Science.gov

Sample records for exploring closure relations

  1. Sternal exploration or closure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic pain Decreased lung function Increased risk of death More infections Need to repeat or revise the procedure Alternative Names VAC - vacuum-assisted closure - sternal wound; Sternal dehiscence; Sternal infection References ...

  2. Perioperative closure-related complication rates and cost analysis of barbed suture for closure in TKA.

    PubMed

    Gililland, Jeremy M; Anderson, Lucas A; Sun, Grant; Erickson, Jill A; Peters, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    The use of barbed suture for surgical closure has been associated with lower operative times, equivalent wound complication rate, and comparable cosmesis scores in the plastic surgery literature. Similar studies would help determine whether this technology is associated with low complication rates and reduced operating times for orthopaedic closures. We compared a running barbed suture with an interrupted standard suture technique for layered closure in primary TKA to determine if the barbed suture would be associated with (1) shorter estimated closure times; (2) lower cost; and (3) similar closure-related perioperative complication rates. We retrospectively compared two-layered closure techniques in primary TKA with either barbed or knotted sutures. The barbed group consisted of 104 primary TKAs closed with running barbed suture. The standard group consisted of 87 primary TKAs closed with interrupted suture. Cost analysis was based on cost of suture and operating room time. Clinical records were assessed for closure-related complications within the 6-week perioperative period. Average estimated closure time was 2.3 minutes shorter with the use of barbed suture. The total closure cost was similar between the groups. The closure-related perioperative complication rates were similar between the groups. Barbed suture is associated with a slightly shorter estimated closure time, although this small difference is of questionable clinical importance. With similar overall cost and no difference in perioperative complications in primary TKA, this closure methodology has led to more widespread use at our institution.

  3. A closure relation to molecular theory of solvation for macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobryn, Alexander E.; Gusarov, Sergey; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2016-10-01

    We propose a closure to the integral equations of molecular theory of solvation, particularly suitable for polar and charged macromolecules in electrolyte solution. This includes such systems as oligomeric polyelectrolytes at a finite concentration in aqueous and various non-aqueous solutions, as well as drug-like compounds in solution. The new closure by Kobryn, Gusarov, and Kovalenko (KGK closure) imposes the mean spherical approximation (MSA) almost everywhere in the solvation shell but levels out the density distribution function to zero (with the continuity at joint boundaries) inside the repulsive core and in the spatial regions of strong density depletion emerging due to molecular associative interactions. Similarly to MSA, the KGK closure reduces the problem to a linear equation for the direct correlation function which is predefined analytically on most of the solvation shells and has to be determined numerically on a relatively small (three-dimensional) domain of strong depletion, typically within the repulsive core. The KGK closure leads to the solvation free energy in the form of the Gaussian fluctuation (GF) functional. We first test the performance of the KGK closure coupled to the reference interaction site model (RISM) integral equations on the examples of Lennard-Jones liquids, polar and nonpolar molecular solvents, including water, and aqueous solutions of simple ions. The solvation structure, solvation chemical potential, and compressibility obtained from RISM with the KGK closure favorably compare to the results of the hypernetted chain (HNC) and Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) closures, including their combination with the GF solvation free energy. We then use the KGK closure coupled to RISM to obtain the solvation structure and thermodynamics of oligomeric polyelectrolytes and drug-like compounds at a finite concentration in electrolyte solution, for which no convergence is obtained with other closures. For comparison, we calculate their solvation

  4. Transitive closure of subsumption and causal relations in a large ontology of radiological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Charles E

    2016-06-01

    The Radiology Gamuts Ontology (RGO)-an ontology of diseases, interventions, and imaging findings-was developed to aid in decision support, education, and translational research in diagnostic radiology. The ontology defines a subsumption (is_a) relation between more general and more specific terms, and a causal relation (may_cause) to express the relationship between disorders and their possible imaging manifestations. RGO incorporated 19,745 terms with their synonyms and abbreviations, 1768 subsumption relations, and 55,558 causal relations. Transitive closure was computed iteratively; it yielded 2154 relations over subsumption and 1,594,896 relations over causality. Five causal cycles were discovered, all with path length of no more than 5. The graph-theoretic metrics of in-degree and out-degree were explored; the most useful metric to prioritize modification of the ontology was found to be the product of the in-degree of transitive closure over subsumption and the out-degree of transitive closure over causality. Two general types of error were identified: (1) causal assertions that used overly general terms because they implicitly assumed an organ-specific context and (2) subsumption relations where a site-specific disorder was asserted to be a subclass of the general disorder. Transitive closure helped identify incorrect assertions, prioritized and guided ontology revision, and aided resources that applied the ontology's knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations.

    PubMed

    Bendib-Kalache, K; Bendib, A; El Hadj, K Mohammed

    2010-11-01

    Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space (ω,k), where ω and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter ω/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc²/T , where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.

  6. Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations

    SciTech Connect

    Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.; El Hadj, K. Mohammed

    2010-11-15

    Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space ({omega},k), where {omega} and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter {omega}/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc{sup 2}/T, where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.

  7. Nonlinear closure relations theory for transport processes in nonequilibrium systems.

    PubMed

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    A decade ago, a macroscopic theory for closure relations has been proposed for systems out of Onsager's region. This theory is referred to as the thermodynamic field theory (TFT). The aim of this work was to determine the nonlinear flux-force relations that respect the thermodynamic theorems for systems far from equilibrium. We propose a formulation of the TFT where one of the basic restrictions, namely, the closed-form solution for the skew-symmetric piece of the transport coefficients, has been removed. In addition, the general covariance principle is replaced by the De Donder-Prigogine thermodynamic covariance principle (TCP). The introduction of TCP requires the application of an appropriate mathematical formalism, which is referred to as the entropy-covariant formalism. By geometrical arguments, we prove the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine universal criterion of evolution. A new set of closure equations determining the nonlinear corrections to the linear ("Onsager") transport coefficients is also derived. The geometry of the thermodynamic space is non-Riemannian. However, it tends to be Riemannian for high values of the entropy production. In this limit, we recover the transport equations found by the old theory. Applications of our approach to transport in magnetically confined plasmas, materials submitted to temperature, and electric potential gradients or to unimolecular triangular chemical reactions can be found at references cited herein. Transport processes in tokamak plasmas are of particular interest. In this case, even in the absence of turbulence, the state of the plasma remains close to (but, it is not in) a state of local equilibrium. This prevents the transport relations from being linear.

  8. 50 CFR 622.14 - Area closures related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Horizon oil spill. 622.14 Section 622.14 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... spill. (a) Caribbean EEZ area closure related to Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Effective May 11, 2010... Web site: http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/deepwater_horizon_oil_spill.htm. (b) Gulf EEZ area closure...

  9. Hypnotic susceptibility as related to gestalt closure tasks.

    PubMed

    Crawford, H J

    1981-02-01

    The investigation was concerned primarily with the relationship of gestalt closure tasks to hypnotizability on a test of the hypothesis that the more highly hypnotizable do better on a task of holistic visuospatial functioning than those less responsive to hypnosis. Several other cognitive tasks were included: visualization, disembedding of hidden figures, and syllogistic reasoning. Sex differences were inconsistent in the four studies reported. In Study 1 (22 male and 20 female university students), high hypnotizables scored significantly higher than low hypnotizables on the gestalt closure tasks, but there were no significant correlations between hypnotizability and the other cognitive tasks. In Study 2 (25 male and 25 female university students) and Study 3 (41 male and 37 female university students), females showed significant correlations between hypnotic susceptibility and gestalt closure scores. In Study 4 (37 male and 27 female high school students), a significant correlation between hypnotic susceptibility and gestalt closure was found for males. The results are consistent with studies of different types of cognitive functioning (hemispheric preference, creativity, attentional distribution, imaginative involvement, and absorption), all indicating differences in cognitive abilities associated with high hypnotizability.

  10. Household responses to pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures, Perth, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Effler, Paul V; Carcione, Dale; Giele, Carolien; Dowse, Gary K; Goggin, Leigh; Mak, Donna B

    2010-02-01

    School closure is often purported to reduce influenza transmission, but little is known about its effect on families. We surveyed families affected by pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures in Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Surveys were returned for 233 (58%) of 402 students. School closure was deemed appropriate by 110 parents (47%); however, 91 (45%) parents of 202 asymptomatic students reported taking >or=1 day off work to care for their child, and 71 (35%) had to make childcare arrangements because of the class closures. During the week, 172 (74%) students participated in activities outside the home on >or=1 occasion, resulting in an average of 3.7 out-of-home activities for each student. In our survey, activities outside the home were commonly reported by students affected by school closure, the effect on families was substantial, and parental opinion regarding school closures as a means to mitigate the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was divided.

  11. Group Dynamics as a Critical Component of Successful Space Exploration: Conceptual Theory and Insights from the Biosphere 2 Closure Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    As space exploration and eventually habitation achieves longer durations, successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups will become vital. The paper summarizes important underlying research and conceptual theory and how these manifested in a well-documented example: the closure experiments of Biosphere 2. Key research breakthroughs in discerning the operation of small human groups comes from the pioneering work of W.R. Bion. He discovered two competing modalities of behavior. The first is the “task-oriented” or work group governed by shared acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time, resources and rational, and intelligent management of challenges presented. The opposing, usually unconscious, modality is what Bion called the “basic-assumption” group and alternates between three “group animal” groups: dependency/kill the leader; fight/flight and pairing. If not dealt with, these dynamics work to undermine and defeat the conscious task group’s goal achievement. The paper discusses crew training and selection, various approaches to structuring the work and hierarchy of the group, the importance of contact with a larger population through electronic communication and dealing with the “us-them” syndrome frequently observed between crew and Mission Control. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 is drawn on in new ways to illustrate vicissitudes and management of group dynamics especially as both the inside team of biospherians and key members of Mission Control had training in working with group dynamics. Insights from that experience may help mission planning so that future groups in space cope successfully with inherent group dynamics challenges that arise.

  12. Towards closure relations in the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) framework containing observable parameters: Relations for Hortonian overland flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannametee, E.; Karssenberg, D.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2012-07-01

    This study presents the derivation procedure of an integrated closure relation for infiltration and Hortonian overland flow in the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) framework that contains directly-observable parameters. A physically-based high resolution model is used to simulate the infiltration flux and discharge for 6 × 105 set of synthetic REWs and rainstorms scenarios. This synthetic data set serves as a surrogate of real-world data to deduce the closure relation. The closure relation performance is evaluated against the results from the high resolution model. The results show that the closure relation is capable of predicting accurate hydrological responses for an independent set of synthetic REWs and rainstroms in terms of the Nash-Sutcliffe index, errors in total discharge volume, and peak discharge, especially in cases where a relatively large amount of runoff is produced with fast responses. For the estimation of parameters in the closure relation, a local method using inverse distance weighted interpolation in the parameter space is superior to the global method based on the multiple regression, resulting in a better reproduction of runoff characteristics.

  13. Modeling the effect of school closures in a pandemic scenario: exploring two different contact matrices.

    PubMed

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Gambhir, Manoj; Glasser, John W; Gao, Hongjiang; Washington, Michael L; Uzicanin, Amra; Meltzer, Martin I

    2015-05-01

    School closures may delay the epidemic peak of the next influenza pandemic, but whether school closure can delay the peak until pandemic vaccine is ready to be deployed is uncertain. To study the effect of school closures on the timing of epidemic peaks, we built a deterministic susceptible-infected-recovered model of influenza transmission. We stratified the U.S. population into 4 age groups (0-4, 5-19, 20-64, and ≥ 65 years), and used contact matrices to model the average number of potentially disease transmitting, nonphysical contacts. For every week of school closure at day 5 of introduction and a 30% clinical attack rate scenario, epidemic peak would be delayed by approximately 5 days. For a 15% clinical attack rate scenario, 1 week closure would delay the peak by 9 days. Closing schools for less than 84 days (12 weeks) would not, however, reduce the estimated total number of cases. Unless vaccine is available early, school closure alone may not be able to delay the peak until vaccine is ready to be deployed. Conversely, if vaccination begins quickly, school closure may be helpful in providing the time to vaccinate school-aged children before the pandemic peaks. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Production of deerbrush and mountain whitethorn related to shrub volume and overstory crown closure

    Treesearch

    John G. Kie

    1985-01-01

    Annual production by deerbrush (Ceanothus integerrimus) and mountain whitethorn shrubs (C. cordulatus) in the south-central Sierra Nevada of California was related to shrub volume, volume squared, and overstory crown closure by regression models. production increased as shrub volume and volume squared increased, and decreased as...

  15. A possible closure relation for heat transport in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Lemons, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to search for an empirical closure relation for solar wind heat transport that applies to a microscopic scale. This task is approached by using the quasi-linear wave-particle formalism proposed by Perkins (1973) as a guide to derive an equation relating the relative drift speed between core-electron and proton populations to local bulk flow conditions. The resulting relationship, containing one free parameter, is found to provide a good characterization of Los Alamos Imp electron data measuring during the period from March 1971 through August 1974. An empirical closure relation is implied by this result because of the observed proportionality between heat flux and relative drift speed.

