; Laverty, Antony A; Cano, Daniel Ramirez; Moilanen, Karo; Pulman, Stephen; Darzi, Ara; Millett, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter is increasingly being used by patients to comment on their experience of healthcare. This may provide information for understanding the quality of healthcare providers and improving services. Objective To examine whether tweets sent to hospitals in the English National Health Service contain information about quality of care. To compare sentiment on Twitter about hospitals with established survey measures of patient experience and standardised mortality rates. Design A mixed methods study including a quantitative analysis of all 198 499 tweets sent to English hospitals over a year and a qualitative directed content analysis of 1000 random tweets. Twitter sentiment and conventional quality metrics were compared using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Key results 11% of tweets to hospitals contained information about care quality, with the most frequent topic being patient experience (8%). Comments on effectiveness or safety of care were present, but less common (3%). 77% of tweets about care quality were positive in tone. Other topics mentioned in tweets included messages of support to patients, fundraising activity, self-promotion and dissemination of health information. No associations were observed between Twitter sentiment and conventional quality metrics. Conclusions Only a small proportion of tweets directed at hospitals discuss quality of care and there was no clear relationship between Twitter sentiment and other measures of quality, potentially limiting Twitter as a medium for quality monitoring. However, tweets did contain information useful to target quality improvement activity. Recent enthusiasm by policy makers to use social media as a quality monitoring and improvement tool needs to be carefully considered and subjected to formal evaluation. PMID:24748372

  5. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  6. Describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian community: application of a mixed method design.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products.

  7. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  8. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research.

  9. Purists need not apply: the case for pragmatism in mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Florczak, Kristine L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this column is to describe several different ways of conducting mixed method research. The paradigms that underpin both qualitative and quantitative research are also considered along with a cursory review of classical pragmatism as it relates conducting mixed methods studies. Finally, the idea of loosely coupled systems as a means to support mixed methods studies is proposed along with several caveats to researchers who desire to use this new way of obtaining knowledge.

  10. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    PubMed Central

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. PMID:27856556

  11. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  12. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  13. Validating for Use and Interpretation: A Mixed Methods Contribution Illustrated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Linda; Tan, Rachael Jin Bee

    2009-01-01

    Researchers in the areas of psychology and education strive to understand the intersections among validity, educational measurement, and cognitive theory. Guided by a mixed model conceptual framework, this study investigates how respondents' opinions inform the validation argument. Validity evidence for a science assessment was collected through…

  14. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  15. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  16. Conceptual Issues and Analytic Strategies in Mixed-Method Studies of Preschool Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shouming; Marquart, Jules M.; Zercher, Craig

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the conceptual issues of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in early intervention research by illustrating how two analytic approaches were used for different mixed-method purposes in the study of preschool inclusion. It describes practical strategies for conducting mixed-method data analysis in terms of data…

  17. Problematic Preferences? A Mixed Method Examination of Principals' Preferences for Teacher Characteristics in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Relatively little is known about how principals make decisions about teacher hiring. This article uses mixed methods to examine what characteristics principals look for in teachers. Research Methods: Data were gathered using a mixed method approach, including in-depth interviews with a representative sample of 31 principals as well as an…

  18. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  19. [Study on key physical properties of granulated products of Andrographis mixed powder by high-speed mixing wet method].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Li, Zhe; Ming, Liang-Shan; Luo, Juan; Jiang, Qie-Ying; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Liang, Xin-Li

    2014-10-01

    The impact of key physical properties on granulated products by the high-speed mixing wet method was studied. Andrographis extracts were utilized as the model drug. Four processing methods were adopted to prepare mixed powder of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and starch with the mass ratio 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2 by the high-speed mixing wet method. The properties of the prepared granules were evaluated with such indexes as granule yield, the ratio of lumps and fine powder, granule-AOR and granule-HR. The impact of key physical properties on granulated products was analyzed through stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that angle of repose, moisture content, pore volume, density and contact angle with water were key physical properties of the powder. The key physical properties of Chinese medical extracts powder are the important factor impacting granulated products made by the high-speed mixing wet method. In this study, the impact of key physical properties on granulated products of Chinese medical extracts was analyzed from the physical angle.

  20. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality—an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome—deaths of strangers—by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the “Time Travel” condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a “Repetition” condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of “time travel” provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number. PMID:25228889

  1. POSTPROCESSING MIXED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR SOLVING CAHN-HILLIARD EQUATION: METHODS AND ERROR ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wansheng; Chen, Long; Zhou, Jie

    2016-05-01

    A postprocessing technique for mixed finite element methods for the Cahn-Hilliard equation is developed and analyzed. Once the mixed finite element approximations have been computed at a fixed time on the coarser mesh, the approximations are postprocessed by solving two decoupled Poisson equations in an enriched finite element space (either on a finer grid or a higher-order space) for which many fast Poisson solvers can be applied. The nonlinear iteration is only applied to a much smaller size problem and the computational cost using Newton and direct solvers is negligible compared with the cost of the linear problem. The analysis presented here shows that this technique remains the optimal rate of convergence for both the concentration and the chemical potential approximations. The corresponding error estimate obtained in our paper, especially the negative norm error estimates, are non-trivial and different with the existing results in the literatures.

  2. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  3. Emulsion package and method of mixing the emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.G.; Brenneman, S.; Clancy, J.J.

    1984-08-28

    A coal tar emulsion driveway sealer is packaged in a sealed bag. The volume of sealer is less than half the capacity of the bag and the bag is substantially completely evacuated but for the sealer. The separated sealer is mixed by compressing the sides of the bag to induce turbulent flow of the paste and liquid for hydraulic mixing thereof. The sealer may be dispensed at a controlled rate without spattering by cutting a corner from the bag to provide a pour spout. The bag with the sealer may be contained in a carton. The bag membrane comprises an aluminum layer vapor deposited on polyester. Those two layers are sandwiched between layers of EVA copolymer.

  4. Direct numerical simulations of a reacting turbulent mixing layer by a pseudospectral-spectral element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Givi, Peyman

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the implementation of the spectral-element technique for simulating a chemically reacting, spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. Attention is given to experimental and numerical studies that have investigated the development, evolution, and mixing characteristics of shear flows. A mathematical formulation is presented of the physical configuration of the spatially developing reacting mixing layer, in conjunction with a detailed representation of the spectral-element method's application to the numerical simulation of mixing layers. Results from 2D and 3D calculations of chemically reacting mixing layers are given.

  5. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services.

  6. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the

  7. Mixing Research Methods in Health Professional Degrees: Thoughts for Undergraduate Students and Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaf, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine A.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary considers some of the challenges of applying mixed methods research in undergraduate research degrees, especially in professions with a clinical health focus. Our experience in physiotherapy academia is used as an example. Mixed methods research is increasingly appreciated in its own right as a "third paradigm," however the success…

  8. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  9. A Mixed-Methods Exploration of an Environment for Learning Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-methods approach is evaluated for exploring collaborative behaviour, acceptance and progress surrounding an interactive technology for learning computer programming. A review of literature reveals a compelling case for using mixed-methods approaches when evaluating technology-enhanced-learning environments. Here, ethnographic approaches…

  10. Progress Monitoring for the Gifted and Talented: A Mixed Methods Examination of Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckberg, Lynn Ann

    2013-01-01

    The mixed methods correlational study examined the problem that AYP of Pennsylvania gifted middle school students who have met state-mandated proficiency requirements under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has been reliant upon minimum proficiency tests. The purpose of the mixed methods study was to examine the correlations between the current measure…

  11. Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing an Informal Buddy Support System for Canadian Forces Reservists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing an Informal Buddy Support System for Canadian Forces Reservists Donna I. Pickering...Tara Holton Defence R&D Canada Technical Memorandum DRDC Toronto TM 2011-028 April 2011...Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing an Informal Buddy Support System for Canadian Forces Reservists Donna I. Pickering Tara Holton

  12. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  13. Using Mixed Methods to Analyze Video Data: A Mathematics Teacher Professional Development Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Marshall, Patricia L.; McCulloch, Allison W.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from 65 teachers participating in a K-2 mathematics professional development research project as an example of how to analyze video recordings of teachers' classroom lessons using mixed methods. Through their discussion, the authors demonstrate how using a mixed methods approach to classroom video analysis allows researchers…

  14. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  15. Parent Pathways: Recognition and Responses to Developmental Delays in Young Children: A Mixed-Methods Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer Tess

    2013-01-01

    The importance of early recognition and intervention for developmental delays is increasingly acknowledged, yet high rates of under-enrollment and 1-3 year delays in entry to the public early intervention system continue. Much research has examined developmental screening in health and child care settings, but less well understood is what prompts…

  16. Coping strategies and styles of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness: a mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia; Doherty, Donna Tedstone

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.

  17. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  18. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Compressible Mixing Layer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modem day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS/LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. The hybrid RANS/LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two-dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, indicated an initial vortex shedding followed by rapid transition to turbulence, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  19. Method for producing a compressed body of mix-powder for ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okawa, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, a compressed body of mix powder for ceramic is produced by mixing and stirring several raw powder materials with mixing liquid such as water, and, in the process of sending the resulted viscous material pressurized at 5 kg/cm to 7 kg/cm, using 1.5 to 2 times the pressure to filter and dehydrate, adjusting the water content to 10 to 20%.

  20. Mixed Methods: Incorporating multiple learning styles into a measurements course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    The best scientists and engineers regularly combine creative and critical skill sets. As faculty, we are responsible to provide future scientists and engineers with those skills sets. EGR 390: Engineering Measurements at Murray State University is structured to actively engage students in the processes that develop and enhance those skills. Students learn through a mix of traditional lecture and homework, active discussion of open-ended questions, small group activities, structured laboratory exercises, oral and written communications exercises, student chosen team projects, and peer evaluations. Examples of each of these activities, the skill set addressed by each activity, outcomes from and effectiveness of each activity and recommendations for future directions in the EGR 390 course as designed will be presented.

  1. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lynne D; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; 'Limited Exposure,' '(in)Compatibility,' 'Validity,' and 'Tokenistic Qualitative Component'; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs.

  2. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281

  3. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  4. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1).

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

  5. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  6. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  7. Designing Health Websites Based on Users’ Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity

  8. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-12-04

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  9. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  10. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Objective Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. Methods A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Results Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant

  11. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiaobing

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  12. The Use of Mixed Methods in Randomized Control Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations should be issues driven, not methods driven. The starting point should be priority programs to be evaluated or policies to be tested. From this starting point, a list of evaluation questions is identified. For each evaluation question, the task is to identify the best available method for answering that question. Hence it is likely…

  13. Impact of a mHealth intervention for peer health workers on AIDS care in rural Uganda: a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry W; Kagaayi, Joseph; Arem, Hannah; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Ssempijja, Victor; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Bollinger, Robert C; Reynolds, Steven J

    2011-11-01

    Mobile phone access in low and middle-income countries is rapidly expanding and offers an opportunity to leverage limited human resources for health. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial exploratory substudy on the impact of a mHealth (mobile phone) support intervention used by community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care in rural Uganda. 29 PHWs at 10 clinics were randomized by clinic to receive the intervention or not. PHWs used phones to call and text higher level providers with patient-specific clinical information. 970 patients cared for by the PHWs were followed over a 26 month period. No significant differences were found in patients' risk of virologic failure. Qualitative analyses found improvements in patient care and logistics and broad support for the mHealth intervention among patients, clinic staff, and PHWs. Key challenges identified included variable patient phone access, privacy concerns, and phone maintenance.

  14. Atypical Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Acute Bipolar Depression with Mixed Features: A Systematic Review and Exploratory Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Stubbs, Brendon; De Berardis, Domenico; Perna, Giampaolo; Valchera, Alessandro; Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Ganança, Licínia

    2016-01-01

    Evidence supporting the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of acute depression with mixed features (MFs) associated with bipolar disorder (BD) is scarce and equivocal. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis investigating SGAs in the treatment of acute BD depression with MFs. Two authors independently searched major electronic databases from 1990 until September 2015 for randomized (placebo-) controlled trials (RCTs) or open-label clinical trials investigating the efficacy of SGAs in the treatment of acute bipolar depression with MFs. A random-effect meta-analysis calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) between SGA and placebo for the mean baseline to endpoint change in depression as well as manic symptoms score was computed based on 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six RCTs and one open-label placebo-controlled studies (including post-hoc reports) representing 1023 patients were included. Participants received either ziprasidone, olanzapine, lurasidone, quetiapine or asenapine for an average of 6.5 weeks across the included studies. Meta-analysis with Duval and Tweedie adjustment for publication bias demonstrated that SGA resulted in significant improvements of (hypo-)manic symptoms of bipolar mixed depression as assessed by the means of the total scores of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (SMD −0.74, 95% CI −1.20 to −0.28, n SGA = 907, control = 652). Meta-analysis demonstrated that participants in receipt of SGA (n = 979) experienced a large improvement in the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores (SMD −1.08, 95% CI −1.35 to −0.81, p < 0.001) vs. placebo (n = 678). Publication and measurement biases and relative paucity of studies. Overall, SGAs appear to offer favorable improvements in MADRS and YMRS scores vs. placebo. Nevertheless, given the preliminary nature of the present report, additional original studies are required to allow more reliable and

  15. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotner, Bridget A.

    School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both

  16. A New Expanded Mixed Element Method for Convection-Dominated Sobolev Equation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Hong; Fang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new expanded mixed element method, whose gradient belongs to the simple square integrable space instead of the classical H(div; Ω) space of Chen's expanded mixed element method. We study the new expanded mixed element method for convection-dominated Sobolev equation, prove the existence and uniqueness for finite element solution, and introduce a new expanded mixed projection. We derive the optimal a priori error estimates in L2-norm for the scalar unknown u and a priori error estimates in (L2)2-norm for its gradient λ and its flux σ. Moreover, we obtain the optimal a priori error estimates in H1-norm for the scalar unknown u. Finally, we obtained some numerical results to illustrate efficiency of the new method. PMID:24701153

  17. The Use of Hermeneutics in a Mixed Methods Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zweck, Claudia; Paterson, Margo; Pentland, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Combining methods in a single study is becoming a more common practice because of the limitations of using only one approach to fully address all aspects of a research question. Hermeneutics in this paper is discussed in relation to a large national study that investigated issues influencing the ability of international graduates to work as…

  18. The mixed finite element multigrid method for stokes equations.

    PubMed

    Muzhinji, K; Shateyi, S; Motsa, S S

    2015-01-01

    The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Using Mixed Methods to Interpret Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) is often used to determine if cross-lingual assessments are equivalent across languages. However, evidence on the causes of cross-lingual DIF is still evasive. Expert appraisal is a qualitative method useful for obtaining detailed information about problematic elements in the different linguistic…

  20. The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations

    PubMed Central

    Muzhinji, K.; Shateyi, S.; Motsa, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361

  1. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  2. Effect of different mixing methods on the physical properties of Portland cement

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Jafari, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background The Portland cement is hydrophilic cement; as a result, the powder-to-liquid ratio affects the properties of the final mix. In addition, the mixing technique affects hydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing techniques (conventional, amalgamator and ultrasonic) on some selective physical properties of Portland cement. Material and Methods The physical properties to be evaluated were determined using the ISO 6786:2001 specification. One hundred sixty two samples of Portland cement were prepared for three mixing techniques for each physical property (each 6 samples). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results The mixing technique had no significant effect on the compressive strength, film thickness and flow of Portland cement (P>0.05). Dimensional changes (shrinkage), solubility and pH increased significantly by amalgamator and ultrasonic mixing techniques (P<0.05). The ultrasonic technique significantly decreased working time, and the amalgamator and ultrasonic techniques significantly decreased the setting time (P<0.05). Conclusions The mixing technique exerted no significant effect on the flow, film thickness and compressive strength of Portland cement samples. Key words:Physical properties, Portland cement, mixing methods. PMID:27957256

  3. A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

    2011-05-20

    Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets.

  4. Updating and testing of a Finnish method for mixed municipal solid waste composition studies.

    PubMed

    Liikanen, M; Sahimaa, O; Hupponen, M; Havukainen, J; Sorvari, J; Horttanainen, M

    2016-06-01

    More efficient recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential precondition for turning Europe into a circular economy. Thus, the recycling of MSW must increase significantly in several member states, including Finland. This has increased the interest in the composition of mixed MSW. Due to increased information needs, a method for mixed MSW composition studies was introduced in Finland in order to improve the national comparability of composition study results. The aim of this study was to further develop the method so that it corresponds to the information needed about the composition of mixed MSW and still works in practice. A survey and two mixed MSW composition studies were carried out in the study. According to the responses of the survey, the intensification of recycling, the landfill ban on organic waste and the producer responsibility for packaging waste have particularly influenced the need for information about the composition of mixed MSW. The share of biowaste in mixed MSW interested the respondents most. Additionally, biowaste proved to be the largest waste fraction in mixed MSW in the composition studies. It constituted over 40% of mixed MSW in both composition studies. For these reasons, the classification system of the method was updated by further defining the classifications of biowaste. The classifications of paper as well as paperboard and cardboard were also updated. The updated classification system provides more information on the share of avoidable food waste and waste materials suitable for recycling in mixed MSW. The updated method and the information gained from the composition studies are important in ensuring that the method will be adopted by municipal waste management companies and thus used widely in Finland.

