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Sample records for exploratory mixed method

  1. Policy and Persistence: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Case Study of "Last Mile" Students at Portland State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wubbold, Joseph Mark

    2012-01-01

    In an extension of educational attainment research, this exploratory mixed- methods case study examines the influence of institutional policies on the behavior of five cohorts (n = 925) of traditional first time, full time (FTFT) freshmen--called "Last Mile" students--at one urban research university located in the Pacific Northwest.…

  2. Networking among young global health researchers through an intensive training approach: a mixed methods exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Networks are increasingly regarded as essential in health research aimed at influencing practice and policies. Less research has focused on the role networking can play in researchers’ careers and its broader impacts on capacity strengthening in health research. We used the Canadian Coalition for Global Health Research (CCGHR) annual Summer Institute for New Global Health Researchers (SIs) as an opportunity to explore networking among new global health researchers. Methods A mixed-methods exploratory study was conducted among SI alumni and facilitators who had participated in at least one SI between 2004 and 2010. Alumni and facilitators completed an online short questionnaire, and a subset participated in an in-depth interview. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was triangulated with quantitative results and CCGHR reports on SIs. Synthesis occurred through the development of a process model relevant to networking through the SIs. Results Through networking at the SIs, participants experienced decreased isolation and strengthened working relationships. Participants accessed new knowledge, opportunities, and resources through networking during the SI. Post-SI, participants reported ongoing contact and collaboration, although most participants desired more opportunities for interaction. They made suggestions for structural supports to networking among new global health researchers. Conclusions Networking at the SI contributed positively to opportunities for individuals, and contributed to the formation of a network of global health researchers. Intentional inclusion of networking in health research capacity strengthening initiatives, with supportive resources and infrastructure could create dynamic, sustainable networks accessible to global health researchers around the world. PMID:24460819

  3. The Obstacles for the Teaching of 8th Grade TR History of Revolution and Kemalism Course According to the Constructivist Approach (An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Design)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Yavuz; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the problems social studies teachers face in the teaching of topics covered in 8th grade TRHRK Course. The study was conducted in line with explanatory sequential mixed method design, which is one of the mixed research method, was used. The study involves three phases. In the first step, exploratory process…

  4. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women’s health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. Method This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. Results In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. Conclusion This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women’s sexual abstinence. PMID:24924696

  5. Mapping hospice patients' perception and verbal communication of end-of-life needs: an exploratory mixed methods inquiry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive "Total Pain" assessments of patients' end-of-life needs are critical for providing improved patient-clinician communication, assessing needs, and offering high quality palliative care. However, patients' needs-based research methodologies and findings remain highly diverse with their lack of consensus preventing optimum needs assessments and care planning. Mixed-methods is an underused yet robust "patient-based" approach for reported lived experiences to map both the incidence and prevalence of what patients perceive as important end of life needs. Methods Findings often include methodological artifacts and their own selection bias. Moving beyond diverse findings therefore requires revisiting methodological choices. A mixed methods research cross-sectional design is therefore used to reduce limitations inherent in both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Audio-taped phenomenological "thinking aloud" interviews of a purposive sample of 30 hospice patients are used to identify their vocabulary for communicating perceptions of end-of-life needs. Grounded theory procedures assisted by QSR-NVivo software is then used for discovering domains of needs embedded in the interview narratives. Summary findings are translated into quantified format for presentation and analytical purposes. Results Findings from this mixed-methods feasibility study indicate patients' narratives represent 7 core domains of end-of-life needs. These are (1) time, (2) social, (3) physiological, (4) death and dying, (5) safety, (6) spirituality, (7) change & adaptation. The prevalence, rather than just the occurrence, of patients' reported needs provides further insight into their relative importance. Conclusion Patients' perceptions of end-of-life needs are multidimensional, often ambiguous and uncertain. Mixed methodology appears to hold considerable promise for unpacking both the occurrence and prevalence of cognitive structures represented by verbal encoding that

  6. Occupational fatigue and other health and safety issues for young Australian workers: an exploratory mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    PATERSON, Jessica Louise; CLARKSON, Larissa; RAINBIRD, Sophia; ETHERTON, Hayley; BLEWETT, Verna

    2015-01-01

    Youth are vulnerable to sleep loss and fatigue due to biological, social and psychological factors. However, there are few studies addressing the risk that sleep loss and fatigue pose for youth in the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore work health and safety (WHS) issues for young workers and develop strategies and solutions for improved WHS outcomes, with a focus on issues related to fatigue, using a mixed-method, multi-stage approach. Participants either completed a survey (n=212) or took part in focus groups (n=115) addressing WHS for young workers, or attended a Future Inquiry Workshop (n=29) where strategies for improving youth WHS were developed. Fatigue was identified as a significant problem by the majority of young workers and was associated with unpredictable working time arrangements, precarious employment, high workload, working overtime and limited ability to self-advocate. Participants identified six key areas for action to improve WHS outcomes for young workers; 1) develop expertise, 2) give young workers a voice, 3) improve education and training, 4) build stakeholder engagement, 5) increase employer awareness of WHS responsibilities and, 6) improve processes for employers to manage and monitor WHS outcomes. The application of these directives to fatigue is discussed. PMID:25752253

  7. An exploratory mixed-method study to determine factors that may affect satisfaction levels of athletes receiving chiropractic care in a nonclinic setting☆

    PubMed Central

    Talmage, Grant; Korporaal, Charmaine; Brantingham, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine factors that may affect satisfaction levels of participants in a nonclinic (sport) setting through participant observation and participation. Factors associated with general satisfaction (observed) were determined along with a participant demographic profile, participant knowledge about chiropractic, and satisfaction with treatment received from a chiropractic student. Thereafter, the relationships between the demographic factors, participant knowledge, and participant general satisfaction were determined. Lastly, factors affecting satisfaction levels were compared between the participants and the observers. Methods An exploratory mixed-method observational study that compared results reported by 30 participants and 2 observers, regarding the treatment process, by completion of a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical significance was set at P less than or equal to .05. Results Of the 30 participants, 83.3% were South African, 90% were white, and 63.3% were male, with a mean age of 35.6 years, who reported they were very satisfied with chiropractic care (P = .229). The only factor to produce a significant difference between participants and observers was communication (P = .082 with Spearman = .332). Conclusion In this study, communication had the greatest impact; therefore, it is suggested that positive verbal and nonverbal communication be emphasized in the training of future chiropractic professionals. PMID:19646388

  8. Life Course Socioeconomic Transition and its Association with Early Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Sequential Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Raman, V Kutty; Nochikattil, Santhosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of early onset type 2 diabetes (Diabetes below the age of 45 years) is increasing worldwide. Transition in socio-economic position–i.e. Life Course Socio-Economic Transition (LSET) - may contribute to the development of early onset T2D through complex processes involving economic and occupational opportunities as well as individual life style choices. Aim To develop and validate the life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and to know the association between life courses socioeconomic transition and early onset type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods This study follows sequential exploratory mixed method study design. It consists of one qualitative strand followed by two quantitative strands. Qualitative strand consist of in- depth interview among the community dwellers to develop a tool for measuring LSET. Two quantitative strands consist of the validation of the questionnaire by conducting cross-sectional survey among 200 randomly selected community dwellers and a hospital based case control study using the same questionnaire. Results Those who have a history of lower SEP during his childhood period and enjoying higher SEP during his adulthood period have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes at their younger age (18-45 years). Conclusion This study will help to develop a validated life course socioeconomic transition questionnaire and application of that tool in an epidemiological study. PMID:27504317

  9. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  10. Epistemic Beliefs of Middle and High School Students in a Problem-Based, Scientific Inquiry Unit: An Exploratory, Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Jiangyue

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a…

  11. An Exploratory, Population-Based, Mixed-Methods Program Evaluation of User Satisfaction of Services Provided by a Regional Extension Center (REC)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, D.; Rutala, M.; Ihde, C.; Bills, A.; Mollon, L.; Warholak, T.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To evaluate user satisfaction among practices receiving services provided by the Arizona Regional Extension Center (REC). Methods This program evaluation utilized a mixed-methods approach including: 1) a mail-based survey targeting all 489 REC member practices; and 2) a series of telephone-based focus groups using a convenience sample of rural and urban REC member practices. Targeted respondents were key contacts who handle interactions with the REC at each practice. Program evaluators at the University of Arizona and experts at Arizona Health-e Connection (AzHeC) created the questionnaires, focus group script, participant invitation and follow up documents via a collaborative process. Regression and Rasch analyses were used to identify key factors associated with satisfaction with REC and to assess questionnaire validity, respectively. Results Responses from both the focus groups and survey revealed that most of the respondents were satisfied with the current services, despite the presence of satisfaction gaps between practices of various characteristics: respondents that were clinicians, practices using web-based electronic health record systems (EHRs), and practices that had achieved Stage 1 Meaningful Use had a higher level of satisfaction compared with their respective counterparts. Focus group participants provided suggestions for improving REC services. Conclusions Most respondents reported being satisfied with REC services. Specialized representatives may be needed for practices at different stages of Meaningful Use to further improve REC satisfaction in order to facilitate more efficient adoption of EHRs. PMID:24734121

  12. Epistemic beliefs of middle and high school students in a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit: An exploratory, mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiangyue

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit, (b) How do middle and high school students' epistemic beliefs contribute to the construction of students' problem solving processes, and (c) how and why do students' epistemic beliefs change by engaging in PBL. Twenty-one middle and high school students participated in a summer science class to investigate local water quality in a 2-week long problem-based learning (PBL) unit. The students worked in small groups to conduct water quality tests at in their local watershed and visited several stakeholders for their investigation. Pretest and posttest versions of the Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted to assess students' self-reported epistemic beliefs before and after the unit. I videotaped and interviewed three groups of students during the unit and conducted discourse analysis to examine their epistemic beliefs revealed from scientific inquiry activities and triangulate with their self-reported data. There are three main findings from this study. First, students in this study self-reported relatively sophisticated epistemic beliefs on the pretest. However, the comparison between their self-reported beliefs and beliefs revealed from practice indicated that some students were able to apply sophisticated beliefs during the unit while others failed to do so. The inconsistency between these two types of epistemic beliefs may due to students' inadequate cognitive ability, low validity of self-report measure, and the influence of contextual factors. Second, qualitative analysis indicated that students' epistemic beliefs of the nature of knowing influenced their problem

  13. Can social capital help explain enrolment (or lack thereof) in community-based health insurance? Results of an exploratory mixed methods study from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Soors, Werner; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    CBHI has achieved low population coverage in West Africa and elsewhere. Studies which seek to explain this point to inequitable enrolment, adverse selection, lack of trust in scheme management and information and low quality of health care. Interventions to address these problems have been proposed yet enrolment rates remain low. This exploratory study proposes that an under-researched determinant of CBHI enrolment is social capital. Fieldwork comprising a household survey and qualitative interviews was conducted in Senegal in 2009. Levels of bonding and bridging social capital among 720 members and non-members of CBHI across three case study schemes are compared. The results of the logistic regression suggest that, controlling for age and gender, in all three case studies members were significantly more likely than non-members to be enrolled in another community association, to have borrowed money from sources other than friends and relatives and to report having control over all community decisions affecting daily life. In two case studies, having privileged social relationships was also positively correlated with enrolment. After controlling for additional socioeconomic and health variables, the results for borrowing money remained significant. Additionally, in two case studies, reporting having control over community decisions and believing that the community would cooperate in an emergency were significantly positively correlated with enrolment. The results suggest that CBHI members had greater bridging social capital which provided them with solidarity, risk pooling, financial protection and financial credit. Qualitative interviews with 109 individuals selected from the household survey confirm this interpretation. The results ostensibly suggest that CBHI schemes should build on bridging social capital to increase coverage, for example by enrolling households through community associations. However, this may be unadvisable from an equity perspective. It is

  14. Can social capital help explain enrolment (or lack thereof) in community-based health insurance? Results of an exploratory mixed methods study from Senegal.

    PubMed

    Mladovsky, Philipa; Soors, Werner; Ndiaye, Pascal; Ndiaye, Alfred; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    CBHI has achieved low population coverage in West Africa and elsewhere. Studies which seek to explain this point to inequitable enrolment, adverse selection, lack of trust in scheme management and information and low quality of health care. Interventions to address these problems have been proposed yet enrolment rates remain low. This exploratory study proposes that an under-researched determinant of CBHI enrolment is social capital. Fieldwork comprising a household survey and qualitative interviews was conducted in Senegal in 2009. Levels of bonding and bridging social capital among 720 members and non-members of CBHI across three case study schemes are compared. The results of the logistic regression suggest that, controlling for age and gender, in all three case studies members were significantly more likely than non-members to be enrolled in another community association, to have borrowed money from sources other than friends and relatives and to report having control over all community decisions affecting daily life. In two case studies, having privileged social relationships was also positively correlated with enrolment. After controlling for additional socioeconomic and health variables, the results for borrowing money remained significant. Additionally, in two case studies, reporting having control over community decisions and believing that the community would cooperate in an emergency were significantly positively correlated with enrolment. The results suggest that CBHI members had greater bridging social capital which provided them with solidarity, risk pooling, financial protection and financial credit. Qualitative interviews with 109 individuals selected from the household survey confirm this interpretation. The results ostensibly suggest that CBHI schemes should build on bridging social capital to increase coverage, for example by enrolling households through community associations. However, this may be unadvisable from an equity perspective. It is

  15. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  16. The Constructivist Approach? I Have Heard about It but I Have Never Seen It: "An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Design Study"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Ahmet; Dogan, Soner; Demir, Selçuk Besir

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the quality of education based on the views of the students attending social studies education departments at the Faculties of Education and to determine the existing problems and present suggestions for their solutions. The study was conducted according to exploratory sequential mixed method. In…

  17. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’) and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’) or applied by the management (‘From’). Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may

  18. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  19. Mixed Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…

  20. NNWSI exploratory shaft site and construction method recommendation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report documents the process by which alternative construction methods were evaluated and by which potential sites were screened by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, in Nye County, Nevada. The evaluation was made by the Ad Hoc Technical Overview Contractor Committee. Our recommendations were to construct a vertical shaft using conventional mining techniques in a dry canyon known as Coyote Wash, located on the east flank of the mountain. 11 references, 10 figures, 15 tables.

  1. The gradient function as an exploratory goodness-of-fit assessment of the random-effects distribution in mixed models.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Geert; Molenberghs, Geert

    2013-07-01

    Inference in mixed models is often based on the marginal distribution obtained from integrating out random effects over a pre-specified, often parametric, distribution. In this paper, we present the so-called gradient function as a simple graphical exploratory diagnostic tool to assess whether the assumed random-effects distribution produces an adequate fit to the data, in terms of marginal likelihood. The method does not require any calculations in addition to the computations needed to fit the model, and can be applied to a wide range of mixed models (linear, generalized linear, non-linear), with univariate as well as multivariate random effects, as long as the distribution for the outcomes conditional on the random effects is correctly specified. In case of model misspecification, the gradient function gives an important, albeit informal, indication on how the model can be improved in terms of random-effects distribution. The diagnostic value of the gradient function is extensively illustrated using some simulated examples, as well as in the analysis of a real longitudinal study with binary outcome values.

  2. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  3. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  4. Pragmatism, Evidence, and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been…

  5. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced that…

  6. Development and Initial Evaluation of the Web-Based Self-Management Program “Partner in Balance” for Family Caregivers of People With Early Stage Dementia: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    de Vugt, Marjolein E; Withagen, Hanneke EJ; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; Verhey, Frans RJ

    2016-01-01

    Background People with dementia increasingly depend on informal caregivers. Internet-based self-management interventions hold considerable promise for meeting the educational and support needs of early stage dementia caregivers (EDCs) at a reduced cost. Objective This study aimed to (1) develop an online self-management program for EDC to increase self-efficacy and goal attainment, and (2) evaluate the program’s feasibility and report preliminary data on effectiveness. Methods Based on the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, a stepwise approach was adopted to explore potential user needs and develop and validate the content by means of (1) focus group discussions with dementia caregivers (N=28), (2) interviews with dementia care professionals (N=11), and (3) individual think-aloud usability tests with EDC (N=2) and experts (N=2). A pilot evaluation was conducted with EDC (N=17) to test the feasibility and establish preliminary effects. Self-report measures of feasibility were completed after the completion of intervention. Self-efficacy and goal attainment were evaluated before and after the intervention. Results The different steps provided useful information about the needs of potential users regarding the content and delivery of the program. This resulted in the newly developed “Partner in Balance” program. At the start, system failures resulted in a high noncompleter rate (7/17, 41%), but at the end, an acceptable feasibility score of 209 (range 54-234) was found. The convenience of completing the program at home, the tailored content, and the guidance (face-to-face and online) were appraised positively. Preliminary effects on caregiver self-efficacy (P<.05) and goal attainment (T>50) were promising. Conclusions Adaptations were made to the program to limit the amount of system failures and prevent high noncompleter rates. As recommended by the MRC framework, confirming the feasibility and

  7. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  8. Exploring Top-Rated MBA Programs for Best Practices in Internationalizing Curricula: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if, and how, curriculum developers are incorporating opportunities to develop global competence into business curricula, the Exploratory Design: Taxonomy Development Model (Qualitative Emphasized) was conducted on top-rated MBA programs. This three-phase mixed methods approach revealed 11 global competencies (or taxonomies) and 84…

  9. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  10. Mixed Methods, Triangulation, and Causal Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates…

  11. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  12. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  13. Quasioptimality of some spectral mixed methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayadeep; Demkowicz, L. F. Leszek F.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, we construct a sequence of projectors into certain polynomial spaces satisfying a commuting diagram property with norm bounds independent of the polynomial degree. Using the projectors, we obtain quasioptimality of some spectral mixed methods, including the Raviart-Thomas method and mixed formulations of Maxwell equations. We also prove some discrete Friedrichs type inequalities involving curl.

  14. Identity, Intersectionality, and Mixed-Methods Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Casandra E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that current strategies to study and understand students' identities fall short of fully capturing their complexity. A multi-dimensional perspective and a mixed-methods approach can reveal nuance that is missed with current approaches. The author offers an illustration of how mixed-methods research can promote a…

  15. Mixing Methods in Assessing Coaches' Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergeer, Ineke; Lyle, John

    2007-01-01

    Mixing methods has recently achieved respectability as an appropriate approach to research design, offering a variety of advantages (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). The purpose of this paper is to outline and evaluate a mixed methods approach within the domain of coaches' decision making. Illustrated with data from a policy-capturing study on…

  16. Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research

    PubMed Central

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research. PMID:20967495

  17. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  18. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  19. Transformative Paradigm: Mixed Methods and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2007-01-01

    The intersection of mixed methods and social justice has implications for the role of the researcher and choices of specific paradigmatic perspectives. The transformative paradigm with its associated philosophical assumptions provides a framework for addressing inequality and injustice in society using culturally competent, mixed methods…

  20. Mixed Methods in CAM Research: A Systematic Review of Studies Published in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Felicity L.; Holmes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Mixed methods research uses qualitative and quantitative methods together in a single study or a series of related studies. Objectives. To review the prevalence and quality of mixed methods studies in complementary medicine. Methods. All studies published in the top 10 integrative and complementary medicine journals in 2012 were screened. The quality of mixed methods studies was appraised using a published tool designed for mixed methods studies. Results. 4% of papers (95 out of 2349) reported mixed methods studies, 80 of which met criteria for applying the quality appraisal tool. The most popular formal mixed methods design was triangulation (used by 74% of studies), followed by embedded (14%), sequential explanatory (8%), and finally sequential exploratory (5%). Quantitative components were generally of higher quality than qualitative components; when quantitative components involved RCTs they were of particularly high quality. Common methodological limitations were identified. Most strikingly, none of the 80 mixed methods studies addressed the philosophical tensions inherent in mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Conclusions and Implications. The quality of mixed methods research in CAM can be enhanced by addressing philosophical tensions and improving reporting of (a) analytic methods and reflexivity (in qualitative components) and (b) sampling and recruitment-related procedures (in all components). PMID:24454489

  1. Mixing in microfluidic devices and enhancement methods

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kevin; Fan, Z Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Mixing in microfluidic devices presents a challenge due to laminar flows in microchannels, which result from low Reynolds numbers determined by the channel’s hydraulic diameter, flow velocity, and solution’s kinetic viscosity. To address this challenge, novel methods of mixing enhancement within microfluidic devices have been explored for a variety of applications. Passive mixing methods have been created, including those using ridges or slanted wells within the microchannels, as well as their variations with improved performance by varying geometry and patterns, by changing the properties of channel surfaces, and by optimization via simulations. In addition, active mixing methods including microstirrers, acoustic mixers, and flow pulsation have been investigated and integrated into microfluidic devices to enhance mixing in a more controllable manner. In general, passive mixers are easy to integrate, but difficult to control externally by users after fabrication. Active mixers usually take efforts to integrate within a device and they require external components (e.g. power sources) to operate. However, they can be controlled by users to a certain degree for tuned mixing. In this article, we provide a general overview of a number of passive and active mixers, discuss their advantages and disadvantages, and make suggestions on choosing a mixing method for a specific need as well as advocate possible integration of key elements of passive and active mixers to harness the advantages of both types. PMID:26549938

  2. Methods of testing parameterizations: Vertical ocean mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tziperman, Eli

    1992-01-01

    The ocean's velocity field is characterized by an exceptional variety of scales. While the small-scale oceanic turbulence responsible for the vertical mixing in the ocean is of scales a few centimeters and smaller, the oceanic general circulation is characterized by horizontal scales of thousands of kilometers. In oceanic general circulation models that are typically run today, the vertical structure of the ocean is represented by a few tens of discrete grid points. Such models cannot explicitly model the small-scale mixing processes, and must, therefore, find ways to parameterize them in terms of the larger-scale fields. Finding a parameterization that is both reliable and plausible to use in ocean models is not a simple task. Vertical mixing in the ocean is the combined result of many complex processes, and, in fact, mixing is one of the less known and less understood aspects of the oceanic circulation. In present models of the oceanic circulation, the many complex processes responsible for vertical mixing are often parameterized in an oversimplified manner. Yet, finding an adequate parameterization of vertical ocean mixing is crucial to the successful application of ocean models to climate studies. The results of general circulation models for quantities that are of particular interest to climate studies, such as the meridional heat flux carried by the ocean, are quite sensitive to the strength of the vertical mixing. We try to examine the difficulties in choosing an appropriate vertical mixing parameterization, and the methods that are available for validating different parameterizations by comparing model results to oceanographic data. First, some of the physical processes responsible for vertically mixing the ocean are briefly mentioned, and some possible approaches to the parameterization of these processes in oceanographic general circulation models are described in the following section. We then discuss the role of the vertical mixing in the physics of the

  3. [Hadamard transform spectrometer mixed pixels' unmixing method].

    PubMed

    Yan, Peng; Hu, Bing-Liang; Liu, Xue-Bin; Sun, Wei; Li, Li-Bo; Feng, Yu-Tao; Liu, Yong-Zheng

    2011-10-01

    Hadamard transform imaging spectrometer is a multi-channel digital transform spectrometer detection technology, this paper based on digital micromirror array device (DMD) of the Hadamard transform spectrometer working principle and instrument structure, obtained by the imaging sensor mixed pixel were analyzed, theory derived the solution of pixel aliasing hybrid method, simulation results show that the method is simple and effective to improve the accuracy of mixed pixel spectrum more than 10% recovery. PMID:22250574

  4. What is so new about mixed methods?

    PubMed

    Pelto, Pertti J

    2015-06-01

    In this article, I dispute claims that mixed methods research emerged only recently in the social sciences. I argue that some anthropologists and sociologists (and others) have used mixed methods in fieldwork for at least 80 years, and there are studies from early in the 20th century that clearly fall within the definition of "mixed methods." I explore some of the history of the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data in earlier ethnographic works and show that in some sectors of social science research, the "emergence" and proliferation of mixed methods were particularly notable around the middle of the 20th century. Furthermore, concerning issues about "paradigms of research" in the social sciences, I identify some of the types of research in which the mixing of QUAL and QUAN approaches was more likely to occur. I suggest that some of the literature about research paradigms has involved a certain amount of "myth-making" in connection with descriptions of qualitative and quantitative research assumptions and styles.

  5. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Zhang, Chuanlun; Roh, Yul

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  6. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  7. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  8. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  9. Instructor Technology Use: A Mixed Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becking, Suzanne K.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed methods concurrent triangulation study was designed to examine instructional leaders' descriptions of their experience with integrating technology into their teaching. Seminal studies from the 1990s were found to remain true today--that teachers are not ready to incorporate technology into their teaching (Becker, 1999; Ertmer, 1999). In…

  10. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight.

  11. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  12. The consumer welfare implications of the hospital ownership mix in the US: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Santerre, Rexford E; Vernon, John A

    2006-11-01

    This paper offers an empirical test concerning how hospital ownership mix affects consumer welfare in the US. The test compares the market benefits and costs resulting from an increased presence of nonprofit hospitals by observing empirically how the nonprofit market share impacts hospital care utilization at the margin. The empirical results suggest that too many not-for-profit and public hospitals exist in the inpatient care segment of the typical hospital services industry of the US. In contrast, the empirical findings indicate that too many for-profit hospitals operate in the outpatient care portion of the hospital services industry. The policy implication is that more quality of care per dollar might be obtained by promoting increased for-profit activity to inpatient care and more nonprofit activity to outpatient care in some market areas. This conclusion, however, is tempered with several caveats. We discuss these and also make recommendations for further research. PMID:16794992

  13. Method and apparatus for reducing mixed waste

    DOEpatents

    Elliott, Michael L.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.; Chapman, Chris C.; Peters, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for in-can waste reduction. The method is mixing waste with combustible material prior to placing the waste into a waste reduction vessel. The combustible portion is ignited, thereby reducing combustible material to ash and non-combustible material to a slag. Further combustion or heating may be used to sinter or melt the ash. The apparatus is a waste reduction vessel having receiving canister connection means on a first end, and a waste/combustible mixture inlet on a second end. An oxygen supply is provided to support combustion of the combustible mixture.

  14. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  15. A Mapping method for mixing with diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Conor P.; Christov, Ivan C.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2012-11-01

    We present an accurate and efficient computational method for solving the advection-diffusion equation in time-periodic chaotic flows. The method uses operator splitting which allows advection and diffusion steps to be treated independently. Taking advantage of flow periodicity, the advection step is solved with a mapping method, and diffusion is added discretely after each iteration of the advection map. This approach allows for a ``composite'' mapping matrix to be constructed for an entire period of a chaotic advection-diffusion process, which provides a natural approach to the spectral analysis of mixing. To test the approach, we consider the two-dimensional time-periodic sine flow. When compared to the exact solution for this simple velocity field, the operator splitting method exhibits qualitative agreement (overall concentration structure) for large time steps and is quantitatively accurate (average and maximum error) for small time steps. We extend the operator splitting approach to three-dimensional chaotic flows. Funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000469. Present affiliation: Princeton University. Supported by NSF Grant DMS-1104047.

  16. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social and Health Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2007-01-01

    A sequential design utilizing identical samples was used to classify mixed methods studies via a two-dimensional model, wherein sampling designs were grouped according to the time orientation of each study's components and the relationship of the qualitative and quantitative samples. A quantitative analysis of 121 studies representing nine fields…

  17. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  18. Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

  19. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  20. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    PubMed Central

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  1. Discontinuous mixed covolume methods for parabolic problems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ailing; Jiang, Ziwen

    2014-01-01

    We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L(2).

  2. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  3. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, F.; Njiki-Menga, G.-H.; Witschger, O.

    2013-04-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  4. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  5. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  6. Method of chaotic mixing and improved stirred tank reactors

    DOEpatents

    Muzzio, Fernando J.; Lamberto, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for efficiently achieving a homogeneous mixture of fluid components by introducing said components having a Reynolds number of between about .ltoreq.1 to about 500 into a vessel and continuously perturbing the mixing flow by altering the flow speed and mixing time until homogeniety is reached. This method prevents the components from aggregating into non-homogeneous segregated regions within said vessel during mixing and substantially reduces the time the admixed components reach homogeneity.

  7. Method of chaotic mixing and improved stirred tank reactors

    DOEpatents

    Muzzio, F.J.; Lamberto, D.J.

    1999-07-13

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for efficiently achieving a homogeneous mixture of fluid components by introducing said components having a Reynolds number of between about [le]1 to about 500 into a vessel and continuously perturbing the mixing flow by altering the flow speed and mixing time until homogeneity is reached. This method prevents the components from aggregating into non-homogeneous segregated regions within said vessel during mixing and substantially reduces the time the admixed components reach homogeneity. 19 figs.

  8. RO1 Funding for Mixed Methods Research: Lessons learned from the Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression Project

    PubMed Central

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled “The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression.” We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, the quantitative and qualitative data sources informing the study, and overview of the mixing of the two studies. Finally, we examine reviewer's comments and our insights related to writing mixed method proposal successful for achieving RO1 level funding. PMID:25419196

  9. Remote access methods for exploratory data analysis and statistical modelling: Privacy-Preserving Analytics.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Ross; Carter, Chris; Donnelly, John B; O'Keefe, Christine M; Duncan, Jodie; Keighley, Tim; McAullay, Damien

    2008-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the challenge of enabling the use of confidential or private data for research and policy analysis, while protecting confidentiality and privacy by reducing the risk of disclosure of sensitive information. Traditional solutions to the problem of reducing disclosure risk include releasing de-identified data and modifying data before release. In this paper we discuss the alternative approach of using a remote analysis server which does not enable any data release, but instead is designed to deliver useful results of user-specified statistical analyses with a low risk of disclosure. The techniques described in this paper enable a user to conduct a wide range of methods in exploratory data analysis, regression and survival analysis, while at the same time reducing the risk that the user can read or infer any individual record attribute value. We illustrate our methods with examples from biostatistics using publicly available data. We have implemented our techniques into a software demonstrator called Privacy-Preserving Analytics (PPA), via a web-based interface to the R software. We believe that PPA may provide an effective balance between the competing goals of providing useful information and reducing disclosure risk in some situations.

  10. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  11. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  12. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  13. Teacher Professionalism and Team Performance Pay: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to explore teachers' perceptions of their professional behaviors when they worked in schools that awarded team performance pay. Teachers' archival responses from two questionnaires were analyzed using mixed methods data analysis techniques (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Most teachers had…

  14. Mixed Methods in VET Research: Usage and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods had been heralded as the third methodological movement with several authorities from across an array of discipline fields contributing to a growing body of literature and theoretical developments. The discipline fields which are showing high levels of acceptance for mixed methods are those related to education, health and nursing,…

  15. Commentary: Using Mixed Methods to Transform Special Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainor, Audrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Klingner and Boardman (this issue) offer a cogent and compelling argument for opening the door for the acceptance and use of mixed methods in special education research. Self-identifying as pragmatists, they embody this paradigmatic view by focusing on the utility, efficacy, and accuracy of mixed methods, an argument that should appeal to the…

  16. What Can Mixed Methods Designs Offer Professional Development Program Evaluators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Victoria; Nevin, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe the benefits and pitfalls of mixed methods designs. They argue that mixed methods designs may be preferred when evaluating professional development programs for p-K-12 education given the new call for accountability in making data-driven decisions. They summarize and critique the studies in terms of limitations…

  17. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  18. Haptic exploratory behavior during object discrimination: a novel automatic annotation method.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sander E M; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2015-01-01

    In order to acquire information concerning the geometry and material of handheld objects, people tend to execute stereotypical hand movement patterns called haptic Exploratory Procedures (EPs). Manual annotation of haptic exploration trials with these EPs is a laborious task that is affected by subjectivity, attentional lapses, and viewing angle limitations. In this paper we propose an automatic EP annotation method based on position and orientation data from motion tracking sensors placed on both hands and inside a stimulus. A set of kinematic variables is computed from these data and compared to sets of predefined criteria for each of four EPs. Whenever all criteria for a specific EP are met, it is assumed that that particular hand movement pattern was performed. This method is applied to data from an experiment where blindfolded participants haptically discriminated between objects differing in hardness, roughness, volume, and weight. In order to validate the method, its output is compared to manual annotation based on video recordings of the same trials. Although mean pairwise agreement is less between human-automatic pairs than between human-human pairs (55.7% vs 74.5%), the proposed method performs much better than random annotation (2.4%). Furthermore, each EP is linked to a specific object property for which it is optimal (e.g., Lateral Motion for roughness). We found that the percentage of trials where the expected EP was found does not differ between manual and automatic annotation. For now, this method cannot yet completely replace a manual annotation procedure. However, it could be used as a starting point that can be supplemented by manual annotation.

  19. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  20. A Rationale for Mixed Methods (Integrative) Research Programmes in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that research programmes (quantitative, qualitative and mixed) in education are not displaced (as suggested by Kuhn) but rather lead to integration. The objective of this study is to present a rationale for mixed methods (integrative) research programs based on contemporary philosophy of science (Lakatos, Giere, Cartwright,…

  1. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    PubMed

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research. PMID:27397810

  2. Accurate and computationally efficient mixing models for the simulation of turbulent mixing with PDF methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Daniel W.; Jenny, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Different simulation methods are applicable to study turbulent mixing. When applying probability density function (PDF) methods, turbulent transport, and chemical reactions appear in closed form, which is not the case in second moment closure methods (RANS). Moreover, PDF methods provide the entire joint velocity-scalar PDF instead of a limited set of moments. In PDF methods, however, a mixing model is required to account for molecular diffusion. In joint velocity-scalar PDF methods, mixing models should also account for the joint velocity-scalar statistics, which is often under appreciated in applications. The interaction by exchange with the conditional mean (IECM) model accounts for these joint statistics, but requires velocity-conditional scalar means that are expensive to compute in spatially three dimensional settings. In this work, two alternative mixing models are presented that provide more accurate PDF predictions at reduced computational cost compared to the IECM model, since no conditional moments have to be computed. All models are tested for different mixing benchmark cases and their computational efficiencies are inspected thoroughly. The benchmark cases involve statistically homogeneous and inhomogeneous settings dealing with three streams that are characterized by two passive scalars. The inhomogeneous case clearly illustrates the importance of accounting for joint velocity-scalar statistics in the mixing model. Failure to do so leads to significant errors in the resulting scalar means, variances and other statistics.

  3. Mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    The computational methods used to predict and optimize the thermal structural behavior of aerospace vehicle structures are reviewed. In general, two classes of algorithms, implicit and explicit, are used in transient thermal analysis of structures. Each of these two methods has its own merits. Due to the different time scales of the mechanical and thermal responses, the selection of a time integration method can be a different yet critical factor in the efficient solution of such problems. Therefore mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures are being developed. The computer implementation aspects and numerical evaluation of these mixed time implicit-explicit algorithms in thermal analysis of structures are presented. A computationally useful method of estimating the critical time step for linear quadrilateral element is also given. Numerical tests confirm the stability criterion and accuracy characteristics of the methods. The superiority of these mixed time methods to the fully implicit method or the fully explicit method is also demonstrated.