  16. Age-Related Changes Between the Level of Velopharyngeal Closure and the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Mason, Kazlin N; Perry, Jamie L; Riski, John E; Fang, Xiangming

    2016-03-01

    The primary focus of this study was to assess age-related changes in the vertical distance of the estimated level of velopharyngeal closure in relation to a prominent landmark of the cervical spine: the anterior tubercle of cervical vertebra 1 (C1). Midsagittal anatomic magnetic resonance images were examined across 51 participants with normal head and neck anatomy between 4 and 17 years of age. Results indicate that age is a strong predictor (P = 0.002) of the vertical distance between the level of velopharyngeal closure relative to C1. Specifically, as age increases, the vertical distance between the palatal plane and C1 becomes greater resulting in the level of velopharyngeal closure being located higher above C1 (range 4.88-10.55 mm). Results of this study provide insights into the clinical usefulness of using C1 as a surgical landmark for placement of pharyngoplasties in children with repaired cleft palate and persistent hypernasal speech. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.

  17. Age related changes between the level of velopharyngeal closure and the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Kazlin N.; Perry, Jamie L.; Riski, John E.; Fang, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of this study was to assess age related changes in the vertical distance of the estimated level of velopharyngeal closure in relation to a prominent landmark of the cervical spine: the anterior tubercle of cervical vertebrae one (C1). Midsagittal anatomical magnetic resonance images (MRI) were examined across 51 participants with normal head and neck anatomy between 4 and 17 years of age. Results indicate that age is a strong predictor (p = 0.002) of the vertical distance between the level of velopharyngeal closure relative to C1. Specifically, as age increases, the vertical distance between the palatal plane and C1 becomes greater resulting in the level of velopharyngeal closure being located higher above C1 (range 4.88mm to 10.55mm). Results of this study provide insights into the clinical usefulness of using C1 as a surgical landmark for placement of pharyngoplasties in children with repaired cleft palate and persistent hypernasal speech. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26963301

  18. Estimation of Land Surface Water and Energy Balance Closure Relation Using Conditional Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, L.; Entekhabi, D.; Salvucci, G.

    2007-12-01

    Numerical models of heat and moisture diffusion in the soil-vegetation- atmosphere continuum are linked through a closure relationship that characterizes soil moisture limits on moisture flow (e.g., root-extraction limitations, relative evaporation efficiency or beta functions, soil relative humidity or alpha functions, etc.). The performance of various models of water and energy is highly dependent on the nature of these closure relationships, but as important as they are, they remain largely invalidated especially across diverse soil and vegetation conditions. In this presentation a new approach for estimating the functional form for the water and energy closure relationship is proposed. The approach is scalable to diverse climates and land surface conditions using remotely sensed measurements. Parameters of the system (water balance and Energy balance) are estimated by developing objective functions that link atmospheric forcing, surface state and unknown parameters. This approach is based on conditional averaging of heat and moisture balance equations. Conditioning states are land surface temperature and moisture states which will ultimately be obtained from global remote sensing measurements. Based on conditional averaging, a single objective function is expressed that measures the moisture and temperature dependent errors solely in terms of observed forcings (e.g. precipitation, radiation) and surface states (moisture and temperature). This objective function can be minimized with respect to parameters to identify evaporation and drainage models and estimate water and energy balance.

  19. Stress urinary incontinence: relative importance of urethral support and urethral closure pressure.

    PubMed

    DeLancey, John O L; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Miller, Janis M; Morgan, Daniel M; Guire, Kenneth; Fenner, Dee E; Weadock, William J; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2008-06-01

    Treatment strategies for stress incontinence are based on the concept that urethral mobility is the predominant causal factor with sphincter function a secondary contributor. To our knowledge the relative importance of these 2 factors has not been assessed in properly controlled studies. The Research on Stress Incontinence Etiology project is a case-control study that compared 103 women with stress incontinence and 108 asymptomatic controls in groups matched for age, race, parity and hysterectomy. Urethral closure pressure, urethral and pelvic organ support, levator ani muscle function and intravesical pressure were measured and analyzed using logistic regression and multivariable modeling. Mean +/- SD maximal urethral closure pressure was 42% lower in cases (40.8 +/- 17.1 vs 70.2 +/- 22.4 cm H(2)O, d = 1.47). Lesser effect sizes were seen for support parameters, including resting urethral axis and urethrovaginal support (d = 0.41 and 0.50, respectively). Other pelvic floor parameters, including genital hiatus size and urethral axis during muscle contraction (d = 0.60 and 0.58, respectively), differed but levator strength and levator defect status did not. Maximum cough pressure, which is an assessment of stress on the continence mechanism, was also different (d = 0.43). After adjusting for body mass index the maximal urethral closure pressure alone correctly classified 50% of cases. Adding the best predictors for urethrovaginal support and cough strength to the model added 11% of predictive ability. The finding that maximal urethral closure pressure and not urethral support is the factor most strongly associated with stress incontinence implies that improving urethral function may have therapeutic promise.

  20. Systematic review with meta-analysis of studies comparing primary duct closure and T-tube drainage after laparoscopic common bile duct exploration for choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Podda, Mauro; Polignano, Francesco Maria; Luhmann, Andreas; Wilson, Michael Samuel James; Kulli, Christoph; Tait, Iain Stephen

    2016-03-01

    With advances in laparoscopic instrumentation and acquisition of advanced laparoscopic skills, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) is technically feasible and increasingly practiced by surgeons worldwide. Traditional practice of suturing the dochotomy with T-tube drainage may be associated with T-tube-related complications. Primary duct closure (PDC) without a T-tube has been proposed as an alternative to T-tube placement (TTD) after LCBDE. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of PDC when compared to TTD after LCBDE for choledocholithiasis. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for studies comparing primary duct closure and T-tube drainage. Studies were reviewed for the primary outcome measures: overall postoperative complications, postoperative biliary-specific complications, re-interventions, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes assessed were: operating time, median hospital expenses, and general complications. Sixteen studies comparing PDC and TTD qualified for inclusion in our meta-analysis, with a total of 1770 patients. PDC showed significantly better results when compared to TTD in terms of postoperative biliary peritonitis (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.76, P = 0.02), operating time (WMD, -22.27, 95% CI -33.26 to -11.28, P < 0.00001), postoperative hospital stay (WMD, -3.22; 95% CI -4.52 to -1.92, P < 0.00001), and median hospital expenses (SMD, -1.37, 95% CI -1.96 to -0.77, P < 0.00001). Postoperative hospital stay was significantly decreased in the primary duct closure with internal biliary drainage (PDC + BD) group when compared to TTD group (WMD, -2.68; 95% CI -3.23 to -2.13, P < 0.00001). This comprehensive meta-analysis demonstrates that PDC after LCBDE is feasible and associated with fewer complications than TTD. Based on these results, primary duct closure may be considered

  1. Fast parallel algorithms that compute transitive closure of a fuzzy relation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik YA.

    1993-01-01

    The notion of a transitive closure of a fuzzy relation is very useful for clustering in pattern recognition, for fuzzy databases, etc. The original algorithm proposed by L. Zadeh (1971) requires the computation time O(n(sup 4)), where n is the number of elements in the relation. In 1974, J. C. Dunn proposed a O(n(sup 2)) algorithm. Since we must compute n(n-1)/2 different values s(a, b) (a not equal to b) that represent the fuzzy relation, and we need at least one computational step to compute each of these values, we cannot compute all of them in less than O(n(sup 2)) steps. So, Dunn's algorithm is in this sense optimal. For small n, it is ok. However, for big n (e.g., for big databases), it is still a lot, so it would be desirable to decrease the computation time (this problem was formulated by J. Bezdek). Since this decrease cannot be done on a sequential computer, the only way to do it is to use a computer with several processors working in parallel. We show that on a parallel computer, transitive closure can be computed in time O((log(sub 2)(n))2).

  2. CFD-informed unified closure relation for the rise velocity of Taylor bubbles in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarraga-Garcia, Enrique; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Al-Safran, Eissa; Lakehal, Djamel

    2015-11-01

    Two-phase slug flow commonly occurs in gas and oil systems. Current predictive methods are based on the mechanistic models, which require the use of closure relations to complement the conservation equations to predict integral flow parameters such as liquid holdup (or void fraction) and pressure gradient. Taylor bubble velocity in slug flow is one of these closure relations which has been determined to significantly affect the calculation of these parameters. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with Level-Set as the Interface Tracking Method (ITM) are employed to simulate the motion of Taylor bubbles in slug flow, for which the commercial code TransAT is used. A large numerical database with stagnant and flowing liquid for various Reynolds numbers is being generated from which a unified Taylor bubble velocity correlation in stagnant liquids for an ample range of fluid properties and pipe geometries is proposed (Mo ∈ [ 1 .10-6 , 5 .103 ] , Eo ∈ [ 10 , 700 ]). Furthermore, it is found that the velocity of Taylor bubbles in inclined pipes is greatly affected by the presence of a lubricating thin film between the bubble and the pipe wall. An analytical and experimentally validated criterion, which predicts the film existence, draiage and breakup, is presented.

  3. Exploring the impact of a community hospital closure on older adults: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults.

  4. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF A COMMUNITY HOSPITAL CLOSURE ON OLDER ADULTS: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults. PMID:24448403

  5. Impact of seasonal influenza-related school closures on families - Southeastern Kentucky, February 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-12-25

    During influenza epidemics, little is known about how influenza-related school closures affect families. Many children meet nutritional needs through school food programs, and schools provide child care both during and after school. Moreover, schools rely on student attendance to meet federal and state funding and educational requirements. To assess the impact of school closings on families, the Kentucky Department for Public Health (KDPH) conducted a telephone survey of randomly sampled households whose children attended schools in two adjacent school districts that had been closed because of high absenteeism during an outbreak of seasonal influenza in the community in February 2008. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which indicated that 97.0% of respondents agreed with the decision to close schools. In 29.1% of households, an adult had to miss work to provide child care, and in 15.7% of households, at least one adult lost pay because of missed work. Although the schools closed because of high absenteeism affecting school operations and funding, this was not fully communicated to families; 64.4% of respondents believed the closures would "keep people from getting ill," and 90.8% thought it was "extremely or very important" to disinfect schools while closed to reduce community spread of influenza. School districts and health departments should provide families with specific information about the reason for school closings and provide recommendations for reducing the spread of influenza while students are dismissed from school.

  6. The association of membrane frizzled-related protein (MFRP) gene with acute angle-closure glaucoma – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, I-Jong; Lin, Shan; Chiang, Ting-Hsuan; Chen, Zoe Tzu-Yi; Lin, Luke L.K.; Hung, Por-Tying

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The membrane frizzled-related protein (MFRP) has been proposed as a probable candidate gene for extreme hyperopia and nanophthalmos, which are factors for angle-closure glaucoma. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether there are significant associations between angle-closure glaucoma and sequence variants in the MFRP gene reported previously in Taiwanese subjects. Methods Genomic DNA was collected from 63 subjects with angle-closure glaucoma and 66 age-matched and gender-matched controls without angle-closure glaucoma. Three sequence variants were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing in all of the cases and controls. Results None of the three sequence variants showed a significant result in terms of association with disease. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping confirmed that these alleles have a comparatively strong LD index greater than 0.7 for D' and greater than 0.4 for r2 at these polymorphisms. However, we found there were no statistical associations between any of the three sequence variants located on MFRP and angle-closure glaucoma. Conclusions In our pilot study, variations that we tested in MFRP were not associated with the development of acute angle-closure glaucoma in Taiwanese subjects. PMID:18781223

  7. Randomized comparison of postoperative short-term and mid-term complications between T-tube and primary closure after CBD exploration.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Iqbal; Zula, Pai; Yimit, Yusp; Jaan, Ajim Tuergan; Wen, Hao

    2014-11-01

    To compare the postoperative short-term and mid-term complications in patients who underwent CBD exploration and closure by using T-tube or primary closure. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Hepatobiliary Department of First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China, from August 2009 to March 2013. A total of 148 consecutive patients with Common Bile Duct Stones (CBDS) and CBD dilation were enrolled in this randomized study to undergo open cholecystectomy with CBD exploration. Pre-operative findings, postoperative short-term complications, postoperative follow-up (mid-term), and hospital stay were recorded and analyzed. A T-tube was inserted in 76 (51.35%) patients and the primary closure was done in 72 (48.64%) patients. There were no differences in the demographic characteristics and clinical presentations between the two groups. Compared with the T-tube group 8.97 ± 1.629 days, the postoperative stay in primary closure 5.34 ± 1.25 days was significantly shorter (p < 0.01). The incidence of overall postoperative short-term complications and mid-term complications were statistically but not significantly lower in the primary closure group (9.7%) than that in T-tube group (17.10%, p=0.189). Complications in the primary closure group were lower than that in T-tube group but there was no significant statistical difference. So during open surgery for CBD stones, primary closure of CBD appeared safe and effective with shorter hospital stays and less complications.

  8. On the relation between the conditional moment closure and unsteady flamelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. Y.

    2001-09-01

    We consider the relation between the conditional moment closure (CMC) and the unsteady flamelet model (FM). The CMC equations were originally constructed as global equations, while FM was derived asymptotically for a thin reaction zone. The recent tendency is to use FM-type equations as global equations. We investigate the possible consequences and suggest a new version of FM: coordinate-invariant FM (CIFM). Unlike FM, CIFM complies with conditional properties of the exact transport equations which are used effectively in CMC. We analyse the assumptions needed to obtain another global version of FM: representative interactive flamelets (RIF), from original FM and demonstrate that, in homogeneous turbulence, one of these assumptions is equivalent to the main CMC hypothesis.