  5. Automated sizing of large structures by mixed optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.; Loendorf, D.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure for automating the sizing of wing-fuselage airframes was developed and implemented in the form of an operational program. The program combines fully stressed design to determine an overall material distribution with mass-strength and mathematical programming methods to design structural details accounting for realistic design constraints. The practicality and efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated for transport aircraft configurations. The methodology is sufficiently general to be applicable to other large and complex structures.

  6. Using Mixed Methods and Collaboration to Evaluate an Education and Public Outreach Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebby, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional indicators (such as the number of participants or Likert-type ratings of participant perceptions) are often used to provide stakeholders with basic information about program outputs and to justify funding decisions. However, use of qualitative methods can strengthen the reliability of these data and provide stakeholders with more meaningful information about program challenges, successes, and ultimate impacts (Stern, Stame, Mayne, Forss, David & Befani, 2012). In this session, presenters will discuss how they used a mixed methods evaluation to determine the impact of an education and public outreach (EPO) program. EPO efforts were intended to foster more effective, sustainable, and efficient utilization of science discoveries and learning experiences through three main goals 1) increase engagement and support by leveraging of resources, expertise, and best practices; 2) organize a portfolio of resources for accessibility, connectivity, and strategic growth; and 3) develop an infrastructure to support coordination. The evaluation team used a mixed methods design to conduct the evaluation. Presenters will first discuss five potential benefits of mixed methods designs: triangulation of findings, development, complementarity, initiation, and value diversity (Greene, Caracelli & Graham, 2005). They will next demonstrate how a 'mix' of methods, including artifact collection, surveys, interviews, focus groups, and vignettes, was included in the EPO project's evaluation design, providing specific examples of how alignment between the program theory and the evaluation plan was best achieved with a mixed methods approach. The presentation will also include an overview of different mixed methods approaches and information about important considerations when using a mixed methods design, such as selection of data collection methods and sources, and the timing and weighting of quantitative and qualitative methods (Creswell, 2003). Ultimately, this presentation will

  7. Criteria for quantitative and qualitative data integration: mixed-methods research methodology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonah; Smith, Carrol A M

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need and importance of a mixed-methods approach for evaluation of clinical information systems. However, those studies had no criteria to guide integration of multiple data sets. Integrating different data sets serves to actualize the paradigm that a mixed-methods approach argues; thus, we require criteria that provide the right direction to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. The first author used a set of criteria organized from a literature search for integration of multiple data sets from mixed-methods research. The purpose of this article was to reorganize the identified criteria. Through critical appraisal of the reasons for designing mixed-methods research, three criteria resulted: validation, complementarity, and discrepancy. In applying the criteria to empirical data of a previous mixed methods study, integration of quantitative and qualitative data was achieved in a systematic manner. It helped us obtain a better organized understanding of the results. The criteria of this article offer the potential to produce insightful analyses of mixed-methods evaluations of health information systems.

  8. Counseling About IUDs: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Tharayil, Mithu; Anderson, Nora; Gbenedio, Kessy; Wittman, Allen; Steinauer, Jody

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT IUDs are infrequently used in the United States. Assessing how counseling about this method is delivered can help identify barriers to IUD use that might be overcome by improving services. METHODS A sample of 342 family planning visits at six clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2009–2012 were audio-recorded, and patients completed surveys both before and after their visits. Descriptive quantitative analyses of counseling were performed, and correlates of IUDs’ being mentioned during counseling were investigated using logistic regression. Qualitative analyses investigated the counseling women received about IUDs generally (in a subset of 42 visits), as well as counseling for women who already had an IUD in place (13 visits) or who felt their provider inappropriately expressed a preference for IUDs (five visits). RESULTS IUDs were mentioned in 75% of visits. Patient-initiated mention of IUDs was more likely in visits by women aged 35 or older than in those by women younger than 20 (odds ratio, 6.4); provider-initiated discussion of this method was less common if the provider was older than 55 than if he or she was younger than 46 (0.3). Providers more often discussed potential adverse effects of IUD use than benefits; counseling often was noninteractive and did not address how patient preferences related to characteristics of IUDs. Counseling was frequently fragmented by the need for return visits or referral elsewhere for insertion. CONCLUSIONS IUD counseling may be improved by enhancing comprehensiveness and patient-centeredness, and by decreasing fragmentation of care. PMID:24628710

  9. A time-dependent Mixing Model for PDF Methods in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Lennart; Suciu, Nicolae; Knabner, Peter; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the transport of groundwater contaminations remains a demanding task, especially with respect to the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the large measurement uncertainties. A risk analysis also includes the quantification of the uncertainty in order to evaluate how accurate the predictions are. Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, which can be used as a first measure of uncertainty. A mixing model, also known as a dissipation model, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling. The implications of the new mixing model for different kinds of flow conditions are discussed and some comments are made on efficiently handling spatially resolved higher moments.

  10. A dynamically adjusted mixed emphasis method for building boosting ensembles.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Arenas-Garcia, Jerónimo; Figueiras-Vidal, Aníbal R

    2008-01-01

    Progressively emphasizing samples that are difficult to classify correctly is the base for the recognized high performance of real Adaboost (RA) ensembles. The corresponding emphasis function can be written as a product of a factor that measures the quadratic error and a factor related to the proximity to the classification border; this fact opens the door to explore the potential advantages provided by using adjustable combined forms of these factors. In this paper, we introduce a principled procedure to select the combination parameter each time a new learner is added to the ensemble, just by maximizing the associated edge parameter, calling the resulting method the dynamically adapted weighted emphasis RA (DW-RA). A number of application examples illustrates the performance improvements obtained by DW-RA.

  11. A Mixed-Method Study Exploring Depression in U.S. Citizen-Children in Mexican Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Szlyk, Hannah; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Natera, Guillermina

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a critical need to document the mental health effects of immigration policies and practices on children vulnerable to parental deportation. Few studies capture the differential experiences produced by U.S. citizen-children’s encounters with immigration enforcement, much less in ways that analyze mental health outcomes alongside the psychosocial contexts within which those outcomes arise. Methods We explore the psychosocial dimensions of depression in U.S. citizen-children with undocumented Mexican parents to examine differences between citizen-children affected and not affected by parental deportation. An exploratory mixed-method design was used to integrate a quantitative measure of depression symptoms (CDI-2) within qualitative data collected with 48 citizen-children aged 8 to 15 with and without experiences of parental deportation. Results Stressors elicited by citizen-children in the qualitative interview included an inability to communicate with friends, negative perceptions of Mexico, financial struggles, loss of supportive school networks, stressed relation with parent(s), and violence. Fifty percent of citizen-children with probable depression—regardless of experiences with parental deportation—cited “stressed relation with parents,” compared to 9% without depression. In contrast, themes of “loss of supportive school network” and “violence” were mentioned almost exclusively by citizen-children with probable depression and affected by parental deportation. Conclusions While citizen-children who suffer parental deportation experience the most severe consequences associated with immigration enforcement, our findings also suggest that the burden of mental health issues extends to those children concomitantly affected by immigration enforcement policies that target their undocumented parents. PMID:26648588

  12. Design of a prospective cohort study to assess ethnic inequalities in patient safety in hospital care using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While US studies show a higher risk of adverse events (AEs) for ethnic minorities in hospital care, in Europe ethnic inequalities in patient safety have never been analysed. Based on existing literature and exploratory research, our research group developed a conceptual model and empirical study to increase our understanding of the role ethnicity plays in patient safety. Our study is designed to (1) assess the risk of AEs for hospitalised patients of non-Western ethnic origin in comparison to ethnic Dutch patients; (2) analyse what patient-related determinants affect the risk of AEs; (3) explore the mechanisms of patient-provider interactions that may increase the risk of AEs; and (4) explore possible strategies to prevent inequalities in patient safety. Methods We are conducting a prospective mixed methods cohort study in four Dutch hospitals, which began in 2010 and is running until 2013. 2000 patients (1000 ethnic Dutch and 1000 of non-Western ethnic origin, ranging in age from 45-75 years) are included. Survey data are collected to capture patients’ explanatory variables (e.g., Dutch language proficiency, health literacy, socio-economic status (SES)-indicators, and religion) during hospital admission. After discharge, a two-stage medical record review using a standardized instrument is conducted by experienced reviewers to determine the incidence of AEs. Data will be analysed using multilevel multivariable logistic regression. Qualitative interviews with providers and patients will provide insight into the mechanisms of AEs and potential prevention strategies. Conclusion This study uses a robust study plan to quantify the risk difference of AEs between ethnic minority and Dutch patients in hospital care. In addition we are developing an in-depth description of the mechanisms of excess risk for some groups compared to others, while identifying opportunities for more equitable distributions of patient safety for all. PMID:23217088

  13. Preference-based disease-specific health-related quality of life instrument for glaucoma: a mixed methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Muratov, Sergei; Podbielski, Dominik W; Jack, Susan M; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Mitchell, Levine A H; Baltaziak, Monika; Xie, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A primary objective of healthcare services is to improve patients' health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Glaucoma, which affects a substantial proportion of the world population, has a significant detrimental impact on HRQoL. Although there are a number of glaucoma-specific questionnaires to measure HRQoL, none is preference-based which prevent them from being used in health economic evaluation. The proposed study is aimed to develop a preference-based instrument that is capable of capturing important effects specific to glaucoma and treatments on HRQoL and is scored based on the patients' preferences. Methods A sequential, exploratory mixed methods design will be used to guide the development and evaluation of the HRQoL instrument. The study consists of several stages to be implemented sequentially: item identification, item selection, validation and valuation. The instrument items will be identified and selected through a literature review and the conduct of a qualitative study. Validation will be conducted to establish psychometric properties of the instrument followed by a valuation exercise to derive utility scores for the health states described. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the Trillium Health Partners Research Ethics Board (ID number 753). All personal information will be de-identified with the identification code kept in a secured location including the rest of the study data. Only qualified and study-related personnel will be allowed to access the data. The results of the study will be distributed widely through peer-reviewed journals, conferences and internal meetings. PMID:28186941

  14. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

    PubMed

    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjamaa, Ali

    2017-03-19

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (Restraint Stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (Mixed Stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: 1) Beam walking (BW), 2) Open Field (OF), and 3) Elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion, and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p < 0.01 for all measures). The RS group showed only a decrease in vertical exploration (p < 0.05). In contrast, locomotion and balance were not affected in the MS group (OF: crossed squares: p = 0.34, missteps: p = 0.18). However, MS rats exhibited significantly higher anxiety levels (less time in EPM open arms: p < 0.05), and took more time to complete BW: p < 0.05). Hence, combined prenatal stressors exert non-additive effects on locomotion, exploration and balance control, but induces greater anxiety through additive effects. Terminal plasma ACTH concentration was increased by prenatal stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control which were strongly induced by noise stress.

  15. Nursing Home Quality, Cost, Staffing, and Staff Mix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantz, Marilyn J.; Hicks, Lanis; Grando, Victoria; Petroski, Gregory F.; Madsen, Richard W.; Mehr, David R.; Conn, Vicki; Zwygart-Staffacher, Mary; Scott, Jill; Flesner, Marcia; Bostick, Jane; Porter, Rose; Maas, Meridean

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of care, organizational attributes, cost of care, staffing level, and staff mix in a sample of Missouri homes with good, average, and poor resident outcomes. Design and Methods: A three-group exploratory study design was used, with 92 nursing homes randomly selected from all nursing…

  16. Effect of Different Mixing and Placement Methods on the Compressive Strength of Calcium-Enriched Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Safoora; Sadatshojaee, Nooshin; Jafari, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this experimental laboratory study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing and placement techniques on compressive strength (CS) of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Methods and Materials: CEM powder was mixed with its liquid either by hand mixing or amalgamator mixing. The mixture was loaded to cylindrical acrylic molds with 6.0±0.1 mm height and 4.0±1 mm diameter. Half of the specimens in each group were selected randomly and ultrasonic energy was applied to them for 30 sec. All samples were incubated for 7 days at 37°C. The CS test was performed by means of a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The maximum CS was seen in the amalgamator-mixed samples that did not receive ultrasonic agitation. The CS value of amalgamator-mixed samples was significantly higher than manually-mixed ones (P=0.003). Ultrasonic vibration did not change the CS of specimens. Conclusion: According to the results, mixing with amalgamator increases the CS of CEM cement, while ultrasonic vibration had no positive effect. PMID:25834593

  17. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M.; Antiporta, Daniel A.; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Methods Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). Results After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Conclusions Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food. PMID:27560132

  18. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    SciTech Connect

    Kountz, Kenneth J.; Bishop, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  19. A Model Incorporating the Rationale and Purpose for Conducting Mixed-Methods Research in Special Education and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Sutton, Ida L.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a typology of reasons for conducting mixed-methods research in special education. The mixed-methods research process is described along with the role of the rationale and purpose of study. The reasons given in the literature for utilizing mixed-methods research are explicated, and the limitations of these reason frameworks…

  20. Alternating direction implicit methods for parabolic equations with a mixed derivative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Alternating direction implicit (ADI) schemes for two-dimensional parabolic equations with a mixed derivative are constructed by using the class of all A sub 0-stable linear two-step methods in conjunction with the method of approximation factorization. The mixed derivative is treated with an explicit two-step method which is compatible with an implicit A sub 0-stable method. The parameter space for which the resulting ADI schemes are second order accurate and unconditionally stable is determined. Some numerical examples are given.

  1. Importance of mixed methods in pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Albright, Karen; Gechter, Katherine; Kempe, Allison

    2013-01-01

    With increased attention to the importance of translating research to clinical practice and policy, recent years have seen a proliferation of particular types of research, including pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research. Such research seeks to understand how and why interventions function in real-world settings, as opposed to highly controlled settings involving conditions not likely to be repeated outside the research study. Because understanding the context in which interventions are implemented is imperative for effective pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research, the use of mixed methods is critical to understanding trial results and the success or failure of implementation efforts. This article discusses a number of dimensions of mixed methods research, utilizing at least one qualitative method and at least one quantitative method, that may be helpful when designing projects or preparing grant proposals. Although the strengths and emphases of qualitative and quantitative approaches differ substantially, methods may be combined in a variety of ways to achieve a deeper level of understanding than can be achieved by one method alone. However, researchers must understand when and how to integrate the data as well as the appropriate order, priority, and purpose of each method. The ability to demonstrate an understanding of the rationale for and benefits of mixed methods research is increasingly important in today's competitive funding environment, and many funding agencies now expect applicants to include mixed methods in proposals. The increasing demand for mixed methods research necessitates broader methodological training and deepened collaboration between medical, clinical, and social scientists. Although a number of challenges to conducting and disseminating mixed methods research remain, the potential for insight generated by such work is substantial.

  2. Qualitative and mixed methods research in dissemination and implementation science: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Dorsey, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This special issue provides examples of how qualitative and mixed methods research approaches can be used in dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide a brief rationale for why and how qualitative and mixed methods approaches can be useful in moving the field forward. Specifically, we provide a brief primer on common qualitative methods, including a review of guidelines provided by the National Institutes of Health. Next, we introduce the six articles in the issue. The first of the articles by Palinkas represents a more thorough and authoritative discussion related to qualitative methods, using the other five articles in the issue (and other published works) as examples. The remaining five articles are empirical and/or descriptive articles of recently completed or ongoing qualitative or mixed methods studies related to dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents.

  3. An equivalent domain integral method for three-dimensional mixed-mode fracture problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1991-01-01

    A general formulation of the equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for mixed mode fracture problems in cracked solids is presented. The method is discussed in the context of a 3-D finite element analysis. The J integral consists of two parts: the volume integral of the crack front potential over a torus enclosing the crack front and the crack surface integral due to the crack front potential plus the crack face loading. In mixed mode crack problems the total J integral is split into J sub I, J sub II, and J sub III representing the severity of the crack front in three modes of deformations. The direct and decomposition methods are used to separate the modes. These two methods were applied to several mixed mode fracture problems, were analyzed, and results were found to agree well with those available in the literature. The method lends itself to be used as a post-processing subroutine in a general purpose finite element program.

