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Sample records for exploratory mixed method

  1. Sex Trafficking of Girls With Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Reid, Joan A

    2016-02-17

    Few researchers have examined sex trafficking of girls with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Drawing from 54 juvenile sex trafficking (JST) cases, this exploratory, mixed methods study compared 15 JST cases involving girls with ID with 39 JST cases involving girls without ID. Findings revealed a disproportionate risk for exploitation in JST for girls with ID, endangering circumstances creating vulnerability among this population, as well as the perpetrator-victim dynamics that complicate prevention and intervention. Complicating dynamics included victim lack of awareness of exploitation and its endangerments, inability of victims to self-identify, and the relative ease with which traffickers manipulated these girls. The disproportionate risk faced by girls with ID substantiates the need for enhanced safeguards to prevent sexual exploitation of girls with ID including stiffer penalties for those who exploit and buy sex with youth with disabilities.

  2. Policy and Persistence: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Case Study of "Last Mile" Students at Portland State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbold, Joseph Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an extension of educational attainment research, this exploratory mixed- methods case study examines the influence of institutional policies on the behavior of five cohorts (n = 925) of traditional first time, full time (FTFT) freshmen--called "Last Mile" students--at one urban research university located in the Pacific Northwest.…

  3. Policy and Persistence: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Case Study of "Last Mile" Students at Portland State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbold, Joseph Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an extension of educational attainment research, this exploratory mixed- methods case study examines the influence of institutional policies on the behavior of five cohorts (n = 925) of traditional first time, full time (FTFT) freshmen--called "Last Mile" students--at one urban research university located in the Pacific Northwest.…

  4. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  5. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lenters, Lindsey M; Cole, Donald C; Godoy-Ruiz, Paula

    2014-01-25

    Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers' careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world.

  6. Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: a comparative methods study.

    PubMed

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-09-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches has not been published. This study compared the results of a suite of qualitative methods (questionnaire, focus group, semi-structured interview, "case in point" ethnographic observation, photographic images, and carer proxy response) by identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each method employed. It also foregrounds an effective mix of methods that is likely to produce an adequate representation of the views of people with disabilities within the context of open-ended exploratory questions.

  7. Alternative perspectives of safety in home delivered health care: a sequential exploratory mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discover and describe how patients, carers and case management nurses define safety and compare it to the traditional risk reduction and harm avoidance definition of safety. Care services are increasingly being delivered in the home for patients with complex long-term conditions. However, the concept of safety remains largely unexplored. A sequential, exploratory mixed method design. A qualitative case study of the UK National Health Service case management programme in the English UK National Health Service was deployed during 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with patients (n = 9) and carers (n = 6) and three focus groups with nurses (n = 17) from three community care providers. The qualitative element explored the definition of safety. Data were subjected to framework analysis and themes were identified by participant group. Sequentially, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2013 in a fourth community care provider (patient n = 35, carer n = 19, nurse n = 26) as a form of triangulation. Patients and carers describe safety differently to case management nurses, choosing to focus on meeting needs. They use more positive language and recognize the role they have in safety in home-delivered health care. In comparison, case management nurses described safety similarly to the definitions found in the literature. However, when offered the patient and carer definition of safety, they preferentially selected this definition to their own or the literature definition. Patients and carers offer an alternative perspective on patient safety in home-delivered health care that identifies their role in ensuring safety and is more closely aligned with the empowerment philosophy of case management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. What constitutes problematic khat use? An exploratory mixed methods study in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mihretu, Awoke; Teferra, Solomon; Fekadu, Abebaw

    2017-03-21

    Khat is a psycho-stimulant herb, which has been in use in traditional societies in East Africa and the Middle East over many centuries. Although khat is reported to cause various health problems, what constitutes problematic khat use has never been systematically investigated. This study explored the acceptable and problematic uses of khat from the perspective of users. The study used a mixed methods design (exploratory sequential) in which qualitative (emic) data were collected to develop a framework to define problematic khat use. The qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews (N = 13) and focus group discussions (N = 34). By supplementing the emic experiences considered to constitute problematic khat use with an etic definition, DSM-5 criteria for stimulant related disorders, a structured questionnaire was developed. Subsequently a cross-sectional evaluation of 102 respondents was carried out. Respondents both for qualitative and quantitative study were selected through purposive sampling and snowballing methods. Qualitative data were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis whereas quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and nonparametric statistics. Khat use was acceptable socio-culturally and for functional purposes. However, even in these acceptable contexts there was a restriction to the amount, frequency and type of khat used, and in relation to the experience of the individual using khat and other personal characteristics. More specifically, khat use was considered problematic if there was: 1) Impairment (in social and occupational functioning); 2) loss of control in the use of khat; and 3) withdrawal symptoms when not using khat. Among the participants who use khat (n = 102), 45.1% (n = 46) used khat on a daily basis. The commonest indicators of problematic khat use endorsed by the khat users were loss of control over chewing (73.5%), continuing use of khat despite harm (72.5%) and efforts to avoid

  9. Testosterone and sexual risk among transmen: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dadasovich, Rand; Auerswald, Coco; Minnis, Alexandra M; Raymond, H Fisher; McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-02-01

    Little research has explored the link between the behavioural effects of testosterone use among transmen and HIV risk. We conducted a mixed methods study to explore testosterone use among transmen and the behavioural effects on HIV risk. A sample of 122 transmen from San Francisco participated in a cross-sectional quantitative survey and 14 transmen participated in 2 focus group discussions. Most participants (81.9%) were currently taking hormones. Participants attributed testosterone use to new sexual behaviours among 69% of transmen, changes in sexual attraction (49%), and increased frequency of sexual activity (72%). Among current testosterone users, 3.3% had cisgender men as partners before starting testosterone, whereas after starting testosterone, 25.4% did. Similarly, 4.1% had a transgender woman as a sexual partner before starting testosterone and 13.9% after starting testosterone. Findings suggest that testosterone's side effects were associated with transmen's desires for sex with cisgender men who have sex with men. The reported increase in attraction to and sex with partners from populations with a high HIV prevalence may have important implications for HIV risk among transmen, especially as the availability of transgender health services may draw transmen to a context in which HIV prevalence is high.

  10. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  11. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  12. Exploratory mixed methods study of respiratory physiotherapy for patients with lower respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Marques, A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the outcomes of respiratory physiotherapy for patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). Parallel group mixed-methods study. Patients were recruited from a general hospital. Respiratory physiotherapy took place in a community setting. Fifty-four patients aged ≥18 years and diagnosed with LRTI completed the study. Twenty-seven patients were allocated to the control group {CG: 10 male, mean age 53.3 [standard deviation (SD) 17.4] years} and 27 patients were allocated to the experimental group [EG: 10 male, mean age 58.6 (SD 17.2) years]. The CG received conventional medical treatment and the EG received conventional medical treatment plus respiratory physiotherapy for 3 weeks. Patients in both groups undertook the 6-minute walk test (6MWT), modified Borg scale (MBS), modified Medical Research Council questionnaire (mMRC), and Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum scale (BCSS) before and after the intervention. A telephone follow-up survey was performed 3 months after the first hospital visit. Interviews were conducted immediately after the intervention in the EG. In the EG, the distance walked in the 6MWT increased by more than the minimally important difference (P=0.001), and significantly more than the CG {EG: mean change 76m [standard deviation (SD) 63], 95% confidence interval (CI) 51 to 101; CG: mean change 27m (SD 56), 95% CI 5 to 49; mean difference between groups: 49m 95% CI 16 to 82; partial η(2)=0.15}. No differences in the MBS, mMRC and BCSS were found between the two groups. The EG reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention (27/27; 100%) and with the physiotherapist (20/27; 74%). The intervention improved patients' symptoms (19/27; 70%) and their self-management skills to control/prevent future LRTI (19/27; 70%). Health service use was significantly less in the EG (P=0.04). Respiratory physiotherapy appears to be effective for the management of patients with LRTI. CLINICALTRIAL. NCT02053870. Copyright © 2015

  13. From concept to practice, is multidimensional care the leading principle in hospice care? An exploratory mixed method study.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Everlien; van Klinken, Merel; Zweers, Danielle; Teunissen, Saskia

    2017-02-06

    Hospice care (HC) aims to optimise the quality of life of patients and their families by relief and prevention of multidimensional suffering. The aim of this study is to gain insight into multidimensional care (MC) provided to hospice inpatients by a multiprofessional team (MT) and identify facilitators, to ameliorate multidimensional HC. This exploratory mixed-method study with a sequential quantitative-qualitative design was conducted from January to December 2015. First a quantitative study of 36 patient records (12 hospices, 3 patient records/hospice) was performed. The outcomes were MC, clinical reasoning and assessment tools. Second, MC was qualitatively explored using semistructured focus group interviews with multiprofessional hospice teams. Both methods had equal priority and were integrated during analysis. The physical dimension was most prevalent in daily care, reflecting the patients' primary expressed priority at admission and the nurses' and physicians' primary focus. The psychological, social and spiritual dimensions were less frequently described. Assessment tools were used systematically by 4/12 hospices. Facilitators identified were interdisciplinary collaboration, implemented methods of clinical reasoning and structures. MC is not always verifiable in patient records; however, it is experienced by hospice professionals. The level of MC varied between hospices. The use of assessment tools and a stepped skills approach for spiritual care are recommended and multidimensional assessment tools should be developed. Leadership and commitment of all members of the MT is needed to establish the integration of multidimensional symptom management and interdisciplinary collaboration as preconditions for integrated multidimensional HC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Provision of information about newborn screening antenatally: a sequential exploratory mixed-methods project.

    PubMed

    Ulph, Fiona; Wright, Stuart; Dharni, Nimarta; Payne, Katherine; Bennett, Rebecca; Roberts, Stephen; Walshe, Kieran; Lavender, Tina

    2017-10-01

    Participation in the UK Newborn Bloodspot Screening Programme (NBSP) requires parental consent but concerns exist about whether or not this happens in practice and the best methods and timing to obtain consent at reasonable cost. To collate all possible modes of prescreening communication and consent for newborn (neonatal) screening (NBS); examine midwives', screening professionals' and users' views about the feasibility, efficiency and impact on understanding of each; measure midwives' and parents' preferences for information provision; and identify key drivers of cost-effectiveness for alternative modes of information provision. Six study designs were used: (1) realist review - to generate alternative communication and consent models; (2) qualitative interviews with parents and health professionals - to examine the implications of current practice for understanding and views on alternative models; (3) survey and observation of midwives - to establish current costs; (4) stated preference surveys with midwives, parents and potential future parents - to establish preferences for information provision; (5) economic analysis - to identify cost-effectiveness drivers of alternative models; and (6) stakeholder validation focus groups and interviews - to examine the acceptability, views and broader impact of alternative communication and consent models. Providers and users of NBS in England. Study 2: 45 parents and 37 health professionals; study 3: 22 midwives and eight observations; study 4: 705 adults aged 18-45 years and 134 midwives; and study 6: 12 health-care professionals and five parents. The realist review identified low parental knowledge and evidence of coercive consent practices. Interview, focus group and stated preference data suggested a preference for full information, with some valuing this more than choice. Health professionals preferred informed choice models but parents and health professionals queried whether or not current consent was fully informed

  15. The Obstacles for the Teaching of 8th Grade TR History of Revolution and Kemalism Course According to the Constructivist Approach (An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Design)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Yavuz; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the problems social studies teachers face in the teaching of topics covered in 8th grade TRHRK Course. The study was conducted in line with explanatory sequential mixed method design, which is one of the mixed research method, was used. The study involves three phases. In the first step, exploratory process…

  16. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghadam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hamdieh, Mostafa; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-06-13

    Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women's health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women's sexual abstinence.

  17. Mapping hospice patients' perception and verbal communication of end-of-life needs: an exploratory mixed methods inquiry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive "Total Pain" assessments of patients' end-of-life needs are critical for providing improved patient-clinician communication, assessing needs, and offering high quality palliative care. However, patients' needs-based research methodologies and findings remain highly diverse with their lack of consensus preventing optimum needs assessments and care planning. Mixed-methods is an underused yet robust "patient-based" approach for reported lived experiences to map both the incidence and prevalence of what patients perceive as important end of life needs. Methods Findings often include methodological artifacts and their own selection bias. Moving beyond diverse findings therefore requires revisiting methodological choices. A mixed methods research cross-sectional design is therefore used to reduce limitations inherent in both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Audio-taped phenomenological "thinking aloud" interviews of a purposive sample of 30 hospice patients are used to identify their vocabulary for communicating perceptions of end-of-life needs. Grounded theory procedures assisted by QSR-NVivo software is then used for discovering domains of needs embedded in the interview narratives. Summary findings are translated into quantified format for presentation and analytical purposes. Results Findings from this mixed-methods feasibility study indicate patients' narratives represent 7 core domains of end-of-life needs. These are (1) time, (2) social, (3) physiological, (4) death and dying, (5) safety, (6) spirituality, (7) change & adaptation. The prevalence, rather than just the occurrence, of patients' reported needs provides further insight into their relative importance. Conclusion Patients' perceptions of end-of-life needs are multidimensional, often ambiguous and uncertain. Mixed methodology appears to hold considerable promise for unpacking both the occurrence and prevalence of cognitive structures represented by verbal encoding that

  18. An exploratory mixed-methods crossover study comparing DVD- vs. Web-based patient decision support in three conditions: The importance of patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Halley, Meghan C; Rendle, Katharine A S; Gillespie, Katherine A; Stanley, Katherine M; Frosch, Dominick L

    2015-12-01

    The last 15 years have witnessed considerable progress in the development of decision support interventions (DESIs). However, fundamental questions about design and format of delivery remain. An exploratory, randomized mixed-method crossover study was conducted to compare a DVD- and Web-based DESI. Randomized participants used either the Web or the DVD first, followed by the alternative format. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess decision-specific knowledge at baseline and a questionnaire and structured qualitative interview after viewing each format. Tracking software was used to capture Web utilization. Transcripts were analyzed using integrated inductive and deductive approaches. Quantitative data were analyzed using exploratory bivariate and multivariate analyses. Exploratory knowledge analyses suggest that both formats increased knowledge, with limited evidence that the DVD increased knowledge more than the Web. Format preference varied across participants: 44% preferred the Web, 32% preferred the DVD and 24% preferred 'both'. Patient discussions of preferences for DESI information structure and the importance of a patients' stage of a given decision suggest these characteristics may be important factors underlying variation in utilization, format preferences and knowledge outcomes. Our results suggest that both DESI formats effectively increase knowledge. Patients' perceptions of these two formats further suggest that there may be no single 'best' format for all patients. These results have important implications for understanding why different DESI formats might be preferable to and more effective for different patients. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between these factors and DESI utilization outcomes across diverse patient populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mapping hospice patients' perception and verbal communication of end-of-life needs: an exploratory mixed methods inquiry.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Bruce L

    2011-01-27

    Comprehensive "Total Pain" assessments of patients' end-of-life needs are critical for providing improved patient-clinician communication, assessing needs, and offering high quality palliative care. However, patients' needs-based research methodologies and findings remain highly diverse with their lack of consensus preventing optimum needs assessments and care planning. Mixed-methods is an underused yet robust "patient-based" approach for reported lived experiences to map both the incidence and prevalence of what patients perceive as important end of life needs. Findings often include methodological artifacts and their own selection bias. Moving beyond diverse findings therefore requires revisiting methodological choices. A mixed methods research cross-sectional design is therefore used to reduce limitations inherent in both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Audio-taped phenomenological "thinking aloud" interviews of a purposive sample of 30 hospice patients are used to identify their vocabulary for communicating perceptions of end-of-life needs. Grounded theory procedures assisted by QSR-NVivo software is then used for discovering domains of needs embedded in the interview narratives. Summary findings are translated into quantified format for presentation and analytical purposes. Findings from this mixed-methods feasibility study indicate patients' narratives represent 7 core domains of end-of-life needs. These are (1) time, (2) social, (3) physiological, (4) death and dying, (5) safety, (6) spirituality, (7) change & adaptation. The prevalence, rather than just the occurrence, of patients' reported needs provides further insight into their relative importance. Patients' perceptions of end-of-life needs are multidimensional, often ambiguous and uncertain. Mixed methodology appears to hold considerable promise for unpacking both the occurrence and prevalence of cognitive structures represented by verbal encoding that constitute patients' narratives

  20. Occupational fatigue and other health and safety issues for young Australian workers: an exploratory mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Jessica Louise; Clarkson, Larissa; Rainbird, Sophia; Etherton, Hayley; Blewett, Verna

    2015-01-01

    Youth are vulnerable to sleep loss and fatigue due to biological, social and psychological factors. However, there are few studies addressing the risk that sleep loss and fatigue pose for youth in the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore work health and safety (WHS) issues for young workers and develop strategies and solutions for improved WHS outcomes, with a focus on issues related to fatigue, using a mixed-method, multi-stage approach. Participants either completed a survey (n=212) or took part in focus groups (n=115) addressing WHS for young workers, or attended a Future Inquiry Workshop (n=29) where strategies for improving youth WHS were developed. Fatigue was identified as a significant problem by the majority of young workers and was associated with unpredictable working time arrangements, precarious employment, high workload, working overtime and limited ability to self-advocate. Participants identified six key areas for action to improve WHS outcomes for young workers; 1) develop expertise, 2) give young workers a voice, 3) improve education and training, 4) build stakeholder engagement, 5) increase employer awareness of WHS responsibilities and, 6) improve processes for employers to manage and monitor WHS outcomes. The application of these directives to fatigue is discussed.

  1. Female health workers in Gujarat: Examining human resource actions and workforce objectives-an exploratory mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Veena

    2013-01-01

    Background. Female health workers (FHWs), posted at subcentres, each serving a rural population of 3000 to 5000, are the final points of contact between the people and the health system. This study assesses a selected sample of FHWs using the 'managing for performance' framework. Methods. Twenty-two FHWs and their supervisors at five primary health centres near Ahmedabad were purposively selected for this mixed methods study. They were administered a semi-structured questionnaire, which also guided 12 individual interviews and four focus group discussions. Quantitative data were analysed using Epi Info and Excel. Content analysis of the qualitative data was done using Microsoft Word. Results. In spite of increased FHW strength due to recent recruitments, one-third of these FHWs were carrying out additional responsibilities of another FHW or supervisor. Planning of tasks was the most popular activity while the chief demotivating factor at work was meeting targets. Recent trainings have been useful but failed to build specific competence as required. About 37% of routine person-tasks carried out by FHWs were graded below 60 points by supervisors. They rated the FHWs highly for their collaboration with community leaders although FHWs themselves did not consider community leaders to be a helpful resource. Conclusion. Mapping age, skill levels and locations of existing FHWs and soon-to-be retirees would be useful when planning future expansion of the FHW cadre. The natural elasticity of base populations due to migration as well as unpredictability of their work schedules need to be taken into account when monitoring the work performance of FHWs. District training centres need to be developed to provide a wide range of competencies.

  2. Life Course Socioeconomic Transition and its Association with Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Sequential Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Raman, V Kutty; Nochikattil, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of early onset type 2 diabetes (Diabetes below the age of 45 years) is increasing worldwide. Transition in socio-economic position–i.e. Life Course Socio-Economic Transition (LSET) - may contribute to the development of early onset T2D through complex processes involving economic and occupational opportunities as well as individual life style choices. Aim To develop and validate the life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and to know the association between life courses socioeconomic transition and early onset type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods This study follows sequential exploratory mixed method study design. It consists of one qualitative strand followed by two quantitative strands. Qualitative strand consist of in- depth interview among the community dwellers to develop a tool for measuring LSET. Two quantitative strands consist of the validation of the questionnaire by conducting cross-sectional survey among 200 randomly selected community dwellers and a hospital based case control study using the same questionnaire. Results Those who have a history of lower SEP during his childhood period and enjoying higher SEP during his adulthood period have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes at their younger age (18-45 years). Conclusion This study will help to develop a validated life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and application of that tool in an epidemiological study. PMID:27504317

  3. A protocol for an exploratory phase I mixed-methods study of enhanced integrated care for care home residents with advanced dementia: the Compassion Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Margaret; Harrington, Jane; Moore, Kirsten; Davis, Sarah; Kupeli, Nuriye; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Gola, Anna; Candy, Bridget; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Jones, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the UK approximately 700 000 people are living with, and a third of people aged over 65 will die with, dementia. People with dementia may receive poor quality care towards the end of life. We applied a realist approach and used mixed methods to develop a complex intervention to improve care for people with advanced dementia and their family carers. Consensus on intervention content was achieved using the RAND UCLA appropriateness method and mapped to sociological theories of process and impact. Core components are: (1) facilitation of integrated care, (2) education, training and support, (3) investment from commissioners and care providers. We present the protocol for an exploratory phase I study to implement components 1 and 2 in order to understand how the intervention operates in practice and to assess feasibility and acceptability. Methods and analysis An ‘Interdisciplinary Care Leader (ICL)’ will work within two care homes, alongside staff and associated professionals to facilitate service integration, encourage structured needs assessment, develop the use of personal and advance care plans and support staff training. We will use qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data for a range of outcome and process measures to detect effects on individual residents, family carers, care home staff, the intervention team, the interdisciplinary team and wider systems. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising process and care home level data, individual demographic and clinical characteristics and data on symptom burden, clinical events and quality of care. Qualitative data will be explored using thematic analysis. Findings will inform a future phase II trial. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted (REC reference 14/LO/0370). We shall publish findings at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on the Marie Curie Cancer Care website and prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with end

  4. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  5. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  6. A protocol for an exploratory phase I mixed-methods study of enhanced integrated care for care home residents with advanced dementia: the Compassion Intervention.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Margaret; Harrington, Jane; Moore, Kirsten; Davis, Sarah; Kupeli, Nuriye; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Gola, Anna; Candy, Bridget; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Jones, Louise

    2014-06-17

    In the UK approximately 700,000 people are living with, and a third of people aged over 65 will die with, dementia. People with dementia may receive poor quality care towards the end of life. We applied a realist approach and used mixed methods to develop a complex intervention to improve care for people with advanced dementia and their family carers. Consensus on intervention content was achieved using the RAND UCLA appropriateness method and mapped to sociological theories of process and impact. Core components are: (1) facilitation of integrated care, (2) education, training and support, (3) investment from commissioners and care providers. We present the protocol for an exploratory phase I study to implement components 1 and 2 in order to understand how the intervention operates in practice and to assess feasibility and acceptability. An 'Interdisciplinary Care Leader (ICL)' will work within two care homes, alongside staff and associated professionals to facilitate service integration, encourage structured needs assessment, develop the use of personal and advance care plans and support staff training. We will use qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data for a range of outcome and process measures to detect effects on individual residents, family carers, care home staff, the intervention team, the interdisciplinary team and wider systems. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising process and care home level data, individual demographic and clinical characteristics and data on symptom burden, clinical events and quality of care. Qualitative data will be explored using thematic analysis. Findings will inform a future phase II trial. Ethical approval was granted (REC reference 14/LO/0370). We shall publish findings at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on the Marie Curie Cancer Care website and prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with end-of-life care and dementia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  7. Homeless people's access to primary care physiotherapy services: an exploratory, mixed-method investigation using a follow-up qualitative extension to core quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Jo; Deaton, Stuart; Greenwood, Nan

    2017-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to appraise referrals of homeless patients to physiotherapy services and explore perceptions of barriers to access. This exploratory mixed-method study used a follow-up qualitative extension to core quantitative research design. Over 9 months, quantitative data were gathered from the healthcare records of homeless patients referred to physiotherapy by a general practitioner (GP) practice, including the number of referrals and demographic data of all homeless patients referred. Corresponding physiotherapy records of those people referred to physiotherapy were searched for the outcome of their care. Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews, based on the quantitative findings, were carried out with staff involved with patient care from the referring GP practice and were used to expand insight into the quantitative findings. Two primary care sites provided data for this study: a GP practice dedicated exclusively to homeless people and the physiotherapy department receiving their referrals. Quantitative data from the healthcare records of 34 homeless patient referrals to physiotherapy were collected and analysed. In addition, five staff involved in patient care were interviewed. 34 referrals of homeless people were made to physiotherapy in a 9-month period. It was possible to match 25 of these to records from the physiotherapy department. Nine (36%) patients did not attend their first appointment; seven (28%) attended an initial appointment, but did not attend a subsequent appointment and were discharged from the service; five (20%) completed treatment and four patients (16%) had ongoing treatment. Semi-structured interviews revealed potential barriers preventing homeless people from accessing physiotherapy services, the complex factors being faced by those making referrals and possible ways to improve physiotherapy access. Homeless people with musculoskeletal problems may fail to access physiotherapy treatment, but opportunities

  8. PRO-ONKO-selection of patient-reported outcome assessments for the clinical use in cancer patients-a mixed-method multicenter cross-sectional exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heike; Merkel, Daniela; Koehler, Michael; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Sigle, Jörg; Klinge, Bernd; Jordan, Karin; Vordermark, Dirk; Landenberger, Margarete; Jahn, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Cancer patients frequently suffer from multiple symptoms often impairing functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A comprehensive assessment including patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is recommended to enable individualized supportive care. However, PRO assessments are still not part of routine clinical practice. Therefore, this project aimed to compile an item pool from validated assessment instruments to facilitate the use of PROs for clinical decision-making in oncology clinics. This qualitative dominant mixed-method cross-sectional exploratory study was carried out in four centers and comprised two stages. Stage I: Six interdisciplinary focus groups were conducted to choose questionnaires meeting particular clinical requirements. Stage II: Adult patients with heterogeneous cancer diagnoses, receiving in- or out-patient treatment were asked to participate and complete the chosen questionnaires (participation 71/74). Resulting PROs were compared with clinical records. Health care professionals (HCPs) and patients rated the usefulness for routine clinical practice. The European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and Distress Thermometer were chosen for screening and M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) and EORTC single items for monitoring. Comparison of n = 88 PRO assessments with clinical records showed consistent documentation of side effects like fever and emesis. Symptoms like fatigue, sadness, or sleep disturbance were not documented regularly in the medical records but captured by PRO assessments. Patients and HCPs judged the chosen questionnaires and electronic data collection as useful. Future studies should examine how PROs can complement or substitute routine documentation in order to achieve standardized assessment and documentation during the treatment process in different settings and examine possible benefits for patients.

  9. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed.

  10. Epistemic Beliefs of Middle and High School Students in a Problem-Based, Scientific Inquiry Unit: An Exploratory, Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Jiangyue

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a…

  11. Epistemic Beliefs of Middle and High School Students in a Problem-Based, Scientific Inquiry Unit: An Exploratory, Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Jiangyue

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a…

  12. Aware, motivated and striving for a ‘safe tan’: an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Angela M.; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Birch-Machin, Mark A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21–62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers’ knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health

  13. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  14. Alternate assessment use with students who are deaf or hard of hearing: an exploratory mixed-methods analysis of portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level test formats.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Wurtz, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present findings on alternate assessments for students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). Drawn from the results of the "Second National Survey of Assessments and Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing," this study investigated three alternate assessment formats: portfolio, checklists, and out-of-level testing. Analysis includes descriptive data of alternate assessment use across all three formats, qualitative analyses of teacher perspectives, and an exploratory logistic regression analysis on predictors of alternate assessment use. This exploratory analysis looks at predictors such as state policy, educational setting, grades served, language of instruction, and participant perspectives. Results indicate that predictors at the student, teacher, and system level may influence alternate assessment use for SDHH.

  15. A community-based approach to indigent selection is difficult to organize in a formal neighbourhood in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In most African countries, indigents treated at public health centres are supposed to be exempted from user fees. In Africa, most of the available knowledge has to do with targeting processes in rural areas, and little is known about how to select the worst-off in an urban area. In rural communities of Burkina Faso, trials of participatory community-based selection of indigents have been effective. However, the process for selecting indigents in urban areas is not yet clear. Methods This study evaluates a community-funded participatory indigent selection process in both a formal (loti) and an informal (non-loti) neighbourhood in the urban setting of Burkina Faso’s capital. This was an exploratory study to evaluate the processes and effectiveness of participatory targeting. We conducted individual interviews (n = 26) and analyzed secondary qualitative data (eight focus groups, 16 individual interviews). We also used the results of a socioeconomic survey (carried out by the Ouaga HDSS in 2011) of all the households established in the areas, including those of selected indigents. Results The coverage of indigent targeting was very low: 0.33% (loti) and 0.22% (non loti). In the non loti neighbourhood, the level of poverty among people selected was higher than the mean level of the poor who were not selected. Some indigents selected in the loti neighbourhood were not among the worst-off. The process was difficult to organize in the loti neighbourhood; people knew each other less well and were not very available, and there were cases of collusion. The process worked well in the non loti neighbourhood. Conclusions This intervention research provides new evidence about the feasibility of a community-based selection process in an urban setting in Africa by comparing two different urban settings. The participatory community-based selection process appeared to be suitable for the non loti neighbourhood, but other targeting strategies need to be found for loti

  16. An Exploratory, Population-Based, Mixed-Methods Program Evaluation of User Satisfaction of Services Provided by a Regional Extension Center (REC)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, D.; Rutala, M.; Ihde, C.; Bills, A.; Mollon, L.; Warholak, T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To evaluate user satisfaction among practices receiving services provided by the Arizona Regional Extension Center (REC). Methods This program evaluation utilized a mixed-methods approach including: 1) a mail-based survey targeting all 489 REC member practices; and 2) a series of telephone-based focus groups using a convenience sample of rural and urban REC member practices. Targeted respondents were key contacts who handle interactions with the REC at each practice. Program evaluators at the University of Arizona and experts at Arizona Health-e Connection (AzHeC) created the questionnaires, focus group script, participant invitation and follow up documents via a collaborative process. Regression and Rasch analyses were used to identify key factors associated with satisfaction with REC and to assess questionnaire validity, respectively. Results Responses from both the focus groups and survey revealed that most of the respondents were satisfied with the current services, despite the presence of satisfaction gaps between practices of various characteristics: respondents that were clinicians, practices using web-based electronic health record systems (EHRs), and practices that had achieved Stage 1 Meaningful Use had a higher level of satisfaction compared with their respective counterparts. Focus group participants provided suggestions for improving REC services. Conclusions Most respondents reported being satisfied with REC services. Specialized representatives may be needed for practices at different stages of Meaningful Use to further improve REC satisfaction in order to facilitate more efficient adoption of EHRs. PMID:24734121

  17. Acute and Chronic Risk Preceding Suicidal Crises Among Middle-Aged Men Without Known Mental Health and/or Substance Abuse Problems: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Lara B; Holland, Kristin M; Stone, Deborah M; Logan, J; Marshall, Khiya J; Martell, Brandi; Bartholow, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Suicides among men aged 35-64 years increased by 27% between 1999 and 2013, yet little research exists to examine the nature of the suicide risk within this population. Many men do not seek help if they have mental health problems and suicides may occur in reaction to stressful circumstances. We examined the precipitating circumstances of 600 suicides without known mental health or substance abuse (MH/SA) problems and with a recent crisis. Whether these suicides occurred within the context of an acute crisis only or in the context of chronic circumstances was observed. Using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System and employing mixed-methods analysis, we examined the circumstances and context of a census of middle-aged male suicides (n = 600) in seven states between 2005 and 2010. Precipitating circumstances among this group involved intimate partner problems (IPP; 58.3%), criminal/legal problems (50.7%), job/financial problems (22.5%), and health problems (13.5%). Men with IPP and criminal/legal issues were more likely than men with health and/or job/financial issues to experience suicide in the context of an acute crisis only. Suicides occurring in reaction to an acute crisis only or in the context of acute and chronic circumstances lend themselves to opportunities for intervention. Further implications are discussed.