  4. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    PubMed

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  5. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

  6. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  7. Analytical chemistry methods for mixed oxide fuel, March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of materials used to produce mixed oxide fuel. These materials are ceramic fuel and insulator pellets and the plutonium and uranium oxides and nitrates used to fabricate these pellets.

  8. Mixed methods research: a design for emergency care research?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon; Porter, Jo; Endacott, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    This paper follows previous publications on generic qualitative approaches, qualitative designs and action research in emergency care by this group of authors. Contemporary views on mixed methods approaches are considered, with a particular focus on the design choice and the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative data emphasising the timing of data collection for each approach, their relative 'weight' and how they will be mixed. Mixed methods studies in emergency care are reviewed before the variety of methodological approaches and best practice considerations are presented. The use of mixed methods in clinical studies is increasing, aiming to answer questions such as 'how many' and 'why' in the same study, and as such are an important and useful approach to many key questions in emergency care.

  9. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings. PMID:24722814

  10. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  11. Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, C F

    2001-01-01

    As for all materials, the performance of concrete is determined by its microstructure. Its microstructure is determined by its composition, its curing conditions, and also by the mixing method and mixer conditions used to process the concrete. This paper gives an overview of the various types of mixing methods and concrete mixers commercially available used by the concrete industry. There are two main types of mixers used: batch mixers and continuous mixers. Batch mixers are the most common. To determine the mixing method best suited for a specific application, factors to be considered include: location of the construction site (distance from the batching plant), the amount of concrete needed, the construction schedule (volume of concrete needed per hour), and the cost. Ultimately, the quality of the concrete produced determines its performance after placement. An important measure of the quality is the homogeneity of the material after mixing. This paper will review mixing methods in regards to the quality of the concrete produced. Some procedures used to determine the effectiveness of the mixing will be examined.

  12. Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Chiara F.

    2001-01-01

    As for all materials, the performance of concrete is determined by its microstructure. Its microstructure is determined by its composition, its curing conditions, and also by the mixing method and mixer conditions used to process the concrete. This paper gives an overview of the various types of mixing methods and concrete mixers commercially available used by the concrete industry. There are two main types of mixers used: batch mixers and continuous mixers. Batch mixers are the most common. To determine the mixing method best suited for a specific application, factors to be considered include: location of the construction site (distance from the batching plant), the amount of concrete needed, the construction schedule (volume of concrete needed per hour), and the cost. Ultimately, the quality of the concrete produced determines its performance after placement. An important measure of the quality is the homogeneity of the material after mixing. This paper will review mixing methods in regards to the quality of the concrete produced. Some procedures used to determine the effectiveness of the mixing will be examined. PMID:27500029

  13. Assessing and evaluating multidisciplinary translational teams: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Kevin C; Rose, Robert M; Ostir, Glenn V; Calhoun, William J; Ameredes, Bill T; Brasier, Allan R

    2014-03-01

    A case report illustrates how multidisciplinary translational teams can be assessed using outcome, process, and developmental types of evaluation using a mixed-methods approach. Types of evaluation appropriate for teams are considered in relation to relevant research questions and assessment methods. Logic models are applied to scientific projects and team development to inform choices between methods within a mixed-methods design. Use of an expert panel is reviewed, culminating in consensus ratings of 11 multidisciplinary teams and a final evaluation within a team-type taxonomy. Based on team maturation and scientific progress, teams were designated as (a) early in development, (b) traditional, (c) process focused, or (d) exemplary. Lessons learned from data reduction, use of mixed methods, and use of expert panels are explored.

  14. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  15. Detecting plastic strain distribution by a nonlinear wave mixing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guangxin; Liu, Minghe; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    A nonlinear wave mixing method is used to measure the plastic strain distribution in polycrystalline materials. A pair of collinear longitudinal and shear waves is generated. Under the phase matching condition, a resonant shear wave with a difference frequency is generated and propagates towards the shear wave transducer. The amplitude of this resonant shear wave is proportional to the acoustic nonlinearity parameter β, which is known to be related to plastic deformation. By adjusting the two primary waves so that they mix at different locations, the distribution of β can be obtained. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting plastic strain distribution in polycrystalline materials by the nonlinear wave mixing technique.

  16. Using Mixed Methods in Health Information Technology Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sockolow, Paulina; Dowding, Dawn; Randell, Rebecca; Favela, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing adoption of interactive systems in healthcare, there is a need to ensure that the benefits of such systems are formally evaluated. Traditionally quantitative research approaches have been used to gather evidence on measurable outcomes of health technology. Qualitative approaches have also been used to analyze how or why particular interventions did or did not work in specific healthcare contexts. Mixed methods research provides a framework for carrying out both quantitative and qualitative approaches within a single research study. In this paper an international group of four informatics scholars illustrate some of the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods in evaluation. The diversity of the research experience provides a broad overview of approaches in combining robust analysis of outcome data with qualitative methods that provide an understanding of the processes through which, and the contexts in which, those outcomes are achieved. This paper discussed the benefits that mixed methods brought to each study. PMID:27332167

  17. Understanding fruit and vegetable intake of Native American children: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Sinley, Rachel C; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Native American children experience greater rates of obesity and risk for chronic diseases in comparison to their counterparts in other ethnic groups. Contributing to this risk may be inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate the fruit and vegetable consumption of Native American children between the ages of 2 and 5 by using an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. This study first collected qualitative data from caregivers of Native American children (n = 45) and stakeholders in Native American communities (n = 10) to gain perspectives of fruit and vegetable consumption. Data was then utilized to develop a fruit and vegetable survey which was administered with a fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire. These quantitative assessments were administered to caregivers of Native American children (n = 92) to gain an understanding of predictors of fruit and vegetable intake among this population. This study was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior. Findings from the mixed methods analysis demonstrate that, while the IMB model may be a useful tool to utilize in explaining the complex relationship between factors that impact fruit and vegetable consumption among Native American children, a revised model may be appropriate to use in future intervention development.

  18. Dual Formulations of Mixed Finite Element Methods with Applications.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Andrew; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2011-10-01

    Mixed finite element methods solve a PDE using two or more variables. The theory of Discrete Exterior Calculus explains why the degrees of freedom associated to the different variables should be stored on both primal and dual domain meshes with a discrete Hodge star used to transfer information between the meshes. We show through analysis and examples that the choice of discrete Hodge star is essential to the numerical stability of the method. Additionally, we define interpolation functions and discrete Hodge stars on dual meshes which can be used to create previously unconsidered mixed methods. Examples from magnetostatics and Darcy flow are examined in detail.

  19. Symmetry conserving configuration mixing method with cranked states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrajo, Marta; Rodríguez, Tomás R.; Luis Egido, J.

    2015-06-01

    We present the first calculations of a symmetry conserving configuration mixing method (SCCM) using time-reversal symmetry breaking Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) states with the Gogny D1S interaction. The method includes particle number and tridimensional angular momentum symmetry restorations as well as configuration mixing within the generator coordinate method (GCM) framework. The nucleus 32Mg is chosen to show the performance and reliability of the calculations. Additionally, 01+, 21+ and 41+ states are computed for the magnesium isotopic chain, where a noticeable compression of the spectrum is obtained by including cranked states, leading to a very good agreement with the known experimental data.

  20. Studying Participation Networks in Collaboration Using Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alejandra; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Rubia-Avi, Bartolome; Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan; Marcos, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a mixed-evaluation method, published elsewhere, to three different learning scenarios. The method defines how to combine social network analysis with qualitative and quantitative analysis in order to study participatory aspects of learning in CSCL contexts. The three case studies include a course-long,…

  1. Individual Differences in Rater Decision-Making Style: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Beverly Anne

    2012-01-01

    Researchers of high-stakes, subjectively scored writing assessments have done much work to better understand the process that raters go through in applying a rating scale to a language performance to arrive at a score. However, there is still unexplained, systematic variability in rater scoring that resists rater training (see Hoyt & Kerns, 1999;…

  2. Willingness of Nurses to Learn with the Use of Technology: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of technologically enhanced tools are becoming available to meet the ongoing professional development needs of nurses. Only a few studies have addressed nurses' willingness to learn with technology, resulting in the problem of inadequate evidence to guide best practices for technology incorporation into nursing professional…

  3. Using a Sequential Exploratory Mixed-Method Design to Examine Racial Hyperprivilege in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2011-01-01

    Immediately after the election of a person of color to the presidency, the idea of being "postracial" seeped into the national media, essentially claiming that racism was over. According to this author, however, the United States is far from a "postracial" society. He contends that systemic racism continues to inequitably stratify society in favor…

  4. Mixed picture of readiness for adoption of evidence-based prevention programs in communities: exploratory surveys of state program delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Spoth, Richard; Schainker, Lisa M; Redmond, Cleve; Ralston, Ekaterina; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Perkins, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    An emerging literature highlights the potential for broader dissemination of evidence-based prevention programs in communities through existing state systems, such as the land grant university Extension outreach system and departments of public education and health (DOE-DPH). This exploratory study entailed surveying representatives of the national Extension system and DOE-DPH, to evaluate dissemination readiness factors, as part of a larger project on an evidence-based program delivery model called PROSPER. In addition to assessing systems' readiness factors, differences among US regions and comparative levels of readiness between state systems were evaluated. The Extension web-based survey sample N was 958 and the DOE-DPH telephone survey N was 338, with response rates of 23 and 79 %, respectively. Extension survey results suggested only a moderate level of overall readiness nationally, with relatively higher perceived need for collaborative efforts and relatively lower perceived resource availability. There were significant regional differences on all factors, generally favoring the Northeast. Results from DOE-DPH surveys showed significantly higher levels for all readiness factors, compared with Extension systems. Overall, the findings present a mixed picture. Although there were clear challenges related to measuring readiness in complex systems, addressing currently limited dissemination resources, and devising strategies for optimizing readiness, all systems showed some readiness-related strengths.

  5. Mixed Picture of Readiness for Adoption of Evidence-Based Prevention Programs in Communities: Exploratory Surveys of State Program Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schainker, Lisa M.; Redmond, Cleve; Ralston, Ekaterina; Yeh, Hsiu-Chen; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    An emerging literature highlights the potential for broader dissemination of evidence-based prevention programs in communities through existing state systems, such as the land grant university Extension outreach system and departments of public education and health (DOE– DPH). This exploratory study entailed surveying representatives of the national Extension system and DOE– DPH, to evaluate dissemination readiness factors, as part of a larger project on an evidence-based program delivery model called PROSPER. In addition to assessing systems’ readiness factors, differences among US regions and comparative levels of readiness between state systems were evaluated. The Extension web-based survey sample N was 958 and the DOE–DPH telephone survey N was 338, with response rates of 23 and 79 %, respectively. Extension survey results suggested only a moderate level of overall readiness nationally, with relatively higher perceived need for collaborative efforts and relatively lower perceived resource availability. There were significant regional differences on all factors, generally favoring the Northeast. Results from DOE–DPH surveys showed significantly higher levels for all readiness factors, compared with Extension systems. Overall, the findings present a mixed picture. Although there were clear challenges related to measuring readiness in complex systems, addressing currently limited dissemination resources, and devising strategies for optimizing readiness, all systems showed some readiness-related strengths. PMID:25791916

  6. Analyzing the House Fly’s Exploratory Behavior with Autoregression Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hisanao; Horibe, Naoto; Shimada, Masakazu; Ikegami, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed characterization of the trajectory of a single housefly with free range of a square cage. The trajectory of the fly was recorded and transformed into a time series, which was fully analyzed using an autoregressive model, which describes a stationary time series by a linear regression of prior state values with the white noise. The main discovery was that the fly switched styles of motion from a low dimensional regular pattern to a higher dimensional disordered pattern. This discovered exploratory behavior is, irrespective of the presence of food, characterized by anomalous diffusion.

  7. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  8. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  9. Creating and Supporting a Mixed Methods Health Services Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. Methods. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Results. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Conclusions. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. PMID:24138774

  10. An introduction to the partial least squares approach to structural equation modelling: a method for exploratory psychiatric research.

    PubMed

    Riou, Julien; Guyon, Hervé; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-09-01

    In psychiatry and psychology, relationship patterns connecting disorders and risk factors are always complex and intricate. Advanced statistical methods have been developed to overcome this issue, the most common being structural equation modelling (SEM). The main approach to SEM (CB-SEM for covariance-based SEM) has been widely used by psychiatry and psychology researchers to test whether a comprehensive theoretical model is compatible with observed data. While the validity of this approach method has been demonstrated, its application is limited in some situations, such as early-stage exploratory studies using small sample sizes. The partial least squares approach to SEM (PLS-SEM) has risen in many scientific fields as an alternative method that is especially useful when sample size restricts the use of CB-SEM. In this article, we aim to provide a comprehensive introduction to PLS-SEM intended to CB-SEM users in psychiatric and psychological fields, with an illustration using data on suicidality among prisoners. Researchers in these fields could benefit from PLS-SEM, a promising exploratory technique well adapted to studies on infrequent diseases or specific population subsets. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    The computational methods used to predict and optimize the thermal-structural behavior of aerospace vehicle structures are reviewed. In general, two classes of algorithms, implicit and explicit, are used in transient thermal analysis of structures. Each of these two methods has its own merits. Due to the different time scales of the mechanical and thermal responses, the selection of a time integration method can be a difficult yet critical factor in the efficient solution of such problems. Therefore mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures are being developed. The computer implementation aspects and numerical evaluation of these mixed time implicit-explicit algorithms in thermal analysis of structures are presented. A computationally-useful method of estimating the critical time step for linear quadrilateral element is also given. Numerical tests confirm the stability criterion and accuracy characteristics of the methods. The superiority of these mixed time methods to the fully implicit method or the fully explicit method is also demonstrated.

  12. Intravenous Fluid Mixing in Normal Gravity, Partial Gravity, and Microgravity: Down-Selection of Mixing Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Miller, Fletcher J.

    2008-01-01

    The missions envisioned under the Vision for Space Exploration will require development of new methods to handle crew medical care. Medications and intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as one area needing development. Storing certain medications and solutions as powders or concentrates can both increase the shelf life and reduce the overall mass and volume of medical supplies. The powders or concentrates would then be mixed in an IV bag with Sterile Water for Injection produced in situ from the potable water supply. Fluid handling in microgravity is different than terrestrial settings, and requires special consideration in the design of equipment. This document describes the analyses and down-select activities used to identify the IV mixing method to be developed that is suitable for ISS and exploration missions. The chosen method is compatible with both normal gravity and microgravity, maintains sterility of the solution, and has low mass and power requirements. The method will undergo further development, including reduced gravity aircraft experiments and computations, in order to fully develop the mixing method and associated operational parameters.

  13. Libraries in Online Elementary Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Laura; Franklin, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    School libraries serve an important role; however, elementary students who attend schools online typically do not have a school library. This study followed an online school's inaugural year in instituting a library. A mixed methods approach examined data from focus groups, interviews, surveys, library-use records and oral reading fluency scores.…

  14. Assessing Affective Constructs in Reading: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradi, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Research investigating affective dimensions in reading has long been plagued by vaguely defined constructs and, consequently, by an array of potentially problematic instruments designed to measure them. This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship among three popular group-administered instruments intended to tap affective constructs in…

  15. Consent, Informal Organization and Job Rewards: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubach, Marty

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a mixed methods approach to workplace dynamics. Ethnographic observations show that the consent deal underlies an informal stratification that divides the workplace into an "informal periphery," a "conventional core" and an "administrative clan." The "consent deal" is defined as an exchange of autonomy, voice and schedule…

  16. Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of research questions in mixed methods studies. First, we discuss the ways that the goal of the study, the research objective(s), and the research purpose shape the formation of research questions. Second, we compare and contrast quantitative research questions and qualitative research…

  17. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of Knowledge,…

  18. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  19. A Method To Ensure Heterogeneous Mixing of Grade 9 Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brydges, Bruce

    This paper presents outcomes of a practicum that was designed to address a need that was created when the Ministry of Education in Ontario, Canada, mandated that all grade 9 classes be "destreamed." A review of educational literature found no methods for ensuring that classes are truly heterogeneously mixed. The practicum was designed to gather…

  20. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to provide a…

  1. Motivational Engagement and Video Gaming: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby; Nadelson, Louis

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods design was used to identify factors associated with motivational engagement in video gaming. Self-report instruments were administered to 189 video game players to assess goal orientations, affect, need for cognition, and perceptions of engagement and flow. Simultaneously, a sub-set of 25 participants were interviewed and results…

  2. Prevalence of Mixed Methods Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Amanda A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In wake of federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that have called for "scientifically based research in education," this study examined the possible trends in mixed methods research articles published in 2 peer-reviewed mathematics education journals (n = 87) from 2002 to 2006. The study also illustrates how the…

  3. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, W.

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  4. The random card sort method and respondent certainty in contingent valuation: an exploratory investigation of range bias.

    PubMed

    Shackley, Phil; Dixon, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Willingness to pay (WTP) values derived from contingent valuation surveys are prone to a number of biases. Range bias occurs when the range of money values presented to respondents in a payment card affects their stated WTP values. This paper reports the results of an exploratory study whose aim was to investigate whether the effects of range bias can be reduced through the use of an alternative to the standard payment card method, namely, a random card sort method. The results suggest that the random card sort method is prone to range bias but that this bias may be mitigated by restricting the analysis to the WTP values of those respondents who indicate they are 'definitely sure' they would pay their stated WTP.

  5. The role of mixed methods in improved cookstove research.

    PubMed

    Stanistreet, Debbi; Hyseni, Lirije; Bashin, Michelle; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Pope, Daniel; Sage, Michael; Bruce, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of promoting access to clean and efficient household energy for cooking and heating is a critical issue facing low- and middle-income countries today. Along with clean fuels, improved cookstoves (ICSs) continue to play an important part in efforts to reduce the 4 million annual premature deaths attributed to household air pollution. Although a range of ICSs are available, there is little empirical evidence on appropriate behavior change approaches to inform adoption and sustained used at scale. Specifically, evaluations using either quantitative or qualitative methods provide an incomplete picture of the challenges in facilitating ICS adoption. This article examines how studies that use the strengths of both these approaches can offer important insights into behavior change in relation to ICS uptake and scale-up. Epistemological approaches, study design frameworks, methods of data collection, analytical approaches, and issues of validity and reliability in the context of mixed methods ICS research are examined, and the article presents an example study design from an evaluation study in Kenya incorporating a nested approach and a convergent case oriented design. The authors discuss the benefits and methodological challenges of mixed-methods approaches in the context of researching behavior change and ICS use recognizing that such methods represent relatively uncharted territory. The authors propose that more published examples are needed to provide frameworks for other researchers seeking to apply mixed methods in this context and suggest a comprehensive research agenda is required that incorporates integrated mixed-methods approaches, to provide best evidence for future scale-up.

  6. Permutation methods for the structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) of familial trait values.

    PubMed

    Karlin, S; Williams, P T

    1984-07-01

    A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results.

  7. Pragmatism in practice: mixed methods research for physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shaw, James A; Connelly, Denise M; Zecevic, Aleksandra A

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an argument for the place of mixed methods research across practice settings as an effective means of supporting evidence-based practice in physiotherapy. Physiotherapy practitioners use both qualitative and quantitative methods throughout the process of patient care-from history taking, assessment, and intervention to evaluation of outcomes. Research on practice paradigms demonstrates the importance of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods to achieve 'expert practice' that is concerned with optimizing outcomes and incorporating patient beliefs and values. Research paradigms that relate to this model of practice would integrate qualitative and quantitative types of knowledge and inquiry, while maintaining a prioritized focus on patient outcomes. Pragmatism is an emerging research paradigm where practical consequences and the effects of concepts and behaviors are vital components of meaning and truth. This research paradigm supports the simultaneous use of qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry to generate evidence to support best practice. This paper demonstrates that mixed methods research with a pragmatist view provides evidence that embraces and addresses the multiple practice concerns of practitioners better than either qualitative or quantitative research approaches in isolation.

  8. Logically rectangular mixed methods for Darcy flow on general geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arbogast, T.; Keenan, P.T.; Wheeler, M.F.; Yotov, I.

    1995-12-31

    The authors consider an expanded mixed finite element formulation (cell centered finite difference) for Darcy flow with a tensor absolute permeability. The reservoir can be geometrically general with internal features, but the computational domain is rectangular. The method is defined on a curvilinear grid that need not be orthogonal, obtained by mapping the rectangular, computational grid. The original flow problem becomes a similar problem with a modified permeability on the computational grid. Quadrature rules turn the mixed method into a cell-centered finite difference method with a 9 point stencil in 2-D and 19 in 3-D. As shown by theory and experiment, if the modified permeability on the computational domain is smooth, then the convergence rate is optimal and both pressure and velocity are superconvergent at certain points. If not, Lagrange multiplier pressures can be introduced on boundaries of elements so that optimal convergence is retained. This modification presents only small changes in the solution process; in fact, the same parallel domain decomposition algorithms can be applied with little or no change to the code if the modified permeability is smooth over the subdomains. This Lagrange multiplier procedure can be used to extend the difference scheme to multi-block domains, and to give a coupling with unstructured grids. In all cases, the mixed formulation is locally conservative. Computational results illustrate the advantage and convergence of this method.

  9. Laminated microchannel devices, mixing units and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA

    2002-10-17

    A laminated microchannel device is described in which there is a unit operation process layer that has longitudinal channel. The longitudinal channel is cut completely through the layer in which the unit process operation resides. Both the device structure and method of making the device provide significant advantages in terms of simplicity and efficiency. A static mixing unit that can be incorporated in the laminated microchannel device is also described.

  10. Preconditioned Mixed Spectral Element Methods for Elasticity and Stokes Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavarino, Luca F.

    1996-01-01

    Preconditioned iterative methods for the indefinite systems obtained by discretizing the linear elasticity and Stokes problems with mixed spectral elements in three dimensions are introduced and analyzed. The resulting stiffness matrices have the structure of saddle point problems with a penalty term, which is associated with the Poisson ratio for elasticity problems or with stabilization techniques for Stokes problems. The main results of this paper show that the convergence rate of the resulting algorithms is independent of the penalty parameter, the number of spectral elements Nu and mildly dependent on the spectral degree eta via the inf-sup constant. The preconditioners proposed for the whole indefinite system are block-diagonal and block-triangular. Numerical experiments presented in the final section show that these algorithms are a practical and efficient strategy for the iterative solution of the indefinite problems arising from mixed spectral element discretizations of elliptic systems.

  11. Elliptic interface problem solved using the mixed finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuqiang

    2007-05-01

    The elliptic boundary value/interface problem is very important in many applications, for example, in incompressible flow and MHD. Many methods are used to solve these problems in a complex domain, including the finite volume method, the finite element method and the boundary element method. For a complex computational domain, the better choice of the partition of the computational domain is to use an unstructured grid. However, it is not a straight forward task to implement a mesh generation program. Such a program requires extra computing time and resources (such as computer memory). Thus people like to use a structured mesh if possible, especially a cartesian mesh. Popular methods using structured cartesian grids for the elliptic boundary value/interface problem include the immersed boundary method, the immersed interface method, the ghost fluid method, and the embedded boundary method. This thesis solves the elliptic problem using several versions of the mixed nite element method on an unstructured mesh. The results are compared for speed and accuracy to the embedded boundary method. A ghost fluid method for elliptic boundary value/interface problems is also investigated. Finally, a simple test of the 2D Rayleigh-Taylor instability is performed using the FronTier-Lite package. Key Words. Elliptic Boundary Value, Interface, Mesh Generation, Quadtree, Octree, Front Tracking.

  12. Comparison of three screening methods to select mixed-microbial inoculum for mixed-acid fermentations.

    PubMed

    Golub, Kristina W; Forrest, Andrea K; Wales, Melinda E; Hammett, Amy Jo M; Cope, Julia L; Wilkinson, Heather H; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2013-02-01

    Using a mixed culture of microorganisms, the carboxylate platform converts biomass into hydrocarbons and chemicals. To develop a method that identifies the highest performing inoculum for carboxylate fermentations, five bacterial communities were screened and ranked by three fermentation performance tests: (1) 30-day batch screen, (2) 28-day continuum particle distribution model (CPDM), and (3) 5-month continuous countercurrent fermentation trains. To screen numerous inocula sources, these tests were used sequentially in an aseptic environment. For the batch-fermentation screen, Inoculum 1 achieved the highest conversion. For the CPDM evaluation, the operating map for Inoculum 1 had the highest performance. For the continuous countercurrent fermentation, the train resulting from Inoculum 1 was among the best performers. This study suggests that the three screens are a useful and predictive method for choosing optimal inocula sources. The bacterial community with optimal performance in these three screens could be considered for use in commercial-scale fermentations. PMID:23334035

  13. Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Newsome, Seth D; Gregg, Jillian W

    2005-08-01

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants; or water bodies, and many others. A common problem is having too many sources to allow a unique solution. We discuss two alternative procedures for addressing this problem. One option is a priori to combine sources with similar signatures so the number of sources is small enough to provide a unique solution. Aggregation should be considered only when isotopic signatures of clustered sources are not significantly different, and sources are related so the combined source group has some functional significance. For example, in a food web analysis, lumping several species within a trophic guild allows more interpretable results than lumping disparate food sources, even if they have similar isotopic signatures. One result of combining mixing model sources is increased uncertainty of the combined end-member isotopic signatures and consequently the source contribution estimates; this effect can be quantified using the IsoError model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isotopes/isoerror1_04.htm). As an alternative to lumping sources before a mixing analysis, the IsoSource mixing model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isosource/isosource.htm) can be used to find all feasible solutions of source contributions consistent with isotopic mass balance. While ranges of feasible contributions for each individual source can often be quite broad, contributions from functionally related groups of sources can be summed a posteriori, producing a range of solutions for the aggregate source that may be considerably narrower. A paleo-human dietary analysis example illustrates this method, which involves a terrestrial meat food source, a combination of three terrestrial plant foods, and a combination of three marine foods. In this case, a posteriori aggregation of sources allowed

  14. Networks of informal caring: a mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alasdair; Bowes, Alison

    2014-12-01

    Care for older people is a complex phenomenon, and is an area of pressing policy concern. Bringing together literature on care from social gerontology and economics, we report the findings of a mixed-methods project exploring networks of informal caring. Using quantitative data from the British Household Panel Survey (official survey of British households), together with qualitative interviews with older people and informal carers, we describe differences in formal care networks, and the factors and decision-making processes that have contributed to the formation of the networks. A network approach to care permits both quantitative and qualitative study, and the approach can be used to explore many important questions.

  15. A mixed methods assessment of coping with pediatric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child coping and parent coping assistance with cancer-related stressors during treatment. Fifteen children (aged 6-12) with cancer and their parents (N = 17) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess coping and coping assistance. Results suggest families utilized a broad array of approach and avoidance strategies to manage cancer and its treatment. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping among children with cancer and their parents. Using a mixed methods approach to assess coping provides a richer understanding of families’ experiences, which can better inform clinical practice. PMID:24428250

  16. Mixed mode control method and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Kesse, Mary L.; Duffy, Kevin P.

    2007-04-10

    A method of mixed mode operation of an internal combustion engine includes the steps of controlling a homogeneous charge combustion event timing in a given engine cycle, and controlling a conventional charge injection event to be at least a predetermined time after the homogeneous charge combustion event. An internal combustion engine is provided, including an electronic controller having a computer readable medium with a combustion timing control algorithm recorded thereon, the control algorithm including means for controlling a homogeneous charge combustion event timing and means for controlling a conventional injection event timing to be at least a predetermined time from the homogeneous charge combustion event.

  17. Mixing methods to explore appearance in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Ward, Richard; Campbell, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers approaches to investigating appearance and the work invested in maintaining it within dementia care. Our focus is upon methodological and methods-related issues associated with the challenge of generating knowledge of the embodied worlds of people with dementia. We begin with a brief overview of the literature on appearance and dementia, and consider what it teaches us about the nature of appearance and ways of understanding it. We describe and discuss the mixing of methods for an on-going investigation into hairdressing in dementia care: The Hair and Care project. Based upon the experience of research in care-based hair salons, we argue for a creative use of methods in dementia studies as an avenue to better engaging with the embodied experiences of people with dementia and, as a result, understanding how people use their bodies and senses to create meaningful worlds. PMID:24336856

  18. Mixing methods to explore appearance in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Ward, Richard; Campbell, Sarah

    2013-05-01

    This paper considers approaches to investigating appearance and the work invested in maintaining it within dementia care. Our focus is upon methodological and methods-related issues associated with the challenge of generating knowledge of the embodied worlds of people with dementia. We begin with a brief overview of the literature on appearance and dementia, and consider what it teaches us about the nature of appearance and ways of understanding it. We describe and discuss the mixing of methods for an on-going investigation into hairdressing in dementia care: The Hair and Care project. Based upon the experience of research in care-based hair salons, we argue for a creative use of methods in dementia studies as an avenue to better engaging with the embodied experiences of people with dementia and, as a result, understanding how people use their bodies and senses to create meaningful worlds.

  19. Mixed Method Approaches in Open-Ended, Qualitative, Exploratory Research Involving People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Comparative Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottmann, Goetz; Crosbie, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities and their families are increasingly being asked to provide input into the services they receive. Under the aegis of the United Nation Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, support plans crucially depend on a participant's articulation of his or her preferences and life goals. Yet, research…

  20. Deep Mixing in Stellar Variability: Improved Method, Statistics, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Theresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2016-07-01

    The preliminary results on deep-mixing manifestations in stellar variability are tested using our improved method and extended data set. We measure the timescales τ m of the stochastic change in the spectral power of rotational harmonics with numbers m ≤ 3 in the light curves of 1361 main-sequence stars from the Kepler mission archive. We find that the gradient [{log}({τ }2)-{log}({τ }1)]/[{log}(2)-{log}(1)] has a histogram maximum at ‑2/3, demonstrating agreement with Kolmogorov’s theory of turbulence and therefore confirming the manifestation of deep mixing. The squared amplitudes of the first and second rotational harmonics, corrected for integral photometry distortion, also show a quasi-Kolmogorov character with spectral index ≈‑5/3. Moreover, the reduction of τ 1 and τ 2 to the timescales τ lam1 and τ lam2 of laminar convection in the deep stellar layers reveals the proximity of both τ lam1 and τ lam2 to the turnover time τ MLT of standard mixing length theory. Considering this result, we use the obtained stellar variability timescales instead of τ MLT in our analysis of the relation between stellar activity and the Rossby number P/τ MLT. Comparison of our diagrams with previous results and theoretical expectations shows that best-fit correspondence is achieved for τ lam1, which can therefore be used as an analog of τ MLT. This means that the laminar component (giant cells) of stellar turbulent convection indeed plays an important role in the physics of stars. Additionally, we estimate the diffusivity of magnetic elements in stellar photospheres.

  1. Deep Mixing in Stellar Variability: Improved Method, Statistics, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Theresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2016-07-01

    The preliminary results on deep-mixing manifestations in stellar variability are tested using our improved method and extended data set. We measure the timescales τ m of the stochastic change in the spectral power of rotational harmonics with numbers m ≤ 3 in the light curves of 1361 main-sequence stars from the Kepler mission archive. We find that the gradient [{log}({τ }2)-{log}({τ }1)]/[{log}(2)-{log}(1)] has a histogram maximum at -2/3, demonstrating agreement with Kolmogorov’s theory of turbulence and therefore confirming the manifestation of deep mixing. The squared amplitudes of the first and second rotational harmonics, corrected for integral photometry distortion, also show a quasi-Kolmogorov character with spectral index ≈-5/3. Moreover, the reduction of τ 1 and τ 2 to the timescales τ lam1 and τ lam2 of laminar convection in the deep stellar layers reveals the proximity of both τ lam1 and τ lam2 to the turnover time τ MLT of standard mixing length theory. Considering this result, we use the obtained stellar variability timescales instead of τ MLT in our analysis of the relation between stellar activity and the Rossby number P/τ MLT. Comparison of our diagrams with previous results and theoretical expectations shows that best-fit correspondence is achieved for τ lam1, which can therefore be used as an analog of τ MLT. This means that the laminar component (giant cells) of stellar turbulent convection indeed plays an important role in the physics of stars. Additionally, we estimate the diffusivity of magnetic elements in stellar photospheres.

  2. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  3. An exploratory survey of methods used to develop measures of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamner, Kenneth L.; Lafleur, Charles A.

    1993-09-01

    Nonmanufacturing organizations are being challenged to provide high-quality products and services to their customers, with an emphasis on continuous process improvement. Measures of performance, referred to as metrics, can be used to foster process improvement. The application of performance measurement to nonmanufacturing processes can be very difficult. This research explored methods used to develop metrics in nonmanufacturing organizations. Several methods were formally defined in the literature, and the researchers used a two-step screening process to determine the OMB Generic Method was most likely to produce high-quality metrics. The OMB Generic Method was then used to develop metrics. A few other metric development methods were found in use at nonmanufacturing organizations. The researchers interviewed participants in metric development efforts to determine their satisfaction and to have them identify the strengths and weaknesses of, and recommended improvements to, the metric development methods used. Analysis of participants' responses allowed the researchers to identify the key components of a sound metrics development method. Those components were incorporated into a proposed metric development method that was based on the OMB Generic Method, and should be more likely to produce high-quality metrics that will result in continuous process improvement.

  4. Teacher-Learner Relationships in Medical Education: A Mixed Methods Study of the Third-Year Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarecke, Jodi Lynn Turner

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine third-year medical students' perceptions of their teacher-learner relationships in the clinical environment; and to explore how these relationships impact students' perceptions of teaching, learning, and their future roles as educators. To address this purpose, a sequential exploratory mixed methods…

  5. Crowdsourcing for quantifying transcripts: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Harman, Elena

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study attempts to demonstrate the potential utility of crowdsourcing as a supplemental technique for quantifying transcribed interviews. Crowdsourcing is the harnessing of the abilities of many people to complete a specific task or a set of tasks. In this study multiple samples of crowdsourced individuals were asked to rate and select supporting quotes from two different transcripts. The findings indicate that the different crowdsourced samples produced nearly identical ratings of the transcripts, and were able to consistently select the same supporting text from the transcripts. These findings suggest that crowdsourcing, with further development, can potentially be used as a mixed method tool to offer a supplemental perspective on transcribed interviews.

  6. How and Why Do IT Entrepreneurs Leave Their Salaried Employment to Start a SME? A Mixed Methods Research Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourmant, Gaëtan

    This method paper addresses an untapped but important type of IT turnover: IT entrepreneurship. We seek to develop a mixed methods research (MMR) design to understand the factors and processes that influence turnover behavior of prospective (nascent) IT entrepreneurs. To do this, we review two prior streams of research: the entrepreneurship literature and IT employee turnover. We incorporate the results of this literature review into a conceptual framework describing how the relevant factors leading to entrepreneurial and turnover behavior change over time, either gradually or suddenly, in response to specific events. In addition, we also contribute to the research by arguing that mixed methods research (MMR) is appropriate to bridge the gap between entrepreneurial literature and the IT turnover literature. A third important contribution is the design of the MMR, combining a longitudinal approach with a retrospective approach; a qualitative with a quantitative approach and, the exploratory design with the triangulation design [1]. Finally, we discuss practical implications for IT managers and IT entrepreneurs.