  4. An equivalent domain integral method for three-dimensional mixed-mode fracture problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1992-01-01

    A general formulation of the equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for mixed mode fracture problems in cracked solids is presented. The method is discussed in the context of a 3-D finite element analysis. The J integral consists of two parts: the volume integral of the crack front potential over a torus enclosing the crack front and the crack surface integral due to the crack front potential plus the crack face loading. In mixed mode crack problems the total J integral is split into J sub I, J sub II, and J sub III representing the severity of the crack front in three modes of deformations. The direct and decomposition methods are used to separate the modes. These two methods were applied to several mixed mode fracture problems, were analyzed, and results were found to agree well with those available in the literature. The method lends itself to be used as a post-processing subroutine in a general purpose finite element program.

  5. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  6. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA.

  7. Mix and match. A simulation study on the impact of mixed-treatment comparison methods on health-economic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Vemer, Pepijn; Al, Maiwenn J.; Oppe, Mark; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P. M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Decision-analytic cost-effectiveness (CE) models combine many parameters, often obtained after meta-analysis. Aim We compared different methods of mixed-treatment comparison (MTC) to combine transition and event probabilities derived from several trials, especially with respect to health-economic (HE) outcomes like (quality adjusted) life years and costs. Methods Trials were drawn from a simulated reference population, comparing two of four fictitious interventions. The goal was to estimate the CE between two of these. The amount of heterogeneity between trials was varied in scenarios. Parameter estimates were combined using direct comparison, MTC methods proposed by Song and Puhan, and Bayesian generalized linear fixed effects (GLMFE) and random effects models (GLMRE). Parameters were entered into a Markov model. Parameters and HE outcomes were compared with the reference population using coverage, statistical power, bias and mean absolute deviation (MAD) as performance indicators. Each analytical step was repeated 1,000 times. Results The direct comparison was outperformed by the MTC methods on all indicators, Song’s method yielded low bias and MAD, but uncertainty was overestimated. Puhan’s method had low bias and MAD and did not overestimate uncertainty. GLMFE generally had the lowest bias and MAD, regardless of the amount of heterogeneity, but uncertainty was overestimated. GLMRE showed large bias and MAD and overestimated uncertainty. Song’s and Puhan’s methods lead to the least amount of uncertainty, reflected in the shape of the CE acceptability curve. GLMFE showed slightly more uncertainty. Conclusions Combining direct and indirect evidence is superior to using only direct evidence. Puhan’s method and GLMFE are preferred. PMID:28152099

  8. Cross cultural evaluation of the Warwick-Edinburgh mental well-being scale (WEMWBS) -a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to validate the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) among English speaking adults representing two of the minority ethnic groups living in the UK, self-identified as Chinese or Pakistani by background, in a mixed methods study. Methods Quantitative data were collected in two cities in the West Midlands, UK. Item response, dimensionality, internal consistency, and construct validity of the WEMWBS were assessed in Chinese and Pakistani groups separately, using data from both cities combined. Qualitative data were collected in the first city in eight focus groups of different ages recruited by the community workers. Three mixed sex Chinese and five single sex Pakistani groups discussed ease of completion and comprehension of items, together with overall reactions to the scale and underlying concept. Results of quantitative and qualitative analysis were examined for commonalities and differences. Results Item completion and item total correlations were satisfactory in both groups. In the Chinese data, Exploratory Factor Analysis showed a single factor with loadings ranging from 0.60 to 0.82 for all 14 items. In the Pakistani data, three factors reached statistical significance; however, a substantial drop in eigenvalues between the first and second factors and the limited variance explained by the second and third factors supported a one-factor model. All items loaded on this factor from 0.51 to 0.83. In the Chinese and Pakistani data respectively, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.92 (0.89 – 0.94) and 0.91 (0.88 – 0.94); Spearman’s correlation with GHQ-12 was - 0.63 (−0.73 to −0.49) and −0.55 (−0.70 to −0.36), and with the WHO-5 0.62 (0.46-0.75) and 0.64 (0.50 to 0.76). Qualitative analysis revealed good comprehension and ease of completion of almost all items. Some culturally determined differences in understanding of mental well-being, which varied both between and within communities, emerged. Conclusions The WEMWBS was well

  9. A new mixed element method for a class of time-fractional partial differential equations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Li, Hong; Gao, Wei; He, Siriguleng; Fang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    A kind of new mixed element method for time-fractional partial differential equations is studied. The Caputo-fractional derivative of time direction is approximated by two-step difference method and the spatial direction is discretized by a new mixed element method, whose gradient belongs to the simple (L (2)(Ω)(2)) space replacing the complex H(div; Ω) space. Some a priori error estimates in L (2)-norm for the scalar unknown u and in (L (2))(2)-norm for its gradient σ. Moreover, we also discuss a priori error estimates in H (1)-norm for the scalar unknown u.

  10. A mixed methods contribution to the study of health public policies: complementarities and difficulties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The use of mixed methods (combining quantitative and qualitative data) is developing in a variety of forms, especially in the health field. Our own research has adopted this perspective from the outset. We have sought all along to innovate in various ways and especially to develop an equal partnership, in the sense of not allowing any single approach to dominate. After briefly describing mixed methods, in this article we explain and illustrate how we have exploited both qualitative and quantitative methods to answer our research questions, ending with a reflective analysis of our experiment. PMID:26559730

  11. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE`s analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992).

  12. A New Mixed Element Method for a Class of Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Gao, Wei; He, Siriguleng; Fang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    A kind of new mixed element method for time-fractional partial differential equations is studied. The Caputo-fractional derivative of time direction is approximated by two-step difference method and the spatial direction is discretized by a new mixed element method, whose gradient belongs to the simple (L2(Ω)2) space replacing the complex H(div; Ω) space. Some a priori error estimates in L2-norm for the scalar unknown u and in (L2)2-norm for its gradient σ. Moreover, we also discuss a priori error estimates in H1-norm for the scalar unknown u. PMID:24737957

  13. A systematic review of mixed methods research on human factors and ergonomics in health care.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Kianfar, Sarah; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Anping; Alyousef, Bashar; Wooldridge, Abigail

    2015-11-01

    This systematic literature review provides information on the use of mixed methods research in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) research in health care. Using the PRISMA methodology, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) field study in health care, (2) mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, (3) HFE issues, and (4) empirical evidence. Using an iterative and collaborative process supported by a structured data collection form, the six authors identified a total of 58 studies that primarily address HFE issues in health information technology (e.g., usability) and in the work of healthcare workers. About two-thirds of the mixed methods studies used the convergent parallel study design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. A variety of methods were used for collecting data, including interview, survey and observation. The most frequent combination involved interview for qualitative data and survey for quantitative data. The use of mixed methods in healthcare HFE research has increased over time. However, increasing attention should be paid to the formal literature on mixed methods research to enhance the depth and breadth of this research.

  14. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  15. Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Worlds: Engaging Globally Distributed User Groups for Extended Evaluation and Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Daniel; Bloomfield, Peter R.

    At first glance, the goal of the SLOODLE (Simulation Linked Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) project is to develop educational technology - specifically, software for integrating web-based virtual learning environments and 3D multi-user virtual worlds being used for educational purposes. However, a second goal is to research how such integration might best be achieved - and to understand what users might want from such technology. And both goals rely in part on a third - to develop an active and involved community engaged in a participatory design process. This paper reviews the mixed-methods approaches that have been employed to support research as the project principals have been working to engage with users world-wide through a range of activities held in the virtual world of Second LifeTM (SL), on the world-wide web and at demonstration workshops conducted in-person.

  16. [A Composition Analysis Method of Mixed Pigments Based on Spectrum Expression and Independent Component Analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong-ming; Liu, Zhi-yong

    2015-06-01

    Reflectance spectrometry is a common method in composition analysis of mixed pigments. In this method, similarity is used to determine the type of basic pigments that constitute the mixed pigments. But its result may be inaccurate because it is easily influenced by a variety of basic pigments. In this study, a composition analysis method of mixed pigments based on spectrum expression and independent component analysis is proposed, and the composition of mixed pigments can be calculated accurately. First of all, the spectral information of mixed pigments is obtained with spectrometer, and is expressed as the discrete signal. After that, the spectral information of basic pigments is deduced with independent component analysis. Then, the types of basic pigments are determined by calculating the spectrum similarity between the basic pigments and known pigments. Finally, the ratios of basic pigments are obtained by solving the Kubelka-Munk equation system. In addition, the simulated spectrum data of Munsell color card is used to validate this method. The compositions of mixed pigments from three basic pigments are determined under the circumstance of normality and disturbance. And the compositions of mixture from several pigments within the set of eight basic pigments are deduced successfully. The curves of separated pigment spectrums are very similar to the curves of original pigment spectrums. The average similarity is 97.72%, and the maximum one can reach to 99.95%. The calculated ratios of basic pigments close to the original one. It can be seen that this method is suitable for composition analysis of mixed pigments.

  17. A Hybrid Numerical Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers. Degree awarded by Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modern day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The method configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. Closure for the RANS equations was obtained using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The wall-function approach enabled a continuous computational grid from the RANS regions to the LES region. The LES equations were closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. The hybrid RANS-LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Vortex shedding from the base region of a splitter plate separating the upstream flows was observed to eventually transition to turbulence. The location of the transition, however, was much further downstream than indicated by experiments. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, also indicated vortex shedding, but the transition to turbulence was found to occur much closer to the beginning of the mixing section. which is in agreement with experimental observations. These calculations demonstrated that LES simulations must be performed in three dimensions. Comparisons of time-averaged axial velocities and turbulence intensities indicated reasonable agreement with experimental

  18. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Evaluation of Serious Gaming: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Kerrie Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the change in counseling student's self-efficacy and skill related to suicide assessment and intervention through the use of a novel intervention-oriented evaluation method, evaluation focused discussion groups, in an experimental embedded mixed methods design. An innovation counselor pedagogical tool, Suicide Risk Assessment…

  19. Searching for Rigour in the Reporting of Mixed Methods Population Health Research: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. M.; Elliott, S. J.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Robertson-Wilson, J.

    2015-01-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing…

  20. A Health Website Recommendation from Gold Coast General Practitioners to Their Patients: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To identify health website recommendation trends by Gold Coast (Australia) general practitioners (GPs) to their patients. Method: A mixed method approach to data collection and analysis was employed. Quantitative data were collected using a prepaid postal survey, consisting of 17 questions, mailed to 250 (61 per cent) of 410 GPs on…

  1. A Review of Mixed Methods Research on Bullying and Peer Victimization in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the negative outcomes associated with experiences in bullying at school, educational researchers, school officials, and policy-makers have called for more rigorous research on bullying in school. Research on bullying behavior in school has primarily been examined using quantitative methods. Mixed methods research in the field of…

  2. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  3. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  4. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Division of Fractions Understanding: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    This sequential explanatory mixed methods study explored 34 prospective elementary teachers understanding of division of fractions at the beginning and end of their final mathematics methods course. Participants' beliefs on the teaching and learning of division with fractions were also explored. At the beginning of the course, the participants had…

  5. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  6. The Presentation of Self in Letters of Application: A Mixed-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soroko, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    The application letter, as the first phase of employment-seeking, is an opportunity for a job applicant to make a favorable impression on a potential employer. In the current study, the author used a mixed-method approach to empirically explore strategies for self-presentation in job application letters and determine the methods used in the…

  7. A Mixed-Methods Longitudinal Evaluation of a One-Day Mental Health Wellness Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Louise; de Vries, Jan; Higgins, Agnes; Keogh, Brian; McBennett, Padraig; O'Shea, Marié T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated the impact of a one-day mental health Wellness Workshop on participants' mental health and attitudes towards mental health. Design: Convergent, longitudinal mixed-methods approach. Setting: The study evaluated Wellness Workshops which took place throughout the Republic of Ireland. Method: Questionnaires measuring…

  8. Evidence on "What Works": An Argument for Extended-Term Mixed-Method (ETMM) Evaluation Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2005-01-01

    Federal policy tools for gathering evidence on "What Works" in education, such as the What Works Clearinghouse's (WWC) standards, emphasize randomized field trials as the preferred method for generating scientific evidence on the effectiveness of educational programs. This article argues instead for extended-term mixed-method (ETMM) designs.…

  9. A Mixed Methods Investigation of the Kansas Autism Waiver's Implementation: The First Three Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrin, Nanette L.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study employed quantitative and qualitative methods as means of evaluating the Kansas Autism Waiver's first three years of implementation. The study was guided by the components of a quality assurance analysis and, to the extent possible, considered the fidelity of implementation of the waiver procedures. Data sources included…

  10. A Mixed Finite Volume Element Method for Flow Calculations in Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jim E.

    1996-01-01

    A key ingredient in the simulation of flow in porous media is the accurate determination of the velocities that drive the flow. The large scale irregularities of the geology, such as faults, fractures, and layers suggest the use of irregular grids in the simulation. Work has been done in applying the finite volume element (FVE) methodology as developed by McCormick in conjunction with mixed methods which were developed by Raviart and Thomas. The resulting mixed finite volume element discretization scheme has the potential to generate more accurate solutions than standard approaches. The focus of this paper is on a multilevel algorithm for solving the discrete mixed FVE equations. The algorithm uses a standard cell centered finite difference scheme as the 'coarse' level and the more accurate mixed FVE scheme as the 'fine' level. The algorithm appears to have potential as a fast solver for large size simulations of flow in porous media.

  11. Points of Convergence in Music Education: The Use of Data Labels as a Strategy for Mixed Methods Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the mixing of quantitative and qualitative data is an essential component of mixed methods research, the process of integrating both types of data in meaningful ways can be challenging. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of data labels in mixed methods research as a technique for the integration of qualitative and…

  12. Explicating Metatheory for Mixed Methods Research in Educational Leadership: An Application of Habermas's "Theory of Communicative Action"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mixed methods research can provide a fruitful line of inquiry for educational leadership, program evaluation, and policy analysis; however, mixed methods research requires a metatheory that allows for mixing what have traditionally been considered incompatible qualitative and quantitative inquiry. The purpose of this paper is to apply…

  13. Development of an Empirical Methods for Predicting Jet Mixing Noise of Cold Flow Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an empirical method for predicting the jet mixing noise levels of cold flow rectangular jets. The report presents a detailed analysis of the methodology used in development of the prediction method. The empirical correlations used are based on narrow band acoustic data for cold flow rectangular model nozzle tests conducted in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. There were 20 separate nozzle test operating conditions. For each operating condition 60 Hz bandwidth microphone measurements were made over a frequency range from 0 to 60,000 Hz. Measurements were performed at 16 polar directivity angles ranging from 45 degrees to 157.5 degrees. At each polar directivity angle, measurements were made at 9 azimuth directivity angles. The report shows the methods employed to remove screech tones and shock noise from the data in order to obtain the jet mixing noise component. The jet mixing noise was defined in terms of one third octave band spectral content, polar and azimuth directivity, and overall power level. Empirical correlations were performed over the range of test conditions to define each of these jet mixing noise parameters as a function of aspect ratio, jet velocity, and polar and azimuth directivity angles. The report presents the method for predicting the overall power level, the average polar directivity, the azimuth directivity and the location and shape of the spectra for jet mixing noise of cold flow rectangular jets.

  14. Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1997-07-08

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

  16. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep

    1997-01-01

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

  17. Qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This article reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the articles included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a "thick description" or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods but often differ with respect to study design, data collection, and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semistructured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed-method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research.

  18. Students awareness of learning styles and their perceptions to a mixed method approach for learning

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Anumeha; Vyas, Rashmi; Singh, Tejinder

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individualization of instructional method does not contribute significantly to learning outcomes although it is known that students have differing learning styles (LSs). Hence, in order to maximally enhance learning, one must try to use a mixed method approach. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that awareness of preferred LS and motivation to incorporate multiple learning strategies might enhance learning outcomes. Aim: Our aim was to determine the impact of awareness of LS among medical undergraduates and motivating students to use mixed methods of learning. Materials and Methods: Before awareness lecture, LS preferences were determined using Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire. Awareness of LS was assessed using a validated questionnaire. Through a lecture, students were oriented to various LSs, impact of LS on their performance, and benefit of using mixed method approach for learning. Subsequently, group discussions were organized. After 3 months, VARK preferences and awareness of LSs were reassessed. Student narratives were collected. Qualitative analysis of the data was done. Results: There was a significant increase in the number of students who were aware of LS. The number of participants showing a change in VARK scores for various modalities of learning was also significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Thus, awareness of LSs motivated students to adapt other learning strategies and use mixed methods for learning. PMID:26380214

  19. Advantages and pitfalls in the application of mixed-model association methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Zaitlen, Noah A; Goddard, Michael E; Visscher, Peter M; Price, Alkes L

    2014-02-01

    Mixed linear models are emerging as a method of choice for conducting genetic association studies in humans and other organisms. The advantages of the mixed-linear-model association (MLMA) method include the prevention of false positive associations due to population or relatedness structure and an increase in power obtained through the application of a correction that is specific to this structure. An underappreciated point is that MLMA can also increase power in studies without sample structure by implicitly conditioning on associated loci other than the candidate locus. Numerous variations on the standard MLMA approach have recently been published, with a focus on reducing computational cost. These advances provide researchers applying MLMA methods with many options to choose from, but we caution that MLMA methods are still subject to potential pitfalls. Here we describe and quantify the advantages and pitfalls of MLMA methods as a function of study design and provide recommendations for the application of these methods in practical settings.