  18. Investigating the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of outreach case management in an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service: a mixed methods exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Askew, Deborah A; Togni, Samantha J; Schluter, Philip J; Rogers, Lynne; Egert, Sonya; Potter, Nichola; Hayman, Noel E; Cass, Alan; Brown, Alex D H

    2016-05-13

    The disparities in health and life expectancy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples compared to non-Indigenous Australians are well documented. Chronic diseases are a leading contributor to these disparities. We aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of a case management approach to chronic disease care integrated within an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care service. The Home-based, Outreach case Management of chronic disease Exploratory (HOME) Study provided holistic, patient centred multidisciplinary care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic disease. A developmental evaluation approach supported the implementation and ongoing adaptations in the delivery of the model of care, and ensured its alignment with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' understandings of, and approaches to, health and wellbeing. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine patient participants (one interview also included a participant's spouse) and 15 health service staff and key themes were identified through an iterative reflective process. Quantitative data were collected directly from patient participants and from their medical records at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Patient participants' baseline characteristics were described using frequencies and percentages. Attrition and patterns of missing values over time were evaluated using binomial generalized estimating equation (GEE) models and mean differences in key clinical outcomes were determined using normal GEE models. Forty-one patients were recruited and nine withdrew over the 6 month period. There was no evidence of differential attrition. All participants (patients and health service staff) were very positive about the model of care. Patient participants became more involved in their health care, depression rates significantly decreased (p = 0.03), and significant improvements in systolic blood pressure (p

  19. Epistemic beliefs of middle and high school students in a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit: An exploratory, mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiangyue

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit, (b) How do middle and high school students' epistemic beliefs contribute to the construction of students' problem solving processes, and (c) how and why do students' epistemic beliefs change by engaging in PBL. Twenty-one middle and high school students participated in a summer science class to investigate local water quality in a 2-week long problem-based learning (PBL) unit. The students worked in small groups to conduct water quality tests at in their local watershed and visited several stakeholders for their investigation. Pretest and posttest versions of the Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted to assess students' self-reported epistemic beliefs before and after the unit. I videotaped and interviewed three groups of students during the unit and conducted discourse analysis to examine their epistemic beliefs revealed from scientific inquiry activities and triangulate with their self-reported data. There are three main findings from this study. First, students in this study self-reported relatively sophisticated epistemic beliefs on the pretest. However, the comparison between their self-reported beliefs and beliefs revealed from practice indicated that some students were able to apply sophisticated beliefs during the unit while others failed to do so. The inconsistency between these two types of epistemic beliefs may due to students' inadequate cognitive ability, low validity of self-report measure, and the influence of contextual factors. Second, qualitative analysis indicated that students' epistemic beliefs of the nature of knowing influenced their problem

  20. Can social capital help explain enrolment (or lack thereof) in community-based health insurance? Results of an exploratory mixed methods study from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Soors, Werner; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    CBHI has achieved low population coverage in West Africa and elsewhere. Studies which seek to explain this point to inequitable enrolment, adverse selection, lack of trust in scheme management and information and low quality of health care. Interventions to address these problems have been proposed yet enrolment rates remain low. This exploratory study proposes that an under-researched determinant of CBHI enrolment is social capital. Fieldwork comprising a household survey and qualitative interviews was conducted in Senegal in 2009. Levels of bonding and bridging social capital among 720 members and non-members of CBHI across three case study schemes are compared. The results of the logistic regression suggest that, controlling for age and gender, in all three case studies members were significantly more likely than non-members to be enrolled in another community association, to have borrowed money from sources other than friends and relatives and to report having control over all community decisions affecting daily life. In two case studies, having privileged social relationships was also positively correlated with enrolment. After controlling for additional socioeconomic and health variables, the results for borrowing money remained significant. Additionally, in two case studies, reporting having control over community decisions and believing that the community would cooperate in an emergency were significantly positively correlated with enrolment. The results suggest that CBHI members had greater bridging social capital which provided them with solidarity, risk pooling, financial protection and financial credit. Qualitative interviews with 109 individuals selected from the household survey confirm this interpretation. The results ostensibly suggest that CBHI schemes should build on bridging social capital to increase coverage, for example by enrolling households through community associations. However, this may be unadvisable from an equity perspective. It is

  1. Mixing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Green, Norman W.

    1982-06-15

    Method of mixing particulate materials comprising contacting a primary source and a secondary source thereof whereby resulting mixture ensues; preferably at least one of the two sources has enough motion to insure good mixing and the particulate materials may be heat treated if desired. Apparatus for such mixing comprising an inlet for a primary source, a reactor communicating therewith, a feeding means for supplying a secondary source to the reactor, and an inlet for the secondary source. Feeding means is preferably adapted to supply fluidized materials.

  2. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  3. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  4. Mixed-method exploratory study of general practitioner and nurse perceptions of a new community based nurse-led heart failure service.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Emma; Smith, Amanda; Angus, Neil; Menzies, Sue; Brulisauer, Franz; Leslie, Stephen J

    2010-01-01

    standard heart failure drugs although only 54 (65%) were confident in the initiation of beta-blockers. Most GPs (69%) had had experience of the CHF specialist nurse service and the responses were mixed. The GPs who had experienced the service appeared less confident that it would lead to reduced admission of patients to hospital (51% vs 77%, p = 0.046). Three main themes emerged from the nurse responses: service planning, communication and attitudinal changes after service embedment. This study demonstrates that a community based heart failure nurse service was not universally valued. Differences between urban and rural localities (communication) suggest that models of care derived from evidence based practice in urban areas may not be directly transferable to remote areas. Clearly, good communication among staff groups at all stages of implementation is important; however, despite best efforts and clinical trial evidence, specialist nurse services will not be welcomed by all doctors. Service providers and commissioners should be cognisant of the different roles of urban and rural GPs when designing such services. Among GPs there was a high degree of confidence with initiation and titration of drugs for heart failure with the exception of beta-blockers so clearly this is an area of ongoing educational need and support. Education and support should focus on ensuring that all doctors who care for patients with CHF have the skills and confidence to use medical therapies and specialist services as appropriate.

  5. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  6. Error Estimates for Mixed Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    This paper presents abstract error estimates for mixed methods for the approximate solution of elliptic boundary value problems. These estimates are...then applied to obtain quasi-optimal error estimates in the usual Sobolev norms for four examples: three mixed methods for the biharmonic problem and a mixed method for 2nd order elliptic problems. (Author)

  7. Breaking from binaries - using a sequential mixed methods design.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Patricia Mary; Begley, Cecily Marion; Devane, Declan

    2014-03-01

    To outline the traditional worldviews of healthcare research and discuss the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods approaches in contributing to the development of nursing and midwifery knowledge. There has been much debate about the contribution of mixed methods research to nursing and midwifery knowledge in recent years. A sequential exploratory design is used as an exemplar of a mixed methods approach. The study discussed used a combination of focus-group interviews and a quantitative instrument to obtain a fuller understanding of women's experiences of childbirth. In the mixed methods study example, qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data using regression analysis. Polarised debates about the veracity, philosophical integrity and motivation for conducting mixed methods research have largely abated. A mixed methods approach can contribute to a deeper, more contextual understanding of a variety of subjects and experiences; as a result, it furthers knowledge that can be used in clinical practice. The purpose of the research study should be the main instigator when choosing from an array of mixed methods research designs. Mixed methods research offers a variety of models that can augment investigative capabilities and provide richer data than can a discrete method alone. This paper offers an example of an exploratory, sequential approach to investigating women's childbirth experiences. A clear framework for the conduct and integration of the different phases of the mixed methods research process is provided. This approach can be used by practitioners and policy makers to improve practice.

  8. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  9. Exploratory Factor Analysis, Theory Generation, and Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the methodological foundations of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and suggests that it is properly construed as a method for generating explanatory theories. In the first half of the article it is argued that EFA should be understood as an abductive method of theory generation that exploits an important precept of…

  10. Mixed jamming method for SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yong-sheng

    2007-11-01

    The mixed jamming method of synthetic aperture radar is analyzed and discussed. The methods of active noise and deception jamming and the signal model of transmitting is described. The raw echo signal of SAR and the model of jammed echo signal are expatiated, the characteristic of SAR and the evaluating method of jamming effect are established. Finally, the mixed jamming imaging of SAR is simulated.

  11. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It: "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  12. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  13. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’) and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’) or applied by the management (‘From’). Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may

  14. Mixed Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…

  15. A Recursive Approach to Mixed Methods Research in a Longitudinal Study of Postsecondary Education Disability Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed methods research has increased in popularity over the past 20 years. Literature reveals that exploratory qualitative analysis followed by confirmatory survey research is common and concurrent studies outnumber longitudinal design. Longitudinal studies using quantitative and qualitative methods in sequence for exploratory purposes are rare,…

  16. Sliding doors: Did drama-based inter-professional education improve the tensions round person-centred nursing and social care delivery for people with dementia: A mixed method exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dingwall, Lindsay; Fenton, Jane; Kelly, Timothy B; Lee, John

    2017-04-01

    This educational intervention takes place when the population of older people with dementia is increasing. Health and Social care professionals must work jointly in increasingly complex contexts. Negative attitudes towards older people are cited as a contributor to poor care delivery, including the use of dismissive and/or patronising language, failing to meet fundamental needs and afford choice. 'Sliding Doors to Personal Futures' is a joint, drama-based, educational initiative between NHS Education Scotland and the Scottish Social Services Council, delivered using interprofessional education (IPE) towards encouraging person-centred health and social care. This paper considers whether 'Sliding Doors' had an impact on social work and nursing students' attitudes to older people, person-centred care and interprofessional collaboration. Two groups of third year students were studied; one from nursing and one from social work. A mixed methods approach was taken and attitudes and attitudinal shifts measured and discussed. Quantitative results demonstrated that social work students made positive attitudinal shifts in some questionnaire items and collectively the social work students were more person-centred than nursing students in their care approaches. The qualitative data however, drawn from focus groups, illuminated these results and highlighted the link between the ability for a professional to be person-centred and the conceptual view of risk within the particular profession. Risk acceptance, the theoretical position of social work, may facilitate person-centred care, whereas the perceived risk-averse nature of the nursing profession may inhibit it. Students' attempts to understand the quantitative results, without understanding the restrictions and parameters of each other's profession, led them to revert to stereotypes and negative views of each other as practitioners. The paper concludes that there is an important difference between nurses' and social workers

  17. Mixed methods, mixed methodology health services research in practice.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, P Lynne

    2004-02-01

    Mixed methods, mixed methodology research is a little documented but increasingly accepted approach employed to investigate organizational phenomena. The author presents a synthesis of literature that informed the decision to adopt a mixed methods, mixed methodology, dominantly naturalistic study approach to health services research in which she explored the process and organizational consequences of new artifact adoption in surgery. She describes the way whereby a collective case study involving five Australian hospitals yielded quantitative and qualitative data that were analyzed using inductive and/or deductive reasoning. She goes beyond the theoretical rational for employing a mixed methods, mixed methodology approach to present a summative conceptual model of the research process and describe the structural aspects of the dissertation in which the research was reported that should benefit researchers contemplating the value of such an approach.

  18. Pragmatism, Evidence, and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been…

  19. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced…

  20. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  1. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  2. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced…

  3. Exploratory Factor Analysis, Theory Generation, and Scientific Method.

    PubMed

    Haig, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the methodological foundations of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and suggests that it is properly construed as a method for generating explanatory theories. In the first half of the article it is argued that EFA should be understood as an abductive method of theory generation that exploits an important precept of scientific inference known as the principle of the common cause. This characterization of the inferential nature of EFA coheres well with its interpretation as a latent variable method. The second half of the article outlines a broad theory of scientific method in which abductive reasoning figures prominently. It then discusses a number of methodological features of EFA in the light of that method. Specifically, it is argued that EFA helps researchers generate theories with genuine explanatory merit; that factor indeterminacy is a methodological challenge for both EFA and confirmatory factor analysis, but that the challenge can be satisfactorily met in each case; and, that EFA, as a useful method of theory generation, can be profitably employed in tandem with confirmatory factor analysis and other methods of theory evaluation.

  4. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  5. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Murphy, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methods research. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methods research is used in health services research (HSR). Methods Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research commissioner of HSR in England between 1994 and 2004. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers sampled from these studies. Results 18% (119/647) of HSR studies were classified as mixed methods research. In the documentation, comprehensiveness was the main driver for using mixed methods research, with researchers wanting to address a wider range of questions than quantitative methods alone would allow. Interviewees elaborated on this, identifying the need for qualitative research to engage with the complexity of health, health care interventions, and the environment in which studies took place. Motivations for adopting a mixed methods approach were not always based on the intrinsic value of mixed methods research for addressing the research question; they could be strategic, for example, to obtain funding. Mixed methods research was used in the context of evaluation, including randomised and non-randomised designs; survey and fieldwork exploratory studies; and instrument development. Studies drew on a limited number of methods – particularly surveys and individual interviews – but used methods in a wide range of roles. Conclusion Mixed methods research is common in HSR in the UK. Its use is driven by pragmatism rather than principle, motivated by the perceived deficit of quantitative methods alone to address the complexity of research in health care, as well as other more strategic gains. Methods are combined in a range of contexts, yet the emerging methodological contributions from HSR to the field of mixed methods research are currently limited to the single

  6. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  7. Educator Perspectives on the Use of Alternative Assessment Methods within Taught Masters Programmes: An Exploratory Study Using Activity Theory and Q Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deignan, Tim; Brown, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory two-stage sequential mixed methods research study that investigated the views of university educators on the introduction of assessment methods other than essays, exams and dissertations within taught Masters programmes. In the first stage, interviews were conducted internationally with 45 participants and…

  8. Educator Perspectives on the Use of Alternative Assessment Methods within Taught Masters Programmes: An Exploratory Study Using Activity Theory and Q Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deignan, Tim; Brown, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory two-stage sequential mixed methods research study that investigated the views of university educators on the introduction of assessment methods other than essays, exams and dissertations within taught Masters programmes. In the first stage, interviews were conducted internationally with 45 participants and…

  9. Mixed Methods, Triangulation, and Causal Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates…

  10. Mixed Methods, Triangulation, and Causal Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates…

  11. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods.

  12. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  13. Mixed methods research for the novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lynne S; Grant, Barbara M

    2006-10-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular in the health and social science disciplines. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the varieties of mixed methods designs. We begin by situating mixed methods research in the context of a paradigmatic framework which assists a researcher in making decisions concerning the design of their study. Although the most commonly used mixed methods designs are underpinned by positivist/postpositivist assumptions, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods can be used within any research paradigm.

  14. Development and Initial Evaluation of the Web-Based Self-Management Program “Partner in Balance” for Family Caregivers of People With Early Stage Dementia: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    de Vugt, Marjolein E; Withagen, Hanneke EJ; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; Verhey, Frans RJ

    2016-01-01

    Background People with dementia increasingly depend on informal caregivers. Internet-based self-management interventions hold considerable promise for meeting the educational and support needs of early stage dementia caregivers (EDCs) at a reduced cost. Objective This study aimed to (1) develop an online self-management program for EDC to increase self-efficacy and goal attainment, and (2) evaluate the program’s feasibility and report preliminary data on effectiveness. Methods Based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, a stepwise approach was adopted to explore potential user needs and develop and validate the content by means of (1) focus group discussions with dementia caregivers (N=28), (2) interviews with dementia care professionals (N=11), and (3) individual think-aloud usability tests with EDC (N=2) and experts (N=2). A pilot evaluation was conducted with EDC (N=17) to test the feasibility and establish preliminary effects. Self-report measures of feasibility were completed after the completion of intervention. Self-efficacy and goal attainment were evaluated before and after the intervention. Results The different steps provided useful information about the needs of potential users regarding the content and delivery of the program. This resulted in the newly developed “Partner in Balance” program. At the start, system failures resulted in a high noncompleter rate (7/17, 41%), but at the end, an acceptable feasibility score of 209 (range 54-234) was found. The convenience of completing the program at home, the tailored content, and the guidance (face-to-face and online) were appraised positively. Preliminary effects on caregiver self-efficacy (P<.05) and goal attainment (T>50) were promising. Conclusions Adaptations were made to the program to limit the amount of system failures and prevent high noncompleter rates. As recommended by the MRC framework, confirming the feasibility and

  15. Exploring Top-Rated MBA Programs for Best Practices in Internationalizing Curricula: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if, and how, curriculum developers are incorporating opportunities to develop global competence into business curricula, the Exploratory Design: Taxonomy Development Model (Qualitative Emphasized) was conducted on top-rated MBA programs. This three-phase mixed methods approach revealed 11 global competencies (or taxonomies) and 84…

  16. Exploring Top-Rated MBA Programs for Best Practices in Internationalizing Curricula: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if, and how, curriculum developers are incorporating opportunities to develop global competence into business curricula, the Exploratory Design: Taxonomy Development Model (Qualitative Emphasized) was conducted on top-rated MBA programs. This three-phase mixed methods approach revealed 11 global competencies (or taxonomies) and 84…

  17. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  18. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  19. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  20. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  1. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    PubMed

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  2. Mixing Methods in Assessing Coaches' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergeer, Ineke; Lyle, John

    2007-01-01

    Mixing methods has recently achieved respectability as an appropriate approach to research design, offering a variety of advantages (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). The purpose of this paper is to outline and evaluate a mixed methods approach within the domain of coaches' decision making. Illustrated with data from a policy-capturing study on…

  3. The Generative Potential of Mixed Methods Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jennifer C.

    2005-01-01

    A mixed method approach to educational and social inquiry is presented as an important counterpoint to the contemporary debate about what constitutes valid, rigorous, and "scientific" research. By welcoming all legitimate methodological traditions, mixed method inquiry meaningfully engages with difference and thus offers some generative potential…

  4. Using mixed methods in health research

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methods research, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methods research, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitative methods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methods research is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems. PMID:23885291

  5. Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research. PMID:20967495

  6. Mixed method designs in implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Aarons, Gregory A; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research.

  7. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  8. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  9. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  10. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  11. Transformative Paradigm: Mixed Methods and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2007-01-01

    The intersection of mixed methods and social justice has implications for the role of the researcher and choices of specific paradigmatic perspectives. The transformative paradigm with its associated philosophical assumptions provides a framework for addressing inequality and injustice in society using culturally competent, mixed methods…

  12. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel’s hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution’s kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types. PMID:26549938

  13. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel's hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution's kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types.

  14. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2015-09-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel’s hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution’s kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types.

  15. Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tziperman, Eli

    1992-01-01

    The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the

  16. [Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

    2011-10-01

    Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery.

  17. Mixed-methods exploration of parents' health information understanding.

    PubMed

    Lehna, Carlee; McNeil, Jack

    2008-05-01

    Health literacy--the ability to read, understand, and use health information to make health care decisions--affects health care outcomes, hospitalization costs, and readmission. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study is to determine how two different parent groups (English speaking and Spanish speaking) understand medical care for their children and the procedural and research consent forms required by that care. Quantitative and qualitative data are gathered and compared concurrently. Differences between groups are found in age, grade completed, Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults scores, and ways of understanding health information. Identifying how parents understand health information is the first step in providing effective family-centered health care education.

  18. Mixed Methods in CAM Research: A Systematic Review of Studies Published in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Felicity L.; Holmes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mixed methods research uses qualitative and quantitative methods together in a single study or a series of related studies. Objectives. To review the prevalence and quality of mixed methods studies in complementary medicine. Methods. All studies published in the top 10 integrative and complementary medicine journals in 2012 were screened. The quality of mixed methods studies was appraised using a published tool designed for mixed methods studies. Results. 4% of papers (95 out of 2349) reported mixed methods studies, 80 of which met criteria for applying the quality appraisal tool. The most popular formal mixed methods design was triangulation (used by 74% of studies), followed by embedded (14%), sequential explanatory (8%), and finally sequential exploratory (5%). Quantitative components were generally of higher quality than qualitative components; when quantitative components involved RCTs they were of particularly high quality. Common methodological limitations were identified. Most strikingly, none of the 80 mixed methods studies addressed the philosophical tensions inherent in mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Conclusions and Implications. The quality of mixed methods research in CAM can be enhanced by addressing philosophical tensions and improving reporting of (a) analytic methods and reflexivity (in qualitative components) and (b) sampling and recruitment-related procedures (in all components). PMID:24454489

  19. What is so new about mixed methods?

    PubMed

    Pelto, Pertti J

    2015-06-01

    In this article, I dispute claims that mixed methods research emerged only recently in the social sciences. I argue that some anthropologists and sociologists (and others) have used mixed methods in fieldwork for at least 80 years, and there are studies from early in the 20th century that clearly fall within the definition of "mixed methods." I explore some of the history of the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data in earlier ethnographic works and show that in some sectors of social science research, the "emergence" and proliferation of mixed methods were particularly notable around the middle of the 20th century. Furthermore, concerning issues about "paradigms of research" in the social sciences, I identify some of the types of research in which the mixing of QUAL and QUAN approaches was more likely to occur. I suggest that some of the literature about research paradigms has involved a certain amount of "myth-making" in connection with descriptions of qualitative and quantitative research assumptions and styles. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Zhang, Chuanlun; Roh, Yul

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  1. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  2. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  3. Mixed Method Research in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    This paper addresses the conditions under which quantitative and qualitative research methods could be combined in special education. The paper asserts that qualitative designs have not had a significant effect on special education research and speculates that mixed-method research might be more acceptable to special education researchers or…

  4. Using Horn's Parallel Analysis Method in Exploratory Factor Analysis for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çokluk, Ömay; Koçak, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the number of factors obtained from parallel analysis, a method used for determining the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis, was compared to that of the factors obtained from eigenvalue and scree plot--two traditional methods for determining the number of factors--in terms of consistency. Parallel analysis is based on…

  5. Instructor Technology Use: A Mixed Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becking, Suzanne K.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods concurrent triangulation study was designed to examine instructional leaders' descriptions of their experience with integrating technology into their teaching. Seminal studies from the 1990s were found to remain true today--that teachers are not ready to incorporate technology into their teaching (Becker, 1999; Ertmer, 1999). In…

  6. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  7. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  8. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  9. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  10. From Ethnography to Items: A Mixed Methods Approach to Developing a Survey to Examine Graduate Engineering Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2013-01-01

    As part of a sequential exploratory mixed methods study, 9 months of ethnographically guided observations and interviews were used to develop a survey examining graduate engineering student retention. Findings from the ethnographic fieldwork yielded several themes, including international diversity, research group organization and climate,…

  11. An Emic, Mixed-Methods Approach to Defining and Measuring Positive Parenting among Low-Income Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, Christine M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Green Wright, Linnie E.; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Harris, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This within-group exploratory sequential mixed-methods investigation sought to identify how ethnically diverse, urban-residing, low-income Black families conceptualize positive parenting. During the item development phase 119 primary caregivers from Head Start programs participated in focus groups and interviews. These…

  12. From Ethnography to Items: A Mixed Methods Approach to Developing a Survey to Examine Graduate Engineering Student Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crede, Erin; Borrego, Maura

    2013-01-01

    As part of a sequential exploratory mixed methods study, 9 months of ethnographically guided observations and interviews were used to develop a survey examining graduate engineering student retention. Findings from the ethnographic fieldwork yielded several themes, including international diversity, research group organization and climate,…

  13. An Emic, Mixed-Methods Approach to Defining and Measuring Positive Parenting among Low-Income Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, Christine M.; Mattis, Jacqueline S.; Green Wright, Linnie E.; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Harris, Elise

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: This within-group exploratory sequential mixed-methods investigation sought to identify how ethnically diverse, urban-residing, low-income Black families conceptualize positive parenting. During the item development phase 119 primary caregivers from Head Start programs participated in focus groups and interviews. These…

  14. Using Multimedia Records To Support Mixed-Method Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennington, Tammy L.; Jones, Michael L. W.; Gay, Geri

    1999-01-01

    Explores how multimedia records, especially digital video, can enhance the analysis and presentation of research findings and can facilitate mixed-method research designs. Draws analogies between mixing methods and mixing technologies. (Author/SLD)

  15. Description and Critique of Quantitative Methods for the Allocation of Exploratory Development Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper analyzes ten methods for planning the allocation of resources among projects within the exploratory development category of the Defense...research, development, test and evaluation program. Each method is described in terms of a general framework of planning methods and of the factors that...influence the allocation of development resources. A comparative analysis is made of the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods . The more

  16. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  17. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  18. Collaboration Patterns as a Function of Article Genre among Mixed Researchers: A Mixed Methods Bibliometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, John; Wachsmann, Melanie; Hoisington, Susan; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Valle, Rachel; Lambert, Jarod; Aleisa, Majed; Wilcox, Rachael; Benge, Cindy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Surprisingly, scant information exists regarding the collaboration patterns of mixed methods researchers. Thus, the purpose of this mixed methods bibliometric study was to examine (a) the distribution of the number of co-authors in articles published in the flagship mixed methods research journal (i.e., "Journal of Mixed Methods…

  19. Using mixed methods when researching communities.

    PubMed

    Ochieng, Bertha M N; Meetoo, Danny

    2015-09-01

    To argue for the use of mixed methods when researching communities. Although research involving minority communities is now advanced, not enough effort has been made to formulate methodological linkages between qualitative and quantitative methods in most studies. For instance, the quantitative approaches used by epidemiologists and others in examining the wellbeing of communities are usually empirical. While the rationale for this is sound, quantitative findings can be expanded with data from in-depth qualitative approaches, such as interviews or observations, which are likely to provide insights into the experiences of people in those communities and their relationships with their wellbeing. Academic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, INTERNURSE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and PubMed. An iterative process of identifying eligible literature was carried out by comprehensively searching electronic databases. Using mixed-methods approaches is likely to address any potential drawbacks of individual methods by exploiting the strengths of each at the various stages of research. Combining methods can provide additional ways of looking at a complex problem and improve the understanding of a community's experiences. However, it is important for researchers to use the different methods interactively during their research. The use of qualitative and quantitative methods is likely to enrich our understanding of the interrelationship between wellbeing and the experiences of communities. This should help researchers to explore socio-cultural factors and experiences of health and healthcare practice more effectively.

  20. Designing a mixed methods study in pediatric oncology nursing research.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Krista; Woodgate, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Despite the appeal of discovering the different strengths of various research methods, mixed methods research remains elusive in pediatric oncology nursing research. If pediatric oncology nurses are to succeed in mixing quantitative and qualitative methods, they need practical guidelines for managing the complex data and analyses of mixed methods research. This article discusses mixed methods terminology, designs, and key design features. Specific areas addressed include the myths about mixed methods research, types of mixed method research designs, steps involved in developing a mixed method research study, and the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods designs in pediatric oncology research. Examples of recent research studies that have combined quantitative and qualitative research methods are provided. The term mixed methods research is used throughout this article to reflect the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods within one study rather than the use of these methods in separate studies concerning the same research problem.

  1. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Michael L.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.; Chapman, Chris C.; Peters, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  2. Iterative methods for mixed finite element equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakazawa, S.; Nagtegaal, J. C.; Zienkiewicz, O. C.

    1985-01-01

    Iterative strategies for the solution of indefinite system of equations arising from the mixed finite element method are investigated in this paper with application to linear and nonlinear problems in solid and structural mechanics. The augmented Hu-Washizu form is derived, which is then utilized to construct a family of iterative algorithms using the displacement method as the preconditioner. Two types of iterative algorithms are implemented. Those are: constant metric iterations which does not involve the update of preconditioner; variable metric iterations, in which the inverse of the preconditioning matrix is updated. A series of numerical experiments is conducted to evaluate the numerical performance with application to linear and nonlinear model problems.

  3. A novel exploratory method for visual recombination detection

    PubMed Central

    Strimmer, Korbinian; Forslund, Kristoffer; Holland, Barbara; Moulton, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    A versatile visual approach for detecting recombination and identifying recombination breakpoints within a sequence alignment is presented. The method is based on two novel diagrams - the highway plot and the occupancy plot - that graphically portray phylogenetic inhomogeneity along an alignment, and can be viewed as a synthesis of two widely used but unrelated methods: bootscanning and quartet-mapping. To illustrate the method, simulated data and HIV-1 and influenza A datasets are investigated. PMID:12734013

  4. Mixed Finite Element Method for Melt Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taicher, A. L.; Hesse, M. A.; Arbogast, T.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium. Therefore, a numerical method must also carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. The finite element framework provides support for additional analysis of error and convergence. Moreover, both mesh refinement and anisotropy are naturally incorporated into finite elements. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. Mixed methods also produce discretely conservative fluxes that are required for the transport problem to remains stable without violating conservation of mass. Based preliminary investigations in 1D and derived energy estimates, we present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, using novel elements of lowest order and

  5. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An Exploratory Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-22

    M T R 1 4 0 4 4 3 R 2 M I T R E T E C H N I C A L R E P O R T Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An...JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methods for Evaluating Text Extraction Toolkits: An...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Text extraction

  7. Mixed Finite Element Methods for Melt Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taicher, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    Multi-phase flow arises during partial melting in the earth mantle, where the porosity is small and material has the characteristics of a compacting porous medium. The equations governing multi-phase flow have been specialized to partially molten materials by McKenzie and Fowler. Their model, also called a Darcy-Stokes system, is highly coupled and non-linear. Melt flow is governed by Darcy's Law while the high temperature, ductile creep of the solid matrix is modeled using viscous non-Newtonian Stokes rheology. In addition, the melt and solid pressures are related through a compaction relation. This nearly elliptic mechanical problem is then coupled with both solute transport and thermal evolution according to the enthalpy method developed by Katz. A suitable numerical method must solve the Darcy-Stokes problem in a manner compatible with the transport problem. Moreover, unlike most porous media problems, partially molten materials transition dynamically from non-porous solid to porous medium so must carefully account for the limit of zero porosity. The Darcy-Stokes system for modeling partial melting in the mantle is a novel problem. As far as we know, there currently does not exist a finite element solution in the literature solving these coupled equations. In particular, the mixed finite element method presents a good candidate because it works in both limiting cases: Darcy and incompressible Stokes flow. We present a mixed formulation for the Darcy-Stokes system. Next, we present novel elements of lowest order and compatible with both Darcy and Stokes flow Finally, we present our 2D mixed FEM code result for solving Stokes and Darcy flow as well as the coupled Darcy-Stokes system the mid-ocean ridge or corner flow problem.

  8. Exploratory Solid-State Synthesis of Uranium Chalcogenides and Mixed Anion Uranium Chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Matthew David

    Several uranium chalcogenides and mixed anion uranium chalcogenides have been synthesized by solid-state synthetic methods. Structural determinations were carried out via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Some of these compounds have been further characterized by magnetic measurements, optical properties measurements, Raman spectroscopy, resistivity measurements, XANES and XPS. Eight compounds of the composition MU8Q17 were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All of these compounds crystallize in the CrU8S17 structure type. XANES measurements indicate that ScU8S17 contains Sc3+ and must be charge balanced with some amount of U 3+. Two compounds of the composition ATiU3Te9 crystallize as black rectangular plates. From single-crystal magnetic measurements, CsTiU 3Te9 is consistent with antiferromagnetic coupling between magnetic U atoms. The uranium chalcogenide compounds NiUS3 and Cr4US 8 were synthesized from reaction of the elements in various fluxes. NiUS3 crystallizes in the GdFeO3 structure type. Cr 4US8 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group D - Pnma and its structure is related to that of Li4UF 8. The compounds Rh2U6S15, Cs 2Ti2U6Se15, and Cs2Cr 2U6Se15 crystallize as black prisms in the cubic space group O-Im3m. Magnetic measurements on Cs 2Cr2U6Se15 give a value for the Weiss temperature, θWeiss, of 57.59 K, indicative of ferromagnetic coupling. Black plates of CsScU(Se2)Se3 were synthesized from the reaction of the elements in a CsCl flux. CsScU(Se2)Se 3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group D- Cmcm . Magnetic susceptibility measurements on CsScU(Se2)Se 3 indicate three regions of magnetic response. The uranium double salt Cs5[U2(μ-S 2)2Cl8]I crystallizes as red plates. Cs 5[U2(μ-S2)2Cl 8]I displays optical anisotropy with band gap energies of 1.99 eV and 2.08 eV along the [001] and [100] polarizations. The uranium oxychalcogenides U7O2Se12 and Na2Ba2(UO2)S4 were synthesized by intentional oxygen contamination

  9. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  10. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  11. Exploratory Work With Pre-Mixing Injectors for Nitric Acid-Kerosene Rocket Motors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1952-03-01

    container as shown in Fig.3. The fluid used was W.A.F.1, a mixture of 7C% furfuryl alcohol and 30% aniline by volume, the ignition delay of which with...information relating to tests of pre-mixing injectors for the liquid oxygen- alcohol combination carried out by the Bell Aircraft Corporation. The individual...out in a water-cooled chamber with an uncooled copper nozzle at combustion pressures of 135 to 150 l/sq in. Apart from harsh ignition, these -14

  12. Highway accident severities and the mixed logit model: an exploratory empirical analysis.

    PubMed

    Milton, John C; Shankar, Venky N; Mannering, Fred L

    2008-01-01

    Many transportation agencies use accident frequencies, and statistical models of accidents frequencies, as a basis for prioritizing highway safety improvements. However, the use of accident severities in safety programming has been often been limited to the locational assessment of accident fatalities, with little or no emphasis being placed on the full severity distribution of accidents (property damage only, possible injury, injury)-which is needed to fully assess the benefits of competing safety-improvement projects. In this paper we demonstrate a modeling approach that can be used to better understand the injury-severity distributions of accidents on highway segments, and the effect that traffic, highway and weather characteristics have on these distributions. The approach we use allows for the possibility that estimated model parameters can vary randomly across roadway segments to account for unobserved effects potentially relating to roadway characteristics, environmental factors, and driver behavior. Using highway-injury data from Washington State, a mixed (random parameters) logit model is estimated. Estimation findings indicate that volume-related variables such as average daily traffic per lane, average daily truck traffic, truck percentage, interchanges per mile and weather effects such as snowfall are best modeled as random-parameters-while roadway characteristics such as the number of horizontal curves, number of grade breaks per mile and pavement friction are best modeled as fixed parameters. Our results show that the mixed logit model has considerable promise as a methodological tool in highway safety programming.