  7. Bisexuality, poverty and mental health: A mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; O'Gorman, Laurel; MacLeod, Melissa A; Bauer, Greta R; MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    Bisexuality is consistently associated with poor mental health outcomes. In population-based data, this is partially explained by income differences between bisexual people and lesbian, gay, and/or heterosexual individuals. However, the interrelationships between bisexuality, poverty, and mental health are poorly understood. In this paper, we examine the relationships between these variables using a mixed methods study of 302 adult bisexuals from Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling to complete an internet-based survey including measures of psychological distress and minority stress. A subset of participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview to contextualize their mental health experiences. Using information regarding household income, number of individuals supported by the income and geographic location, participants were categorized as living below or above the Canadian Low Income Cut Off (LICO). Accounting for the networked nature of the sample, participants living below the LICO had significantly higher mean scores for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and reported significantly more perceived discrimination compared to individuals living above the LICO. Grounded theory analysis of the qualitative interviews suggested four pathways through which bisexuality and poverty may intersect to impact mental health: through early life experiences linked to bisexuality or poverty that impacted future financial stability; through effects of bisexual identity on employment and earning potential; through the impact of class and sexual orientation discrimination on access to communities of support; and through lack of access to mental health services that could provide culturally competent care. These mixed methods data help us understand the income disparities associated with bisexual identity in population-based data, and suggest points of intervention to address their impact on bisexual mental

  8. Bisexuality, poverty and mental health: A mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lori E; O'Gorman, Laurel; MacLeod, Melissa A; Bauer, Greta R; MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    Bisexuality is consistently associated with poor mental health outcomes. In population-based data, this is partially explained by income differences between bisexual people and lesbian, gay, and/or heterosexual individuals. However, the interrelationships between bisexuality, poverty, and mental health are poorly understood. In this paper, we examine the relationships between these variables using a mixed methods study of 302 adult bisexuals from Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling to complete an internet-based survey including measures of psychological distress and minority stress. A subset of participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview to contextualize their mental health experiences. Using information regarding household income, number of individuals supported by the income and geographic location, participants were categorized as living below or above the Canadian Low Income Cut Off (LICO). Accounting for the networked nature of the sample, participants living below the LICO had significantly higher mean scores for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and reported significantly more perceived discrimination compared to individuals living above the LICO. Grounded theory analysis of the qualitative interviews suggested four pathways through which bisexuality and poverty may intersect to impact mental health: through early life experiences linked to bisexuality or poverty that impacted future financial stability; through effects of bisexual identity on employment and earning potential; through the impact of class and sexual orientation discrimination on access to communities of support; and through lack of access to mental health services that could provide culturally competent care. These mixed methods data help us understand the income disparities associated with bisexual identity in population-based data, and suggest points of intervention to address their impact on bisexual mental

  9. The Structure of Mixed Method Studies in Educational Research: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lauren H.

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers are beginning to use mixed methods designs to answer complex research questions. This content analysis investigates the structure and use of mixed methods in educational research in order to work toward a more standardized presentation. I used a concurrent mixed methods approach to analyze 30 studies from three prominent…

  10. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Roest, Jan-Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport management research. The results indicate that mixed…

  11. Integrative Mixed Methods Data Analytic Strategies in Research on School Success in Challenging Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Eunice E.; McDougall, Douglas E.; Pollon, Dawn; Herbert, Monique; Russell, Pia

    2008-01-01

    There are both conceptual and practical challenges in dealing with data from mixed methods research studies. There is a need for discussion about various integrative strategies for mixed methods data analyses. This article illustrates integrative analytic strategies for a mixed methods study focusing on improving urban schools facing challenging…

  12. A Case Study of a Mixed Methods Study Engaged in Integrated Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiazza, Daniela Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nascent field of mixed methods research has yet to develop a cohesive framework of guidelines and procedures for mixed methods data analysis (Greene, 2008). To support the field's development of analytical frameworks, this case study reflects on the development and implementation of a mixed methods study engaged in integrated data analysis.…

  13. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  14. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  15. A mixed RKPM/RBF immersed method for FSI simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giometto, M.; Fang, J.; Putti, M.; Saetta, A.; Lanzoni, S.; Parlange, M. B.

    2012-04-01

    Simulating fluid-structure interaction still represents a challenging multiphysics application in the framework of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Techniques to couple in an efficient way the two continua have become more and more sophisticated and they all aim to find an efficient way to deal with the two different frames of reference and to avoid the need to re-mesh when the element aspect ratio has become unacceptable (e.g. large deformations). To overcome such problems we propose a mixed RKPM / RBF immersed method in which a Lagrangian meshless solid domain moves on top of a background Eulerian fluid mesh that spans over the entire computational domain. This method is similar to the original Immersed Boundary Method introduced by C.Peskin, except that the structure has the same spatial dimension of the fluid domain and therefore the effects of the fluid-embedded bodies are summarized into a volumetric source term. The governing equations for the viscous fluid are discretized and solved on a regular, Cartesian mesh using a pseudo-spectral approach, while the solid equations are solved by means of RKPM basis functions. The use of a Reproducing Kernel Particle Method for the solid domain enables us to easily handle large deformations without the typical mesh distortion of Finite-Element-Methods while still providing sufficient accuracy in the solution. At the moment we're validating the code by running simple-geometry, low-Reynolds DNS simulations; a further step will be including a subgrid-scale model in the fluid formulation and run simulations with turbulent flows at high-Reynolds numbers, to study the effects of flexible structures (e.g. trees, bridges, towers) on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer.

  16. Mixed methods student evaluation of an online systemic human anatomy course with laboratory.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Stefanie M; Choi, Suwhan; Barnett, John; Rogers, Kem A

    2016-05-01

    A fully online section of an existing face-to-face (F2F) systemic human anatomy course with a prosection laboratory was offered for the first time in 2012-2013. Lectures for F2F students (N = 365) were broadcast in both live and archived format to online students (N = 40) using virtual classroom software. Laboratories were delivered online by a teaching assistant who manipulated 3D computer models in the virtual classroom environment. An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach was undertaken to determine the most important deciding factors that drive students' preferences for a given format and then to generate theory on the strengths and weaknesses of the online format. Students (20 online; 310 F2F) volunteered to participate in a crossover period of one week to expose them to the course section in which they were not originally registered. Open ended interviews (20 online; 20 F2F) and quantitative surveys (270 F2F) were conducted following a crossover. Students valued pace control, schedule, and location flexibility of learning from archived materials and being assessed online. In the online laboratory they had difficulty using the 3D models and preferred the unique and hands-on experiences of cadaveric specimens. The F2F environment was conducive to learning in both lecture and laboratory because students felt more engaged by instructors in person and were less distracted by their surroundings. These results suggest the need to improve the online experience by increasing the quality of student-instructor communication and in turn student-content interaction with the 3D models. Anat Sci Educ 9: 272-285. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Limitation of duty hour regulations for pediatric resident wellness: A mixed methods study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Osamu; Mishina, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ishiguro, Akira; Sakai, Hirokazu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Duty hour regulations have been placed in residency programs to address mental health concerns and to improve wellness. Here, we elucidate the prevalence of depressive symptoms after implementing an overnight call shift system and the factors associated with burnout or depression among residents.A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric and perinatal hospital in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 41 pediatric residents participated in the cross-sectional survey. We determined and compared the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the number of actual working hours before and after implementing the shift system. A follow-up focus-group interview with 4 residents was conducted to explore the factors that may trigger or prevent depression and burnout.Mean working hours significantly decreased from 75.2 hours to 64.9 hours per week. Prevalence of depressive symptoms remained similar before and after implementation of the shift system. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization from the burnout scale were markedly associated with depression. High workload, stress intolerance, interpersonal difficulties, and generation gaps regarding work-life balance could cause burnout. Stress tolerance, workload monitoring and balancing, appropriate supervision, and peer support could prevent burnout.Although the overnight call shift system was effective in reducing working hours, its effectiveness in managing mental health issues among pediatric residents remains unclear. Resident wellness programs represent an additional strategy and they should be aimed at fostering peer support and improvement of resident-faculty interactions. Such an approach could be beneficial to the relationship between physicians of different generations with conflicting belief structures. PMID:27631253

  18. Development of a resilience scale for Thai substance-dependent women: A mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Sakunpong, Nanchatsan; Choochom, Oraphin; Taephant, Nattasuda

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a resilience scale based on the experiences of substance-dependent women in Thailand and evaluate its validity and reliability. A sequential exploratory mixed methods design was employed as the main methodology to develop the resilience scale according to the results from qualitative data by analyzing focus group discussions of 13 participants. Then, the scale was administered to 252 substance-dependent women from four substance-treatment centers. The psychometric properties were explored with an index of item objective congruence (IOC), Pearson correlation, second-order confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha coefficient to estimate the quantitative data. The qualitative results showed that resilience is defined by three themes: individual, family and community factors, consisted of 13 different categories. The quantitative results also revealed that all 71 items in the resilience scale passed the IOC criteria, convergence and construct validity. The goodness-of-fit indices demonstrated that the resilience model was consistent with the empirical data. (Chi-square=74.28, df=59, p-value=0.08, RMSEA=0.03, SRMR=0.04, NNFI=0.99, CFI=0.99, GFI=0.96). The internal consistency, assessed by a Cronbach's alpha score of 0.92, can be interpreted as demonstrating high reliability. Furthermore, the structure of the resilience scale was confirmed by the available resilience literature. This study can help clinicians gain a more comprehensive understanding regarding the complex process of resilience among substance-dependent women and aid them in providing these women with the appropriate interventions.

  19. The evolution of rotating stars. 1: Method and exploratory calculations for a 7 solar mass star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method was developed which allows us to study the evolution of rotating stars beyond the main sequence stage. Four different cases of redistribution of angular momentum in an evolving star are considered. Evolutionary sequences for a 7 solar mass star, rotating according to these different cases, were computed from the ZAMS to the double shell source stage. Each sequence was begun with a (typical) equatorial velocity of 210 km/sec. On the main sequence, the effects of rotation are of minor importance. As the core contracts during later stages, important effects arise in all physically plausible cases. The outer regions of the cores approach critical velocities and develop unstable angular velocity distributions. The effects of these instabilities should significantly alter the subsequent evolution.

  20. An Exploratory Study of a Subspace Iteration Method as an Alternative to the QR Method for Floquet Eigenanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1994-01-01

    Floquet eigenanalysis requires a few dominant eigenvalues of the Floquet transition matrix (FTM). Although the QR method is used almost exclusively, it is expensive for such partial eigenanalysis; the operation counts and, thereby, the approximate machine-time grow cubically with the matrix order. Accordingly, for Floquet eigenanalysis, the Arnold-Saad method, a subspace iteration method, is investigated as an alternative to the QR method. The two methods are compared for machine-time efficiency and the residual errors of the corresponding eigenpairs. The Arnolds-Saad method takes much less machine-time than the QR method with comparable computational reliability and offers promise fpr large-scale Floquet eigenanalysis.

  1. Student Satisfactions in Four Mixed Courses in Elementary Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Qiuyun

    2008-01-01

    Mixed or hybrid method has become an increasingly popular course delivery model in recent years, but research regarding the effect of mixed learning is limited because of its recent debut in the landscape of educational technology. This one-year exploratory study looked at 78 elementary teacher candidates' view of learning in four mixed courses…

  2. Obesity in social media: a mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Prestin, Abby; Kunath, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    The escalating obesity rate in the USA has made obesity prevention a top public health priority. Recent interventions have tapped into the social media (SM) landscape. To leverage SM in obesity prevention, we must understand user-generated discourse surrounding the topic. This study was conducted to describe SM interactions about weight through a mixed methods analysis. Data were collected across 60 days through SM monitoring services, yielding 2.2 million posts. Data were cleaned and coded through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, yielding popular themes and the most retweeted content. Qualitative analyses of selected posts add insight into the nature of the public dialogue and motivations for participation. Twitter represented the most common channel. Twitter and Facebook were dominated by derogatory and misogynist sentiment, pointing to weight stigmatization, whereas blogs and forums contained more nuanced comments. Other themes included humor, education, and positive sentiment countering weight-based stereotypes. This study documented weight-related attitudes and perceptions. This knowledge will inform public health/obesity prevention practice.

  3. A Randomized Exploratory Study to Evaluate Two Acupuncture Methods for the Treatment of Headaches Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bellanti, Dawn M.; Paat, Charmagne F.; Boyd, Courtney C.; Duncan, Alaine; Price, Ashley; Zhang, Weimin; French, Louis M.; Chae, Heechin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Headaches are prevalent among Service members with traumatic brain injury (TBI); 80% report chronic or recurrent headache. Evidence for nonpharmacologic treatments, such as acupuncture, are needed. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine if two types of acupuncture (auricular acupuncture [AA] and traditional Chinese acupuncture [TCA]) were feasible and more effective than usual care (UC) alone for TBI–related headache. Materials and Methods: Design: This was a three-armed, parallel, randomized exploratory study. Setting: The research took place at three military treatment facilities in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Patients: The subjects were previously deployed Service members (18–69 years old) with mild-to-moderate TBI and headaches. Intervention: The interventions explored were UC alone or with the addition of AA or TCA. Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was the Headache Impact Test (HIT). Secondary outcomes were the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, Symptom Checklist-90-R, Medical Outcome Study Quality of Life (QoL), Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, and expectancy of outcome and acupuncture efficacy. Results: Mean HIT scores decreased in the AA and TCA groups but increased slightly in the UC-only group from baseline to week 6 [AA, −10.2% (−6.4 points); TCA, −4.6% (−2.9 points); UC, +0.8% (+0.6 points)]. Both acupuncture groups had sizable decreases in NRS (Pain Best), compared to UC (TCA versus UC: P = 0.0008, d = 1.70; AA versus UC: P = 0.0127, d = 1.6). No statistically significant results were found for any other secondary outcome measures. Conclusions: Both AA and TCA improved headache-related QoL more than UC did in Service members with TBI. PMID:27458496

  4. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality-an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome-deaths of strangers-by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the "Time Travel" condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a "Repetition" condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of "time travel" provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number.

  5. Diet behaviour among young people in transition to adulthood (18–25 year olds): a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    Poobalan, Amudha S.; Aucott, Lorna S.; Clarke, Amanda; Smith, William Cairns S.

    2014-01-01

    Background : Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, diet behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore diet behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods: An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at University/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted and the results from this were incorporated into the qualitative phase. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi-staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results: 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the survey, 40% of young people reported eating an adequate amount of fruits and vegetables and 59% eating regular meals, but 32% reported unhealthy snacking. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes towards diet and high intention (89%), did not translate into healthy diet behaviour. From the focus group discussions, the main motivators for diet behaviour were ‘self-appearance’ and having ‘variety of food’. There were mixed opinions on ‘cost’ of food and ‘taste’. Conclusion: Elements deemed really important to young people have been identified. This mixed method study is the largest in this vulnerable and neglected group covering a wide spectrum of the

  6. To Flip or Not to Flip? An Exploratory Study Comparing Student Performance in Calculus I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Larissa B.; McGivney-Burelle, Jean; Xue, Fei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, mixed-methods study was to compare student performance in flipped and non-flipped sections of Calculus I. The study also examined students' perceptions of the flipping pedagogy. Students in the flipped courses reported spending, on average, an additional 1-2 hours per week outside of class on course content.…

  7. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.

    2009-01-01

    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  8. Evaluating outpatient transition clinics: a mixed-methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sattoe, Jane N T; Peeters, Mariëlle A C; Hilberink, Sander R; Ista, Erwin; van Staa, AnneLoes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To support young people in their transition to adulthood and transfer to adult care, a number of interventions have been developed. One particularly important intervention is the transition clinic (TC), where paediatric and adult providers collaborate. TCs are often advocated as best practices in transition care for young people with chronic conditions, but little is known about TC models and effects. The proposed study aims to gain insight into the added value of a TC compared with usual care (without a TC). Methods and analysis We propose a mixed-methods study with a retrospective controlled design consisting of semistructured interviews among healthcare professionals, observations of consultations with young people, chart reviews of young people transferred 2–4 years prior to data collection and questionnaires among the young people included in the chart reviews. Qualitative data will be analysed through thematic analysis and results will provide insights into structures and daily routines of TCs, and experienced barriers and facilitators in transitional care. Quantitatively, within-group differences on clinical outcomes and healthcare use will be studied over the four measurement moments. Subsequently, comparisons will be made between intervention and control groups on all outcomes at all measurement moments. Primary outcomes are ‘no-show after transfer’ (process outcome) and ‘experiences and satisfaction with the transfer’ (patient-reported outcome). Secondary outcomes consider clinical outcomes, healthcare usage, self-management outcomes and perceived quality of care. Ethics The Medical Ethical Committee of the Erasmus Medical Centre approved the study protocol (MEC-2014-246). Dissemination Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conferences. The study started in September 2014 and will continue until December 2016. The same study design will be used in a national study in 20 diabetes settings (2016

  9. Toward Reflective Judgment in Exploratory Factor Analysis Decisions: Determining the Extraction Method and Number of Factors To Retain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.

    This paper considers some decisions that must be made by the researcher conducting an exploratory factor analysis. The primary purpose is to aid the researcher in making informed decisions during the factor analysis instead of relying on defaults in statistical programs or traditions of previous researchers. Three decision areas are addressed.…

  10. Mixed-bed affinity chromatography: principles and methods.

    PubMed

    Boschetti, Egisto; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-bed chromatography is far from being a well-established technology within the panoply of bioseparation tools. Composed of an assembly of distinct sorbents that are mixed in a single bed, they have been mostly developed in the last decade for the reduction of dynamic concentration range where they allowed discovering many low-copy proteins within very complex proteomes. Other interesting preparative applications of mixed-bed chromatography have since been developed. In this chapter the basic concepts first and then detailed application recipes are described for (1) the reduction of protein dynamic concentration range, (2) the removal of impurity traces at the last stage of a biopurification process, and (3) the selection and use of sorbents as mixed bed in protein purification. PMID:25749952

  11. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  12. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  13. Engaging patients through open notes: an evaluation using mixed methods

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Tobias; Mejilla, Roanne; Anselmo, Melissa; Podtschaske, Beatrice; Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (A) To gain insights into the experiences of patients invited to view their doctors’ visit notes, with a focus on those who review multiple notes; (B) to examine the relationships among fully transparent electronic medical records and quality of care, the patient-doctor relationship, patient engagement, self-care, self-management skills and clinical outcomes. Design Mixed methods qualitative study: analyses of survey data, including content analysis of free-text answers, and quantitative-descriptive measures combined with semistructured individual interviews, patient activation measures, and member checks. Setting Greater Boston, USA. Participants Patients cared for by primary care physicians (PCPs) at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center who had electronic access to their PCP visit notes. Among those submitting surveys, 576 free-text answers were identified and analysed (414 from female patients, 162 from male patients; 23–88 years). In addition, 13 patients (9 female, 4 male; 58–87 years) were interviewed. Results Patient experiences indicate improved understanding (of health information), better relationships (with doctors), better quality (adherence and compliance; keeping track) and improved self-care (patient-centredness, empowerment). Patients want more doctors to offer access to their notes, and some wish to contribute to their generation. Those patients with repeated experience reviewing notes express fewer concerns and more perceived benefits. Conclusions As the use of fully transparent medical records spreads, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of possible benefits or harms, and to characterise target populations that may require varying modes of delivery. Patient desires for expansion of this practice extend to specialty care and settings beyond the physician's office. Patients are also interested in becoming involved actively in the generation of their medical records. The OpenNotes movement may increase patient

  14. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    PubMed

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  15. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    PubMed Central

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  16. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research.

  17. Purists need not apply: the case for pragmatism in mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Florczak, Kristine L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this column is to describe several different ways of conducting mixed method research. The paradigms that underpin both qualitative and quantitative research are also considered along with a cursory review of classical pragmatism as it relates conducting mixed methods studies. Finally, the idea of loosely coupled systems as a means to support mixed methods studies is proposed along with several caveats to researchers who desire to use this new way of obtaining knowledge.

  18. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality—an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome—deaths of strangers—by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the “Time Travel” condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a “Repetition” condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of “time travel” provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number. PMID:25228889

  19. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  20. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  1. Validating for Use and Interpretation: A Mixed Methods Contribution Illustrated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Linda; Tan, Rachael Jin Bee

    2009-01-01

    Researchers in the areas of psychology and education strive to understand the intersections among validity, educational measurement, and cognitive theory. Guided by a mixed model conceptual framework, this study investigates how respondents' opinions inform the validation argument. Validity evidence for a science assessment was collected through…

  2. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  3. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  4. Transient 3d contact problems—NTS method: mixed methods and conserving integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesch, Christian; Betsch, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The present work deals with a new formulation for transient large deformation contact problems. It is well known, that one-step implicit time integration schemes for highly non-linear systems fail to conserve the total energy of the system. To deal with this drawback, a mixed method is newly proposed in conjunction with the concept of a discrete gradient. In particular, we reformulate the well known and widely-used node-to-segment methods and establish an energy-momentum scheme. The advocated approach ensures robustness and enhanced numerical stability, demonstrated in several three-dimensional applications of the proposed algorithm.

  5. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  6. Eutectic self-mixing method for the preparation of LiMn 2O 4 without any artificial mixing procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Koo; Ahn, Wook; Lee, Seung-Goo; Han, Kyoo-Seung; Song, Jun-Ho; Kwon, Oh-Heon; Kang, Eun-Young

    Spinel LiMn 2O 4 as a cathode material for lithium rechargeable batteries is economically prepared by a novel eutectic self-mixing method without any artificial mixing procedures of reactants. The phase transitions of lithium manganese oxide are found three times on the preparation. Thus, those process controls are discussed and emphasized. The prepared LiMn 2O 4 exhibits the initial discharge capacity of 124.8 mAh g -1 and the discharge capacity retention of 98.2% after 20 cycles.

  7. Transient three-dimensional contact problems: mortar method. Mixed methods and conserving integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesch, Christian; Betsch, Peter

    2011-10-01

    The present work deals with the development of an energy-momentum conserving method to unilateral contact constraints and is a direct continuation of a previous work (Hesch and Betsch in Comput Mech 2011, doi: 10.1007/s00466-011-0597-2) dealing with the NTS method. In this work, we introduce the mortar method and a newly developed segmentation process for the consistent integration of the contact interface. For the application of the energy-momentum approach to mortar constraints, we extend an approach based on a mixed formulation to the segment definition of the mortar constraints. The enhanced numerical stability of the newly proposed discretization method will be shown in several examples.

  8. Direct numerical simulations of a reacting turbulent mixing layer by a pseudospectral-spectral element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Givi, Peyman

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the implementation of the spectral-element technique for simulating a chemically reacting, spatially developing turbulent mixing layer. Attention is given to experimental and numerical studies that have investigated the development, evolution, and mixing characteristics of shear flows. A mathematical formulation is presented of the physical configuration of the spatially developing reacting mixing layer, in conjunction with a detailed representation of the spectral-element method's application to the numerical simulation of mixing layers. Results from 2D and 3D calculations of chemically reacting mixing layers are given.

  9. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services.

  10. A Mixed Methods Approach to Understanding School Counseling Program Evaluation: High School Counselors' Methods and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aucoin, Jennifer Mangrum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods concurrent triangulation study was to examine the program evaluation practices of high school counselors. A total of 294 high school counselors in Texas were assessed using a mixed methods concurrent triangulation design. A researcher-developed survey, the School Counseling Program Evaluation Questionnaire…

  11. Mixing Research Methods in Health Professional Degrees: Thoughts for Undergraduate Students and Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaf, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine A.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary considers some of the challenges of applying mixed methods research in undergraduate research degrees, especially in professions with a clinical health focus. Our experience in physiotherapy academia is used as an example. Mixed methods research is increasingly appreciated in its own right as a "third paradigm," however the success…

  12. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  13. A Mixed-Methods Exploration of an Environment for Learning Computer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A mixed-methods approach is evaluated for exploring collaborative behaviour, acceptance and progress surrounding an interactive technology for learning computer programming. A review of literature reveals a compelling case for using mixed-methods approaches when evaluating technology-enhanced-learning environments. Here, ethnographic approaches…

  14. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  15. Progress Monitoring for the Gifted and Talented: A Mixed Methods Examination of Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckberg, Lynn Ann

    2013-01-01

    The mixed methods correlational study examined the problem that AYP of Pennsylvania gifted middle school students who have met state-mandated proficiency requirements under No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has been reliant upon minimum proficiency tests. The purpose of the mixed methods study was to examine the correlations between the current measure…

  16. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics. PMID:25210664

  17. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  18. A Modularity-Based Method Reveals Mixed Modules from Chemical-Gene Heterogeneous Network

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jianglong; Tang, Shihuan; Liu, Xi; Gao, Yibo; Yang, Hongjun; Lu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    For a multicomponent therapy, molecular network is essential to uncover its specific mode of action from a holistic perspective. The molecular system of a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula can be represented by a 2-class heterogeneous network (2-HN), which typically includes chemical similarities, chemical-target interactions and gene interactions. An important premise of uncovering the molecular mechanism is to identify mixed modules from complex chemical-gene heterogeneous network of a TCM formula. We thus proposed a novel method (MixMod) based on mixed modularity to detect accurate mixed modules from 2-HNs. At first, we compared MixMod with Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm (CNM), Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL), Infomap and Louvain on benchmark 2-HNs with known module structure. Results showed that MixMod was superior to other methods when 2-HNs had promiscuous module structure. Then these methods were tested on a real drug-target network, in which 88 disease clusters were regarded as real modules. MixMod could identify the most accurate mixed modules from the drug-target 2-HN (normalized mutual information 0.62 and classification accuracy 0.4524). In the end, MixMod was applied to the 2-HN of Buchang naoxintong capsule (BNC) and detected 49 mixed modules. By using enrichment analysis, we investigated five mixed modules that contained primary constituents of BNC intestinal absorption liquid. As a matter of fact, the findings of in vitro experiments using BNC intestinal absorption liquid were found to highly accord with previous analysis. Therefore, MixMod is an effective method to detect accurate mixed modules from chemical-gene heterogeneous networks and further uncover the molecular mechanism of multicomponent therapies, especially TCM formulae. PMID:25927435

  19. Parent Pathways: Recognition and Responses to Developmental Delays in Young Children: A Mixed-Methods Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer Tess

    2013-01-01

    The importance of early recognition and intervention for developmental delays is increasingly acknowledged, yet high rates of under-enrollment and 1-3 year delays in entry to the public early intervention system continue. Much research has examined developmental screening in health and child care settings, but less well understood is what prompts…

  20. Coping strategies and styles of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness: a mixed methods analysis.

    PubMed

    Kartalova-O'Doherty, Yulia; Doherty, Donna Tedstone

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative exploratory study investigated the experiences and needs of family carers of persons with enduring mental illness in Ireland. The current mixed-methods secondary study used content analysis and statistical procedures to identify and explore the coping strategies emerging from the original interviews. The majority of family carers reported use of active behavioural coping strategies, sometimes combined with active cognitive or avoidance strategies. The percentage of cares reporting use of active cognitive strategies was the lowest among those whose ill relative lived in their home, and the highest among those whose relative lived independently. Participants with identified active cognitive strategies often reported that their relative was employed or in training. Participants who reported use of avoidance strategies were significantly younger than participants who did not report use of such strategies. The lowest percentage of avoidance strategies was among participants whose ill relative lived independently, whereas the highest was among carers whose relative lived in their home. The findings of this study highlight the importance of a contextual approach to studying coping styles and processes. Further research questions and methodological implications are discussed.

  1. The existence results and Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities in Banach spaces. For this purpose, we firstly prove a very general existence result for generalized mixed variational inequalities, provided that the mapping involved has the so-called mixed variational inequality property and satisfies a rather weak coercivity condition. Finally, we establish the Tikhonov regularization method for generalized mixed variational inequalities. Our findings extended the results for the generalized variational inequality problem (for short, GVIP(F, K)) in R^n spaces (He in Abstr Appl Anal, 2012) to the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ , K) ) in reflexive Banach spaces. On the other hand, we generalized the corresponding results for the generalized mixed variational inequality problem (for short, GMVIP(F,φ ,K) ) in R^n spaces (Fu and He in J Sichuan Norm Univ (Nat Sci) 37:12-17, 2014) to reflexive Banach spaces.

  2. The influence of different black carbon and sulfate mixing methods on their optical and radiative properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhili; Zhao, Shuyun; Li, Jiangnan

    2015-08-01

    Three different internal mixing methods (Core-Shell, Maxwell-Garnett, and Bruggeman) and one external mixing method are used to study the impact of mixing methods of black carbon (BC) with sulfate aerosol on their optical properties, radiative flux, and heating rate. The optical properties of a mixture of BC and sulfate aerosol particles are considered for three typical bands. The results show that mixing methods, the volume ratio of BC to sulfate, and relative humidity have a strong influence on the optical properties of mixed aerosols. Compared to internal mixing, external mixing underestimates the particle mass absorption coefficient by 20-70% and the particle mass scattering coefficient by up to 50%, whereas it overestimates the particle single scattering albedo by 20-50% in most cases. However, the asymmetry parameter is strongly sensitive to the equivalent particle radius, but is only weakly sensitive to the different mixing methods. Of the internal methods, there is less than 2% difference in all optical properties between the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman methods in all bands; however, the differences between the Core-Shell and Maxwell-Garnett/Bruggeman methods are usually larger than 15% in the ultraviolet and visible bands. A sensitivity test is conducted with the Beijing Climate Center Radiation transfer model (BCC-RAD) using a simulated BC concentration that is typical of east-central China and a sulfate volume ratio of 75%. The results show that the internal mixing methods could reduce the radiative flux more effectively because they produce a higher absorption. The annual mean instantaneous radiative force due to BC-sulfate aerosol is about -3.18 W/m2 for the external method and -6.91 W/m2 for the internal methods at the surface, and -3.03/-1.56/-1.85 W/m2 for the external/Core-Shell/(Maxwell-Garnett/Bruggeman) methods, respectively, at the tropopause.

  3. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Compressible Mixing Layer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modem day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS/LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. The hybrid RANS/LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two-dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, indicated an initial vortex shedding followed by rapid transition to turbulence, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  4. Mixed Methods: Incorporating multiple learning styles into a measurements course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallone, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    The best scientists and engineers regularly combine creative and critical skill sets. As faculty, we are responsible to provide future scientists and engineers with those skills sets. EGR 390: Engineering Measurements at Murray State University is structured to actively engage students in the processes that develop and enhance those skills. Students learn through a mix of traditional lecture and homework, active discussion of open-ended questions, small group activities, structured laboratory exercises, oral and written communications exercises, student chosen team projects, and peer evaluations. Examples of each of these activities, the skill set addressed by each activity, outcomes from and effectiveness of each activity and recommendations for future directions in the EGR 390 course as designed will be presented.

  5. Method for producing a compressed body of mix-powder for ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okawa, K.

    1983-01-01

    Under the invented method, a compressed body of mix powder for ceramic is produced by mixing and stirring several raw powder materials with mixing liquid such as water, and, in the process of sending the resulted viscous material pressurized at 5 kg/cm to 7 kg/cm, using 1.5 to 2 times the pressure to filter and dehydrate, adjusting the water content to 10 to 20%.

  6. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281

  7. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  8. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  9. Advancing the study of violence against women using mixed methods: integrating qualitative methods into a quantitative research program.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women's sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided.

  10. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1).

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies.

  11. Designing Health Websites Based on Users’ Web-Based Information-Seeking Behaviors: A Mixed-Method Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Patrick Cheong-Iao; Verspoor, Karin; Pearce, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople increasingly use the Internet as a source of health information, but finding and discovering the right information remains problematic. These issues are partially due to the mismatch between the design of consumer health websites and the needs of health information seekers, particularly the lack of support for “exploring” health information. Objective The aim of this research was to create a design for consumer health websites by supporting different health information–seeking behaviors. We created a website called Better Health Explorer with the new design. Through the evaluation of this new design, we derive design implications for future implementations. Methods Better Health Explorer was designed using a user-centered approach. The design was implemented and assessed through a laboratory-based observational study. Participants tried to use Better Health Explorer and another live health website. Both websites contained the same content. A mixed-method approach was adopted to analyze multiple types of data collected in the experiment, including screen recordings, activity logs, Web browsing histories, and audiotaped interviews. Results Overall, 31 participants took part in the observational study. Our new design showed a positive result for improving the experience of health information seeking, by providing a wide range of information and an engaging environment. The results showed better knowledge acquisition, a higher number of page reads, and more query reformulations in both focused and exploratory search tasks. In addition, participants spent more time to discover health information with our design in exploratory search tasks, indicating higher engagement with the website. Finally, we identify 4 design considerations for designing consumer health websites and health information–seeking apps: (1) providing a dynamic information scope; (2) supporting serendipity; (3) considering trust implications; and (4) enhancing interactivity

  12. Methods for collecting individual components of mixed saliva: the relevance to clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stephen, K W; Speirs, C F

    1976-04-01

    Methods are described for collecting constituents of mixed saliva, viz. parotid, submandibular, monor gland and sublingual saliva and gingival fluid. Literature is cited which showed that using these techniques, few antibiotics could be found in mixed saliva or its main components but all were detected in gingival fluid. Rifamicin and clindamycin were found in all components.

  13. Mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures, appendix 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    Mixed time integration methods for transient thermal analysis of structures are studied. An efficient solution procedure for predicting the thermal behavior of aerospace vehicle structures was developed. A 2D finite element computer program incorporating these methodologies is being implemented. The performance of these mixed time finite element algorithms can then be evaluated employing the proposed example problem.

  14. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Xiaobing

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  15. Midwives' adoption of the reproductive life plan in contraceptive counselling: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, J.; Bodin, M.; Grandahl, M.; Segeblad, B.; Axén, L.; Larsson, M.; Tydén, T.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How is the reproductive life plan (RLP) adopted in midwifery contraceptive counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER A majority of midwives adopted the RLP in their counselling, had predominantly positive experiences and considered it a feasible tool for promoting reproductive health. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The RLP is a health-promoting tool recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA for improving preconception health. It was recently used in a clinical setting in Sweden and was found to increase women's knowledge about fertility and to influence women's wishes to have their last child earlier in life. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION An exploratory mixed methods study among 68 midwives who provided contraceptive counselling in primary health care to at least 20 women each during the study period. Midwives received an introduction and materials for using the RLP in contraceptive counselling. Three months later, in the spring of 2014, they were invited to complete a questionnaire and participate in a focus group interview about their adoption of the RLP. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Data collection was through a questionnaire (n = 53 out of 68; participation rate 78%) and five focus group interviews (n = 22). Participants included both younger and older midwives with longer and shorter experiences of contraceptive counselling in public and private health care in one Swedish county. Quantitative data were analysed for differences between users and non-users, and qualitative data were analysed by qualitative content analysis to explore the midwives experiences and opinions of using the RLP. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Sixty-eight per cent of midwives had used the RLP in their contraceptive counselling. Four categories emerged through the focus group interviews: (i) A predominantly positive experience; (ii) The RLP—a health-promoting tool; (iii) individual and societal factors influence the RLP counselling; and (4) long

  16. Documenting Elementary Teachers' Sustainability of Instructional Practices: A Mixed Method Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotner, Bridget A.