  9. Design and Rationale of the Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) Study

    PubMed Central

    Behnes, Michael; Ünsal, Melike; Hoffmann, Ursula; Fastner, Christian; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Lang, Siegfried; Mashayekhi, Kambis; Lehmann, Ralf; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bleeding events after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are associated with patients’ age, gender, and the presence of chronic kidney disease, antithrombotic treatment, as well as arterial access site. Patients being treated by PCI using radial access site are associated with an improved prognosis. However, the safety of femoral closure devices has never been compared to radial compression devices following PCI. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of femoral closure compared to radial compression devices in patients treated by PCI envisaging access site bleedings as well as short- and long-term prognostic outcomes. METHODS The Femoral Closure versus Radial Compression Devices Related to Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (FERARI) study is a single-center observational study comparing 400 consecutive patients undergoing PCI either using radial compression devices (TR Band™) or femoral closure devices (Angio-Seal™) at the corresponding access site. The primary outcome consists of the occurrence of vascular complications at the arterial access site, including major bleedings as defined by common classification systems. Secondary outcomes consist of the occurrence of adverse cardiac events, including all-cause mortality, target lesion revascularization, and target vessel revascularization during 30 days and 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS Study enrollment was initiated in February 2014. The enrollment phase is expected to last until May 2015. CONCLUSIONS The FERARI study intends to comparatively evaluate the safety and prognostic outcome of patients being treated by radial or femoral arterial closure devices following PCI during daily clinical practice. PMID:26568686

  10. How Linguistic Closure and Verbal Working Memory Relate to Speech Recognition in Noise—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Kramer, Sophia E.; Festen, Joost M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations. PMID:23945955

  11. How linguistic closure and verbal working memory relate to speech recognition in noise--a review.

    PubMed

    Besser, Jana; Koelewijn, Thomas; Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E; Festen, Joost M

    2013-06-01

    The ability to recognize masked speech, commonly measured with a speech reception threshold (SRT) test, is associated with cognitive processing abilities. Two cognitive factors frequently assessed in speech recognition research are the capacity of working memory (WM), measured by means of a reading span (Rspan) or listening span (Lspan) test, and the ability to read masked text (linguistic closure), measured by the text reception threshold (TRT). The current article provides a review of recent hearing research that examined the relationship of TRT and WM span to SRTs in various maskers. Furthermore, modality differences in WM capacity assessed with the Rspan compared to the Lspan test were examined and related to speech recognition abilities in an experimental study with young adults with normal hearing (NH). Span scores were strongly associated with each other, but were higher in the auditory modality. The results of the reviewed studies suggest that TRT and WM span are related to each other, but differ in their relationships with SRT performance. In NH adults of middle age or older, both TRT and Rspan were associated with SRTs in speech maskers, whereas TRT better predicted speech recognition in fluctuating nonspeech maskers. The associations with SRTs in steady-state noise were inconclusive for both measures. WM span was positively related to benefit from contextual information in speech recognition, but better TRTs related to less interference from unrelated cues. Data for individuals with impaired hearing are limited, but larger WM span seems to give a general advantage in various listening situations.

  12. Influence of load interactions on crack growth as related to state of stress and crack closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) after an application of a low-high loading sequence was investigated as a function of specimen thickness and crack closure. No load interaction effects were detected for specimens in a predominant plane strain state. However, for the plane stress specimens, initially high FCP rates after transition to a higher stress intensity range were observed. The difference in observed behavior was explained by examining the effect of the resulting closure stress intensity values on the effective stress intensity range.

  13. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  14. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  15. A bottom-up approach to derive the closure relation for modelling hydrological fluxes at the watershed scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannametee, Ekkamol; Karssenberg, Derek; Hendriks, Martin; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Physically-based hydrological modelling could be considered as an ideal approach for predictions in ungauged basins because observable catchment characteristics can be used to parameterize the model, avoiding model calibration using discharge data, which are not available. Lumped physically-based modelling at the watershed scale is possible with the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW) approach. A key to successful application of this approach is to find a reliable way of developing closure relations to calculate fluxes from different hydrological compartments in the REWs. Here, we present a bottom-up approach as a generic framework to identify the closure relations for particular hydrological processes that are scale-independent and can be directly parameterized using the local-scale observable REW characteristics. The approach is illustrated using the Hortonian runoff as an example. This approach starts from developing a physically-based high-resolution model describing the Hortonian runoff mechanism based on physically-based infiltration theory and runoff generation processes at a local scale. This physically-based model is used to generate a synthetic discharge data set of hypothetical rainfall events and HRUs (6×105 scenarios) as a surrogate for real-world observations. The Hortonian runoff closure relation is developed as a lumped process-based model, consisting of the Green-Ampt equation, a time-lagged linear reservoir model, and three scale-transfer parameters representing the processes within REWs. These scale-transfer parameters are identified by calibrating the closure relations against the synthetic discharge data set for each scenario run, which are, in turn, empirically related to their corresponding observable REW properties and rainstorm characteristics. This results in a parameter library, which allows direct estimation of scaling parameter for arbitrary REWs based on their local-scale observable properties and rainfall characteristics

  16. Biased assimilation and need for closure: examining the effects of mixed blogs on vaccine-related beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoli; Daily, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the effect of mixed online information, in the form of user-generated blogs, related to the HPV vaccine on perceived efficacy and safety of this vaccine. Guided by the theoretical frameworks of biased assimilation and need for closure, this research hypothesizes that exposure to mixed blogs about the HPV vaccine will lead to polarization of HPV vaccine-related beliefs among individuals with opposing prior opinions about vaccination and that the polarizing effects will be most pronounced among those high in need for closure. A controlled experiment (N = 338) found support for the hypotheses with regard to efficacy beliefs but not with regard to safety beliefs. Implications for health communication research and practice are discussed.

  17. Efficacy of the Ovesco Clip for Closure of Endoscope Related Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Angsuwatcharakon, Phonthep; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Rattanachu-ek, Thawee; Sottisuporn, Jaksin; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the efficacy and other treatment outcomes of Ovesco clip closure of iatrogenic perforation. Methods. Retrospective study from 3 tertiary-care hospitals in Thailand. Patients with iatrogenic perforation who underwent immediate endoscopic closure by Ovesco clip were included. Patients' demographic data, perforation size, number of Ovesco clips used, fasting day, length of hospital stay, success rates, and complication rate were recorded. Technical success was defined as closure achievement during endoscopic procedure and clinical success was defined as the patient can be discharged without the need of additional surgical or radiological intervention. Results. There were 6 iatrogenic perforations in 2 male and 4 female patients. The median age was 59 years (range 39–78 years). The locations of perforation were 5 duodenal walls and 1 rectosigmoid junction. The median perforation size was 13 mm (range 10–40 mm). The technical success was 100% and the clinical success was 83.3%. The success rates per locations were 100% in colon and 80% in duodenum, respectively. The median fasting time was 5 days (range 1–10 days) and the median length of hospital stay was 10 days (range 2–22 days). There was no mortality in any. Conclusion. Ovesco clip seems to be an effective and safe tool for a closure of iatrogenic perforation. PMID:27293368

  18. Exploring diabetes type 1-related stigma

    PubMed Central

    Abdoli, Samereh; Abazari, Parvaneh; Mardanian, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Empowerment of people with diabetes means integrating diabetes with identity. However, others’ stigmatization can influence it. Although diabetes is so prevalent among Iranians, there is little knowledge about diabetes-related stigma in Iran. The present study explored diabetes-related stigma in people living with type 1 diabetes in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: A conventional content analysis was used with in-depth interview with 26 people with and without diabetes from November 2011 to July 2012. Results: A person with type 1 diabetes was stigmatized as a miserable human (always sick and unable, death reminder, and intolerable burden), rejected marriage candidate (busy spouse, high-risk pregnant), and deprived of a normal life [prisoner of (to must), deprived of pleasure]. Although, young adults with diabetes undergo all aspects of the social diabetes-related stigma; in their opinion they were just deprived of a normal life Conclusion: It seems that in Isfahan, diabetes-related stigma is of great importance. In this way, conducting an appropriate intervention is necessary to improve the empowerment process in people with type 1 diabetes in order to reduce the stigma in the context. PMID:23983731

  19. Stent-grafts in the management of hemorrhagic complications related to hemostatic closure devices: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Giansante Abud, Daniel; Mounayer, Charbel; Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre; Rezende, Marco Túlio Salles; Houdart, Emmanuel; Moret, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    We report 2 cases of hemorrhagic complications related to use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device that were successfully managed with stent-grafts. Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to our departments for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The treatment was performed through a femoral access; the sheaths were removed immediately after the procedures, and the punctures sites closed by Angio-Seals. Both patients presented clinical signs of hypovolemic shock after treatment. The diagnosis of active bleeding through the puncture site was made by emergency digital subtraction angiography. The lesions were managed with stent-grafts. The use of stent-grafts proved to be efficient in the management of these life-threatening hemorrhagic complications following the use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the closure pattern of the neurocentral junction as related to preexistent rotation in the normal immature spine.

    PubMed

    Schlösser, Tom P C; Vincken, Koen L; Attrach, Hamid; Kuijf, Hugo J; Viergever, Max A; Janssen, Michiel M A; Castelein, René M

    2013-07-01

    The normal spine is not a symmetrical structure. In recent studies, we demonstrated the presence of an axial rotational pattern that is similar to what is seen in the most prevalent curve patterns in idiopathic scoliosis at different ages. This suggests that if the spine starts to decompensate into scoliosis, it follows this preexistent rotational pattern. In scoliosis, the neurocentral junctions (NCJs) close asymmetrically, which leads to a different pedicle morphology in the convexity and concavity of the curve. The present study aimed to establish at which age the NCJ closes in different regions of the spine, whether it closes asymmetrically in the nonscoliotic spine as well and whether the closure pattern is related to the earlier demonstrated preexistent rotation. To evaluate the closure pattern and surface area of the left and right NCJs throughout the normal immature spine in relation to the preexistent spinal rotation at different ages. Retrospective cohort study using a systematic, semiautomatic analysis. Computed tomography (CT) scans of the thorax and abdomen of 199 nonscoliotic children (0-16 years old) were systemically analyzed. CT scans had been obtained for several reasons unrelated to this study, for example, recurrent respiratory infections, malignant disease (not involving the spine), or work up before bone marrow transplantation. Scans were categorized according to the criteria of the Scoliosis Research Society into infantile (0-3 years old), juvenile (4-9 years old), and adolescent (10-16 years old) age cohorts. Closure, absolute surface area, and the angle between the longitudinal axis of the left and right NCJ and preexistent vertebral rotation at each spinal level. Transverse CT slices were systemically analyzed for closure and asymmetry of the absolute area of 4,992 NCJs from spinal levels T2-L5. The outcome measures were analyzed semiautomatically using custom-made software developed at our institution (ImageXplorer; Image Sciences

  1. Stent-Grafts in the Management of Hemorrhagic Complications Related to Hemostatic Closure Devices: Report of Two Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Giansante Abud, Daniel; Mounayer, Charbel; Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre; Salles Rezende, Marco Tulio; Houdart, Emmanuel; Moret, Jacques

    2007-02-15

    We report 2 cases of hemorrhagic complications related to use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device that were successfully managed with stent-grafts. Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to our departments for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The treatment was performed through a femoral access; the sheaths were removed immediately after the procedures, and the punctures sites closed by Angio-Seals. Both patients presented clinical signs of hypovolemic shock after treatment. The diagnosis of active bleeding through the puncture site was made by emergency digital subtraction angiography. The lesions were managed with stent-grafts. The use of stent-grafts proved to be efficient in the management of these life-threatening hemorrhagic complications following the use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device.