  13. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  14. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  15. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    PubMed

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  16. Development of a qualitative exploratory case study research method to explore sustained delivery of cognitive services.

    PubMed

    Kaae, Susanne; Søndergaard, Birthe; Haugbølle, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Morgall

    2010-02-01

    To develop, apply and evaluate a new research method to establish relationships between structural and process elements of the provision of cognitive services. In-depth knowledge about how local organisational structural elements of community pharmacies shape the implementation process of cognitive services is needed to develop targeted quality assurance systems to ensure that the services are continuously provided to the patients who need them. The first publicly reimbursed cognitive service in Denmark, the Inhaler Technique Assessment Service (ITAS) is used as the case. The research method was developed at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen and later applied to seven community pharmacies geographically spread around Denmark. A pilot study as well as a subsequent literature review was conducted to determine which structure-process elements to focus on in the research method as well as to select appropriate theories and methods. The developed research method was a qualitative exploratory multi-case study, that was based on method triangulation of field observations, semi-structured interviews, group interviews as well as collection of documentary material. The three main themes of the research method were: the administration of tasks, leadership style and professional values. We integrated the organisational theories of Mintzberg, Bolman and Deal as well as Sørensen to support and clarify the data collection process and analyses. A cross-case analysis and an exploratory contextual analysis relating the leadership style of the pharmacy owner to the ITAS provision were applied to the collected data. The developed qualitative exploratory multi-case study research method was satisfactory with regard to achieving nuanced and in-depth results of some relationships between structural and process elements of provision of cognitive services. The research method can be considered an important supplement to the existing literature on the

  17. Mixed methods for fitting the GEV distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailliot, Pierre; Thompson, Craig; Thomson, Peter

    2011-05-01

    The generalized extreme-value (GEV) distribution is widely used for modeling and characterizing extremes. It is a flexible three-parameter distribution that combines three extreme-value distributions within a single framework: the Gumbel, Frechet, and Weibull. Common methods used for estimating the GEV parameters are the method of maximum likelihood and the method of L-moments. This paper generalizes the mixed maximum likelihood and L-moments GEV estimation procedures proposed by Morrison and Smith (2002) and derives the asymptotic properties of the resulting estimators. Analytic expressions are given for the asymptotic covariance matrices in a number of important cases, including the estimators proposed by Morrison and Smith (2002). These expressions are verified by simulation and the efficiencies of the various estimators established. The asymptotic results are compared to those obtained for small to medium-size samples by simulation with the estimated parameters and quantiles assessed for accuracy and bias. Using simplified constraints for the support of the log likelihood, computational strategies and graphical tools are developed which lead to computationally efficient, numerically robust, estimation procedures suitable for automatic batch processing of many data sets. The methods are illustrated by application to annual maximum rainfall data at a large number of New Zealand locations. For Wellington, 24 h annual maximum rainfall over the period 1940-1999 is also considered within each phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation.

  18. A Mapping method for mixing with diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Conor P.; Christov, Ivan C.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2012-11-01

    We present an accurate and efficient computational method for solving the advection-diffusion equation in time-periodic chaotic flows. The method uses operator splitting which allows advection and diffusion steps to be treated independently. Taking advantage of flow periodicity, the advection step is solved with a mapping method, and diffusion is added discretely after each iteration of the advection map. This approach allows for a ``composite'' mapping matrix to be constructed for an entire period of a chaotic advection-diffusion process, which provides a natural approach to the spectral analysis of mixing. To test the approach, we consider the two-dimensional time-periodic sine flow. When compared to the exact solution for this simple velocity field, the operator splitting method exhibits qualitative agreement (overall concentration structure) for large time steps and is quantitatively accurate (average and maximum error) for small time steps. We extend the operator splitting approach to three-dimensional chaotic flows. Funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000469. Present affiliation: Princeton University. Supported by NSF Grant DMS-1104047.

  19. Death Anxiety Resilience; a Mixed Methods Investigation.

    PubMed

    Hoelterhoff, Mark; Chung, Man Cheung

    2017-09-01

    Research was conducted examining how death anxiety influenced PTSD and mental health among people who have experienced a life-threatening event. This study was conducted using undergraduate university students in Lithuania. The study used a mixed-method design and in phase 1, participants (N = 97) completed self-report questionnaires that gathered information on demographics, death anxiety, trauma and well-being. Data indicated a significant correlation between death anxiety and PTSD, but not psychiatric co-morbidity. Phase 2 attempted to further explore the phenomenological experience of participants with full PTSD, and 6 semi-structured interviews were conducted. IPA analysis found three major themes in response to the life-threatening event; self-efficacy, religious coping and existential attitude. Overall these coping mechanisms allowed participants to develop resilience against the effects of death anxiety and minimize its negative impact on mental health.

  20. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2007-01-01

    A sequential design utilizing identical samples was used to classify mixed methods studies via a two-dimensional model, wherein sampling designs were grouped according to the time orientation of each study's components and the relationship of the qualitative and quantitative samples. A quantitative analysis of 121 studies representing nine fields…

  1. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2007-01-01

    A sequential design utilizing identical samples was used to classify mixed methods studies via a two-dimensional model, wherein sampling designs were grouped according to the time orientation of each study's components and the relationship of the qualitative and quantitative samples. A quantitative analysis of 121 studies representing nine fields…

  2. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  3. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  4. Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

  5. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  6. Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

  7. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  8. The use of "mixing" procedure of mixed methods in health services research.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanqing; Creswell, John

    2013-08-01

    Mixed methods research has emerged alongside qualitative and quantitative approaches as an important tool for health services researchers. Despite growing interest, among health services researchers, in using mixed methods designs, little has been done to identify the procedural aspects of doing so. To describe how mixed methods researchers mix the qualitative and quantitative aspects of their studies in health services research. We searched the PubMed for articles, using mixed methods in health services research, published between January 1, 2006 and December 30, 2010. We identified and reviewed 30 published health services research articles on studies in which mixed methods had been used. We selected 3 articles as illustrations to help health services researcher conceptualize the type of mixing procedures that they were using. Three main "mixing" procedures have been applied within these studies: (1) the researchers analyzed the 2 types of data at the same time but separately and integrated the results during interpretation; (2) the researchers connected the qualitative and quantitative portions in phases in such a way that 1 approach was built upon the findings of the other approach; and (3) the researchers mixed the 2 data types by embedding the analysis of 1 data type within the other. "Mixing" in mixed methods is more than just the combination of 2 independent components of the quantitative and qualitative data. The use of "mixing" procedure in health services research involves the integration, connection, and embedding of these 2 data components.

  9. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem.

    PubMed

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry.

  10. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  11. Discontinuous Mixed Covolume Methods for Parabolic Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ailing

    2014-01-01

    We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L2. PMID:24983008

  12. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  13. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    PubMed Central

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  14. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    PubMed

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  15. Mixing it but not mixed-up: mixed methods research in medical education (a critical narrative review).

    PubMed

    Maudsley, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Some important research questions in medical education and health services research need 'mixed methods research' (particularly synthesizing quantitative and qualitative findings). The approach is not new, but should be more explicitly reported. The broad search question here, of a disjointed literature, was thus: What is mixed methods research - how should it relate to medical education research?, focused on explicit acknowledgement of 'mixing'. Literature searching focused on Web of Knowledge supplemented by other databases across disciplines. Five main messages emerged: - Thinking quantitative and qualitative, not quantitative versus qualitative - Appreciating that mixed methods research blends different knowledge claims, enquiry strategies, and methods - Using a 'horses for courses' [whatever works] approach to the question, and clarifying the mix - Appreciating how medical education research competes with the 'evidence-based' movement, health services research, and the 'RCT' - Being more explicit about the role of mixed methods in medical education research, and the required expertise Mixed methods research is valuable, yet the literature relevant to medical education is fragmented and poorly indexed. The required time, effort, expertise, and techniques deserve better recognition. More write-ups should explicitly discuss the 'mixing' (particularly of findings), rather than report separate components.

  16. The emergence of mixing methods in the field of evaluation.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jennifer C

    2015-06-01

    When and how did the contemporary practice of mixing methods in social inquiry get started? What events transpired to catalyze the explosive conceptual development and practical adoption of mixed methods social inquiry over recent decades? How has this development progressed? What "next steps" would be most constructive? These questions are engaged in this personally narrative account of the beginnings of the contemporary mixed methods phenomenon in the field of evaluation from the perspective of a methodologist who was there.

  17. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  18. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  19. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  20. Method of chaotic mixing and improved stirred tank reactors

    DOEpatents

    Muzzio, Fernando J.; Lamberto, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for efficiently achieving a homogeneous mixture of fluid components by introducing said components having a Reynolds number of between about .ltoreq.1 to about 500 into a vessel and continuously perturbing the mixing flow by altering the flow speed and mixing time until homogeniety is reached. This method prevents the components from aggregating into non-homogeneous segregated regions within said vessel during mixing and substantially reduces the time the admixed components reach homogeneity.

  1. RO1 Funding for Mixed Methods Research: Lessons learned from the Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression Project.

    PubMed

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D

    2011-10-01

    Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled "The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression." We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, the quantitative and qualitative data sources informing the study, and overview of the mixing of the two studies. Finally, we examine reviewer's comments and our insights related to writing mixed method proposal successful for achieving RO1 level funding.

  2. Commentary: Using Mixed Methods to Transform Special Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Klingner and Boardman (this issue) offer a cogent and compelling argument for opening the door for the acceptance and use of mixed methods in special education research. Self-identifying as pragmatists, they embody this paradigmatic view by focusing on the utility, efficacy, and accuracy of mixed methods, an argument that should appeal to the…

  3. Mixing Methods for Full-Strength Results: Two Welfare Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosulski, Marya R.; Lawrence, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the practical application of mixed quantitative and qualitative designs. Mixed methods designs can be especially powerful in illuminating policy solutions and directions for social action, thus supporting the social justice goals of social work and other helping professions. However, the decision to combine methods must be…

  4. What Can Mixed Methods Designs Offer Professional Development Program Evaluators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Victoria; Nevin, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the benefits and pitfalls of mixed methods designs. They argue that mixed methods designs may be preferred when evaluating professional development programs for p-K-12 education given the new call for accountability in making data-driven decisions. They summarize and critique the studies in terms of limitations…

  5. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  6. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  7. Teacher Professionalism and Team Performance Pay: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to explore teachers' perceptions of their professional behaviors when they worked in schools that awarded team performance pay. Teachers' archival responses from two questionnaires were analyzed using mixed methods data analysis techniques (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Most teachers had…

  8. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  9. Use of the Transformative Framework in Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, David; Badiee, Manijeh; Creswell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    A concern exists that mixed methods studies do not contain advocacy stances. Preliminary evidence suggests that this is not the case, but to address this issue in more depth the authors examined 13 mixed methods studies that contained an advocacy, transformative lens. Such a lens consisted of incorporating intent to advocate for an improvement in…

  10. Analysis of Mixed Methods Using Mesh Dependent Norms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the analysis of mixed methods for the approximate solution of 4th order elliptic boundary value problems. In...formulation of this lower order system, thereby obtaining direct approximations to both the original and auxiliary variables. Three particular mixed methods for the approximate solution of the biharmonic problem are examined in detail.

  11. Mixed Methods in VET Research: Usage and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods had been heralded as the third methodological movement with several authorities from across an array of discipline fields contributing to a growing body of literature and theoretical developments. The discipline fields which are showing high levels of acceptance for mixed methods are those related to education, health and nursing,…

  12. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  13. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  14. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  15. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, F.; Njiki-Menga, G.-H.; Witschger, O.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  16. Costs and benefits of more learner freedom: meta-analyses of exploratory and learner control training methods.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Thomas F; Hutchins, Shaun D; Wickens, Christopher D; Cumming, John M

    2014-08-01

    Individual meta-analyses were conducted for six training methods as part of a U.S. Army basic research project. The objective was to identify evidence-based guidelines for the effectiveness of each training method, under different moderating conditions, for cognitive skill transfer in adult learning. Results and implications for two of these training methods, learner control (LC) and exploratory learning (EL), are discussed. LC provides learners with active control over training variables. EL requires learners to discover relationships and interactions between variables. There is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of both LC and EL learning methods on transfer relative to more guided training methods. Cognitive load theory (CLT) provides a basis for predicting that training strategies that manage intrinsic load of a task during training and minimize extraneous load will avail more resources that can be devoted to learning. Meta-analyses were conducted using a Hedges's g analysis of effect sizes. Control conditions with little to no learner freedom were contrasted with treatment conditions manipulating more learner freedom. Overall more LC was no different from training with limited or no learner control, and more EL was less effective than limited or no exploration; however, each can be effective under certain conditions. Both strategies have been more effective for cognitive skill learning than for knowledge recall tasks. LC exhibited more benefit to very near transfer, whereas EL's benefit was to far transfer. Task type, transfer test, and transfer distance moderate the overall transfer cost of more learner freedom. The findings are applicable to the development of instructional design guidelines for the use of LC and EL in adult skill training.

  17. Analysis of the Performance of Mixed Finite Element Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    October 1986 SUMMARY The initial goal of this project is to analyze various mixed methods based on the p- and h-p versions of the finite element methods...The convergence of mixed methods depends on two factors: (1) Approximability of polynomial spaces used (2) Stability. In the past year, the question...significant portion of the research is geared towards the investigation of mixed methods based on the ’p’ and ’h-p’ versions of the finite element method

  18. Mixed-methods research in nursing - a critical review.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Valentina; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Timmins, Fiona; Barisone, Michela; Bianchi, Monica; Pellegrini, Ramona; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    To review the use of mixed-methods research in nursing with a particular focus on the extent to which current practice informs nurse researchers. It also aimed to highlight gaps in current knowledge, understanding and reporting of this type of research. Mixed-methods research is becoming increasingly popular among nurses and healthcare professionals. Emergent findings from this type of research are very useful for nurses in practice. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a scientific base for practice but also richness from the qualitative enquiry. However, at the same time mixed-methods research is underdeveloped. This study identified mixed-methods research papers and critically evaluated their usefulness for research practice. To support the analysis, we performed a two-stage search using CINAHL to find papers with titles that included the key term 'mixed method'. An analysis of studies that used mixed-methods research revealed some inconsistencies in application and reporting. Attempts to use two distinct research methods in these studies often meant that one or both aspects had limitations. Overall methods were applied in a less rigorous way. This has implications for providing somewhat limited direction for novice researchers. There is also potential for application of evidence in healthcare practice that limited validity. This study highlights current gaps in knowledge, understanding and reporting of mixed-methods research. While these methods are useful to gain insight into clinical problems nurses lack guidance with this type of research. This study revealed that the guidance provided by current mixed-methods research is inconsistent and incomplete and this compounds the lack of available direction. There is an urgent need to develop robust guidelines for using mixed-methods research so that findings may be critically implemented in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Insight into dementia care management using social-behavioral theory and mixed methods.

    PubMed

    Connor, Karen; McNeese-Smith, Donna; van Servellen, Gwen; Chang, Betty; Lee, Martin; Cheng, Eric; Hajar, Abdulrahman; Vickrey, Barbara G

    2009-01-01

    For health organizations (private and public) to advance their care-management programs, to use resources effectively and efficiently, and to improve patient outcomes, it is germane to isolate and quantify care-management activities and to identify overarching domains. The aims of this study were to identify and report on an application of mixed methods of qualitative statistical techniques, based on a theoretical framework, and to construct variables for factor analysis and exploratory factor analytic steps for identifying domains of dementia care management. Care-management activity data were extracted from the care plans of 181 pairs of individuals (with dementia and their informal caregivers) who had participated in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial of a dementia care-management program. Activities were organized into types, using card-sorting methods, influenced by published theoretical constructs on self-efficacy and general strain theory. These activity types were mapped in the initial data set to construct variables for exploratory factor analysis. Principal components extraction with varimax and promax rotations was used to estimate the number of factors. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for the items in each factor to assess internal consistency reliability. The two-phase card-sorting technique yielded 45 activity types out of 450 unique activities. Exploratory factor analysis produced four care-management domains (factors): behavior management, clinical strategies and caregiver support, community agency, and safety. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) of items for each factor ranged from.63 for the factor "safety" to.89 for the factor "behavior management" (Factor 1). Applying a systematic method to a large set of care-management activities can identify a parsimonious number of higher order categories of variables and factors to guide the understanding of dementia care-management processes. Further application of this

  20. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  1. Application of the Fokker-Planck molecular mixing model to turbulent scalar mixing using moment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madadi-Kandjani, E.; Fox, R. O.; Passalacqua, A.

    2017-06-01

    An extended quadrature method of moments using the β kernel density function (β -EQMOM) is used to approximate solutions to the evolution equation for univariate and bivariate composition probability distribution functions (PDFs) of a passive scalar for binary and ternary mixing. The key element of interest is the molecular mixing term, which is described using the Fokker-Planck (FP) molecular mixing model. The direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulations of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)] and the amplitude mapping closure (AMC) of Pope ["Mapping closures for turbulent mixing and reaction," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 2, 255 (1991)] are taken as reference solutions to establish the accuracy of the FP model in the case of binary mixing. The DNSs of Juneja and Pope ["A DNS study of turbulent mixing of two passive scalars," Phys. Fluids 8, 2161 (1996)] are used to validate the results obtained for ternary mixing. Simulations are performed with both the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR) proposed by Fox [Computational Methods for Turbulent Reacting Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2003)] and the CSDR from AMC, with the scalar dissipation rate provided as input and obtained from the DNS. Using scalar moments up to fourth order, the ability of the FP model to capture the evolution of the shape of the PDF, important in turbulent mixing problems, is demonstrated. Compared to the widely used assumed β -PDF model [S. S. Girimaji, "Assumed β-pdf model for turbulent mixing: Validation and extension to multiple scalar mixing," Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 177 (1991)], the β -EQMOM solution to the FP model more accurately describes the initial mixing process with a relatively small increase in computational cost.

  2. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  3. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  4. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  5. Mixed-Methods Research in the Discipline of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Harrison, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of 294 mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing. Creswell and Plano Clark's typology was most frequently used along with concurrent timing. Bivariate statistics was most often the highest level of statistics reported in the results. As for qualitative data analysis, content analysis was most frequently used. The majority of nurse researchers did not specifically address the purpose, paradigm, typology, priority, timing, interaction, or integration of their mixed-methods studies. Strategies are suggested for improving the design, conduct, and reporting of mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing.

  6. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research.

  7. Mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    The computational methods used to predict and optimize the thermal structural behavior of aerospace vehicle structures are reviewed. In general, two classes of algorithms, implicit and explicit, are used in transient thermal analysis of structures. Each of these two methods has its own merits. Due to the different time scales of the mechanical and thermal responses, the selection of a time integration method can be a different yet critical factor in the efficient solution of such problems. Therefore mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures are being developed. The computer implementation aspects and numerical evaluation of these mixed time implicit-explicit algorithms in thermal analysis of structures are presented. A computationally useful method of estimating the critical time step for linear quadrilateral element is also given. Numerical tests confirm the stability criterion and accuracy characteristics of the methods. The superiority of these mixed time methods to the fully implicit method or the fully explicit method is also demonstrated.

  8. Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; O’Cathain, Alicia; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods studies, in which qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single program of inquiry, can be valuable in biomedical and health services research, where the complementary strengths of each approach can yield greater insight into complex phenomena than either approach alone. Although interest in mixed methods is growing among science funders and investigators, written guidance on how to conduct and assess rigorous mixed methods studies is not readily accessible to the general readership of peer-reviewed biomedical and health services journals. Furthermore, existing guidelines for publishing mixed methods studies are not well known or applied by researchers and journal editors. Accordingly, this paper is intended to serve as a concise, practical resource for readers interested in core principles and practices of mixed methods research. We briefly describe mixed methods approaches and present illustrations from published biomedical and health services literature, including in cardiovascular care, summarize standards for the design and reporting of these studies, and highlight four central considerations for investigators interested in using these methods. PMID:23322807

  9. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    PubMed

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  10. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

  11. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  12. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  13. Analytical chemistry methods for mixed oxide fuel, March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of materials used to produce mixed oxide fuel. These materials are ceramic fuel and insulator pellets and the plutonium and uranium oxides and nitrates used to fabricate these pellets.

  14. Text-in-Context: A Method for Extracting Findings in Mixed-Methods Mixed Research Synthesis Studies

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. Background International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. Data source The data extraction challenges described here were encountered and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011–2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. Discussion To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. Implications for nursing The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. Conclusion This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. PMID:22924808

  15. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    PubMed

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. New mixed quantum/semiclassical propagation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Dimitri; Gelman, David; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2007-05-01

    The authors developed a new method for calculating the quantum evolution of multidimensional systems, for cases in which the system can be assumed to consist of a quantum subsystem and a bath subsystem of heavier atoms. The method combines two ideas: starting from a simple frozen Gaussian description of the bath subsystem, then calculate quantum corrections to the propagation of the quantum subsystem. This follows from recent work by one of them, showing how one can calculate corrections to approximate evolution schemes, even when the Hamiltonian that corresponds to these approximate schemes is unknown. Then, they take the limit in which the width of the frozen Gaussians approaches zero, which makes the corrections to the evolution of the quantum subsystem depend only on classical bath coordinates. The test calculations they present use low-dimensional systems, in which comparison to exact quantum dynamics is feasible.

  17. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  18. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings. PMID:24722814

  19. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  20. Haptic exploratory behavior during object discrimination: a novel automatic annotation method.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sander E M; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2015-01-01

    In order to acquire information concerning the geometry and material of handheld objects, people tend to execute stereotypical hand movement patterns called haptic Exploratory Procedures (EPs). Manual annotation of haptic exploration trials with these EPs is a laborious task that is affected by subjectivity, attentional lapses, and viewing angle limitations. In this paper we propose an automatic EP annotation method based on position and orientation data from motion tracking sensors placed on both hands and inside a stimulus. A set of kinematic variables is computed from these data and compared to sets of predefined criteria for each of four EPs. Whenever all criteria for a specific EP are met, it is assumed that that particular hand movement pattern was performed. This method is applied to data from an experiment where blindfolded participants haptically discriminated between objects differing in hardness, roughness, volume, and weight. In order to validate the method, its output is compared to manual annotation based on video recordings of the same trials. Although mean pairwise agreement is less between human-automatic pairs than between human-human pairs (55.7% vs 74.5%), the proposed method performs much better than random annotation (2.4%). Furthermore, each EP is linked to a specific object property for which it is optimal (e.g., Lateral Motion for roughness). We found that the percentage of trials where the expected EP was found does not differ between manual and automatic annotation. For now, this method cannot yet completely replace a manual annotation procedure. However, it could be used as a starting point that can be supplemented by manual annotation.

  1. The MIXED framework: A novel approach to evaluating mixed-methods rigor.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Ann L; DeVon, Holli A

    2017-02-09

    Evaluation of rigor in mixed-methods (MM) research is a persistent challenge due to the combination of inconsistent philosophical paradigms, the use of multiple research methods which require different skill sets, and the need to combine research at different points in the research process. Researchers have proposed a variety of ways to thoroughly evaluate MM research, but each method fails to provide a framework that is useful for the consumer of research. In contrast, the MIXED framework is meant to bridge the gap between an academic exercise and practical assessment of a published work. The MIXED framework (methods, inference, expertise, evaluation, and design) borrows from previously published frameworks to create a useful tool for the evaluation of a published study. The MIXED framework uses an experimental eight-item scale that allows for comprehensive integrated assessment of MM rigor in published manuscripts. Mixed methods are becoming increasingly prevalent in nursing and healthcare research requiring researchers and consumers to address issues unique to MM such as evaluation of rigor.

  2. Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, C F

    2001-01-01

    As for all materials, the performance of concrete is determined by its microstructure. Its microstructure is determined by its composition, its curing conditions, and also by the mixing method and mixer conditions used to process the concrete. This paper gives an overview of the various types of mixing methods and concrete mixers commercially available used by the concrete industry. There are two main types of mixers used: batch mixers and continuous mixers. Batch mixers are the most common. To determine the mixing method best suited for a specific application, factors to be considered include: location of the construction site (distance from the batching plant), the amount of concrete needed, the construction schedule (volume of concrete needed per hour), and the cost. Ultimately, the quality of the concrete produced determines its performance after placement. An important measure of the quality is the homogeneity of the material after mixing. This paper will review mixing methods in regards to the quality of the concrete produced. Some procedures used to determine the effectiveness of the mixing will be examined.

  3. Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Chiara F.

    2001-01-01

    As for all materials, the performance of concrete is determined by its microstructure. Its microstructure is determined by its composition, its curing conditions, and also by the mixing method and mixer conditions used to process the concrete. This paper gives an overview of the various types of mixing methods and concrete mixers commercially available used by the concrete industry. There are two main types of mixers used: batch mixers and continuous mixers. Batch mixers are the most common. To determine the mixing method best suited for a specific application, factors to be considered include: location of the construction site (distance from the batching plant), the amount of concrete needed, the construction schedule (volume of concrete needed per hour), and the cost. Ultimately, the quality of the concrete produced determines its performance after placement. An important measure of the quality is the homogeneity of the material after mixing. This paper will review mixing methods in regards to the quality of the concrete produced. Some procedures used to determine the effectiveness of the mixing will be examined. PMID:27500029

  4. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  5. Assessing and evaluating multidisciplinary translational teams: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kevin C; Rose, Robert M; Ostir, Glenn V; Calhoun, William J; Ameredes, Bill T; Brasier, Allan R

    2014-03-01

    A case report illustrates how multidisciplinary translational teams can be assessed using outcome, process, and developmental types of evaluation using a mixed-methods approach. Types of evaluation appropriate for teams are considered in relation to relevant research questions and assessment methods. Logic models are applied to scientific projects and team development to inform choices between methods within a mixed-methods design. Use of an expert panel is reviewed, culminating in consensus ratings of 11 multidisciplinary teams and a final evaluation within a team-type taxonomy. Based on team maturation and scientific progress, teams were designated as (a) early in development, (b) traditional, (c) process focused, or (d) exemplary. Lessons learned from data reduction, use of mixed methods, and use of expert panels are explored.

  6. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design.

    PubMed

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity. There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study. We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed.

  7. Material nonlinear analysis via mixed-iterative finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is examined through a set of convergence studies. Membrane and bending behaviors are tested using 4-node quadrilateral finite elements. The membrane result is excellent, which indicates the implementation of elastic-plastic mixed-iterative analysis is appropriate. On the other hand, further research to improve bending performance of the method seems to be warranted.

  8. A Mixed-Method Assessment of a Pilot Peer Advocate Intervention for Rural Gender and Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Harkness, Audrey; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Hokanson, Patricia S; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida

    2017-09-16

    Mental health disparities affect lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people in rural America. There are few empirically-based mental health interventions for this population. This exploratory study uses a mixed-method approach to assess implementation issues related to the feasibility, acceptability, appropriateness, and preliminary impacts of a novel peer-based intervention designed to enhance support and treatment engagement among rural LGBTQ people with mental distress and/or addiction issues. Quantitative and qualitative results illuminate intervention strengths and areas for improvement. Strengths centered on enhancing social support, advocacy behaviors, and engagement in treatment. Implementation challenges and recommendations to advance the intervention model are discussed.

  9. Mixing Interview and Questionnaire Methods: Practical Problems in Aligning Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lois R.; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are often used in mixed method studies to generate confirmatory results despite differences in methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. A review of 19 questionnaire-interview comparison studies found that consensus and consistency statistics were generally weak between…

  10. Mixing Interview and Questionnaire Methods: Practical Problems in Aligning Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Lois R.; Brown, Gavin T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are often used in mixed method studies to generate confirmatory results despite differences in methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. A review of 19 questionnaire-interview comparison studies found that consensus and consistency statistics were generally weak between…

  11. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  12. Understanding fruit and vegetable intake of Native American children: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sinley, Rachel C; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Native American children experience greater rates of obesity and risk for chronic diseases in comparison to their counterparts in other ethnic groups. Contributing to this risk may be inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate the fruit and vegetable consumption of Native American children between the ages of 2 and 5 by using an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. This study first collected qualitative data from caregivers of Native American children (n = 45) and stakeholders in Native American communities (n = 10) to gain perspectives of fruit and vegetable consumption. Data was then utilized to develop a fruit and vegetable survey which was administered with a fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire. These quantitative assessments were administered to caregivers of Native American children (n = 92) to gain an understanding of predictors of fruit and vegetable intake among this population. This study was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior. Findings from the mixed methods analysis demonstrate that, while the IMB model may be a useful tool to utilize in explaining the complex relationship between factors that impact fruit and vegetable consumption among Native American children, a revised model may be appropriate to use in future intervention development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mixed Methods for Mixed Reality: Understanding Users' Avatar Activities in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldon, David F.; Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of mixed methods for analyzing users' avatar-related activities in a virtual world. Server logs recorded keystroke-level activity for 595 participants over a six-month period in Whyville.net, an informal science website. Participants also completed surveys and participated in interviews regarding their experiences.…

  14. Combining the power of stories and the power of numbers: mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews.

    PubMed

    Pluye, Pierre; Hong, Quan Nha

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews. These two approaches are used to combine the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods and to compensate for their respective limitations. This article is structured in three main parts. First, the epistemological background for mixed methods will be presented. Afterward, we present the main types of mixed methods research designs and techniques as well as guidance for planning, conducting, and appraising mixed methods research. In the last part, we describe the main types of mixed studies reviews and provide a tool kit and examples. Future research needs to offer guidance for assessing mixed methods research and reporting mixed studies reviews, among other challenges.

  15. An explicit mixed numerical method for mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, H.-M.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed numerical method has been developed for mesoscale models. The technique consists of a forward difference scheme for time tendency terms, an upstream scheme for advective terms, and a central scheme for the other terms in a physical system. It is shown that the mixed method is conditionally stable and highly accurate for approximating the system of either shallow-water equations in one dimension or primitive equations in three dimensions. Since the technique is explicit and two time level, it conserves computer and programming resources.

  16. A mixed method for axisymmetric div-curl systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Dylan M.; Gopalakrishnan, Jayadeep; Pasciak, Joseph E.

    2008-12-01

    We present a mixed method for a three-dimensional axisymmetric div-curl system reduced to a two-dimensional computational domain via cylindrical coordinates. We show that when the meridian axisymmetric Maxwell problem is approximated by a mixed method using the lowest order elements (for the vector variable) and linear elements (for the Lagrange multiplier), one obtains optimal error estimates in certain weighted Sobolev norms. The main ingredient of the analysis is a sequence of projectors in the weighted norms satisfying some commutativity properties.

  17. A mixed-methods approach to systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; White, Heath; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Salmond, Susan; Apostolo, Joao; Kirkpatrick, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    There are an increasing number of published single-method systematic reviews that focus on different types of evidence related to a particular topic. As policy makers and practitioners seek clear directions for decision-making from systematic reviews, it is likely that it will be increasingly difficult for them to identify 'what to do' if they are required to find and understand a plethora of syntheses related to a particular topic.Mixed-methods systematic reviews are designed to address this issue and have the potential to produce systematic reviews of direct relevance to policy makers and practitioners.On the basis of the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute International Mixed Methods Reviews Methodology Group in 2012, the Institute adopted a segregated approach to mixed-methods synthesis as described by Sandelowski et al., which consists of separate syntheses of each component method of the review. Joanna Briggs Institute's mixed-methods synthesis of the findings of the separate syntheses uses a Bayesian approach to translate the findings of the initial quantitative synthesis into qualitative themes and pooling these with the findings of the initial qualitative synthesis.

  18. Addressing gaps in the contraceptive method mix: methods in development.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Callahan, Rebecca; Dorflinger, Laneta

    2015-11-01

    Despite the availability of a variety of contraceptive methods, millions of women still have an unmet need for contraceptive choices. Short-acting methods are plagued by issues with adherence, leading to imperfect or inconsistent use and subsequent unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraceptive methods such as intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants, while providing highly effective and safe contraception, do not meet the needs of all women, often due to cost, access or acceptability issues. Several new methods are in various stages of development and are designed to address the shortcomings of current methods. Providers should be aware of these future options and how they might better meet women's needs.