    School reform programs focus on making educational changes; however, research on interventions past the funded implementation phase to determine what was sustained is rarely done (Beery, Senter, Cheadle, Greenwald, Pearson, et al., 2005). This study adds to the research on sustainability by determining what instructional practices, if any, of the Teaching SMARTRTM professional development program that was implemented from 2005--2008 in elementary schools with teachers in grades third through eighth were continued, discontinued, or adapted five years post-implementation (in 2013). Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: What do teachers who participated in Teaching SMARTRTM and district administrators share about the sustainability of Teaching SMARTRTM practices in 2013? What teaching strategies do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use in their science classrooms five years postimplementation (2013)? What perceptions about the roles of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) do teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) have five years later (2013)? And, What classroom management techniques do the teachers who participated in the program (2005--2008) use five years post implementation (2013)? A mixed method approach was used to answer these questions. Quantitative teacher survey data from 23 teachers who participated in 2008 and 2013 were analyzed in SAS v. 9.3. Descriptive statistics were reported and paired t-tests were conducted to determine mean differences by survey factors identified from an exploratory factor analysis, principal axis factoring, and parallel analysis conducted with teacher survey baseline data (2005). Individual teacher change scores (2008 and 2013) for identified factors were computed using the Reliable Change Index statistic. Qualitative data consisted of interviews with two district administrators and three teachers who responded to the survey in both

  17. Atypical Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Acute Bipolar Depression with Mixed Features: A Systematic Review and Exploratory Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fornaro, Michele; Stubbs, Brendon; De Berardis, Domenico; Perna, Giampaolo; Valchera, Alessandro; Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Ganança, Licínia

    2016-01-01

    Evidence supporting the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) in the treatment of acute depression with mixed features (MFs) associated with bipolar disorder (BD) is scarce and equivocal. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis investigating SGAs in the treatment of acute BD depression with MFs. Two authors independently searched major electronic databases from 1990 until September 2015 for randomized (placebo-) controlled trials (RCTs) or open-label clinical trials investigating the efficacy of SGAs in the treatment of acute bipolar depression with MFs. A random-effect meta-analysis calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) between SGA and placebo for the mean baseline to endpoint change in depression as well as manic symptoms score was computed based on 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six RCTs and one open-label placebo-controlled studies (including post-hoc reports) representing 1023 patients were included. Participants received either ziprasidone, olanzapine, lurasidone, quetiapine or asenapine for an average of 6.5 weeks across the included studies. Meta-analysis with Duval and Tweedie adjustment for publication bias demonstrated that SGA resulted in significant improvements of (hypo-)manic symptoms of bipolar mixed depression as assessed by the means of the total scores of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (SMD −0.74, 95% CI −1.20 to −0.28, n SGA = 907, control = 652). Meta-analysis demonstrated that participants in receipt of SGA (n = 979) experienced a large improvement in the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores (SMD −1.08, 95% CI −1.35 to −0.81, p < 0.001) vs. placebo (n = 678). Publication and measurement biases and relative paucity of studies. Overall, SGAs appear to offer favorable improvements in MADRS and YMRS scores vs. placebo. Nevertheless, given the preliminary nature of the present report, additional original studies are required to allow more reliable and

  18. Exploratory Evaluation of the Effect of Axial Rotation, Focal Film Distance and Measurement Methods on the Magnitude of Projected Lumbar Retrolisthesis on Plain Film Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Roger R.; Cremata, Edward J.; Lopes, Mark A.; Suttles, Rick A.; Fairbanks, Vaughn R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate the amount of error in retrolisthesis measurement due to measurement methods or projection factors inherent in spinal radiography. In addition, this study compared how accurately these methods determine positions of the lumbar vertebrae being studied and the expected projected size of the retrolisthesis. Methods Vertebral models were situated in a retrolisthesis position. Radiographs of the models were obtained in positive and negative y-axis rotations at 40- and 84-in focal film distances. The projected retrolisthesis was measured using the Gohl, Iguchi, and Lopes methods. Results At the 40-in focal film distance, the Iguchi method and Lopes methods were significantly more accurate than the Gohl method. At the 84-in focal film distance, the Lopes method was significantly more accurate than the Gohl method. Almost all measurements overestimated both the actual amount of retrolisthesis as well as the amount of trigonometrically calculated retrolisthesis that should have been present on the radiographs. Findings suggest that measurements were less accurate with vertebrae rotated more than 10°. Conclusions This study demonstrated that lumbar vertebral rotation, focal film distance, and measurement methods are potential sources of error in retrolisthesis measurement. PMID:25435838

  19. Using Mixed Methods to Interpret Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of differential item functioning (DIF) is often used to determine if cross-lingual assessments are equivalent across languages. However, evidence on the causes of cross-lingual DIF is still evasive. Expert appraisal is a qualitative method useful for obtaining detailed information about problematic elements in the different linguistic…

  20. The Use of Hermeneutics in a Mixed Methods Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Zweck, Claudia; Paterson, Margo; Pentland, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Combining methods in a single study is becoming a more common practice because of the limitations of using only one approach to fully address all aspects of a research question. Hermeneutics in this paper is discussed in relation to a large national study that investigated issues influencing the ability of international graduates to work as…

  1. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  2. Using Mixed Methods and Collaboration to Evaluate an Education and Public Outreach Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebby, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional indicators (such as the number of participants or Likert-type ratings of participant perceptions) are often used to provide stakeholders with basic information about program outputs and to justify funding decisions. However, use of qualitative methods can strengthen the reliability of these data and provide stakeholders with more meaningful information about program challenges, successes, and ultimate impacts (Stern, Stame, Mayne, Forss, David & Befani, 2012). In this session, presenters will discuss how they used a mixed methods evaluation to determine the impact of an education and public outreach (EPO) program. EPO efforts were intended to foster more effective, sustainable, and efficient utilization of science discoveries and learning experiences through three main goals 1) increase engagement and support by leveraging of resources, expertise, and best practices; 2) organize a portfolio of resources for accessibility, connectivity, and strategic growth; and 3) develop an infrastructure to support coordination. The evaluation team used a mixed methods design to conduct the evaluation. Presenters will first discuss five potential benefits of mixed methods designs: triangulation of findings, development, complementarity, initiation, and value diversity (Greene, Caracelli & Graham, 2005). They will next demonstrate how a 'mix' of methods, including artifact collection, surveys, interviews, focus groups, and vignettes, was included in the EPO project's evaluation design, providing specific examples of how alignment between the program theory and the evaluation plan was best achieved with a mixed methods approach. The presentation will also include an overview of different mixed methods approaches and information about important considerations when using a mixed methods design, such as selection of data collection methods and sources, and the timing and weighting of quantitative and qualitative methods (Creswell, 2003). Ultimately, this presentation will

  3. Updating and testing of a Finnish method for mixed municipal solid waste composition studies.

    PubMed

    Liikanen, M; Sahimaa, O; Hupponen, M; Havukainen, J; Sorvari, J; Horttanainen, M

    2016-06-01

    More efficient recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential precondition for turning Europe into a circular economy. Thus, the recycling of MSW must increase significantly in several member states, including Finland. This has increased the interest in the composition of mixed MSW. Due to increased information needs, a method for mixed MSW composition studies was introduced in Finland in order to improve the national comparability of composition study results. The aim of this study was to further develop the method so that it corresponds to the information needed about the composition of mixed MSW and still works in practice. A survey and two mixed MSW composition studies were carried out in the study. According to the responses of the survey, the intensification of recycling, the landfill ban on organic waste and the producer responsibility for packaging waste have particularly influenced the need for information about the composition of mixed MSW. The share of biowaste in mixed MSW interested the respondents most. Additionally, biowaste proved to be the largest waste fraction in mixed MSW in the composition studies. It constituted over 40% of mixed MSW in both composition studies. For these reasons, the classification system of the method was updated by further defining the classifications of biowaste. The classifications of paper as well as paperboard and cardboard were also updated. The updated classification system provides more information on the share of avoidable food waste and waste materials suitable for recycling in mixed MSW. The updated method and the information gained from the composition studies are important in ensuring that the method will be adopted by municipal waste management companies and thus used widely in Finland.

  4. Updating and testing of a Finnish method for mixed municipal solid waste composition studies.

    PubMed

    Liikanen, M; Sahimaa, O; Hupponen, M; Havukainen, J; Sorvari, J; Horttanainen, M

    2016-06-01

    More efficient recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential precondition for turning Europe into a circular economy. Thus, the recycling of MSW must increase significantly in several member states, including Finland. This has increased the interest in the composition of mixed MSW. Due to increased information needs, a method for mixed MSW composition studies was introduced in Finland in order to improve the national comparability of composition study results. The aim of this study was to further develop the method so that it corresponds to the information needed about the composition of mixed MSW and still works in practice. A survey and two mixed MSW composition studies were carried out in the study. According to the responses of the survey, the intensification of recycling, the landfill ban on organic waste and the producer responsibility for packaging waste have particularly influenced the need for information about the composition of mixed MSW. The share of biowaste in mixed MSW interested the respondents most. Additionally, biowaste proved to be the largest waste fraction in mixed MSW in the composition studies. It constituted over 40% of mixed MSW in both composition studies. For these reasons, the classification system of the method was updated by further defining the classifications of biowaste. The classifications of paper as well as paperboard and cardboard were also updated. The updated classification system provides more information on the share of avoidable food waste and waste materials suitable for recycling in mixed MSW. The updated method and the information gained from the composition studies are important in ensuring that the method will be adopted by municipal waste management companies and thus used widely in Finland. PMID:27021698

  5. Criteria for quantitative and qualitative data integration: mixed-methods research methodology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonah; Smith, Carrol A M

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need and importance of a mixed-methods approach for evaluation of clinical information systems. However, those studies had no criteria to guide integration of multiple data sets. Integrating different data sets serves to actualize the paradigm that a mixed-methods approach argues; thus, we require criteria that provide the right direction to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. The first author used a set of criteria organized from a literature search for integration of multiple data sets from mixed-methods research. The purpose of this article was to reorganize the identified criteria. Through critical appraisal of the reasons for designing mixed-methods research, three criteria resulted: validation, complementarity, and discrepancy. In applying the criteria to empirical data of a previous mixed methods study, integration of quantitative and qualitative data was achieved in a systematic manner. It helped us obtain a better organized understanding of the results. The criteria of this article offer the potential to produce insightful analyses of mixed-methods evaluations of health information systems.

  6. Counseling About IUDs: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dehlendorf, Christine; Tharayil, Mithu; Anderson, Nora; Gbenedio, Kessy; Wittman, Allen; Steinauer, Jody

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT IUDs are infrequently used in the United States. Assessing how counseling about this method is delivered can help identify barriers to IUD use that might be overcome by improving services. METHODS A sample of 342 family planning visits at six clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2009–2012 were audio-recorded, and patients completed surveys both before and after their visits. Descriptive quantitative analyses of counseling were performed, and correlates of IUDs’ being mentioned during counseling were investigated using logistic regression. Qualitative analyses investigated the counseling women received about IUDs generally (in a subset of 42 visits), as well as counseling for women who already had an IUD in place (13 visits) or who felt their provider inappropriately expressed a preference for IUDs (five visits). RESULTS IUDs were mentioned in 75% of visits. Patient-initiated mention of IUDs was more likely in visits by women aged 35 or older than in those by women younger than 20 (odds ratio, 6.4); provider-initiated discussion of this method was less common if the provider was older than 55 than if he or she was younger than 46 (0.3). Providers more often discussed potential adverse effects of IUD use than benefits; counseling often was noninteractive and did not address how patient preferences related to characteristics of IUDs. Counseling was frequently fragmented by the need for return visits or referral elsewhere for insertion. CONCLUSIONS IUD counseling may be improved by enhancing comprehensiveness and patient-centeredness, and by decreasing fragmentation of care. PMID:24628710

  7. Exploratory of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  8. Modeling BOD removal in constructed wetlands with mixing cell method

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Wang, G.T.; Xue, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    A new concept, transport detention time, is proposed in this paper to describe solute-transport processes. Using this concept, a new mathematical model was developed to describe biochemical oxygen demand removal in constructed wetlands. By treating a constructed wetland as a series of continuous stir tank reactors, an nth-order ordinary differential equation was derived based on the principle of mass balance and convective-dispersive equation and by introducing transfer function and Laplace transform. The number of continuous stir tank reactors of a particular wetland was determined by the parameters, such as dispersion coefficient and flow velocity, occurring in the wetland. Two examples were presented to illustrate the applications of the model. Moment method and a combination of moment and optimization methods were used to estimate the model parameters from tracer experiment data. A comparison between the model presented in this paper and the currently used plug-flow-constructed wetland model indicated that the former was more accurate. Additionally, this model can be applied to transient conditions, is theoretically sound, and represents a theoretical advance in constructed wetland research.

  9. A time-dependent Mixing Model for PDF Methods in Heterogeneous Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Lennart; Suciu, Nicolae; Knabner, Peter; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the transport of groundwater contaminations remains a demanding task, especially with respect to the heterogeneity of the subsurface and the large measurement uncertainties. A risk analysis also includes the quantification of the uncertainty in order to evaluate how accurate the predictions are. Probability density function (PDF) methods are a promising alternative to predicting the transport of solutes in groundwater under uncertainty. They make it possible to derive the evolution equations of the mean concentration and the concentration variance, which can be used as a first measure of uncertainty. A mixing model, also known as a dissipation model, is essential for both methods. Finding a satisfactory mixing model is still an open question and due to the rather elaborate PDF methods, a difficult undertaking. Both the PDF equation and the concentration variance equation depend on the same mixing model. This connection is used to find and test an improved mixing model for the much easier to handle concentration variance. Subsequently, this mixing model is transferred to the PDF equation and tested. The newly proposed mixing model yields significantly improved results for both variance modelling and PDF modelling. The implications of the new mixing model for different kinds of flow conditions are discussed and some comments are made on efficiently handling spatially resolved higher moments.

  10. Evaluating a physician leadership development program - a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Throgmorton, Cheryl; Mitchell, Trey; Morley, Tom; Snyder, Marijo

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - With the extent of change in healthcare today, organizations need strong physician leaders. To compensate for the lack of physician leadership education, many organizations are sending physicians to external leadership programs or developing in-house leadership programs targeted specifically to physicians. The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation strategy and outcomes of the inaugural year of a Physician Leadership Academy (PLA) developed and implemented at a Michigan-based regional healthcare system. Design/methodology/approach - The authors applied the theoretical framework of Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation and used surveys, observations, activity tracking, and interviews to evaluate the program outcomes. The authors applied grounded theory techniques to the interview data. Findings - The program met targeted outcomes across all four levels of evaluation. Interview themes focused on the significance of increasing self-awareness, building relationships, applying new skills, and building confidence. Research limitations/implications - While only one example, this study illustrates the importance of developing the evaluation strategy as part of the program design. Qualitative research methods, often lacking from learning evaluation design, uncover rich themes of impact. The study supports how a PLA program can enhance physician learning, engagement, and relationship building throughout and after the program. Physician leaders' partnership with organization development and learning professionals yield results with impact to individuals, groups, and the organization. Originality/value - Few studies provide an in-depth review of evaluation methods and outcomes of physician leadership development programs. Healthcare organizations seeking to develop similar in-house programs may benefit applying the evaluation strategy outlined in this study. PMID:27119393

  11. Evaluating a physician leadership development program - a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Throgmorton, Cheryl; Mitchell, Trey; Morley, Tom; Snyder, Marijo

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - With the extent of change in healthcare today, organizations need strong physician leaders. To compensate for the lack of physician leadership education, many organizations are sending physicians to external leadership programs or developing in-house leadership programs targeted specifically to physicians. The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation strategy and outcomes of the inaugural year of a Physician Leadership Academy (PLA) developed and implemented at a Michigan-based regional healthcare system. Design/methodology/approach - The authors applied the theoretical framework of Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation and used surveys, observations, activity tracking, and interviews to evaluate the program outcomes. The authors applied grounded theory techniques to the interview data. Findings - The program met targeted outcomes across all four levels of evaluation. Interview themes focused on the significance of increasing self-awareness, building relationships, applying new skills, and building confidence. Research limitations/implications - While only one example, this study illustrates the importance of developing the evaluation strategy as part of the program design. Qualitative research methods, often lacking from learning evaluation design, uncover rich themes of impact. The study supports how a PLA program can enhance physician learning, engagement, and relationship building throughout and after the program. Physician leaders' partnership with organization development and learning professionals yield results with impact to individuals, groups, and the organization. Originality/value - Few studies provide an in-depth review of evaluation methods and outcomes of physician leadership development programs. Healthcare organizations seeking to develop similar in-house programs may benefit applying the evaluation strategy outlined in this study.

  12. The advantages and disadvantages of mixing methods: an analysis of combining traditional and autoethnographic approaches.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    Although mixed- and multiple-method research designs are currently gaining momentum and popularity, it is essential that researchers undertake a critical analysis of the process of mixing "mainstream" research designs with newer methods before commencing. In ethnography, not only are there multiple approaches to data collection, but each approach also spans the competing paradigms, thus making the term mainstream ambiguous because these mainstream techniques are reasonably different from one another. When critically appraising the combination of ethnography and autoethnography, researchers must evaluate paradigmatic philosophies and methods of inquiry for commensurability and delineate the advantages and disadvantages of combining methods as they relate to each paradigm. The author's goal in this article is to demarcate the methodologies of both ethnography and autoethnography and then to identify the (dis)advantages that might arise from undertaking multiple-method and/or mixed-method research that uses these approaches concurrently. PMID:18000077

  13. The advantages and disadvantages of mixing methods: an analysis of combining traditional and autoethnographic approaches.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, Patrick

    2007-12-01

    Although mixed- and multiple-method research designs are currently gaining momentum and popularity, it is essential that researchers undertake a critical analysis of the process of mixing "mainstream" research designs with newer methods before commencing. In ethnography, not only are there multiple approaches to data collection, but each approach also spans the competing paradigms, thus making the term mainstream ambiguous because these mainstream techniques are reasonably different from one another. When critically appraising the combination of ethnography and autoethnography, researchers must evaluate paradigmatic philosophies and methods of inquiry for commensurability and delineate the advantages and disadvantages of combining methods as they relate to each paradigm. The author's goal in this article is to demarcate the methodologies of both ethnography and autoethnography and then to identify the (dis)advantages that might arise from undertaking multiple-method and/or mixed-method research that uses these approaches concurrently.

  14. Nursing Home Quality, Cost, Staffing, and Staff Mix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantz, Marilyn J.; Hicks, Lanis; Grando, Victoria; Petroski, Gregory F.; Madsen, Richard W.; Mehr, David R.; Conn, Vicki; Zwygart-Staffacher, Mary; Scott, Jill; Flesner, Marcia; Bostick, Jane; Porter, Rose; Maas, Meridean

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the processes of care, organizational attributes, cost of care, staffing level, and staff mix in a sample of Missouri homes with good, average, and poor resident outcomes. Design and Methods: A three-group exploratory study design was used, with 92 nursing homes randomly selected from all nursing…

  15. Food Environments around American Indian Reservations: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Kodish, Stephen; Oddo, Vanessa M.; Antiporta, Daniel A.; Jock, Brittany; Jones-Smith, Jessica C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Methods Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). Results After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Conclusions Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food. PMID:27560132

  16. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOEpatents

    Kountz, Kenneth J.; Bishop, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  17. Individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopic training: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Weurlander, Maria; Hedman, Leif; Nisell, Henry; Lindqvist, Pelle G.; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Enochsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore the value of indi-vidualized feedback on performance, flow and self-efficacy during simulated laparoscopy. Furthermore, we wished to explore attitudes towards feedback and simulator training among medical students. Methods Sixteen medical students were included in the study and randomized to laparoscopic simulator training with or without feedback. A teacher provided individualized feedback continuously throughout the procedures to the target group. Validated questionnaires and scales were used to evaluate self-efficacy and flow. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences between groups regarding laparoscopic performance (instrument path length), self-efficacy and flow. Qualitative data was collected by group interviews and interpreted using inductive thematic analyses. Results Sixteen students completed the simulator training and questionnaires. Instrument path length was shorter in the feedback group (median 3.9 m; IQR: 3.3-4.9) as com-pared to the control group (median 5.9 m; IQR: 5.0-8.1), p<0.05. Self-efficacy improved in both groups. Eleven students participated in the focus interviews. Participants in the control group expressed that they had fun, whereas participants in the feedback group were more concentrated on the task and also more anxious. Both groups had high ambitions to succeed and also expressed the importance of getting feedback. The authenticity of the training scenario was important for the learning process. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopy training. The next step is to further optimize feedback and to transfer standardized and individualized feedback from the simulated setting to the operating room. PMID:26223033

  18. A Model Incorporating the Rationale and Purpose for Conducting Mixed-Methods Research in Special Education and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Sutton, Ida L.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a typology of reasons for conducting mixed-methods research in special education. The mixed-methods research process is described along with the role of the rationale and purpose of study. The reasons given in the literature for utilizing mixed-methods research are explicated, and the limitations of these reason frameworks…

  19. Importance of mixed methods in pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Albright, Karen; Gechter, Katherine; Kempe, Allison

    2013-01-01

    With increased attention to the importance of translating research to clinical practice and policy, recent years have seen a proliferation of particular types of research, including pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research. Such research seeks to understand how and why interventions function in real-world settings, as opposed to highly controlled settings involving conditions not likely to be repeated outside the research study. Because understanding the context in which interventions are implemented is imperative for effective pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research, the use of mixed methods is critical to understanding trial results and the success or failure of implementation efforts. This article discusses a number of dimensions of mixed methods research, utilizing at least one qualitative method and at least one quantitative method, that may be helpful when designing projects or preparing grant proposals. Although the strengths and emphases of qualitative and quantitative approaches differ substantially, methods may be combined in a variety of ways to achieve a deeper level of understanding than can be achieved by one method alone. However, researchers must understand when and how to integrate the data as well as the appropriate order, priority, and purpose of each method. The ability to demonstrate an understanding of the rationale for and benefits of mixed methods research is increasingly important in today's competitive funding environment, and many funding agencies now expect applicants to include mixed methods in proposals. The increasing demand for mixed methods research necessitates broader methodological training and deepened collaboration between medical, clinical, and social scientists. Although a number of challenges to conducting and disseminating mixed methods research remain, the potential for insight generated by such work is substantial.

  20. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  1. Qualitative and mixed methods research in dissemination and implementation science: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Dorsey, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This special issue provides examples of how qualitative and mixed methods research approaches can be used in dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide a brief rationale for why and how qualitative and mixed methods approaches can be useful in moving the field forward. Specifically, we provide a brief primer on common qualitative methods, including a review of guidelines provided by the National Institutes of Health. Next, we introduce the six articles in the issue. The first of the articles by Palinkas represents a more thorough and authoritative discussion related to qualitative methods, using the other five articles in the issue (and other published works) as examples. The remaining five articles are empirical and/or descriptive articles of recently completed or ongoing qualitative or mixed methods studies related to dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents.

  2. An equivalent domain integral method for three-dimensional mixed-mode fracture problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1991-01-01

    A general formulation of the equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for mixed mode fracture problems in cracked solids is presented. The method is discussed in the context of a 3-D finite element analysis. The J integral consists of two parts: the volume integral of the crack front potential over a torus enclosing the crack front and the crack surface integral due to the crack front potential plus the crack face loading. In mixed mode crack problems the total J integral is split into J sub I, J sub II, and J sub III representing the severity of the crack front in three modes of deformations. The direct and decomposition methods are used to separate the modes. These two methods were applied to several mixed mode fracture problems, were analyzed, and results were found to agree well with those available in the literature. The method lends itself to be used as a post-processing subroutine in a general purpose finite element program.

  3. A New Mixed Element Method for a Class of Time-Fractional Partial Differential Equations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Gao, Wei; He, Siriguleng; Fang, Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    A kind of new mixed element method for time-fractional partial differential equations is studied. The Caputo-fractional derivative of time direction is approximated by two-step difference method and the spatial direction is discretized by a new mixed element method, whose gradient belongs to the simple (L2(Ω)2) space replacing the complex H(div; Ω) space. Some a priori error estimates in L2-norm for the scalar unknown u and in (L2)2-norm for its gradient σ. Moreover, we also discuss a priori error estimates in H1-norm for the scalar unknown u. PMID:24737957

  4. A mixed methods contribution to the study of health public policies: complementarities and difficulties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The use of mixed methods (combining quantitative and qualitative data) is developing in a variety of forms, especially in the health field. Our own research has adopted this perspective from the outset. We have sought all along to innovate in various ways and especially to develop an equal partnership, in the sense of not allowing any single approach to dominate. After briefly describing mixed methods, in this article we explain and illustrate how we have exploited both qualitative and quantitative methods to answer our research questions, ending with a reflective analysis of our experiment. PMID:26559730

  5. A systematic review of mixed methods research on human factors and ergonomics in health care.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Kianfar, Sarah; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Anping; Alyousef, Bashar; Wooldridge, Abigail

    2015-11-01

    This systematic literature review provides information on the use of mixed methods research in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) research in health care. Using the PRISMA methodology, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) field study in health care, (2) mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, (3) HFE issues, and (4) empirical evidence. Using an iterative and collaborative process supported by a structured data collection form, the six authors identified a total of 58 studies that primarily address HFE issues in health information technology (e.g., usability) and in the work of healthcare workers. About two-thirds of the mixed methods studies used the convergent parallel study design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. A variety of methods were used for collecting data, including interview, survey and observation. The most frequent combination involved interview for qualitative data and survey for quantitative data. The use of mixed methods in healthcare HFE research has increased over time. However, increasing attention should be paid to the formal literature on mixed methods research to enhance the depth and breadth of this research.

  6. A Systematic Review of Mixed Methods Research on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Kianfar, Sarah; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Anping; Alyousef, Bashar; Wooldridge, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review provides information on the use of mixed methods research in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) research in health care. Using the PRISMA methodology, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) field study in health care, (2) mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, (3) HFE issues, and (4) empirical evidence. Using an iterative and collaborative process supported by a structured data collection form, the six authors identified a total of 58 studies that primarily address HFE issues in health information technology (e.g., usability) and in the work of healthcare workers. About two-thirds of the mixed methods studies used the convergent parallel study design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. A variety of methods were used for collecting data, including interview, survey and observation. The most frequent combination involved interview for qualitative data and survey for quantitative data. The use of mixed methods in healthcare HFE research has increased over time. However, increasing attention should be paid to the formal literature on mixed methods research to enhance the depth and breadth of this research. PMID:26154228

  7. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds' glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology. PMID:27170597

  8. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology. PMID:27170597

  9. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  10. A Hybrid Numerical Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers. Degree awarded by Case Western Reserve Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid method has been developed for simulations of compressible turbulent mixing layers. Such mixing layers dominate the flows in exhaust systems of modern day aircraft and also those of hypersonic vehicles currently under development. The method configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. The hybrid method uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall bounded regions entering a mixing section, and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) procedure to calculate the mixing dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. Closure for the RANS equations was obtained using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The wall-function approach enabled a continuous computational grid from the RANS regions to the LES region. The LES equations were closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. The hybrid RANS-LES method is applied to a benchmark compressible mixing layer experiment. Preliminary two dimensional calculations are used to investigate the effects of axial grid density and boundary conditions. Vortex shedding from the base region of a splitter plate separating the upstream flows was observed to eventually transition to turbulence. The location of the transition, however, was much further downstream than indicated by experiments. Actual LES calculations, performed in three spatial directions, also indicated vortex shedding, but the transition to turbulence was found to occur much closer to the beginning of the mixing section. which is in agreement with experimental observations. These calculations demonstrated that LES simulations must be performed in three dimensions. Comparisons of time-averaged axial velocities and turbulence intensities indicated reasonable agreement with experimental

  11. Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Worlds: Engaging Globally Distributed User Groups for Extended Evaluation and Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Daniel; Bloomfield, Peter R.

    At first glance, the goal of the SLOODLE (Simulation Linked Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) project is to develop educational technology - specifically, software for integrating web-based virtual learning environments and 3D multi-user virtual worlds being used for educational purposes. However, a second goal is to research how such integration might best be achieved - and to understand what users might want from such technology. And both goals rely in part on a third - to develop an active and involved community engaged in a participatory design process. This paper reviews the mixed-methods approaches that have been employed to support research as the project principals have been working to engage with users world-wide through a range of activities held in the virtual world of Second LifeTM (SL), on the world-wide web and at demonstration workshops conducted in-person.

  12. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  13. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  14. Enhancing Learning Outcomes through Evaluation of Serious Gaming: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Kerrie Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the change in counseling student's self-efficacy and skill related to suicide assessment and intervention through the use of a novel intervention-oriented evaluation method, evaluation focused discussion groups, in an experimental embedded mixed methods design. An innovation counselor pedagogical tool, Suicide Risk…

  15. A Health Website Recommendation from Gold Coast General Practitioners to Their Patients: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: To identify health website recommendation trends by Gold Coast (Australia) general practitioners (GPs) to their patients. Method: A mixed method approach to data collection and analysis was employed. Quantitative data were collected using a prepaid postal survey, consisting of 17 questions, mailed to 250 (61 per cent) of 410 GPs on…

  16. Telling It All : A Story of Women's Social Capital Using a Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how quantitative and qualitative methods can be us together in feminist research. Despite an increasing number of texts and journal articles detailing mixed methods research, there are relatively few published reports of its use in feminist study. This article draws on a study conducted in regional…

  17. Searching for Rigour in the Reporting of Mixed Methods Population Health Research: A Methodological Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, K. M.; Elliott, S. J.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Robertson-Wilson, J.

    2015-01-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing…

  18. A Review of Mixed Methods Research on Bullying and Peer Victimization in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the negative outcomes associated with experiences in bullying at school, educational researchers, school officials, and policy-makers have called for more rigorous research on bullying in school. Research on bullying behavior in school has primarily been examined using quantitative methods. Mixed methods research in the field of…

  19. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  20. The Presentation of Self in Letters of Application: A Mixed-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soroko, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    The application letter, as the first phase of employment-seeking, is an opportunity for a job applicant to make a favorable impression on a potential employer. In the current study, the author used a mixed-method approach to empirically explore strategies for self-presentation in job application letters and determine the methods used in the…

  1. Explicating Metatheory for Mixed Methods Research in Educational Leadership: An Application of Habermas's "Theory of Communicative Action"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mixed methods research can provide a fruitful line of inquiry for educational leadership, program evaluation, and policy analysis; however, mixed methods research requires a metatheory that allows for mixing what have traditionally been considered incompatible qualitative and quantitative inquiry. The purpose of this paper is to apply…

  2. Points of Convergence in Music Education: The Use of Data Labels as a Strategy for Mixed Methods Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the mixing of quantitative and qualitative data is an essential component of mixed methods research, the process of integrating both types of data in meaningful ways can be challenging. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of data labels in mixed methods research as a technique for the integration of qualitative and…

  3. Development of an Empirical Methods for Predicting Jet Mixing Noise of Cold Flow Rectangular Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an empirical method for predicting the jet mixing noise levels of cold flow rectangular jets. The report presents a detailed analysis of the methodology used in development of the prediction method. The empirical correlations used are based on narrow band acoustic data for cold flow rectangular model nozzle tests conducted in the NASA Langley Jet Noise Laboratory. There were 20 separate nozzle test operating conditions. For each operating condition 60 Hz bandwidth microphone measurements were made over a frequency range from 0 to 60,000 Hz. Measurements were performed at 16 polar directivity angles ranging from 45 degrees to 157.5 degrees. At each polar directivity angle, measurements were made at 9 azimuth directivity angles. The report shows the methods employed to remove screech tones and shock noise from the data in order to obtain the jet mixing noise component. The jet mixing noise was defined in terms of one third octave band spectral content, polar and azimuth directivity, and overall power level. Empirical correlations were performed over the range of test conditions to define each of these jet mixing noise parameters as a function of aspect ratio, jet velocity, and polar and azimuth directivity angles. The report presents the method for predicting the overall power level, the average polar directivity, the azimuth directivity and the location and shape of the spectra for jet mixing noise of cold flow rectangular jets.

  4. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep

    1997-01-01

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

  5. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.

    1997-07-08

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH){sub 4} to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set. 4 figs.

  6. Application of the control volume mixed finite element method to a triangular discretization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naff, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional control volume mixed finite element method is applied to the elliptic equation. Discretization of the computational domain is based in triangular elements. Shape functions and test functions are formulated on the basis of an equilateral reference triangle with unit edges. A pressure support based on the linear interpolation of elemental edge pressures is used in this formulation. Comparisons are made between results from the standard mixed finite element method and this control volume mixed finite element method. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. ?? 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This article reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the articles included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a "thick description" or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods but often differ with respect to study design, data collection, and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semistructured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed-method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research.

  8. Reactive Transport Modelling By Using Euleria-Lagrangian Methods Based on Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    soler Sagarra, J.; Nardi, A.; Saaltink, M.; Carrera, J.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive transport use to be a complicated problem by the difficulty of finding a universal numerical method, which reproduces the natural behaviour. Eulerian methods provide accurate results, since they give second order convergence, but they require meeting stability conditions that restrict their actual applicability. Eulerian - Lagrangian methods overcome these limitations, but often cause additional mixing by numerical dispersion. This is a particularly serious problem when transport is coupled to fast chemical reactions, whose rate is controlled by mixing. This work proposes an Eulerian-Lagrangià method without numerical dispersion for solving reactive transport based on mixing. The method consists on the construction of a streamline oriented grid such that the transit time between sequential cells remains constant (isochronal mesh). We have tested the method performances in two different cases: 1) Instantaneous point injection with analytical solution and 2) considering an isolated fracture. In both we have compared the proposed method against existing Eulerian and Eulerian-Lagrangian methods. The results confirm that the proposed method is superior to the two existing cases where dispersivities are medium and low, although the method needs additional refinements in mediums with great heterogeneous. In addition, a new reactive transport method has been obtained.