  20. A demonstration of mixed-methods research in the health sciences.

    PubMed

    Katz, Janet; Vandermause, Roxanne; McPherson, Sterling; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2016-11-18

    Background The growth of patient, community and population-centred nursing research is a rationale for the use of research methods that can examine complex healthcare issues, not only from a biophysical perspective, but also from cultural, psychosocial and political viewpoints. This need for multiple perspectives requires mixed-methods research. Philosophy and practicality are needed to plan, conduct, and make mixed-methods research more broadly accessible to the health sciences research community. The traditions and dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research makes the application of mixed methods a challenge. Aim To propose an integrated model for a research project containing steps from start to finish, and to use the unique strengths brought by each approach to meet the health needs of patients and communities. Discussion Mixed-methods research is a practical approach to inquiry, that focuses on asking questions and how best to answer them to improve the health of individuals, communities and populations. An integrated model of research begins with the research question(s) and moves in a continuum. The lines dividing methods do not dissolve, but become permeable boundaries where two or more methods can be used to answer research questions more completely. Rigorous and expert methodologists work together to solve common problems. Conclusion Mixed-methods research enables discussion among researchers from varied traditions. There is a plethora of methodological approaches available. Combining expertise by communicating across disciplines and professions is one way to tackle large and complex healthcare issues. Implications for practice The model presented in this paper exemplifies the integration of multiple approaches in a unified focus on identified phenomena. The dynamic nature of the model signals a need to be open to the data generated and the methodological directions implied by findings.

  1. Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes survival in ice cream mixes flavored with herbal tea using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values.

  2. Transient modeling/analysis of hyperbolic heat conduction problems employing mixed implicit-explicit alpha method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; D'Costa, Joseph F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of mixed implicit-explicit finite element formulations for hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects. In particular, mixed implicit-explicit formulations employing the alpha method proposed by Hughes et al. (1987, 1990) are described for the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models, which involves time-dependent relaxation effects. Existing analytical approaches for modeling/analysis of such models involve complex mathematical formulations for obtaining closed-form solutions, while in certain numerical formulations the difficulties include severe oscillatory solution behavior (which often disguises the true response) in the vicinity of the thermal disturbances, which propagate with finite velocities. In view of these factors, the alpha method is evaluated to assess the control of the amount of numerical dissipation for predicting the transient propagating thermal disturbances. Numerical test models are presented, and pertinent conclusions are drawn for the mixed-time integration simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects.

  3. Dialogues on Mixed-Methods and Mental Health Services Research: Anticipating Challenges, Building Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Cynthia S.; Ware, Norma C.; dosReis, Susan; Willging, Cathleen E.; Chung, Joyce Y.; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, contemporary mental health services research projects aim to combine qualitative and quantitative components. Yet researchers often lack theoretical and practical guidance for undertaking such studies. In September 2006 the authors convened under the auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health at a working conference, “Mixed Methods in Community-Based Mental Health Services Research.” This meeting provided the opportunity for participants to share their experiences in conducting mixed-methods research, to critically consider problems they had encountered and their solutions, and to develop guiding principles for others conducting similar research. The authors' discussions, which are described in this article, emphasize that the problems encountered by mixed-methods research teams are rarely simple misunderstandings but often reflect epistemological differences that are overlooked in the study planning phases. Failure to acknowledge these different worldviews may result in significant tensions between members of the study team, use of qualitative methods that are insufficient or inappropriate for a particular research question, or serious conflicts when team members belatedly discover they are interpreting key concepts—or each other's research techniques—differently. The authors conclude that ongoing communication is the organizing principle for robust and effective mixed-methods research. Among the recommendations for preventing problems are collaboration between quantitative and qualitative researchers during the study design phase; open acknowledgement of the philosophical approaches brought to the study by various team members; and because not all challenges can be anticipated, a shared willingness to negotiate emerging problems. PMID:18586988

  4. Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

  5. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    Significant research has been underway for several years in NASA Glenn Research Center's nozzle branch to develop advanced computational methods for simulating turbulent flows in exhaust nozzles. The primary efforts of this research have concentrated on improving our ability to calculate the turbulent mixing layers that dominate flows both in the exhaust systems of modern-day aircraft and in those of hypersonic vehicles under development. As part of these efforts, a hybrid numerical method was recently developed to simulate such turbulent mixing layers. The method developed here is intended for configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. Interest in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods have increased in recent years, but applying an LES method to calculate the wide range of turbulent scales from small eddies in the wall-bounded regions to large eddies in the mixing region is not yet possible with current computers. As a result, the hybrid method developed here uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall-bounded regions entering a mixing section and uses a LES procedure to calculate the mixing-dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. With this technique, closure for the RANS equations is obtained by using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The LES equations are closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. Although the function of the Cebeci-Smith model to replace all of the turbulent stresses is quite different from that of the Smagorinsky subgrid model, which only replaces the small subgrid turbulent stresses, both are eddy viscosity models and both are derived at least in part from mixing-length theory. The similar formulation of these two models enables the RANS

  6. A Lagrangian parcel based mixing plane method for calculating water based mixed phase particle flows in turbo-machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2015-05-01

    A method for calculating particle transport through turbo-machinery using the mixing plane analogy was developed and used to analyze the energy efficient engine . This method allows the prediction of temperature and phase change of water based particles along their path and the impingement efficiency and particle impact property data on various components in the engine. This methodology was incorporated into the LEWICE3D V3.5 software. The method was used to predict particle transport in the low pressure compressor of the . The was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbo-machinery flow solver. Computations were performed for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20 and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of . The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.18. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22.6 %).

  7. The Health Role of Local Area Coordinators in Scotland: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael; Karatzias, Thanos; O'Leary, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The study set out to explore whether local area coordinators (LACs) and their managers view the health role of LACs as an essential component of their work and identify the health-related activities undertaken by LACs in Scotland. A mixed methods cross-sectional phenomenological study involving local authority service managers (n = 25) and LACs (n…

  8. Monogamy on the Street: A Mixed Methods Study of Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan A.; Kennedy, David P.; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed methods approach to explore the determinants of relationship patterns and risky sex among homeless men living in downtown Los Angeles. This involved analysis of qualitative interviews focused on gender ideology and sexual events ("n" = 30) as well as structured interviews ("n" = 305) focused on…

  9. Development of Academic Self-Efficacy in Women during College: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Savala

    2013-01-01

    Although women account for more than 50% of the college degrees awarded nationally, The College of Idaho has had a challenge retaining female students. There are any number of reasons for women's struggle to persist at the college, but one of the most basic may be a matter of self-efficacy. This mixed methods study used a combination of…

  10. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  11. Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

  12. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  13. Asian International Students' Willingness to Seek Counseling: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peiwei; Wong, Y. Joel; Toth, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods survey design that was predominantly quantitative, this study explored Asian international students' willingness to seek counseling. Participants were 177 Asian international students recruited from a U.S. Midwestern University. After controlling for attitudes toward psychological help-seeking and past counseling experience,…

  14. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  15. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almalki, Sami

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…

  16. Words Speak Louder than Action?: A Mixed-Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Stacy K.; Kirby, Andrea T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods case study was to examine the dynamic of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (Gay, 2010) among nine secondary agriculture teachers in ethnically diverse schools. By reviewing the diversity of student enrollment in the agriculture programs, the participants were separated by two groups: diverse and non-diverse. A hybrid…

  17. Studying the Impact of Academic Mobility on Intercultural Competence: A Mixed-Methods Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cots, Josep M.; Aguilar, Marta; Mas-Alcolea, Sònia; Llanes, Àngels

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of the impact of academic mobility on the development of students' intercultural competence (IC). Following Byram, IC is seen as comprising the three components of knowledge, behaviour and attitude. The study adopts a mixed-methods approach, analysing the results of a quantitative pre-stay post-stay survey…

  18. The promise of mixed-methods for advancing latino health research.

    PubMed

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson

    2013-09-01

    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the "translation" of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions.

  19. Using Mixed Methods from a Communicative Orientation: Researching with Grassroots Roma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flecha, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Over a decade ago, researchers in Roma studies shifted their approach, from an exclusionary stance to a more communicative one. Despite major positive changes since then, researchers still do not adequately reflect the voices of the majority of the world's Roma. In this article, we draw on a communicative mixed methods case study, conducted within…

  20. Promise for Enhancing Children's Reading Attitudes through Peer Reading: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngju

    2014-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) was implemented for supplementary reading classes in a Korean elementary school. The treatment group children were exposed to PALS during 20 min sessions, 4 times a week, for 8 weeks. The impacts of PALS were investigated in 3 aspects using a mixed-methods approach: improvement in reading attitudes, reading…

  1. Teacher Support and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison A.; White, Tiffany; Farmer, Jennie; Minch, Devon; Michalowski, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with a variety of schooling experiences, particularly their perceptions of teacher support. This article presents results of a mixed-methods study conducted to identify which types of perceived social support enacted by teachers are most strongly associated with middle school students' SWB…

  2. General Education in Health Science-Focused Institutions: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of general education curricula at baccalaureate colleges of health science in relationship to Bergquist's Career-Based Model of curriculum. Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach, the model was tested by examining whether the curricula were both prescriptive and specific.…

  3. Scaffolding Argumentation about Water Quality: A Mixed-Method Study in a Rural Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, Brian R.; Gu, Jiangyue; Armbrust, Sara; Cook, Brant

    2015-01-01

    A common way for students to develop scientific argumentation abilities is through argumentation about socioscientific issues, defined as scientific problems with social, ethical, and moral aspects. Computer-based scaffolding can support students in this process. In this mixed method study, we examined the use and impact of computer based…

  4. A Mixed-Methods Social Networks Study Design for Research on Transnational Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates the adoption of a mixed-methods research design to describe and analyze ego-centered social networks in transnational family research. Drawing on the experience of the "Social Networks Influences on Family Formation" project (2004-2005; see Bernardi, Keim, & von der Lippe, 2007a, 2007b), I show how the combined…

  5. Validity Argument for Assessing L2 Pragmatics in Interaction Using Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Soo Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of assessing L2 pragmatics in interaction using mixed methods, focusing on the evaluation inference. Open role-plays that are meaningful and relevant to the stakeholders in an English for Academic Purposes context were developed for classroom assessment. For meaningful score interpretations and accurate…

  6. Motivation Beliefs of Secondary School Teachers in Canada and Singapore: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison; Hannok, Wanwisa

    2008-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to explore secondary teachers' motivation beliefs in Canada and Singapore. Results from Study 1 revealed that socio-economic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of school climate in Canada, and that collective efficacy mediated the effect of SES on school climate in Singapore, but not in Canada. In Study 2,…

  7. A Mixed-Methods Study of Mid-Career Science Teachers: The Growth of Professional Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Amy Laphelia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent, mixed-methods study was to examine the professional empowerment qualities of mid-career (years 4-8), science teachers. I used the construct of professional empowerment as the theoretical frame to explore K-12 mid-career science teachers' career trajectories and consider how they can be supported professionally and…

  8. How L2 Legal Writers Use Strategies for Scholarly Writing: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain Butler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation research fills existing gaps regarding the practices and processes of teaching second language (L2) writers at higher ranges of proficiency in law school context. It is a mixed methods, longitudinal, descriptive, writer-centered study. The research purpose was to explore strategic competence as a catalyst for professional…

  9. Caregiver Grief in Terminal Illness and Bereavement: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.

    2007-01-01

    Caregivers experience multiple losses during the downhill trajectory of a loved one's terminal illness. Using mixed methods, this two-stage study explored caregiver grief during a terminal illness and after the care recipient's death. Caregiver grief was a state of heightened responsiveness during end-stage care: anxiety, hostility, depression,…

  10. Mixed Methods Research with Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the…

  11. Creating Rich Portraits: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    A person-centered, mixed-methods approach (self-report surveys, semistructured interviews, school records) was used to characterize and evaluate profiles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 243 third- through eighth-grade students. Cluster analysis suggested four distinct profiles: high quantity (high intrinsic, high extrinsic), primarily…

  12. A Mixed-Methods Study Comparing the Perceived Spiritual Benefits of Topical and Extended Scripture Memorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to compare the perceived benefits of topical Scripture memorization (TSM) with the perceived benefits of extended Scripture memorization (ESM) to explore if one strategy fosters more perceived spiritual growth than the other. A baseline for the study is established by investigating the historical,…

  13. School Resource Officers for Bullying Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; Denham, Magdalena A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of school police officers, School Resource Officers (SROs), is increasing on school campuses to assist in preventing school violence, and in particular bullying. This mixed-methods study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perceptions of SROs (N = 184) hired by independent school districts (ISD SROs) and those contracted from law…

  14. Mixed Methods in Indigenous Research: Building Relationships for Sustainable Intervention Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilisa, Bagele; Tsheko, Gaelebale N.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities raise concerns that they are overresearched and tired of research always asking the same questions and reproducing the same answers, thus pressuring researchers to open the discourse on mixed methods research so as to enable new debates and approaches to emerge. A postcolonial indigenous paradigm provides a theoretical…

  15. Majoring in STEM--What Accounts for Women's Career Decision Making? A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieri Buschor, Christine; Berweger, Simone; Keck Frei, Andrea; Kappler, Christa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal, mixed methods study was to gain an understanding of whether female academic high school students who intended to study science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) actually enrolled in such studies 2 years later, and how these women perceived this process retrospectively. The results revealed a high…

  16. The Complexities of Teachers' Commitment to Environmental Education: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosu, Edward M.; McWilliam, Angus; Gray, Donald S.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that a mixed methods approach is useful in understanding the complexity that underlies teachers' commitment to environmental education. Using sequential and concurrent procedures, the authors demonstrate how different methodological approaches highlighted different aspects of teacher commitment. The quantitative survey examined…

  17. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  18. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Quality in Online Education Courses: A Mixed Methods Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick Myers, Myrell Denice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine preservice teacher education candidates' perceptions of quality in online education courses within a regional comprehensive university located in Texas. The research questions also addressed students' perceived efficacy in their level of preparedness to: engage in field experiences;…

  19. A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Instructional Coaching for Teachers of Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teemant, Annela

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study investigates the efficacy and sustainability of instructional coaching outcomes among urban elementary teachers (N = 36) using focus group and quantitative pre-, post-, and 1 year-after intervention data. Coached teachers participated in a 30-hr workshop and then seven cycles of coaching (15 hr) targeting use…

  20. Social Influences on Fertility: A Comparative Mixed Methods Study in Eastern and Western Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura; Keim, Sylvia; von der Lippe, Holger

    2007-01-01

    This article uses a mixed methods design to investigate the effects of social influence on family formation in a sample of eastern and western German young adults at an early stage of their family formation. Theoretical propositions on the importance of informal interaction for fertility and family behavior are still rarely supported by systematic…

  1. Relationship between Educational Resources and School Achievement: A Mixed Method Intra-District Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educational resources (fiscal, personnel and facilities) and school achievement within a large urban/suburban elementary school district. A sequential mixed methods approach reveals inequitable resource allocation trends and patterns between schools within a school district by producing different…

  2. Engineers' Perceptions of Diversity and the Learning Environment at Work: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Brenda L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research study was to investigate engineers' perceptions of diversity and the workplace learning environment surrounding diversity education efforts in engineering occupations. The study made use of a mixed methods methodology and was theoretically framed using a critical feminist adult education lens and…

  3. Conditions That Facilitate Music Learning among Students with Special Needs: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrity, Kevin W.; Hourigan, Ryan M.; Horton, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify and define the conditions that facilitate learning in music among students with special needs. Children with special needs met once a week for 10 consecutive weeks and received instruction in primarily music as well as the other arts. The children completed pre- and posttest evaluations that…