  19. A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews.

    PubMed

    Pluye, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Griffiths, Frances; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-04-01

    A new form of literature review has emerged, Mixed Studies Review (MSR). These reviews include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In the present paper, we examine MSRs in health sciences, and provide guidance on processes that should be included and reported. However, there are no valid and usable criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. To propose criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies or study components. A three-step critical review was conducted. 2322 references were identified in MEDLINE, and their titles and abstracts were screened; 149 potentially relevant references were selected and the full-text papers were examined; 59 MSRs were retained and scrutinized using a deductive-inductive qualitative thematic data analysis. This revealed three types of MSR: convenience, reproducible, and systematic. Guided by a proposal, we conducted a qualitative thematic data analysis of the quality appraisal procedures used in the 17 systematic MSRs (SMSRs). Of 17 SMSRs, 12 showed clear quality appraisal procedures with explicit criteria but no SMSR used valid checklists to concomitantly appraise qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In two SMSRs, criteria were developed following a specific procedure. Checklists usually contained more criteria than needed. In four SMSRs, a reliability assessment was described or mentioned. While criteria for quality appraisal were usually based on descriptors that require specific methodological expertise (e.g., appropriateness), no SMSR described the fit between reviewers' expertise and appraised studies. Quality appraisal usually resulted in studies being ranked by methodological quality. A scoring system is proposed for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies for SMSRs. This

  20. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  1. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  2. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  3. An Extended Method for the Allocation of Exploratory Development Resources in Logistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    INTL MPK 8 3 O046i TWX. 910-373-2046 Final Report October 1982 ANEXTENDED MEHDFOR THE ALLOCATION 7 7 OF EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES ~~ IN...Pr’euident Research and Analysis Division 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, California 94025 *U.S.A. (415) 326-8200 Cable: SRI INTL MPK *TWX: 910-373

  4. Creating and Supporting a Mixed Methods Health Services Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. Methods. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Results. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Conclusions. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. PMID:24138774

  5. Mixed collocation methods for y''=f(x,y)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, John P.; Duxbury, Suzanne C.

    2000-12-01

    The collocation methods introduced here are based on linear combinations of trigonometric functions and powers. The motivation is to provide better approximations for oscillatory solutions of initial-value problems for differential equations of the special form y''=f(x,y). The resulting methods, for two or more collocation points, are implicit Runge-Kutta-Nyström methods with coefficients which depend on both the fitted angular frequency and the steplength. Algebraic and trigonometric order conditions are considered and the stability properties of some methods are examined. Particular mixed collocation methods, and other methods for the same class of problems, are compared by applying them to a variety of test problems.

  6. Mixed methods research - the best of both worlds?

    PubMed

    van Griensven, Hubert; Moore, Ann P; Hall, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    There has been a bias towards quantitative research approaches within manual therapy, which may have resulted in a narrow understanding of manual therapy practice. The aim of this Masterclass is to make a contribution to the expansion of methodologies used in manual therapy enquiry by discussing mixed methods research (MMR), a methodology which utilises both qualitative and quantitative methods within a single study in order to provide more comprehensive insights. To review rationales for MMR, as well as some of the common design options and potential difficulties. The paper also discusses theoretical frameworks that have been used to underpin qualitative and quantitative research, and ongoing debates about the possibility of combining them. Complexities associated with health and manual therapy cannot always be investigated satisfactorily by using a single research method. Some issues require a more comprehensive understanding, which may be provided by combining the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods in a mixed methods study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixed method nursing studies: a critical realist critique.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Mixed method study designs are becoming increasingly popular among nurse researchers. Mixed studies can have advantages over single method or methodological investigative designs. However, these advantages may be squandered where researchers fail to think through and justify their theoretic decisions. This paper argues that nurse researchers do not always pay sufficient heed to the philosophic and theoretic elements of research design and, in consequence, some mixed study reports lack argumentative coherence and validity. It is here suggested that Hempel's concept of equivalence can be stretched to usefully illustrate one of the main threats to argumentative coherence in mixed study design. The critical realist theory of Roy Bhaskar is then introduced and this, it is proposed, offers one means by which Hempel's equivalence dilemma can be overcome. Critical realists recognize the existence of logical connections between the ontological, epistemological, and methodological premises that underpin their work. They are therefore more likely to produce coherent studies than uncritical pragmatists who ignore such linkages and, paradoxically, critical realists can be epistemological pluralists because, in re-conceptualizing the ontological basis of inquiry, problems associated with the mixing of alternative metaphysics are circumvented.

  8. The Importance of Context in Screening in Occupational Health Interventions in Organizations: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Vignoli, Michela; Nielsen, Karina; Guglielmi, Dina; Tabanelli, Maria C; Violante, Francesco S

    2017-01-01

    In occupational health interventions, there is a debate as to whether standardized or tailored measures should be used to identify which aspects of the psychosocial work environment should be targeted in order to improve employees' well-being. Using the Job Demands-Resources model, the main aim of the present study is to demonstrate how a mixed methods approach to conducting screening enables the identification of potential context-dependent demands and resources in the workplace, which should to be targeted by the intervention. Specifically, we used a mixed methods exploratory sequential research design. First, we conducted four focus groups (N = 37) in a sample of employees working in grocery stores in Italy. The qualitative results allowed to identify one possible context-specific job demand: the use of a work scheduling IT software, whose implementation resulted in a high rotation between different market's departments. From the qualitative results, this context-specific demand seemed to be related to workers' well-being. Thus, in a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 288), we included this demand together with generic measures of social support and psychological well-being. Results confirmed that this context-specific job demand was related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, it was found that social support moderated the relationship between this specific job demand and emotional exhaustion showing among employees whose activities depended on the IT software, employees that perceived higher levels of social support from colleagues experienced lower levels of emotional exhaustion with respect to their colleagues who perceived lower levels of social support. The present study confirms that mixed methods approach is useful in occupational health intervention research and offers a way forward on helping organizations prioritize their intervention activities.

  9. The Importance of Context in Screening in Occupational Health Interventions in Organizations: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Vignoli, Michela; Nielsen, Karina; Guglielmi, Dina; Tabanelli, Maria C.; Violante, Francesco S.

    2017-01-01

    In occupational health interventions, there is a debate as to whether standardized or tailored measures should be used to identify which aspects of the psychosocial work environment should be targeted in order to improve employees’ well-being. Using the Job Demands-Resources model, the main aim of the present study is to demonstrate how a mixed methods approach to conducting screening enables the identification of potential context-dependent demands and resources in the workplace, which should to be targeted by the intervention. Specifically, we used a mixed methods exploratory sequential research design. First, we conducted four focus groups (N = 37) in a sample of employees working in grocery stores in Italy. The qualitative results allowed to identify one possible context-specific job demand: the use of a work scheduling IT software, whose implementation resulted in a high rotation between different market’s departments. From the qualitative results, this context-specific demand seemed to be related to workers’ well-being. Thus, in a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 288), we included this demand together with generic measures of social support and psychological well-being. Results confirmed that this context-specific job demand was related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, it was found that social support moderated the relationship between this specific job demand and emotional exhaustion showing among employees whose activities depended on the IT software, employees that perceived higher levels of social support from colleagues experienced lower levels of emotional exhaustion with respect to their colleagues who perceived lower levels of social support. The present study confirms that mixed methods approach is useful in occupational health intervention research and offers a way forward on helping organizations prioritize their intervention activities. PMID:28848468

  10. Prevalence of Mixed Methods Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Amanda A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In wake of federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that have called for "scientifically based research in education," this study examined the possible trends in mixed methods research articles published in 2 peer-reviewed mathematics education journals (n = 87) from 2002 to 2006. The study also illustrates how…

  11. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study utilized the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, responses to open-ended questions, and in-depth interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities that were present among principals in Alberta, Canada. The first quantitative phase consisted of a random sample of 135 schools (with…

  12. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  13. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  14. Mixed methods analysis of urban environmental stewardship networks

    Treesearch

    James J.T. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    While mixed methods approaches to research have been accepted practice within the social sciences for several decades (Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003), the rising demand for cross-disciplinary analyses of socio-environmental processes has necessitated a renewed examination of this approach within environmental studies. Urban environmental stewardship is one area where it...

  15. Assessing Affective Constructs in Reading: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradi, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating affective dimensions in reading has long been plagued by vaguely defined constructs and, consequently, by an array of potentially problematic instruments designed to measure them. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship among three popular group-administered instruments intended to tap affective constructs in…

  16. Libraries in Online Elementary Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Laura; Franklin, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    School libraries serve an important role; however, elementary students who attend schools online typically do not have a school library. This study followed an online school's inaugural year in instituting a library. A mixed methods approach examined data from focus groups, interviews, surveys, library-use records and oral reading fluency scores.…

  17. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  18. Motivational Engagement and Video Gaming: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby; Nadelson, Louis

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods design was used to identify factors associated with motivational engagement in video gaming. Self-report instruments were administered to 189 video game players to assess goal orientations, affect, need for cognition, and perceptions of engagement and flow. Simultaneously, a sub-set of 25 participants were interviewed and results…

  19. Motivational Engagement and Video Gaming: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby; Nadelson, Louis

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods design was used to identify factors associated with motivational engagement in video gaming. Self-report instruments were administered to 189 video game players to assess goal orientations, affect, need for cognition, and perceptions of engagement and flow. Simultaneously, a sub-set of 25 participants were interviewed and results…

  20. Consent, Informal Organization and Job Rewards: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Marty

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a mixed methods approach to workplace dynamics. Ethnographic observations show that the consent deal underlies an informal stratification that divides the workplace into an "informal periphery," a "conventional core" and an "administrative clan." The "consent deal" is defined as an exchange of autonomy, voice and schedule…

  1. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of…

  2. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  3. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study utilized the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, responses to open-ended questions, and in-depth interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities that were present among principals in Alberta, Canada. The first quantitative phase consisted of a random sample of 135 schools (with…

  4. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  5. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  6. Creating and supporting a mixed methods health services research team.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-12-01

    To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  8. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  9. Libraries in Online Elementary Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Laura; Franklin, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    School libraries serve an important role; however, elementary students who attend schools online typically do not have a school library. This study followed an online school's inaugural year in instituting a library. A mixed methods approach examined data from focus groups, interviews, surveys, library-use records and oral reading fluency scores.…

  10. Mixed Methods and Credibility of Evidence in Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.; Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2013-01-01

    We argue for a view of credible evidence that is multidimensional in philosophical and methodological terms. We advocate for the importance of deepening the meaning of credible evaluation practice and findings by bringing multiple philosophical and theoretical lenses to the evaluation process as a basis for the use of mixed methods in evaluation,…

  11. Consent, Informal Organization and Job Rewards: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Marty

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a mixed methods approach to workplace dynamics. Ethnographic observations show that the consent deal underlies an informal stratification that divides the workplace into an "informal periphery," a "conventional core" and an "administrative clan." The "consent deal" is defined as an exchange of autonomy, voice and schedule…

  12. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  13. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, W.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  14. Using a Sequential Exploratory Mixed-Method Design to Examine Racial Hyperprivilege in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2011-01-01

    Immediately after the election of a person of color to the presidency, the idea of being "postracial" seeped into the national media, essentially claiming that racism was over. According to this author, however, the United States is far from a "postracial" society. He contends that systemic racism continues to inequitably stratify society in favor…

  15. What supports hospital pharmacist prescribing in Scotland? - A mixed methods, exploratory sequential study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J; Kinnear, M; Reid, F; Souter, C; Stewart, D

    2017-06-17

    While approximately half of all qualified hospital pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) in Scotland are active prescribers, there are major differences in prescribing activity across geographical areas. This study aimed to explore, through focus groups, interviews and a questionnaire, hospital PIPs' perceptions of factors associated with prescribing activity and to investigate the infrastructure required to better support active prescribing by PIPs. Findings reinforced the perceived positive impact of supportive pharmacy leadership within the organisation, recognition that prescribing is integral to the clinical pharmacist role and a work environment conducive to prescribing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Food store owners' and managers' perspectives on the food environment: an exploratory mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Boston, P Qasimah; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Schultz, Alan F; Betterley, Connie

    2014-10-03

    Neighborhood characteristics such as poverty and racial composition are associated with inequalities in access to food stores and in the risk of obesity, but the pathways between food environments and health are not well understood. This article extends research on consumer food environments by examining the perspectives of food-store owners and managers. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews with managers and owners of 20 food stores in low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in Tallahassee, Florida (USA). The interviews were designed to elicit store managers' and owners' views about healthy foods, the local food environment, and the challenges and opportunities they face in creating access to healthy foods. We elicited perceptions of what constitutes "healthy foods" using two free-list questions. The study was designed and implemented in accord with principles of community-based participatory research. Store owners' and managers' conceptions of "healthy foods" overlapped with public health messages, but (a) agreement about which foods are healthy was not widespread and (b) some retailers perceived processed foods such as snack bars and sugar-sweetened juice drinks as healthy. In semistructured interviews, store owners and managers linked the consumer food environment to factors across multiple levels of analysis, including: business practices such as the priority of making sales and the delocalization of decision-making, macroeconomic factors such as poverty and the cost of healthier foods, individual and family-level factors related to parenting and time constraints, and community-level factors such as crime and decline of social cohesion. Our results link food stores to multilevel, ecological models of the food environment. Efforts to reshape the consumer food environment require attention to factors across multiple levels of analysis, including local conceptions of "healthy foods", the business priority of making sales, and policies and practices that favor the delocalization of decision making and constrain access to healthful foods.

  17. Individual Differences in Rater Decision-Making Style: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Beverly Anne

    2012-01-01

    Researchers of high-stakes, subjectively scored writing assessments have done much work to better understand the process that raters go through in applying a rating scale to a language performance to arrive at a score. However, there is still unexplained, systematic variability in rater scoring that resists rater training (see Hoyt & Kerns,…

  18. Willingness of Nurses to Learn with the Use of Technology: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of technologically enhanced tools are becoming available to meet the ongoing professional development needs of nurses. Only a few studies have addressed nurses' willingness to learn with technology, resulting in the problem of inadequate evidence to guide best practices for technology incorporation into nursing professional…

  19. A Mixed Methods Approach to Understanding School Counseling Program Evaluation: High School Counselors' Methods and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucoin, Jennifer Mangrum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods concurrent triangulation study was to examine the program evaluation practices of high school counselors. A total of 294 high school counselors in Texas were assessed using a mixed methods concurrent triangulation design. A researcher-developed survey, the School Counseling Program Evaluation Questionnaire…

  20. A Mixed Methods Approach to Understanding School Counseling Program Evaluation: High School Counselors' Methods and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucoin, Jennifer Mangrum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods concurrent triangulation study was to examine the program evaluation practices of high school counselors. A total of 294 high school counselors in Texas were assessed using a mixed methods concurrent triangulation design. A researcher-developed survey, the School Counseling Program Evaluation Questionnaire…

  1. Realist explanatory theory building method for social epidemiology: a protocol for a mixed method multilevel study of neighbourhood context and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A

    2014-01-01

    A recent criticism of social epidemiological studies, and multi-level studies in particular has been a paucity of theory. We will present here the protocol for a study that aims to build a theory of the social epidemiology of maternal depression. We use a critical realist approach which is trans-disciplinary, encompassing both quantitative and qualitative traditions, and that assumes both ontological and hierarchical stratification of reality. We describe a critical realist Explanatory Theory Building Method comprising of an: 1) emergent phase, 2) construction phase, and 3) confirmatory phase. A concurrent triangulated mixed method multilevel cross-sectional study design is described. The Emergent Phase uses: interviews, focus groups, exploratory data analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, and multilevel Bayesian spatial data analysis to detect and describe phenomena. Abductive and retroductive reasoning will be applied to: categorical principal component analysis, exploratory factor analysis, regression, coding of concepts and categories, constant comparative analysis, drawing of conceptual networks, and situational analysis to generate theoretical concepts. The Theory Construction Phase will include: 1) defining stratified levels; 2) analytic resolution; 3) abductive reasoning; 4) comparative analysis (triangulation); 5) retroduction; 6) postulate and proposition development; 7) comparison and assessment of theories; and 8) conceptual frameworks and model development. The strength of the critical realist methodology described is the extent to which this paradigm is able to support the epistemological, ontological, axiological, methodological and rhetorical positions of both quantitative and qualitative research in the field of social epidemiology. The extensive multilevel Bayesian studies, intensive qualitative studies, latent variable theory, abductive triangulation, and Inference to Best Explanation provide a strong foundation for Theory

  2. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of total cholesterol measured in five Israeli populations.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T; Carmelli, D; Cameron, E

    1985-07-01

    Three structured exploratory data analysis-functionals are applied to plasma total cholesterol concentrations measured for 2,480 young men and women aged 17-18 years and living in Jerusalem, and for their parents. These triad families are divided into five groups according to whether both parents were born in Asia, North Africa, Europe-America, or Israel or whether they were of mixed "origins." The significances of the functionals were determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffled the trait values across families in order to systematically alter certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. These analyses suggest that generational differences and various distributional effects influence patterns of spouse and parent-offspring interactions within these families and that the nature and forms of these effects and interactions may differ according to the origin of the parents. Results are discussed in relationship to historical and cultural differences among groups.

  3. The role of mixed methods in improved cookstove research.

    PubMed

    Stanistreet, Debbi; Hyseni, Lirije; Bashin, Michelle; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Pope, Daniel; Sage, Michael; Bruce, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of promoting access to clean and efficient household energy for cooking and heating is a critical issue facing low- and middle-income countries today. Along with clean fuels, improved cookstoves (ICSs) continue to play an important part in efforts to reduce the 4 million annual premature deaths attributed to household air pollution. Although a range of ICSs are available, there is little empirical evidence on appropriate behavior change approaches to inform adoption and sustained used at scale. Specifically, evaluations using either quantitative or qualitative methods provide an incomplete picture of the challenges in facilitating ICS adoption. This article examines how studies that use the strengths of both these approaches can offer important insights into behavior change in relation to ICS uptake and scale-up. Epistemological approaches, study design frameworks, methods of data collection, analytical approaches, and issues of validity and reliability in the context of mixed methods ICS research are examined, and the article presents an example study design from an evaluation study in Kenya incorporating a nested approach and a convergent case oriented design. The authors discuss the benefits and methodological challenges of mixed-methods approaches in the context of researching behavior change and ICS use recognizing that such methods represent relatively uncharted territory. The authors propose that more published examples are needed to provide frameworks for other researchers seeking to apply mixed methods in this context and suggest a comprehensive research agenda is required that incorporates integrated mixed-methods approaches, to provide best evidence for future scale-up.

  4. The Use of Mixed Methods for Therapeutic Massage Research

    PubMed Central

    Porcino, Antony Joseph; Verhoef, Marja J.

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research is the integration of quantitative and qualitative components in a research project. Whether you are reading or designing a mixed methods research project, it is important to be familiar with both qualitative and quantitative research methods and the specific purposes for which they are brought together in a study: triangulation, complementarity, expansion, initiation, or development. In addition, decisions need to be made about the sequencing and the priority or importance of each qualitative and quantitative component relative to the other components, and the point or points at which the various qualitative and quantitative components will be integrated. Mixed methods research is increasingly being recognized for its ability to bring multiple points of view to a research project, taking advantage of the strengths of each of the quantitative and qualitative components to explain or resolve complex phenomena or results. This ability becomes critical when complex healing systems such as therapeutic massage are being studied. Complex healing systems may have multiple physiologic effects, often reflected in changes throughout the patient’s body. Additionally, the patient’s experience of the treatment may be an important outcome. PMID:21589698

  5. Prevalence of Mixed-Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to document the prevalence of sampling designs utilised in mixed-methods research and to examine the interpretive consistency between interpretations made in mixed-methods studies and the sampling design used. Classification of studies was based on a two-dimensional mixed-methods sampling model. This…

  6. Laminated microchannel devices, mixing units and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA

    2002-10-17

    A laminated microchannel device is described in which there is a unit operation process layer that has longitudinal channel. The longitudinal channel is cut completely through the layer in which the unit process operation resides. Both the device structure and method of making the device provide significant advantages in terms of simplicity and efficiency. A static mixing unit that can be incorporated in the laminated microchannel device is also described.

  7. Using mixed methods to identify factors influencing patient flow.

    PubMed

    Van Vaerenbergh, Cindy

    2009-11-01

    An effective method of identifying operational factors that influence patient flow can potentially lead to improvements and thus have huge benefits on the efficiency of hospital departments. This paper presents a new inductive mixed-method approach to identify operational factors that influence patient flow through an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Preliminary explorative observations were conducted, followed by semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. A questionnaire survey of all medical, nursing, porter and clerical staff was then conducted. The observations provided factors for further exploration: skill-mix, long working hours, equipment availability, lack of orientation programmes, inefficient IT use and issues regarding communication structures. Interviewees highlighted several factors, including availability of medical supervision and senior nursing staff, nursing documentation issues, lack of morale due to overcrowding, personality differences and factors relating to the department layout. The questionnaire respondents strongly supported the importance of the previously identified factors. This paper demonstrates an effective mixed-method approach that can be replicated by other health-care managers to identify factors influencing patient flow. Further benefits include increased volume and quality of data, increased staff awareness for the influence of internal factors on patient flow and enhancing the evidence base for future decision making when prioritizing A&E projects.

  8. Analyzing the House Fly’s Exploratory Behavior with Autoregression Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hisanao; Horibe, Naoto; Shimada, Masakazu; Ikegami, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of the trajectory of a single housefly with free range of a square cage. The trajectory of the fly was recorded and transformed into a time series, which was fully analyzed using an autoregressive model, which describes a stationary time series by a linear regression of prior state values with the white noise. The main discovery was that the fly switched styles of motion from a low dimensional regular pattern to a higher dimensional disordered pattern. This discovered exploratory behavior is, irrespective of the presence of food, characterized by anomalous diffusion.

  9. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C S

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  10. Mixed-Methods Research in Nutrition and Dietetics.

    PubMed

    Zoellner, Jamie; Harris, Jeffrey E

    2017-03-08

    This work focuses on mixed-methods research (MMR) and is the 11th in a series exploring the importance of research design, statistical analysis, and epidemiologic methods as applied to nutrition and dietetics research. MMR research is an investigative technique that applies both quantitative and qualitative data. The purpose of this article is to define MMR; describe its history and nature; provide reasons for its use; describe and explain the six different MMR designs; describe sample selection; and provide guidance in data collection, analysis, and inference. MMR concepts are applied and integrated with nutrition-related scenarios in real-world research contexts and summary recommendations are provided.

  11. Preconditioned Mixed Spectral Element Methods for Elasticity and Stokes Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavarino, Luca F.

    1996-01-01

    Preconditioned iterative methods for the indefinite systems obtained by discretizing the linear elasticity and Stokes problems with mixed spectral elements in three dimensions are introduced and analyzed. The resulting stiffness matrices have the structure of saddle point problems with a penalty term, which is associated with the Poisson ratio for elasticity problems or with stabilization techniques for Stokes problems. The main results of this paper show that the convergence rate of the resulting algorithms is independent of the penalty parameter, the number of spectral elements Nu and mildly dependent on the spectral degree eta via the inf-sup constant. The preconditioners proposed for the whole indefinite system are block-diagonal and block-triangular. Numerical experiments presented in the final section show that these algorithms are a practical and efficient strategy for the iterative solution of the indefinite problems arising from mixed spectral element discretizations of elliptic systems.

  12. Staffing levels in rural nursing homes: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Towsley, Gail L; Beck, Susan L; Dudley, William N; Pepper, Ginette A

    2011-07-01

    This mixed methods study used multiple regression analyses to examine the impact of organizational and market characteristics on staffing hours and staffing mix, and qualitative interview to explore the challenges and facilitators of recruiting and retaining qualified staff. Rural nursing homes (NHs) certified by Medicare or Medicaid (N = 161) were sampled from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting system. A subsample (n = 23) was selected purposively for the qualitative analysis. Smaller NHs or government-affiliated homes had more total nursing hours per resident day and more hours of care by certified nursing assistants and RNs than larger and nongovernment-affiliated homes; however, almost 87% of NHs in this study were below the national recommendation for RN hours. Informants voiced challenges related to enough staff, qualified staff, and training staff. Development of nursing resources is critical, especially in rural locales where aging resources may not be well developed.

  13. The random card sort method and respondent certainty in contingent valuation: an exploratory investigation of range bias.

    PubMed

    Shackley, Phil; Dixon, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) values derived from contingent valuation surveys are prone to a number of biases. Range bias occurs when the range of money values presented to respondents in a payment card affects their stated WTP values. This paper reports the results of an exploratory study whose aim was to investigate whether the effects of range bias can be reduced through the use of an alternative to the standard payment card method, namely, a random card sort method. The results suggest that the random card sort method is prone to range bias but that this bias may be mitigated by restricting the analysis to the WTP values of those respondents who indicate they are 'definitely sure' they would pay their stated WTP. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Role of Religion in Preventing Youth Sexual Activity in Malaysia: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani

    2016-01-25

    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.

  15. Protocol for a mixed-methods study of supplemental oxygen in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Amanda; Fier, Kaitlin; Albright, Karen; Baird, Susan; Crowe, Brenda; Eres, Linda; Korn, Marjorie; Maginn, Leslie; McCormick, Mark; Root, Elisabeth D; Vierzba, Thomas; Wamboldt, Frederick S; Swigris, Jeffrey J

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about whether or how supplemental oxygen affects patients with pulmonary fibrosis. A mixed-methods study is described. Patients with pulmonary fibrosis, informal caregivers of pulmonary fibrosis patients and practitioners who prescribe supplemental oxygen will be interviewed to gather data on perceptions of how supplemental oxygen impacts patients. In addition, three hundred pulmonary fibrosis patients who do not use daytime supplemental oxygen will be recruited to participate in a longitudinal, pre-/post- study in which patient-reported outcome (PRO) and activity data will be collected at baseline, immediately before daytime supplemental oxygen is initiated, and then once and again 9-12 months later. Activity data will be collected using accelerometers and portable GPS data recorders. The primary outcome is change in dyspnea from before to one month after supplemental oxygen is initiated. Secondary outcomes include scores from PROs to assess cough, fatigue and quality of life as well as the activity data. In exploratory analyses, we will use longitudinal data analytic techniques to assess the trajectories of outcomes over time while controlling for potentially influential variables. Throughout the study and at its completion, results will be posted on the website for our research program (the Participation Program for Pulmonary Fibrosis or P3F) at http://www.pulmonaryfibrosisresearch.org.

  16. Understanding Post-Deployment Reintegration Concerns Among En Route Care Nurses: A Mixed-Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Felecia M; Dukes, Susan; Hatzfeld, Jennifer; Yoder, Linda H; Gordon, Sandra; Simmons, Angela

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand the post-deployment behavior health symptoms and readjustment/reintegration experienced by military nurses who provided en route care while serving in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom. Employing an exploratory, concurrent, mixed-methods design with an electronic survey consisting of several valid instruments and single, face-to-face interviews; data were gathered from 119 surveys and 22 interviews. Four qualitative themes aligned with the Post-Deployment Readjustment Inventory items. Findings from interviews support and illuminate the outcomes of the Post-Deployment Readjustment Inventory. Behavioral health usage was high in the quantitative sample. Nearly 74% (n = 88) of respondents indicating they had used Military Behavioral Health services following deployment. Statistically significant differences were noted among all subscales except Intimate Relationship Problems. Combined results indicated en route care nurses encountered difficulties when attempting to return to predeployment roles; behavioral health problems mirrored those of combat warriors. Interventions to assist post-deployment reintegration of en route care nurses should be conducted at the peer, leader, and health care provider levels. Embedding military mental health providers into en route care units is needed. It is imperative to gather lessons learned and identify ways to improve preparation for future conflicts and behavioral health of en route care nurses.

  17. Cultural continuity, traditional Indigenous language, and diabetes in Alberta First Nations: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Oster, Richard T; Grier, Angela; Lightning, Rick; Mayan, Maria J; Toth, Ellen L

    2014-10-19

    We used an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach to study the association between cultural continuity, self-determination, and diabetes prevalence in First Nations in Alberta, Canada. We conducted a qualitative description where we interviewed 10 Cree and Blackfoot leaders (members of Chief and Council) from across the province to understand cultural continuity, self-determination, and their relationship to health and diabetes, in the Alberta First Nations context. Based on the qualitative findings, we then conducted a cross-sectional analysis using provincial administrative data and publically available data for 31 First Nations communities to quantitatively examine any relationship between cultural continuity and diabetes prevalence. Cultural continuity, or "being who we are", is foundational to health in successful First Nations. Self-determination, or "being a self-sufficient Nation", stems from cultural continuity and is seriously compromised in today's Alberta Cree and Blackfoot Nations. Unfortunately, First Nations are in a continuous struggle with government policy. The intergenerational effects of colonization continue to impact the culture, which undermines the sense of self-determination, and contributes to diabetes and ill health. Crude diabetes prevalence varied dramatically among First Nations with values as low as 1.2% and as high as 18.3%. Those First Nations that appeared to have more cultural continuity (measured by traditional Indigenous language knowledge) had significantly lower diabetes prevalence after adjustment for socio-economic factors (p =0.007). First Nations that have been better able to preserve their culture may be relatively protected from diabetes.

  18. Characterizing non-monosexual women at risk for poor mental health outcomes: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; Manley, Melissa H; Goldberg, Abbie E; Januwalla, Alia; Williams, Keisha; Flanders, Corey E

    2017-09-14

    Non-monosexual women - those who report attraction to or sexual relationships with individuals of more than one gender - have elevated risk for poor mental health outcomes. We aimed to examine which elements of non-monosexual experience are associated with this elevated risk. We conducted a sequential exploratory mixed methods analysis of qualitative interview and survey data from 39 non-monosexual women recruited consecutively through prenatal care providers. Qualitative analyses identified distinguishing features, and quantitative analyses tested associations between these features and mental health symptoms. Nine qualitative themes were identified to describe distinguishing features of non-monosexual women. Of these, current and past five years partner gender, lack of LGBTQ community connection, and low centrality of sexual minority identity were associated with anxiety symptoms. Latent class analysis revealed significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms among non-monosexual women partnered with men relative to those partnered with women. Sexual minority women who partner with men may be particularly at risk for poor mental health. Considering this group's invisibility in public health research and practice, interventions are needed to address this disparity.

  19. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-07-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results.

  20. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-01-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results. PMID:6475959

  1. Mixed mode control method and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Kesse, Mary L.; Duffy, Kevin P.

    2007-04-10

    A method of mixed mode operation of an internal combustion engine includes the steps of controlling a homogeneous charge combustion event timing in a given engine cycle, and controlling a conventional charge injection event to be at least a predetermined time after the homogeneous charge combustion event. An internal combustion engine is provided, including an electronic controller having a computer readable medium with a combustion timing control algorithm recorded thereon, the control algorithm including means for controlling a homogeneous charge combustion event timing and means for controlling a conventional injection event timing to be at least a predetermined time from the homogeneous charge combustion event.

  2. A mixed methods assessment of coping with pediatric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child coping and parent coping assistance with cancer-related stressors during treatment. Fifteen children (aged 6-12) with cancer and their parents (N = 17) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess coping and coping assistance. Results suggest families utilized a broad array of approach and avoidance strategies to manage cancer and its treatment. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping among children with cancer and their parents. Using a mixed methods approach to assess coping provides a richer understanding of families’ experiences, which can better inform clinical practice. PMID:24428250

  3. Estimation Methods for Mixed Logistic Models with Few Clusters.

    PubMed

    McNeish, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    For mixed models generally, it is well known that modeling data with few clusters will result in biased estimates, particularly of the variance components and fixed effect standard errors. In linear mixed models, small sample bias is typically addressed through restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML) and a Kenward-Roger correction. Yet with binary outcomes, there is no direct analog of either procedure. With a larger number of clusters, estimation methods for binary outcomes that approximate the likelihood to circumvent the lack of a closed form solution such as adaptive Gaussian quadrature and the Laplace approximation have been shown to yield less-biased estimates than linearization estimation methods that instead linearly approximate the model. However, adaptive Gaussian quadrature and the Laplace approximation are approximating the full likelihood rather than the restricted likelihood; the full likelihood is known to yield biased estimates with few clusters. On the other hand, linearization methods linearly approximate the model, which allows for restricted maximum likelihood and the Kenward-Roger correction to be applied. Thus, the following question arises: Which is preferable, a better approximation of a biased function or a worse approximation of an unbiased function? We address this question with a simulation and an illustrative empirical analysis.

  4. A mixed model reduction method for preserving selected physical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Gangtie

    2017-03-01

    A new model reduction method in the frequency domain is presented. By mixedly using the model reduction techniques from both the time domain and the frequency domain, the dynamic model is condensed to selected physical coordinates, and the contribution of slave degrees of freedom is taken as a modification to the model in the form of effective modal mass of virtually constrained modes. The reduced model can preserve the physical information related to the selected physical coordinates such as physical parameters and physical space positions of corresponding structure components. For the cases of non-classical damping, the method is extended to the model reduction in the state space but still only contains the selected physical coordinates. Numerical results are presented to validate the method and show the effectiveness of the model reduction.