  2. Relative Risk Factors for Cardiac Erosion Following Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defects: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    McElhinney, Doff B; Quartermain, Michael D; Kenny, Damien; Alboliras, Ernerio; Amin, Zahid

    2016-05-03

    Transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) using the Amplatzer septal occluder is generally safe and effective, but erosion into the pericardial space or aorta has been described. Although the absolute risk of this complication is low, there has been no assessment of relative risk factors. All erosions reported to St. Jude Medical after ASD closure with an Amplatzer septal occluder (cases) were compared with controls (matched 2:1) who underwent ASD closure but did not develop an erosion. A total of 125 erosions were reported between 2002 and 2014, including 95 with an available echocardiogram. The median duration from implant to erosion was 14 days, but was >1 year in 16 patients. Nine patients (all age ≥17 years) who died were more likely to have an oversized device, and to have erosion into the aorta, than survivors. Aortic or superior vena cava rim deficiencies were more common in cases than in controls. In addition, larger balloon-sized ASD diameter, Amplatzer septal occluder device size, and device size-ASD diameter difference, and smaller weight:device size ratio were associated with erosion. On multivariable analysis, deficiency of any rim, device >5 mm larger than ASD diameter, and weight:device size ratio were associated with erosion. In addition to aortic rim deficiency, which was almost universal among erosion cases, there were several relative risk factors for erosion after ASD closure with the Amplatzer septal occluder device. To understand the mechanisms of and absolute risk factors for this uncommon but serious complication, an adequately powered prospective study with thorough echocardiographic evaluation will be critical. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. ENVIMINE - developing environmental and geodynamical safety related to mine closure in the Barents region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, Ulpu; Kupila, Juho; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Konukhin, Vladimir; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    A project of mining environmental research in the Barents region was carried out in 2012-2014, in cooperation between Geological Survey of Finland, Mining Institute of Kola Science Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, and Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. The study areas were the active chrome mine of Kemi in Northern Finland, and the closed mines of Umbozero in Murmansk region, Northwestern Russia, and Laver in Northern Sweden. Umbozero mine, producing rare earth metals, was in operation 1984-2004. Laver mine with iron sulphide ore, producing copper, was in operation 1936-1946. The objectives of the project were to develop a methodology for environmentally safe mine closure by cross border cooperation, and to produce information of the mining environment for target groups. The aim was also to find out solutions for minimizing environmental impacts and to develop multilateral relations between Finnish, Russian and Swedish organizations, responsible for environmental management. The studies were carried out by sampling and analyzing of groundwater and surface water, surficial deposits and organic sediments of streams in the mine sites and reference areas. Composition of deposits in the tailings was carried out by means of geophysical measurements (GPR, XRF). Research data of Kemi mine indicate diminished emissions, especially after open pit mining was finished in 2006. The results in Laver, Sweden, indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains in the tailings. Problems in Umbozero are seismic instability, high pH values of waters (max. 10.4), fluorine and aluminum concentrations in the mine site, due to the rock type. Concentrations were decreasing downstream, also heavy metal concentrations were low. Results of the project are the basis for updated database of environmental condition of the study areas and for

  4. Military Base Realignments and Closures: Observations Related to the 2005 Round

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-06

    forces could be at risk (GAO-05-905, p. 25-26). The Commission’s report included concerns about the loss of intellectual capital as a result of some...closure or realignment actions. For example, the Commission specifically noted that the loss of some intellectual capital was to be expected from the...view that the loss of intellectual capital was an implementation challenge that must be managed with careful planning and sequencing. The

  5. Primary Closure Following Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration Combined with Intraoperative Choledochoscopy and D-J Tube Drainage for Treating Choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Miao; Xue, Huanzhou; Shen, Quan; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Ke; Jia, Meng; Jia, Jiangkun; Xu, Jian

    2017-09-19

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to assess the clinical short-term results of a primary closure following laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) combined with intraoperative choledochoscopy and D-J tube drainage for choledocholithiasis treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-five patients (14 women and 11 men) who underwent LCBDE with primary duct closure and D-J tube drainage for choledocholithiasis were retrospectively enrolled. The D-J tube (4.7F×14 cm) was removed using a duodenoscope if there was no bile leakage. Before discharge, patients were examined for blood amylase. After discharge or D-J tube removal, all patients were routinely assessed for complications. RESULTS Mean operating time was 135±46 min (range, 78-195 min). Mean intraoperative blood loss was 71±24 mL (range, 25-110 mL). Total hospital stay was 6-9 days (mean, 8.04±1.37 days). Two patients experienced intraoperative bile leakage, which was stopped with re-suturing. None of these patients experienced postoperative bile leaks. Three patients had slight elevation of serum amylase before discharge but without pancreatitis signs. The successful clearance rate of stones was 100%. During 1-year follow-up, no recurrence or severe complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS A primary closure following LCBDE combined with intraoperative choledochoscopy and D-J tube drainage is safe and feasible for choledocholithiasis treatment.

  6. On-orbit demonstrations of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing serviceable NASA Explorer platform spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohweisner, Bill; Pairot, Jean-Michael

    1991-01-01

    Since 1984 the European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability to enable Hermes to dock automatically with Columbus. As a result, ESA (with Matra, MBB, and other space companies) have developed technologies that are directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments and suggest how these capabilities could be used together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite to minimize new development and accomplish a cost-effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program.

  7. Primary closure for postoperative mediastinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Ohye, Richard G; Maniker, Robert B; Graves, Holly L; Devaney, Eric J; Bove, Edward L

    2004-09-01

    Mediastinitis affects approximately 1% of children undergoing median sternotomy. Conventional therapy involves debridement followed by open wound care with delayed closure, days to weeks of closed suction or antimicrobial irrigation, and vacuum-assisted closure or muscle flap closure. We hypothesized that primary closure without prolonged suction or irrigation is an effective, less traumatic treatment for mediastinitis in children. From January 1986 to July 2002, 6705 procedures involving median sternotomy were performed at the C. S. Mott Children's Hospital, resulting in 57 cases of mediastinitis (0.85%). Cases were divided into 2 groups, with 42 cases treated with primary closure and 15 cases treated with delayed or muscle flap closure. The 42 cases of primary closure comprised the primary study group of this institutional review board-approved, retrospective analysis. Patient demographics, surgical variables, mediastinitis-related parameters, and outcomes were evaluated. One patient had recurrent mediastinitis for an overall infection eradication rate of 97% (40/41). Three patients (7%) required re-exploration for suspected ongoing infection. Of these re-explorations, 1 patient had evidence of continued mediastinitis. The remaining 2 patients with sepsis of unclear cause had no clinical or culture evidence of recurrent infection. One of these patients ultimately died of sepsis without active mediastinitis for a hospital survival of 97% (41/42). No significant differences could be detected between the treatment successes and failures in this small cohort of patients. Simple primary closure is an effective means to treat selected cases of postoperative mediastinitis in children. The results compare favorably with other more lengthy or debilitating treatments.

  8. Theory and Implementation of Nuclear Safety System Codes - Part II: System Code Closure Relations, Validation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A Roth; Fatih Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    This is Part II of two articles describing the details of thermal-hydraulic sys- tem codes. In this second part of the article series, the system code closure relationships (used to model thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium and the coupling of the phases) for the governing equations are discussed and evaluated. These include several thermal and hydraulic models, such as heat transfer coefficients for various flow regimes, two phase pressure correlations, two phase friction correlations, drag coefficients and interfacial models be- tween the fields. These models are often developed from experimental data. The experiment conditions should be understood to evaluate the efficacy of the closure models. Code verification and validation, including Separate Effects Tests (SETs) and Integral effects tests (IETs) is also assessed. It can be shown from the assessments that the test cases cover a significant section of the system code capabilities, but some of the more advanced reactor designs will push the limits of validation for the codes. Lastly, the limitations of the codes are discussed by considering next generation power plants, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), analyz- ing not only existing nuclear power plants, but also next generation nuclear power plants. The nuclear industry is developing new, innovative reactor designs, such as Small Modular Reactors (SMRs), High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs) and others. Sub-types of these reactor designs utilize pebbles, prismatic graphite moderators, helical steam generators, in- novative fuel types, and many other design features that may not be fully analyzed by current system codes. This second part completes the series on the comparison and evaluation of the selected reactor system codes by discussing the closure relations, val- idation and limitations. These two articles indicate areas where the models can be improved to adequately address issues with new reactor design and development.

  9. Successful closure of anal cancer-related fistulas with upfront intra-arterial chemotherapy: a report of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Kridel, Robert; Cochet, Stéphane; Roche, Bruno; Bressoud, Albéric; Gervaz, Pascal; Betz, Michael; Roth, Arnaud D

    2011-05-01

    Fistulas arising from the perforation of anal cancer into adjacent organs are a debilitating complication in the course of the disease. We studied intra-arterial chemotherapy as a strategy to close such fistulas before the initiation of standard chemoradiation. This study was based on a retrospective chart review. The investigation was conducted at Geneva University Hospital. Eight patients with anal cancer-related fistulas were included in the study. Patients were treated at our institution from 2002 to 2009 with upfront chemotherapy consisting of 1 to 4 cycles of intra-arterial cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, and mitomycin C, and intravenous bleomycin. Intra-arterial chemotherapy was followed by standard chemoradiation. Fistula closure was assessed by an expert proctologist. Complete closure of fistulas was documented in 7 of 8 patients. Toxicity was manageable and consisted mainly of thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and febrile neutropenia as well as fatigue. This is a retrospective, uncontrolled review of only 8 patients and thus a meaningful comparison with standard chemoradiation is not feasible. Upfront intra-arterial chemotherapy is a promising strategy to close anal cancer-related fistulas before initiating chemoradiation, potentially obviating the need for hazardous reconstructive surgery after radiotherapy.

  10. Sampling and monitoring for closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLemore, V.T.; Russell, C.C.; Smith, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    The Metals Mining Sector of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI-MMS) addresses technical drainage-quality issues related to metal mining and related metallurgical operations, for future and active mines, as well as, for historical mines and mining districts. One of the first projects of ADTI-MMS is to develop a handbook describing the best sampling, monitoring, predicting, mitigating, and modeling of drainage from metal mines, pit lakes and related metallurgical facilities based upon current scientific and engineering practices. One of the important aspects of planning a new mine in today's regulatory environment is the philosophy of designing a new or existing mine or expansion of operations for ultimate closure. The holistic philosophy taken in the ADTI-MMS handbook maintains that sampling and monitoring programs should be designed to take into account all aspects of the mine-life cycle. Data required for the closure of the operation are obtained throughout the mine-life cycle, from exploration through post-closure.

  11. Recommendations for managing hospital closure.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, R; Bouthillette, F; Havlovic, S J

    1998-01-01

    An acute care hospital was closed by the British Columbia Ministry of Health in 1993. A research study was conducted to investigate the ways closure of the hospital affected hospital employees and to identify ways to facilitate the closure/reorganization process. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 25 employees around the time of closure and six months after the closure. In the category Living with Closure, six themes arose from the qualitative analysis. They related to (1) provision of information; (2) effect of closure on the working environment and colleagues; (3) perceived stress; (4) recognition of one's worth; (5) provision of support services; and (6) the process of having a new job. The authors offer recommendations stemming from the analysis, which are intended to assist others planning for future hospital reorganizations or closures.

  12. Intergenerational Relations and Testamentary Patterns: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler-Bowles, Carol A.; Kart, Cary S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines inheritance practices reflecting changes in family relationships in a largely rural area from 1820 to 1967. A stratified sample of 60 probated wills was content analyzed. A familistic inheritance pattern dominated, indicating the strong influences of testator obligation to family with highest priority to conjugal relations. (Author/JAC)

  13. Fetal ductus arteriosus constriction and closure: analysis of the causes and perinatal outcome related to 45 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lilian Maria; Carrilho, Milene Carvalho; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Lopes, Marco Antonio Borges; Krebs, Vera Lúcia Jornada; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the causes and perinatal outcome related to fetal ductus arteriosus constriction or closure at a single center over a 26-year period. This was a retrospective analysis of 45 consecutive cases of constriction (n = 41) and closure (n = 4) from 1987 through 2013. Patients were divided into Group A (maternal use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), n = 29), Group B (idiopathic, n = 8), and Group C (other drugs not previously described, n = 8). The median gestational age at diagnosis was 34 weeks (range, 27-38), mean systolic and diastolic velocity in the ductus arteriosus was 2.01 ± 0.66 m/s and 0.71 ± 0.46 m/s, respectively. Among the 29 cases of NSAIDs, 27.5% (8/29) have taken a single day use and 75% multiple days/doses. Right ventricular dilatation was present in 82.2% of the fetuses, tricuspid insufficiency in 86.6%, and heart failure in 22.2%. Neonatal persistent pulmonary hypertension occurred in 17.7% of the patients. Late follow-up showed all 43 survivors alive and healthy with only two deaths from unrelated causes. The results of this study indicate that clinically significant ductal constriction may follow maternal exposure to single doses of NSAIDs. Unknown causes or other new substances were also described, such as naphazoline, fluoxetine, isoxsuprine, caffeine and pesticides. Echocardiographic diagnosis of ductal constriction led to an active medical approach that resulted in low morbidity of this group of patients.

  14. Linearly exact parallel closures for slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.; Jhang, Hogun

    2013-08-01

    Parallel closures are obtained by solving a linearized kinetic equation with a model collision operator using the Fourier transform method. The closures expressed in wave number space are exact for time-dependent linear problems to within the limits of the model collision operator. In the adiabatic, collisionless limit, an inverse Fourier transform is performed to obtain integral (nonlocal) parallel closures in real space; parallel heat flow and viscosity closures for density, temperature, and flow velocity equations replace Braginskii's parallel closure relations, and parallel flow velocity and heat flow closures for density and temperature equations replace Spitzer's parallel transport relations. It is verified that the closures reproduce the exact linear response function of Hammett and Perkins [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 3019 (1990)] for Landau damping given a temperature gradient. In contrast to their approximate closures where the vanishing viscosity coefficient numerically gives an exact response, our closures relate the heat flow and nonvanishing viscosity to temperature and flow velocity (gradients).

  15. Visual Closure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groffman, Sidney

    An experimental test of visual closure based on an information-theory concept of perception was devised to test the ability to discriminate visual stimuli with reduced cues. The test is to be administered in a timed individual situation in which the subject is presented with sets of incomplete drawings of simple objects that he is required to name…

  16. Nutri-epigenomic Studies Related to Neural Tube Defects: Does Folate Affect Neural Tube Closure Via Changes in DNA Methylation?