  4. Support, Belonging, Motivation, and Engagement in the College Classroom: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbrunn, Sharon; McKim, Courtney; Buhs, Eric; Hawley, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    This explanatory sequential mixed methods study examined how belonging perceptions, academic motivation, and engagement might mediate the relationship between academic contextual characteristics and achievement using structural equation modeling and qualitative follow-up interviews with college students from a large, Midwestern university. In the…

  5. Beginning Secondary Science Teacher Induction: A Two-Year Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Julie A.; Firestone, Jonah B.; Wong, Sissy S.; Ortega, Ira; Adams, Krista; Bang, EunJin

    2011-01-01

    Those who study secondary science teachers are often concerned with preservice or in-service teacher development. Science teacher educators have acknowledged that this focus is limited, as the induction years of beginning teachers are an important component of teacher development. This mixed methods study focuses on the induction years of…

  6. Cross-Grade Analysis of Chinese Students' English Learning Motivation: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qian-Mei; Kim, Tae-Young

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the changes in Chinese students' motivation to learn English from elementary to high school and explored the reasons for these changes at different school levels. A motivational questionnaire was designed and administered to 3,777 elementary, junior high, and high school students, and follow-up interviews were…

  7. Using a Mixed Methods Content Analysis to Analyze Mission Statements from Colleges of Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to conduct a content analysis of the mission statements of colleges of engineering to map inductively derived codes with the EC 2000 outcomes and to test if any of the codes were significantly associated with institutions with reasonably strong representation of women. Most institution's (25 of 48) mission statement…

  8. An Observational Analysis of Coaching Behaviors for Career Development Event Teams: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Anna L.; Bowling, Amanda M.; Sharpless, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    School Based Agricultural Education (SBAE) teachers can use coaching behaviors, along with their agricultural content knowledge to help their Career Development Event (CDE) teams succeed. This mixed methods, collective case study observed three SBAE teachers preparing multiple CDEs throughout the CDE season. The teachers observed had a previous…

  9. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  10. The Promise of Mixed-Methods for Advancing Latino Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the “translation” of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions. PMID:23996325

  11. Perceptions of Organizational Culture of a Multi-Campus Community College District: Mixed Methods in Concert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuster Dale, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This concurrent, mixed-methods case study analyzed perceptions of current and preferred organizational culture within a rural, multi-campus community college district. This phenomenon was examined by analyzing and comparing data collected by surveying all full-time employees utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and…

  12. Contemporary Chinese Parents' Socialization Priorities for Preschoolers: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Lixin; Edwards, Carolyn Pope

    2016-01-01

    This mixed methods study focused on the socialization goals for preschool-aged children among parents from three small-sized cities located in northeastern China. A total of 154 parents with preschool-aged children completed questionnaires measuring parental socialization goals for children's social-emotional competence and academic achievement.…

  13. A Mixed-Methods Assessment of Using an Online Commercial Tutoring System to Teach Introductory Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade; Meyer, Katrina A.; Morgan, Dianne D.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate a hybrid teaching format that incorporated an online tutoring system, ALEKS, to address students' learning needs in a graduate-level introductory statistics course. Student performance in the hybrid course with ALEKS was found to be no different from that in a course taught in a traditional…

  14. A Mixed Methods Examination of the Influence of Dimensions of Support on Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Laura A.; Burkholder, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to explore how specific dimensions of supervisor support (mentoring, coaching, social support, and task support) influence the transfer of learned knowledge and skills to the job. Quantitative data were collected from employees (N = 48) who develop curriculum at an educational…

  15. Assessing Resilience across Cultures Using Mixed Methods: Construction of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda

    2011-01-01

    An international team of investigators in 11 countries have worked collaboratively to develop a culturally and contextually relevant measure of youth resilience, the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28). The team used a mixed methods design that facilitated understanding of both common and unique aspects of resilience across cultures.…

  16. Predicting High School Completion Using Student Performance in High School Algebra: A Mixed Methods Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiado, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    Too many of our nation's youth have failed to complete high school. Determining why so many of our nation's students fail to graduate is a complex, multi-faceted problem and beyond the scope of any one study. The study presented herein utilized a thirteen-step mixed methods model developed by Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2007) to demonstrate within a…

  17. How Do We Know What Is Happening Online?: A Mixed Methods Approach to Analysing Online Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charalampidi, Marina; Hammond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of analysing online discussion and argue for the merits of mixed methods. Much research of online participation and e-learning has been either message-focused or person-focused. The former covers methodologies such as content and discourse analysis, the latter interviewing and surveys.…

  18. Intersectionality in Context: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Researching the Faculty Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Meghan J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed-methods approach to integrating the methodological tools of social network analysis and qualitative research to explore intersectionality as it pertains to faculty experiences in institutional contexts. These research strategies, employed at the individual and aggregate levels, can be useful tools as institutions aim…

  19. Examining the Organizational Cynicism among Teachers at Schools: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levent, Faruk; Keser, Sitar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the organizational cynicism among teachers at schools. In this study, which was conducted by a mixed method, "the Organizational Cynicism Scale for Teachers" was used in the quantitative dimension, while a semi-structured interviewing technique was used in the qualitative dimension. The…

  20. Family Functioning in Families with a Child with Down Syndrome: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povee, K.; Roberts, L.; Bourke, J.; Leonard, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the factors that predict functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome using a mixed methods design. The quantitative component examined the effect of maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviours on the functioning of the family while the qualitative component explored the impact of having a child…

  1. Job integration factors as predictors of travel nurse job performance: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Tuttas, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about insufficient work setting familiarity and orientation of temporary nurses affecting job performance are documented in the literature. This mixed-methods study identified unique needs and characteristics of travel nurses, using Web conference focus groups and an Internet survey to reach this geographically dispersed workforce. New knowledge emerged to facilitate more effective travel nurse orientation strategies.

  2. Curiosity and Pedagogy: A Mixed-Methods Study of Student Experiences in the Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity is often considered the foundation of learning. There is, however, little understanding of how (or if) pedagogy in higher education affects student curiosity, especially in the studio setting of architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. This study used mixed-methods to investigate curiosity among design students in the…

  3. Originality Detection Software in a Graduate Policy Course: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreuth Zeman, Laura; Steen, Julie A.; Metz Zeman, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the use of Turnitin originality detection software in a graduate social work course. Qualitative analysis of student responses revealed positive and negative spent completing assignments, and the tone of the class. Quantitative analysis of students' originality scores indicated a short-term…

  4. Learning and Study Strategies of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Erin; Hux, Karen; Zickefoose, Samantha; Simanek, Gina; Holmberg, Michelle; Henderson, Ambyr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions of four college students with severe traumatic brain injury and people associated with them regarding the use of learning skills and study strategies. The researchers employed a concurrent mixed method design using descriptive quantitative data as well as qualitative multiple case study…

  5. Mixed Methods Case Study of Generational Patterns in Responses to Shame and Guilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Moral socialization and moral learning are antecedents of moral motivation. As many as 4 generations interact in workplace and education settings; hence, a deeper understanding of the moral motivation of members of those generations is needed. The purpose of this convergent mixed methods case study was to understand the moral motivation of 5…

  6. Insights into Communication Intervention and AAC in South India: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Saranya; Mathew, Samuel N.; Lloyd, Lyle L.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated current trends in communication intervention and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in southern India through a mixed-methods design. Study participants (N = 18) were special educators, speech-language pathologists, and behavior therapists. Responses from the questionnaire were quantitatively analyzed.…

  7. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Maternal Perspectives on Transition Experiences in Early Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; Speirs, Katherine Elizabeth; Encinger, Amy Johnson; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Strong relationships among children, families, and early care and education (ECE) providers are key to quality infant-toddler care. These relationships are shaped during the initial transition period to group care. We used a mixed methods approach to (a) assess maternal perspectives on the transition to group care, (b) explore…

  8. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  9. A Mixed-Method Study of Language-Learning Motivation and Intercultural Contact of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata; Iwaniec, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The mixed-method study presented in this paper investigates the changes in direct and indirect intercultural contact and language-learning attitudes and effort of international students in the United Kingdom. Seventy international learners of English were asked to fill in a questionnaire three times during one academic year in an international…

  10. Firefighter willingness to participate in a stem cell clinical trial for burns: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Horch, Jenny D; Carr, Eloise C J; Harasym, Patricia; Burnett, Lindsay; Biernaskie, Jeff; Gabriel, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Adult stem cells represent a potentially renewable and autologous source of cells to regenerate skin and improve wound healing. Firefighters are at risk of sustaining a burn and potentially benefiting from a split thickness skin graft (STSG). This mixed methods study examined firefighter willingness to participate in a future stem cell clinical trial, outcome priorities and factors associated with this decision.

  11. Technology Adoption in Secondary Mathematics Teaching in Kenya: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamau, Leonard Mwathi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the factors related to technology adoption by secondary mathematics teachers in Nyandarua and Nairobi counties in the Republic of Kenya. Using a sequential explanatory mixed methods approach, I collected qualitative data from interviews and classroom observations of six teachers to better understand statistical results from the…

  12. Education Student Research Paradigms and Emerging Scholar Identities: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Patrick D.; Croxton, Rebecca A.; Kirkman, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods approach, this study sought to understand a general sense of paradigm confidence and to see how this confidence relates to doctoral student identities as emerging scholars. Identity development was explored among 46 education doctoral students at a midsized public university in the Southeast. Researchers examined students'…

  13. Broadening Horizons in a Shrinking World: A Mixed Method Study on Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda-Aldaco, Citlali

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a bilingual/bicultural technology intervention on beginning learners of Spanish at a public university in the United States and intermediate learners of English at a public university in Mexico. This study used a quasi-experimental mixed method design and compared gains in grammar, listening, and reading…

  14. Social Acceptance and Rejection of Preschool Children with Disabilities: A Mixed-Method Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Samuel L.; Zercher, Craig; Li, Shouming; Marquart, Jules M.; Sandall, Susan; Brown, William H.

    2006-01-01

    Eighty children with disabilities enrolled in a nationally distributed set of inclusive preschool programs participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 3.9 years, and 60% were male. The children exhibited a range of disabilities and developmental levels. Using a mixed-method approach, the authors established quantitative…

  15. Being Bicultural: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Implicitly and Explicitly Measured Multiethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Amy K.; Patton, Flannery; Coll, Cynthia Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how ethnic identities develop in adolescence is currently limited by a reliance on self-report paper-and-pencil measures. This mixed-methods study presents a novel response time measure, the Multiethnic Identities Processing Task (MIPT), to quantify bicultural adolescents' implicit identifications with ethnic and racial identity…

  16. Error analysis of mixed finite element methods for wave propagation in double negative metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jichun

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we develop both semi-discrete and fully discrete mixed finite element methods for modeling wave propagation in three-dimensional double negative metamaterials. Optimal error estimates are proved for Nedelec spaces under the assumption of smooth solutions. To our best knowledge, this is the first error analysis obtained for Maxwell's equations when metamaterials are involved.

  17. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…

  18. Using Mixed-Method Design and Network Analysis to Measure Development of Interagency Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jennifer Eileen; Dickmann, Ellyn; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Fagan, Jesse Michael

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing attention to the importance of interagency collaboration for improving community well-being, environmental and public health, and educational outcomes. This article uses a mixed-methods approach including network analysis to examine the changes in interagency collaboration in one site funded by the Safe…

  19. A Mixed-Method Exploration of Functioning in Safe Schools/Healthy Students Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Marina L.; Taylor, Nicole L.; Martin, Alison J.; Maxim, Lauren A.; D'Ambrosio, Ryan; Gabriel, Roy M.; Wendt, Staci J.; Mannix, Danyelle; Wells, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed-method approach to measuring the functioning of Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) Initiative partnerships. The SS/HS national evaluation team developed a survey to collect partners' perceptions of functioning within SS/HS partnerships. Average partnership functioning scores were used to rank each site from lowest to…

  20. Students' Attitudes toward Statistics across the Disciplines: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James D.; Adams, Lea T.; Gu, Lucy L.; Hart, Christian L.; Nichols-Whitehead, Penney

    2012-01-01

    Students' attitudes toward statistics were investigated using a mixed-methods approach including a discovery-oriented qualitative methodology among 684 undergraduate students across business, criminal justice, and psychology majors where at least one course in statistics was required. Students were asked about their attitudes toward statistics and…

  1. What We Learned about Mentoring Research Assistants Employed in a Complex, Mixed-Methods Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Lori E.; Villeneuve, Michelle A.; Hutchinson, Susan; Roger, Kerstin; Versnel, Joan; Packer, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the experiences of research assistants in their dual role as both employees and trainees, when they were employed in a complex, mixed-methods, Canadian study on the everyday experience of living with and managing a chronic condition. A total of 13 research assistants participated in one or more components of this study: a survey (n…

  2. A Typology of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for developing sampling designs in mixed methods research. First, we present sampling schemes that have been associated with quantitative and qualitative research. Second, we discuss sample size considerations and provide sample size recommendations for each of the major research designs for quantitative and…

  3. Procrastination and Motivation of Undergraduates with Learning Disabilities: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Lynch, Shane L.; Rajani, Sukaina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods article was to report two studies exploring the relationships between academic procrastination and motivation in 208 undergraduates with (n = 101) and without (n = 107) learning disabilities (LD). In Study 1, the results from self-report surveys found that individuals with LD reported significantly higher levels…

  4. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  5. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students' language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis…

  6. Understanding Succession Planning and Management Efforts at Midwestern University: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateso, Peter E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent triangulation mixed methods study was to understand the status of succession planning and management (SPM) efforts of the subject university as perceived by the fulltime academic and fulltime administrative staff. Four research questions guided this study: (1) how do fulltime academic staff and fulltime…

  7. A Mixed Methods Analysis of Parental Support for a High School Hybrid Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiefel, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid learning programs may offer the most benefits for secondary schools to help prepare students for the online learning requirements of higher education and the workforce. Parental support will be necessary for academic success of high school students in a hybrid learning program, though. The purpose of this sequential mixed methods study was…

  8. What Do Undergraduate Students Know about Scholarly Communication? A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehle, Catherine Fraser; Hensley, Merinda Kaye

    2017-01-01

    Amid movements that recognize undergraduate students as knowledge creators, transformative work is being done at the intersection of information literacy and scholarly communication. Absent from the literature so far is research related to students' perception and understanding of scholarly communication. This paper reports a mixed methods study…

  9. A Mixed Methods Approach to Examining an Advanced Placement Program in One Connecticut Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docimo, Chelsey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this eleventh grade Advanced Placement (AP) program study was to determine factors associated with AP placement and subsequent student performance. This research was considered to be a mixed methods case study with elements of arrested action research. One hundred and twenty-four students, four guidance counselors, three AP…

  10. Mixed-Methods Research in Language Teaching and Learning: Opportunities, Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi; Candlin, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art paper foregrounds mixed-methods research (MMR) in language teaching and learning by discussing and critically reviewing issues related to this newly developed research paradigm. The paper has six sections. The first provides a context for the discussion of MMR through an introductory review of quantitative and qualitative…

  11. Understanding Perspectives of English Language Learning and Assessment Practices: A Mixed-Method Embedded Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Angela Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study contributed to the continuing dialogue of quality language programs and student outcomes for classroom language learning and assessments within the standardized testing era to language learning programs within Colombia. The particular purpose of this one-phase, embedded, mixed-method study examined students' and teachers' beliefs about…

  12. The Effect of English Language Learning on Creative Thinking Skills: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehic, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed-methods case study was to investigate the effects of English language learning on creative thinking skills in the domains of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration as measured with the Alternate Uses Test. Unlike the previous research studies that investigated the links between English…

  13. Mindful Leaders in Highly Effective Schools: A Mixed-Method Application of Hoy's M-Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, W. Sean; Kelsey, Cheryl; Herrington, David

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study utilizing teacher ratings of principal mindfulness from 149 public schools in Texas and follow-up qualitative data analysis through semi-structured interviews conducted with the top 10 percent of princeipals identified as mindful. This research is based on the theoretical framework of mindfulness as…

  14. A Mixed Methods Study of Technology Integration in Rural Primary and Secondary High Schools in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm-Bell, Arlene

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent nested mixed methods study was to explore and describe the status of technology integration in primary and secondary high schools in a rural parish in Jamaica to determine whether and how technological innovations were being used in instruction and learning. Diffusion theory is recommended as a framework to guide…

  15. Toward a Better Understanding of Student Perceptions of Writing Feedback: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbrunn, Sharon; Marrs, Sarah; Mewborn, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This explanatory sequential mixed methods study investigated the writing feedback perceptions of middle and high school students (N = 598). The predictive and mediational roles of writing self-efficacy and perceptions of writing feedback on student writing self-regulation aptitude were examined using mediation regression analysis. To augment the…

  16. Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

  17. Behavioral Changes Based on a Course in Agroecology: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Kristyn; King, James; Francis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated and described student perceptions of a course in agroecology to determine if participants experienced changed perceptions and behaviors resulting from the Agroecosystems Analysis course. A triangulation validating quantitative data mixed methods approach included a written survey comprised of both quantitative and open-ended…

  18. A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Reading Intervention Effectiveness in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine if, when implemented at one two-year post-secondary institution, such K-12 reading comprehension strategies as concept mapping, think-aloud protocols, and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) elicit change in COMPASS reading test scores of adult readers. Data was collected over four academic…

  19. Being Outside Learning about Science Is Amazing: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibel, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to examine teachers' environmental attitudes and concerns about an outdoor educational field trip. Converging both quantitative data (Environmental Attitudes Scale and teacher demographics) and qualitative data (Open-Ended Statements of Concern and interviews) facilitated interpretation.…

  20. Careers of Professional Staff in Australian and UK Universities: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    This article confirms the reliability of a protean and boundaryless career attitudes scale, tested in a pilot study. Additionally, it summarises the results of this study into the career attitudes of professional staff in Australian and UK universities. A mixed methods approach was taken using a survey consisting of both closed questions on a…

  1. Linking Faculty Development to Community College Student Achievement: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Robert W.; Oliver, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed methods, multilevel research design, this pilot inquiry explored the relationship between college faculty professional development and the academic achievement of diverse students by coupling two separate links: (a) the effects that professional development activities have on improving teaching strategies, and (b) the effects these…

  2. Understanding the Impact of School Factors on School Counselor Burnout: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Schweinle, Amy; Duncan, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between burnout and performing noncounseling duties among a national sample of professional school counselors, while identifying school factors that could attenuate this relationship. Results of regression analyses indicate that performing noncounseling duties significantly predicted burnout…

  3. A Neighborhood Notion of Emergent Literacy: One Mixed Methods Inquiry to Inform Community Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Emily Brown; Whittingham, Colleen E.