  5. Methods That Matter: Integrating Mixed Methods for More Effective Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, M. Cameron, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    To do research that really makes a difference--the authors of this book argue--social scientists need questions and methods that reflect the complexity of the world. Bringing together a consortium of voices across a variety of fields, "Methods that Matter" offers compelling and successful examples of mixed methods research that do just…

  6. Getting to the Bottom Line: A Method for Synthesizing Findings within Mixed-Method Program Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConney, Andrew; Rudd, Andy; Ayres, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a method for synthesizing findings within mixed-method program evaluations. The proposed method uses a set of criteria and analytic techniques to assess the worth of each data source or type and to establish what each says about program effect. Once data are on a common scale, simple mathematics allows synthesis across data sources or…

  7. Twelve tips for getting started using mixed methods in medical education research.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Ellen; Vuk, Jasna; Barber, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    Mixed methods research, which is gaining popularity in medical education, provides a new and comprehensive approach for addressing teaching, learning, and evaluation issues in the field. The aim of this article is to provide medical education researchers with 12 tips, based on consideration of current literature in the health professions and in educational research, for conducting and disseminating mixed methods research. Engaging in mixed methods research requires consideration of several major components: the mixed methods paradigm, types of problems, mixed method designs, collaboration, and developing or extending theory. Mixed methods is an ideal tool for addressing a full range of problems in medical education to include development of theory and improving practice.

  8. A mixed methods investigation of bicycle exposure in crash rates.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Nicholas; Christofa, Eleni; Knodler, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Crash rates are an essential tool enabling researchers and practitioners to assess whether a location is truly more dangerous, or simply serves a higher volume of vehicles. Unfortunately, this simple crash rate is far more difficult to calculate for bicycles due to data challenges and the fact that they are uniquely exposed to both bicycle and automobile volumes on shared roadways. Bicycle count data, though increasingly more available, still represents a fraction of the available count data for automobiles. Further compounding on this, bicycle demand estimation methods often require more data than automobiles to account for the high variability that bicycle demand is subject to. This paper uses a combination of mixed methods to overcome these challenges and to perform an investigation of crash rates and exposure to different traffic volumes.

  9. Deep Mixing in Stellar Variability: Improved Method, Statistics, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Theresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2016-07-01

    The preliminary results on deep-mixing manifestations in stellar variability are tested using our improved method and extended data set. We measure the timescales τ m of the stochastic change in the spectral power of rotational harmonics with numbers m ≤ 3 in the light curves of 1361 main-sequence stars from the Kepler mission archive. We find that the gradient [{log}({τ }2)-{log}({τ }1)]/[{log}(2)-{log}(1)] has a histogram maximum at -2/3, demonstrating agreement with Kolmogorov’s theory of turbulence and therefore confirming the manifestation of deep mixing. The squared amplitudes of the first and second rotational harmonics, corrected for integral photometry distortion, also show a quasi-Kolmogorov character with spectral index ≈-5/3. Moreover, the reduction of τ 1 and τ 2 to the timescales τ lam1 and τ lam2 of laminar convection in the deep stellar layers reveals the proximity of both τ lam1 and τ lam2 to the turnover time τ MLT of standard mixing length theory. Considering this result, we use the obtained stellar variability timescales instead of τ MLT in our analysis of the relation between stellar activity and the Rossby number P/τ MLT. Comparison of our diagrams with previous results and theoretical expectations shows that best-fit correspondence is achieved for τ lam1, which can therefore be used as an analog of τ MLT. This means that the laminar component (giant cells) of stellar turbulent convection indeed plays an important role in the physics of stars. Additionally, we estimate the diffusivity of magnetic elements in stellar photospheres.

  10. Factors Influencing Achievement in Undergraduate Social Science Research Methods Courses: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate social science research methods courses tend to have higher than average rates of failure and withdrawal. Lack of success in these courses impedes students' progression through their degree programs and negatively impacts institutional retention and graduation rates. Grounded in adult learning theory, this mixed methods study…

  11. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  12. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  13. Survey of methods used to determine if a patient has a deep vein thrombosis: An exploratory research report.

    PubMed

    Heick, John D; Farris, James W

    2017-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is encouraged in the physical therapy profession, but integrating evidence into practice can be difficult for clinicians because of lack of time and other constraints. To survey physical therapy clinical instructors and determine the methods they use for screening for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a type of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the lower extremities. Exploratory survey. Twelve survey questions written specifically for this study were sent to a convenience sample of clinical instructors associated with seven universities across 43 states. Eight hundred fifty clinical instructors (22.4% response rate) completed the survey. Of those who responded, 80.5% were taught to use Homans sign to screen for a possible DVT in their entry-level education and 67.9% continued to use Homans sign in clinical practice. Regardless of post-graduate education, respondents were more likely to choose Homans sign than a clinical decision rule (CDR) to screen for a suspected DVT. Additionally, nearly two-thirds of respondents failed to correctly identify one or more of the major risk factors for developing a DVT/VTE. The response rate was 22.4% and therefore may not fully represent the population of physical therapy clinical instructors in the United States. Results from this exploratory survey indicated that approximately two-thirds of physical therapy clinical instructors used outdated DVT/VTE screening methods that they were taught in their entry-level education and nearly two-thirds did not identify the major risk factors associated with DVT/VTE. These results suggest that change is necessary in physical therapy education, clinical practice, and continuing professional development to ensure a more evidenced-based identification of DVT and VTE.

  14. A mixed methods study of Canadian adolescents’ perceptions of health

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, William; Vandemeer, Eleanor; Taylor, Brian; Davison, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Health perceptions adopted during childhood lay foundations for adult health trajectories and experiences. This study used a sequential mixed methods design to generate new evidence about child perceptions of health in two samples of Canadian children. A core qualitative study was followed by a complementary quantitative analysis to aid interpretation. Generational theory was used as a lens through which to interpret all data. Findings suggested that good health is perceived as customized and subjective. The strengths and liabilities of these perceptions are discussed, as well as implications for health promotion and prevention strategies. Through intentional consideration of the perspectives of this population group, this study makes both empirical and theoretical contributions to appreciating how cultural environments shape health perceptions. PMID:27741955

  15. A mixed methods study of Canadian adolescents' perceptions of health.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Valerie; Pickett, William; Vandemeer, Eleanor; Taylor, Brian; Davison, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Health perceptions adopted during childhood lay foundations for adult health trajectories and experiences. This study used a sequential mixed methods design to generate new evidence about child perceptions of health in two samples of Canadian children. A core qualitative study was followed by a complementary quantitative analysis to aid interpretation. Generational theory was used as a lens through which to interpret all data. Findings suggested that good health is perceived as customized and subjective. The strengths and liabilities of these perceptions are discussed, as well as implications for health promotion and prevention strategies. Through intentional consideration of the perspectives of this population group, this study makes both empirical and theoretical contributions to appreciating how cultural environments shape health perceptions.

  16. Bisexuality, poverty and mental health: A mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; O'Gorman, Laurel; MacLeod, Melissa A; Bauer, Greta R; MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    Bisexuality is consistently associated with poor mental health outcomes. In population-based data, this is partially explained by income differences between bisexual people and lesbian, gay, and/or heterosexual individuals. However, the interrelationships between bisexuality, poverty, and mental health are poorly understood. In this paper, we examine the relationships between these variables using a mixed methods study of 302 adult bisexuals from Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling to complete an internet-based survey including measures of psychological distress and minority stress. A subset of participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview to contextualize their mental health experiences. Using information regarding household income, number of individuals supported by the income and geographic location, participants were categorized as living below or above the Canadian Low Income Cut Off (LICO). Accounting for the networked nature of the sample, participants living below the LICO had significantly higher mean scores for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and reported significantly more perceived discrimination compared to individuals living above the LICO. Grounded theory analysis of the qualitative interviews suggested four pathways through which bisexuality and poverty may intersect to impact mental health: through early life experiences linked to bisexuality or poverty that impacted future financial stability; through effects of bisexual identity on employment and earning potential; through the impact of class and sexual orientation discrimination on access to communities of support; and through lack of access to mental health services that could provide culturally competent care. These mixed methods data help us understand the income disparities associated with bisexual identity in population-based data, and suggest points of intervention to address their impact on bisexual mental

  17. Validity in Mixed Methods Research in Education: The Application of Habermas' Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods approach has developed into the third methodological movement in educational research. Validity in mixed methods research as an important issue, however, has not been examined as extensively as that of quantitative and qualitative research. Additionally, the previous discussions of validity in mixed methods research focus on research…

  18. Student Characteristics, Prior Experiences, and the Perception of Mixed Methods as an Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sydney E.

    2014-01-01

    There are persistent challenges to teaching mixed methods and innovative solutions are sought in order to address the needs of an increasingly diverse global audience seeking mixed methods instruction. This mixed methods study was conducted to gain insights to course design by more fully understanding the relationships among graduate student…

  19. Looking-Free Mixed hp Finite Element Methods for Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Elasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-09

    hp mixed methods has been addressed by Stenberg and Suri[20]. They identify sufficient conditions for selecting mixed method spaces on parallelogram...spaces of piecewise polynomials. Math. Modeling Num. Anal., 19:111-143, 1985. [20] R. Stenberg and M. Suri. Mixed hp finite element methods for

  20. A Case Study of a Mixed Methods Study Engaged in Integrated Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiazza, Daniela Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nascent field of mixed methods research has yet to develop a cohesive framework of guidelines and procedures for mixed methods data analysis (Greene, 2008). To support the field's development of analytical frameworks, this case study reflects on the development and implementation of a mixed methods study engaged in integrated data analysis.…

  1. Student Characteristics, Prior Experiences, and the Perception of Mixed Methods as an Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sydney E.

    2014-01-01

    There are persistent challenges to teaching mixed methods and innovative solutions are sought in order to address the needs of an increasingly diverse global audience seeking mixed methods instruction. This mixed methods study was conducted to gain insights to course design by more fully understanding the relationships among graduate student…

  2. The Structure of Mixed Method Studies in Educational Research: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lauren H.

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers are beginning to use mixed methods designs to answer complex research questions. This content analysis investigates the structure and use of mixed methods in educational research in order to work toward a more standardized presentation. I used a concurrent mixed methods approach to analyze 30 studies from three prominent…

  3. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Roest, Jan-Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport management research. The results indicate that mixed…

  4. Validity in Mixed Methods Research in Education: The Application of Habermas' Critical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods approach has developed into the third methodological movement in educational research. Validity in mixed methods research as an important issue, however, has not been examined as extensively as that of quantitative and qualitative research. Additionally, the previous discussions of validity in mixed methods research focus on research…

  5. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Roest, Jan-Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport management research. The results indicate that mixed…

  6. A Case Study of a Mixed Methods Study Engaged in Integrated Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiazza, Daniela Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nascent field of mixed methods research has yet to develop a cohesive framework of guidelines and procedures for mixed methods data analysis (Greene, 2008). To support the field's development of analytical frameworks, this case study reflects on the development and implementation of a mixed methods study engaged in integrated data analysis.…

  7. Integrative Mixed Methods Data Analytic Strategies in Research on School Success in Challenging Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Eunice E.; McDougall, Douglas E.; Pollon, Dawn; Herbert, Monique; Russell, Pia

    2008-01-01

    There are both conceptual and practical challenges in dealing with data from mixed methods research studies. There is a need for discussion about various integrative strategies for mixed methods data analyses. This article illustrates integrative analytic strategies for a mixed methods study focusing on improving urban schools facing challenging…

  8. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  9. Gender-based sexual roles: A mixed methods study in Iranian families

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Hasan; Montazeri, Ali; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Karimi, Yousef; Homami, Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender role attitudes toward sexual matters may define suitable and appropriate roles for men and women during a sexual relationship. This study aimed to explore and assess gender-based sexual roles in Iranian families. Materials and Methods: This was an exploratory mixed methods study in which perceptions and experiences of 21 adult Iranian participants about gender-based sexual roles have been explored in three provinces of Iran in 2010-2011, to generate items for developing a culture-oriented instrument to assess gender role attitudes. The developed and validated instrument, then, was applied to 390 individuals of general population of Tehran, Iran in 2012. Results: In content analysis of the qualitative phase data, four categories emerged as the main gender-based sexual roles: Decision making, relationships, care, and supervision and control. After passing the stages of item reduction, seven items remained for the instrument. In the quantitative phase, results showed that most of the participants (78.9%) believed in shared sexual roles for both genders. Consideration of a sexual role as “entirely masculine” or “preferably masculine” was the second prevalent attitude in 71.43% of gender-based sexual roles, whereas “entirely” or “preferably feminine role” was the second next most dominant attitude (14.28%). Conclusions: The results of the present study have revealed some new gender-based sexual roles within Iranian families; which may be applicable to show the capacity for achieving some domains of reproductive rights in Iran. PMID:24554957

  10. Reducing the blame culture through clinical audit in nuclear medicine: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Ross, P; Hubert, J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the barriers and facilitators of doctors’ engagement with clinical audit and to explore how and why these factors influenced doctors’ decisions to engage with the NHS National Clinical Audit Programme. Design A single-embedded case study. Mixed methods sequential approach with explorative pilot study and follow-up survey. Pilot study comprised 13 semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected consultant doctors over a six-month period. Interview data coded and analysed using directed thematic content analysis with themes compared against the study’s propositions. Themes derived from the pilot study informed the online survey question items. Exploratory factor analysis using STATA and descriptive statistical methods applied to summarise findings. Data triangulation techniques used to corroborate and validate findings across the different methodological techniques. Setting NHS National PET-CT Clinical Audit Programme. Participants Doctors reporting on the Audit Programme. Main Outcome measures Extent of engagement with clinical audit, factors that influence engagement with clinical audit. Results Online survey: 58/59 doctors responded (98.3%). Audit was found to be initially threatening (79%); audit was reassuring (85%); audit helped validate professional competence (93%); participation in audit improved reporting skills (76%). Three key factors accounted for 97.6% of the variance in survey responses: (1) perception of audit’s usefulness, (2) a common purpose, (3) a supportive blame free culture of trust. Factor 1 influenced medical engagement most. Conclusions The study documents performance feedback as a key facilitator of medical engagement with clinical audit. It found that medical engagement with clinical audit was associated with reduced levels of professional anxiety and higher levels of perceived self-efficacy. PMID:28210493

  11. Reducing the blame culture through clinical audit in nuclear medicine: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Ross, P; Hubert, J; Wong, W L

    2017-02-01

    To identify the barriers and facilitators of doctors' engagement with clinical audit and to explore how and why these factors influenced doctors' decisions to engage with the NHS National Clinical Audit Programme. A single-embedded case study. Mixed methods sequential approach with explorative pilot study and follow-up survey. Pilot study comprised 13 semi-structured interviews with purposefully selected consultant doctors over a six-month period. Interview data coded and analysed using directed thematic content analysis with themes compared against the study's propositions. Themes derived from the pilot study informed the online survey question items. Exploratory factor analysis using STATA and descriptive statistical methods applied to summarise findings. Data triangulation techniques used to corroborate and validate findings across the different methodological techniques. NHS National PET-CT Clinical Audit Programme. Doctors reporting on the Audit Programme. Extent of engagement with clinical audit, factors that influence engagement with clinical audit. Online survey: 58/59 doctors responded (98.3%). Audit was found to be initially threatening (79%); audit was reassuring (85%); audit helped validate professional competence (93%); participation in audit improved reporting skills (76%). Three key factors accounted for 97.6% of the variance in survey responses: (1) perception of audit's usefulness, (2) a common purpose, (3) a supportive blame free culture of trust. Factor 1 influenced medical engagement most. The study documents performance feedback as a key facilitator of medical engagement with clinical audit. It found that medical engagement with clinical audit was associated with reduced levels of professional anxiety and higher levels of perceived self-efficacy.

  12. A Preliminary Mixed-Method Investigation of Trust and Hidden Signals in Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Iannello, Paola; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Schulz, Peter J.; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Background Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP) consultations. Objective We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated. Method A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy. Results The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social “honest signals” rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more. Conclusions This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the importance of analysing

  13. Prevalence and correlates of suicide ideation in patients with COPD: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Fleehart, Sara; Fan, Vincent S; Nguyen, Huong Q; Lee, Jungeun; Kohen, Ruth; Herting, Jerald R; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Adams, Sandra G; Pagalilauan, Genevieve; Borson, Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation (SI) in patients with stable moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients and methods We conducted an exploratory mixed methods analysis of data from participants in a longitudinal observational study of depression in COPD. We measured depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), which includes an item on SI. We compared participants with and without SI in relation to sociodemographics, symptoms, anxiety, and healthcare resource use with independent t-tests and chi-square tests. Content analysis was performed on qualitative data gathered during a structured SI safety assessment. Results Of 202 participants, 121 (60%) had depressive symptoms (PHQ ≥6); 51 (25%) had a PHQ-9 ≥10, indicating a high likelihood of current major depression; and 22 (11%) reported SI. Compared to the 99 depressed participants without SI, those with SI were more likely to be female (59% vs 27%, P=0.004); had worse dyspnea (P=0.009), depression (P<0.001), and anxiety (P=0.003); and were also more likely to have received treatment for depression and/or anxiety (82% vs 40%, P<0.001) and more hospitalizations for COPD exacerbations (P=0.03) but had similar levels of airflow obstruction and functioning than participants without SI. Themes from the qualitative analysis among those with SI included current or prior adverse life situations, untreated or partially treated complex depression, loss of a key relationship, experience of illness and disability, and poor communication with providers. Conclusion Our findings suggest that current SI is common in COPD, may occur disproportionately in women, can persist despite mental health treatment, and has complex relationships with both health and life events. Adequate management of SI in COPD may therefore require tailored, comprehensive treatment approaches that integrate medical and mental health

  14. GPs role identifying young people who self-harm: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Fiona; Stallard, Paul; Cooney, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-harm is common among young people and is evident in increasingly younger age groups. Many young people who self-harm do visit their GP but do not access specialist support. GP’s can find it challenging to raise and discuss this sensitive subject with young people during short consultations. Objective: To explore GP’s capabilities, motivations and opportunities for discussing self-harm and to identify barriers to and enablers for proactively discussing self-harm with young people. Design and setting: An exploratory, mixed methods study was designed comprising an online survey and a qualitative interview study with GPs in the South West of England. Methods: An online survey was completed by 28 GPs. Ten GPs took part by telephone, in semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques and thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. Findings from the quantitative and qualitative analysis are synthesized to illustrate GPs’ skills, knowledge and perceptions about young people who self-harm. Results: Experienced GPs may underestimate the prevalence of self-harm in young people, particularly in the 11–14 age range. While consultations with young people and their carers can be challenging, GPs acknowledge that it is their role to provide support for young people who self-harm. GPs would welcome training for themselves and other practice staff in talking to young people and practical information about self-harm. Conclusion: All primary care staff who provide frontline support to young people should receive education and practical training in talking about self-harm. PMID:25957173

  15. Comparison of two exploratory data analysis methods for fMRI: unsupervised clustering versus independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Baese, A; Wismueller, Axel; Lange, Oliver

    2004-09-01

    Exploratory data-driven methods such as unsupervised clustering and independent component analysis (ICA) are considered to be hypothesis-generating procedures, and are complementary to the hypothesis-led statistical inferential methods in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this paper, we present a comparison between unsupervised clustering and ICA in a systematic fMRI study. The comparative results were evaluated by 1) task-related activation maps, 2) associated time-courses, and 3) receiver operating characteristic analysis. For the fMRI data, a comparative quantitative evaluation between the three clustering techniques, self-organizing map, "neural gas" network, and fuzzy clustering based on deterministic annealing, and the three ICA methods, FastICA, Infomax and topographic ICA was performed. The ICA methods proved to extract features relatively well for a small number of independent components but are limited to the linear mixture assumption. The unsupervised Clustering outperforms ICA in terms of classification results but requires a longer processing time than the ICA methods.

  16. Mixed methods in gerontological research: Do the qualitative and quantitative data “touch”?

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to illustrate approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration. PMID:20077973

  17. Mixed Method Approaches in Open-Ended, Qualitative, Exploratory Research Involving People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research…

  18. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling.

    PubMed

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis.

  19. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  20. How and Why Do IT Entrepreneurs Leave Their Salaried Employment to Start a SME? A Mixed Methods Research Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourmant, Gaëtan

    This method paper addresses an untapped but important type of IT turnover: IT entrepreneurship. We seek to develop a mixed methods research (MMR) design to understand the factors and processes that influence turnover behavior of prospective (nascent) IT entrepreneurs. To do this, we review two prior streams of research: the entrepreneurship literature and IT employee turnover. We incorporate the results of this literature review into a conceptual framework describing how the relevant factors leading to entrepreneurial and turnover behavior change over time, either gradually or suddenly, in response to specific events. In addition, we also contribute to the research by arguing that mixed methods research (MMR) is appropriate to bridge the gap between entrepreneurial literature and the IT turnover literature. A third important contribution is the design of the MMR, combining a longitudinal approach with a retrospective approach; a qualitative with a quantitative approach and, the exploratory design with the triangulation design [1]. Finally, we discuss practical implications for IT managers and IT entrepreneurs.

  1. Aggression on haemodialysis units: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Julia; Nijman, Henk; Ross, Jamie; Ashman, Neil; Callaghan, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Aggression on haemodialysis units is a growing problem internationally that has received little research attention to date. Aggressive behaviour by patients or their relatives can compromise the safety and well-being of staff and other patients sharing a haemodialysis session. The objectives of the study were twofold: First, to identify the prevalance and nature of aggression on haemodialysis units; and second, to investigate factors that contribute to aggressive behaviour on haemodialysis units. A cross-sectional, sequential mixed method research design was adopted, with two research methods utilised. Incidents of aggressive behaviour were recorded over a 12-month period, using a renal version of the Staff Observation Aggression Scale. Six months after the incident data collection had commenced, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 29 multidisciplinary members of staff. Over 12 months, 74 aggressive incidents were recorded. The majority of incidents involved verbal aggression, and the perpetrators were a minority of patients, relatives and staff. Two patients were responsible for 38% of all incidents; both patients had mental health problems. Distinct temporal patterns to the aggressive behaviour were observed according to the day of the week and time of day. This study demonstrates that aggression is a significant problem on haemodialysis units, with verbal aggression most prevalent. The temporal patterns to aggression observed are related to the uniqueness of the haemodialysis setting, with a distinctly different treatment environment compared with other healthcare settings. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  2. Contraceptive method-mix and family planning program in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hardjanti, K

    1995-01-01

    In Vietnam between 1989 and 1993, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate stopped at 38%. In 1984, the government implemented economic renovation (Doi Moi). This closed agricultural cooperatives which had supported commune health centers. Health workers received either low or no wages, resulting in low morale, absenteeism, and moving to the private sector or agriculture. Most women began using the IUD because it was low cost and easy to monitor, provided long-term protection against pregnancy, and there was a limited supply of oral contraceptives (OCs) and condoms. Condom use fell from 13% in 1984 to 1.4% in 1993. More than 80% of contraceptive users used the IUD. The IUD is not appropriate for many women because of health problems: 60-70% of pregnant women and 80% of parturient women have anemia, 40-60% of women have reproductive tract infections, and sexually transmitted diseases are rising. Vietnam's Prime Minister and the Communist Party are committed to expanding the range of the contraceptive method-mix and choice. Limited method choice is especially a problem in rural areas. It increases the abortion rate. About 38% of abortions supplant modern and traditional family planning methods. Improper counseling, insufficient knowledge, and low promotion of OCs account for the low use of OCs. Inferior quality, aversion by couples, and inaccessibility in most rural areas limit condom use. Women's fear and husband's objection outweigh the government's promotion of sterilization. Providers have limited comprehensive accurate and current knowledge of contraceptives. Health service facilities are concentrated in urban and semiurban areas. The quality of care in rural areas, where there is no clean water supply, is inferior. An annual target used to forecast contraceptive needs risks contraceptive stocks expiring during storage and/or disruptions in supply of users. Consecutive actions to eliminate constraints to use of other methods, developing a community level service

  3. Changing Perspectives: Validation Framework Review of Examples of Mixed Methods Research into Culturally Relevant Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Patrick Dean

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research becomes more utilized in education research every year. As this pluralist paradigm begins to take hold, it becomes more and more necessary to take a critical eye to studies making use of different mixed methods approaches. An area of education research that has yet struggled to find a foothold with mixed methodology is…

  4. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods…

  5. Changing Perspectives: Validation Framework Review of Examples of Mixed Methods Research into Culturally Relevant Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Patrick Dean

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research becomes more utilized in education research every year. As this pluralist paradigm begins to take hold, it becomes more and more necessary to take a critical eye to studies making use of different mixed methods approaches. An area of education research that has yet struggled to find a foothold with mixed methodology is…

  6. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods…

  7. Mixed methods student evaluation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A

    2016-05-06

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a teaching assistant who manipulated 3D computer models in the virtual classroom environment. An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach was undertaken to determine the most important deciding factors that drive students' preferences for a given format and then to generate theory on the strengths and weaknesses of the online format. Students (20 online; 310 F2F) volunteered to participate in a crossover period of one week to expose them to the course section in which they were not originally registered. Open ended interviews (20 online; 20 F2F) and quantitative surveys (270 F2F) were conducted following a crossover. Students valued pace control, schedule, and location flexibility of learning from archived materials and being assessed online. In the online laboratory they had difficulty using the 3D models and preferred the unique and hands-on experiences of cadaveric specimens. The F2F environment was conducive to learning in both lecture and laboratory because students felt more engaged by instructors in person and were less distracted by their surroundings. These results suggest the need to improve the online experience by increasing the quality of student-instructor communication and in turn student-content interaction with the 3D models. Anat Sci Educ 9: 272-285. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Retention and academic performance of undergraduate nursing students with advanced standing: A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Northall, Tiffany; Ramjan, Lucie M; Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-04-01

    Undergraduate nursing students enter university through a variety of pathways. For some students, this includes the granting of advanced standing based on recognition of prior qualifications. The impact of advanced standing on nursing students' transition, retention and success at university is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the retention, academic success and experiences of students who commenced their undergraduate nursing studies with advanced standing. A sequential exploratory mixed-methods design was used in this study, which involved undergraduate nursing students enrolled at a multi-campus university in Australia. Nursing students who enrolled in 2014 and did not opt out of program level research were included in the study. Students with advanced standing were older (mean 31.6 versus 25.8 years, p<0.001) and more likely to discontinue their studies at the end of semester one (97% versus 95%, p=0.015) than standard-entry students. Advanced standing was also shown to be an independent predictor of low GPA [OR: 1.69 (95% CI: 1.06 to 2.69]. Most students with advanced standing commenced directly into second year (45%) missing first year student connections and programs. Students reported feeling apprehensive, forgotten and ill-prepared for the expectations of university. Some showed significant strength and resilience while others were struggling to cope with the workload with minimal knowledge or understanding of supports available to them. The widening participation agenda is a commendable strategy; however, students who enter university with advanced standing need targeted support to promote their transition, retention and success at university. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A preliminary mixed-method investigation of trust and hidden signals in medical consultations.

    PubMed

    Riva, Silvia; Monti, Marco; Iannello, Paola; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Schulz, Peter J; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Several factors influence patients' trust, and trust influences the doctor-patient relationship. Recent literature has investigated the quality of the personal relationship and its dynamics by considering the role of communication and the elements that influence trust giving in the frame of general practitioner (GP) consultations. We analysed certain aspects of the interaction between patients and GPs to understand trust formation and maintenance by focusing on communication channels. The impact of socio-demographic variables in trust relationships was also evaluated. A cross-sectional design using concurrent mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods was employed. One hundred adults were involved in a semi-structured interview composed of both qualitative and quantitative items for descriptive and exploratory purposes. The study was conducted in six community-based departments adjacent to primary care clinics in Trento, Italy. The findings revealed that patients trusted their GP to a high extent by relying on simple signals that were based on the quality of the one-to-one communication and on behavioural and relational patterns. Patients inferred the ability of their GP by adopting simple heuristics based mainly on the so-called social "honest signals" rather than on content-dependent features. Furthermore, socio-demographic variables affected trust: less literate and elderly people tended to trust more. This study is unique in attempting to explore the role of simple signals in trust relationships within medical consultation: people shape trust and give meaning to their relationships through a powerful channel of communication that orbits not around words but around social relations. The findings have implications for both clinicians and researchers. For doctors, these results suggest a way of thinking about encounters with patients. For researchers, the findings underline the importance of analysing some new key factors around trust for future

  10. Limitation of duty hour regulations for pediatric resident wellness: A mixed methods study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Akira; Sakai, Hirokazu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Duty hour regulations have been placed in residency programs to address mental health concerns and to improve wellness. Here, we elucidate the prevalence of depressive symptoms after implementing an overnight call shift system and the factors associated with burnout or depression among residents.A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric and perinatal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 41 pediatric residents participated in the cross-sectional survey. We determined and compared the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the number of actual working hours before and after implementing the shift system. A follow-up focus-group interview with 4 residents was conducted to explore the factors that may trigger or prevent depression and burnout.Mean working hours significantly decreased from 75.2 hours to 64.9 hours per week. Prevalence of depressive symptoms remained similar before and after implementation of the shift system. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from the burnout scale were markedly associated with depression. High workload, stress intolerance, interpersonal difficulties, and generation gaps regarding work-life balance could cause burnout. Stress tolerance, workload monitoring and balancing, appropriate supervision, and peer support could prevent burnout.Although the overnight call shift system was effective in reducing working hours, its effectiveness in managing mental health issues among pediatric residents remains unclear. Resident wellness programs represent an additional strategy and they should be aimed at fostering peer support and improvement of resident-faculty interactions. Such an approach could be beneficial to the relationship between physicians of different generations with conflicting belief structures.

  11. Development of a resilience scale for Thai substance-dependent women: A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Sakunpong, Nanchatsan; Choochom, Oraphin; Taephant, Nattasuda

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a resilience scale based on the experiences of substance-dependent women in Thailand and evaluate its validity and reliability. A sequential exploratory mixed methods design was employed as the main methodology to develop the resilience scale according to the results from qualitative data by analyzing focus group discussions of 13 participants. Then, the scale was administered to 252 substance-dependent women from four substance-treatment centers. The psychometric properties were explored with an index of item objective congruence (IOC), Pearson correlation, second-order confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha coefficient to estimate the quantitative data. The qualitative results showed that resilience is defined by three themes: individual, family and community factors, consisted of 13 different categories. The quantitative results also revealed that all 71 items in the resilience scale passed the IOC criteria, convergence and construct validity. The goodness-of-fit indices demonstrated that the resilience model was consistent with the empirical data. (Chi-square=74.28, df=59, p-value=0.08, RMSEA=0.03, SRMR=0.04, NNFI=0.99, CFI=0.99, GFI=0.96). The internal consistency, assessed by a Cronbach's alpha score of 0.92, can be interpreted as demonstrating high reliability. Furthermore, the structure of the resilience scale was confirmed by the available resilience literature. This study can help clinicians gain a more comprehensive understanding regarding the complex process of resilience among substance-dependent women and aid them in providing these women with the appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Blame and guilt - a mixed methods study of obstetricians' and midwives' experiences and existential considerations after involvement in traumatic childbirth.

    PubMed

    Schrøder, Katja; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Hvidt, Niels C

    2016-07-01

    When complications arise in the delivery room, midwives and obstetricians operate at the interface of life and death, and in rare cases the infant or the mother suffers severe and possibly fatal injuries related to the birth. This descriptive study investigated the numbers and proportions of obstetricians and midwives involved in such traumatic childbirth and explored their experiences with guilt, blame, shame and existential concerns. A mixed methods study comprising a national survey of Danish obstetricians and midwives and a qualitative interview study with selected survey participants. The response rate was 59% (1237/2098), of which 85% stated that they had been involved in a traumatic childbirth. We formed five categories during the comparative mixed methods analysis: the patient, clinical peers, official complaints, guilt, and existential considerations. Although blame from patients, peers or official authorities was feared (and sometimes experienced), the inner struggles with guilt and existential considerations were dominant. Feelings of guilt were reported by 36-49%, and 50% agreed that the traumatic childbirth had made them think more about the meaning of life. Sixty-five percent felt that they had become a better midwife or doctor due to the traumatic incident. The results of this large, exploratory study suggest that obstetricians and midwives struggle with issues of blame, guilt and existential concerns in the aftermath of a traumatic childbirth. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach.