    PubMed

    Rochtus, Anne; Jansen, Katrien; Van Geet, Chris; Freson, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs), affecting 1-2 per 1000 pregnancies, are severe congenital malformations that arise from the failure of neurulation during early embryonic development. The methylation hypothesis suggests that folate prevents NTDs by stimulating cellular methylation reactions. Folate is central to the one-carbon metabolism that produces pyrimidines and purines for DNA synthesis and for the generation of the methyldonor S-adenosyl-methionine. This review focuses on the relation between the folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, DNA methylation and NTDs. Studies will be discussed that investigated global or locus-specific DNA methylation differences in patients with NTDs. Folate deficiency may increase NTD risk by decreasing DNA methylation, but to date, human studies vary widely in study design in terms of analyzing different clinical subtypes of NTDs, using different methylation quantification assays and using DNA isolated from diverse types of tissues. Some studies have focused mainly on global DNA methylation differences while others have quantified specific methylation differences for imprinted genes, transposable elements and DNA repair enzymes. Findings of global DNA hypomethylation and LINE-1 hypomethylation suggest that epigenetic alterations may disrupt neural tube closure. However, current research does not support a linear relation between red blood cell folate concentration and DNA methylation. Further studies are required to better understand the interaction between folate, DNA methylation changes and NTDs.

  17. On violation of local closure of transport relation in high-temperature magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuya, N. Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Sugita, S.; Itoh, K.; Yagi, M.

    2014-11-15

    Rapid propagation of heat modulation and a hysteresis in the gradient-flux relation are found in a global nonlinear simulation of drift-interchange mode turbulence in toroidal helical plasmas. A global mode is excited nonlinearly and induces the turbulence flux in a limited radial region. The nonlinear couplings take a finite temporal duration for redistributing the energy. The mode also has a seesaw effect: increase of the amplitude of the global mode, at the other radii, works to absorb the energy form microscopic modes to suppress the turbulence. Successive excitations of microscopic modes cause the accelerated propagation of change of the heat flux like turbulence spreading after the onset of modulation. Owing to these processes, the hysteresis appears in the gradient-flux relation, which is compared with experiments.

  18. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: closure between hygroscopic growth and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. M.; Bar-Or, R. Z.; Bluvshtein, N.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Kostinski, A.; Borrmann, S.; Koren, I.; Rudich, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The extinction coefficient and growth factor of humidified aerosols, at 80% and 90% RH, and at 532 nm and 355 nm wavelengths were measured for size-selected particles for ammonium sulfate, IHSS Pahokee peat (a lightly absorbing humic-like substance proxy), nigrosine (a black dye to model highly absorbing substances), and a mixture of AS and nigrosine. The ratio of the humidified extinction coefficients to the dry (fRHext(%RH, Dry)) was explored. The measured fRHext(%RH, Dry) was compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory, using the measured growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing. The expected complex refractive indices (RIs) using the volume weighted mixing rule were compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements. Moreover, the differences between assuming a core-shell structure or a homogeneous mixing of the substances is examined. The laboratory results were used as a basis to model the change in the total extinction, the single scattering albedo (ω), and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the twilight zone of clouds at 355 nm and 532 nm. We found slightly linear to no dependency of fRH(%RH, Dry) with size for absorbing substances in contrast to the decreasing exponential behavior with size for purely scattering substances. However, no discernable difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 5% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. Moreover, for substances with growth factor less than 1.15 there was, in average, less than 5% difference between the extinction efficiencies calculated using a core-shell model and assuming homogeneous mixing for size parameters less than 2.5. For x>2.5 the differences were greater causing and overestimation of the extinction efficiency (Qext) values if homogenous mixing was assume instead of a core-shell structure. The

  19. Closure of an Open Wound Associated with Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in a Breast Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Soolari, Nafiseh; Soolari, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective: Many clinicians will not treat patients presenting with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw following long-term use of bisphosphonates because of the lack of predictable outcomes. Materical and Methods: The patient presented with pain from a nonhealing lesion in the posterior maxilla following extraction of the maxillary right third molar. The lesion had not responded to any conventional dental treatment. The patient had suffered from breast cancer, and her treatment included several years of therapy with Zometa (zoledronic acid), a bisphosphonate. Results: The patient stopped taking Zometa and commenced rinsing with phosphate buffer–stabilized 0.1% chlorine dioxide–containing mouthwash. After 5 months, changes in the morphology of the lesion were noted and the soft tissue had closed over the open wound. Conclusion: Cessation of bisphosphonate therapy and usage of a phosphate buffer–stabilized 0.1% chlorine dioxide–containing mouthwash lessened the patient’s pain and resulted in closure of the soft tissue lesion. PMID:22135700

  20. Duct closure

    DOEpatents

    Vowell, Kennison L.

    1987-01-01

    A closure for an inclined duct having an open upper end and defining downwardly extending passageway. The closure includes a cap for sealing engagement with the open upper end of the duct. Associated with the cap are an array of vertically aligned plug members, each of which has a cross-sectional area substantially conforming to the cross-sectional area of the passageway at least adjacent the upper end of the passageway. The plug members are interconnected in a manner to provide for free movement only in the plane in which the duct is inclined. The uppermost plug member is attached to the cap means and the cap means is in turn connected to a hoist means which is located directly over the open end of the duct.

  1. Closure device

    SciTech Connect

    Sable, D. E.

    1985-06-11

    A closure device connectible to a well head through which the polished rod of a rod string extends into a well tubing for operating pump means for moving well fluids to a surface flow conductor, the closure device having a tubular ram provided with a packing or plug for closing an annular passage between the polished rod and a tubular body connected to the well head above a lateral port of the tubular body, the tubular ram and the tubular body having thread means for moving the plug between an operative lower position wherein it closes the annular passage when the rod string is stationary and on inoperative upper position; seal means between the ram and the polished rod spaced above the plug; and a plurality of independent seal means between the ram and the tubular body operative when the plug is in its inoperative position. The plug of the closure device is especially adapted to operate under high temperature and pressure conditions of the well, as during steam injection operations when the rod string is stationary, to protect the seal means from high pressures and temperatures as well as any fluids which may be corrosive or otherwise deleterious to the substance of which the seal means are made.

  2. Death Related Themes in Anorexia Nervosa: A Practical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Janice; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored death-related themes in psychodynamic etiology of anorexia nervosa by comparing anorexic adolescent patients (n=28) to age-matched controls (n=238). Results suggest that death-related themes are of significance in the understanding and management of anorexia nervosa. (Author/ABL)

  3. Death Related Themes in Anorexia Nervosa: A Practical Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Janice; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored death-related themes in psychodynamic etiology of anorexia nervosa by comparing anorexic adolescent patients (n=28) to age-matched controls (n=238). Results suggest that death-related themes are of significance in the understanding and management of anorexia nervosa. (Author/ABL)

  4. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  5. Achieving closure at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburne, John; Patton, Tisha C.

    2001-02-25

    When Fluor Fernald took over the management of the Fernald Environmental Management Project in 1992, the estimated closure date of the site was more than 25 years into the future. Fluor Fernald, in conjunction with DOE-Fernald, introduced the Accelerated Cleanup Plan, which was designed to substantially shorten that schedule and save taxpayers more than $3 billion. The management of Fluor Fernald believes there are three fundamental concerns that must be addressed by any contractor hoping to achieve closure of a site within the DOE complex. They are relationship management, resource management and contract management. Relationship management refers to the interaction between the site and local residents, regulators, union leadership, the workforce at large, the media, and any other interested stakeholder groups. Resource management is of course related to the effective administration of the site knowledge base and the skills of the workforce, the attraction and retention of qualified a nd competent technical personnel, and the best recognition and use of appropriate new technologies. Perhaps most importantly, resource management must also include a plan for survival in a flat-funding environment. Lastly, creative and disciplined contract management will be essential to effecting the closure of any DOE site. Fluor Fernald, together with DOE-Fernald, is breaking new ground in the closure arena, and ''business as usual'' has become a thing of the past. How Fluor Fernald has managed its work at the site over the last eight years, and how it will manage the new site closure contract in the future, will be an integral part of achieving successful closure at Fernald.

  6. Closedure - Mine Closure Technologies Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppila, Päivi; Kauppila, Tommi; Pasanen, Antti; Backnäs, Soile; Liisa Räisänen, Marja; Turunen, Kaisa; Karlsson, Teemu; Solismaa, Lauri; Hentinen, Kimmo

    2015-04-01

    Closure of mining operations is an essential part of the development of eco-efficient mining and the Green Mining concept in Finland to reduce the environmental footprint of mining. Closedure is a 2-year joint research project between Geological Survey of Finland and Technical Research Centre of Finland that aims at developing accessible tools and resources for planning, executing and monitoring mine closure. The main outcome of the Closedure project is an updatable wiki technology-based internet platform (http://mineclosure.gtk.fi) in which comprehensive guidance on the mine closure is provided and main methods and technologies related to mine closure are evaluated. Closedure also provides new data on the key issues of mine closure, such as performance of passive water treatment in Finland, applicability of test methods for evaluating cover structures for mining wastes, prediction of water effluents from mine wastes, and isotopic and geophysical methods to recognize contaminant transport paths in crystalline bedrock.

  7. Role of household factors in parental attitudes to pandemic influenza-related school closure in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Mitsuo; Kaneko, Minoru; Kawa, Shigeyuki

    2014-10-21

    To investigate how household background factors affect parental behavior during pandemic influenza-related school closures, we determined associations between such factors and three parental attitudes: "caring for the child", "taking leave from work", and "permitting out-of-home activities". A hypothetical pandemic influenza situation was presented and a questionnaire survey among households of 2146 schoolchildren from 6 schools was conducted. Odds ratios of background factors were estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Responses pertaining to 1510 children indicated that junior high school (OR = 0.11), both parents working (OR = 0.03), and family including grandparent(s) or other relatives (OR = 7.50) were factors associated with "caring for the child", and elementary school (OR = 2.28), special education school (OR = 3.18), and both parents working (OR = 5.74) were associated with "taking leave from work". Having an older sibling (OR = 0.74) and awareness of the technical term for school closure (OR = 0.73) were factors associated with "permitting out-of-home activities". Not only work status but also other household factors may be associated with parental behaviors during pandemic influenza-related school closures.

  8. Cranial Suture Closure in Domestic Dog Breeds and Its Relationships to Skull Morphology.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Madeleine; Haussman, Sinah

    2016-04-01

    Bulldog-type brachycephalic domestic dog breeds are characterized by a relatively short and broad skull with a dorsally rotated rostrum (airorhynchy). Not much is known about the association between a bulldog-type skull conformation and peculiar patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure in domestic dogs. In this study, we aim to explore breed-specific patterns of cranial suture and synchondrosis closure in relation to the prebasial angle (proxy for airorhynchy and thus bulldog-type skull conformation) in domestic dogs. For this purpose, we coded closure of 18 sutures and synchondroses in 26 wolves, that is, the wild ancestor of all domestic dogs, and 134 domestic dogs comprising 11 breeds. Comparisons of the relative amount of closing and closed sutures and synchondroses (closure scores) in adult individuals showed that bulldog-type breeds have significantly higher closure scores than non-bulldog-type breeds and that domestic dogs have significantly higher closure scores than the wolf. We further found that the prebasial angle is significantly positively correlated with the amount of closure of the basispheno-presphenoid synchondrosis and sutures of the nose (premaxillo-nasal and maxillo-nasal) and the palate (premaxillo-maxillary and interpalatine). Our results show that there is a correlation between patterns of suture and synchondrosis closure and skull shape in domestic dogs, although the causal relationships remain elusive.

  9. Balancing the Counterpoint: Exploring Musical Contexts and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    Music is inherently connected to sociopolitical contexts and relations. Music and politics are intertwined both historically and presently, and there is much literature exploring the relationships between music and various political movements. In considering the importance of an approach to understand these connections and relationships, I suggest…

  10. Exploring Spiritual Beliefs in Relation to Adlerian Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanski, Patricia J.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes one counselor's exploration of her spiritual beliefs in relation to Adler's theory of counseling and human development in an effort to move toward ideological consistency and to enhance competence in addressing spiritual dimensions of clients' development. (Contains 34 references.) (GCP)

  11. The Motivation to Serve Others: Exploring Relations to Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study explored the relation between service motivation, or the desire to serve others through one's future career, and vocational outcomes across two studies. In the first study, using a sample of 225 undergraduate students, an instrument was developed to measure service motivation that demonstrated convergent and discriminant…

  12. Balancing the Counterpoint: Exploring Musical Contexts and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    Music is inherently connected to sociopolitical contexts and relations. Music and politics are intertwined both historically and presently, and there is much literature exploring the relationships between music and various political movements. In considering the importance of an approach to understand these connections and relationships, I suggest…

  13. ROCKET PORT CLOSURE

    DOEpatents

    Mattingly, J.T.