    2017-01-01

    Using a convergent parallel mixed methods design, this study considered the early literacy and language environments actualized by childcare providers and parents of young children (ages 3-5) living in one large urban community in the United States of America. Both childcare providers and parents responded to questionnaires and participated in…

  4. A Mixed-Method Evaluation of a Strength-Based Bullying Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Norwood, Sarah Jane; Whitley, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the strength-based bullying prevention program, "Strengths in Motion," and to evaluate the program utilizing a mixed-method design. Participants included students in Grades 4 to 8 from an intervention (n = 50) and a comparison (n = 53) school in Northern Ontario. Measures of bullying, strengths, and…

  5. Secondary Science Teachers' Beliefs and Persistence: A Longitudinal Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Sissy S.; Luft, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    While many studies focus on why teachers leave the classroom, there remains a need to study why teachers persist in teaching. One area to study is the beliefs of teachers, which may impact persistence in the field. This 5-year mixed-methods study explored whether 35 beginning secondary science teachers' beliefs were related to their persistence in…

  6. Using Mixed Methods to Study First-Year College Impact on Liberal Arts Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Goodman, Kathleen; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2010-01-01

    This study details the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from a national multi-institutional longitudinal mixed methods study of college impact and student development of liberal arts outcomes. The authors found three sets of practices in the quantitative data that corroborated with the themes that emerged from the qualitative data:…

  7. Asian American College Students' Suicide Ideation: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Y. Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K.; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide…

  8. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  9. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  10. Exploration of Undergraduate Preservice Teachers' Experiences Learning Advocacy: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massengale, Kelley; Childers-McKee, Cherese; Benavides, Aerin

    2014-01-01

    Applying transformational critical advocacy research in college instruction can be a powerful way to engage students in challenging inequity in society and promoting positive changes. Few studies systematically measure the impact of such pedagogy on the development of college students' beliefs about advocacy. In this mixed methods study, we worked…

  11. Contexts That Matter to the Leadership Development of Latino Male College Students: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.; Huerta, Adrian H.; Ramirez, Jenesis J.; Patrón, Oscar E.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of Latino males entering college increases, there is a need to understand their unique leadership experiences. This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to understand what contexts contribute to Latino male undergraduate students' leadership development, capacity, and experiences. Quantitative data were gathered by…

  12. Exploring and Testing the Predictors of New Faculty Success: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, R. H.; Weaver-Hightower, M. B.; Kartoshkina, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate and test the factors contributing to new faculty members' success. In the first phase, qualitative analysis of focus groups revealed four prominent themes affecting new faculty members: expectations, collegiality, balance, and location. In the second phase, new faculty members completed an…

  13. Numerical Evaluation of Fluid Mixing Phenomena in Boiling Water Reactor Using Advanced Interface Tracking Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takase, Kazuyuki

    Thermal-hydraulic design of the current boiling water reactor (BWR) is performed with the subchannel analysis codes which incorporated the correlations based on empirical results including actual-size tests. Then, for the Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) core, an actual size test of an embodiment of its design is required to confirm or modify such correlations. In this situation, development of a method that enables the thermal-hydraulic design of nuclear reactors without these actual size tests is desired, because these tests take a long time and entail great cost. For this reason, we developed an advanced thermal-hydraulic design method for FLWRs using innovative two-phase flow simulation technology. In this study, a detailed Two-Phase Flow simulation code using advanced Interface Tracking method: TPFIT is developed to calculate the detailed information of the two-phase flow. In this paper, firstly, we tried to verify the TPFIT code by comparing it with the existing 2-channel air-water mixing experimental results. Secondary, the TPFIT code was applied to simulation of steam-water two-phase flow in a model of two subchannels of a current BWRs and FLWRs rod bundle. The fluid mixing was observed at a gap between the subchannels. The existing two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing is evaluated using detailed numerical simulation data. This data indicates that pressure difference between fluid channels is responsible for the fluid mixing, and thus the effects of the time average pressure difference and fluctuations must be incorporated in the two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing. When inlet quality ratio of subchannels is relatively large, it is understood that evaluation precision of the existing two-phase flow correlations for fluid mixing are relatively low.

  14. Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg) over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back) pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048). For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069) and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051) were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011) and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018) Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size and future research

  15. Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes and method of mixing liquids of different phases

    DOEpatents

    Jubin, Robert T.; Randolph, John D.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to a centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction systems. The centrifugal contactor is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor for mixing process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. A set of stationary helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the process-liquid inlets for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction toward the inlets and enhancing the mixing of the liquids and mass transfer between the liquids. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a set helically disposed vanes carried by the housing for urging the process liquids in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and the liquids contact the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone maintains the liquid in the mixing zone at suitable levels.

  16. Understanding the experience of stroke: a mixed-method research agenda.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-06-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research.

  17. Understanding the Experience of Stroke: A Mixed-Method Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Philippa

    2009-01-01

    The use of both quantitative and qualitative strategies to examine a single research question has been a subject of considerable controversy and still remains a largely uncommon practice in the sociology of health and illness. Yet, when seeking to understand the meaning of a chronic disabling condition in later life from a social psychological perspective, a mixed-method approach is likely to provide the most comprehensive picture. This article provides an overview of the usefulness and appropriateness of a mixed-method approach to understanding the stroke experience. I comment on the current state of research on the experience of stroke, including epistemological and ontological orientations. Using real data examples, I address paradigmatic assumptions, methods of integration, as well as challenges and pitfalls in integrating methods. I conclude by considering future directions in this field of research. PMID:19386828

  18. On a separating method for mixed-modes crack growth in wood material using image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutou Pitti, R.; Dubois, F.; Pop, O.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the complex wood anatomy and the loading orientation, the timber elements are subjected to a mixed-mode fracture. In these conditions, the crack tip advance is characterized by mixed-mode kinematics. In order to characterize the fracture process function versus the loading orientation, a new mixed-mode crack growth timber specimen is proposed. In the present paper, the design process and the experimental validation of this specimen are proposed. Using experimental results, the energy release rate is calculated for several modes. The calculi consist on the separation of each fracture mode. The design of the specimen is based on the analytical approach and numerical simulation by finite element method. The specimen particularity is the stability of the crack propagation under a force control.

  19. Fluorescence spectroscopy and multivariate methods for the determination of brandy adulteration with mixed wine spirit.

    PubMed

    Markechová, Diana; Májek, Pavel; Sádecká, Jana

    2014-09-15

    The addition of mixed wine spirit to brandy is easy way to adulterate brandy. To avoid the misleading of the consumers, it is necessary to develop reliable method to detect adulteration of brandy. In this work excitation emission matrix fluorescence in combination with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to determine the content of mixed wine spirit in adulterated brandy samples. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectra were measured in the emission wavelength range of 485-580 nm and in the excitation wavelength range of 363-475 nm. The model created using PARAFAC-PLS was able to predict the mixed wine spirit level in adulterated brandy with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) value of 1.9% and a square of the correlation (R(2)) between the reference contents and the predicted values of 0.995.

  20. Alternate scenarios for population control in Pakistan: the issue of contraceptive method mix.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T; Ali, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors review Pakistan's population program, with a focus on the ideal mix of contraceptive methods needed to slow population growth. "Our objective in this exercise is to estimate the extent of services required to achieve a certain level of the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) necessary to bring fertility down to a level desired by women." Comparison is made between single- and multiple-method approaches.

  1. Method and apparatus for producing alcohol and an alcohol-petroleum fuel mix

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.G.

    1982-04-20

    The present invention entails a method and apparatus for producing alcohol and mixing the produced alcohol with a conventional petroleum fuel to form an alcohol-petroleum fuel mix which is typically referred to as gasohol. A grain base material such as animal feed or crushed corn is allowed to ferment and during this process there is produced an alcohol base solution which is removed from the mash fermentation and delivered to a boiler mounted on a vehicle. During operation of the vehicle, heat from the vehicle engine exhaust is selectively directed to the boiler and the fermented alcohol base solution contained therein is heated by this exhaust air. As the alcohol base solution is heated there is produced an alcohol vapor which is directed from the boiler to a condenser where the alcohol vapor becomes liquid alcohol. The liquid alcohol is then collected and selectively mixed with a petroleum fuel carried by said vehicle to form the gasohol mix. Once formed, the gasohol mix is then directed to a carburetor operatively associated with the vehicle engine where the gasohol is metered into the engine.

  2. Epidemiological analysis of the dynamic and diversity of Salmonella spp. in five German pig production clusters using pheno- and genotyping methods: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Niemann, J; Tietze, E; Ruddat, I; Fruth, A; Prager, R; Rabsch, W; Blaha, T; Münchhausen, C; Merle, R; Kreienbrock, L

    2015-03-23

    An exploratory study in five conventional pig production clusters was carried out to investigate the dynamic and diversity of Salmonella spp. within different production stages and sample site categories (pooled feces, direct and non-direct environment). Observing two production cycles per production cluster, a total of 1276 samples were collected along the pig production chain. Following a microbiological examination via culture, 2246 subcultures were generated out of 285 Salmonella positive samples and analysed by pheno- and genotyping methods. Based on a combination of serotyping, MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis), PFGE (pulse-field gel electrophoresis) and MLST (multilocus sequence typing), an amount of 22.3% Salmonella positive samples were characterized in clonal lineages and its variants. Within each production cluster, one main clonal lineage could be identified and persisted over both production cycles with a large diversity of variants and a wide distribution in sample site categories and production stages. Results underline the importance of biosecurity with emphasis on the environment to prevent persistence and circulation of Salmonella within herds. Furthermore, the combined implementation of MLVA, PFGE and MLST with conventional culture techniques for isolate classification could be successfully applied as an effective and valuable tool for identifying similar pattern of Salmonella occurrence within pig production clusters.

  3. Adding Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research to Health Intervention Studies: Interacting With Differences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R Burke; Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how to improve intervention designs, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in health science research using a process philosophy and theory known as dialectical pluralism (DP). DP views reality as plural and uses dialectical, dialogical, and hermeneutical approaches to knowledge construction. Using DP and its "both/and" logic, and its attempt to produce new creative syntheses, researchers on heterogeneous teams can better dialogue with qualitative and mixed methods approaches, concepts, paradigms, methodologies, and methods to improve their intervention research studies. The concept of reflexivity is utilized but is expanded when it is a component of DP. Examples of strategies for identifying, inviting, and creating divergence and integrative strategies for producing strong mixed methods intervention studies are provided and illustrated using real-life examples.

  4. Approaching Etuaptmumk--introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research.

    PubMed

    Chatwood, Susan; Paulette, Francois; Baker, Ross; Eriksen, Astrid; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Eriksen, Heidi; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Lavoie, Josée; Lou, Wendy; Mauro, Ian; Orbinski, James; Pabrum, Nathalie; Retallack, Hanna; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2015-01-01

    With the recognized need for health systems' improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods' frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required.

  5. Direct inversion of circulation and mixing from tracer measurements - Part 1: Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Clarmann, Thomas; Grabowski, Udo

    2016-11-01

    From a series of zonal mean global stratospheric tracer measurements sampled in altitude vs. latitude, circulation and mixing patterns are inferred by the inverse solution of the continuity equation. As a first step, the continuity equation is written as a tendency equation, which is numerically integrated over time to predict a later atmospheric state, i.e., mixing ratio and air density. The integration is formally performed by the multiplication of the initially measured atmospheric state vector by a linear prediction operator. Further, the derivative of the predicted atmospheric state with respect to the wind vector components and mixing coefficients is used to find the most likely wind vector components and mixing coefficients which minimize the residual between the predicted atmospheric state and the later measurement of the atmospheric state. Unless multiple tracers are used, this inversion problem is under-determined, and dispersive behavior of the prediction further destabilizes the inversion. Both these problems are addressed by regularization. For this purpose, a first-order smoothness constraint has been chosen. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by application to various tracer measurements recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). This method aims at a diagnosis of the Brewer-Dobson circulation without involving the concept of the mean age of stratospheric air, and related problems like the stratospheric tape recorder, or intrusions of mesospheric air into the stratosphere.

  6. A nonlinear wave mixing method for detecting Alkali-Silica reactivity of aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Tang, G.; Jacobs, L. J.; Qu, J.

    2012-05-01

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a deleterious reaction in concrete. Significant ASR damage could undermine the durability of concrete structures and may result in reduced service life. Several nondestructive techniques based on ultrasound have been used to assess ASR damage. It has been shown that nonlinear ultrasound is more sensitive to internal stresses as well as to micro-cracks induced by ASR damage. In this investigation, we developed a co-linear wave mixing method for assessing ASR damage in concrete. By mixing two longitudinal waves, a new longitudinal wave with a lower frequency is generated. The amplitude of this new wave is proportional to the acoustic nonlinear parameter β which can then be obtained from the frequency spectrum of the newly generated longitudinal wave. Our experimental results show that (i) the acoustic nonlinearity parameter is closely correlated to ASR damage in concrete, (ii) the nonlinear wave mixing technique developed here is capable of measuring the changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter caused by ASR damage, even in its early stages, and (iii) the nonlinear wave mixing method has the potential to identify the different stages of ASR damage and to track the intrinsic characteristics of the ASR damage.

  7. Performance comparison of two efficient genomic selection methods (gsbay & MixP) applied in aquacultural organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hailin; Li, Hengde; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yangfan; Bao, Zhenmin

    2017-02-01

    Genomic selection is more and more popular in animal and plant breeding industries all around the world, as it can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. The objective of this study was to bring the advantages of genomic selection to scallop breeding. Two different genomic selection tools MixP and gsbay were applied on genomic evaluation of simulated data and Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) field data. The data were compared with genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) method which has been applied widely. Our results showed that both MixP and gsbay could accurately estimate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, and thereby could be applied for the analysis of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV). In simulated data from different scenarios, the accuracy of GEBV acquired was ranged from 0.20 to 0.78 by MixP; it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.67 by gsbay; and it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.61 by GBLUP. Estimations made by MixP and gsbay were expected to be more reliable than those estimated by GBLUP. Predictions made by gsbay were more robust, while with MixP the computation is much faster, especially in dealing with large-scale data. These results suggested that both algorithms implemented by MixP and gsbay are feasible to carry out genomic selection in scallop breeding, and more genotype data will be necessary to produce genomic estimated breeding values with a higher accuracy for the industry.

  8. Visual analysis as a method of interpretation of the results of satellite ionospheric measurements for exploratory problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneva, N. N.; Mogilevskii, M. M.; Nazarov, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    Traditional methods of time series analysis of satellite ionospheric measurements have some limitations and disadvantages that are mainly associated with the complex nonstationary signal structure. In this paper, the possibility of identifying and studying the temporal characteristics of signals via visual analysis is considered. The proposed approach is illustrated by the example of the visual analysis of wave measurements on the DEMETER microsatellite during its passage over the HAARP facility.