  9. Connecting the Dots and Merging Meaning: Using Mixed Methods to Study Primary Care Delivery Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Scammon, Debra L; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Rachel L; Day, Julie; Kim, Jaewhan; Waitzman, Norman J; Farrell, Timothy W; Magill, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the value of mixed methods in the study of practice transformation and illustrate procedures for connecting methods and for merging findings to enhance the meaning derived. Data Source/Study Setting. An integrated network of university-owned, primary care practices at the University of Utah (Community Clinics or CCs). CC has adopted Care by Design, its version of the Patient Centered Medical Home. Study Design. Convergent case study mixed methods design. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Analysis of archival documents, internal operational reports, in-clinic observations, chart audits, surveys, semistructured interviews, focus groups, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database, and the Utah All Payer Claims Database. Principal Findings. Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process and understanding of reasons that certain changes were more difficult than others both in general and for particular clinics. Mixed methods enabled generation and testing of hypotheses about change and led to a comprehensive understanding of practice change. Conclusions. Mixed methods are useful in studying practice transformation. Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence. PMID:24279836

  10. Students awareness of learning styles and their perceptions to a mixed method approach for learning

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Anumeha; Vyas, Rashmi; Singh, Tejinder

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individualization of instructional method does not contribute significantly to learning outcomes although it is known that students have differing learning styles (LSs). Hence, in order to maximally enhance learning, one must try to use a mixed method approach. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that awareness of preferred LS and motivation to incorporate multiple learning strategies might enhance learning outcomes. Aim: Our aim was to determine the impact of awareness of LS among medical undergraduates and motivating students to use mixed methods of learning. Materials and Methods: Before awareness lecture, LS preferences were determined using Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire. Awareness of LS was assessed using a validated questionnaire. Through a lecture, students were oriented to various LSs, impact of LS on their performance, and benefit of using mixed method approach for learning. Subsequently, group discussions were organized. After 3 months, VARK preferences and awareness of LSs were reassessed. Student narratives were collected. Qualitative analysis of the data was done. Results: There was a significant increase in the number of students who were aware of LS. The number of participants showing a change in VARK scores for various modalities of learning was also significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Thus, awareness of LSs motivated students to adapt other learning strategies and use mixed methods for learning. PMID:26380214

  11. Transient modeling/analysis of hyperbolic heat conduction problems employing mixed implicit-explicit alpha method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; D'Costa, Joseph F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of mixed implicit-explicit finite element formulations for hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects. In particular, mixed implicit-explicit formulations employing the alpha method proposed by Hughes et al. (1987, 1990) are described for the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models, which involves time-dependent relaxation effects. Existing analytical approaches for modeling/analysis of such models involve complex mathematical formulations for obtaining closed-form solutions, while in certain numerical formulations the difficulties include severe oscillatory solution behavior (which often disguises the true response) in the vicinity of the thermal disturbances, which propagate with finite velocities. In view of these factors, the alpha method is evaluated to assess the control of the amount of numerical dissipation for predicting the transient propagating thermal disturbances. Numerical test models are presented, and pertinent conclusions are drawn for the mixed-time integration simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects.

  12. Assessment of condensation of water vapor in the mixing chamber by CFD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojkůvková, Petra; Šikula, Ondřej; Weyr, Jan

    2015-05-01

    The analyzed topic belongs to the field of design and operation of HVAC systems, focusing mainly on mixing chambers. The paper deals with problems of condensation and freezing of water vapour on walls of mixing chambers in a special case, when the partial pressure of the final resulting state of the mixture of warm moist air and colder air is located above the saturation limit. Experimental in situ methods and computer computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling method were used for processing. The main contribution of this work is the finding that partial condensation and freezing of water vapour may occur in local parts of the mixing chamber. It causes problems in terms of hygienic safety and service life of these devices. In particular it has been found that condensation and freezing of water vapour may occur even if relative humidity of the resulting mixture is about 70 %.

  13. Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes survival in ice cream mixes flavored with herbal tea using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values.

  14. A Software Engineering Method for the Design of Mixed Reality Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy-Chessa, S.; Godet-Bar, G.; Pérez-Medina, J.-L.; Rieu, D.; Juras, D.

    The domain of mixed reality systems is currently making decisive advances on a daily basis. However, the knowledge and know-how of HCI scientists and interaction engineers, used in the design of such systems, are not well understood. This chapter addresses this issue by proposing a software engineering method that couples a process for designing mixed reality interaction with a process for developing the functional core. Our development method features a Y-shaped development cycle that separates the description of functional requirements and their analysis from the study of technical requirements of the application. These sub-processes produce Business Objects and Interactional Objects, which are connected to produce a complete mixed reality system. The whole process is presented via a case study, with a particular emphasis on the design of the interactive solution.

  15. Examining mixing methods in an evaluation of a smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Betzner, Anne; Lawrenz, Frances P; Thao, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Three different methods were used in an evaluation of a smoking cessation study: surveys, focus groups, and phenomenological interviews. The results of each method were analyzed separately and then combined using both a pragmatic and dialectic stance to examine the effects of different approaches to mixing methods. Results show that the further apart the methods are philosophically, the more diverse the findings. Comparisons of decision maker opinions and costs of the different methods are provided along with recommendations for evaluators' uses of different methods.

  16. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) methods

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Owens, Chantelle J

    2009-01-01

    Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, gender and races) from the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS) for 2004 and 2005. Results Bayesian-smoothed chlamydia incidence rates were spatially dependent both in levels and in relative changes. Erath county had significantly (p < 0.05) higher smoothed rates (> 300 cases per 100,000 residents) than its contiguous neighbors (195 or less) in both years. Gaines county experienced the highest relative increase in smoothed rates (173% – 139 to 379). The relative change in smoothed chlamydia rates in Newton county was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than its contiguous neighbors. Conclusion Bayesian smoothing and ESDA methods can assist programs in using chlamydia surveillance data to identify outliers, as well as relevant changes in chlamydia incidence in specific geographic units. Secondly, it may also indirectly help in assessing existing differences and changes in chlamydia surveillance systems over time. PMID:19245686

  17. Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

  18. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    Significant research has been underway for several years in NASA Glenn Research Center's nozzle branch to develop advanced computational methods for simulating turbulent flows in exhaust nozzles. The primary efforts of this research have concentrated on improving our ability to calculate the turbulent mixing layers that dominate flows both in the exhaust systems of modern-day aircraft and in those of hypersonic vehicles under development. As part of these efforts, a hybrid numerical method was recently developed to simulate such turbulent mixing layers. The method developed here is intended for configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. Interest in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods have increased in recent years, but applying an LES method to calculate the wide range of turbulent scales from small eddies in the wall-bounded regions to large eddies in the mixing region is not yet possible with current computers. As a result, the hybrid method developed here uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall-bounded regions entering a mixing section and uses a LES procedure to calculate the mixing-dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. With this technique, closure for the RANS equations is obtained by using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The LES equations are closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. Although the function of the Cebeci-Smith model to replace all of the turbulent stresses is quite different from that of the Smagorinsky subgrid model, which only replaces the small subgrid turbulent stresses, both are eddy viscosity models and both are derived at least in part from mixing-length theory. The similar formulation of these two models enables the RANS

  19. A Lagrangian parcel based mixing plane method for calculating water based mixed phase particle flows in turbo-machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2015-05-01

    A method for calculating particle transport through turbo-machinery using the mixing plane analogy was developed and used to analyze the energy efficient engine . This method allows the prediction of temperature and phase change of water based particles along their path and the impingement efficiency and particle impact property data on various components in the engine. This methodology was incorporated into the LEWICE3D V3.5 software. The method was used to predict particle transport in the low pressure compressor of the . The was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbo-machinery flow solver. Computations were performed for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20 and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of . The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.18. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22.6 %).

  20. Studying the Impact of Academic Mobility on Intercultural Competence: A Mixed-Methods Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cots, Josep M.; Aguilar, Marta; Mas-Alcolea, Sònia; Llanes, Àngels

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of the impact of academic mobility on the development of students' intercultural competence (IC). Following Byram, IC is seen as comprising the three components of knowledge, behaviour and attitude. The study adopts a mixed-methods approach, analysing the results of a quantitative pre-stay post-stay survey…

  1. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study utilized the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, responses to open-ended questions, and in-depth interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities that were present among principals in Alberta, Canada. The first quantitative phase consisted of a random sample of 135 schools (with…

  2. Technology-Enhanced Multimedia Instruction in Foreign Language Classrooms: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketsman, Olha

    2012-01-01

    Technology-enhanced multimedia instruction in grades 6 through 12 foreign language classrooms was the focus of this study. The study's findings fill a gap in the literature through the report of how technology-enhanced multimedia instruction was successfully implemented in foreign language classrooms. Convergent parallel mixed methods study…

  3. Exploring and Testing the Predictors of New Faculty Success: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, R. H.; Weaver-Hightower, M. B.; Kartoshkina, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate and test the factors contributing to new faculty members' success. In the first phase, qualitative analysis of focus groups revealed four prominent themes affecting new faculty members: expectations, collegiality, balance, and location. In the second phase, new faculty members…

  4. The Promise of Mixed-Methods for Advancing Latino Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the “translation” of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions. PMID:23996325

  5. Promise for Enhancing Children's Reading Attitudes through Peer Reading: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngju

    2014-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) was implemented for supplementary reading classes in a Korean elementary school. The treatment group children were exposed to PALS during 20 min sessions, 4 times a week, for 8 weeks. The impacts of PALS were investigated in 3 aspects using a mixed-methods approach: improvement in reading attitudes, reading…

  6. Mixed Methods Research with Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the…

  7. Understanding Succession Planning and Management Efforts at Midwestern University: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mateso, Peter E. E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent triangulation mixed methods study was to understand the status of succession planning and management (SPM) efforts of the subject university as perceived by the fulltime academic and fulltime administrative staff. Four research questions guided this study: (1) how do fulltime academic staff and fulltime…

  8. Mindful Leaders in Highly Effective Schools: A Mixed-Method Application of Hoy's M-Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, W. Sean; Kelsey, Cheryl; Herrington, David

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study utilizing teacher ratings of principal mindfulness from 149 public schools in Texas and follow-up qualitative data analysis through semi-structured interviews conducted with the top 10 percent of princeipals identified as mindful. This research is based on the theoretical framework of mindfulness as…

  9. Educating Linguistically Diverse Students: A Mixed Methods Study of Elementary Teachers' Coursework, Attitudes, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Renée A.

    2016-01-01

    This study followed a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design. Phase I involved the collection of quantitative data to examine inservice teachers' (N = 69) attitudes about language and linguistic diversity as well as their teacher education coursework. All participants were graduates from the same teacher education program. Phase II included…

  10. A Mixed-Methods Assessment of Using an Online Commercial Tutoring System to Teach Introductory Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yonghong Jade; Meyer, Katrina A.; Morgan, Dianne D.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate a hybrid teaching format that incorporated an online tutoring system, ALEKS, to address students' learning needs in a graduate-level introductory statistics course. Student performance in the hybrid course with ALEKS was found to be no different from that in a course taught in a traditional…

  11. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  12. Engineers' Perceptions of Diversity and the Learning Environment at Work: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Brenda L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research study was to investigate engineers' perceptions of diversity and the workplace learning environment surrounding diversity education efforts in engineering occupations. The study made use of a mixed methods methodology and was theoretically framed using a critical feminist adult education lens and…

  13. A Typology of Mixed Methods Sampling Designs in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for developing sampling designs in mixed methods research. First, we present sampling schemes that have been associated with quantitative and qualitative research. Second, we discuss sample size considerations and provide sample size recommendations for each of the major research designs for quantitative and…

  14. Exploration of Undergraduate Preservice Teachers' Experiences Learning Advocacy: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massengale, Kelley; Childers-McKee, Cherese; Benavides, Aerin

    2014-01-01

    Applying transformational critical advocacy research in college instruction can be a powerful way to engage students in challenging inequity in society and promoting positive changes. Few studies systematically measure the impact of such pedagogy on the development of college students' beliefs about advocacy. In this mixed methods study, we…

  15. Exploring Dual Identification among Muslim-American Emerging Adults: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2008-01-01

    This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…

  16. Teacher Support and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Friedrich, Allison A.; White, Tiffany; Farmer, Jennie; Minch, Devon; Michalowski, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB) is associated with a variety of schooling experiences, particularly their perceptions of teacher support. This article presents results of a mixed-methods study conducted to identify which types of perceived social support enacted by teachers are most strongly associated with middle school students' SWB…

  17. Development of Academic Self-Efficacy in Women during College: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Savala

    2013-01-01

    Although women account for more than 50% of the college degrees awarded nationally, The College of Idaho has had a challenge retaining female students. There are any number of reasons for women's struggle to persist at the college, but one of the most basic may be a matter of self-efficacy. This mixed methods study used a combination of…

  18. Behavioral Changes Based on a Course in Agroecology: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Kristyn; King, James; Francis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated and described student perceptions of a course in agroecology to determine if participants experienced changed perceptions and behaviors resulting from the Agroecosystems Analysis course. A triangulation validating quantitative data mixed methods approach included a written survey comprised of both quantitative and open-ended…

  19. Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

  20. A Mixed-Method Exploration of Functioning in Safe Schools/Healthy Students Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Marina L.; Taylor, Nicole L.; Martin, Alison J.; Maxim, Lauren A.; D'Ambrosio, Ryan; Gabriel, Roy M.; Wendt, Staci J.; Mannix, Danyelle; Wells, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mixed-method approach to measuring the functioning of Safe Schools/Healthy Students (SS/HS) Initiative partnerships. The SS/HS national evaluation team developed a survey to collect partners' perceptions of functioning within SS/HS partnerships. Average partnership functioning scores were used to rank each site from lowest to…

  1. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three innovative…

  2. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  3. Curiosity and Pedagogy: A Mixed-Methods Study of Student Experiences in the Design Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity is often considered the foundation of learning. There is, however, little understanding of how (or if) pedagogy in higher education affects student curiosity, especially in the studio setting of architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. This study used mixed-methods to investigate curiosity among design students in the…

  4. How L2 Legal Writers Use Strategies for Scholarly Writing: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain Butler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation research fills existing gaps regarding the practices and processes of teaching second language (L2) writers at higher ranges of proficiency in law school context. It is a mixed methods, longitudinal, descriptive, writer-centered study. The research purpose was to explore strategic competence as a catalyst for professional…

  5. Perceptions of Organizational Culture of a Multi-Campus Community College District: Mixed Methods in Concert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuster Dale, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This concurrent, mixed-methods case study analyzed perceptions of current and preferred organizational culture within a rural, multi-campus community college district. This phenomenon was examined by analyzing and comparing data collected by surveying all full-time employees utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and…

  6. Beginning Secondary Science Teacher Induction: A Two-Year Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Julie A.; Firestone, Jonah B.; Wong, Sissy S.; Ortega, Ira; Adams, Krista; Bang, EunJin

    2011-01-01

    Those who study secondary science teachers are often concerned with preservice or in-service teacher development. Science teacher educators have acknowledged that this focus is limited, as the induction years of beginning teachers are an important component of teacher development. This mixed methods study focuses on the induction years of…

  7. Understanding the Impact of School Factors on School Counselor Burnout: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Schweinle, Amy; Duncan, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between burnout and performing noncounseling duties among a national sample of professional school counselors, while identifying school factors that could attenuate this relationship. Results of regression analyses indicate that performing noncounseling duties significantly predicted burnout…

  8. The Performance of a Method for the Long-Term Equating of Mixed-Format Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Akihito; Tate, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was the development of a procedure to predict the equating error associated with the long-term equating method of Tate (2003) for mixed-format tests. An expression for the determination of the error of an equating based on multiple links using the error for the component links was derived and illustrated with simulated data.…

  9. A Mixed-Methods Study Comparing the Perceived Spiritual Benefits of Topical and Extended Scripture Memorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to compare the perceived benefits of topical Scripture memorization (TSM) with the perceived benefits of extended Scripture memorization (ESM) to explore if one strategy fosters more perceived spiritual growth than the other. A baseline for the study is established by investigating the historical,…

  10. Originality Detection Software in a Graduate Policy Course: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreuth Zeman, Laura; Steen, Julie A.; Metz Zeman, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the use of Turnitin originality detection software in a graduate social work course. Qualitative analysis of student responses revealed positive and negative spent completing assignments, and the tone of the class. Quantitative analysis of students' originality scores indicated a short-term…

  11. Support, Belonging, Motivation, and Engagement in the College Classroom: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbrunn, Sharon; McKim, Courtney; Buhs, Eric; Hawley, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    This explanatory sequential mixed methods study examined how belonging perceptions, academic motivation, and engagement might mediate the relationship between academic contextual characteristics and achievement using structural equation modeling and qualitative follow-up interviews with college students from a large, Midwestern university. In the…

  12. Expanding the Family Economic Stress Model: Insights from a Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Lowe, Edward D.; Benner, Aprile D.; Chien, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The current study used a mixed-methods approach to examine how low-income mothers managed their household economies, their experiences of economic pressure, and the consequences for family and child functioning. Qualitative analyses (N = 32 families) revealed that experiences of economic pressure were associated with an inability to afford "both"…

  13. Intercultural Competence and Student Engagement of U.S. Community College Students: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Rebecca L.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Edmonson, Stacey L.

    2016-01-01

    In a culturally diverse society, United States community colleges are ideally positioned to develop intercultural competence in students. This mixed method study focused on the relationship between student engagement, as measured by the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) (2005), and intercultural competence, as assessed by the…

  14. Motivation Beliefs of Secondary School Teachers in Canada and Singapore: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison; Hannok, Wanwisa

    2008-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to explore secondary teachers' motivation beliefs in Canada and Singapore. Results from Study 1 revealed that socio-economic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of school climate in Canada, and that collective efficacy mediated the effect of SES on school climate in Singapore, but not in Canada. In Study 2,…

  15. Associations between Children's Physical Activities, Sedentary Behaviours and Family Structure: A Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…

  16. Mixed Methods Analysis of Multicultural Identity and Psychological Help Seeking Beliefs in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychological help-seeking beliefs and behaviors of college students has provided evidence for differences among students based on demographic factors, with different variables being salient for different cultural groups. This mixed methods study focuses on understanding how common psychological help-seeking variables, including…

  17. School Resource Officers for Bullying Interventions: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles-Pina, Rebecca A.; Denham, Magdalena A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of school police officers, School Resource Officers (SROs), is increasing on school campuses to assist in preventing school violence, and in particular bullying. This mixed-methods study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perceptions of SROs (N = 184) hired by independent school districts (ISD SROs) and those contracted from law…

  18. Social Influences on Fertility: A Comparative Mixed Methods Study in Eastern and Western Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura; Keim, Sylvia; von der Lippe, Holger

    2007-01-01

    This article uses a mixed methods design to investigate the effects of social influence on family formation in a sample of eastern and western German young adults at an early stage of their family formation. Theoretical propositions on the importance of informal interaction for fertility and family behavior are still rarely supported by systematic…

  19. Asian International Students' Willingness to Seek Counseling: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Peiwei; Wong, Y. Joel; Toth, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods survey design that was predominantly quantitative, this study explored Asian international students' willingness to seek counseling. Participants were 177 Asian international students recruited from a U.S. Midwestern University. After controlling for attitudes toward psychological help-seeking and past counseling experience,…

  20. Students' Attitudes toward Statistics across the Disciplines: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James D.; Adams, Lea T.; Gu, Lucy L.; Hart, Christian L.; Nichols-Whitehead, Penney

    2012-01-01

    Students' attitudes toward statistics were investigated using a mixed-methods approach including a discovery-oriented qualitative methodology among 684 undergraduate students across business, criminal justice, and psychology majors where at least one course in statistics was required. Students were asked about their attitudes toward statistics and…

  1. Monogamy on the Street: A Mixed Methods Study of Homeless Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan A.; Kennedy, David P.; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed methods approach to explore the determinants of relationship patterns and risky sex among homeless men living in downtown Los Angeles. This involved analysis of qualitative interviews focused on gender ideology and sexual events ("n" = 30) as well as structured interviews ("n" = 305) focused on…

  2. A Mixed Methods Explanatory Study of Intermediate School Collaboration and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods explanatory study addressed the problem of continuing disparity in achievement between students with special needs and their peers in the educational setting, despite mandates requiring schools to educate these students in the least restrictive environment. The purpose of this study was to determine the types and extent of…

  3. Mixed Methods Case Study of Generational Patterns in Responses to Shame and Guilt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Moral socialization and moral learning are antecedents of moral motivation. As many as 4 generations interact in workplace and education settings; hence, a deeper understanding of the moral motivation of members of those generations is needed. The purpose of this convergent mixed methods case study was to understand the moral motivation of 5…

  4. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  5. Broadening Horizons in a Shrinking World: A Mixed Method Study on Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda-Aldaco, Citlali

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a bilingual/bicultural technology intervention on beginning learners of Spanish at a public university in the United States and intermediate learners of English at a public university in Mexico. This study used a quasi-experimental mixed method design and compared gains in grammar, listening, and reading…

  6. Family Functioning in Families with a Child with Down Syndrome: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povee, K.; Roberts, L.; Bourke, J.; Leonard, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the factors that predict functioning in families with a child with Down syndrome using a mixed methods design. The quantitative component examined the effect of maladaptive and autism-spectrum behaviours on the functioning of the family while the qualitative component explored the impact of having a child…

  7. Why Did They Stay? A Mixed Methods Approach to Understand Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Hardil Kay

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes Pierre Bourdieu's concept of cultural and social capital as a theoretical framework to understand student persistence. The research design is a mixed-methods approach, using data collected through the "Social and Cultural Capital Questionnaire" and interviews with select survey participants. The sample includes…

  8. Relationship between Educational Resources and School Achievement: A Mixed Method Intra-District Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Castellanos, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educational resources (fiscal, personnel and facilities) and school achievement within a large urban/suburban elementary school district. A sequential mixed methods approach reveals inequitable resource allocation trends and patterns between schools within a school district by producing different…

  9. Understanding Perspectives of English Language Learning and Assessment Practices: A Mixed-Method Embedded Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Angela Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study contributed to the continuing dialogue of quality language programs and student outcomes for classroom language learning and assessments within the standardized testing era to language learning programs within Colombia. The particular purpose of this one-phase, embedded, mixed-method study examined students' and teachers' beliefs about…

  10. Using Mixed-Method Design and Network Analysis to Measure Development of Interagency Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jennifer Eileen; Dickmann, Ellyn; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Fagan, Jesse Michael

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing attention to the importance of interagency collaboration for improving community well-being, environmental and public health, and educational outcomes. This article uses a mixed-methods approach including network analysis to examine the changes in interagency collaboration in one site funded by the Safe…

  11. Mixed Methods Analysis and Information Visualization: Graphical Display for Effective Communication of Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Dickinson, Wendy B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce various graphical methods that can be used to represent data in mixed research. First, we present a broad taxonomy of visual representation. Next, we use this taxonomy to provide an overview of visual techniques for quantitative data display and qualitative data display. Then, we propose what we call "crossover" visual…

  12. The Health Role of Local Area Coordinators in Scotland: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael; Karatzias, Thanos; O'Leary, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The study set out to explore whether local area coordinators (LACs) and their managers view the health role of LACs as an essential component of their work and identify the health-related activities undertaken by LACs in Scotland. A mixed methods cross-sectional phenomenological study involving local authority service managers (n = 25) and LACs (n…

  13. Caregiver Grief in Terminal Illness and Bereavement: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, Deborah P.

    2007-01-01

    Caregivers experience multiple losses during the downhill trajectory of a loved one's terminal illness. Using mixed methods, this two-stage study explored caregiver grief during a terminal illness and after the care recipient's death. Caregiver grief was a state of heightened responsiveness during end-stage care: anxiety, hostility, depression,…

  14. A Mixed-Method Evaluation of a Strength-Based Bullying Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawana, Jennine S.; Norwood, Sarah Jane; Whitley, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the strength-based bullying prevention program, "Strengths in Motion," and to evaluate the program utilizing a mixed-method design. Participants included students in Grades 4 to 8 from an intervention (n = 50) and a comparison (n = 53) school in Northern Ontario. Measures of bullying, strengths, and classroom…

  15. Do Zoo Visitors Come to Learn? An Internationally Comparative, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Zoo visitors go to see animals, but are they there to learn? This mixed-methods study examines visitor learning from both zoos' and visitors' perspectives using qualitative and quantitative data. Five hundred and forty zoo visitor interviews from nine case studies provide insight into visitor intentions, which indicate that the majority of…

  16. A Mixed-Methods Analysis of Reading Intervention Effectiveness in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to determine if, when implemented at one two-year post-secondary institution, such K-12 reading comprehension strategies as concept mapping, think-aloud protocols, and Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) elicit change in COMPASS reading test scores of adult readers. Data was collected over four academic…

  17. Secondary Science Teachers' Beliefs and Persistence: A Longitudinal Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Sissy S.; Luft, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    While many studies focus on why teachers leave the classroom, there remains a need to study why teachers persist in teaching. One area to study is the beliefs of teachers, which may impact persistence in the field. This 5-year mixed-methods study explored whether 35 beginning secondary science teachers' beliefs were related to their persistence in…

  18. Creating Rich Portraits: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    A person-centered, mixed-methods approach (self-report surveys, semistructured interviews, school records) was used to characterize and evaluate profiles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 243 third- through eighth-grade students. Cluster analysis suggested four distinct profiles: high quantity (high intrinsic, high extrinsic), primarily…

  19. A Mixed-Method Study of Language-Learning Motivation and Intercultural Contact of International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata; Iwaniec, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The mixed-method study presented in this paper investigates the changes in direct and indirect intercultural contact and language-learning attitudes and effort of international students in the United Kingdom. Seventy international learners of English were asked to fill in a questionnaire three times during one academic year in an international…

  20. Education Student Research Paradigms and Emerging Scholar Identities: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Patrick D.; Croxton, Rebecca A.; Kirkman, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods approach, this study sought to understand a general sense of paradigm confidence and to see how this confidence relates to doctoral student identities as emerging scholars. Identity development was explored among 46 education doctoral students at a midsized public university in the Southeast. Researchers examined students'…

  1. Mixed Methods in Indigenous Research: Building Relationships for Sustainable Intervention Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilisa, Bagele; Tsheko, Gaelebale N.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities raise concerns that they are overresearched and tired of research always asking the same questions and reproducing the same answers, thus pressuring researchers to open the discourse on mixed methods research so as to enable new debates and approaches to emerge. A postcolonial indigenous paradigm provides a theoretical…

  2. What We Learned about Mentoring Research Assistants Employed in a Complex, Mixed-Methods Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Lori E.; Villeneuve, Michelle A.; Hutchinson, Susan; Roger, Kerstin; Versnel, Joan; Packer, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the experiences of research assistants in their dual role as both employees and trainees, when they were employed in a complex, mixed-methods, Canadian study on the everyday experience of living with and managing a chronic condition. A total of 13 research assistants participated in one or more components of this study: a survey (n…

  3. Learning and Study Strategies of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Erin; Hux, Karen; Zickefoose, Samantha; Simanek, Gina; Holmberg, Michelle; Henderson, Ambyr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions of four college students with severe traumatic brain injury and people associated with them regarding the use of learning skills and study strategies. The researchers employed a concurrent mixed method design using descriptive quantitative data as well as qualitative multiple case study…

  4. Scaffolding Argumentation about Water Quality: A Mixed-Method Study in a Rural Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belland, Brian R.; Gu, Jiangyue; Armbrust, Sara; Cook, Brant

    2015-01-01

    A common way for students to develop scientific argumentation abilities is through argumentation about socioscientific issues, defined as scientific problems with social, ethical, and moral aspects. Computer-based scaffolding can support students in this process. In this mixed method study, we examined the use and impact of computer based…

  5. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  6. Asian American College Students' Suicide Ideation: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Y. Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K.; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide…

  7. Good Practices for Student Learning: Mixed-Method Evidence from the Wabash National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Kathleen M.; Magolda, Marcia Baxter; Seifert, Tricia A.; King, Patricia M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, 19 institutions across the United States have been trying to figure out how to work smarter through their participation in the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education. Drawing on data from the first year of the study, the robust, mixed-methods study the authors report in this article evaluated growth in the first year of…

  8. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Martell; Canifield, James P.; Archuleta, Adrian J.; Crutchfield, Jandel; Chavis, Annie McCullough

    2012-01-01

    Understanding barriers to practice is a growing area within school social work research. Using a convenience sample of 284 school social workers, this study replicates the efforts of a mixed-method investigation designed to identify barriers and facilitators to school social work practice within different geographic locations. Time constraints and…

  9. Exploring Writing of English Language Learners in Middle School: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danzak, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    The study's purpose was to assess, through mixed methods, written linguistic features of 20 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) in middle school. Students came from Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic. Participants wrote two expository and two narrative formal texts, each in Spanish and English, for a total of eight…

  10. Toward a Better Understanding of Student Perceptions of Writing Feedback: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumbrunn, Sharon; Marrs, Sarah; Mewborn, Caitlin

    2016-01-01

    This explanatory sequential mixed methods study investigated the writing feedback perceptions of middle and high school students (N = 598). The predictive and mediational roles of writing self-efficacy and perceptions of writing feedback on student writing self-regulation aptitude were examined using mediation regression analysis. To augment the…

  11. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almalki, Sami

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…

  12. Validity Argument for Assessing L2 Pragmatics in Interaction Using Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youn, Soo Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of assessing L2 pragmatics in interaction using mixed methods, focusing on the evaluation inference. Open role-plays that are meaningful and relevant to the stakeholders in an English for Academic Purposes context were developed for classroom assessment. For meaningful score interpretations and accurate…

  13. Examination of a Dispositional System in a Teacher Education Program: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Prooyen, Traci L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods, case study research examined the teacher education program at Illinois State University (ISU-Normal, Illinois) as related to the views and assessment practices of the dispositions of its teacher candidates. Five years of quantitative and qualitative data from ISU's Disposition Concern form was collected and analyzed currently…

  14. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  15. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  16. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  17. Conditions That Facilitate Music Learning among Students with Special Needs: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrity, Kevin W.; Hourigan, Ryan M.; Horton, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify and define the conditions that facilitate learning in music among students with special needs. Children with special needs met once a week for 10 consecutive weeks and received instruction in primarily music as well as the other arts. The children completed pre- and posttest evaluations that…

  18. Being Outside Learning about Science Is Amazing: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibel, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to examine teachers' environmental attitudes and concerns about an outdoor educational field trip. Converging both quantitative data (Environmental Attitudes Scale and teacher demographics) and qualitative data (Open-Ended Statements of Concern and interviews) facilitated interpretation.…

  19. Meeting the Mixed Methods Challenge of Integration in a Sociological Study of Structure and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolley, Claire M.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial integration of quantitative and qualitative data and findings in mixed methods studies is seldom seen, although maximizing the potential of the approach depends on this. An absence of exemplars has been identified as among a number of factors that currently impede integration in studies carried out by researchers using the approach.…

  20. A Mixed-Methods Social Networks Study Design for Research on Transnational Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This paper advocates the adoption of a mixed-methods research design to describe and analyze ego-centered social networks in transnational family research. Drawing on the experience of the "Social Networks Influences on Family Formation" project (2004-2005; see Bernardi, Keim, & von der Lippe, 2007a, 2007b), I show how the combined use of network…

  1. Using Mixed Methods to Study First-Year College Impact on Liberal Arts Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Goodman, Kathleen; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2010-01-01

    This study details the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from a national multi-institutional longitudinal mixed methods study of college impact and student development of liberal arts outcomes. The authors found three sets of practices in the quantitative data that corroborated with the themes that emerged from the qualitative data:…

  2. Linking Faculty Development to Community College Student Achievement: A Mixed Methods Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Robert W.; Oliver, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed methods, multilevel research design, this pilot inquiry explored the relationship between college faculty professional development and the academic achievement of diverse students by coupling two separate links: (a) the effects that professional development activities have on improving teaching strategies, and (b) the effects these…

  3. Procrastination and Motivation of Undergraduates with Learning Disabilities: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Lynch, Shane L.; Rajani, Sukaina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods article was to report two studies exploring the relationships between academic procrastination and motivation in 208 undergraduates with (n = 101) and without (n = 107) learning disabilities (LD). In Study 1, the results from self-report surveys found that individuals with LD reported significantly higher levels…

  4. Rating Scale Impact on EFL Essay Marking: A Mixed-Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2007-01-01

    Educators often have to choose among different types of rating scales to assess second-language (L2) writing performance. There is little research, however, on how different rating scales affect rater performance. This study employed a mixed-method approach to investigate the effects of two different rating scales on EFL essay scores, rating…

  5. A Combined Social Action, Mixed Methods Approach to Vocational Guidance Efficacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a social action, mixed methods approach to verifying the efficacy of vocational guidance programs. Research strategies are discussed in the context of how the processes and purposes of efficacy research have been conceptualized and studied in vocational psychology. Examples of how to implement this approach in future efficacy…

  6. A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Instructional Coaching for Teachers of Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teemant, Annela

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study investigates the efficacy and sustainability of instructional coaching outcomes among urban elementary teachers (N = 36) using focus group and quantitative pre-, post-, and 1 year-after intervention data. Coached teachers participated in a 30-hr workshop and then seven cycles of coaching (15 hr) targeting use…

  7. A Mixed Method Study on Freshman Students' Writing Performance as Addressed by Postsecondary Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates that difficulty in general education classes significantly contributes to attrition among college freshmen. Accordingly, this mixed-method study sought to address the related problem of high school students' preparation for freshman composition or English classes. The purpose of the sequential explanatory study was to identify…

  8. Predicting High School Completion Using Student Performance in High School Algebra: A Mixed Methods Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiado, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    Too many of our nation's youth have failed to complete high school. Determining why so many of our nation's students fail to graduate is a complex, multi-faceted problem and beyond the scope of any one study. The study presented herein utilized a thirteen-step mixed methods model developed by Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2007) to demonstrate…

  9. An Exploration of a Collaborative Blogging Approach to Literacy and Learning: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawilinski, Lisa Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore young students' use of a blog to communicate and share information. A mixed methods study was conducted to explore blogging skill gains at each of grades one and five, between classrooms that engaged in a collaborative blog activity and classrooms that did not. In addition, a new assessment of online…

  10. A Mixed Methods Investigation of Maternal Perspectives on Transition Experiences in Early Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; Speirs, Katherine Elizabeth; Encinger, Amy Johnson; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Strong relationships among children, families, and early care and education (ECE) providers are key to quality infant-toddler care. These relationships are shaped during the initial transition period to group care. We used a mixed methods approach to (a) assess maternal perspectives on the transition to group care, (b) explore…

  11. A Mixed-Methods Study of Mid-Career Science Teachers: The Growth of Professional Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Amy Laphelia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent, mixed-methods study was to examine the professional empowerment qualities of mid-career (years 4-8), science teachers. I used the construct of professional empowerment as the theoretical frame to explore K-12 mid-career science teachers' career trajectories and consider how they can be supported professionally and…

  12. Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg) over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back) pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048). For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069) and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051) were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011) and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018) Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size and future research

  13. Numerical Evaluation of Fluid Mixing Phenomena in Boiling Water Reactor Using Advanced Interface Tracking Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takase, Kazuyuki

    Thermal-hydraulic design of the current boiling water reactor (BWR) is performed with the subchannel analysis codes which incorporated the correlations based on empirical results including actual-size tests. Then, for the Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) core, an actual size test of an embodiment of its design is required to confirm or modify such correlations. In this situation, development of a method that enables the thermal-hydraulic design of nuclear reactors without these actual size tests is desired, because these tests take a long time and entail great cost. For this reason, we developed an advanced thermal-hydraulic design method for FLWRs using innovative two-phase flow simulation technology. In this study, a detailed Two-Phase Flow simulation code using advanced Interface Tracking method: TPFIT is developed to calculate the detailed information of the two-phase flow. In this paper, firstly, we tried to verify the TPFIT code by comparing it with the existing 2-channel air-water mixing experimental results. Secondary, the TPFIT code was applied to simulation of steam-water two-phase flow in a model of two subchannels of a current BWRs and FLWRs rod bundle. The fluid mixing was observed at a gap between the subchannels. The existing two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing is evaluated using detailed numerical simulation data. This data indicates that pressure difference between fluid channels is responsible for the fluid mixing, and thus the effects of the time average pressure difference and fluctuations must be incorporated in the two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing. When inlet quality ratio of subchannels is relatively large, it is understood that evaluation precision of the existing two-phase flow correlations for fluid mixing are relatively low.