    1963-02-12

    This invention provides a simple pressure-actuated closure whereby windowless observation ports are opened to the atmosphere at preselected altitudes. The closure comprises a disk which seals a windowless observation port in rocket hull. An evacuated instrument compartment is affixed to the rocket hull adjacent the inner surface of the disk, while the outer disk surface is exposed to the atmosphere through which the rocket is traveling. The pressure differential between the evacuated instrument compartment and the relatively high pressure external atmosphere forces the disk against the edge of the observation port, thereby effecting a tight seai. The instrument compartment is evacuated to a pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure existing at the altitude at which it is desiretl that the closure should open. When the rocket reaches this preselected altitude, the inwardly directed atmospheric force on the disk is just equaled by the residual air pressure force within the instrument compartment. Consequently, the closure disk falls away and uncovers the open observation port. The separation of the disk from the rocket hull actuates a switch which energizes the mechanism of a detecting instrument disposed within the instrument compartment. (AE C)

  14. CLOSURE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Linzell, S.M.; Dorcy, D.J.

    1958-08-26

    A quick opening type of stuffing box employing two banks of rotatable shoes, each of which has a caraming action that forces a neoprene sealing surface against a pipe or rod where it passes through a wall is presented. A ring having a handle or wrench attached is placed eccentric to and between the two banks of shoes. Head bolts from the shoes fit into slots in this ring, which are so arranged that when the ring is rotated a quarter turn in one direction the shoes are thrust inwardly to cramp the neopnrene about the pipe, malting a tight seal. Moving the ring in the reverse direction moves the shoes outwardly and frees the pipe which then may be readily removed from the stuffing box. This device has particular application as a closure for the end of a coolant tube of a neutronic reactor.

  15. Angle closure in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention. PMID:12545694

  16. Robotic atrial septal defect closure.

    PubMed

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common congenital cardiac diseases. This pathology can be treated with percutaneous devices. However, some of the ASDs are not suitable for device closure. Also, there may be device-related late complications of transcatheter ASD closure. Currently, robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to close ASDs in a totally endoscopic fashion with a high success rate and a low complication rate. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic ASD closure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  17. EEG frequency tagging to explore the cortical activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures

    PubMed Central

    Moungou, Athanasia; Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Mouraux, André

    2016-01-01

    When sliding our fingertip against a textured surface, complex vibrations are produced in the skin. It is increasingly recognised that the neural transduction and processing of these vibrations plays an important role in the dynamic tactile perception of textures. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel means to tag the cortical activity related to the processing of these vibrations, by periodically modulating the amplitude of texture exploration-induced vibrations such as to record a steady-state evoked potential (SS-EP). The EEG was recorded while the right index fingertip was scanned against four different textures using a constant exploration velocity. Amplitude modulation of the elicited vibrations was achieved by periodically modulating the force applied against the finger. Frequency analysis of the recorded EEG signals showed that modulation of the vibrations induced by the fingertip-texture interactions elicited an SS-EP at the frequency of modulation (3 Hz) as well as its second harmonic (6 Hz), maximal over parietal regions contralateral to the stimulated side. Textures generating stronger vibrations also generated SS-EPs of greater magnitude. Our results suggest that frequency tagging using SS-EPs can be used to isolate and explore the brain activity related to the tactile exploration of natural textures. PMID:26853820

  18. Spacesuit torso closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, B. W.; Vykukal, H. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A simple, economical and reliable entry closure is described for joining opposite halves of a torso section for a pressure suit in a manner which simplifies self-donning. A single coupling joins coaxially aligned, axially separable, tubular segments of a hard spacesuit along an angulated zone of separation, adapted to be mated in an hermetrically sealing relation. A releasable C section clamp secures the members in their mated relationship.

  19. Exploring the Concept of HIV-Related Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; De Santis, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND HIV infection is a chronic, manageable illness. Despite advances in the care and treatment of people living with HIV infection, HIV-related stigma remains a challenge to HIV testing, care, and prevention. Numerous studies have documented the impact of HIV-related stigma among various groups of people living with HIV infection, but the concept of HIV-related stigma remains unclear. PURPOSE Concept exploration of HIV-related stigma via an integrative literature review was conducted in order to examine the existing knowledge base of this concept. METHODS Search engines were employed to review the existing knowledge base of this concept. CONCLUSION After the integrative literature review, an analysis of HIV-related stigma emerged. Implications for future concept analysis, research, and practice are included. PMID:22861652

  20. Interactive exploration of implicit and explicit relations in faceted datasets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Collins, Christopher; Chevalier, Fanny; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2013-12-01

    Many datasets, such as scientific literature collections, contain multiple heterogeneous facets which derive implicit relations, as well as explicit relational references between data items. The exploration of this data is challenging not only because of large data scales but also the complexity of resource structures and semantics. In this paper, we present PivotSlice, an interactive visualization technique which provides efficient faceted browsing as well as flexible capabilities to discover data relationships. With the metaphor of direct manipulation, PivotSlice allows the user to visually and logically construct a series of dynamic queries over the data, based on a multi-focus and multi-scale tabular view that subdivides the entire dataset into several meaningful parts with customized semantics. PivotSlice further facilitates the visual exploration and sensemaking process through features including live search and integration of online data, graphical interaction histories and smoothly animated visual state transitions. We evaluated PivotSlice through a qualitative lab study with university researchers and report the findings from our observations and interviews. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of PivotSlice using a scenario of exploring a repository of information visualization literature.

  1. Recommended Distribution Coefficients, Kd Values, for Special Analysis Risk Calculations Related to Waste Disposal and Tank Closure on the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2005-08-31

    The purpose of this document is to provide a technically defensible list of distribution coefficients, or Kd values, for use in performance assessment (PA) and special analysis (SA) calculations on the SRS. Only Kd values for radionuclides that have new information related to them or that have recently been recognized as being important are discussed in this report. Some 150 Kd values are provided in this report for various waste-disposal or tank-closure environments: soil, corrosion in grout, oxidizing grout waste, gravel, clay, and reducing concrete environments. Documentation and justification for the selection of each Kd value is provided.

  2. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  3. Fatigue-Related Countermeasures for Long-Duration Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, A.; Johnston, S.; Sipes, W.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program's (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) supports and conducts research to mitigate deleterious outcomes related to fatigue, sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload. Objective evidence indicates that within the context of the International Space Station (ISS), sleep is reduced and there is circadian misalignment. Despite chronic sleep loss and high workloads; however, astronauts successfully complete their missions. Contributing to their success is not only the tremendous skills and capabilities of each astronaut, but also the collaborative team efforts amongst the crew, between flight and ground crews, and through real-time care provided by medical personnel. It is anticipated that risks to human health and performance will increase in the context of exploration missions, where crewmembers will venture to deep space for extended durations and in small vehicles with limited communication with home. Hence, fatigue-related countermeasures are being developed and/or validated that include unobtrusive monitoring technologies to detect fatigue-related performance decrements, environmental countermeasures, and sleep education and training for flight and ground crews. Given that fatigue is an issue in current ISS missions, the BHP works collaboratively with Space Medicine operations to collect data in the operational environment, to validate fatigue-related countermeasures, and provide evidence-based mitigations. Our presentation will summarize fatigue-related operational research that is underway through NASA's BHP in partnership with its operational counterparts. Efforts include studies evaluating the effects of hypnotics, lighting protocols as countermeasures for circadian entrainment, and investigations involving education and training. This presentation will further identify, based on flight and terrestrial evidence, additional sleep and circadian countermeasures that may still be needed to support

  4. Exploring work-related issues on corporate sustainability.

    PubMed

    Brunoro, C M; Bolis, I; Sznelwar, L I

    2015-01-01

    In a research project about work-related issues and corporate sustainability conducted in Brazil, the goal was to better understand how work-related issues were addressed in the corporate context. Particularly, there are some specific initiatives that serve as guides to organizational decisions, which make their performance indicators for the context of corporate sustainability. 1) To explore the presence of work-related issues and their origins in corporate sustainability approach, analyzing a) corporate disclosures; b) sustainability guidelines that are identified as relevant in corporate disclosures; c) documents that are related to sustainable development and also identified as key-documents for these guidelines and initiatives. 2) To present the activity-centered ergonomics and psychodynamics of work contributions to work-related issues in a corporate sustainability approach. An exploratory study based on multiple sources of evidence that were performed from 2012 to 2013, including interviews with companies that engaged in corporate sustainability and document analysis using the content analysis approach. Work-related issues have been presented since the earliest sustainable development documents. It is feasible to construct an empirical framework for work-related issues and corporate sustainability approaches. 1) Although some authors argue that corporate sustainability has its roots based only on the environmental dimension, there is strong empirical evidence showing that social dimension aspects such as work-related issues have been present since the beginning. 2) Some indicators should be redesigned to more precisely translate the reality of some workplaces, particularly those indicators related to organizational design and mental health.

  5. Two-stage palate repair with delayed hard palate closure is related to favorable maxillary growth in unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yu-Fang; Yang, I-Ying; Wang, Ruby; Yun, Claudia; Huang, Chiung-Shing

    2010-05-01

    Two-stage palate repair with delayed hard palate closure is generally advocated because it allows the best possible postoperative maxillary growth. Nevertheless, in the literature, it has been questioned whether maxillary growth is better following use of this protocol. The authors therefore aimed to investigate whether stage of palate repair, one-stage versus two-stage, had a significant effect on facial growth in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Seventy-two patients with nonsyndromic complete unilateral cleft lip and palate operated on by two different protocols for palate repair, one-stage versus two-stage with delayed hard palate closure, and their 223 cephalometric radiographs were available in the retrospective longitudinal study. Clinical notes were reviewed to record treatment histories. Cephalometry was used to determine facial morphology and growth rate. Generalized estimating equations analysis was performed to assess the relationship between (1) facial morphology at age 20 and (2) facial growth rate, and the stage of palate repair. Stage of palate repair had a significant effect on the length and protrusion of the maxilla and the anteroposterior jaw relation at age 20, but not on their growth rates. The data suggest that in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, two-stage palate repair has a smaller adverse effect than one-stage palate repair on the growth of the maxilla. This stage effect is on the anteroposterior development of the maxilla and is attributable to the development being undisturbed before closure of the hard palate (i.e., hard palate repair timing specific).

  6. Sampling and monitoring for closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLemore, Virginia T.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Russell, Carol C.

    2007-01-01

    An important aspect of planning a new mine or mine expansion within the modern regulatory framework is to design for ultimate closure. Sampling and monitoring for closure is a form of environmental risk management. By implementing a sampling and monitoring program early in the life of the mining operation, major costs can be avoided or minimized. The costs for treating mine drainage in perpetuity are staggering, especially if they are unanticipated. The Metal Mining Sector of the Acid Drainage Technology Initiative (ADTI-MMS), a cooperative government-industry-academia organization, was established to address drainage-quality technologies of metal mining and metallurgical operations. ADTI-MMS recommends that sampling and monitoring programs consider the entire mine-life cycle and that data needed for closure of an operation be collected from exploration through postclosure.

  7. Variations on the Closure of a Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Richard L.

    1975-01-01

    The author observes that checking the closure property is redundant for most number systems and therefore hard for students to understand. He defines several systems which are not closed, develops two concepts related to closure, and provides many related examples. (SD)

  8. Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex related to tactile exploration.

    PubMed

    Fortier-Poisson, Pascal; Smith, Allan M

    2016-01-01

    The very light contact forces (∼0.60 N) applied by the fingertips during tactile exploration reveal a clearly optimized sensorimotor strategy. To investigate the cortical mechanisms involved with this behavior, we recorded 230 neurons in the somatosensory cortex (S1), as two monkeys scanned different surfaces with the fingertips in search of a tactile target without visual feedback. During the exploration, the monkeys, like humans, carefully controlled the finger forces. High-friction surfaces offering greater tangential shear force resistance to the skin were associated with decreased normal contact forces. The activity of one group of neurons was modulated with either the normal or tangential force, with little or no influence from the orthogonal force component. A second group responded to kinetic friction or the ratio of tangential to normal forces rather than responding to a specific parameter, such as force magnitude or direction. A third group of S1 neurons appeared to respond to particular vectors of normal and tangential force on the skin. Although 45 neurons correlated with scanning speed, 32 were also modulated by finger forces, suggesting that forces on the finger should be considered as the primary parameter encoding the skin compliance and that finger speed is a secondary parameter that co-varies with finger forces. Neurons (102) were also tested with different textures, and the activity of 62 of these increased or decreased in relation to the surface friction.

  9. Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex related to tactile exploration

    PubMed Central

    Fortier-Poisson, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The very light contact forces (∼0.60 N) applied by the fingertips during tactile exploration reveal a clearly optimized sensorimotor strategy. To investigate the cortical mechanisms involved with this behavior, we recorded 230 neurons in the somatosensory cortex (S1), as two monkeys scanned different surfaces with the fingertips in search of a tactile target without visual feedback. During the exploration, the monkeys, like humans, carefully controlled the finger forces. High-friction surfaces offering greater tangential shear force resistance to the skin were associated with decreased normal contact forces. The activity of one group of neurons was modulated with either the normal or tangential force, with little or no influence from the orthogonal force component. A second group responded to kinetic friction or the ratio of tangential to normal forces rather than responding to a specific parameter, such as force magnitude or direction. A third group of S1 neurons appeared to respond to particular vectors of normal and tangential force on the skin. Although 45 neurons correlated with scanning speed, 32 were also modulated by finger forces, suggesting that forces on the finger should be considered as the primary parameter encoding the skin compliance and that finger speed is a secondary parameter that co-varies with finger forces. Neurons (102) were also tested with different textures, and the activity of 62 of these increased or decreased in relation to the surface friction. PMID:26467519

  10. Towards a mesoscale eddy closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, Carsten; Greatbatch, Richard J.

    A turbulence closure for the effect of mesoscale eddies in non-eddy-resolving ocean models is proposed. The closure consists of a prognostic equation for the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) that is integrated as an additional model equation, and a diagnostic relation for an eddy length scale ( L), which is given by the minimum of Rhines scale and Rossby radius. Combining EKE and L using a standard mixing length assumption gives a diffusivity ( K), corresponding to the thickness diffusivity in the [Gent, P.R., McWilliams, J.C. 1990. Isopycnal mixing in ocean circulation models. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 20, 150-155] parameterisation. Assuming downgradient mixing of potential vorticity with identical diffusivity shows how K is related to horizontal and vertical mixing processes in the horizontal momentum equation, and also enables us to parameterise the source of EKE related to eddy momentum fluxes. The mesoscale eddy closure is evaluated using synthetic data from two different eddy-resolving models covering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, respectively. The diagnosis shows that the mixing length assumption together with the definition of eddy length scales is valid within certain limitations. Furthermore, implementation of the closure in non-eddy-resolving models of the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean shows consistently that the closure has skill at reproducing the results of the eddy-resolving model versions in terms of EKE and K.