    PubMed

    Ono, Mutsumi; Kennedy, Eileen; Reeves, Sue; Cronin, Linda

    2012-02-01

    An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of physiotherapists towards research: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Janssen, J; Hale, L; Mirfin-Veitch, B; Harland, T

    2016-06-01

    To explore the perceptions of physiotherapists towards the use of and participation in research. Concurrent mixed methods research, combining in-depth interviews with three questionnaires (demographics, Edmonton Research Orientation Survey, visual analogue scales for confidence and motivation to participate in research). One physiotherapy department in a rehabilitation hospital, consisting of seven specialised areas. Twenty-five subjects {four men and 21 women, mean age 38 [standard deviation (SD) 11] years} who had been registered as a physiotherapist for a mean period of 15 (SD 10) years participated in this study. They were registered with the New Zealand Board of Physiotherapy, held a current practising certificate, and were working as a physiotherapist or physiotherapy/allied health manager at the hospital. The primary outcome measure was in-depth interviews and the secondary outcome measures were the three questionnaires. Physiotherapists were generally positive towards research, but struggled with the concept of research, the available literature and the time to commit to research. Individual confidence and orientation towards research seemed to influence how these barriers were perceived. This study showed that physiotherapists struggle to implement research in their daily practice and become involved in research. Changing physiotherapists' conceptions of research, making it more accessible and providing dedicated research time could facilitate increased involvement in the physiotherapy profession. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Women's experience of induction of labor: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2013-10-01

    To investigate women's experience of induction of labor. Mixed methods study. English maternity units. Women who gave birth in a two-week period in late 2009, excluding women aged less than 16 years and women whose baby had died. This study involved secondary analysis of data from questionnaires relating to care in childbirth. Women's experience of induction of labor was compared with that of women who had spontaneous labor by analysis of responses to structured survey questions. Responses to open questions relating to induction were analysed qualitatively. Satisfaction with care, mode of delivery, experience of induction of labor. The response rate to the survey was 55.1% representing 5333 women, 20% of whom were induced. Nulliparous women, those with long-term health problems, or specific pregnancy-related problems were significantly more likely to be induced. Women who were induced were generally less satisfied with aspects of their care and significantly less likely to have a normal delivery. In the qualitative analysis the main themes that emerged concerned delay, staff shortages, neglect, pain and anxiety in relation to getting the induction started and once it was underway; and in relation to failed induction, the main themes were plans not being followed, wasted effort and pain, and feeling let down and disappointed. Women having an induction were generally less satisfied with their care, suggesting the need for a focused service for these women to address their additional needs. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Cobalt silicon mixed oxide nanocomposites by modified sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Serena; Turco, Maria; Ramis, Gianguido; Bagnasco, Giovanni; Pernice, Pasquale; Pagliuca, Concetta; Bevilacqua, Maria; Aronne, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Cobalt-silicon mixed oxide materials (Co/Si=0.111, 0.250 and 0.428) were synthesised starting from Co(NO 3) 2·6H 2O and Si(OC 2H 5) 4 using a modified sol-gel method. Structural, textural and surface chemical properties were investigated by thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR spectroscopy and N 2 adsorption at -196 °C. The nature of cobalt species and their interactions with the siloxane matrix were strongly depending on both the cobalt loading and the heat treatment. All dried gels were amorphous and contained Co 2+ ions forming both tetrahedral and octahedral complexes with the siloxane matrix. After treatment at 400 °C, the sample with lowest Co content appeared amorphous and contained only Co 2+ tetrahedral complexes, while at higher cobalt loading Co 3O 4 was present as the only crystalline phase, besides Co 2+ ions strongly interacting with siloxane matrix. At 850 °C, in all samples crystalline Co 2SiO 4 was formed and was the only crystallising phase for the nanocomposite with the lowest cobalt content. All materials retained high surface areas also after treatments at 600 °C and exhibited surface Lewis acidity, due to cationic sites. The presence of cobalt affected the textural properties of the siloxane matrix decreasing microporosity and increasing mesoporosity.

  17. Evaluating nursing outcomes: a mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Lane-Tillerson, Crystal; Davis, Bertha L; Killion, Cheryl M; Baker, Spencer

    2005-12-01

    Being overweight is regarded as the most common nutritional disorder of children and adolescents in the United States. The escalating problem of being overweight or being obese in our society indicates the need for treatment strategies that encompass an all-inclusive approach. Moreover, these strategies need to be comprehensively evaluated for their effectiveness. Nurses are in an excellent position to ensure that this occurs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether using a mixed-methods approach was an efficacious way to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the behavior modification benefits of a weight loss/weight management nursing intervention in African-American adolescent girls (13-17 years of age). The overall effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated by analyzing pre- and post-program measures of weight, body mass index, cholesterol, blood pressure, self-esteem, depression, and body image (quantitative data); conducting focus groups with mothers of the participants; and administering open-ended, written questionnaires to the participants (qualitative data). Findings from the quantitative data indicated favorable outcomes in weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index, self-esteem, and body image, indicating that progress had been made over the course of the program. Furthermore, qualitative data indicated that mothers of the participants observed positive behavioral changes related to eating and exercise patterns and participants demonstrated perception of these changes as well.

  18. Examining Nurse Consultant connectivity: An Australian mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Giles, Michelle; Parker, Vicki; Mitchell, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    The nurse consultant (NC) role in Australia is a senior classification of advanced practice nurse has been described as enhancing health care outcomes largely through extensive collaboration with consumers, nurses, and other health professionals. However, little is known about the actual nature, amount, and quality of NC interactions. This study examines the connectivity of the NC role across metropolitan and rural contexts, using a mixed method sequential design with an online survey and focus groups with NCs and other stakeholders. Results demonstrated that NCs most commonly have high density connectivity patterns with other nursing colleagues, medical staff, patients/clients, and administrative staff. Position grade (1, 2 or 3) influences density of connectivity, as does location, with those based in metropolitan roles engaging significantly less with other clinicians. Findings demonstrate that many NCs are highly collaborative and predominantly embedded into interprofessional practice models. This study provides valuable insight into the diverse and often complex NC role and the way in which NC expertise and influence is deployed and integrated across a large local health district. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Empathy and childhood maltreatment: a mixed-methods investigation.

    PubMed

    Locher, Simon C; Barenblatt, Lisa; Fourie, Melike M; Stein, Dan J; Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla

    2014-05-01

    Impaired empathy is regarded as a psychological consequence of childhood maltreatment, yet few studies have explored this relationship empirically. We investigated whether empathy differed in healthy and maltreated individuals by examining their emotional responses to people in distress. Forty-nine individuals (age 20 to 60) viewed short film clips from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission testimonies depicting dialogues between victims and perpetrators of gross human rights violations. Participants were divided into 3 groups based on their scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: control (n = 18), moderate maltreatment (n = 21), and severe maltreatment (n = 10). We employed a mixed-methods design to explore empathic responses to film clips both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative results indicated that self-reported empathy was lower in the moderate maltreatment group compared to the control group, but of similar strengths in the severe maltreatment and control groups. However, qualitative thematic analysis indicated that both maltreatment groups displayed themes of impaired empathy. Our results support the notion that childhood maltreatment is associated with impaired empathy, and suggest that such impairment may differ depending on the level of maltreatment: moderate maltreatment was associated with emotional blunting and impaired cognitive empathy, whereas severe maltreatment was associated with emotional over-arousal and diminished cognitive insight.

  20. [Cancer screening in the elderly: Explorative mixed methods study].

    PubMed

    Dolezil, Doris; Haase, Annekathrin; Jahnke, Kristine; Thonack, Jens; Löffler, Christin; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Chenot, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of cancer screening in the elderly are uncertain. While the risk of cancer increases with age the participation in cancer screening decreases. The study investigated the attitudes of older adults towards cancer screening as well as their motives for or against participation. This population-based explorative mixed methods study was based on a survey of residents aged 69-89 years from the district of Western Pomerania-Greifswald (northeast Germany). Criteria for exclusion were cognitive deficits and/or cancer. Attitudes towards different statements regarding cancer screening were assessed by a questionnaire using 5-point Likert scales. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the motivations. Out of 630 contacted residents, 120 (19%) with an average age of 77 years (SD ± 6 years) participated in the face-to-face survey. The majority were in favor of lifelong cancer screening, 14% stated other health problems to be more important than cancer screening and 7% assumed that they would not live long enough to benefit from screening. Motives for participation in cancer screening were habit, regularity, sense of obligation, fear and belief in benefits. Motives for discontinuing screening included a lack of interest, no assumed necessity and fear. Disadvantages were not feared. Elderly people show great trust in cancer screening. They overestimated the benefits of cancer screening and their risk to die of cancer. The elderly should be better informed about the benefits and risks of cancer screening. Shared decision-making should be based on life expectancy and personal preferences.

  1. Obesity in social media: a mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Prestin, Abby; Kunath, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    The escalating obesity rate in the USA has made obesity prevention a top public health priority. Recent interventions have tapped into the social media (SM) landscape. To leverage SM in obesity prevention, we must understand user-generated discourse surrounding the topic. This study was conducted to describe SM interactions about weight through a mixed methods analysis. Data were collected across 60 days through SM monitoring services, yielding 2.2 million posts. Data were cleaned and coded through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, yielding popular themes and the most retweeted content. Qualitative analyses of selected posts add insight into the nature of the public dialogue and motivations for participation. Twitter represented the most common channel. Twitter and Facebook were dominated by derogatory and misogynist sentiment, pointing to weight stigmatization, whereas blogs and forums contained more nuanced comments. Other themes included humor, education, and positive sentiment countering weight-based stereotypes. This study documented weight-related attitudes and perceptions. This knowledge will inform public health/obesity prevention practice.

  2. Antidepressant Prescribing by Pediatricians: A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tulisiak, Anne K; Klein, Jillian A; Harris, Emily; Luft, Marissa J; Schroeder, Heidi K; Mossman, Sarah A; Varney, Sara T; Keeshin, Brooks R; Cotton, Sian; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2017-01-01

    Among pediatricians, perceived knowledge of efficacy, tolerability, dosing, and side effects of antidepressants represent significant sources of variability in the use of these medications in youth with depressive and anxiety disorders. Importantly, the qualitative factors that relate to varying levels of comfort with antidepressants and willingness to prescribe are poorly understood. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with community-based and academic medical center-based pediatricians (N = 14). Interviews were audio recorded and iteratively coded; themes were then generated using inductive thematic analysis. The relationship between demographic factors, knowledge of antidepressants, dosing, and side effects, as well as prescribing likelihood scores for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders or co-morbid anxiety and depressive disorders, were evaluated using mixed models. Pediatricians reported antidepressants to be effective and well-tolerated. However, the likelihood of individual physicians initiating an antidepressant was significantly lower for anxiety disorders relative to depressive disorders with similar functional impairment. Pediatricians considered symptom severity/functional impairment, age and the availability of psychotherapy as they considered prescribing antidepressants to individual patients. Antidepressant choice was related to the physician׳s perceived knowledge and comfort with a particular antidepressant, financial factors, and the disorder-specific evidence base for that particular medication and consultation with mental health practitioners. Pediatricians noted similar efficacy and tolerability profiles for antidepressants in youth with depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, but tended to utilize "therapy first" approaches for anxiety disorders relative to depressive disorders. Parental and family factors that influenced prescribing of antidepressants by pediatricians included parental ambivalence

  3. Planning for retirement from medicine: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Pannor Silver, Michelle; Easty, Laura K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests there are important personal and social consequences associated with inadequate retirement planning for physicians. We evaluated whether academic physicians felt satisfied with their retirement planning, and identified obstacles to retirement planning and a set of factors to facilitate retirement planning. Methods: We applied a sequential mixed-methods research design to explore and examine factors that facilitate academic physician retirement planning using data collected from multiple sources (including 7 focus groups, an internet-based survey and 23 in-depth interviews). We examined survey results regarding retirement planning satisfaction and preferences for complete versus gradual retirement. We used thematic analysis to examine verbatim transcripts and notes from the focus groups and interviews. Results: Survey data (response rate 51%) indicated that 10% of respondents were very satisfied with their retirement planning and 89.5% would prefer to retire gradually rather than stop work completely. Key barriers to retirement planning that emerged included poor personal financial management, rigid institutional structures and professional norms. Facilitators included financial planning resources for physicians at multiple career stages, opportunities and resources for later-career transitions and later-career mentorship support for intergenerational collaboration, and recognition of retirees. Interpretation: Key findings highlight perceived barriers to retirement planning at various career stages in addition to factors that can enhance physicians' retirement planning, including creating gradual and flexible retirement options, supporting ongoing discussions about financial planning and later career transitions, and fostering a culture that continues to honour and involve retirees. Medical institutions could foster innovative models for later-career transitions from medicine in ways that address physicians' needs at various career

  4. Evaluating outpatient transition clinics: a mixed-methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sattoe, Jane N T; Peeters, Mariëlle A C; Hilberink, Sander R; Ista, Erwin; van Staa, AnneLoes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To support young people in their transition to adulthood and transfer to adult care, a number of interventions have been developed. One particularly important intervention is the transition clinic (TC), where paediatric and adult providers collaborate. TCs are often advocated as best practices in transition care for young people with chronic conditions, but little is known about TC models and effects. The proposed study aims to gain insight into the added value of a TC compared with usual care (without a TC). Methods and analysis We propose a mixed-methods study with a retrospective controlled design consisting of semistructured interviews among healthcare professionals, observations of consultations with young people, chart reviews of young people transferred 2–4 years prior to data collection and questionnaires among the young people included in the chart reviews. Qualitative data will be analysed through thematic analysis and results will provide insights into structures and daily routines of TCs, and experienced barriers and facilitators in transitional care. Quantitatively, within-group differences on clinical outcomes and healthcare use will be studied over the four measurement moments. Subsequently, comparisons will be made between intervention and control groups on all outcomes at all measurement moments. Primary outcomes are ‘no-show after transfer’ (process outcome) and ‘experiences and satisfaction with the transfer’ (patient-reported outcome). Secondary outcomes consider clinical outcomes, healthcare usage, self-management outcomes and perceived quality of care. Ethics The Medical Ethical Committee of the Erasmus Medical Centre approved the study protocol (MEC-2014-246). Dissemination Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conferences. The study started in September 2014 and will continue until December 2016. The same study design will be used in a national study in 20 diabetes settings (2016

  5. When mixed methods produce mixed results: integrating disparate findings about miscarriage and women's wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christina; Rowlands, Ingrid J

    2015-02-01

    To discuss an example of mixed methods in health psychology, involving separate quantitative and qualitative studies of women's mental health in relation to miscarriage, in which the two methods produced different but complementary results, and to consider ways in which the findings can be integrated. We describe two quantitative projects involving statistical analysis of data from 998 young women who had had miscarriages, and 8,083 who had not, across three waves of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. We also describe a qualitative project involving thematic analysis of interviews with nine Australian women who had had miscarriages. The quantitative analyses indicate that the main differences between young women who do and do not experience miscarriage relate to social disadvantage (and thus likelihood of relatively early pregnancy) and to a lifestyle that makes pregnancy likely: Once these factors are accounted for, there are no differences in mental health. Further, longitudinal modelling demonstrates that women who have had miscarriages show a gradual increase in mental health over time, with the exception of women with prior diagnoses of anxiety, depression, or both. By contrast, qualitative analysis of the interviews indicates that women who have had miscarriages experience deep emotional responses and a long and difficult process of coming to terms with their loss. A contextual model of resilience provides a possible framework for understanding these apparently disparate results. Considering positive mental health as including the ability to deal constructively with negative life events, and consequent emotional distress, offers a model that distinguishes between poor mental health and the processes of coping with major life events. In the context of miscarriage, women's efforts to struggle with difficult emotions, and search for meaning, can be viewed as pathways to resilience rather than to psychological distress. Statement of contribution

  6. Searching for rigour in the reporting of mixed methods population health research: a methodological review.

    PubMed

    Brown, K M; Elliott, S J; Leatherdale, S T; Robertson-Wilson, J

    2015-12-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing rigour in quantitative and qualitative research, there is poor consensus regarding rigour in mixed methods. Using the empirical example of school-based obesity interventions, this methodological review examined how mixed methods have been used and reported, and how rigour has been addressed. Twenty-three peer-reviewed mixed methods studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases and appraised using the guidelines for Good Reporting of a Mixed Methods Study. In general, more detailed description of data collection and analysis, integration, inferences and justifying the use of mixed methods is needed. Additionally, improved reporting of methodological rigour is required. This review calls for increased discussion of practical techniques for establishing rigour in mixed methods research, beyond those for quantitative and qualitative criteria individually. A guide for reporting mixed methods research in population health should be developed to improve the reporting quality of mixed methods studies. Through improved reporting, mixed methods can provide strong evidence to inform policy and practice.

  7. An exploratory survey of methods used to develop measures of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamner, Kenneth L.; Lafleur, Charles A.

    1993-09-01

    Nonmanufacturing organizations are being challenged to provide high-quality products and services to their customers, with an emphasis on continuous process improvement. Measures of performance, referred to as metrics, can be used to foster process improvement. The application of performance measurement to nonmanufacturing processes can be very difficult. This research explored methods used to develop metrics in nonmanufacturing organizations. Several methods were formally defined in the literature, and the researchers used a two-step screening process to determine the OMB Generic Method was most likely to produce high-quality metrics. The OMB Generic Method was then used to develop metrics. A few other metric development methods were found in use at nonmanufacturing organizations. The researchers interviewed participants in metric development efforts to determine their satisfaction and to have them identify the strengths and weaknesses of, and recommended improvements to, the metric development methods used. Analysis of participants' responses allowed the researchers to identify the key components of a sound metrics development method. Those components were incorporated into a proposed metric development method that was based on the OMB Generic Method, and should be more likely to produce high-quality metrics that will result in continuous process improvement.

  8. Assessment As Exploratory Research: A Theoretical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Nancy W.

    With the view that social scientists conduct too little exploratory research, the author outlines the methods and attitudes of the exploratory analyst and describes the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a source of research data. Exploratory analysis, in which no paradigm is used, is contrasted with confirmatory research, which…

  9. Mixed-bed affinity chromatography: principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-bed chromatography is far from being a well-established technology within the panoply of bioseparation tools. Composed of an assembly of distinct sorbents that are mixed in a single bed, they have been mostly developed in the last decade for the reduction of dynamic concentration range where they allowed discovering many low-copy proteins within very complex proteomes. Other interesting preparative applications of mixed-bed chromatography have since been developed. In this chapter the basic concepts first and then detailed application recipes are described for (1) the reduction of protein dynamic concentration range, (2) the removal of impurity traces at the last stage of a biopurification process, and (3) the selection and use of sorbents as mixed bed in protein purification.

  10. Development of a Self-Rated Mixed Methods Skills Assessment: The National Institutes of Health Mixed Methods Research Training Program for the Health Sciences.

    PubMed

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Creswell, John W; Wittink, Marsha; Barg, Fran K; Castro, Felipe G; Dahlberg, Britt; Watkins, Daphne C; Deutsch, Charles; Gallo, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Demand for training in mixed methods is high, with little research on faculty development or assessment in mixed methods. We describe the development of a self-rated mixed methods skills assessment and provide validity evidence. The instrument taps six research domains: "Research question," "Design/approach," "Sampling," "Data collection," "Analysis," and "Dissemination." Respondents are asked to rate their ability to define or explain concepts of mixed methods under each domain, their ability to apply the concepts to problems, and the extent to which they need to improve. We administered the questionnaire to 145 faculty and students using an internet survey. We analyzed descriptive statistics and performance characteristics of the questionnaire using the Cronbach alpha to assess reliability and an analysis of variance that compared a mixed methods experience index with assessment scores to assess criterion relatedness. Internal consistency reliability was high for the total set of items (0.95) and adequate (≥0.71) for all but one subscale. Consistent with establishing criterion validity, respondents who had more professional experiences with mixed methods (eg, published a mixed methods article) rated themselves as more skilled, which was statistically significant across the research domains. This self-rated mixed methods assessment instrument may be a useful tool to assess skills in mixed methods for training programs. It can be applied widely at the graduate and faculty level. For the learner, assessment may lead to enhanced motivation to learn and training focused on self-identified needs. For faculty, the assessment may improve curriculum and course content planning.

  11. Using mixed methods research designs in health psychology: an illustrated discussion from a pragmatist perspective.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Felicity L

    2015-02-01

    To outline some of the challenges of mixed methods research and illustrate how they can be addressed in health psychology research. This study critically reflects on the author's previously published mixed methods research and discusses the philosophical and technical challenges of mixed methods, grounding the discussion in a brief review of methodological literature. Mixed methods research is characterized as having philosophical and technical challenges; the former can be addressed by drawing on pragmatism, the latter by considering formal mixed methods research designs proposed in a number of design typologies. There are important differences among the design typologies which provide diverse examples of designs that health psychologists can adapt for their own mixed methods research. There are also similarities; in particular, many typologies explicitly orient to the technical challenges of deciding on the respective timing of qualitative and quantitative methods and the relative emphasis placed on each method. Characteristics, strengths, and limitations of different sequential and concurrent designs are identified by reviewing five mixed methods projects each conducted for a different purpose. Adapting formal mixed methods designs can help health psychologists address the technical challenges of mixed methods research and identify the approach that best fits the research questions and purpose. This does not obfuscate the need to address philosophical challenges of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Mixed methods research poses philosophical and technical challenges. Pragmatism in a popular approach to the philosophical challenges while diverse typologies of mixed methods designs can help address the technical challenges. Examples of mixed methods research can be hard to locate when component studies from mixed methods projects are published separately. What does this study add? Critical

  12. Diet behaviour among young people in transition to adulthood (18-25 year olds): a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Poobalan, Amudha S; Aucott, Lorna S; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Young people (18-25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18-25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. 'Framework Analysis' was used to analyse the focus groups. Results: 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were 'self-appearance' and having 'variety of food'. There were mixed opinions on 'cost' of food and 'taste'. Conclusion: Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the community. It provides evidence

  13. Diet behaviour among young people in transition to adulthood (18–25 year olds): a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    Poobalan, Amudha S.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results: 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were ‘self-appearance’ and having ‘variety of food’. There were mixed opinions on ‘cost’ of food and ‘taste’. Conclusion: Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the

  14. Can the super model (SUMO) method improve hydrological simulations? Exploratory tests with the GR hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Léonard; Thirel, Guillaume; Perrin, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Errors made by hydrological models may come from a problem in parameter estimation, uncertainty on observed measurements, numerical problems and from the model conceptualization that simplifies the reality. Here we focus on this last issue of hydrological modeling. One of the solutions to reduce structural uncertainty is to use a multimodel method, taking advantage of the great number and the variability of existing hydrological models. In particular, because different models are not similarly good in all situations, using multimodel approaches can improve the robustness of modeled outputs. Traditionally, in hydrology, multimodel methods are based on the output of the model (the simulated flow series). The aim of this poster is to introduce a different approach based on the internal variables of the models. The method is inspired by the SUper MOdel (SUMO, van den Berge et al., 2011) developed for climatology. The idea of the SUMO method is to correct the internal variables of a model taking into account the values of the internal variables of (an)other model(s). This correction is made bilaterally between the different models. The ensemble of the different models constitutes a super model in which all the models exchange information on their internal variables with each other at each time step. Due to this continuity in the exchanges, this multimodel algorithm is more dynamic than traditional multimodel methods. The method will be first tested using two GR4J models (in a state-space representation) with different parameterizations. The results will be presented and compared to traditional multimodel methods that will serve as benchmarks. In the future, other rainfall-runoff models will be used in the super model. References van den Berge, L. A., Selten, F. M., Wiegerinck, W., and Duane, G. S. (2011). A multi-model ensemble method that combines imperfect models through learning. Earth System Dynamics, 2(1) :161-177.

  15. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies. PMID:22167325

  16. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses.

    PubMed

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G; Boyd, Stephen J; Kopak, Albert

    2010-09-20

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with "deep structure" explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.

  17. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  18. Tweets about hospital quality: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Felix; Laverty, Antony A; Cano, Daniel Ramirez; Moilanen, Karo; Pulman, Stephen; Darzi, Ara; Millett, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter is increasingly being used by patients to comment on their experience of healthcare. This may provide information for understanding the quality of healthcare providers and improving services. Objective To examine whether tweets sent to hospitals in the English National Health Service contain information about quality of care. To compare sentiment on Twitter about hospitals with established survey measures of patient experience and standardised mortality rates. Design A mixed methods study including a quantitative analysis of all 198 499 tweets sent to English hospitals over a year and a qualitative directed content analysis of 1000 random tweets. Twitter sentiment and conventional quality metrics were compared using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Key results 11% of tweets to hospitals contained information about care quality, with the most frequent topic being patient experience (8%). Comments on effectiveness or safety of care were present, but less common (3%). 77% of tweets about care quality were positive in tone. Other topics mentioned in tweets included messages of support to patients, fundraising activity, self-promotion and dissemination of health information. No associations were observed between Twitter sentiment and conventional quality metrics. Conclusions Only a small proportion of tweets directed at hospitals discuss quality of care and there was no clear relationship between Twitter sentiment and other measures of quality, potentially limiting Twitter as a medium for quality monitoring. However, tweets did contain information useful to target quality improvement activity. Recent enthusiasm by policy makers to use social media as a quality monitoring and improvement tool needs to be carefully considered and subjected to formal evaluation. PMID:24748372

  19. Engaging patients through open notes: an evaluation using mixed methods.

    PubMed

    Esch, Tobias; Mejilla, Roanne; Anselmo, Melissa; Podtschaske, Beatrice; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan

    2016-01-29

    (A) To gain insights into the experiences of patients invited to view their doctors' visit notes, with a focus on those who review multiple notes; (B) to examine the relationships among fully transparent electronic medical records and quality of care, the patient-doctor relationship, patient engagement, self-care, self-management skills and clinical outcomes. Mixed methods qualitative study: analyses of survey data, including content analysis of free-text answers, and quantitative-descriptive measures combined with semistructured individual interviews, patient activation measures, and member checks. Greater Boston, USA. Patients cared for by primary care physicians (PCPs) at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center who had electronic access to their PCP visit notes. Among those submitting surveys, 576 free-text answers were identified and analysed (414 from female patients, 162 from male patients; 23-88 years). In addition, 13 patients (9 female, 4 male; 58-87 years) were interviewed. Patient experiences indicate improved understanding (of health information), better relationships (with doctors), better quality (adherence and compliance; keeping track) and improved self-care (patient-centredness, empowerment). Patients want more doctors to offer access to their notes, and some wish to contribute to their generation. Those patients with repeated experience reviewing notes express fewer concerns and more perceived benefits. As the use of fully transparent medical records spreads, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of possible benefits or harms, and to characterise target populations that may require varying modes of delivery. Patient desires for expansion of this practice extend to specialty care and settings beyond the physician's office. Patients are also interested in becoming involved actively in the generation of their medical records. The OpenNotes movement may increase patient activation and engagement in important ways. Published by the BMJ

  20. Engaging patients through open notes: an evaluation using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Tobias; Mejilla, Roanne; Anselmo, Melissa; Podtschaske, Beatrice; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (A) To gain insights into the experiences of patients invited to view their doctors’ visit notes, with a focus on those who review multiple notes; (B) to examine the relationships among fully transparent electronic medical records and quality of care, the patient-doctor relationship, patient engagement, self-care, self-management skills and clinical outcomes. Design Mixed methods qualitative study: analyses of survey data, including content analysis of free-text answers, and quantitative-descriptive measures combined with semistructured individual interviews, patient activation measures, and member checks. Setting Greater Boston, USA. Participants Patients cared for by primary care physicians (PCPs) at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center who had electronic access to their PCP visit notes. Among those submitting surveys, 576 free-text answers were identified and analysed (414 from female patients, 162 from male patients; 23–88 years). In addition, 13 patients (9 female, 4 male; 58–87 years) were interviewed. Results Patient experiences indicate improved understanding (of health information), better relationships (with doctors), better quality (adherence and compliance; keeping track) and improved self-care (patient-centredness, empowerment). Patients want more doctors to offer access to their notes, and some wish to contribute to their generation. Those patients with repeated experience reviewing notes express fewer concerns and more perceived benefits. Conclusions As the use of fully transparent medical records spreads, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of possible benefits or harms, and to characterise target populations that may require varying modes of delivery. Patient desires for expansion of this practice extend to specialty care and settings beyond the physician's office. Patients are also interested in becoming involved actively in the generation of their medical records. The OpenNotes movement may increase patient

  1. Planning for retirement from medicine: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Pannor Silver, Michelle; Easty, Laura K

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests there are important personal and social consequences associated with inadequate retirement planning for physicians. We evaluated whether academic physicians felt satisfied with their retirement planning, and identified obstacles to retirement planning and a set of factors to facilitate retirement planning. We applied a sequential mixed-methods research design to explore and examine factors that facilitate academic physician retirement planning using data collected from multiple sources (including 7 focus groups, an internet-based survey and 23 in-depth interviews). We examined survey results regarding retirement planning satisfaction and preferences for complete versus gradual retirement. We used thematic analysis to examine verbatim transcripts and notes from the focus groups and interviews. Survey data (response rate 51%) indicated that 10% of respondents were very satisfied with their retirement planning and 89.5% would prefer to retire gradually rather than stop work completely. Key barriers to retirement planning that emerged included poor personal financial management, rigid institutional structures and professional norms. Facilitators included financial planning resources for physicians at multiple career stages, opportunities and resources for later-career transitions and later-career mentorship support for intergenerational collaboration, and recognition of retirees. Key findings highlight perceived barriers to retirement planning at various career stages in addition to factors that can enhance physicians' retirement planning, including creating gradual and flexible retirement options, supporting ongoing discussions about financial planning and later career transitions, and fostering a culture that continues to honour and involve retirees. Medical institutions could foster innovative models for later-career transitions from medicine in ways that address physicians' needs at various career stages, support gradual transitions from practice

  2. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  3. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  4. XFEM: Exploratory Research into the Extended Finite-Element Method, FY02 LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    MISH, K

    2003-02-26

    This report is one of two components, the first an overview document outlining the goals and results of the XFEM LDRD project, and the other (titled ''Structured Extended Finite Element Methods of Solids defined by Implicit Surfaces'') detailing the scientific advances developed under FY01/FY02 LDRD funding. The XFEM (Extended Finite-Element Method) Engineering LDRD/ER Project was motivated by three research and development goals: (1) the extensions of standard finite-element technology into important new research venues of interest to the Engineering Directorate, (2) the automation of much of the engineering analysis workflow, so as to improve the productivity of mesh-generation and problem setup processes, and (3) the development of scalable software tools to facilitate innovation in XFEM analysis and methods development. The driving principle behind this LDRD project was to demonstrate the computational technology required to perform mechanical analysis of complex solids, with minimal extra effort required on the part of mechanical analysts. This need arises both from the growing workload of LLNL analysts in problem setup and mesh generation, and from the requirement that actual as-built mechanical configurations be analyzed. Many of the most important programmatic drivers for mechanical analysis require that the actual (e.g., deformed, aged, damaged) geometric configuration of the solid be deduced and then accurately modeled: for this programmatic need, XFEM provides one of the only accurate methods available that can provide high-fidelity results.

  5. An Exploratory Study of Child Molesters Relationship Patterns Using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, Martin; de Roten, Yves; Korner, Annett

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relationship patterns of N = 20 child molesters (CM) using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) method. The relationship patterns of the CMs were compared with those of a control group of N = 20 subjects from an out patient counseling service. Results showed that CMs had significantly less wish to be controlled,…

  6. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  7. Student Satisfactions in Four Mixed Courses in Elementary Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Qiuyun

    2008-01-01

    Mixed or hybrid method has become an increasingly popular course delivery model in recent years, but research regarding the effect of mixed learning is limited because of its recent debut in the landscape of educational technology. This one-year exploratory study looked at 78 elementary teacher candidates' view of learning in four mixed courses…

  8. Diagnosis of Dementia by Machine learning methods in Epidemiological studies: a pilot exploratory study from south India.

    PubMed

    Bhagyashree, Sheshadri Iyengar Raghavan; Nagaraj, Kiran; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline H D; Krishna, Murali

    2017-07-11

    There are limited data on the use of artificial intelligence methods for the diagnosis of dementia in epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. A culture and education fair battery of cognitive tests was developed and validated for population based studies in low- and middle-income countries including India by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. We explored the machine learning methods based on the 10/66 battery of cognitive tests for the diagnosis of dementia based in a birth cohort study in South India. The data sets for 466 men and women for this study were obtained from the on-going Mysore Studies of Natal effect of Health and Ageing (MYNAH), in south India. The data sets included: demographics, performance on the 10/66 cognitive function tests, the 10/66 diagnosis of mental disorders and population based normative data for the 10/66 battery of cognitive function tests. Diagnosis of dementia from the rule based approach was compared against the 10/66 diagnosis of dementia. We have applied machine learning techniques to identify minimal number of the 10/66 cognitive function tests required for diagnosing dementia and derived an algorithm to improve the accuracy of dementia diagnosis. Of 466 subjects, 27 had 10/66 diagnosis of dementia, 19 of whom were correctly identified as having dementia by Jrip classification with 100% accuracy. This pilot exploratory study indicates that machine learning methods can help identify community dwelling older adults with 10/66 criterion diagnosis of dementia with good accuracy in a LMIC setting such as India. This should reduce the duration of the diagnostic assessment and make the process easier and quicker for clinicians, patients and will be useful for 'case' ascertainment in population based epidemiological studies.