  14. Centrifugal contactor with liquid mixing and flow control vanes and method of mixing liquids of different phases

    DOEpatents

    Jubin, Robert T.; Randolph, John D.

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to a centrifugal contactor for solvent extraction systems. The centrifugal contactor is provided with an annular vertically oriented mixing chamber between the rotor housing and the rotor for mixing process liquids such as the aqueous and organic phases of the solvent extraction process used for nuclear fuel reprocessing. A set of stationary helically disposed vanes carried by the housing is in the lower region of the mixing chamber at a location below the process-liquid inlets for the purpose of urging the liquids in an upward direction toward the inlets and enhancing the mixing of the liquids and mass transfer between the liquids. The upper region of the mixing vessel above the inlets for the process liquids is also provided with a set helically disposed vanes carried by the housing for urging the process liquids in a downward direction when the liquid flow rates through the inlets are relatively high and the liquids contact the vane set in the upper region. The use of these opposing vane sets in the mixing zone maintains the liquid in the mixing zone at suitable levels.

  15. Alternate scenarios for population control in Pakistan: the issue of contraceptive method mix.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T; Ali, S M

    1992-01-01

    The authors review Pakistan's population program, with a focus on the ideal mix of contraceptive methods needed to slow population growth. "Our objective in this exercise is to estimate the extent of services required to achieve a certain level of the Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) necessary to bring fertility down to a level desired by women." Comparison is made between single- and multiple-method approaches.

  16. Close encounters of the infectious kind: methods to measure social mixing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    READ, J. M.; EDMUNDS, W. J.; RILEY, S.; LESSLER, J.; CUMMINGS, D. A. T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A central tenet of close-contact or respiratory infection epidemiology is that infection patterns within human populations are related to underlying patterns of social interaction. Until recently, few researchers had attempted to quantify potentially infectious encounters made between people. Now, however, several studies have quantified social mixing behaviour, using a variety of methods. Here, we review the methodologies employed, suggest other appropriate methods and technologies, and outline future research challenges for this rapidly advancing field of research. PMID:22687447

  17. Thermodynamic properties of mixed-spin chains in magnetic field by the transfer matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, H. H.; Yao, K. L.; Liu, Z. L.

    2006-10-01

    Motivated by recent experimental synthesis of molecule-based ferrimagnetics, we have investigated the thermodynamic properties of one-dimensional antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic mixed spin- {1}/{2} lozenge chain in external magnetic fields at low temperature, using the transfer matrix method. The magnetization and the specific heat of the spin system have been evaluated numerically from the free energy. The magnetization as a function of the magnetic field at low temperature shows step-like plateau characterized by three critical magnetic fields, which reflects the competing effect of magnetic interactions and thermal fluctuations. The double-peak structure in the curves of the specific heat is also found, which comes from the huge variation of the long-range order parameters. Our results show that the thermodynamic properties of the mixed spin- {1}/{2} molecule-based ferrimagnetics are very analogous to the behaviors of the spin-1 and spin- {1}/{2} mixed antiferromagentic chain.

  18. Redesigning the ‘choice architecture’ of hospital prescription charts: a mixed methods study incorporating in situ simulation testing

    PubMed Central

    King, Dominic; Jabbar, Ali; Charani, Esmita; Bicknell, Colin; Wu, Zhe; Miller, Gavin; Gilchrist, Mark; Vlaev, Ivo; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Darzi, Ara

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To incorporate behavioural insights into the user-centred design of an inpatient prescription chart (Imperial Drug Chart Evaluation and Adoption Study, IDEAS chart) and to determine whether changes in the content and design of prescription charts could influence prescribing behaviour and reduce prescribing errors. Design A mixed-methods approach was taken in the development phase of the project; in situ simulation was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the newly developed IDEAS prescription chart. Setting A London teaching hospital. Interventions/methods A multimodal approach comprising (1) an exploratory phase consisting of chart reviews, focus groups and user insight gathering (2) the iterative design of the IDEAS prescription chart and finally (3) testing of final chart with prescribers using in situ simulation. Results Substantial variation was seen between existing inpatient prescription charts used across 15 different UK hospitals. Review of 40 completed prescription charts from one hospital demonstrated a number of frequent prescribing errors including illegibility, and difficulty in identifying prescribers. Insights from focus groups and direct observations were translated into the design of IDEAS chart. In situ simulation testing revealed significant improvements in prescribing on the IDEAS chart compared with the prescription chart currently in use in the study hospital. Medication orders on the IDEAS chart were significantly more likely to include correct dose entries (164/164 vs 166/174; p=0.0046) as well as prescriber's printed name (163/164 vs 0/174; p<0.0001) and contact number (137/164 vs 55/174; p<0.0001). Antiinfective indication (28/28 vs 17/29; p<0.0001) and duration (26/28 vs 15/29; p<0.0001) were more likely to be completed using the IDEAS chart. Conclusions In a simulated context, the IDEAS prescription chart significantly reduced a number of common prescribing errors including dosing errors and illegibility. Positive

  19. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18–25 year olds: A mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET) were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results Only 28% of 18–25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of ‘winning’ and ‘pleasing others’. Further this age group saw

  20. Adding Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research to Health Intervention Studies: Interacting With Differences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R Burke; Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how to improve intervention designs, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in health science research using a process philosophy and theory known as dialectical pluralism (DP). DP views reality as plural and uses dialectical, dialogical, and hermeneutical approaches to knowledge construction. Using DP and its "both/and" logic, and its attempt to produce new creative syntheses, researchers on heterogeneous teams can better dialogue with qualitative and mixed methods approaches, concepts, paradigms, methodologies, and methods to improve their intervention research studies. The concept of reflexivity is utilized but is expanded when it is a component of DP. Examples of strategies for identifying, inviting, and creating divergence and integrative strategies for producing strong mixed methods intervention studies are provided and illustrated using real-life examples.

  1. Visual analysis as a method of interpretation of the results of satellite ionospheric measurements for exploratory problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneva, N. N.; Mogilevskii, M. M.; Nazarov, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    Traditional methods of time series analysis of satellite ionospheric measurements have some limitations and disadvantages that are mainly associated with the complex nonstationary signal structure. In this paper, the possibility of identifying and studying the temporal characteristics of signals via visual analysis is considered. The proposed approach is illustrated by the example of the visual analysis of wave measurements on the DEMETER microsatellite during its passage over the HAARP facility.

  2. Beginning secondary science teachers' classroom roles and instructional methods: An exploratory study of conflicts within practical theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rearden, Kristin Theresa

    There are a myriad of factors which influence a teacher' s classroom behaviors. Taken together, these factors are referred to as a teacher's practical theory. Some of the elements of practical theories are perceptions regarding classroom role, impressions of student abilities, reflection on experiences, and content knowledge. First-year teachers, or beginning teachers, are faced with many new challenges as they embark on their endeavor to facilitate the learning of their students. The congruence of the elements within their practical theories of teaching can provide the foundation for consistency within their classroom practices. The researcher investigated two aspects of the practical theories of beginning secondary science teachers. The first aspect was teachers' perceptions of their roles in the classroom The second aspect was teachers' intended instructional methods. Interview data from 27 beginning secondary science teachers who earned their teacher certification from one of three institutions were used for the study. The interviews were analyzed for information regarding the aforementioned aspects. An interview theme analysis (Hewson, Kerby, & Cook, 1995) was completed for each teacher. The characterization of each teacher's role was based on three categories outlined by Fenstermacher and Soltis (1986): Executive, Therapist, and Liberationist. In describing their classroom role, most of the teachers alluded to an Executive-type approach to teaching, in which their concerns regarding conveyance of content, processes or skills were paramount. In many cases, they mentioned the use of more than one instructional method; topics and variability in student learning styles accounted for the implementation of multiple methods. Methods usually included activities or hands-on experiences. Some teachers mentioned a certain "feel" of the classroom that was necessary for student learning. More than two-thirds of the teachers either expressed conflicts in their interview or

  3. Analysis of genetic population structure in Acacia caven (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comparing one exploratory and two Bayesian-model-based methods

    PubMed Central

    Pometti, Carolina L.; Bessega, Cecilia F.; Saidman, Beatriz O.; Vilardi, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian clustering as implemented in STRUCTURE or GENELAND software is widely used to form genetic groups of populations or individuals. On the other hand, in order to satisfy the need for less computer-intensive approaches, multivariate analyses are specifically devoted to extracting information from large datasets. In this paper, we report the use of a dataset of AFLP markers belonging to 15 sampling sites of Acacia caven for studying the genetic structure and comparing the consistency of three methods: STRUCTURE, GENELAND and DAPC. Of these methods, DAPC was the fastest one and showed accuracy in inferring the K number of populations (K = 12 using the find.clusters option and K = 15 with a priori information of populations). GENELAND in turn, provides information on the area of membership probabilities for individuals or populations in the space, when coordinates are specified (K = 12). STRUCTURE also inferred the number of K populations and the membership probabilities of individuals based on ancestry, presenting the result K = 11 without prior information of populations and K = 15 using the LOCPRIOR option. Finally, in this work all three methods showed high consistency in estimating the population structure, inferring similar numbers of populations and the membership probabilities of individuals to each group, with a high correlation between each other. PMID:24688293

  4. An economic and financial exploratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  5. Sexual Pleasure and Sexual Risk among Women who Use Methamphetamine: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorvick, Jennifer; Bourgois, Philippe; Wenger, Lynn D.; Arreola, Sonya G.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The intersection of drug use, sexual pleasure and sexual risk behavior is rarely explored when it comes to poor women who use drugs. This paper explores the relationship between sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in a community-based sample of women, exploring not only risk, but also desire, pleasure and the challenges of overcoming trauma. Methods Quantitative data were collected using standard epidemiological methods (N=322) for community-based studies. In addition, using purposive sampling, qualitative data were collected among a subset of participants (n=34). Data were integrated for mixed methods analysis. Results While many participants reported sexual risk behavior (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse) in the quantitative survey, sexual risk was not the central narrative pertaining to sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in qualitative findings. Rather, desire, pleasure and disinhibition arose as central themes. Women described feelings of power and agency related to sexual behavior while high on methamphetamine. Findings were mixed on whether methamphetamine use increased sexual risk behavior. Conclusion The use of mixed methods afforded important insights into the sexual behavior and priorities of methamphetamine-using women. Efforts to reduce sexual risk should recognize and valorize the positive aspects of methamphetamine use for some women, building on positive feelings of power and agency as an approach to harm minimization. PMID:22954501

  6. Approaching Etuaptmumk – introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research

    PubMed Central

    Chatwood, Susan; Paulette, Francois; Baker, Ross; Eriksen, Astrid; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Eriksen, Heidi; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Lavoie, Josée; Lou, Wendy; Mauro, Ian; Orbinski, James; Pabrum, Nathalie; Retallack, Hanna; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2015-01-01

    With the recognized need for health systems’ improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods’ frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required. PMID:26004427

  7. Exploratory Analysis of Methods for Automated Classification of Laboratory Test Orders into Syndromic Groups in Veterinary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Muckle, C. Anne; Kelton, David; McClure, JT.; McEwen, Beverly J.; McNab, W. Bruce; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes–syndromic surveillance–using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. Methods This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees) and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995) was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F1-macro), due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight). A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F1-micro = 0.994 and F1-macro = .955), however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. Conclusion The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish automated methods to

  8. The evolution of rotating stars. I - Method and exploratory calculations for a 7-solar-mass star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.; Sofia, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method is developed which allows the evolution of rotating stars to be studied well beyond the main-sequence stage. Four different cases of redistribution of angular momentum in an evolving star are considered. Evolutionary sequences for a 7-solar-mass star, rotating according to these different cases, were computed from the zero-age main-sequence to the double-shell-source stage. Each sequence was begun with a (typical) equatorial rotational velocity of 210 km/s. On the main sequence, the effects of rotation are of minor importance. However, as the core contracts during later stages, important effects arise in all physically plausible cases. The outer regions of the cores approach critical velocities and develop unstable angular-velocity distributions. The effects of these instabilities should significantly alter the subsequent evolution.

  9. An exploratory method to detect tephras from quantitative XRD scans: Examples from Iceland and east Greenland marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Eberl, D.D.; Kristjansdottir, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Tephras, mainly from Iceland, are becoming increasingly important in interpreting leads and lags in the Holocene climate system across NW Europe. Here we demonstrate that Quantitative Phase Analysis of x-ray diffractograms of the 150 um fraction and identify these same peaks in XRD scans - two of these correlate geochemically and chronologically with Hekla 1104 and 3. At a distal site to the WNW of Iceland, on the East Greenland margin (core MD99-2317), the weight% of volcanic glass reaches values of 11% at about the time of the Saksunarvatn tephra. The XRD method identifies the presence of volcanic glass but not its elemental composition; hence it will assist in focusing attention on specific sections of sediment cores for subsequent geochemical fingerprinting of tephras. ?? 2006 SAGE Publications.

  10. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  11. A Simplified Direct Lipid Mixing Lipoplex Preparation: Comparison of Liposomal-, Dimethylsulfoxide-, and Ethanol-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Joseph W.; Gokel, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Established transfection methodology often uses commercial reagents, which must be formed into liposomes in a sequence of about half a dozen steps. The simplified method reported here is a direct lipid mixing approach that requires fewer steps, less manipulation, and is less time-consuming. Results are comparable to those obtained with more commonly used methods, as judged by a variety of analytical techniques and by comparisons of transfection results. The method reported here may be applied to non-liposome-forming compounds, thereby greatly expanding the range of structures that can be tested for transfection ability. PMID:27323668

  12. A Simplified Direct Lipid Mixing Lipoplex Preparation: Comparison of Liposomal-, Dimethylsulfoxide-, and Ethanol-Based Methods.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Joseph W; Gokel, George W

    2016-01-01

    Established transfection methodology often uses commercial reagents, which must be formed into liposomes in a sequence of about half a dozen steps. The simplified method reported here is a direct lipid mixing approach that requires fewer steps, less manipulation, and is less time-consuming. Results are comparable to those obtained with more commonly used methods, as judged by a variety of analytical techniques and by comparisons of transfection results. The method reported here may be applied to non-liposome-forming compounds, thereby greatly expanding the range of structures that can be tested for transfection ability. PMID:27323668

  13. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  14. Bluebelle study (phase A): a mixed-methods feasibility study to inform an RCT of surgical wound dressing strategies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dressing primary surgical wounds is common, but the implications for surgical site infection (SSI) remain unknown. The Bluebelle study aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing ‘simple’, ‘complex’ or ‘no’ dressings on abdominal wounds, as prespecified in a funder's research brief. Bluebelle includes exploratory work (phase A) to inform a pilot version of the proposed RCT (phase B). Phase A aimed to investigate current dressing practices and perspectives on the proposed RCT, with a view to refining the forthcoming pilot. Design Mixed methods, including semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Setting 6 UK hospitals. Participants 51 patients and 92 clinical professionals from abdominal surgical specialities. Results Professionals had variable interpretations of what constitutes a ‘dressing’, particularly with respect to ‘glue’—a product listed under ‘wound-closure products’ in the British National Formulary, which some surgeons reportedly applied as a ‘wound covering’. Areas of ambiguity arising from interviews informed development of pragmatic definitions, including specification of conditions under which glue constituted a ‘dressing’. Professionals reported that ‘simple’ dressings were routinely used in practice, whereas ‘complex’ dressings were not. This raised questions about the relevance of comparison groups, prompting the design of a survey to determine the types/frequency of dressing use in abdominal surgery (reported elsewhere). This confirmed that complex dressings were rarely used, while ‘glue as a dressing’ was used relatively frequently. ‘Complex dressings’ were therefore substituted for ‘glue as a dressing’ (following an updated Cochrane review, which found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of ‘glue as a dressing’). Patients and professionals acknowledged uncertainty around dressing use and SSI prevention, but felt

  15. Mixed methods immigrant mental health research in Canada: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Islam, Farah; Oremus, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Canada is home to a growing immigrant population. However, immigrant mental health declines over time following arrival in Canada. Canada's Mental Health Strategy emphasizes the importance of research that gathers information from multiple sources of knowledge to identify the mental health challenges faced by diverse immigrant populations. Mixed methods research (MMR) is well suited for this task. However, a dearth of research exists on the application of MMR to the study of immigrant mental health. A systematic review of the published MMR literature in Canadian immigrant mental health was carried out. Overall, existing MMR studies failed to incorporate correct mixed methods terminology and fully integrate the quantitative and qualitative components of the research. A checklist of important elements to include in MMR studies is offered.

  16. Mixed Methods Research With Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    PubMed Central

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the subjective, objective, and social worlds of participants through life history interviews and surveys. We also describe the unique Colombian context, conscious efforts to establish egalitarian relationships among research team members, and efforts to disseminate and reflect on findings. Through discussion of our research process and results, we aim to demonstrate how mixed methods research can be utilized to facilitate noncoercive discourse and contribute to social change. PMID:24926225

  17. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    DOEpatents

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  18. Mixed Methods Research With Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen.

    PubMed

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the subjective, objective, and social worlds of participants through life history interviews and surveys. We also describe the unique Colombian context, conscious efforts to establish egalitarian relationships among research team members, and efforts to disseminate and reflect on findings. Through discussion of our research process and results, we aim to demonstrate how mixed methods research can be utilized to facilitate noncoercive discourse and contribute to social change.

  19. Technical Efficiency and Organ Transplant Performance: A Mixed-Method Approach

    PubMed Central

    de-Pablos-Heredero, Carmen; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Medina-Merodio, Jose-Amelio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is interesting to understand complex processes. Organ transplants are complex processes in need of improved final performance in times of budgetary restrictions. As the main objective a mixed method approach is used in this article to quantify the technical efficiency and the excellence achieved in organ transplant systems and to prove the influence of organizational structures and internal processes in the observed technical efficiency. The results show that it is possible to implement mechanisms for the measurement of the different components by making use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The analysis show a positive relationship between the levels related to the Baldrige indicators and the observed technical efficiency in the donation and transplant units of the 11 analyzed hospitals. Therefore it is possible to conclude that high levels in the Baldrige indexes are a necessary condition to reach an increased level of the service offered. PMID:25950653

  20. Method of analysis for compressible flow through mixed-flow centrifugal impellers of arbitrary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrick, Joseph T; Ginsburg, Ambrose; Osborn, Walter M

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented for analysis of the compressible flow between the hub and the shroud of mixed-flow impellers of arbitrary design. Axial symmetry was assumed, but the forces in the meridional (hub to shroud) plane, which are derived from tangential pressure gradients, were taken into account. The method was applied to an experimental mixed-flow impeller. The analysis of the flow in the meridional plane of the impeller showed that the rotational forces, the blade curvature, and the hub-shroud profile can introduce severe velocity gradients along the hub and the shroud surfaces. Choked flow at the impeller inlet as determined by the analysis was verified by experimental results.

  1. A mixed methods approach for measuring the impact of delivery-centric interventions on clinician workflow.

    PubMed

    Cady, Rhonda G; Finkelstein, Stanley M

    2012-01-01

    Health interventions vary widely. Pharmaceuticals, medical devices and wellness promotion are defined as 'outcome-centric.' They are implemented by clinicians for the use and benefit of consumers, and intervention effectiveness is measured by a change in health outcome. Electronic health records, computerized physician order entry systems and telehealth technologies are defined as 'delivery-centric.' They are implemented by organizations for use by clinicians to manage and facilitate consumer health, and the impact of these interventions on clinician workflow has become increasingly important. The methodological framework introduced in this paper uses a two-phase sequential mixed methods design that qualitatively explores clinician workflow before and after implementation of a delivery-centric intervention, and uses this information to quantitatively measure changes to workflow activities. The mixed methods protocol provides a standardized approach for understanding and determining the impact of delivery-centric interventions on clinician workflow. PMID:23304393

  2. A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Noelle R; Gwadz, Marya V; Ritchie, Amanda; Linick, Jessica L; Cleland, Charles M; Elliott, Luther; Grethel, Michele

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness that students' experiences of stress may impede academic success, compromise mental health, and promote substance use. We examined these factors in an under-studied population, private/independent high school students, using a multi-method (qualitative and quantitative), iterative data collection and analytic process. We first conducted qualitative interviews with faculty and staff at a number of highly competitive private schools, followed by an anonymous quantitative survey with 128 11th grade students from two of these settings. We then conducted a qualitative exploration of the quantitative results with a subset of students. Next, a set of Expert Panel members participated in qualitative interviews to reflect on and interpret study findings. Overall, we found students experienced high levels of chronic stress, particularly in relation to academic performance and the college admissions process. While students described a range of effective, adaptive coping strategies, they also commonly internalized these serious pressures and turned to alcohol and drugs to cope with chronic stress, although not typically at problematic levels. We discuss study implications for both schools and families derived from the Expert Panel.

  3. A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Ritchie, Amanda; Linick, Jessica L.; Cleland, Charles M.; Elliott, Luther; Grethel, Michele

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness that students’ experiences of stress may impede academic success, compromise mental health, and promote substance use. We examined these factors in an under-studied population, private/independent high school students, using a multi-method (qualitative and quantitative), iterative data collection and analytic process. We first conducted qualitative interviews with faculty and staff at a number of highly competitive private schools, followed by an anonymous quantitative survey with 128 11th grade students from two of these settings. We then conducted a qualitative exploration of the quantitative results with a subset of students. Next, a set of Expert Panel members participated in qualitative interviews to reflect on and interpret study findings. Overall, we found students experienced high levels of chronic stress, particularly in relation to academic performance and the college admissions process. While students described a range of effective, adaptive coping strategies, they also commonly internalized these serious pressures and turned to alcohol and drugs to cope with chronic stress, although not typically at problematic levels. We discuss study implications for both schools and families derived from the Expert Panel. PMID:26257685

  4. Does mode mixing matter in EMD-based highlight volume methods for hydrocarbon detection? Experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ya-juan; Cao, Jun-xing; Du, Hao-kun; Zhang, Gu-lan; Yao, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based spectral decomposition methods have been successfully used for hydrocarbon detection. However, mode mixing that occurs during the sifting process of EMD causes the 'true' intrinsic mode function (IMF) to be extracted incorrectly and blurs the physical meaning of the IMF. We address the issue of how the mode mixing influences the EMD-based methods for hydrocarbon detection by introducing mode-mixing elimination methods, specifically ensemble EMD (EEMD) and complete ensemble EMD (CEEMD)-based highlight volumes, as feasible tools that can identify the peak amplitude above average volume and the peak frequency volume. Three schemes, that is, using all IMFs, selected IMFs or weighted IMFs, are employed in the EMD-, EEMD- and CEEMD-based highlight volume methods. When these methods were applied to seismic data from a tight sandstone gas field in Central Sichuan, China, the results demonstrated that the amplitude anomaly in the peak amplitude above average volume captured by EMD, EEMD and CEEMD combined with Hilbert transforms, whether using all IMFs, selected IMFs or weighted IMFs, are almost identical to each other. However, clear distinctions can be found in the peak frequency volume when comparing results generated using all IMFs, selected IMFs, or weighted IMFs. If all IMFs are used, the influence of mode mixing on the peak frequency volume is not readily discernable. However, using selected IMFs or a weighted IMFs' scheme affects the peak frequency in relation to the reservoir thickness in the EMD-based method. Significant improvement in the peak frequency volume can be achieved in EEMD-based highlight volumes using selected IMFs. However, if the weighted IMFs' scheme is adopted (i.e., if the undesired IMFs are included with reduced weights rather than excluded from the analysis entirely), the CEEMD-based peak frequency volume provides a more accurate reservoir thickness estimate compared with the other two methods. This

  5. Comparisons of Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.

    Historically, most researchers conducting factor analysis have used exploratory methods. However, more recently, confirmatory factor analytic methods have been developed that can directly test theory either during factor rotation using "best fit" rotation methods or during factor extraction, as with the LISREL computer programs developed by K. G.…

  6. Catalyst support of mixed cerium zirconium titanium oxide, including use and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Willigan, Rhonda R.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry; Tulyani, Sonia; Radhakrishnan, Rakesh; Opalka, Susanne Marie; Emerson, Sean C.

    2011-01-18

    A durable catalyst support/catalyst is capable of extended water gas shift operation under conditions of high temperature, pressure, and sulfur levels. The support is a homogeneous, nanocrystalline, mixed metal oxide of at least three metals, the first being cerium, the second being Zr, and/or Hf, and the third importantly being Ti, the three metals comprising at least 80% of the metal constituents of the mixed metal oxide and the Ti being present in a range of 5% to 45% by metals-only atomic percent of the mixed metal oxide. The mixed metal oxide has an average crystallite size less than 6 nm and forms a skeletal structure with pores whose diameters are in the range of 4-9 nm and normally greater than the average crystallite size. The surface area of the skeletal structure per volume of the material of the structure is greater than about 240 m.sup.2/cm.sup.3. The method of making and use are also described.

  7. Mixing a grounded theory approach with a randomized controlled trial related to intimate partner violence: what challenges arise for mixed methods research?

    PubMed

    Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M; Ciliska, Donna; Macmillan, Harriet L

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how to systematically integrate complex qualitative studies within the context of randomized controlled trials. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study was conducted in Canada to understand how women decide to disclose intimate partner violence in emergency department settings. Mixing a RCT (with a subanalysis of data) with a grounded theory approach required methodological modifications to maintain the overall rigour of this mixed methods study. Modifications were made to the following areas of the grounded theory approach to support the overall integrity of the mixed methods study design: recruitment of participants, maximum variation and negative case sampling, data collection, and analysis methods. Recommendations for future studies include: (1) planning at the outset to incorporate a qualitative approach with a RCT and to determine logical points during the RCT to integrate the qualitative component and (2) consideration for the time needed to carry out a RCT and a grounded theory approach, especially to support recruitment, data collection, and analysis. Data mixing strategies should be considered during early stages of the study, so that appropriate measures can be developed and used in the RCT to support initial coding structures and data analysis needs of the grounded theory phase.

  8. A fluorescence-based method for direct measurement of submicrosecond intramolecular contact formation in biopolymers: an exploratory study with polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Hudgins, Robert R; Huang, Fang; Gramlich, Gabriela; Nau, Werner M

    2002-01-30

    A fluorescent amino acid derivative (Fmoc-DBO) has been synthesized, which contains 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) as a small, hydrophilic fluorophore with an extremely long fluorescence lifetime (325 ns in H2O and 505 ns in D2O under air). Polypeptides containing both the DBO residue and an efficient fluorescence quencher allow the measurement of rate constants for intramolecular end-to-end contact formation. Bimolecular quenching experiments indicated that Trp, Cys, Met, and Tyr are efficient quenchers of DBO (k(q) = 20, 5.1, 4.5, and 3.6 x 10(8) M(-1) x s(-1) in D2O), while the other amino acids are inefficient. The quenching by Trp, which was selected as an intrinsic quencher, is presumed to involve exciplex-induced deactivation. Flexible, structureless polypeptides, Trp-(Gly-Ser)n-DBO-NH2, were prepared by standard solid-phase synthesis, and the rates of contact formation were measured through the intramolecular fluorescence quenching of DBO by Trp with time-correlated single-photon counting, laser flash photolysis, and steady-state fluorometry. Rate constants of 4.1, 6.8, 4.9, 3.1, 2.0, and 1.1 x 10(7) s(-1) for n = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 were obtained. Noteworthy was the relatively slow quenching for the shortest peptide (n = 0). The kinetic data are in agreement with recent transient absorption studies of triplet probes for related peptides, but the rate constants are significantly larger. In contrast to the flexible structureless Gly-Ser polypeptides, the polyproline Trp-Pro4-DBO-NH2 showed insignificant fluorescence quenching, suggesting that a high polypeptide flexibility and the possibility of probe-quencher contact is essential to induce quenching. Advantages of the new fluorescence-based method for measuring contact formation rates in biopolymers include high accuracy, fast time range (100 ps-1 micros), and the possibility to perform measurements in water under air.

  9. Mixed-RKDG Finite Element Methods for the 2-D Hydrodynamic Model for Semiconductor Device Simulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chen, Zhangxin; Cockburn, Bernardo; Jerome, Joseph W.; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new method for numerically solving the equations of the hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices in two space dimensions. The method combines a standard mixed finite element method, used to obtain directly an approximation to the electric field, with the so-called Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method, originally devised for numerically solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, which is applied here to the convective part of the equations. Numerical simulations showing the performance of the new method are displayed, and the results compared with those obtained by using Essentially Nonoscillatory (ENO) finite difference schemes. Frommore » the perspective of device modeling, these methods are robust, since they are capable of encompassing broad parameter ranges, including those for which shock formation is possible. The simulations presented here are for Gallium Arsenide at room temperature, but we have tested them much more generally with considerable success.« less

  10. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review Focused on Data Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…

  11. Trends in the contraceptive method mix in low- and middle-income countries: analysis using a new "average deviation" measure.

    PubMed

    Ross, John; Keesbury, Jill; Hardee, Karen

    2015-02-25

    The method mix of contraceptive use is severely unbalanced in many countries, with over half of all use provided by just 1 or 2 methods. That tends to limit the range of user options and constrains the total prevalence of use, leading to unplanned pregnancies and births or abortions. Previous analyses of method mix distortions focused on countries where a single method accounted for more than half of all use (the 50% rule). We introduce a new measure that uses the average deviation (AD) of method shares around their own mean and apply that to a secondary analysis of method mix data for 8 contraceptive methods from 666 national surveys in 123 countries. A high AD value indicates a skewed method mix while a low AD value indicates a more uniform pattern across methods; the values can range from 0 to 21.9. Most AD values ranged from 6 to 19, with an interquartile range of 8.6 to 12.2. Using the AD measure, we identified 15 countries where the method mix has evolved from a distorted one to a better balanced one, with AD values declining, on average, by 35% over time. Countries show disparate paths in method gains and losses toward a balanced mix, but 4 patterns are suggested: (1) rise of one method partially offset by changes in other methods, (2) replacement of traditional with modern methods, (3) continued but declining domination by a single method, and (4) declines in dominant methods with increases in other methods toward a balanced mix. Regions differ markedly in their method mix profiles and preferences, raising the question of whether programmatic resources are best devoted to better provision of the well-accepted methods or to deploying neglected or new ones, or to a combination of both approaches.

  12. The influence of mixing methods and disinfectant on the physical properties of alginate impression materials.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Karoline; Kellens, Annelies; Wevers, Martine; Thilakarathne, Pushpike J; Willems, Guy

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this in vitro study were to quantify the effect of manual versus automatic mixing and of using a disinfectant on mechanical properties of three different alginate impression materials. Two of the three alginates tested were especially developed for orthodontic use: Orthotrace® and Orthofine® while the third was a conventional alginate CA37FS®. Alginates were mixed by hand or automatically using a Cavex alginate mixer II®. Mixing was performed at room temperature using tap water. The material was allowed to set in a water bath at 35°C (±1°C), simulating intra-oral setting conditions, and half of the samples were disinfected before testing. For each tested material, 10 standardized samples were used. The disinfectant used was the CavexImpreSafe® that has a bactericide, virucide, and fungicide function. The specimens were exposed for 3 minutes in a 3% solution and were then tested according to the ISO 1563: 1990 (E) standard specifications. Descriptive statistics and three-way analysis of variance were performed, and a 5% significance level was used for statistical analysis. Evaluation of tensile strength and elastic recovery of different alginate samples, hand versus automatical mixing or disinfected versus not disinfected, resulted in significant differences for all materials except for Orthofine®. Considering detail reproduction, all three alginates evaluated reproduced the 50-μm line successfully without interruption. The mixing method can significantly affect the elastic recovery and tensile strength of the alginates tested while the effect of using a disinfectant is less explicit.

  13. Prediction of free turbulent mixing using a turbulent kinetic energy method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harsha, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    Free turbulent mixing of two-dimensional and axisymmetric one- and two-stream flows is analyzed by a relatively simple turbulent kinetic energy method. This method incorporates a linear relationship between the turbulent shear and the turbulent kinetic energy and an algebraic relationship for the length scale appearing in the turbulent kinetic energy equation. Good results are obtained for a wide variety of flows. The technique is shown to be especially applicable to flows with heat and mass transfer, for which nonunity Prandtl and Schmidt numbers may be assumed.

  14. Determination of Al in cake mix: Method validation and estimation of measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, G.; Rocha, O.; Junqueira, R.

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the determination of Al in cake mix was developed. Acceptable values were obtained for the following parameters: linearity, detection limit - LOD (5.00 mg-kg-1) quantification limit - LOQ (12.5 mg-kg-1), the recovery assays values (between 91 and 102%), the relative standard deviation under repeatability and within-reproducibility conditions (<20.0%) and measurement uncertainty tests (<10.0%) The results of the validation process showed that the proposed method is fitness for purpose.

  15. High order Godunov mixed methods on tetrahedral meshes for density driven flow simulations in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzia, Annamaria; Putti, Mario

    2005-09-01

    Two-dimensional Godunov mixed methods have been shown to be effective for the numerical solution of density-dependent flow and transport problems in groundwater even when concentration gradients are high and the process is dominated by density effects. This class of discretization approaches solves the flow equation by means of the mixed finite element method, thus guaranteeing mass conserving velocity fields, and discretizes the transport equation by mixed finite element and finite volumes techniques combined together via appropriate time splitting. In this paper, we extend this approach to three dimensions employing tetrahedral meshes and introduce a spatially variable time stepping procedure that improves computational efficiency while preserving accuracy by adapting the time step size according to the local Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) constraint. Careful attention is devoted to the choice of a truly three-dimensional limiter for the advection equation in the time-splitting technique, so that to preserve second order accuracy in space (in the sense that linear functions are exactly interpolated). The three-dimensional Elder problem and the saltpool problem, recently introduced as a new benchmark for testing three-dimensional density models, provide assessments with respect to accuracy and reliability of this numerical approach.

  16. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work.