  11. Salter-Harris I and II fractures of the distal tibia: does mechanism of injury relate to premature physeal closure?

    PubMed

    Rohmiller, Michael T; Gaynor, Tracey P; Pawelek, Jeff; Mubarak, Scott J

    2006-01-01

    The distal tibial physis is the second most commonly injured physis in long bones. Recent reports demonstrate a high rate of premature physeal closure (PPC) in Salter-Harris (SH) type I or II fractures of the distal tibia. At our institution, 137 distal tibial SH type I or II fractures were treated from 1994 to 2002. Reviews were performed on all patients and 91 fractures met inclusion criteria. Patients were categorized according to treatment. We report a PPC rate of 39.6% in SH type I or II fractures of the distal tibial physis. We found a difference in PPC based on injury mechanism. The rate of PPC in patients with a supination-external-rotation-type injury was 35%, whereas patients with pronation-abduction-type injuries developed PPC in 54% of cases. Type of treatment may prevent PPC in some fractures. The most important determinant of PPC is the fracture displacement following reduction. PPC is a common problem following SH type I or II fractures of the distal tibia. Operative treatment may decrease the frequency of PPC in some fractures. Regardless of treatment method, we recommend anatomic reduction to decrease the risk of PPC.

  12. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure...

  13. Autonomic Closure in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Simulations of Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlf, Rick J.

    Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation is the industry standard for computing practical turbulent flows - since large eddy simulation (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) require comparatively massive computational power to simulate even relatively simple flows. RANS, like LES, requires that a user specify a "closure model" for the underlying turbulence physics. However, despite more than 60 years of research into turbulence modeling, current models remain largely unable to accurately predict key aspects of the complex turbulent flows frequently encountered in practical engineering applications. Recently a new approach, termed "autonomic closure", has been developed for LES that avoids the need to specify any prescribed turbulence model. Autonomic closure is a fully-adaptive, self-optimizing approach to the closure problem, in which the simulation itself determines the optimal local, instantaneous relation between any unclosed term and the simulation variables via solution of a nonlinear, nonparametric system identification problem. In principle, it should be possible to extend autonomic closure from LES to RANS simulations, and this thesis is the initial exploration of such an extension. A RANS implementation of autonomic closure would have far-reaching impacts on the ability to simulate practical engineering applications that involve turbulent flows. This thesis has developed the formal connection between autonomic closure for LES and its counterpart for RANS simulations, and provides a priori results from FLUENT simulations of the turbulent flow over a backward-facing step to evaluate the performance of an initial implementation of autonomic closure for RANS. Key aspects of these results lay the groundwork on which future efforts to extend autonomic closure to RANS simulations can be based.

  14. Primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury.

    PubMed

    Eliya, Martha C; Banda, Grace W

    2011-09-07

    Acute traumatic wounds are one of the common reasons why people present to the emergency department. Primary closure has traditionally been reserved for traumatic wounds presenting within six hours of injury and considered 'clean' by the attending surgeon, with the rest undergoing delayed primary closure as a means of controlling wound infection. Primary closure has the potential benefit of rapid wound healing but poses the potential threat of increased wound infection. There is currently no evidence to guide clinical decision-making on the best timing for closure of traumatic wounds. To determine the effect on time to healing of primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. To explore the adverse effects of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 14 July 2011); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to July Week 1 2011); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, July 13, 2011); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 27); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 14 July 2011). There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials comparing primary closure with delayed closure of non bite traumatic wounds. Two review authors independently evaluated the results of the searches against the inclusion criteria. No studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Since no studies met the inclusion criteria, neither a meta-analysis nor a narrative description of studies was possible. There is currently no systematic evidence to guide clinical decision-making regarding the timing for closure of traumatic wounds. There is a need for robust research to investigate the effect of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non

  15. Primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds within 24 hours post injury.

    PubMed

    Eliya-Masamba, Martha C; Banda, Grace W

    2013-10-22

    Acute traumatic wounds are one of the common reasons why people present to the emergency department. Primary closure has traditionally been reserved for traumatic wounds presenting within six hours of injury and considered 'clean' by the attending surgeon, with the rest undergoing delayed primary closure as a means of controlling wound infection. Primary closure has the potential benefit of rapid wound healing but poses the potential threat of increased wound infection. There is currently no evidence to guide clinical decision-making on the best timing for closure of traumatic wounds. To determine the effect on time to healing of primary closure versus delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. To explore the adverse effects of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours post injury. In May 2013, for this first update we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE; and EBSCO CINAHL. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised controlled trials comparing primary closure with delayed closure of non bite traumatic wounds. Two review authors independently evaluated the results of the searches against the inclusion criteria. No studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Since no studies met the inclusion criteria, neither a meta-analysis nor a narrative description of studies was possible. There is currently no systematic evidence to guide clinical decision-making regarding the timing for closure of traumatic wounds. There is a need for robust research to investigate the effect of primary closure compared with delayed closure for non bite traumatic wounds presenting within 24 hours of injury.

  16. Exploring the use of submarine cables and related technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Junzo; Chave, Alan; Mikada, Hitoshi

    Outcomes from real-time and long-term observations using submarine cables in the Earth and ocean sciences have been actively reported and published in recent years, and scientists are now looking at advanced, next-generation observation technologies. The third International Workshop on Scientific Use of Submarine Cables and Related Technologies (SSC '03) was held last June at the University of Tokyo to explore some of these.The first and second workshops were held in 1990 in Hawaii and in 1997 in Okinawa, respectively. The discussions from these generated experiments in the use of decommissioned telecommunication cables, and conceptual development or designs for multidisciplinary sea floor observatories, both in the United States and in Japan. The third workshop was intended to promote better mutual understanding between scientists and engineers, and a broader perspective on future submarine observations. Thus, the objectives were to gather both Earth and ocean scientists and engineers from multiple disciplines and encourage them to think objectively about necessary future collaboration and cooperation as a team for the advancement of ocean floor observations.

  17. Transmission dynamics of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in India: the impact of holiday-related school closure.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sheikh Taslim; Kadi, A S; Ferguson, Neil M

    2013-12-01

    The role of social-distancing measures, such as school closures, is a controversial aspect of pandemic mitigation planning. However, the timing of 2009 pandemic provides a natural experiment for evaluating the impact of school closure during holidays on influenza transmission. To quantify the transmission intensity of the influenza A (H1N1) pdm'09 in India, by estimating the time varying reproduction number (Rt) and correlating the temporal changes in the estimates of Rt for different regions of India with the timing of school holidays. We used daily lab-confirmed case reports of influenza A (H1N1) pdm'09 in India (during 17 May'09 to 17 May'10), stratified by regions. We estimated the transmissibility of the pandemic for different regions from these time-series, using Bayesian methods applied to a branching process model of disease spread and correlated the resulting estimates with the timing of school holidays in each region. The North-west region experienced two notable waves, with the peak of the first wave coinciding with the start of a 4 week school holiday (September-October'09). In the southern region the two waves were less clear cut, though again the first peak of the first wave coincided with the start of school holidays--albeit of less than 2 weeks duration (August'09). Our analysis suggests that the school holidays had a significant influence on the epidemiology of the 2009 pandemic in India. We estimate that school holidays reduced the reproduction number by 14-27% in different regions of India, relative to levels seen outside holiday periods. The estimates of the reproduction number obtained (with peak R values below 1.5) are compatible with those reported from other regions of the world. This work reinforces past studies showing the significant impact of school holidays on spread of 2009 pandemic virus, and by inference the role of contact patterns in children on transmission.

  18. Transmission dynamics of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in India: The impact of holiday-related school closure

    PubMed Central

    Taslim Ali, Sheikh; Kadi, A. S.; Ferguson, Neil M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of social-distancing measures, such as school closures, is a controversial aspect of pandemic mitigation planning. However, the timing of 2009 pandemic provides a natural experiment for evaluating the impact of school closure during holidays on influenza transmission. To quantify the transmission intensity of the influenza A (H1N1) pdm’09 in India, by estimating the time varying reproduction number (Rt) and correlating the temporal changes in the estimates of Rt for different regions of India with the timing of school holidays. We used daily lab-confirmed case reports of influenza A (H1N1) pdm’09 in India (during 17 May’09 to 17 May’10), stratified by regions. We estimated the transmissibility of the pandemic for different regions from these time-series, using Bayesian methods applied to a branching process model of disease spread and correlated the resulting estimates with the timing of school holidays in each region. The North-west region experienced two notable waves, with the peak of the first wave coinciding with the start of a 4 week school holiday (September-October’09). In the southern region the two waves were less clear cut, though again the first peak of the first wave coincided with the start of school holidays – albeit of less than 2 weeks duration (August’09). Our analysis suggests that the school holidays had a significant influence on the epidemiology of the 2009 pandemic in India. We estimate that school holidays reduced the reproduction number by 14%–27% in different regions of India, relative to levels seen outside holiday periods. The estimates of the reproduction number obtained (with peak R values below 1.5) are compatible with those reported from other regions of the world. This work reinforces past studies showing the significant impact of school holidays on spread of 2009 pandemic virus, and by inference the role of contact patterns in children on transmission. PMID:24267871

  19. Multi-dimensional validation of a maximum-entropy-based interpolative moment closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tensuda, Boone R.; McDonald, James G.; Groth, Clinton P. T.

    2016-11-01

    The performance of a novel maximum-entropy-based 14-moment interpolative closure is examined for multi-dimensional flows via validation of the closure for several established benchmark problems. Despite its consideration of heat transfer, this 14-moment closure contains closed-form expressions for the closing fluxes, unlike the maximum-entropy models on which it is based. While still retaining singular behaviour in some regions of realizable moment space, the interpolative closure proves to have a large region of hyperbolicity while remaining computationally tractable. Furthermore, the singular nature has been shown to be advantageous for practical simulations. The multi-dimensional cases considered here include Couette flow, heat transfer between infinite parallel plates, subsonic flow past a circular cylinder, and lid-driven cavity flow. The 14-moment predictions are compared to analytical, DSMC, and experimental results as well the results of other closures. For each case, a range of Knudsen numbers are explored in order to assess the validity and accuracy of the closure in different regimes. For Couette flow and heat transfer between flat plates, it is shown that the closure predictions are consistent with the expected analytical solutions in all regimes. In the cases of flow past a circular cylinder and lid-driven cavity flow, the closure is found to give more accurate results than the related lower-order maximum-entropy Gaussian and maximum-entropy-based regularized Gaussian closures. The ability to predict important non-equilibrium phenomena, such as a counter-gradient heat flux, is also established.

  20. Why does acute primary angle closure happen? Potential risk factors for acute primary angle closure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiulan; Liu, Yaoming; Wang, Wei; Chen, Shida; Li, Fei; Huang, Wenbin; Aung, Tin; Wang, Ningli

    Acute primary angle closure is an ocular emergency and requires immediate management to avoid blindness. Narrow anterior chamber angle, advanced age, female gender, and Asian ethnic background are considered risk factors for acute primary angle closure. The predictive power of these factors is, however, relatively poor, and many questions remain unanswered because acute primary angle closure eventually develops in only a relatively small proportion of anatomically predisposed eyes. We summarize the potential roles of various factors in the pathogenesis of acute primary angle closure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  2. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  3. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  4. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  5. 31 CFR 413.1 - Closure of streets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of streets. 413.1 Section 413.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CLOSURE OF STREETS NEAR THE WHITE HOUSE § 413.1 Closure of streets. (a)...