  9. An exploratory study on the driving method of speech synthesis based on the human eye reading imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of information technology and artificial intelligence, speech synthesis plays a significant role in the fields of Human-Computer Interaction Techniques. However, the main problem of current speech synthesis techniques is lacking of naturalness and expressiveness so that it is not yet close to the standard of natural language. Another problem is that the human-computer interaction based on the speech synthesis is too monotonous to realize mechanism of user subjective drive. This thesis introduces the historical development of speech synthesis and summarizes the general process of this technique. It is pointed out that prosody generation module is an important part in the process of speech synthesis. On the basis of further research, using eye activity rules when reading to control and drive prosody generation was introduced as a new human-computer interaction method to enrich the synthetic form. In this article, the present situation of speech synthesis technology is reviewed in detail. Based on the premise of eye gaze data extraction, using eye movement signal in real-time driving, a speech synthesis method which can express the real speech rhythm of the speaker is proposed. That is, when reader is watching corpora with its eyes in silent reading, capture the reading information such as the eye gaze duration per prosodic unit, and establish a hierarchical prosodic pattern of duration model to determine the duration parameters of synthesized speech. At last, after the analysis, the feasibility of the above method is verified.

  10. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods.

    PubMed

    Pometti, Carolina L; Bessega, Cecilia F; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C

    2014-03-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other.

  11. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods

    PubMed Central

    Pometti, Carolina L.; Bessega, Cecilia F.; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other. PMID:24688293

  12. An economic and financial exploratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  13. Comparison of different remote sensing methods for mixing layer height monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeis, Stefan; Schäfer, Klaus; Münkel, Christoph; Friedl, Roman; Suppan, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Since 2006 different remote monitoring methods for mixing layer height have been operated in Augsburg. One method is based on eye-safe commercial mini-lidar systems (ceilometers). The optical backscatter intensities recorded with these ceilometers provide information about the range-dependent aerosol concentration; gradient minima within this profile mark the tops of mixed layers. A special software for these ceilometers provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering. A second method, based on SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging) observations, detects the height of a turbulent layer characterized by high acoustic backscatter intensities due to thermal fluctuations and a high variance of the vertical velocity component. This information is extended by measurements with a RASS (Radio-Acoustic Sounding System) which provide the vertical temperature profile from the detection of acoustic signal propagation and thus temperature inversions which mark atmospheric layers. These SODAR and RASS data are the input to a software-based determination of mixing layer heights developed with MATLAB. A comparison of results of the three remote sensing methods during simultaneous measurements was performed. The information content of the ceilometer data is assessed by comparing it to the results from the other two instruments and near-by radiosonde data.

  14. Sexual Pleasure and Sexual Risk among Women who Use Methamphetamine: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorvick, Jennifer; Bourgois, Philippe; Wenger, Lynn D.; Arreola, Sonya G.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The intersection of drug use, sexual pleasure and sexual risk behavior is rarely explored when it comes to poor women who use drugs. This paper explores the relationship between sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in a community-based sample of women, exploring not only risk, but also desire, pleasure and the challenges of overcoming trauma. Methods Quantitative data were collected using standard epidemiological methods (N=322) for community-based studies. In addition, using purposive sampling, qualitative data were collected among a subset of participants (n=34). Data were integrated for mixed methods analysis. Results While many participants reported sexual risk behavior (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse) in the quantitative survey, sexual risk was not the central narrative pertaining to sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in qualitative findings. Rather, desire, pleasure and disinhibition arose as central themes. Women described feelings of power and agency related to sexual behavior while high on methamphetamine. Findings were mixed on whether methamphetamine use increased sexual risk behavior. Conclusion The use of mixed methods afforded important insights into the sexual behavior and priorities of methamphetamine-using women. Efforts to reduce sexual risk should recognize and valorize the positive aspects of methamphetamine use for some women, building on positive feelings of power and agency as an approach to harm minimization. PMID:22954501

  15. Approaching Etuaptmumk – introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research

    PubMed Central

    Chatwood, Susan; Paulette, Francois; Baker, Ross; Eriksen, Astrid; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Eriksen, Heidi; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Lavoie, Josée; Lou, Wendy; Mauro, Ian; Orbinski, James; Pabrum, Nathalie; Retallack, Hanna; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2015-01-01

    With the recognized need for health systems’ improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods’ frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required. PMID:26004427

  16. Mixed meshless local Petrov-Galerkin collocation method for modeling of material discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalušić, Boris; Sorić, Jurica; Jarak, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    A mixed meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) collocation method is proposed for solving the two-dimensional boundary value problem of heterogeneous structures. The heterogeneous structures are defined by partitioning the total material domain into subdomains with different linear-elastic isotropic properties which define homogeneous materials. The discretization and approximation of unknown field variables is done for each homogeneous material independently, therein the interface of the homogeneous materials is discretized with overlapping nodes. For the approximation, the moving least square method with the imposed interpolation condition is utilized. The solution for the entire heterogeneous structure is obtained by enforcing displacement continuity and traction reciprocity conditions at the nodes representing the interface boundary. The accuracy and numerical efficiency of the proposed mixed MLPG collocation method is demonstrated by numerical examples. The obtained results are compared with a standard fully displacement (primal) meshless approach as well as with available analytical and numerical solutions. Excellent agreement of the solutions is exhibited and a more robust, superior and stable modeling of material discontinuity is achieved using the mixed method.

  17. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  18. Bluebelle study (phase A): a mixed-methods feasibility study to inform an RCT of surgical wound dressing strategies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dressing primary surgical wounds is common, but the implications for surgical site infection (SSI) remain unknown. The Bluebelle study aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing ‘simple’, ‘complex’ or ‘no’ dressings on abdominal wounds, as prespecified in a funder's research brief. Bluebelle includes exploratory work (phase A) to inform a pilot version of the proposed RCT (phase B). Phase A aimed to investigate current dressing practices and perspectives on the proposed RCT, with a view to refining the forthcoming pilot. Design Mixed methods, including semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Setting 6 UK hospitals. Participants 51 patients and 92 clinical professionals from abdominal surgical specialities. Results Professionals had variable interpretations of what constitutes a ‘dressing’, particularly with respect to ‘glue’—a product listed under ‘wound-closure products’ in the British National Formulary, which some surgeons reportedly applied as a ‘wound covering’. Areas of ambiguity arising from interviews informed development of pragmatic definitions, including specification of conditions under which glue constituted a ‘dressing’. Professionals reported that ‘simple’ dressings were routinely used in practice, whereas ‘complex’ dressings were not. This raised questions about the relevance of comparison groups, prompting the design of a survey to determine the types/frequency of dressing use in abdominal surgery (reported elsewhere). This confirmed that complex dressings were rarely used, while ‘glue as a dressing’ was used relatively frequently. ‘Complex dressings’ were therefore substituted for ‘glue as a dressing’ (following an updated Cochrane review, which found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of ‘glue as a dressing’). Patients and professionals acknowledged uncertainty around dressing use and SSI prevention, but felt

  19. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  20. Mixed approach to incorporate self-consistency into order-N LCAO methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ordejon, P.; Artacho, E.; Soler, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    The authors present a method for selfconsistent Density Functional Theory calculations in which the effort required is proportional to the size of the system, thus allowing the application to problems with a very large size. The method is based on the LCAO approximation, and uses a mixed approach to obtain the Hamiltonian integrals between atomic orbitals with Order-N effort. They show the performance and the convergence properties of the method in several silicon and carbon systems, and in a DNA periodic chain.

  1. A Simplified Direct Lipid Mixing Lipoplex Preparation: Comparison of Liposomal-, Dimethylsulfoxide-, and Ethanol-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Joseph W.; Gokel, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Established transfection methodology often uses commercial reagents, which must be formed into liposomes in a sequence of about half a dozen steps. The simplified method reported here is a direct lipid mixing approach that requires fewer steps, less manipulation, and is less time-consuming. Results are comparable to those obtained with more commonly used methods, as judged by a variety of analytical techniques and by comparisons of transfection results. The method reported here may be applied to non-liposome-forming compounds, thereby greatly expanding the range of structures that can be tested for transfection ability. PMID:27323668

  2. An equivalent domain integral method in the two-dimensional analysis of mixed mode crack problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Shivakumar, K. N.

    1990-01-01

    An equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for calculating J-integrals for two-dimensional cracked elastic bodies is presented. The details of the method and its implementation are presented for isoparametric elements. The EDI method gave accurate values of the J-integrals for two mode I and two mixed mode problems. Numerical studies showed that domains consisting of one layer of elements are sufficient to obtain accurate J-integral values. Two procedures for separating the individual modes from the domain integrals are presented.

  3. Exploratory Analysis of Methods for Automated Classification of Laboratory Test Orders into Syndromic Groups in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Muckle, C. Anne; Kelton, David; McClure, JT.; McEwen, Beverly J.; McNab, W. Bruce; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes–syndromic surveillance–using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. Methods This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees) and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995) was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F1-macro), due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight). A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F1-micro = 0.994 and F1-macro = .955), however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. Conclusion The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish automated methods to

  4. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    DOEpatents

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  5. Mixed methods immigrant mental health research in Canada: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farah; Oremus, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Canada is home to a growing immigrant population. However, immigrant mental health declines over time following arrival in Canada. Canada's Mental Health Strategy emphasizes the importance of research that gathers information from multiple sources of knowledge to identify the mental health challenges faced by diverse immigrant populations. Mixed methods research (MMR) is well suited for this task. However, a dearth of research exists on the application of MMR to the study of immigrant mental health. A systematic review of the published MMR literature in Canadian immigrant mental health was carried out. Overall, existing MMR studies failed to incorporate correct mixed methods terminology and fully integrate the quantitative and qualitative components of the research. A checklist of important elements to include in MMR studies is offered.

  6. Method of analysis for compressible flow through mixed-flow centrifugal impellers of arbitrary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.

  7. Mixed Methods Research With Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    PubMed Central

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the subjective, objective, and social worlds of participants through life history interviews and surveys. We also describe the unique Colombian context, conscious efforts to establish egalitarian relationships among research team members, and efforts to disseminate and reflect on findings. Through discussion of our research process and results, we aim to demonstrate how mixed methods research can be utilized to facilitate noncoercive discourse and contribute to social change. PMID:24926225

  8. Technical Efficiency and Organ Transplant Performance: A Mixed-Method Approach

    PubMed Central

    de-Pablos-Heredero, Carmen; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Medina-Merodio, Jose-Amelio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is interesting to understand complex processes. Organ transplants are complex processes in need of improved final performance in times of budgetary restrictions. As the main objective a mixed method approach is used in this article to quantify the technical efficiency and the excellence achieved in organ transplant systems and to prove the influence of organizational structures and internal processes in the observed technical efficiency. The results show that it is possible to implement mechanisms for the measurement of the different components by making use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The analysis show a positive relationship between the levels related to the Baldrige indicators and the observed technical efficiency in the donation and transplant units of the 11 analyzed hospitals. Therefore it is possible to conclude that high levels in the Baldrige indexes are a necessary condition to reach an increased level of the service offered. PMID:25950653

  9. A PC-based inverse design method for radial and mixed flow turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoe, Ivar Helge

    1991-01-01

    An Inverse Design Method suitable for radial and mixed flow turbomachinery is presented. The codes are based on the streamline curvature concept; therefore, it is applicable for current personal computers from the 286/287 range. In addition to the imposed aerodynamic constraints, mechanical constraints are imposed during the design process to ensure that the resulting geometry satisfies production consideration and that structural considerations are taken into account. By the use of Bezier Curves in the geometric modeling, the same subroutine is used to prepare input for both aero and structural files since it is important to ensure that the geometric data is identical to both structural analysis and production. To illustrate the method, a mixed flow turbine design is shown.

  10. Preparation and properties of mixed-oxide pellets synthetized by GSP (gel supported precipitation) method

    SciTech Connect

    Centi, G.; Perathoner, S.; Marella, M.

    1995-12-01

    The preparation of TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets synthesized by GSP (Gel Supported Method), their textural and physico-chemical characteristics and some examples of their use in cleanup technologies for the removal of nitrogen-oxide pollutants are reported, showing how this preparation methodology is well suited for the production of pure and mixed oxide supports for catalytic applications in fluid- or mobile-bed reactor technologies. The advantages in using mixed oxide for the promotion of the characteristics of zirconia or titania samples are also discussed. In comparison with sol-gel approach, the GSP method is based on the precipitation of the hydroxide of the element(s) with organic additives that allow to obtain hard spherical pellets.

  11. Use of Theoretical Frameworks as a Pragmatic Guide for Mixed Methods Studies: A Methodological Necessity?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Coon, David W.; Ume, Ebere

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing acceptance of the utility of mixed methods in health sciences but there is no widely accepted set of ideas in regard to use of a conceptual or theoretical framework to guide inquiry. Few mixed methods health science articles report the use of such a framework. Lack of available conceptual maps provided by theoretical frameworks, necessary intricacy of design, and the qualitative “black box” tradition all contribute to a dearth of methodological guidance in such studies. This article uses a funded National Institutes of Health study as an example to explain the utility of a theoretical framework in conceptualizing a study, making design decisions such as sampling and recruitment, collecting and analyzing data, and data interpretation. PMID:22368533

  12. The evolution of rotating stars. I - Method and exploratory calculations for a 7-solar-mass star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method is developed which allows the evolution of rotating stars to be studied well beyond the main-sequence stage. Four different cases of redistribution of angular momentum in an evolving star are considered. Evolutionary sequences for a 7-solar-mass star, rotating according to these different cases, were computed from the zero-age main-sequence to the double-shell-source stage. Each sequence was begun with a (typical) equatorial rotational velocity of 210 km/s. On the main sequence, the effects of rotation are of minor importance. However, as the core contracts during later stages, important effects arise in all physically plausible cases. The outer regions of the cores approach critical velocities and develop unstable angular-velocity distributions. The effects of these instabilities should significantly alter the subsequent evolution.

  13. An exploratory method to detect tephras from quantitative XRD scans: Examples from Iceland and east Greenland marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Eberl, D.D.; Kristjansdottir, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Tephras, mainly from Iceland, are becoming increasingly important in interpreting leads and lags in the Holocene climate system across NW Europe. Here we demonstrate that Quantitative Phase Analysis of x-ray diffractograms of the 150 um fraction and identify these same peaks in XRD scans - two of these correlate geochemically and chronologically with Hekla 1104 and 3. At a distal site to the WNW of Iceland, on the East Greenland margin (core MD99-2317), the weight% of volcanic glass reaches values of 11% at about the time of the Saksunarvatn tephra. The XRD method identifies the presence of volcanic glass but not its elemental composition; hence it will assist in focusing attention on specific sections of sediment cores for subsequent geochemical fingerprinting of tephras. ?? 2006 SAGE Publications.

  14. Performance of mixed formulations for the particle finite element method in soil mechanics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monforte, Lluís; Carbonell, Josep Maria; Arroyo, Marcos; Gens, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for the numerical analysis of fluid-saturated porous media at large strains. The proposal relies, on one hand, on the particle finite element method (PFEM), known for its capability to tackle large deformations and rapid changing boundaries, and, on the other hand, on constitutive descriptions well established in current geotechnical analyses (Darcy's law; Modified Cam Clay; Houlsby hyperelasticity). An important feature of this kind of problem is that incompressibility may arise either from undrained conditions or as a consequence of material behaviour; incompressibility may lead to volumetric locking of the low-order elements that are typically used in PFEM. In this work, two different three-field mixed formulations for the coupled hydromechanical problem are presented, in which either the effective pressure or the Jacobian are considered as nodal variables, in addition to the solid skeleton displacement and water pressure. Additionally, several mixed formulations are described for the simplified single-phase problem due to its formal similitude to the poromechanical case and its relevance in geotechnics, since it may approximate the saturated soil behaviour under undrained conditions. In order to use equal-order interpolants in displacements and scalar fields, stabilization techniques are used in the mass conservation equation of the biphasic medium and in the rest of scalar equations. Finally, all mixed formulations are assessed in some benchmark problems and their performances are compared. It is found that mixed formulations that have the Jacobian as a nodal variable perform better.