  9. Using mixed methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions in palliative care research.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Morag C; Ewing, Gail; Booth, Sara

    2011-12-01

    there is increasing interest in combining qualitative and quantitative research methods to provide comprehensiveness and greater knowledge yield. Mixed methods are valuable in the development and evaluation of complex interventions. They are therefore particularly valuable in palliative care research where the majority of interventions are complex, and the identification of outcomes particularly challenging. this paper aims to introduce the role of mixed methods in the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care, and how they may be used in palliative care research. the paper defines mixed methods and outlines why and how mixed methods are used to develop and evaluate complex interventions, with a pragmatic focus on design and data collection issues and data analysis. Useful texts are signposted and illustrative examples provided of mixed method studies in palliative care, including a detailed worked example of the development and evaluation of a complex intervention in palliative care for breathlessness. Key challenges to conducting mixed methods in palliative care research are identified in relation to data collection, data integration in analysis, costs and dissemination and how these might be addressed. the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care benefit from the application of mixed methods. Mixed methods enable better understanding of whether and how an intervention works (or does not work) and inform the design of subsequent studies. However, they can be challenging: mixed method studies in palliative care will benefit from working with agreed protocols, multidisciplinary teams and engaging staff with appropriate skill sets.

  10. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research.

  11. Purists need not apply: the case for pragmatism in mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Florczak, Kristine L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this column is to describe several different ways of conducting mixed method research. The paradigms that underpin both qualitative and quantitative research are also considered along with a cursory review of classical pragmatism as it relates conducting mixed methods studies. Finally, the idea of loosely coupled systems as a means to support mixed methods studies is proposed along with several caveats to researchers who desire to use this new way of obtaining knowledge.

  12. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    PubMed Central

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. PMID:27856556

  13. The Value of Developing a Mixed-Methods Program of Research.

    PubMed

    Simonovich, Shannon

    2017-07-01

    This article contributes to the discussion of the value of utilizing mixed methodological approaches to conduct nursing research. To this end, the author of this article proposes creating a mixed-methods program of research over time, where both quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed simultaneously, rather than focusing efforts on designing singular mixed-methods studies. A mixed-methods program of research would allow for the best of both worlds: precision through focus on one method at a time, and the benefits of creating a robust understanding of a phenomenon over the trajectory of one's career through examination from various methodological approaches.

  14. The Well Organised Working Environment: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Dominique Kim Frances; Griffin, Murray

    2016-03-01

    The English National Health Service Institute for Innovation and Improvement designed a series of programmes called The Productive Series. These are innovations designed to help healthcare staff reduce inefficiency and improve quality, and have been implemented in healthcare organisations in at least 14 different countries. This paper examines an implementation of the first module of the Productive Community Services programme called 'The Well Organised Working Environment'. The quantitative component aims to identify the quantitative outcomes and impact of the implementation of the Well Organised Working Environment module. The qualitative component aims to describe the contexts, mechanisms and outcomes evident during the implementation, and to consider the implication of these findings for healthcare staff, commissioners and implementation teams. Mixed methods explanatory sequential design. Community Healthcare Organisation in East Anglia, England. For the quantitative data, participants were 73 staff members that completed End of Module Assessments. Data from 25 services that carried out an inventory of stock items stored were also analysed. For the qualitative element, participants were 45 staff members working in the organisation during the implementation, and four members of the Productive Community Services Implementation Team. Staff completed assessments at the end of the module implementation, and the value of items stored by clinical services was recorded. After the programme concluded, semi-structured interviews with staff and a focus group with members of the Productive Community Services implementation team were analysed using Framework Analysis employing the principles of Realist Evaluation. 62.5% respondents (n=45) to the module assessment reported an improvement in their working environment, 37.5% (n=27) reported that their working environment stayed the same or deteriorated. The reduction of the value of items stored by services ranged from £4 to

  15. Development and testing of the 'Culture of Care Barometer' (CoCB) in healthcare organisations: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anne Marie; Philippou, Julia; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M; Pike, Geoff; Ball, Jane

    2017-08-18

    Concerns about care quality have prompted calls to create workplace cultures conducive to high-quality, safe and compassionate care and to provide a supportive environment in which staff can operate effectively. How healthcare organisations assess their culture of care is an important first step in creating such cultures. This article reports on the development and validation of a tool, the Culture of Care Barometer, designed to assess perceptions of a caring culture among healthcare workers preliminary to culture change. An exploratory mixed methods study designed to develop and test the validity of a tool to measure 'culture of care' through focus groups and questionnaires. Questionnaire development was facilitated through: a literature review, experts generating items of interest and focus group discussions with healthcare staff across specialities, roles and seniority within three types of public healthcare organisations in the UK. The tool was designed to be multiprofessional and pilot tested with a sample of 467 nurses and healthcare support workers in acute care and then validated with a sample of 1698 staff working across acute, mental health and community services in England. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dimensions underlying the Barometer. Psychometric testing resulted in the development of a 30-item questionnaire linked to four domains with retained items loading to four factors: organisational values (α=0.93, valid n=1568, M=3.7), team support (α=0.93, valid n=1557, M=3.2), relationships with colleagues (α=0.84, valid n=1617, M=4.0) and job constraints (α=0.70, valid n=1616, M=3.3). The study developed a valid and reliable instrument with which to gauge the different attributes of care culture perceived by healthcare staff with potential for organisational benchmarking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  16. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  17. Describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian community: application of a mixed method design.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products.

  18. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  19. Conceptual Issues and Analytic Strategies in Mixed-Method Studies of Preschool Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Shouming; Marquart, Jules M.; Zercher, Craig

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the conceptual issues of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in early intervention research by illustrating how two analytic approaches were used for different mixed-method purposes in the study of preschool inclusion. It describes practical strategies for conducting mixed-method data analysis in terms of data…

  20. Problematic Preferences? A Mixed Method Examination of Principals' Preferences for Teacher Characteristics in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Relatively little is known about how principals make decisions about teacher hiring. This article uses mixed methods to examine what characteristics principals look for in teachers. Research Methods: Data were gathered using a mixed method approach, including in-depth interviews with a representative sample of 31 principals as well as an…

  1. Problematic Preferences? A Mixed Method Examination of Principals' Preferences for Teacher Characteristics in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Relatively little is known about how principals make decisions about teacher hiring. This article uses mixed methods to examine what characteristics principals look for in teachers. Research Methods: Data were gathered using a mixed method approach, including in-depth interviews with a representative sample of 31 principals as well as an…

  2. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  3. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  4. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  5. Validating for Use and Interpretation: A Mixed Methods Contribution Illustrated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Linda; Tan, Rachael Jin Bee

    2009-01-01

    Researchers in the areas of psychology and education strive to understand the intersections among validity, educational measurement, and cognitive theory. Guided by a mixed model conceptual framework, this study investigates how respondents' opinions inform the validation argument. Validity evidence for a science assessment was collected through…

  6. Validating for Use and Interpretation: A Mixed Methods Contribution Illustrated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Linda; Tan, Rachael Jin Bee

    2009-01-01

    Researchers in the areas of psychology and education strive to understand the intersections among validity, educational measurement, and cognitive theory. Guided by a mixed model conceptual framework, this study investigates how respondents' opinions inform the validation argument. Validity evidence for a science assessment was collected through…

  7. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  8. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  9. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  10. POSTPROCESSING MIXED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR SOLVING CAHN-HILLIARD EQUATION: METHODS AND ERROR ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wansheng; Chen, Long; Zhou, Jie

    2016-05-01

    A postprocessing technique for mixed finite element methods for the Cahn-Hilliard equation is developed and analyzed. Once the mixed finite element approximations have been computed at a fixed time on the coarser mesh, the approximations are postprocessed by solving two decoupled Poisson equations in an enriched finite element space (either on a finer grid or a higher-order space) for which many fast Poisson solvers can be applied. The nonlinear iteration is only applied to a much smaller size problem and the computational cost using Newton and direct solvers is negligible compared with the cost of the linear problem. The analysis presented here shows that this technique remains the optimal rate of convergence for both the concentration and the chemical potential approximations. The corresponding error estimate obtained in our paper, especially the negative norm error estimates, are non-trivial and different with the existing results in the literatures.

  11. Using Single Free Sorting and Multivariate Exploratory Methods to Design a New Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Molly; Sage, Emma; Velez, Martin; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy-two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  12. The evolution of rotating stars. 1: Method and exploratory calculations for a 7 solar mass star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method was developed which allows us to study the evolution of rotating stars beyond the main sequence stage. Four different cases of redistribution of angular momentum in an evolving star are considered. Evolutionary sequences for a 7 solar mass star, rotating according to these different cases, were computed from the ZAMS to the double shell source stage. Each sequence was begun with a (typical) equatorial velocity of 210 km/sec. On the main sequence, the effects of rotation are of minor importance. As the core contracts during later stages, important effects arise in all physically plausible cases. The outer regions of the cores approach critical velocities and develop unstable angular velocity distributions. The effects of these instabilities should significantly alter the subsequent evolution.

  13. Using Single Free Sorting and Multivariate Exploratory Methods to Design a New Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel

    PubMed Central

    Sage, Emma; Velez, Martin; Guinard, Jean‐Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The original Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel was developed by the Specialty Coffee Assn. of America over 20 y ago, and needed an innovative revision. This study used a novel application of traditional sensory and statistical methods in order to reorganize the new coffee Sensory Lexicon developed by World Coffee Research and Kansas State Univ. into scientifically valid clusters and levels to prepare a new, updated flavor wheel. Seventy‐two experts participated in a modified online rapid free sorting activity (no tasting) to sort flavor attributes of the lexicon. The data from all participants were compiled and agglomeration hierarchical clustering was used to determine the clusters and levels of the flavor attributes, while multidimensional scaling was used to determine the positioning of the clusters around the Coffee Taster's Flavor Wheel. This resulted in a new flavor wheel for the coffee industry. PMID:27861864

  14. Method for exploratory cluster analysis and visualisation of single-trial ERP ensembles.

    PubMed

    Williams, N J; Nasuto, S J; Saddy, J D

    2015-07-30

    The validity of ensemble averaging on event-related potential (ERP) data has been questioned, due to its assumption that the ERP is identical across trials. Thus, there is a need for preliminary testing for cluster structure in the data. We propose a complete pipeline for the cluster analysis of ERP data. To increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the raw single-trials, we used a denoising method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Next, we used a bootstrap-based method to determine the number of clusters, through a measure called the Stability Index (SI). We then used a clustering algorithm based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to define initial cluster centroids for subsequent k-means clustering. Finally, we visualised the clustering results through a scheme based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After validating the pipeline on simulated data, we tested it on data from two experiments - a P300 speller paradigm on a single subject and a language processing study on 25 subjects. Results revealed evidence for the existence of 6 clusters in one experimental condition from the language processing study. Further, a two-way chi-square test revealed an influence of subject on cluster membership. Our analysis operates on denoised single-trials, the number of clusters are determined in a principled manner and the results are presented through an intuitive visualisation. Given the cluster structure in some experimental conditions, we suggest application of cluster analysis as a preliminary step before ensemble averaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  16. [Study on key physical properties of granulated products of Andrographis mixed powder by high-speed mixing wet method].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Li, Zhe; Ming, Liang-Shan; Luo, Juan; Jiang, Qie-Ying; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Liang, Xin-Li

    2014-10-01

    The impact of key physical properties on granulated products by the high-speed mixing wet method was studied. Andrographis extracts were utilized as the model drug. Four processing methods were adopted to prepare mixed powder of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and starch with the mass ratio 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2 by the high-speed mixing wet method. The properties of the prepared granules were evaluated with such indexes as granule yield, the ratio of lumps and fine powder, granule-AOR and granule-HR. The impact of key physical properties on granulated products was analyzed through stepwise regression analysis. The results showed that angle of repose, moisture content, pore volume, density and contact angle with water were key physical properties of the powder. The key physical properties of Chinese medical extracts powder are the important factor impacting granulated products made by the high-speed mixing wet method. In this study, the impact of key physical properties on granulated products of Chinese medical extracts was analyzed from the physical angle.

  17. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  18. Protecting children from secondhand smoke: a mixed-methods feasibility study of a novel smoke-free home intervention.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John; McNeill, Ann; Lewis, Sarah; Coleman, Tim; Bains, Manpreet; Larwood, Alexandra; Purdy, Jacqueline; Jones, Laura L

    2016-01-01

    Globally, 40 % of children under 14 years are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS), typically in their homes. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce children's SHS exposure, and so the aim of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel intervention to help parents and carers (caregivers) to reduce their children's exposure to SHS at home. A novel multi-component intervention to support caregivers to reduce their children's SHS exposure at home was tested in a two-phase feasibility study. The 12-week intensive intervention delivered in the home consisted of three components: behavioural support, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for temporary abstinence and feedback on levels of SHS exposure in the form of children's salivary cotinine (phase 1) or home air quality (PM2.5) (phase 2). Participants were caregivers who smoked inside their homes and had at least one child under the age of 5 years living with them the majority of the time. Mixed-methods were used to explore the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention as well as processes, particularly around recruitment and retention, for an exploratory efficacy trial. Twelve caregivers completed the study, all received personalised feedback on SHS exposure and behavioural support to help them to make their homes smoke-free and the majority at least tried NRT. Saliva cotinine results were variable in phase 1, and therefore, measures of PM2.5 were used for feedback in phase 2. Behavioural support was well received with personalised feedback reported as being the key motivator for initiating and maintaining behaviour change. Recruiting disadvantaged caregivers was labour intensive, but once recruited, this novel intervention was both feasible and acceptable in supporting caregivers to reduce their children's exposure to SHS at home. It is appropriate to test the efficacy of this novel intervention in an exploratory randomised controlled trial

  19. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  20. Emulsion package and method of mixing the emulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.G.; Brenneman, S.; Clancy, J.J.

    1984-08-28

    A coal tar emulsion driveway sealer is packaged in a sealed bag. The volume of sealer is less than half the capacity of the bag and the bag is substantially completely evacuated but for the sealer. The separated sealer is mixed by compressing the sides of the bag to induce turbulent flow of the paste and liquid for hydraulic mixing thereof. The sealer may be dispensed at a controlled rate without spattering by cutting a corner from the bag to provide a pour spout. The bag with the sealer may be contained in a carton. The bag membrane comprises an aluminum layer vapor deposited on polyester. Those two layers are sandwiched between layers of EVA copolymer.

  1. En Route Patient Safety: A Mixed-Methods Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    during air staging and aeromedical evacuation (AE). An important step in improving patient safety is to identify gaps in patient care and examine...personnel/crew safety is important to those en route care personnel who participated. However, there were mixed thoughts whether the mission or patient ... safety were evident as a range of patient safety concerns and proposed solutions emerged from the focus group discussions. The importance of teamwork

  2. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality-an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome-deaths of strangers-by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the "Time Travel" condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a "Repetition" condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of "time travel" provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number.

  3. A Randomized Exploratory Study to Evaluate Two Acupuncture Methods for the Treatment of Headaches Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bellanti, Dawn M.; Paat, Charmagne F.; Boyd, Courtney C.; Duncan, Alaine; Price, Ashley; Zhang, Weimin; French, Louis M.; Chae, Heechin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Headaches are prevalent among Service members with traumatic brain injury (TBI); 80% report chronic or recurrent headache. Evidence for nonpharmacologic treatments, such as acupuncture, are needed. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine if two types of acupuncture (auricular acupuncture [AA] and traditional Chinese acupuncture [TCA]) were feasible and more effective than usual care (UC) alone for TBI–related headache. Materials and Methods: Design: This was a three-armed, parallel, randomized exploratory study. Setting: The research took place at three military treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Patients: The subjects were previously deployed Service members (18–69 years old) with mild-to-moderate TBI and headaches. Intervention: The interventions explored were UC alone or with the addition of AA or TCA. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was the Headache Impact Test (HIT). Secondary outcomes were the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Medical Outcome Study Quality of Life (QoL), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, and expectancy of outcome and acupuncture efficacy. Results: Mean HIT scores decreased in the AA and TCA groups but increased slightly in the UC-only group from baseline to week 6 [AA, −10.2% (−6.4 points); TCA, −4.6% (−2.9 points); UC, +0.8% (+0.6 points)]. Both acupuncture groups had sizable decreases in NRS (Pain Best), compared to UC (TCA versus UC: P = 0.0008, d = 1.70; AA versus UC: P = 0.0127, d = 1.6). No statistically significant results were found for any other secondary outcome measures. Conclusions: Both AA and TCA improved headache-related QoL more than UC did in Service members with TBI. PMID:27458496

  4. Direct numerical simulations of a reacting turbulent mixing layer by a pseudospectral-spectral element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Givi, Peyman

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the implementation of the spectral-element technique for simulating a chemically reacting, spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. Attention is given to experimental and numerical studies that have investigated the development, evolution, and mixing characteristics of shear flows. A mathematical formulation is presented of the physical configuration of the spatially developing reacting mixing layer, in conjunction with a detailed representation of the spectral-element method's application to the numerical simulation of mixing layers. Results from 2D and 3D calculations of chemically reacting mixing layers are given.

  5. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services.

  6. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: Examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. Methods We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Results Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Conclusions Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research. PMID:22545681

  7. Mixed-methods designs in mental health services research: a review.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael S; Landsverk, John

    2011-03-01

    Despite increased calls for use of mixed-methods designs in mental health services research, how and why such methods are being used and whether there are any consistent patterns that might indicate a consensus about how such methods can and should be used are unclear. Use of mixed methods was examined in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles found by searching PubMed Central and 60 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded projects found by searching the CRISP database over five years (2005-2009). Studies were coded for aims and the rationale, structure, function, and process for using mixed methods. A notable increase was observed in articles published and grants funded over the study period. However, most did not provide an explicit rationale for using mixed methods, and 74% gave priority to use of quantitative methods. Mixed methods were used to accomplish five distinct types of study aims (assess needs for services, examine existing services, develop new or adapt existing services, evaluate services in randomized controlled trials, and examine service implementation), with three categories of rationale, seven structural arrangements based on timing and weighting of methods, five functions of mixed methods, and three ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data. Each study aim was associated with a specific pattern of use of mixed methods, and four common patterns were identified. These studies offer guidance for continued progress in integrating qualitative and quantitative methods in mental health services research consistent with efforts by NIH and other funding agencies to promote their use.

  8. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the

  9. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Salla; Launiala, Annika; Kagaha, Alexander; Smith, Helen

    2012-04-30

    Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research.

  10. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research. PMID:20003210

  11. Life in the Middle: An Exploratory Study of California Community College Instructional Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sill, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This two-phase sequential mixed methods exploratory study examined the perceived skill deficits of instructional deans at California community colleges to better understand the training and development needs that are necessary to support dean success and to prepare them for advancement in a timelier manner. This study is grounded in the…

  12. An Exploratory Study of Digital Video Editing as a Tool for Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandra, Brendan; Gurvitch, Rachel; Lund, Jacalyn

    2008-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to examine teacher candidates' perspectives of successful teaching through personalized video vignettes. Furthermore, the authors were interested in how participants' written reflections might change as a result of creating these vignettes. This research used mixed-methods within the context of an exploratory multi-case…

  13. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.

    2009-01-01

    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  14. To Flip or Not to Flip? An Exploratory Study Comparing Student Performance in Calculus I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Larissa B.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, mixed-methods study was to compare student performance in flipped and non-flipped sections of Calculus I. The study also examined students' perceptions of the flipping pedagogy. Students in the flipped courses reported spending, on average, an additional 1-2 hours per week outside of class on course content.…

  15. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.

    2009-01-01

    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  16. To Flip or Not to Flip? An Exploratory Study Comparing Student Performance in Calculus I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Larissa B.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, mixed-methods study was to compare student performance in flipped and non-flipped sections of Calculus I. The study also examined students' perceptions of the flipping pedagogy. Students in the flipped courses reported spending, on average, an additional 1-2 hours per week outside of class on course content.…

  17. Using Mixed Methods to Analyze Video Data: A Mathematics Teacher Professional Development Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Marshall, Patricia L.; McCulloch, Allison W.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from 65 teachers participating in a K-2 mathematics professional development research project as an example of how to analyze video recordings of teachers' classroom lessons using mixed methods. Through their discussion, the authors demonstrate how using a mixed methods approach to classroom video analysis allows researchers…

  18. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  19. A Mixed-Methods Exploration of an Environment for Learning Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-methods approach is evaluated for exploring collaborative behaviour, acceptance and progress surrounding an interactive technology for learning computer programming. A review of literature reveals a compelling case for using mixed-methods approaches when evaluating technology-enhanced-learning environments. Here, ethnographic approaches…

  20. Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing an Informal Buddy Support System for Canadian Forces Reservists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing an Informal Buddy Support System for Canadian Forces Reservists Donna I. Pickering...Tara Holton Defence R&D Canada Technical Memorandum DRDC Toronto TM 2011-028 April 2011...Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing an Informal Buddy Support System for Canadian Forces Reservists Donna I. Pickering Tara Holton

  1. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  2. Progress Monitoring for the Gifted and Talented: A Mixed Methods Examination of Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckberg, Lynn Ann

    2013-01-01

    The mixed methods correlational study examined the problem that AYP of Pennsylvania gifted middle school students who have met state-mandated proficiency requirements under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has been reliant upon minimum proficiency tests. The purpose of the mixed methods study was to examine the correlations between the current measure…

  3. Using Mixed Methods to Analyze Video Data: A Mathematics Teacher Professional Development Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Marshall, Patricia L.; McCulloch, Allison W.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from 65 teachers participating in a K-2 mathematics professional development research project as an example of how to analyze video recordings of teachers' classroom lessons using mixed methods. Through their discussion, the authors demonstrate how using a mixed methods approach to classroom video analysis allows researchers…

  4. A Mixed-Methods Exploration of an Environment for Learning Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-methods approach is evaluated for exploring collaborative behaviour, acceptance and progress surrounding an interactive technology for learning computer programming. A review of literature reveals a compelling case for using mixed-methods approaches when evaluating technology-enhanced-learning environments. Here, ethnographic approaches…

  5. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  6. Cognitive Task Complexity Effects on L2 Writing Performance: An Application of Mixed-Methods Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi Tabari, Mahmoud; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a methodological review of previous research on cognitive task complexity, since the term emerged in 1995, and investigates why much research was more quantitative rather than qualitative. Moreover, it sheds light onto the studies which used the mixed-methods approach and determines which version of the mixed-methods designs…

  7. Mixing Research Methods in Health Professional Degrees: Thoughts for Undergraduate Students and Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaf, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine A.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary considers some of the challenges of applying mixed methods research in undergraduate research degrees, especially in professions with a clinical health focus. Our experience in physiotherapy academia is used as an example. Mixed methods research is increasingly appreciated in its own right as a "third paradigm," however the success…

  8. Progress Monitoring for the Gifted and Talented: A Mixed Methods Examination of Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckberg, Lynn Ann

    2013-01-01

    The mixed methods correlational study examined the problem that AYP of Pennsylvania gifted middle school students who have met state-mandated proficiency requirements under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has been reliant upon minimum proficiency tests. The purpose of the mixed methods study was to examine the correlations between the current measure…

  9. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  10. Exploring ambivalence in motivational interviewing with obese African American adolescents and their caregivers: A mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carcone, April Idalski; Barton, Ellen; Eggly, Susan; Brogan Hartlieb, Kathryn E.; Thominet, Luke; Naar, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted an exploratory mixed methods study to describe the ambivalence African-American adolescents and their caregivers expressed during motivational interviewing sessions targeting weight loss. Methods We extracted ambivalence statements from 37 previously coded counseling sessions. We used directed content analysis to categorize ambivalence related to the target behaviors of nutrition, activity, or weight. We compared adolescent-caregiver dyads’ ambivalence using the paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We then used conventional content analysis to compare the specific content of adolescents’ and caregivers’ ambivalence statements. Results Adolescents and caregivers expressed the same number of ambivalence statements overall, related to activity and weight, but caregivers expressed more statements about nutrition. Content analysis revealed convergences and divergences in caregivers’ and adolescents’ ambivalence about weight loss. Conclusion Understanding divergences in adolescent-caregiver ambivalence about the specific behaviors to target may partially explain the limited success of family-based weight loss interventions targeting African American families and provides a unique opportunity for providers to enhance family communication, foster teamwork, and build self-efficacy to promote behavior change. Practice implications Clinicians working in family contexts should explore how adolescents and caregivers converge and diverge in their ambivalence in order to recommend weight loss strategies that best meet families’ needs. PMID:26916012

  11. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Nicholl, Jon; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2009-12-09

    Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  12. A modularity-based method reveals mixed modules from chemical-gene heterogeneous network.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianglong; Tang, Shihuan; Liu, Xi; Gao, Yibo; Yang, Hongjun; Lu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    For a multicomponent therapy, molecular network is essential to uncover its specific mode of action from a holistic perspective. The molecular system of a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula can be represented by a 2-class heterogeneous network (2-HN), which typically includes chemical similarities, chemical-target interactions and gene interactions. An important premise of uncovering the molecular mechanism is to identify mixed modules from complex chemical-gene heterogeneous network of a TCM formula. We thus proposed a novel method (MixMod) based on mixed modularity to detect accurate mixed modules from 2-HNs. At first, we compared MixMod with Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm (CNM), Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL), Infomap and Louvain on benchmark 2-HNs with known module structure. Results showed that MixMod was superior to other methods when 2-HNs had promiscuous module structure. Then these methods were tested on a real drug-target network, in which 88 disease clusters were regarded as real modules. MixMod could identify the most accurate mixed modules from the drug-target 2-HN (normalized mutual information 0.62 and classification accuracy 0.4524). In the end, MixMod was applied to the 2-HN of Buchang naoxintong capsule (BNC) and detected 49 mixed modules. By using enrichment analysis, we investigated five mixed modules that contained primary constituents of BNC intestinal absorption liquid. As a matter of fact, the findings of in vitro experiments using BNC intestinal absorption liquid were found to highly accord with previous analysis. Therefore, MixMod is an effective method to detect accurate mixed modules from chemical-gene heterogeneous networks and further uncover the molecular mechanism of multicomponent therapies, especially TCM formulae.

  13. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP( F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K)) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K)) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  14. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  15. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Compressible Mixing Layer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modem day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS/LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. The hybrid RANS/LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two-dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, indicated an initial vortex shedding followed by rapid transition to turbulence, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  16. Subjective memory impairment in general practice : Short overview and design of a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Pentzek, Michael; Leve, Verena; Leucht, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Public awareness for dementia is rising and patients with concerns about forgetfulness are not uncommon in general practice. For the general practitioner (GP) subjectively perceived memory impairment (SMI) also offers a chance to broach the issue of cognitive function with the patient. This may support GPs' patient-centered care in terms of a broader frailty concept. What is SMI (definition, operationalization, prevalence and burden)? Which conceptions and approaches do GPs have regarding SMI? Narrative overview of recent SMI criteria and results, selective utilization of results from a systematic literature search on GP dementia care, non-systematic search regarding SMI in general practice, deduction of a study design from the overview and development according to international standards. Studies revealed that approximately 60% of GP patients aged >74 reported a declining memory, every sixth person had concerns about this aspect and only relatively few seek medical advice. Concerns about SMI are considered a risk factor for future dementia. Specific general practice conceptions about SMI could not be identified in the literature. Using guidelines for mixed methods research, the design of an exploratory sequential mixed methods study is presented, which should reveal different attitudes of GPs towards SMI. Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is a common feature and troubles a considerable proportion of patients. Neuropsychiatric research is progressing, but for the transfer of the SMI concept into routine practice, involvement of GP research is necessary. A new study aims to make a contribution to this.

  17. Mixed Methods: Incorporating multiple learning styles into a measurements course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    The best scientists and engineers regularly combine creative and critical skill sets. As faculty, we are responsible to provide future scientists and engineers with those skills sets. EGR 390: Engineering Measurements at Murray State University is structured to actively engage students in the processes that develop and enhance those skills. Students learn through a mix of traditional lecture and homework, active discussion of open-ended questions, small group activities, structured laboratory exercises, oral and written communications exercises, student chosen team projects, and peer evaluations. Examples of each of these activities, the skill set addressed by each activity, outcomes from and effectiveness of each activity and recommendations for future directions in the EGR 390 course as designed will be presented.

  18. Method for producing a compressed body of mix-powder for ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okawa, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, a compressed body of mix powder for ceramic is produced by mixing and stirring several raw powder materials with mixing liquid such as water, and, in the process of sending the resulted viscous material pressurized at 5 kg/cm to 7 kg/cm, using 1.5 to 2 times the pressure to filter and dehydrate, adjusting the water content to 10 to 20%.

  19. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lynne D; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; 'Limited Exposure,' '(in)Compatibility,' 'Validity,' and 'Tokenistic Qualitative Component'; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs.

  20. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281

  1. [Extraction of sperm DNA from mixed stain by the modified differential lysis method combined with silicon bead method].

    PubMed

    Han, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Yang, Min; Yi, Hai; Yang, Geng-Ye; Jia, Dong-Tao; Lu, Da-Ru

    2014-02-01

    To extract sperm DNA from mixed stain by the modified differential lysis method combined with silicon bead method and to evaluate its application value. Fifty-two mixed stains containing female STR genotypes detected by differential lysis method were collected. The sperm DNA was extracted by the modified method combined with silicon bead method, then genotyped with the Identifiler Kit, and compared with the results of genotyping by the conventional differential lysis method as control. Of the 52 samples, 38 samples with sole male STR genotypes in all loci were detected. The detection rate of male STR genotypes was 98.08% through the modified method combined with silicon bead method. The modified differential lysis method combined with silicon bead method can be used in extraction of sperm DNA from mixed stain.

  2. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  3. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  4. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality—an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome—deaths of strangers—by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the “Time Travel” condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a “Repetition” condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of “time travel” provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number. PMID:25228889

  5. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1).

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

  6. Coping strategies and styles of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness: a mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia; Doherty, Donna Tedstone

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.

  7. Factors affecting the implementation process of clinical pathways: a mixed method study within the context of Swedish intensive care.

    PubMed

    Bjurling-Sjöberg, Petronella; Wadensten, Barbro; Pöder, Ulrika; Nordgren, Lena; Jansson, Inger

    2015-04-01

    Clinical pathways (CPs) can improve quality of care on intensive care units (ICUs), but are infrequently utilized and of varying quality. Knowledge regarding factors that facilitate versus hinder successful implementation of CPs is insufficient and a better understanding of the activities and individuals involved is needed. The aim of this study was to explore the implementation process of CPs within the context of ICUs. An exploratory design with a sequential mixed method was used. A CP survey, including all Swedish ICUs, was used to collect quantitative data from ICUs using CPs (n = 15) and interviews with key informants (n = 10) were used to collect qualitative data from the same ICUs. Descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis were used, and the quantitative and qualitative findings were integrated. The CP implementation was conceptualized according to two interplaying themes: a process to realize the usefulness of CPs and create new habits; and a necessity of enthusiasm, support and time. Multiple factors affected the process and those factors were organized in six main categories and 14 subcategories. Bottom-up initiatives, interprofessional project groups and small ICUs seem to enhance successful implementation of CPs while inadequate electronic health record systems, insufficient support and time constrains can be barriers. Support regarding the whole implementation process from centralized units at the local hospitals, as well as cooperation between ICUs and national guidance, has the potential to raise the quality of CPs and benefit the progress of CP implementation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Williams, M; Kuffour, G; Ekuadzi, E; Yeboah, M; ElDuah, M; Tuffour, P

    2013-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in Ghana, West Africa. The cervical cancer mortality rate in Ghana is more than three times the global cervical cancer mortality rate. Pap tests and visual inspection with acetic acid wash are widely available throughout Ghana, yet less that 3% of Ghanaian women get a cervical cancer screening at regular intervals. This exploratory study was to identify psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening among Ghanaian women with and without cancer using a mixed methods approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 49 Ghanaian women with cancer and 171 Ghanaian women who did not have cancer. The results of the quantitative analysis indicated that cancer patients where not more likely to have greater knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms than women without cancer. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed several psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening including, common myths about cervical cancer, misconceptions about cervical cancer screening, the lack of spousal support for screening, cultural taboos regarding the gender of healthcare providers, and the stigmatization of women with cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer education interventions aimed at addressing the psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening perceived by Ghanaian women.