  17. The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-05-01

    Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux andmore » scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.« less

  18. Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods Science Ethics Course and its Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Dcosta, Malcolm; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    We present a graduate science ethics course that connects cases from the historical record to present realities and practices in the areas of social responsibility, authorship, and human/animal experimentation. This content is delivered with mixed methods, including films, debates, blogging, and practicum; even the instructional team is mixed, including a historian of science and a research scientist. What really unites all of the course's components is the experiential aspect: from acting in historical debates to participating in the current scientific enterprise. The course aims to change the students' culture into one deeply devoted to the science ethics cause. To measure the sought after cultural change, we developed and validated a relevant questionnaire. Results of this questionnaire from students who took the course, demonstrate that the course had the intended effect on them. Furthermore, results of this questionnaire from controls indicate the need for cultural change in that cohort. All these quantitative results are reinforced by qualitative outcomes.

  19. Dramatic activity of mixed-phase TiO2 photocatalyst synthesized by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiquan; Xu, Bolian; Fan, Yining

    2013-02-01

    The mixed-phase TiO2 photocatalysts with different anatase/rutile/brookite ratios and high specific surface area (157-218 m2/g) were prepared by hydrothermal method at 100 °C and the effect of rutile content in TiO2 on the BET surface area, light absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers was studied and correlated to the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. Rutile content increased from 0% to 100% by increasing the amount of TiCl4 in aqueous phase and the initial pH value of reaction solution played an important role in the phase composition of TiO2. The photocatalytic mechanism of mixed-phase TiO2 was discussed.

  20. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T.T.; Keller, J.O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant. 10 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for the control of fluid dynamic mixing in pulse combustors

    DOEpatents

    Bramlette, T. Tazwell; Keller, Jay O.

    1992-06-02

    In a method and apparatus for controlling total ignition delay time in a pulse combustor, and thus controlling the mixing characteristics of the combustion reactants and the combustion products in the combustor, the total ignition delay time is controlled by adjusting the inlet geometry of the inlet to the combustion chamber. The inlet geometry may be fixed or variable for controlling the mixing characteristics. A feedback loop may be employed to sense actual combustion characteristics, and, in response to the sensed combustion characteristics, the inlet geometry may be varied to obtain the total ignition delay time necessary to achieve the desired combustion characteristics. Various embodiments relate to the varying of the mass flow rate of reactants while holding the radius/velocity ratio constant.

  2. Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods Science Ethics Course and its Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Dcosta, Malcolm; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    We present a graduate science ethics course that connects cases from the historical record to present realities and practices in the areas of social responsibility, authorship, and human/animal experimentation. This content is delivered with mixed methods, including films, debates, blogging, and practicum; even the instructional team is mixed, including a historian of science and a research scientist. What really unites all of the course's components is the experiential aspect: from acting in historical debates to participating in the current scientific enterprise. The course aims to change the students' culture into one deeply devoted to the science ethics cause. To measure the sought after cultural change, we developed and validated a relevant questionnaire. Results of this questionnaire from students who took the course, demonstrate that the course had the intended effect on them. Furthermore, results of this questionnaire from controls indicate the need for cultural change in that cohort. All these quantitative results are reinforced by qualitative outcomes. PMID:25688028

  3. Understanding and improving health education among first-time parents of infants with sickle cell anemia in Alabama: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D; Grosse, Scott D; Altice, Jessica L; Thierry, JoAnn M; Ivankova, Nataliya V

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in access to medical information, parents can acquire health information from multiple sources. An understanding of parents' reactions to a newborn infant's diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and how they acquire knowledge can identify parent beliefs and preferences about the process of sickle cell education. This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First, qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 parents of infants with sickle cell anemia to understand the process of health education. Second, quantitative surveys were conducted with 22 other parents to test qualitative findings. Parents of infants with sickle cell anemia expressed a high level of fear at the time of notification of a positive screen. Parents desired an understanding of how to identify acute complications of disease and how sickle cell will alter their child's life. Parents actively sought information at the time they were told their child had sickle cell disease. Sickle cell education should begin at time of notification of positive newborn screening results and address identified parent concerns. Health care providers should build trust with parents and provide them with immediate access to educational materials. Hematologists should work with primary care providers to develop complementary educational programs and resources.

  4. Understanding and improving health education among first-time parents of infants with sickle cell anemia in Alabama: a mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Lebensburger, Jeffrey D; Grosse, Scott D; Altice, Jessica L; Thierry, JoAnn M; Ivankova, Nataliya V

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in access to medical information, parents can acquire health information from multiple sources. An understanding of parents' reactions to a newborn infant's diagnosis of sickle cell anemia and how they acquire knowledge can identify parent beliefs and preferences about the process of sickle cell education. This study utilized a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. First, qualitative interviews were conducted with 8 parents of infants with sickle cell anemia to understand the process of health education. Second, quantitative surveys were conducted with 22 other parents to test qualitative findings. Parents of infants with sickle cell anemia expressed a high level of fear at the time of notification of a positive screen. Parents desired an understanding of how to identify acute complications of disease and how sickle cell will alter their child's life. Parents actively sought information at the time they were told their child had sickle cell disease. Sickle cell education should begin at time of notification of positive newborn screening results and address identified parent concerns. Health care providers should build trust with parents and provide them with immediate access to educational materials. Hematologists should work with primary care providers to develop complementary educational programs and resources. PMID:25072367

  5. City mouse, country mouse: a mixed-methods evaluation of perceived communication barriers between rural family physicians and urban consultants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Pollard, Megan; Morrison, Megan; Coombs-Thorne, Heidi; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine perceived communication barriers between urban consultants and rural family physicians practising routine and emergency care in remote subarctic Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Design This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through exploratory surveys, comprised of closed and open-ended questions. The quantitative data was analysed using comparative statistical analyses, and a thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. Participants 52 self-identified rural family physicians and 23 urban consultants were recruited via email. Rural participants were also recruited at the Family Medicine Rural Preceptor meetings in St John's, NL. Setting Rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL completed a survey assessing perceived barriers to effective communication. Results Data confirmed that both groups perceived communication difficulties with one another; with 23.1% rural and 27.8% urban, rating the difficulties as frequent (p=0.935); 71.2% rural and 72.2% urban as sometimes (p=0.825); 5.8% rural and 0% urban acknowledged never perceiving difficulties (p=0.714). Overall, 87.1% of participants indicated that perceived communication difficulties impacted patient care. Primary trends that emerged as perceived barriers for rural physicians were time constraints and misunderstanding of site limitations. Urban consultants' perceived barriers were inadequate patient information and lack of native language skills. Conclusions Barriers to effective communication are perceived between rural family physicians and urban consultants in NL. PMID:27154475

  6. The Unintended Consequences of Computerized Provider Order Entry: Findings From a Mixed Methods Exploration*

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Sittig, Dean F.; Dykstra, Richard; Campbell, Emily; Guappone, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the foci, activities, methods, and results of a four-year research project identifying the unintended consequences of computerized provider order entry (CPOE). Methods Using a mixed methods approach, we identified and categorized into nine types 380 examples of the unintended consequences of CPOE gleaned from fieldwork data and a conference of experts. We then conducted a national survey in the U.S.A. to discover how hospitals with varying levels of infusion, a measure of CPOE sophistication, recognize and deal with unintended consequences. The research team, with assistance from experts, identified strategies for managing the nine types of unintended adverse consequences and developed and disseminated tools for CPOE implementers to help in addressing these consequences. Results Hospitals reported that levels of infusion are quite high and that these types of unintended consequences are common. Strategies for avoiding or managing the unintended consequences are similar to best practices for CPOE success published in the literature. Conclusion Development of a taxonomy of types of unintended adverse consequences of CPOE using qualitative methods allowed us to craft a national survey and discover how widespread these consequences are. Using mixed methods, we were able to structure an approach for addressing the skillful management of unintended consequences as well. PMID:18786852

  7. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  8. Key Words and the Analysis of Exploratory Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrlitz-Biró, Linda; Elbers, Ed; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2013-01-01

    The count of key words indicating the quality of reasoning has been used as a method to observe exploratory talk. However, reasoning in talk does not necessarily contain key words. The analysis of key words leaves unattended other aspects of exploratory talk, such as collaborative processes. The question is: to what extent can the analysis of key…

  9. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial solutions, a…

  10. Detection of plant viruses in mixed infection by a macroarray-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hanako; Furuta, Kazuyoshi; Masuta, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    The protocol for a simple, sensitive, and specific method using a cDNA macroarray to detect multiple viruses is provided. The method can be used even at the production sites for crops, which need a reliable routine diagnosis for mixed infection of plant viruses. The method consists of three steps: RNA extraction, duplex RT-PCR, and "microtube hybridization" (MTH). Biotinylated cDNA probes are prepared using RT-PCR and used to hybridize a nylon membrane containing target viral cDNAs by MTH. Positive signals can be visualized by colorimetric reaction and judged by eyes. We here demonstrate this method to detect asparagus viruses (Asparagus virus 1 and Asparagus virus 2) from latently infected asparagus plants. PMID:25287491

  11. Mixed Methods for the Interpretation of Longitudinal Gerontologic Data: Insights From Philosophical Hermeneutics

    PubMed Central

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Fried, Terri R.; Gill, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    This article’s main objective is to demonstrate that data analysis, including quantitative data analysis, is a process of interpretation involving basic hermeneutic principles that philosophers have identified in the interpretive process as applied to other, mainly literary, creations. Such principles include a version of the hermeneutic circle, an insistence on interpretive presuppositions, and a resistance to reducing the discovery of truth to the application of inductive methods. The importance of interpretation becomes especially evident when qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single clinical research project and when the data being analyzed are longitudinal. Study objectives will be accomplished by showing that three major hermeneutic principles make practical methodological contributions to an insightful, illustrative mixed methods analysis of a qualitative study of changes in functional disability over time embedded in the Precipitating Events Project—a major longitudinal, quantitative study of functional disability among older persons. Mixed methods, especially as shaped by hermeneutic insights such as the importance of empathetic understanding, are potentially valuable resources for scientific investigations of the experience of aging: a practical aim of this article is to articulate and demonstrate this contention. PMID:22582035

  12. Mixed-norm estimates for the M/EEG inverse problem using accelerated gradient methods

    PubMed Central

    Gramfort, Alexandre; Kowalski, Matthieu; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2012-01-01

    Magneto- and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the electromagnetic fields produced by the neural electrical currents. Given a conductor model for the head, and the distribution of source currents in the brain, Maxwell’s equations allow one to compute the ensuing M/EEG signals. Given the actual M/EEG measurements and the solution of this forward problem, one can localize, in space and in time, the brain regions than have produced the recorded data. However, due to the physics of the problem, the limited number of sensors compared to the number of possible source locations, and measurement noise, this inverse problem is ill-posed. Consequently, additional constraints are needed. Classical inverse solvers, often called Minimum Norm Estimates (MNE), promote source estimates with a small ℓ2 norm. Here, we consider a more general class of priors based on mixed-norms. Such norms have the ability to structure the prior in order to incorporate some additional assumptions about the sources. We refer to such solvers as Mixed-Norm Estimates (MxNE). In the context of M/EEG, MxNE can promote spatially focal sources with smooth temporal estimates with a two-level ℓ1/ℓ2 mixed-norm, while a three-level mixed-norm can be used to promote spatially non-overlapping sources between different experimental conditions. In order to efficiently solve the optimization problems of MxNE, we introduce fast first-order iterative schemes that for the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm give solutions in a few seconds making such a prior as convenient as the simple MNE. Furhermore, thanks to the convexity of the optimization problem, we can provide optimality conditions that guarantee global convergence. The utility of the methods is demonstrated both with simulations and experimental MEG data. PMID:22421459

  13. Mixed-norm estimates for the M/EEG inverse problem using accelerated gradient methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramfort, Alexandre; Kowalski, Matthieu; Hämäläinen, Matti

    2012-04-01

    Magneto- and electroencephalography (M/EEG) measure the electromagnetic fields produced by the neural electrical currents. Given a conductor model for the head, and the distribution of source currents in the brain, Maxwell's equations allow one to compute the ensuing M/EEG signals. Given the actual M/EEG measurements and the solution of this forward problem, one can localize, in space and in time, the brain regions that have produced the recorded data. However, due to the physics of the problem, the limited number of sensors compared to the number of possible source locations, and measurement noise, this inverse problem is ill-posed. Consequently, additional constraints are needed. Classical inverse solvers, often called minimum norm estimates (MNE), promote source estimates with a small ℓ2 norm. Here, we consider a more general class of priors based on mixed norms. Such norms have the ability to structure the prior in order to incorporate some additional assumptions about the sources. We refer to such solvers as mixed-norm estimates (MxNE). In the context of M/EEG, MxNE can promote spatially focal sources with smooth temporal estimates with a two-level ℓ1/ℓ2 mixed-norm, while a three-level mixed-norm can be used to promote spatially non-overlapping sources between different experimental conditions. In order to efficiently solve the optimization problems of MxNE, we introduce fast first-order iterative schemes that for the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm give solutions in a few seconds making such a prior as convenient as the simple MNE. Furthermore, thanks to the convexity of the optimization problem, we can provide optimality conditions that guarantee global convergence. The utility of the methods is demonstrated both with simulations and experimental MEG data.

  14. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthen, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a frequently used multivariate analysis technique in statistics. Jennrich and Sampson (1966) solved a significant EFA factor loading matrix rotation problem by deriving the direct Quartimin rotation. Jennrich was also the first to develop standard errors for rotated solutions, although these have still not made…

  15. Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Frederick W.

    This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…

  16. Exploratory Business Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for Arkansas ninth-grade students to explore business careers through the use of competency-based instructional materials. Exploratory business teachers are asked to incorporate the twenty-three units of study into a sequence best suited to their teaching style. Units include such topics as "Social Security,""What…

  17. Enhancing Science Education Instruction: A Mixed-Methods Study on University and Middle School Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen-Stone, Deborah S.

    The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study was to examine the collaborative relationship between scientists and science teachers and to incorporate and advocate scientific literacy based on past and current educational theories such as inquiry based teaching. The scope of this study included archived student standardized test scores, semi-structured interviews, and a Likert scale survey to include open-ended comments. The methodology was based on the guiding research question: To what extent and in what ways does the collaboration and inquiry methodology, with GTF and PT teams, serve toward contributing to a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of this predicting relationship between student PASS scores, inquiry skills, and increased scientific literacy for GTF's, PT's, and students via an integrative mixed methods analysis? The data analysis considerations were derived from the qualitative data collected from the three GTF/PT teams by the use of recorded interviews and text answered survey comments. The quantitative data of archived student Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) scores on scientific literacy and inquiry tests and the Likert-scale portion of the survey were support data to the aforementioned qualitative data findings. Limitations of the study were (1) the population of only the GK-12 teachers and their students versus the inclusion of participants that did not experience the GK-12 Fellow partnerships within their classrooms, should they be considered as participants, (2) involved the researcher as a participant for two years of the program and objectivity remained through interpretation and well documented personal reflections and experiences to inform accuracy, and (3) cultural diversity contributed to the relationship formed between the research Fellow and science educator and communication and scientific language did form a barrier between the Fellow, educator, and student rapport within the classroom. This study

  18. Provider payment methods and health worker motivation in community-based health insurance: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Robyn, Paul Jacob; Bärnighausen, Till; Souares, Aurélia; Traoré, Adama; Bicaba, Brice; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    In a community-based health insurance (CBHI) introduced in 2004 in Nouna health district, Burkina Faso, poor perceived quality of care by CBHI enrollees has been a key factor in observed high drop-out rates. The poor quality perceptions have been previously attributed to health worker dissatisfaction with the provider payment method used by the scheme and the resulting financial risk of health centers. This study applied a mixed-methods approach to investigate how health workers working in facilities contracted by the CBHI view the methods of provider payment used by the CBHI. In order to analyze these relationships, we conducted 23 in-depth interviews and a quantitative survey with 98 health workers working in the CBHI intervention zone. The qualitative in-depth interviews identified that insufficient levels of capitation payments, the infrequent schedule of capitation payment, and lack of a payment mechanism for reimbursing service fees were perceived as significant sources of health worker dissatisfaction and loss of work-related motivation. Combining qualitative interview and quantitative survey data in a mixed-methods analysis, this study identified that the declining quality of care due to the CBHI provider payment method was a source of significant professional stress and role strain for health workers. Health workers felt that the following five changes due to the provider payment methods introduced by the CBHI impeded their ability to fulfill professional roles and responsibilities: (i) increased financial volatility of health facilities, (ii) dissatisfaction with eligible costs to be covered by capitation; (iii) increased pharmacy stock-outs; (iv) limited financial and material support from the CBHI; and (v) the lack of mechanisms to increase provider motivation to support the CBHI. To address these challenges and improve CBHI uptake and health outcomes in the targeted populations, the health care financing and delivery model in the study zone should be

  19. Applying a Mixed-Methods Evaluation to Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Kemner, Allison L.; Brennan, Laura K.

    2016-01-01

    From 2008 to 2014, the Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC) national program funded 49 communities across the United States and Puerto Rico to implement healthy eating and active living policy, system, and environmental changes to support healthier communities for children and families, with special emphasis on reaching children at highest risk for obesity on the basis of race, ethnicity, income, or geographic location. Evaluators designed a mixed-methods evaluation to capture the complexity of the HKHC projects, understand implementation, and document perceived and actual impacts of these efforts. PMID:25828217

  20. A numerical method for systems of conservation laws of mixed type admitting hyperbolic flux splitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Chi-Wang

    1992-01-01

    The present treatment of elliptic regions via hyperbolic flux-splitting and high order methods proposes a flux splitting in which the corresponding Jacobians have real and positive/negative eigenvalues. While resembling the flux splitting used in hyperbolic systems, the present generalization of such splitting to elliptic regions allows the handling of mixed-type systems in a unified and heuristically stable fashion. The van der Waals fluid-dynamics equation is used. Convergence with good resolution to weak solutions for various Riemann problems are observed.

  1. Primary health care experiences of hispanics with serious mental illness: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Gomes, Arminda P; Meyreles, Quisqueya; Capitelli, Lucia; Younge, Richard; Dragatsi, Dianna; Alvarez, Juana; Nicasio, Andel; Druss, Benjamin; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-11-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the primary health care experiences of Hispanic patients with serious mental illness. Forty patients were recruited from an outpatient mental health clinic. Participants reported a combination of perceived discrimination and stigmatization when receiving medical care. They rated the quality of chronic illness care as poor and reported low levels of self-efficacy and patient activation. These indicators were positively associated with how patients viewed their relationships with primary care providers. A grounded model was developed to describe the structural, social, and interpersonal processes that shaped participants' primary care experiences.

  2. Domain decomposition for a mixed finite element method in three dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cai, Z.; Parashkevov, R.R.; Russell, T.F.; Wilson, J.D.; Ye, X.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the solution of the discrete linear system resulting from a mixed finite element discretization applied to a second-order elliptic boundary value problem in three dimensions. Based on a decomposition of the velocity space, these equations can be reduced to a discrete elliptic problem by eliminating the pressure through the use of substructures of the domain. The practicality of the reduction relies on a local basis, presented here, for the divergence-free subspace of the velocity space. We consider additive and multiplicative domain decomposition methods for solving the reduced elliptic problem, and their uniform convergence is established.

  3. Primary Health Care Experiences of Hispanics with Serious Mental Illness: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Gomes, Arminda P.; Meyreles, Quisqueya; Capitelli, Lucia; Younge, Richard; Dragatsi, Dianna; Alvarez, Juana; Nicasio, Andel; Druss, Benjamin; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examines the primary health care experiences of Hispanic patients with serious mental illness. Forty patients were recruited from an outpatient mental health clinic. Participants reported a combination of perceived discrimination and stigmatization when receiving medical care. They rated the quality of chronic illness care as poor and reported low levels of self-efficacy and patient activation. These indicators were positively associated with how patients viewed their relationships with primary care providers. A grounded model was developed to describe the structural, social, and interpersonal processes that shaped participants’ primary care experiences. PMID:24162079

  4. Eclecticism as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences.

    PubMed

    Kroos, Karmo

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the value of "eclecticism" as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences. On the basis of the analysis of the historical background of the concept, it is first suggested that eclecticism-based theoretical scholarship in social sciences could benefit from the more systematic research method that has been developed for synthesizing theoretical works under the name metatheorizing. Second, it is suggested that the mixed methods community could base its research approach on philosophical eclecticism instead of pragmatism because the basic idea of eclecticism is much more in sync with the nature of the combined research tradition. Finally, the Kuhnian frame is used to support the argument for interdisciplinary research and, hence, eclecticism in social sciences (rather than making an argument against multiple paradigms). More particularly, it is suggested that integrating the different (inter)disciplinary traditions and schools into one is not necessarily desirable at all in social sciences because of the complexity and openness of the research field. If it is nevertheless attempted, experience in economics suggests that paradigmatic unification comes at a high price. PMID:22076693

  5. A continuous-flow capillary mixing method to monitor reactions on the microsecond time scale.

    PubMed

    Shastry, M C; Luck, S D; Roder, H

    1998-05-01

    A continuous-flow capillary mixing apparatus, based on the original design of Regenfuss et al. (Regenfuss, P., R. M. Clegg, M. J. Fulwyler, F. J. Barrantes, and T. M. Jovin. 1985. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56:283-290), has been developed with significant advances in mixer design, detection method and data analysis. To overcome the problems associated with the free-flowing jet used for observation in the original design (instability, optical artifacts due to scattering, poor definition of the geometry), the solution emerging from the capillary is injected directly into a flow-cell joined to the tip of the outer capillary via a ground-glass joint. The reaction kinetics are followed by measuring fluorescence versus distance downstream from the mixer, using an Hg(Xe) arc lamp for excitation and a digital camera with a UV-sensitized CCD detector for detection. Test reactions involving fluorescent dyes indicate that mixing is completed within 15 micros of its initiation and that the dead time of the measurement is 45 +/- 5 micros, which represents a >30-fold improvement in time resolution over conventional stopped-flow instruments. The high sensitivity and linearity of the CCD camera have been instrumental in obtaining artifact-free kinetic data over the time window from approximately 45 micros to a few milliseconds with signal-to-noise levels comparable to those of conventional methods. The scope of the method is discussed and illustrated with an example of a protein folding reaction.

  6. Mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models

    SciTech Connect

    Corcelli, S.A.; Kress, J.D.; Pratt, L.R.

    1995-08-07

    This paper develops and characterizes mixed direct-iterative methods for boundary integral formulations of continuum dielectric solvation models. We give an example, the Ca{sup ++}{hor_ellipsis}Cl{sup {minus}} pair potential of mean force in aqueous solution, for which a direct solution at thermal accuracy is difficult and, thus for which mixed direct-iterative methods seem necessary to obtain the required high resolution. For the simplest such formulations, Gauss-Seidel iteration diverges in rare cases. This difficulty is analyzed by obtaining the eigenvalues and the spectral radius of the non-symmetric iteration matrix. This establishes that those divergences are due to inaccuracies of the asymptotic approximations used in evaluation of the matrix elements corresponding to accidental close encounters of boundary elements on different atomic spheres. The spectral radii are then greater than one for those diverging cases. This problem is cured by checking for boundary element pairs closer than the typical spatial extent of the boundary elements and for those cases performing an ``in-line`` Monte Carlo integration to evaluate the required matrix elements. These difficulties are not expected and have not been observed for the thoroughly coarsened equations obtained when only a direct solution is sought. Finally, we give an example application of hybrid quantum-classical methods to deprotonation of orthosilicic acid in water.

  7. Preparation of mixed metal thin films by a PVD method using several kinds of powder targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Makiko; Plasma process; application Team

    2015-09-01

    Bismuth iron garnet (Bi3Fe5O12) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were prepared by a physical vapor deposition method using mixed metal powder targets. The X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggest that crystalline thin films can be prepared using powder targets with quality similar to that of the films prepared using bulk targets. Bi3Fe5O12 films prepared using the pulsed laser deposition method were Bi rich, which may be due to the lower melting temperature of Bi (544 K) compared with that of Fe (1811 K). The mean transparency and resistivity of the AZO films prepared by the sputtering method were approximately 79%-84% and 0.5 - 1.4 ohm/cm, respectively.

  8. Study on Compressibility Control of Hyperelastic Material for Homogenization Method Using Mixed Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Jun-Ichi; Hisada, Toshiaki

    It is well known that the compressibility or incompressibility of biological tissue stems from its microscopic structure, which is generally composed of material with varied compressibility, including incompressibility. This paper proposes a framework for a homogenization method in which the compressibility/incompressibility of the macrostructure properly reflects that of the microstructure. The formulation is based on the mixed variational principle with a perturbed Lagrange-multiplier. It is shown that the rate of volumetric change of the macrostructure can be controlled through the homogenization procedure by introducing the constraint on the microstructure only. A couple of numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. By comparing the numerical results with theoretical solutions, the method is also confirmed to be free from locking.

  9. A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations by a mixed finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredif, M.

    1981-09-01

    The numerical treatment of steady state, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the incompressible case is studied. The approximation method retained is the mixed finite element method, as regards stream function and vortex function. The improvements to this formulation are: possibility of choice of boundary conditions of various types; introduction of a finite element formulation of the stagnation pressure calculation; definition of a corrected formulation with a view to studying laminar flows in the case of large Reynolds numbers. The chosen formulation is discussed theoretically, encompassing the aspects mentioned. A solution algorithm is presented, based on a general conjugate gradient method; numerical results are presented for various cases of viscous, incompressible, laminar flows: (1) in a square cavity; (2) around a circular cylinder: and (3) around a NACA 0018 profile at zero angle of attack for Reynolds numbers up to 5000.

  10. A solution of the Navier-Stokes equations by a mixed finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredif, M.

    The numerical treatment of steady state, two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the incompressible case is studied. The approximation method retained is the "mixed" finite element method, as regards stream function and vortex function. The improvements to this formulation are: possibility of choice of boundary conditions of various types; introduction of a finite element formulation of the stagnation pressure calculation; definition of a corrected formulation with a view to studying laminar flows in the case of large Reynolds numbers. The chosen formulation is discussed theoretically, encompassing the aspects mentioned. A solution algorithm is presented, based on a general conjugate gradient method; numerical results are presented for various cases of viscous, incompressible, laminar flows: (1) in a square cavity; (2) around a circular cylinder; and (3) around a NACA 0018 profile at zero angle of attack for Reynolds numbers up to 5000.

  11. Effects of planting method and seed mix richness on the early stages of tallgrass prairie restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, D.L.; Bright, J.B.; Drobney, P.; Larson, J.L.; Palaia, N.; Rabie, P.A.; Vacek, S.; Wells, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tallgrass prairie restoration has been practiced for more than 75. years, yet few studies have systematically tested restoration methods over large geographic regions with the intent of refining methodology. In this study, we used three planting methods (dormant-season broadcast, growing-season broadcast and growing-season drill) fully crossed with three levels of seed species richness (10, 20, and 34 spp). We replicated the study on nine former agricultural fields located from east-central Iowa (Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge) to northwestern Minnesota (Litchfield, Fergus Falls and Morris Wetland Management Districts), USA, within the northern tallgrass prairie biome. Objectives were to evaluate the relative influences of planting method, seed mix richness, and their interactions, on (1) planted cover (both total and by guild) and richness, (2) exotic species cover, and (3) non-planted native species cover. Optimal techniques varied between the two study areas: the dormant broadcast method produced greater cover of planted species at the Minnesota sites and the growing-season drill method produced greater cover of planted species at Iowa sites. The dormant broadcast method strongly favored establishment of perennial forbs while the growing-season drill favored warm-season grasses. Although increasing richness of the seed mix produced greater planted species richness, this did not result in greater resistance to exotic invasion. We conclude that, if planting during the growing season, drilling seed is preferable to broadcasting, but if the choice is between broadcasting seed in the dormant or growing season, the dormant season is preferred. ?? 2011.

  12. Dynamic reflexivity in action: an armchair walkthrough of a qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods study of mindfulness training in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Julianne; Lipschitz, David L; Abrams, Elizabeth M; Vago, David R; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2015-06-01

    Dynamic reflexivity is central to enabling flexible and emergent qualitatively driven inductive mixed-method and multiple methods research designs. Yet too often, such reflexivity, and how it is used at various points of a study, is absent when we write our research reports. Instead, reports of mixed-method and multiple methods research focus on what was done rather than how it came to be done. This article seeks to redress this absence of emphasis on the reflexive thinking underpinning the way that mixed- and multiple methods, qualitatively driven research approaches are thought about and subsequently used throughout a project. Using Morse's notion of an armchair walkthrough, we excavate and explore the layers of decisions we made about how, and why, to use qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods research in a study of mindfulness training (MT) in schoolchildren.

  13. Characterization of mixed waste for sorting and inspection using non-intrusive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, G.P.; Ryon, R.W.; Bull, N.L.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of mixed wastes (that is, radioactive and otherwise hazardous) requires that all hazardous, non-conforming, and radioactive materials be identified, localized, and quantified. With such information, decisions can be made regarding whether the item is treatable or has been adequately treated. Much of the required information can be gained without taking representative samples and analyzing them in a chemistry laboratory. Non-intrusive methods can be used to provide this information on-line at the waste treatment facility. Ideally, the characterization would be done robotically, and either automatically or semi-automatically in order to improve efficiency and safety. For the FY94 Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) project, a treatable waste item is defined as a homogeneous metal object that has external radioactive or heavy metal hazardous contamination. Surface treatment of some kind would therefore be the treatment method to be investigated. The authors developed sorting and inspection requirements, and assessed viable non-intrusive techniques to meet these requirements. They selected radiography, computed tomography and X-ray fluorescence. They have characterized selected mock waste items, and determined minimum detectable amounts of materials. They have demonstrated the efficiency possible by integrating radiographic with tomographic data. Here, they developed a technique to only use radiographic data where the material is homogeneous (fast), and then switching to tomography in those areas where heterogeneity is detected (slower). They also developed a tomographic technique to quantify the volume of each component of a mixed material. This is useful for such things as determining ash content. Lastly, they have developed a document in MOSAIC, an Internet multi-media browser. This document is used to demonstrate the ability to share data and information world-wide.

  14. [School blogs about sexuality: an exploratory documentary study].

    PubMed

    Valli, Gabriela Petró; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to analyze the structure of school blogs on sexuality and their utilization by adolescents. This quantitative, exploratory and documentary study was performed with 11 blogs designed by students and available online in March of 2012. The information was submitted to hypertext analysis and descriptive statistics, taking research ethics norms into consideration. Group and education blogs developed in Portuguese and Brazilian schools were most often signed by their authors and suffered few updates. The written posts mixed scientific and informal languages, besides presenting videos and images. Every blog included information regarding the number of followers, visits, comments and a contact to answer questions. The highlighted discussed topics were birth control methods and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Blogs are a resource for health education that should promote active discussions and rely on the participation of health care professionals. PMID:24344582

  15. [School blogs about sexuality: an exploratory documentary study].

    PubMed

    Valli, Gabriela Petró; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen

    2013-09-01

    The objective was to analyze the structure of school blogs on sexuality and their utilization by adolescents. This quantitative, exploratory and documentary study was performed with 11 blogs designed by students and available online in March of 2012. The information was submitted to hypertext analysis and descriptive statistics, taking research ethics norms into consideration. Group and education blogs developed in Portuguese and Brazilian schools were most often signed by their authors and suffered few updates. The written posts mixed scientific and informal languages, besides presenting videos and images. Every blog included information regarding the number of followers, visits, comments and a contact to answer questions. The highlighted discussed topics were birth control methods and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Blogs are a resource for health education that should promote active discussions and rely on the participation of health care professionals.

  16. The evaluation of student-centredness of teaching and learning: a new mixed-methods approach

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Ana R.; Sandars, John E.; Alves, Palmira

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to develop and consider the usefulness of a new mixed-methods approach to evaluate the student-centredness of teaching and learning on undergraduate medical courses. An essential paradigm for the evaluation was the coherence between how teachers conceptualise their practice (espoused theories) and their actual practice (theories-in-use). Methods The context was a module within an integrated basic sciences course in an undergraduate medical degree programme. The programme had an explicit intention of providing a student-centred curriculum. A content analysis framework based on Weimer’s dimensions of student-centred teaching was used to analyze data collected from individual interviews with seven teachers to identify espoused theories and 34h of classroom observations and one student focus group to identify theories-in-use. The interviewees were identified by purposeful sampling. The findings from the three methods were triangulated to evaluate the student-centredness of teaching and learning on the course. Results Different, but complementary, perspectives of the student-centredness of teaching and learning were identified by each method. The triangulation of the findings revealed coherence between the teachers’ espoused theories and theories-in-use. Conclusions A mixed-methods approach that combined classroom observations with interviews from a purposeful sample of teachers and students offered a useful evaluation of the extent of student-centredness of teaching and learning of this basic science course. Our case study suggests that this new approach is applicable to other courses in medical education. PMID:25341225

  17. A mixed flow reactor method to synthesize amorphous calcium carbonate under controlled chemical conditions.

    PubMed

    Blue, Christina R; Rimstidt, J Donald; Dove, Patricia M

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a new procedure to synthesize amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) from well-characterized solutions that maintain a constant supersaturation. The method uses a mixed flow reactor to prepare ACC in significant quantities with consistent compositions. The experimental design utilizes a high-precision solution pump that enables the reactant solution to continuously flow through the reactor under constant mixing and allows the precipitation of ACC to reach steady state. As a proof of concept, we produced ACC with controlled Mg contents by regulating the Mg/Ca ratio of the input solution and the carbonate concentration and pH. Our findings show that the Mg/Ca ratio of the reactant solution is the primary control for the Mg content in ACC, as shown in previous studies, but ACC composition is further regulated by the carbonate concentration and pH of the reactant solution. The method offers promise for quantitative studies of ACC composition and properties and for investigating the role of this phase as a reactive precursor to biogenic minerals.

  18. On call at the mall: a mixed methods study of U.S. medical malls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline of the traditional U.S. shopping mall and a focus on more consumer- centered care have created an opportunity for “medical malls”. Medical malls are defined as former retail spaces repurposed for healthcare tenants or mixed-use medical/retail facilities. We aimed to describe the current reach of healthcare services in U.S. malls, characterize the medical mall model and emerging trends, and assess the potential of these facilities to serve low-income populations. Methods We used a mixed methods approach which included a comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a descriptive analysis of the Directory of Major Malls, an online retail database. Results Six percent (n = 89) of large, enclosed shopping malls in the U.S. include at least one non-optometry or dental healthcare tenant. We identified a total of 28 medical malls across the U.S., the majority of which opened in the past five years and serve middle or high income populations. Stakeholders felt the key strengths of medical malls were more convenient access including public transportation, greater familiarity for patients, and “one stop shopping” for primary care and specialty services as well as retail needs. Conclusions While medical malls currently account for a small fraction of malls in the US, they are a new model for healthcare with significant potential for growth. PMID:24209495

  19. Numerical prediction of algae cell mixing feature in raceway ponds using particle tracing methods.

    PubMed

    Ali, Haider; Cheema, Taqi A; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Do, Younghae; Park, Cheol W

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a novel technique, which involves numerical computation of the mixing length of algae particles in raceway ponds, was used to evaluate the mixing process. A value of mixing length that is higher than the maximum streamwise distance (MSD) of algae cells indicates that the cells experienced an adequate turbulent mixing in the pond. A coupling methodology was adapted to map the pulsating effects of a 2D paddle wheel on a 3D raceway pond in this study. The turbulent mixing was examined based on the computations of mixing length, residence time, and algae cell distribution in the pond. The results revealed that the use of particle tracing methodology is an improved approach to define the mixing phenomenon more effectively. Moreover, the algae cell distribution aided in identifying the degree of mixing in terms of mixing length and residence time. PMID:25163842

  20. Apparatus and method for mixing fuel in a gas turbine nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Berry, Jonathan Dwight

    2014-08-12

    A nozzle includes a fuel plenum and an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. A primary fuel channel includes an inlet in fluid communication with the fuel plenum and a primary air port in fluid communication with the air plenum. Secondary fuel channels radially outward of the primary fuel channel include a secondary fuel port in fluid communication with the fuel plenum. A shroud circumferentially surrounds the secondary fuel channels. A method for mixing fuel and air in a nozzle prior to combustion includes flowing fuel to a fuel plenum and flowing air to an air plenum downstream of the fuel plenum. The method further includes injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through a primary fuel passage, injecting fuel from the fuel plenum through secondary fuel passages, and injecting air from the air plenum through the primary fuel passage.