  15. Catalyst support of mixed cerium zirconium titanium oxide, including use and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Willigan, Rhonda R [Manchester, CT; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry [Glastonbury, CT; Tulyani, Sonia [Manchester, CT; Radhakrishnan, Rakesh [Vernon, CT; Opalka, Susanne Marie [Glastonbury, CT; Emerson, Sean C [Broad Brook, CT

    2011-01-18

    A durable catalyst support/catalyst is capable of extended water gas shift operation under conditions of high temperature, pressure, and sulfur levels. The support is a homogeneous, nanocrystalline, mixed metal oxide of at least three metals, the first being cerium, the second being Zr, and/or Hf, and the third importantly being Ti, the three metals comprising at least 80% of the metal constituents of the mixed metal oxide and the Ti being present in a range of 5% to 45% by metals-only atomic percent of the mixed metal oxide. The mixed metal oxide has an average crystallite size less than 6 nm and forms a skeletal structure with pores whose diameters are in the range of 4-9 nm and normally greater than the average crystallite size. The surface area of the skeletal structure per volume of the material of the structure is greater than about 240 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. The method of making and use are also described.

  16. Error estimations of mixed finite element methods for nonlinear problems of shallow shell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karchevsky, M.

    2016-11-01

    The variational formulations of problems of equilibrium of a shallow shell in the framework of the geometrically and physically nonlinear theory by boundary conditions of different main types, including non-classical, are considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for their solvability are derived. Mixed finite element methods for the approximate solutions to these problems based on the use of second derivatives of the bending as auxiliary variables are proposed. Estimations of accuracy of approximate solutions are established.

  17. A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Ritchie, Amanda; Linick, Jessica L.; Cleland, Charles M.; Elliott, Luther; Grethel, Michele

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness that students’ experiences of stress may impede academic success, compromise mental health, and promote substance use. We examined these factors in an under-studied population, private/independent high school students, using a multi-method (qualitative and quantitative), iterative data collection and analytic process. We first conducted qualitative interviews with faculty and staff at a number of highly competitive private schools, followed by an anonymous quantitative survey with 128 11th grade students from two of these settings. We then conducted a qualitative exploration of the quantitative results with a subset of students. Next, a set of Expert Panel members participated in qualitative interviews to reflect on and interpret study findings. Overall, we found students experienced high levels of chronic stress, particularly in relation to academic performance and the college admissions process. While students described a range of effective, adaptive coping strategies, they also commonly internalized these serious pressures and turned to alcohol and drugs to cope with chronic stress, although not typically at problematic levels. We discuss study implications for both schools and families derived from the Expert Panel. PMID:26257685

  18. A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Noelle R; Gwadz, Marya V; Ritchie, Amanda; Linick, Jessica L; Cleland, Charles M; Elliott, Luther; Grethel, Michele

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness that students' experiences of stress may impede academic success, compromise mental health, and promote substance use. We examined these factors in an under-studied population, private/independent high school students, using a multi-method (qualitative and quantitative), iterative data collection and analytic process. We first conducted qualitative interviews with faculty and staff at a number of highly competitive private schools, followed by an anonymous quantitative survey with 128 11th grade students from two of these settings. We then conducted a qualitative exploration of the quantitative results with a subset of students. Next, a set of Expert Panel members participated in qualitative interviews to reflect on and interpret study findings. Overall, we found students experienced high levels of chronic stress, particularly in relation to academic performance and the college admissions process. While students described a range of effective, adaptive coping strategies, they also commonly internalized these serious pressures and turned to alcohol and drugs to cope with chronic stress, although not typically at problematic levels. We discuss study implications for both schools and families derived from the Expert Panel.

  19. Using Integrated Mixed Methods to Develop Behavioral Measures of Factors Associated With Microbicide Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Salomon, Liz; Woodsong, Cynthia; Severy, Lawrence; Fava, Joseph L.; Vargas, Sara; Barroso, Candelaria

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of factors associated with microbicide acceptability and consistent use typically has been derived from separate and distinct qualitative or quantitative studies. Specifically, rarely have investigators used mixed methods to both develop and validate behavioral measures. We utilized an integrated mixed methods design, including qualitative metasyntheses, cognitive interviews and expert reviews, psychometric evaluation, and confirmatory qualitative analyses of the correspondence between quantitative items and original qualitative data to develop and validate measures of factors associated with microbicide acceptability and use. We describe this methodology and use the development of the Relationship Context Scale to illustrate it. As a result of independent confirmatory analyses of qualitative passages corresponding to survey items, we demonstrated that items from the same subscales are frequently double coded within a particular textual passage, and thematically related, suggesting associations that resulted in a unique factor structure within the subscale. This integrated mixed method design was critical to the development of this psychometrically validated behavioral measure, and could serve as a model for future measure development. PMID:21447804

  20. Benefits, Challenges, and Dynamism of Positionalities Associated with Mixed Methods Research in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teye, Joseph Kofi

    2012-01-01

    Although mixed methods designs have gained visibility in recent years, most of the publications on this methodological strategy have been written by scholars in the developed world. Consequently, the practical challenges associated with mixed methods research in developing countries have not been adequately discussed in the literature. Relying on…

  1. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review Focused on Data Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…

  2. Mixed-RKDG Finite Element Methods for the 2-D Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Zhangxin; Cockburn, Bernardo; Jerome, Joseph W.; ...

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new method for numerically solving the equations of the hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices in two space dimensions. The method combines a standard mixed finite element method, used to obtain directly an approximation to the electric field, with the so-called Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, originally devised for numerically solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, which is applied here to the convective part of the equations. Numerical simulations showing the performance of the new method are displayed, and the results compared with those obtained by using Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes. Frommore » the perspective of device modeling, these methods are robust, since they are capable of encompassing broad parameter ranges, including those for which shock formation is possible. The simulations presented here are for Gallium Arsenide at room temperature, but we have tested them much more generally with considerable success.« less

  3. The influence of mixing methods and disinfectant on the physical properties of alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Karoline; Kellens, Annelies; Wevers, Martine; Thilakarathne, Pushpike J; Willems, Guy

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this in vitro study were to quantify the effect of manual versus automatic mixing and of using a disinfectant on mechanical properties of three different alginate impression materials. Two of the three alginates tested were especially developed for orthodontic use: Orthotrace® and Orthofine® while the third was a conventional alginate CA37FS®. Alginates were mixed by hand or automatically using a Cavex alginate mixer II®. Mixing was performed at room temperature using tap water. The material was allowed to set in a water bath at 35°C (±1°C), simulating intra-oral setting conditions, and half of the samples were disinfected before testing. For each tested material, 10 standardized samples were used. The disinfectant used was the CavexImpreSafe® that has a bactericide, virucide, and fungicide function. The specimens were exposed for 3 minutes in a 3% solution and were then tested according to the ISO 1563: 1990 (E) standard specifications. Descriptive statistics and three-way analysis of variance were performed, and a 5% significance level was used for statistical analysis. Evaluation of tensile strength and elastic recovery of different alginate samples, hand versus automatical mixing or disinfected versus not disinfected, resulted in significant differences for all materials except for Orthofine®. Considering detail reproduction, all three alginates evaluated reproduced the 50-μm line successfully without interruption. The mixing method can significantly affect the elastic recovery and tensile strength of the alginates tested while the effect of using a disinfectant is less explicit.

  4. Extension of standard transfer-matrix method for three-wave mixing for plasmonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loot, A.; Hizhnyakov, V.

    2017-03-01

    Fast and accurate modeling of three-wave mixing processes in arbitrary stratified medium has significant practical and scientific importance. Several attempts to generalize transfer-matrix method (TMM) for nonlinear interactions have been made; however, none suits for easy-to-use modeling of plasmonic structures which requires oblique angle of incidence, p-polarization and minimal approximations. In this work, an easy-to-use extension to standard TMM is proposed. The proposed method is used to study the strength of unconventional plasmonic enhancement of second harmonic generation.

  5. Parallel realities: exploring poverty dynamics using mixed methods in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Davisa, Peter; Baulch, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of using two methodological approaches to study poverty dynamics in rural Bangladesh. Using data from a unique longitudinal study, we show how different methods lead to very different assessments of socio-economic mobility. We suggest five ways of reconciling these differences: considering assets in addition to expenditures, proximity to the poverty line, other aspects of well-being, household division, and qualitative recall errors. Considering assets and proximity to the poverty line along with expenditures resolves three-fifths of the qualitative and quantitative differences. Use of such integrated mixed-methods can therefore improve the reliability of poverty dynamics research.

  6. Prediction of free turbulent mixing using a turbulent kinetic energy method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsha, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    Free turbulent mixing of two-dimensional and axisymmetric one- and two-stream flows is analyzed by a relatively simple turbulent kinetic energy method. This method incorporates a linear relationship between the turbulent shear and the turbulent kinetic energy and an algebraic relationship for the length scale appearing in the turbulent kinetic energy equation. Good results are obtained for a wide variety of flows. The technique is shown to be especially applicable to flows with heat and mass transfer, for which nonunity Prandtl and Schmidt numbers may be assumed.

  7. Determination of Al in cake mix: Method validation and estimation of measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, G.; Rocha, O.; Junqueira, R.

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the determination of Al in cake mix was developed. Acceptable values were obtained for the following parameters: linearity, detection limit - LOD (5.00 mg-kg-1) quantification limit - LOQ (12.5 mg-kg-1), the recovery assays values (between 91 and 102%), the relative standard deviation under repeatability and within-reproducibility conditions (<20.0%) and measurement uncertainty tests (<10.0%) The results of the validation process showed that the proposed method is fitness for purpose.

  8. Numerical Investigation of Enhanced Mixing in a Microchannel Using Ferrofluid Using The Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Anindya

    2005-11-01

    Ferrofluids are colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles in carrier liquids which can be readily maneuvered from a distance using magnetic fields. When functionalized with different antibodies or medicinal compounds the ferrofluid nanoparticles can be used for various purposes, e.g., to detect bacteria or as a carrier of chemotherapeutic agents for targeted drug delivery. Localized magnetic nanoparticle agglomerates can also be remotely moved to create perturbations within a microchannel flow, thereby resulting in better mixing of various fluids. We have numerically investigated ferrofluid agglomeration and its influence on enhancing local mixing in microchannels by using the lattice Boltzmann method. Employing this method, we solve for the one-particle probability distribution function f which denotes the probability density of finding a particle at time t, at the location x, moving with velocity v when a force F is acting on it. (A Chapman-Enskog expansion recreates the continuum relation and the Navier-Stokes equation for weakly compressible flows.) We have simulated ferrofluid agglomeration near a magnetic dipole for flow through a rectangular microchannel. When a number of such magnets are placed across the channel and activated in sequence, they locally perturb the fluid flow to produce better mixing in two initially unmixed fluids.

  9. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work.

  10. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell; Keller, Jay O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant.

  11. Porous microspheres of manganese-cerium mixed oxides by a polyvinylpyrrolidone assisted solvothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, F.; Bois, L.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.; Chassagneux, F.; Descorme, C.; Besson, M.; Khrouz, L.

    2017-04-01

    Mixed cerium manganese oxides were synthesized using a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) assisted solvothermal method. Materials obtained after calcination at 400 °C were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The influence of the synthesis parameters on the oxide structure, such as the Mn:Ce ratio or the amount of PVP, was discussed. Micrometric spheres of mixed Mn-Ce oxides, resulting from the aggregation of 100 nm porous snowflakes, were successfully synthesized. These snowflakes were formed from the aggregation of smaller oriented crystallites (size 4 nm). The hydrothermal stability of these materials was also investigated.

  12. Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods Science Ethics Course and its Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Dcosta, Malcolm; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    We present a graduate science ethics course that connects cases from the historical record to present realities and practices in the areas of social responsibility, authorship, and human/animal experimentation. This content is delivered with mixed methods, including films, debates, blogging, and practicum; even the instructional team is mixed, including a historian of science and a research scientist. What really unites all of the course's components is the experiential aspect: from acting in historical debates to participating in the current scientific enterprise. The course aims to change the students' culture into one deeply devoted to the science ethics cause. To measure the sought after cultural change, we developed and validated a relevant questionnaire. Results of this questionnaire from students who took the course, demonstrate that the course had the intended effect on them. Furthermore, results of this questionnaire from controls indicate the need for cultural change in that cohort. All these quantitative results are reinforced by qualitative outcomes.

  13. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant. 10 figs.

  14. Testing for causality in reconstructed state spaces by an optimized mixed prediction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krakovská, Anna; Hanzely, Filip

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a method of causality detection was designed to reveal coupling between dynamical systems represented by time series. The method is based on the predictions in reconstructed state spaces. The results of the proposed method were compared with outcomes of two other methods, the Granger VAR test of causality and the convergent cross-mapping. We used two types of test data. The first test example is a unidirectional connection of chaotic systems of Rössler and Lorenz type. The second one, the fishery model, is an example of two correlated observables without a causal relationship. The results showed that the proposed method of optimized mixed prediction was able to reveal the presence and the direction of coupling and distinguish causality from mere correlation as well.

  15. The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation

    DOE PAGES

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-05-01

    Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux andmore » scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.« less

  16. The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-05-01

    Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux and scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.

  17. Modeling vibrational resonance in linear hydrocarbon chain with a mixed quantum-classical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, David; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2009-04-01

    The quantum dynamics of a vibrational excitation in a linear hydrocarbon model system is studied with a new mixed quantum-classical method. The method is suited to treat many-body systems consisting of a low dimensional quantum primary part coupled to a classical bath. The dynamics of the primary part is governed by the quantum corrected propagator, with the corrections defined in terms of matrix elements of zeroth order propagators. The corrections are taken to the classical limit by introducing the frozen Gaussian approximation for the bath degrees of freedom. The ability of the method to describe dynamics of multidimensional systems has been tested. The results obtained by the method have been compared to previous quantum simulations performed with the quasiadiabatic path integral method.

  18. Properties of PP/MWCNT-COOH /PP composites made by melt mixing versus solution cast /melt mixing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinholds, I.; Roja, Z.; Zicans, J.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bitenieks, J.

    2015-03-01

    An approach on improvement of the properties of polypropylene / carbon nanotube (PP/CNT) composites is reported. PP blend compositions with carboxylic acid functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) at filler content 1.0 wt.% were researched. One part of the composites was manufactured by direct thermoplastic mixing PP with the filler, but the other one was made from solution casted masterbatch with the following thermoplastic mixing. An increase of mechanical properties (Young's modulus, storage modulus and tensile strength), compared to an increase of glass transition temperature indicated a reinforcement effect of CNTs on PP matrix, determined from the tensile tests and differential mechanical analysis (DMA), while the elongation was reduced, compared to PP matrix. By differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, the effect of nanofiller on the reorganization of PP crystallites was observed. A noticeable enhanced effect on increase of the crystallization temperature was indicated for masterbatch manufactured composite. An increase of thermal stability was also observed, compared to pristine PP and the composite made by direct thermoplastic mixing PP with the filler.

  19. Lay Health Trainers Supporting Self-Management amongst Those with Low Heath Literacy and Diabetes: Lessons from a Mixed Methods Pilot, Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Bartlam, Bernadette; Rathod, Trishna; Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a mixed methods process evaluation of a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing a Lay Health Trainer (LHT) intervention and usual care for those with poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM). Set in a deprived area in the UK, this research explores patient and health care practitioner (HCP) views on whether a structured interview between a patient and a Lay Health Trainer (LHT), for the purpose of developing a tailored self-management plan for patients, is acceptable and likely to change health behaviours. In doing so, it considers the implications for a future, randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were patients, LHTs delivering the intervention, service managers, and practice nurses recruiting patients to the study. Patients were purposively sampled on their responses to a baseline survey, and semistructured interviews were conducted within an exploratory thematic analysis framework. Findings indicate that the intervention is acceptable to patients and HCPs. However, LHTs found it challenging to work with older patients with long-term and/or complex conditions. In order to address this, given an ageing population and concomitant increases in those with such health needs, LHT training should develop skills working with these populations. The design of any future RCT intervention should take account of this.

  20. Lay Health Trainers Supporting Self-Management amongst Those with Low Heath Literacy and Diabetes: Lessons from a Mixed Methods Pilot, Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Trishna; Rowlands, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a mixed methods process evaluation of a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing a Lay Health Trainer (LHT) intervention and usual care for those with poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM). Set in a deprived area in the UK, this research explores patient and health care practitioner (HCP) views on whether a structured interview between a patient and a Lay Health Trainer (LHT), for the purpose of developing a tailored self-management plan for patients, is acceptable and likely to change health behaviours. In doing so, it considers the implications for a future, randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were patients, LHTs delivering the intervention, service managers, and practice nurses recruiting patients to the study. Patients were purposively sampled on their responses to a baseline survey, and semistructured interviews were conducted within an exploratory thematic analysis framework. Findings indicate that the intervention is acceptable to patients and HCPs. However, LHTs found it challenging to work with older patients with long-term and/or complex conditions. In order to address this, given an ageing population and concomitant increases in those with such health needs, LHT training should develop skills working with these populations. The design of any future RCT intervention should take account of this. PMID:27840834