  9. Developing an evidence-based methodological framework to systematically compare HTA coverage decisions: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Nicod, Elena; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-01-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) often results in different coverage recommendations across countries for a same medicine despite similar methodological approaches. This paper develops and pilots a methodological framework that systematically identifies the reasons for these differences using an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. The study countries were England, Scotland, Sweden and France. The methodological framework was built around three stages of the HTA process: (a) evidence, (b) its interpretation, and (c) its influence on the final recommendation; and was applied to two orphan medicinal products. The criteria accounted for at each stage were qualitatively analyzed through thematic analysis. Piloting the framework for two medicines, eight trials, 43 clinical endpoints and seven economic models were coded 155 times. Eighteen different uncertainties about this evidence were coded 28 times, 56% of which pertained to evidence commonly appraised and 44% to evidence considered by only some agencies. The poor agreement in interpreting this evidence (κ=0.183) was partly explained by stakeholder input (ns=48 times), or by agency-specific risk (nu=28 uncertainties) and value preferences (noc=62 "other considerations"), derived through correspondence analysis. Accounting for variability at each stage of the process can be achieved by codifying its existence and quantifying its impact through the application of this framework. The transferability of this framework to other disease areas, medicines and countries is ensured by its iterative and flexible nature, and detailed description.

  10. Development and evaluation of an online educational resource about cancer survivorship for cancer nurses: a mixed-methods sequential study.

    PubMed

    Shaw, T; Yates, P; Moore, B; Ash, K; Nolte, L; Krishnasamy, M; Nicholson, J; Rynderman, M; Avery, J; Jefford, M

    2017-07-01

    Cancer survivorship is recognised globally as a key issue. In spite of the key role played by nurses in survivorship care, there is an identified gap in nurse's knowledge in this area. This study reports on the development and evaluation of an educational resource for nurses working with people affected by cancer. The resource was designed using adult learning principles and includes a variety of learning materials and point of care resources. A mixed-methods sequential exploratory design was used to undertake an evaluation of the programme. This included the use of online surveys and semi-structured interviews with pilot participants. A total of 21 participants completed an online survey and 11 participants completed a telephone interview. Overall, the participants found the Cancer Survivorship resource to be engaging, practical and intuitive. A major theme emerging from the survey and interview data was that the resource was applicable to practice and useful in developing survivorship care plans. Respondents requested additional information be included on the role of various health professionals working in survivorship as well as guidelines on when to make referrals. This study provides evidence that the Cancer Survivorship tool may be a promising vehicle for delivering evidence-based education on survivorship care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Objective Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. Methods A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Results Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant

  12. Occupational identity of adolescents with ADHD: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Levanon-Erez, Nirit; Cohen, Maayan; Traub Bar-Ilan, Ruthie; Maeir, Adina

    2017-01-01

    Occupational identity (OI) is shaped by occupational experiences over time and has been studied among individuals with a variety of health conditions. Adolescents with ADHD face numerous challenges in their occupational performance that may threaten their OI. This study sought to compare the occupational identities of adolescents with and without ADHD and to gain a deeper understanding of the characteristics of OI among adolescents with ADHD. Sixty-four adolescents with (n = 21) and without ADHD (n = 43) were interviewed using the Occupational Performance History Interview (OPHI-II). A mixed methodology was applied, using quantitative and subsequent qualitative content analyses of 10 interviews, with a directed approach. OPHI-II OI interval scores and 7/11 items of the OI scale were significantly lower in the ADHD group compared to controls. In the qualitative content analyses, three major themes were found: (i) the meaning of success in academic participation, (ii) the consequences of not succeeding in academic participation and (iii) self-explanations for not succeeding in academic participation. Findings demonstrate the presence of OI challenges among adolescents with ADHD. Occupational therapy intervention may be needed in order to promote occupational adaptation.

  13. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-12-04

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  14. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  15. The Use of Mixed Methods in Randomized Control Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations should be issues driven, not methods driven. The starting point should be priority programs to be evaluated or policies to be tested. From this starting point, a list of evaluation questions is identified. For each evaluation question, the task is to identify the best available method for answering that question. Hence it is likely…

  16. The Use of Mixed Methods in Randomized Control Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Evaluations should be issues driven, not methods driven. The starting point should be priority programs to be evaluated or policies to be tested. From this starting point, a list of evaluation questions is identified. For each evaluation question, the task is to identify the best available method for answering that question. Hence it is likely…

  17. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiaobing

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  18. A Trojan horse for positivism?: a critique of mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lynne S; Grant, Barbara M

    2007-01-01

    Mixed methods research is captured by a pragmatically inflected form of postpositivism. Although it passes for an alternative methodological movement that purports to breach the divide between qualitative and quantitative research, most mixed methods studies favor the forms of analysis and truth finding associated with positivism. We anticipate a move away from exploring more philosophical questions or undertaking modes of enquiry that challenge the status quo. At the same time, we recognize that mixed methods research offers particular strengths and that, although it serves as a Trojan Horse for positivism, it may productively carry other paradigmatic passengers.

  19. ExPeKT—Exploring prevention and knowledge of venous thromboembolism: a two-stage, mixed-method study protocol

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Lorraine; Ward, Alison; Greenfield, Sheila; Murray, Ellen; Heneghan, Carl; Harrison, Sian; Fitzmaurice, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There is little awareness of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the public arena. Most commonly known causes are—travellers’ thrombosis and thrombosis associated with oral contraception, both frequently referred to in the media. However, VTE is a substantial healthcare problem, resulting in mortality, morbidity and economic cost. Most hospitalised patients have one or more risk factors for VTE. Around 60% of people undergoing hip or knee replacement will suffer a deep vein thrombosis without preventative intervention. Studies demonstrate a risk reduction for VTE of up to 70% with preventative medicine for medical and surgical conditions: cancer, orthopaedic surgery, general surgery and acutely ill medical admissions. Results will be used to identify methods of increasing knowledge of VTE prevention and for the development of educational and patient information materials. Methods and analysis A two-stage, mixed-method study using surveys with primary healthcare professionals and patients followed by interviews with primary healthcare professionals, patients, acute trusts and other relevant organisations. Survey and qualitative interview data will examine the current practice of thromboprophylaxis, and the knowledge and experience of VTE prevention for the development of education initiatives for primary healthcare professionals and patients to adopt thromboprophylaxis outside the hospital setting. As this is a scientific exploratory study for the generation, rather than testing, of new hypotheses a sample-size analysis is not called for. Survey data will be analysed using SPSS version 20. Open-ended responses will be analysed using qualitative thematic methods. The recorded and transcribed semistructured interview data will be analysed using constant comparative methods. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been provided by the National Research Ethics Committee (reference: 11/H0605/5) and site-specific R&D approval granted by the relevant R

  20. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method.

    PubMed

    Badran, Hani; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland

    2017-03-14

    The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant (R=4.86% [N=234,196] and R=3.04% [n

  1. Parent Pathways: Recognition and Responses to Developmental Delays in Young Children: A Mixed-Methods Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer Tess

    2013-01-01

    The importance of early recognition and intervention for developmental delays is increasingly acknowledged, yet high rates of under-enrollment and 1-3 year delays in entry to the public early intervention system continue. Much research has examined developmental screening in health and child care settings, but less well understood is what prompts…

  2. Parent Pathways: Recognition and Responses to Developmental Delays in Young Children: A Mixed-Methods Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer Tess

    2013-01-01

    The importance of early recognition and intervention for developmental delays is increasingly acknowledged, yet high rates of under-enrollment and 1-3 year delays in entry to the public early intervention system continue. Much research has examined developmental screening in health and child care settings, but less well understood is what prompts…

  3. Designing Health Websites Based on Users’ Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity

  4. Robustness to Format Effects of IRT Linking Methods for Mixed-Format Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seonghoon; Kolen, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Four item response theory linking methods (2 moment methods and 2 characteristic curve methods) were compared to concurrent (CO) calibration with the focus on the degree of robustness to format effects (FEs) when applying the methods to multidimensional data that reflected the FEs associated with mixed-format tests. Based on the quantification of…

  5. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using the text-mining method: Relationships with maternal traits and post-partum depression.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Sato, Shuhei; Ohwada, Michitaka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possibility of screening apprehensive pregnant women and mothers at risk for post-partum depression from an analysis of the textual data in the Mother and Child Handbook by using the text-mining method. Uncomplicated pregnant women (n = 58) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade (high trait [group I, n = 21] and low trait [group II, n = 37]) or Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (high score [group III, n = 15] and low score [group IV, n = 43]). An exploratory analysis of the textual data from the Maternal and Child Handbook was conducted using the text-mining method with the Word Miner software program. A comparison of the 'structure elements' was made between the two groups. The number of structure elements extracted by separated words from text data was 20 004 and the number of structure elements with a threshold of 2 or more as an initial value was 1168. Fifteen key words related to maternal anxiety, and six key words related to post-partum depression were extracted. The text-mining method is useful for the exploratory analysis of textual data obtained from pregnant woman, and this screening method has been suggested to be useful for apprehensive pregnant women and mothers at risk for post-partum depression. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Using Mixed Methods to Interpret Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) is often used to determine if cross-lingual assessments are equivalent across languages. However, evidence on the causes of cross-lingual DIF is still evasive. Expert appraisal is a qualitative method useful for obtaining detailed information about problematic elements in the different linguistic…

  7. Using Mixed Methods to Interpret Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) is often used to determine if cross-lingual assessments are equivalent across languages. However, evidence on the causes of cross-lingual DIF is still evasive. Expert appraisal is a qualitative method useful for obtaining detailed information about problematic elements in the different linguistic…

  8. The mixed finite element multigrid method for stokes equations.

    PubMed

    Muzhinji, K; Shateyi, S; Motsa, S S

    2015-01-01

    The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results.

  9. The Use of Hermeneutics in a Mixed Methods Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zweck, Claudia; Paterson, Margo; Pentland, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Combining methods in a single study is becoming a more common practice because of the limitations of using only one approach to fully address all aspects of a research question. Hermeneutics in this paper is discussed in relation to a large national study that investigated issues influencing the ability of international graduates to work as…

  10. The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations

    PubMed Central

    Muzhinji, K.; Shateyi, S.; Motsa, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q2-Q1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361

  11. A New Expanded Mixed Element Method for Convection-Dominated Sobolev Equation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Hong; Fang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    We propose and analyze a new expanded mixed element method, whose gradient belongs to the simple square integrable space instead of the classical H(div; Ω) space of Chen's expanded mixed element method. We study the new expanded mixed element method for convection-dominated Sobolev equation, prove the existence and uniqueness for finite element solution, and introduce a new expanded mixed projection. We derive the optimal a priori error estimates in L2-norm for the scalar unknown u and a priori error estimates in (L2)2-norm for its gradient λ and its flux σ. Moreover, we obtain the optimal a priori error estimates in H1-norm for the scalar unknown u. Finally, we obtained some numerical results to illustrate efficiency of the new method. PMID:24701153

  12. Accurate Long-Time Mixed Quantum-Classical Liouville Dynamics via the Transfer Tensor Method.

    PubMed

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Cao, Jianshu; Geva, Eitan

    2016-12-01

    In this Letter, we combine the recently introduced transfer tensor method with the mixed quantum-classical Liouville method. The resulting protocol provides an accurate, general, flexible and robust new route for simulating the reduced dynamics of the quantum subsystem for arbitrarily long times, starting with computationally feasible short-time mixed quantum-classical Liouville dynamical maps. The accuracy and feasibility of the methodology are demonstrated on a spin-boson benchmark model.

  13. A method for quantifying mixed goat cashmere and sheep wool.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wan; Bai, Li; Ji, Ming; Yang, Xue

    2011-05-20

    Cashmere is a high-priced commodity in the world market. For financial gains, various interested parties often adulterate cashmere with cheap sheep wool. Here, we describe a method that can quickly extract mitochondrial DNA from natural or processed animal hair. We further designed two sets of TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and probes that can react specifically to goat and sheep mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Using TaqMan PCR, we can not only distinguish between cashmere and wool but also quantify their contents in a cashmere/wool mixture. The method can be applied directly to examine the quality of cashmere products in the world markets.

  14. Automated sizing of large structures by mixed optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski, J.; Loendorf, D.

    1973-01-01

    A procedure for automating the sizing of wing-fuselage airframes was developed and implemented in the form of an operational program. The program combines fully stressed design to determine an overall material distribution with mass-strength and mathematical programming methods to design structural details accounting for realistic design constraints. The practicality and efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated for transport aircraft configurations. The methodology is sufficiently general to be applicable to other large and complex structures.

  15. Effect of different mixing methods on the physical properties of Portland cement

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Shahriar; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Jafari, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background The Portland cement is hydrophilic cement; as a result, the powder-to-liquid ratio affects the properties of the final mix. In addition, the mixing technique affects hydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing techniques (conventional, amalgamator and ultrasonic) on some selective physical properties of Portland cement. Material and Methods The physical properties to be evaluated were determined using the ISO 6786:2001 specification. One hundred sixty two samples of Portland cement were prepared for three mixing techniques for each physical property (each 6 samples). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results The mixing technique had no significant effect on the compressive strength, film thickness and flow of Portland cement (P>0.05). Dimensional changes (shrinkage), solubility and pH increased significantly by amalgamator and ultrasonic mixing techniques (P<0.05). The ultrasonic technique significantly decreased working time, and the amalgamator and ultrasonic techniques significantly decreased the setting time (P<0.05). Conclusions The mixing technique exerted no significant effect on the flow, film thickness and compressive strength of Portland cement samples. Key words:Physical properties, Portland cement, mixing methods. PMID:27957256

  16. Impact of a mHealth intervention for peer health workers on AIDS care in rural Uganda: a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Chang, Larry W; Kagaayi, Joseph; Arem, Hannah; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Ssempijja, Victor; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Bollinger, Robert C; Reynolds, Steven J

    2011-11-01

    Mobile phone access in low and middle-income countries is rapidly expanding and offers an opportunity to leverage limited human resources for health. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial exploratory substudy on the impact of a mHealth (mobile phone) support intervention used by community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care in rural Uganda. 29 PHWs at 10 clinics were randomized by clinic to receive the intervention or not. PHWs used phones to call and text higher level providers with patient-specific clinical information. 970 patients cared for by the PHWs were followed over a 26 month period. No significant differences were found in patients' risk of virologic failure. Qualitative analyses found improvements in patient care and logistics and broad support for the mHealth intervention among patients, clinic staff, and PHWs. Key challenges identified included variable patient phone access, privacy concerns, and phone maintenance.

  17. Impact of a mHealth Intervention for Peer Health Workers on AIDS Care in Rural Uganda: A Mixed Methods Evaluation of a Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kagaayi, Joseph; Arem, Hannah; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Ssempijja, Victor; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gray, Ronald H.; Bollinger, Robert C.; Reynolds, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phone access in low and middle-income countries is rapidly expanding and offers an opportunity to leverage limited human resources for health. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial exploratory substudy on the impact of a mHealth (mobile phone) support intervention used by community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care in rural Uganda. 29 PHWs at 10 clinics were randomized by clinic to receive the intervention or not. PHWs used phones to call and text higher level providers with patient-specific clinical information. 970 patients cared for by the PHWs were followed over a 26 month period. No significant differences were found in patients’ risk of virologic failure. Qualitative analyses found improvements in patient care and logistics and broad support for the mHealth intervention among patients, clinic staff, and PHWs. Key challenges identified included variable patient phone access, privacy concerns, and phone maintenance. PMID:21739286

  18. Transcendental phenomenology and classic grounded theory as mixed data collection methods in a study exploring fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Jenny; Buetow, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the risk of 'method slurring', researchers have triangulated within a single qualitative study methods that are philosophically incongruent or in a limited context, are congruent, as with hermeneutic phenomenology and constructivist grounded theory. We aimed to make the case that what works best can be to mix two qualitative methods that are philosophically congruent. Thus, we used transcendental phenomenology (TP) and classic grounded theory (CGT) in synergetic sequence to answer our research question. These methods have not previously been used together and one method would not have sufficed. Using the same participant sample, we sought to explore and understand the daily challenges of living with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) since no study to date had addressed these issues within New Zealand. Our retrospective exploratory two-phase sequential design was framed by the meta-theory of pragmatism. It mixed qualitative strategies that are ontologically and epistemologically compatible (i.e. TP and CGT are ontologically realist, but epistemologically idealist). They are useful together for the aim of meaningfully studying the lived experiences of purposively selected participants. Empirical data, as secondary results, provide supportive evidence. The first paper from this study was published in J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol Vol 19(1):e41-e50 when the main findings were reported. This second paper gives greater focus to the methodologies employed and data analysis from the second phase.

  19. Using Mixed Methods and Collaboration to Evaluate an Education and Public Outreach Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebby, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional indicators (such as the number of participants or Likert-type ratings of participant perceptions) are often used to provide stakeholders with basic information about program outputs and to justify funding decisions. However, use of qualitative methods can strengthen the reliability of these data and provide stakeholders with more meaningful information about program challenges, successes, and ultimate impacts (Stern, Stame, Mayne, Forss, David & Befani, 2012). In this session, presenters will discuss how they used a mixed methods evaluation to determine the impact of an education and public outreach (EPO) program. EPO efforts were intended to foster more effective, sustainable, and efficient utilization of science discoveries and learning experiences through three main goals 1) increase engagement and support by leveraging of resources, expertise, and best practices; 2) organize a portfolio of resources for accessibility, connectivity, and strategic growth; and 3) develop an infrastructure to support coordination. The evaluation team used a mixed methods design to conduct the evaluation. Presenters will first discuss five potential benefits of mixed methods designs: triangulation of findings, development, complementarity, initiation, and value diversity (Greene, Caracelli & Graham, 2005). They will next demonstrate how a 'mix' of methods, including artifact collection, surveys, interviews, focus groups, and vignettes, was included in the EPO project's evaluation design, providing specific examples of how alignment between the program theory and the evaluation plan was best achieved with a mixed methods approach. The presentation will also include an overview of different mixed methods approaches and information about important considerations when using a mixed methods design, such as selection of data collection methods and sources, and the timing and weighting of quantitative and qualitative methods (Creswell, 2003). Ultimately, this presentation will

  20. Updating and testing of a Finnish method for mixed municipal solid waste composition studies.

    PubMed

    Liikanen, M; Sahimaa, O; Hupponen, M; Havukainen, J; Sorvari, J; Horttanainen, M

    2016-06-01

    More efficient recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential precondition for turning Europe into a circular economy. Thus, the recycling of MSW must increase significantly in several member states, including Finland. This has increased the interest in the composition of mixed MSW. Due to increased information needs, a method for mixed MSW composition studies was introduced in Finland in order to improve the national comparability of composition study results. The aim of this study was to further develop the method so that it corresponds to the information needed about the composition of mixed MSW and still works in practice. A survey and two mixed MSW composition studies were carried out in the study. According to the responses of the survey, the intensification of recycling, the landfill ban on organic waste and the producer responsibility for packaging waste have particularly influenced the need for information about the composition of mixed MSW. The share of biowaste in mixed MSW interested the respondents most. Additionally, biowaste proved to be the largest waste fraction in mixed MSW in the composition studies. It constituted over 40% of mixed MSW in both composition studies. For these reasons, the classification system of the method was updated by further defining the classifications of biowaste. The classifications of paper as well as paperboard and cardboard were also updated. The updated classification system provides more information on the share of avoidable food waste and waste materials suitable for recycling in mixed MSW. The updated method and the information gained from the composition studies are important in ensuring that the method will be adopted by municipal waste management companies and thus used widely in Finland.

  1. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, J.; Bodin, M.; Grandahl, M.; Segeblad, B.; Axén, L.; Larsson, M.; Tydén, T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP—a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long

  2. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotner, Bridget A.

    School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both

  3. Criteria for quantitative and qualitative data integration: mixed-methods research methodology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonah; Smith, Carrol A M

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need and importance of a mixed-methods approach for evaluation of clinical information systems. However, those studies had no criteria to guide integration of multiple data sets. Integrating different data sets serves to actualize the paradigm that a mixed-methods approach argues; thus, we require criteria that provide the right direction to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. The first author used a set of criteria organized from a literature search for integration of multiple data sets from mixed-methods research. The purpose of this article was to reorganize the identified criteria. Through critical appraisal of the reasons for designing mixed-methods research, three criteria resulted: validation, complementarity, and discrepancy. In applying the criteria to empirical data of a previous mixed methods study, integration of quantitative and qualitative data was achieved in a systematic manner. It helped us obtain a better organized understanding of the results. The criteria of this article offer the potential to produce insightful analyses of mixed-methods evaluations of health information systems.

  4. In pursuit of a valid Information Assessment Method for continuing education: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Bindiganavile Sridhar, Soumya; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland

    2013-10-07

    The Information Assessment Method (IAM) is a popular tool for continuing education and knowledge translation. After a search for information, the IAM allows the health professional to report what was the search objective, its cognitive impact, as well as any use and patient health benefit associated with the retrieved health information. In continuing education programs, professionals read health information, rate it using the IAM, and earn continuing education credit for this brief individual reflective learning activity. IAM items have been iteratively developed using literature reviews and qualitative studies. Thus, our research question was: what is the content validity of IAM items from the users' perspective? A two-step content validation study was conducted. In Step 1, we followed a mixed methods research design, and assessed the relevance and representativeness of IAM items. In this step, data from a longitudinal quantitative study and a qualitative multiple case study involving 40 family physicians were analyzed. In Step 2, IAM items were analyzed and modified based on a set of guiding principles by a multi-disciplinary expert panel. The content validity of 16 IAM items was supported, and these items were not changed. Nine other items were modified. Three new items were added, including two that were extensions of an existing item. A content validated version of the IAM (IAM 2011) is available for the continuing education of health professionals.

  5. Counseling About IUDs: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Tharayil, Mithu; Anderson, Nora; Gbenedio, Kessy; Wittman, Allen; Steinauer, Jody

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT IUDs are infrequently used in the United States. Assessing how counseling about this method is delivered can help identify barriers to IUD use that might be overcome by improving services. METHODS A sample of 342 family planning visits at six clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2009–2012 were audio-recorded, and patients completed surveys both before and after their visits. Descriptive quantitative analyses of counseling were performed, and correlates of IUDs’ being mentioned during counseling were investigated using logistic regression. Qualitative analyses investigated the counseling women received about IUDs generally (in a subset of 42 visits), as well as counseling for women who already had an IUD in place (13 visits) or who felt their provider inappropriately expressed a preference for IUDs (five visits). RESULTS IUDs were mentioned in 75% of visits. Patient-initiated mention of IUDs was more likely in visits by women aged 35 or older than in those by women younger than 20 (odds ratio, 6.4); provider-initiated discussion of this method was less common if the provider was older than 55 than if he or she was younger than 46 (0.3). Providers more often discussed potential adverse effects of IUD use than benefits; counseling often was noninteractive and did not address how patient preferences related to characteristics of IUDs. Counseling was frequently fragmented by the need for return visits or referral elsewhere for insertion. CONCLUSIONS IUD counseling may be improved by enhancing comprehensiveness and patient-centeredness, and by decreasing fragmentation of care. PMID:24628710

  6. Methods for producing single crystal mixed halide perovskites

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yixin

    2017-07-11

    An aspect of the present invention is a method that includes contacting a metal halide and a first alkylammonium halide in a solvent to form a solution and maintaining the solution at a first temperature, resulting in the formation of at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal, where the metal halide includes a first halogen and a metal, the first alkylammonium halide includes the first halogen, the at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal includes the metal and the first halogen, and the first temperature is above about 21.degree. C.

  7. Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-04-01

    Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and

  8. A time-dependent Mixing Model for PDF Methods in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Lennart; Suciu, Nicolae; Knabner, Peter; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the transport of groundwater contaminations remains a demanding task, especially with respect to the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the large measurement uncertainties. A risk analysis also includes the quantification of the uncertainty in order to evaluate how accurate the predictions are. Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, which can be used as a first measure of uncertainty. A mixing model, also known as a dissipation model, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling. The implications of the new mixing model for different kinds of flow conditions are discussed and some comments are made on efficiently handling spatially resolved higher moments.

  9. A dynamically adjusted mixed emphasis method for building boosting ensembles.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Verdejo, Vanessa; Arenas-Garcia, Jerónimo; Figueiras-Vidal, Aníbal R

    2008-01-01

    Progressively emphasizing samples that are difficult to classify correctly is the base for the recognized high performance of real Adaboost (RA) ensembles. The corresponding emphasis function can be written as a product of a factor that measures the quadratic error and a factor related to the proximity to the classification border; this fact opens the door to explore the potential advantages provided by using adjustable combined forms of these factors. In this paper, we introduce a principled procedure to select the combination parameter each time a new learner is added to the ensemble, just by maximizing the associated edge parameter, calling the resulting method the dynamically adapted weighted emphasis RA (DW-RA). A number of application examples illustrates the performance improvements obtained by DW-RA.

  10. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M.; Antiporta, Daniel A.; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Methods Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). Results After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Conclusions Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food. PMID:27560132

  11. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOEpatents

    Kountz, Kenneth J.; Bishop, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  12. Effect of Different Mixing and Placement Methods on the Compressive Strength of Calcium-Enriched Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Safoora; Sadatshojaee, Nooshin; Jafari, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this experimental laboratory study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing and placement techniques on compressive strength (CS) of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Methods and Materials: CEM powder was mixed with its liquid either by hand mixing or amalgamator mixing. The mixture was loaded to cylindrical acrylic molds with 6.0±0.1 mm height and 4.0±1 mm diameter. Half of the specimens in each group were selected randomly and ultrasonic energy was applied to them for 30 sec. All samples were incubated for 7 days at 37°C. The CS test was performed by means of a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed by the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The maximum CS was seen in the amalgamator-mixed samples that did not receive ultrasonic agitation. The CS value of amalgamator-mixed samples was significantly higher than manually-mixed ones (P=0.003). Ultrasonic vibration did not change the CS of specimens. Conclusion: According to the results, mixing with amalgamator increases the CS of CEM cement, while ultrasonic vibration had no positive effect. PMID:25834593

  13. Symptoms in women with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harshida; Berg, Marie; Barasa, Anders; Begley, Cecily; Schaufelberger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Peripartum Cardiomyopathy is a form of cardiac disease often associated with cardiac failure, occurring in late pregnancy or after childbirth. The anatomical and physiological changes in the mother associated with normal pregnancy are profound, and this may result in symptoms and signs that overlap with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy, leading to missed or delayed diagnosis. Women's experiences of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy symptoms remain poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore and describe women's experiences of symptoms in Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. A triangulation of methods with individual interviews and data from medical records. Mothers with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy diagnosis were recruited from Western Sweden as a part of research project. 19 women were interviewed and medical records were reviewed by authors. All interview transcripts were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis to identify key themes. The main theme, meaning of onset and occurrence of symptoms is captured in the metaphor: being caught in a spider web, comprising subthemes, invasion of the body by experienced symptoms and feeling of helplessness. Symptoms related to Peripartum Cardiomyopathy started for 17 women during pregnancy and in two post partum and time from symptoms to diagnosis varied between three and 190 days (median 40). The physical symptoms were:shortness of breath, excessive fatigue and swelling, bloatedness, nausea, palpitation, coughing, chest tightness, bodily pain, headache, fever, tremor, dizziness, syncope, restless and tingly body and reduced urine output. Emotional symptoms were: fear, anxiety, feelings of panic, and thoughts of impending death. Symptoms of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy were debilitating, exhausting and frightening for the women interviewed in this study. Health care professionals responsible for the antenatal care, especially midwives, need skills to identify initial symptoms of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy for early referral and

  14. Situationally influenced tinnitus coping strategies: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Beukes, Eldré W; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Andersson, Gerhard; Allen, Peter M; Terlizzi, Paige M; Baguley, David M

    2017-08-09

    The primary aim of this study was to identify coping strategies used to manage problematic tinnitus situations. A secondary aim was to determine whether different approaches were related to the level of tinnitus distress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia experienced. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented. The study sample was adults interested in undertaking an Internet-based intervention for tinnitus. Self-reported measures assessed the level of tinnitus distress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. An open-ended question was used to obtain information about how problematic tinnitus situations were dealt with. Responses were investigated using qualitative content analysis to identify problematic situations. Further data analysis comprised of both qualitative and quantitative methods. There were 240 participants (137 males, 103 females), with an average age of 48.16 years (SD: 22.70). Qualitative content analysis identified eight problematic tinnitus situations. Participants had either habituated to their tinnitus (7.9%), used active (63.3%), or passive (28.8%) coping styles to manage these situations. Those who had habituated to tinnitus or used active coping strategies had lower levels of tinnitus distress, anxiety, and depression. The main problematic tinnitus situations for this cohort were identified. Both active and passive coping styles were applied to approach these situations. The coping strategies used most frequently and utilised in the widest range of problematic situations were using sound enrichment and diverting attention. Implications for Rehabilitation The main problematic tinnitus situations for this group of participants were identified. Overall, a limited range of strategies were used to deal with individual problematic situations. The use of sound enrichment and diverting attention was applied in the widest range of problematic situations. The use of both active and passive coping styles was evident to approach these situations. The

  15. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Stern, J; Bodin, M; Grandahl, M; Segeblad, B; Axén, L; Larsson, M; Tydén, T

    2015-05-01

    How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP-a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long-term implementation comprises opportunities, risks and needs. The most common reason for not using the RLP was lack of information. There was general lack of

  16. Alternating direction implicit methods for parabolic equations with a mixed derivative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Alternating direction implicit (ADI) schemes for two-dimensional parabolic equations with a mixed derivative are constructed by using the class of all A sub 0-stable linear two-step methods in conjunction with the method of approximation factorization. The mixed derivative is treated with an explicit two-step method which is compatible with an implicit A sub 0-stable method. The parameter space for which the resulting ADI schemes are second order accurate and unconditionally stable is determined. Some numerical examples are given.

  17. A Model Incorporating the Rationale and Purpose for Conducting Mixed-Methods Research in Special Education and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Sutton, Ida L.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a typology of reasons for conducting mixed-methods research in special education. The mixed-methods research process is described along with the role of the rationale and purpose of study. The reasons given in the literature for utilizing mixed-methods research are explicated, and the limitations of these reason frameworks…

  18. A Model Incorporating the Rationale and Purpose for Conducting Mixed-Methods Research in Special Education and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Sutton, Ida L.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a typology of reasons for conducting mixed-methods research in special education. The mixed-methods research process is described along with the role of the rationale and purpose of study. The reasons given in the literature for utilizing mixed-methods research are explicated, and the limitations of these reason frameworks…

  19. Free jet sampling - a motley mix of methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, J.B.

    1995-03-01

    When flowing gas issues into a chamber from an orifice or nozzle whose diameter is much smaller than that of the chamber, the resulting flow field constitutes a {open_quotes}free jet{close_quotes} bounded by relatively quiescent gas. If the pressure ratio across that nozzle or orifice exceeds a critical value (around 2.5 for most gases) the flow velocity will exceed the local speed of sound and the flow field is called a {open_quotes}supersonic free jet{close_quotes}. Though somewhat exotic in name such supersonic jets are really quite common. What might be regarded as the modern era for analysis and application of supersonic free jets began in 1948 with a calculation by Owen and Thornhill who used the method of characteristics to solve Euler`s equation for the flow field formed by the free expansion of gas from a sonic orifice into a region of zero pressure. Three years-later in another now-classic paper Kantrowitz and Grey proposed the use of a supersonic low density flow field as a source for molecular beams of high intensity. These two independent communications, motivated by entirely different interests and objectives, were destined to become related as the ancestors of a large progeny that form a flourishing family tree with many roots and branches. Some of the fruits of that tree are being served at this conference. They come from a branch that sprouted from the early experiments of E.W. Becker and his colleagues at the University of Marburg in 1954. These investigators were the first to achieve, by design, substantial success in reducing to practice the ideas set forth by Kantrowitz and Grey. However, in the interests of historical accuracy it should be noted 27 years earlier, T.H. Johnson at Yale produced an intense molecular beam from a supersonic free jet of mercury vapor. Unfortunately, at that time his results were neither understood nor appreciated so he has not received the recognition and credit that he clearly deserves.

  20. Importance of mixed methods in pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Albright, Karen; Gechter, Katherine; Kempe, Allison

    2013-01-01

    With increased attention to the importance of translating research to clinical practice and policy, recent years have seen a proliferation of particular types of research, including pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research. Such research seeks to understand how and why interventions function in real-world settings, as opposed to highly controlled settings involving conditions not likely to be repeated outside the research study. Because understanding the context in which interventions are implemented is imperative for effective pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research, the use of mixed methods is critical to understanding trial results and the success or failure of implementation efforts. This article discusses a number of dimensions of mixed methods research, utilizing at least one qualitative method and at least one quantitative method, that may be helpful when designing projects or preparing grant proposals. Although the strengths and emphases of qualitative and quantitative approaches differ substantially, methods may be combined in a variety of ways to achieve a deeper level of understanding than can be achieved by one method alone. However, researchers must understand when and how to integrate the data as well as the appropriate order, priority, and purpose of each method. The ability to demonstrate an understanding of the rationale for and benefits of mixed methods research is increasingly important in today's competitive funding environment, and many funding agencies now expect applicants to include mixed methods in proposals. The increasing demand for mixed methods research necessitates broader methodological training and deepened collaboration between medical, clinical, and social scientists. Although a number of challenges to conducting and disseminating mixed methods research remain, the potential for insight generated by such work is substantial.