  1. Using Concept Mapping in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been identified as a useful approach to increasing community involvement in research. Developing rigorous methods in conducting CBPR is an important step in gaining more support for this approach. The current article argues that concept mapping, a structured mixed methods approach, is useful in the initial development of a rigorous CBPR program of research aiming to develop culturally tailored and community-based health interventions for vulnerable populations. A research project examining social dynamics and consequences of alcohol and substance use in Newark, New Jersey, is described to illustrate the use of concept mapping methodology in CBPR. A total of 75 individuals participated in the study. PMID:26561484

  2. Capturing complexity: Mixing methods in the analysis of a European tobacco control policy network

    PubMed Central

    Weishaar, Heide; Amos, Amanda; Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA), a method which can be used to explore networks in various contexts, has received increasing attention. Drawing on the development of European smoke-free policy, this paper explores how a mixed method approach to SNA can be utilised to investigate a complex policy network. Textual data from public documents, consultation submissions and websites were extracted, converted and analysed using plagiarism detection software and quantitative network analysis, and qualitative data from public documents and 35 interviews were thematically analysed. While the quantitative analysis enabled understanding of the network's structure and components, the qualitative analysis provided in-depth information about specific actors' positions, relationships and interactions. The paper establishes that SNA is suited to empirically testing and analysing networks in EU policymaking. It contributes to methodological debates about the antagonism between qualitative and quantitative approaches and demonstrates that qualitative and quantitative network analysis can offer a powerful tool for policy analysis. PMID:26185482

  3. Mixed finite element methods for linear elasticity with weakly imposed symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Douglas N.; Falk, Richard S.; Winther, Ragnar

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we construct new finite element methods for the approximation of the equations of linear elasticity in three space dimensions that produce direct approximations to both stresses and displacements. The methods are based on a modified form of the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle that only weakly imposes the symmetry condition on the stresses. Although this approach has been previously used by a number of authors, a key new ingredient here is a constructive derivation of the elasticity complex starting from the de Rham complex. By mimicking this construction in the discrete case, we derive new mixed finite elements for elasticity in a systematic manner from known discretizations of the de Rham complex. These elements appear to be simpler than the ones previously derived. For example, we construct stable discretizations which use only piecewise linear elements to approximate the stress field and piecewise constant functions to approximate the displacement field.

  4. Effects of numerical methods on comparisons between experiments and simulations of shock-accelerated mixing.

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, William; Kamm, J. R.; Tomkins, C. D.; Zoldi, C. A.; Prestridge, K. P.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.; Benjamin, R. F.

    2002-01-01

    We consider the detailed structures of mixing flows for Richtmyer-Meshkov experiments of Prestridge et al. [PRE 00] and Tomkins et al. [TOM 01] and examine the most recent measurements from the experimental apparatus. Numerical simulations of these experiments are performed with three different versions of high resolution finite volume Godunov methods. We compare experimental data with simulations for configurations of one and two diffuse cylinders of SF{sub 6} in air using integral measures as well as fractal analysis and continuous wavelet transforms. The details of the initial conditions have a significant effect on the computed results, especially in the case of the double cylinder. Additionally, these comparisons reveal sensitive dependence of the computed solution on the numerical method.

  5. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame.

  6. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame. PMID:26956075

  7. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  8. A mixed method Poisson solver for three-dimensional self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Comer; Jones, Jim

    1993-01-01

    A key ingredient in the simulation of self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamical systems is the gravitational potential and its gradient. This paper focuses on the development of a mixed method multigrid solver of the Poisson equation formulated so that both the potential and the Cartesian components of its gradient are self-consistently and accurately generated. The method achieves this goal by formulating the problem as a system of four equations for the gravitational potential and the three Cartesian components of the gradient and solves them using a distributed relaxation technique combined with conventional full multigrid V-cycles. The method is described, some tests are presented, and the accuracy of the method is assessed. We also describe how the method has been incorporated into our three-dimensional hydrodynamics code and give an example of an application to the collision of two stars. We end with some remarks about the future developments of the method and some of the applications in which it will be used in astrophysics.

  9. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative and qualitative. Twenty-six quantitative and twelve qualitative studies were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Results Studies quantifying PA and ST among South Asian women showed low levels of PA compared with South Asian men and with white European comparison populations. However making valid comparisons between studies was challenging due to a lack of standardized PA measurement. The majority of studies indicated that South Asian women did not meet recommended amounts of PA for health benefits. Few studies assessed ST. Themes emerging from qualitative studies included cultural and structural barriers to PA, faith and education as facilitators, and a lack of understanding of the recommended amounts of PA and its benefits among South Asian women. Conclusions Quantitative and qualitative evidence indicate that South Asian women do not perform the recommended level of PA for health benefits. Both types of studies suffer from limitations due to methods of data collection. More research should be dedicated to standardizing objective PA measurement and to understanding how to utilize the resources of the individuals and communities to increase PA levels and overall health of South Asian women. PMID:23256686

  10. Identifying Quality Indicators Used by Patients to Choose Secondary Health Care Providers: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Saman Sara; Kahlon, Gurnaaz Kaur; Naik, Aditi; Jessel, Amar Singh; Nanavati, Niraj; Shah, Akash; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients in health systems across the world can now choose between different health care providers. Patients are increasingly using websites and apps to compare the quality of health care services available in order to make a choice of provider. In keeping with many patient-facing platforms, most services currently providing comparative information on different providers do not take account of end-user requirements or the available evidence base. Objective To investigate what factors were considered most important when choosing nonemergency secondary health care providers in the United Kingdom with the purpose of translating these insights into a ratings platform delivered through a consumer mHealth app. Methods A mixed methods approach was used to identify key indicators incorporating a literature review to identify and categorize existing quality indicators, a questionnaire survey to formulate a ranked list of performance indicators, and focus groups to explore rationales behind the rankings. Findings from qualitative and quantitative methodologies were mapped onto each other under the four categories identified by the literature review. Results Quality indicators were divided into four categories. Hospital access was the least important category. The mean differences between the other three categories hospital statistics, hospital staff, and hospital facilities, were not statistically significant. Staff competence was the most important indicator in the hospital staff category; cleanliness and up-to-date facilities were equally important in hospital facilities; ease of travel to the hospital was found to be most important in hospital access. All quality indicators within the hospital statistics category were equally important. Focus groups elaborated that users find it difficult to judge staff competence despite its importance. Conclusions A mixed methods approach is presented, which supported a patient-centered development and evaluation of a

  11. Lanthanide-Substituted Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a New Mixed Precursor Method by Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, J.; Roh, Y.; Yeary, L. W.; Lauf, R. J.; Phelps, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    A metal reducing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus successfully converted the precursor of L (lanthanide)-mixed akaganeite (LxFe1-xOOH) phase to L-substituted magnetite (LyFe3-yO4) while avoiding the potentially toxic effects of soluble L-ions. Antibiotic elements, lanthanide (Nd, Gd, Tb, Ho, and Er)-substituted magnetites were produced by microbial fermentation using LxFe1-xOOH, where x was up to 0.02 which is equivalent to 0.72 mM. Combining lanthanides into the akaganeite precursor phase mitigated some of the toxicity when compared to the traditional method by using pure akaganeite and the dissolved L-salt form. This new technique showed that an upper limit of L-concentrations between 0.02 and 0.1 mM might suppress bacterial activity. At the equivalent L-cation mole fraction, the traditional method increased the concentration of soluble toxic L ions in the final media. The precursor method enabled production of microbially synthesized L- substituted magnetite with an L-concentration 36-fold greater than could be obtained when the lanthanides were added as soluble salts. These results were confirmed by protein assay. The increase of L-concentration in the magnetite evidently manipulates its physical properties such as decreasing Curie temperature and decreasing saturation magnetism of L-substituted magnetite. This mixed precursor method can therefore be used to extend the application for nanofermentation and other bacterial synthesis fields where there is a need for economically low-energy consumable microbial production of nanoscale materials that should involve toxic or inhibitory elements to bacterial growth.

  12. [Comparative validation of manual and automated methods for mixing and volume control of total blood samples].

    PubMed

    Folléa, G; Bigey, F; Jacob, D; Cazenave, J P

    1997-07-01

    During blood collection, agitation and volume limitations are critical to ensure thorough mixing of the blood with the anticoagulant and obtention of the predetermined volume. These 2 factors are essential to prevent blood activation and to obtain well standardized blood products. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the blood collected using 2 types of collection method: tripping of a scale at a predetermined volume limit of 450 mL in the presence of manual agitation, and the 3 blood collection monitors currently available in France. A minimum of 100 collection procedures was performed for each of the 4 methods tested. Results were found to be equivalent using either the manual or the automated procedures with regard to both the accuracy and reproducibility of the blood volumes obtained and the collection times and flow rates. The characteristics of the red blood cell concentrates, platelet concentrates and plasma units prepared from the first 30 collections of each group were assessed and compared to regulatory requirements. The quality of all these products was found to be comparable to that currently observed at quality control and no product was rejected at the release control for reasons of poor collection. An assessment of the practicability of the different methods showed that the automated devices are subject to practical difficulties involving transport and battery loading. In addition, the cost of this equipment is approximately 5 times higher than that of the scales. In conclusion, the results of this study show that in our hands, no significant advantage could be expected from the use of automated blood collection monitors as compared to simple scales with manual mixing. These results further raise the question of the applicability to labile blood products of the comparative validations currently accepted in the pharmaceutical industry, in order to allow the use of correctly validated alternative methods.

  13. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in three high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically-derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA) which we applied to three clinical chronic disease populations. Methods We employed a sequential mixed methods model (EVOLVE) to design and test the PA/SA intervention in order to increase physical activity in people with coronary artery disease (post-percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) or asthma (ASM), and to improve medication adherence in African Americans with hypertension (HTN). In an initial qualitative phase, we explored participant values and beliefs. We next pilot tested and refined the intervention, and then conducted three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with parallel study design. Participants were randomized to combined PA/SA vs. an informational control (IC) and followed bimonthly for 12 months, assessing for health behaviors and interval medical events. Results Over 4.5 years, we enrolled 1,056 participants. Changes were sequentially made to the intervention during the qualitative and pilot phases. The three RCTs enrolled 242 PCI, 258 ASM and 256 HTN participants (n=756). Overall, 45.1% of PA/SA participants versus 33.6% of IC participants achieved successful behavior change (p=0.001). In multivariate analysis PA/SA intervention remained a significant predictor of achieving behavior change (p<0.002, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.22–2.27), controlling for baseline negative affect, comorbidity, gender, race/ethnicity, medical events, smoking and age. Conclusions The EVOLVE method is a means by which basic behavioral science research can be translated into efficacious interventions for chronic disease populations. PMID:22963594

  14. Parenting Practices and Child Misbehavior: A Mixed Method Study of Italian Mothers and Children

    PubMed Central

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Norcia, Anna; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to examine three main research questions: What are the practices that mothers report they use when trying to correct their children’s misbehaviors? Are there common patterns of these practices? Are the patterns that emerge related to children’s well-being? Design Italian mother-child dyads (N=103) participated in the study (when children were 8 years of age). At Time 1 (T1), mothers answered open-ended questions about discipline; in addition, measures of maternal physical discipline and rejection and child aggression were assessed in mothers and children at T1, one year later (T2), and two years later (T3). Results Mothers’ answers to open-ended questions about what they would do in three disciplinary situations were classified in six categories: physical or psychological punishment, control, mix of force and reasoning, reasoning, listening, and permissiveness. Cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters: Group 1, Induction (predominant use of reasoning and listening; 74%); Group 2, Punishment (punitive practices and no reasoning; 16%); Group 3, Mixed practices (combination of reasoning and punishment, as well as high control and no listening; 10%). Multiple-group latent growth curves of maternal physical discipline, maternal rejection, and child aggression were implemented to evaluate possible differences in the developmental trends from T1 to T3, as a function of cluster. Conclusions Qualitative data deepen understanding of parenting because they shed light on what parents think about themselves; their self-descriptions, in turn, help to identify ways of parenting that may have long-lasting consequences for children’s adjustment. PMID:26877716

  15. Assessing health workers’ revenues and coping strategies in Nigeria — a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The setting of realistic performance-based financing rewards necessitates not just knowledge of health workers’ salaries, but of the revenue that accrues from their additional income-generating activities. This study examined the coping mechanisms of health workers in the public health sector of Nasarawa and Ondo states in Nigeria to supplement their salaries and benefits; it also estimated the proportionate value of the revenues from those coping mechanisms in relation to the health workers’ official incomes. Methods This study adopted a mixed-methods approach, consisting of semi-structured interviews, a review of policy documents, a survey using self-administered questionnaires, and the randomized response technique (RRT). In all, 170 health workers (86 in Ondo, 84 in Nasarawa) participated in the survey. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 health workers (12 per state) and nine policy makers from both states. Results The health workers perceived their salaries as inadequate, though most policy makers differed in this assessment. There appeared to be a considerable expenditure–income disparity among the respondents. Approximately 56% (n = 93) of the study population reported having additional earning arrangements: most reported non-medical activities such as farming and trading, but private practice was also frequently reported. Half of the respondents with additional earning arrangements stated that their income from those activities was the equivalent of half or more of their monthly salaries. Specifically, 35% (n = 32) said that they earned about half of their official monthly salaries and 15% (n = 14) reported earning the same or more than their monthly salaries from these activities. Other coping mechanisms used by the health workers included prioritizing activities that enabled the earning of per diems, collecting informal payments and gifts from patients, and pilfering drugs from facilities. Conclusions Predatory and non

  16. Mixed models and reduction method for dynamic analysis of anisotropic shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A time-domain computational procedure is presented for predicting the dynamic response of laminated anisotropic shells. The two key elements of the procedure are: (1) use of mixed finite element models having independent interpolation (shape) functions for stress resultants and generalized displacements for the spatial discretization of the shell, with the stress resultants allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries; and (2) use of a dynamic reduction method, with the global approximation vectors consisting of the static solution and an orthogonal set of Lanczos vectors. The dynamic reduction is accomplished by means of successive application of the finite element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite element method is first used to generate the global approximation vectors. Then the Rayleigh-Ritz technique is used to generate a reduced system of ordinary differential equations in the amplitudes of these modes. The temporal integration of the reduced differential equations is performed by using an explicit half-station central difference scheme (Leap-frog method). The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by means of a numerical example and its advantages over reduction methods used with the displacement formulation are discussed.

  17. A stochastic mixed finite element heterogeneous multiscale method for flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiang; Zabaras, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    A computational methodology is developed to efficiently perform uncertainty quantification for fluid transport in porous media in the presence of both stochastic permeability and multiple scales. In order to capture the small scale heterogeneity, a new mixed multiscale finite element method is developed within the framework of the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM) in the spatial domain. This new method ensures both local and global mass conservation. Starting from a specified covariance function, the stochastic log-permeability is discretized in the stochastic space using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion with several random variables. Due to the small correlation length of the covariance function, this often results in a high stochastic dimensionality. Therefore, a newly developed adaptive high dimensional stochastic model representation technique (HDMR) is used in the stochastic space. This results in a set of low stochastic dimensional subproblems which are efficiently solved using the adaptive sparse grid collocation method (ASGC). Numerical examples are presented for both deterministic and stochastic permeability to show the accuracy and efficiency of the developed stochastic multiscale method.

  18. A mixed methods exploration of families' experiences of the diagnosis of childhood spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Sally; Hickerton, Chriselle; Archibald, Alison D; McClaren, Belinda J; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2015-05-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease with a carrier frequency of 1 in 41 in Australia. Childhood SMA is classified into three types based on the age at which children present with symptoms and the clinical severity. Families' experiences leading up to the diagnosis have not been described, but are important when considering the potential for a diagnostic odyssey. Using a mixed methods approach, data were collected from interviews and a national survey of families of children with SMA to explore their experiences of this journey. The combined findings (n=28) revealed that the journey to receiving a diagnosis was protracted. The time from first noticing symptoms to finally receiving a diagnosis was emotional and frustrating. Once parents or other family members became aware of symptoms, almost all had consulted with multiple different health professionals before the diagnosis was ultimately made. Not surprisingly, receiving the diagnosis was devastating to the families. The nature of the information and the way it was given to them was not always optimal, particularly because of the difficulties predicting clinical severity. Most felt that their child could have been diagnosed earlier and, although there were mixed views around the benefit of this for their child, they felt it may have reduced the emotional impact on families. Overall, families were more in favour of population carrier screening for SMA when compared with newborn screening of the population. Despite an increasing awareness of SMA, the diagnostic delay continues to have negative impacts on families. PMID:25074464

  19. The Mistreatment of Women during Childbirth in Health Facilities Globally: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bohren, Meghan A.; Vogel, Joshua P.; Hunter, Erin C.; Lutsiv, Olha; Makh, Suprita K.; Souza, João Paulo; Aguiar, Carolina; Saraiva Coneglian, Fernando; Diniz, Alex Luíz Araújo; Tunçalp, Özge; Javadi, Dena; Oladapo, Olufemi T.; Khosla, Rajat; Hindin, Michelle J.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite growing recognition of neglectful, abusive, and disrespectful treatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, there is no consensus at a global level on how these occurrences are defined and measured. This mixed-methods systematic review aims to synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence on the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities to inform the development of an evidence-based typology of the phenomenon. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase databases and grey literature using a predetermined search strategy to identify qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies on the mistreatment of women during childbirth across all geographical and income-level settings. We used a thematic synthesis approach to synthesize the qualitative evidence and assessed the confidence in the qualitative review findings using the CERQual approach. In total, 65 studies were included from 34 countries. Qualitative findings were organized under seven domains: (1) physical abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) verbal abuse, (4) stigma and discrimination, (5) failure to meet professional standards of care, (6) poor rapport between women and providers, and (7) health system conditions and constraints. Due to high heterogeneity of the quantitative data, we were unable to conduct a meta-analysis; instead, we present descriptions of study characteristics, outcome measures, and results. Additional themes identified in the quantitative studies are integrated into the typology. Conclusions This systematic review presents a comprehensive, evidence-based typology of the mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities, and demonstrates that mistreatment can occur at the level of interaction between the woman and provider, as well as through systemic failures at the health facility and health system levels. We propose this typology be adopted to describe the phenomenon and be used to develop measurement tools

  20. A pilot mixed methods study of patient satisfaction with chiropractic care for back pain

    PubMed Central

    Polipnick, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Objective Patient satisfaction is important to payers, clinicians, and patients. The concept of satisfaction is multifactorial and measurement is challenging. Our objective was to explore use of a mixed-methods design to examine patient satisfaction with chiropractic care for low back pain. Methods Patients were treated 3 times per week for 3 weeks. Outcomes were collected at Week 3 and Week 4. Qualitative interviews were conducted by the treating clinician and a non-treating staff member. Outcome Measures were the Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ), the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and the Patient Satisfaction Scale (PSS). Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed for themes and constructs of satisfaction. We compared qualitative interview data with quantitative outcomes, and qualitative data from 2 different interviewers. Results All patients reported high levels of satisfaction. Clinical outcomes were unremarkable with little change noted on VAS and RMQ scores. We categorized patient comments into the same constructs of satisfaction as those identified for the PSS: Quality of Care, Information, Effectiveness, and Caring. An additional construct (Quality of Care) and additional subcategories were identified. Satisfaction with care is not explained by outcome alone. The qualitative data collected from 2 different interviewers had few differences. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that it is feasible to use a mixed-method design to examine patient satisfaction. We were able to refine data collection and analysis procedures for the outcome measures and qualitative interview data. We identified limitations and offer recommendations for the next step: the implementation of a larger study. PMID:18984243

  1. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design.

  2. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

  3. Method of and apparatus for dynamically stabilizing the wind-mixed layer of a solar-water pond

    SciTech Connect

    Assaf, G.

    1986-03-25

    A method is described for dynamically stabilizing the convective wind-mixed layer of a salt-water solar pond, which covers a nonconvective halocline, the method comprising providing a source of brine whose salinity differs from the salinity of the water in the wind-mixed layer, and exchanging brine between the source and the wind-mixed layer for creating a two-layer flow regime in the wind-mixed layer due to differences in salinity whereby lighter less dense water flows adjacent the surface of the pond into the source, and heavier, more dense water, flows beneath the lighter water out of the source. A solar pond is described which consists of: (a) a convective wind-mixed layer of water on the surface of the pond; (b) a nonconvective halocline covered by the wind-mixed layer having a density that increases with depth; (c) a heat storage layer under the halocline for storing heat created in the pond by the absorption of solar radiation; and (d) a reservoir associated with the wind-mixed layer and containing water whose salinity is different from the average salinity of water in the wind-mixed layer, and means to exchange water between the reservoir and the wind-mixed layer for establishing a two-layer flow regime in the wind-mixed layer due to a difference in salinity between the layers whereby lighter less dense water flows adjacent the surface of the pond into the reservoir, and heavier, more dense water, flows beneath the lighter water out of the reservoir.

  4. Mixed mimetic spectral element method for Stokes flow: A pointwise divergence-free solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreeft, Jasper; Gerritsma, Marc

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we apply the recently developed mimetic discretization method to the mixed formulation of the Stokes problem in terms of vorticity, velocity and pressure. The mimetic discretization presented in this paper and in Kreeft et al. [51] is a higher-order method for curvilinear quadrilaterals and hexahedrals. Fundamental is the underlying structure of oriented geometric objects, the relation between these objects through the boundary operator and how this defines the exterior derivative, representing the grad, curl and div, through the generalized Stokes theorem. The mimetic method presented here uses the language of differential k-forms with k-cochains as their discrete counterpart, and the relations between them in terms of the mimetic operators: reduction, reconstruction and projection. The reconstruction consists of the recently developed mimetic spectral interpolation functions. The most important result of the mimetic framework is the commutation between differentiation at the continuous level with that on the finite dimensional and discrete level. As a result operators like gradient, curl and divergence are discretized exactly. For Stokes flow, this implies a pointwise divergence-free solution. This is confirmed using a set of test cases on both Cartesian and curvilinear meshes. It will be shown that the method converges optimally for all admissible boundary conditions.

  5. A new mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for analysis of natural and synthetic anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Chen, Jinfeng; He, Yu; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2009-01-15

    A simple, rapid and low-costing new mixed surfactant MEKC method has been developed for the analysis of five neutral anabolic steroids in this paper. It was found that the bile salt coupling with Triton X-100 was a suitable bi-micellar surfactant for the separation of these anabolic steroids with similar structure. The separation conditions were optimized in detail. The five natural and synthetic anabolic steroids, such as androstenedione (AD), 19-norandrostenedione (NAD), 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD), methandrostenolone (MA) and methyltestosterone (MT) were separated and detected in an alkaline buffer system (pH 9.0) containing 15 mM Britton-Robinson (BR) buffer, 50mM sodium cholate (SC) and 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100 with detection wavelength at 241 nm and 18 kV of separation voltage. Under the optimal conditions, five coexistence neutral steroids were completely separated within 12 min with the detection limits ranged from 0.20 to 0.51 microg/mL. This method was successfully used for detection and confirmation of the anabolic steroid methandrostenolone in methandrostenolone tablets and in the real human urine, GC-MS method was applied to confirm the free methandrostenolone existence in the urine sample in order to validate the reliability of MEKC method. PMID:19064082

  6. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's.

    PubMed

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2013-06-01

    Background: Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods: The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results: Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions: Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's. PMID:23805165

  7. A mixed-methods study into ballet for people living with Parkinson's1

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Sara; McGill, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's is a neurological disease that is physically debilitating and can be socially isolating. Dance is growing in popularity for people with Parkinson's and claims have been made for its benefits. The paper details a mixed-methods study that examined a 12-week dance project for people with Parkinson's, led by English National Ballet. Methods: The effects on balance, stability and posture were measured through the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and a plumb-line analysis. The value of participation and movement quality were interpreted through ethnographic methods, grounded theory and Effort analysis. Results: Triangulation of results indicates that people were highly motivated, with 100% adherence, and valued the classes as an important part of their lives. Additionally, results indicated an improvement in balance and stability, although not in posture. Conclusions: Dancing may offer benefit to people with Parkinson's through its intellectual, artistic, social and physical aspects. The paper suggests that a range of research methods is fundamental to capture the importance of multifaceted activity, such as dance, to those with Parkinson's. PMID:23805165

  8. Reconciling Data from Different Sources: Practical Realities of Using Mixed Methods to Identify Effective High School Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas M.; Cannata, Marisa; Haynes, Katherine Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Mixed methods research conveys multiple advantages to the study of complex phenomena and large organizations or systems. The benefits are derived from drawing on the strengths of qualitative methods to answer questions about how and why a phenomenon occurs and those of quantitative methods to examine how often a phenomenon…

  9. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Sediments (EPA Method 1646) 3 Appendix 3 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646) This procedure describes a method for amending uncontaminated and nontoxic (control) sediments with the base fluids that are used to...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Sediments (EPA Method 1646) 3 Appendix 3 to Subpart A of Part 435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments (EPA Method 1646) This procedure describes a method for amending uncontaminated and nontoxic (control) sediments with the base fluids that are used to...

  11. Semiexperimental equilibrium structure of the lower energy conformer of glycidol by the mixed estimation method.

    PubMed

    Demaison, Jean; Craig, Norman C; Conrad, Andrew R; Tubergen, Michael J; Rudolph, Heinz Dieter

    2012-09-13

    Rotational constants were determined for (18)O-substituted isotopologues of the lower energy conformer of glycidol, which has an intramolecular inner hydrogen bond from the hydroxyl group to the oxirane ring oxygen. Rotational constants were previously determined for the (13)C and the OD species. These rotational constants have been corrected with the rovibrational constants calculated from an ab initio cubic force field. The derived semiexperimental equilibrium rotational constants have been supplemented by carefully chosen structural parameters, including those for hydrogen atoms, from medium level ab initio calculations. The combined data have been used in a weighted least-squares fit to determine an equilibrium structure for the glycidol H-bond inner conformer. This work shows that the mixed estimation method allows us to determine a complete and reliable equilibrium structure for large molecules, even when the rotational constants of a number of isotopologues are unavailable.

  12. A new method for the acquisition of arterial pulse wave using self-mixing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasanz, A.; Azcona, F. J.; Royo, S.; Jha, A.; Pladellorens, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a technique based on self-mixing interferometry as a method for the acquisition and reconstruction of the arterial pulse wave. A modification of the classic fringe counting reconstruction algorithm is proposed to deal with some of the problems caused by biological tissue surface roughness, therefore allowing a reconstruction of the arterial displacement with a resolution of 400 nm. The traits of the arterial pulse wave have been retrieved with high detail, allowing their interpretation by a skilled practitioner. The heart beat measurements show a good agreement when compared to the readings of a commercial pulse-meter, therefore proving the versatility and the viability of the technique for the measurement of other cardiovascular signals.

  13. Science on TeacherTube: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Teacher Produced Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmiel, Margaret (Marjee)

    Increased bandwidth, inexpensive video cameras and easy-to-use video editing software have made social media sites featuring user generated video (UGV) an increasingly popular vehicle for online communication. As such, UGV have come to play a role in education, both formal and informal, but there has been little research on this topic in scholarly literature. In this mixed-methods study, a content and discourse analysis are used to describe the most successful UGV in the science channel of an education-focused site called TeacherTube. The analysis finds that state achievement tests, and their focus on vocabulary and recall-level knowledge, drive much of the content found on TeacherTube.

  14. Women's Perceptions and Misperceptions of Male Circumcision: A Mixed Methods Study in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Haberland, Nicole A; Kelly, Christine A; Mulenga, Drosin M; Mensch, Barbara S; Hewett, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Women's perceptions of male circumcision (MC) have implications for behavioral risk compensation, demand, and the impact of MC programs on women's health. This mixed methods study combines data from the first two rounds of a longitudinal study (n = 934) and in-depth interviews with a subsample of respondents (n = 45) between rounds. Most women correctly reported that MC reduces men's risk of HIV (64% R1, 82% R2). However, 30% of women at R1, and significantly more (41%) at R2, incorrectly believed MC is fully protective for men against HIV. Women also greatly overestimated the protection MC offers against STIs. The proportion of women who believed MC reduces a woman's HIV risk if she has sex with a man who is circumcised increased significantly (50% to 70%). Qualitative data elaborate women's misperception regarding MC. Programs should address women's informational needs and continue to emphasize that condoms remain critical, regardless of male partner's circumcision status. PMID:26937971

  15. Women's Perceptions and Misperceptions of Male Circumcision: A Mixed Methods Study in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Haberland, Nicole A; Kelly, Christine A; Mulenga, Drosin M; Mensch, Barbara S; Hewett, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Women's perceptions of male circumcision (MC) have implications for behavioral risk compensation, demand, and the impact of MC programs on women's health. This mixed methods study combines data from the first two rounds of a longitudinal study (n = 934) and in-depth interviews with a subsample of respondents (n = 45) between rounds. Most women correctly reported that MC reduces men's risk of HIV (64% R1, 82% R2). However, 30% of women at R1, and significantly more (41%) at R2, incorrectly believed MC is fully protective for men against HIV. Women also greatly overestimated the protection MC offers against STIs. The proportion of women who believed MC reduces a woman's HIV risk if she has sex with a man who is circumcised increased significantly (50% to 70%). Qualitative data elaborate women's misperception regarding MC. Programs should address women's informational needs and continue to emphasize that condoms remain critical, regardless of male partner's circumcision status.

  16. Fuel injection and mixing systems and methods of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John

    2010-08-03

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided. The system includes an injector body having a fuel inlet and a fuel outlet, and defines a fuel flow path between the inlet and outlet. The fuel flow path may include a generally helical flow passage having an inlet end portion disposed proximate the fuel inlet of the injector body. The flow path also may include an expansion chamber downstream from and in fluid communication with the helical flow passage, as well as a fuel delivery device in fluid communication with the expansion chamber for delivering fuel. Heating means is also provided in thermal communication with the injector body. The heating means may be adapted and configured for maintaining the injector body at a predetermined temperature to heat fuel traversing the flow path. A method of preheating and delivering fuel is also provided.

  17. Implementation of Hybrid V-Cycle Multilevel Methods for Mixed Finite Element Systems with Penalty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Chen-Yao G.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is the implementation of hybrid V-cycle hierarchical multilevel methods for the indefinite discrete systems which arise when a mixed finite element approximation is used to solve elliptic boundary value problems. By introducing a penalty parameter, the perturbed indefinite system can be reduced to a symmetric positive definite system containing the small penalty parameter for the velocity unknown alone. We stabilize the hierarchical spatial decomposition approach proposed by Cai, Goldstein, and Pasciak for the reduced system. We demonstrate that the relative condition number of the preconditioner is bounded uniformly with respect to the penalty parameter, the number of levels and possible jumps of the coefficients as long as they occur only across the edges of the coarsest elements.

  18. A Mixed-Methods Outcome Evaluation of a Mentorship Intervention for Canadian Nurses in HIV Care

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Catherine A.; O’Brien, Kelly K.; Mill, Judy; Caine, Vera; Solomon, Patty; Chaw-Kant, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the impact of an HIV care mentorship intervention on knowledge, attitudes, and practices with nurses and people living with HIV (PLWH) in Canada. We implemented the intervention in two urban and two rural sites with 16 mentors (eight experienced HIV nurses and eight PLWH) and 40 mentees (nurses with limited HIV experience). The 6- to 12-month intervention included face-to-face workshops and monthly meetings. Using a mixed-methods approach, participants completed pre- and postintervention questionnaires and engaged in semistructured interviews at intervention initiation, mid-point, and completion. Data from 28 mentees (70%) and 14 mentors (87%) were included in the quantitative analysis. We analyzed questionnaire data using McNemar test, and interview data using content analysis. Results indicated positive changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices among nurse mentees, with qualitative interviews highlighting mechanisms by which change occurred. Mentorship interventions have the potential to engage and educate nurses in HIV treatment and care. PMID:27039195

  19. A mixed method approach to clarify the construct validity of interprofessional collaboration: an empirical research illustration.

    PubMed

    Ødegård, Atle; Bjørkly, Stål

    2012-07-01

    The rapid development of empirical studies in the field of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) calls for a wide array of scientific approaches ranging from recruitment and motivation to measurement and design questions. Regardless of whether researchers choose qualitative or quantitative approaches, they must substantiate their findings. We argue that more attention should be given to reliability and validity issues to improve our understanding of IPC as a phenomenon and practice. A mixed methods approach is presented as a relevant design format for the study of IPC. This paper aims to argue that a combination of methodologies may be a feasible way to enhance our understanding of IPC, with a special focus on reliability and validity issues; illustrate the application of different methodologies in an IPC research project; and emphasize the distinction between validity and validation to mitigate possible obstacles in integrating qualitative and quantitative research in the study of IPC.

  20. Psychological Distress in Afghan Refugees: A Mixed-Method Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alemi, Qais; James, Sigrid; Cruz, Romalene; Zepeda, Veronica; Racadio, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Mental health problems disproportionately affect Afghan refugees and asylum seekers who continue to seek international protection with prolonged exposure to war. We performed a systematic review aimed at synthesizing peer-reviewed literature pertaining to mental health problems among Afghans resettled in industrialized nations. We used five databases to identify studies published between 1979 and 2013 that provided data on distress levels, and subjective experiences with distress. Seventeen studies met our inclusion criteria consisting of 1 mixed-method, 7 qualitative, and 9 quantitative studies. Themes from our qualitative synthesis described antecedents for distress being rooted in cultural conflicts and loss, and also described unique coping mechanisms. Quantitative findings indicated moderate to high prevalence of depressive and posttraumatic symptomatology. These findings support the need for continued mental health research with Afghans that accounts for: distress among newly resettled groups, professional help-seeking utilization patterns, and also culturally relevant strategies for mitigating distress and engaging Afghans in research. PMID:23784146