  6. An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathology.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Kirsten; Gilbert, Paul; Duarte, Joana

    2012-03-01

    Social mentality theory outlines how specialist systems have evolved to facilitate different types of social behaviour such as caring for offspring, forming alliances, and competing for resources. This research explored how different types of self-experience are linked to the different social mentalities of competitive social ranking (focusing on gaining and defending one's social position/status/rank) in contrast to caring (being helpful to others). Perceived low social rank (with feelings of being inferior and unfavourable social comparison, SC) has been linked to depression, but a caring sense of self has less so. We hypothesized therefore that depression, in both clinical and non-clinical populations, would be primarily linked to competitive and rank focused sense of self rather than a caring sense of self. Students (N = 312) and patients with depression (N = 48) completed self-report scales measuring: self-experience related to competitiveness and caring; social rank; social safeness; and depression, anxiety, and stress. The data suggest that in students, and particularly in patients, competitiveness (and feeling unsuccessful in competing for resources) is strongly associated with depression. Although caring shares a small correlation with depression in students, and with depression, anxiety, and stress in patients, when controlling for the rank variable of submissive behaviour this relationship ceases to be significant. Submissive behaviour was found to be a full mediator between caring and depression. We also found that how safe and comfortable one feels in one's social relationships (social safeness), was a full mediator between competitiveness and depression. So, it is the feeling of being unable to compete where one does not feel secure in one's social environment that is particularly linked to depression. The results of this study suggest that self-experience is complex and multifaceted and is linked to different social roles that are socially

  7. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  8. Effective temperature for sheared suspensions: a route towards closures for migration in bidisperse suspension.

    PubMed

    van der Sman, R G M; Vollebregt, H M

    2012-12-01

    By extending the concept of an effective temperature, earlier introduced for sheared monodisperse suspensions, we propose a continuum theory for sheared bidisperse suspensions. We show the theory for sheared suspensions can be constructed from the theory for Brownian suspensions by replacing the temperature with the effective temperature. Furthermore, we explore the validity of closure relations based on mean field/free volume theory, by comparison with experimental data obtained for Brownian bidisperse suspensions. In a recent paper, we have shown that the new theory, combined with the discussed closure relations, is indeed a predictive theory.

  9. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  10. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Reekers, Jim A.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zelenak, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0-14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only <0.5% of patients. Postdeployment bleeding occurred in 6.4%, and most these (51.5%) could be managed with light manual compression. During follow-up, other device-related complications were reported in 1.3%: seven false aneurysms, three hematoma >5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  11. The impact of a needle exchange's closure.

    PubMed

    Broadhead, R S; van Hulst, Y; Heckathorn, D D

    1999-01-01

    The Windham, Connecticut, needle exchange closed in May 1997 after becoming embroiled in a public controversy in which it was blamed for the city's drug problem, discarded syringes, and even the economic decline of the city itself. The authors interviewed injection drug users and conducted a community survey of discarded drug paraphernalia to explore the effects of the needle exchange's closure. After the needle exchange was closed in March 1997, the authors re-recruited former participants in an AIDS prevention research project, the majority of whom were clients of the needle exchange. The authors analyzed responses from these respondents' pre-closure interviews and from III post-closure initial interviews and 78 post-closure follow-up interviews as well as data on discarded syringes and "dope bags". Following the closure of the needle exchange, significant increases were found in the percentage of respondents who reported an unreliable source as their primary source of syringes, in respondents' reports of the frequency of reusing syringes, and in the percentage of respondents who reported sharing of syringes. Surveys of outdoor drug-use areas found that the closure of the needle exchange did not reduce the volume of discarded syringes and other drug-injection debris. The problems in Windham that led to the closure of the exchange still remain, and the city's drug injectors are engaging in higher levels of HIV risk behavior.

  12. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore ‘equalisation’ in adolescence. Methods We used five years of data (2006–2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Results Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16–19 years) and young adults (20–24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25–44 and 45–64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Conclusions Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24619989

  13. Income-related inequality in health and health-related behaviour: exploring the equalisation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Hale, Daniel; Morris, Stephen; Viner, Russell M

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found the socioeconomic gradient in health among adolescents to be lower than that observed during childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine income-related inequalities in health and health-related behaviour across the lifespan in England to explore 'equalisation' in adolescence. We used five years of data (2006-2010) from the Health Survey for England to explore inequalities in six indicators: self-assessed general health, longstanding illness, limiting longstanding illness, psychosocial wellbeing, obesity and smoking status. We ran separate analyses by age/gender groups. Inequality was measured using concentration indices. Our findings for longstanding illnesses, psychosocial wellbeing and obesity were consistent with the equalisation hypothesis. For these indicators, the extent of income-related inequality was lower among late adolescents (16-19 years) and young adults (20-24 years) compared to children and young adolescents (under 15 years), mid- and late-adults (25-44 and 45-64 years) and the elderly (65+ years). The remaining indicators showed lower inequality among adolescents compared to adults, but higher inequality when compared with children. Our work shows that inequalities occur across the life-course but that for some health issues there may be a period of equalisation in late adolescence and early adulthood. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Evolution of Fascial Closure Optimization in Damage Control Laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Lauerman, Margaret H; Dubose, Joseph J; Stein, Deborah M; Galvagno, Samuel M; Bradley, Matthew J; Diaz, Jose; Scalea, Thomas M

    2016-12-01

    Management of patients undergoing damage control laparotomy (DCL) involves many surgical, medical, and logistical factors. Ideal patient management optimizing fascial closure with regard to timing and closure techniques remains unclear. A retrospective review of patients undergoing DCL from 2000 to 2012 at an urban Level I trauma center was undertaken. Mortality of DCL decreased over the study period from 62.5 to 34.6 per cent, whereas enterocutaneous fistula rate decreased from 12.5 to 3.8 per cent. Delayed primary fascial closure rate improved from 22.2 to 88.2 per cent. Time to closure (P < 0.001), time to first attempted closure (P < 0.001), and number of explorations (P < 0.001) were associated with ability to achieve delayed primary fascial closure. In subgroup analysis, achievement of delayed primary fascial closure was decreased with time to closure after one week (91.7% vs 52.0%, P = 0.002) and time to first attempted closure after two days (86.5% vs 70.0%, P = 0.042). In multivariate analysis, time to closure (odds ratio: 0.13, 95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.39; P < 0.001) and time to first attempted closure (odds ratio: 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.99; P = 0.046) were the only factors associated with achieving delayed primary fascial closure. Timing of attempted closure plays a significant role in attaining delayed primary fascial closure, highlighting the importance of early re-exploration.

  15. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  16. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  17. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  18. The TopClosure® 3S System, for skin stretching and a secure wound closure.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Silberman, Adi; Li, Ming Sen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2012-07-01

    The principle of stretching wound margins for primary wound closure is commonly practiced and used for various skin defects, leading at times to excessive tension and complications during wound closure. Different surgical techniques, skin stretching devices and tissue expanders have been utilized to address this issue. Previously designed skin stretching devices resulted in considerable morbidity. They were invasive by nature and associated with relatively high localized tissue pressure, frequently leading to necrosis, damage and tearing of skin at the wound margins. To assess the clinical effectiveness and performance and, to determine the safety of TopClosure® for gradual, controlled, temporary, noninvasive and invasive applications for skin stretching and secure wound closing, the TopClosure® device was applied to 20 patients for preoperative skin lesion removal and to secure closure of a variety of wound sizes. TopClosure® was reinforced with adhesives, staples and/or surgical sutures, depending on the circumstances of the wound and the surgeon's judgment. TopClosure® was used prior to, during and/or after surgery to reduce tension across wound edges. No significant complications or adverse events were associated with its use. TopClosure® was effectively used for preoperative skin expansion in preparation for dermal resection (e.g., congenital nevi). It aided closure of large wounds involving significant loss of skin and soft tissue by mobilizing skin and subcutaneous tissue, thus avoiding the need for skin grafts or flaps. Following surgery, it was used to secure closure of wounds under tension, thus improving wound aesthetics. A sample case study will be presented. We designed TopClosure®, an innovative device, to modify the currently practiced concept of wound closure by applying minimal stress to the skin, away from damaged wound edges, with flexible force vectors and versatile methods of attachment to the skin, in a noninvasive or invasive manner.

  19. Exploring relation types for literature-based discovery

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Judita; Stevenson, Mark; Gaizauskas, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Literature-based discovery (LBD) aims to identify “hidden knowledge” in the medical literature by: (1) analyzing documents to identify pairs of explicitly related concepts (terms), then (2) hypothesizing novel relations between pairs of unrelated concepts that are implicitly related via a shared concept to which both are explicitly related. Many LBD approaches use simple techniques to identify semantically weak relations between concepts, for example, document co-occurrence. These generate huge numbers of hypotheses, difficult for humans to assess. More complex techniques rely on linguistic analysis, for example, shallow parsing, to identify semantically stronger relations. Such approaches generate fewer hypotheses, but may miss hidden knowledge. The authors investigate this trade-off in detail, comparing techniques for identifying related concepts to discover which are most suitable for LBD. Materials and methods A generic LBD system that can utilize a range of relation types was developed. Experiments were carried out comparing a number of techniques for identifying relations. Two approaches were used for evaluation: replication of existing discoveries and the “time slicing” approach.1 Results Previous LBD discoveries could be replicated using relations based either on document co-occurrence or linguistic analysis. Using relations based on linguistic analysis generated many fewer hypotheses, but a significantly greater proportion of them were candidates for hidden knowledge. Discussion and Conclusion The use of linguistic analysis-based relations improves accuracy of LBD without overly damaging coverage. LBD systems often generate huge numbers of hypotheses, which are infeasible to manually review. Improving their accuracy has the potential to make these systems significantly more usable. PMID:25971437

  20. Analytic closures for M1 neutrino transport

    DOE PAGES

    Murchikova, E. M.; Abdikamalov, E.; Urbatsch, T.

    2017-04-25

    Carefully accounting for neutrino transport is an essential component of many astrophysical studies. Solving the full transport equation is too expensive for most realistic applications, especially those involving multiple spatial dimensions. For such cases, resorting to approximations is often the only viable option for obtaining solutions. One such approximation, which recently became popular, is the M1 method. It utilizes the system of the lowest two moments of the transport equation and closes the system with an ad hoc closure relation. The accuracy of the M1 solution depends on the quality of the closure. Several closures have been proposed in themore » literature and have been used in various studies. We carry out an extensive study of these closures by comparing the results of M1 calculations with precise Monte Carlo calculations of the radiation field around spherically symmetric protoneutron star models. We find that no closure performs consistently better or worse than others in all cases. The level of accuracy that a given closure yields depends on the matter configuration, neutrino type and neutrino energy. As a result, given this limitation, the maximum entropy closure by Minerbo on average yields relatively accurate results in the broadest set of cases considered in this work.« less

  1. Analytic closures for M1 neutrino transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchikova, E. M.; Abdikamalov, E.; Urbatsch, T.

    2017-08-01

    Carefully accounting for neutrino transport is an essential component of many astrophysical studies. Solving the full transport equation is too expensive for most realistic applications, especially those involving multiple spatial dimensions. For such cases, resorting to approximations is often the only viable option for obtaining solutions. One such approximation, which recently became popular, is the M1 method. It utilizes the system of the lowest two moments of the transport equation and closes the system with an ad hoc closure relation. The accuracy of the M1 solution depends on the quality of the closure. Several closures have been proposed in the literature and have been used in various studies. We carry out an extensive study of these closures by comparing the results of M1 calculations with precise Monte Carlo calculations of the radiation field around spherically symmetric protoneutron star models. We find that no closure performs consistently better or worse than others in all cases. The level of accuracy that a given closure yields depends on the matter configuration, neutrino type and neutrino energy. Given this limitation, the maximum entropy closure by Minerbo on average yields relatively accurate results in the broadest set of cases considered in this work.

  2. Exploring Self-Injury through a Relational Cultural Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepal, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, self-injurious behaviors are examined through the conceptual framework of relational cultural theory (RCT). As an emerging theoretical approach that takes into account the importance of relationships and relational goals, it is suggested that RCT be used in conjunction with mainstream approaches to treat self-injury.

  3. Exploring Self-Injury through a Relational Cultural Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepal, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, self-injurious behaviors are examined through the conceptual framework of relational cultural theory (RCT). As an emerging theoretical approach that takes into account the importance of relationships and relational goals, it is suggested that RCT be used in conjunction with mainstream approaches to treat self-injury.

  4. Exploring Relational Communication Patterns in Prereferral Intervention Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Megan S.; Erchul, William P.; Young, Hannah L.; Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand the relational communication patterns that characterize school-based prereferral intervention teams (PITs). Fifteen PIT meetings were used as the basis for analyses, with each meeting audiotaped, transcribed, and coded using the Family Relational Communication Control Coding System (Heatherington…

  5. Tracheal tube cuff inflation guided by pressure volume loop closure associated with lower postoperative cuff-related complications: Prospective, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Almarakbi, Waleed A.; Kaki, Abdullah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main function of an endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff is to prevent aspiration. High cuff pressure is usually associated with postoperative complications. We tried to compare cuff inflation guided by pressure volume loop closure (PV-L) with those by just to seal technique (JS) and assess the postoperative incidence of sore throat, cough and hoarseness. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, randomized clinical trial, 100 patients’ tracheas were intubated. In the first group (n = 50), ETT cuff inflation was guided by PV-L, while in the second group (n. = 50) the ETT cuff was inflated using the JS technique. Intracuff pressures and volumes were measured. The incidence of postoperative cuff-related complications was reported. Results: Demographic data and durations of intubation were comparable between the groups. The use of PV-L was associated with a lesser amount of intracuff air [4.05 (3.7-4.5) vs 5 (4.8-5.5), P < 0.001] and lower cuff pressure than those in the JS group [18.25 (18-19) vs 33 (32-35), P ≤ 0.001]. The incidence of postextubation cuff-related complications was significantly less frequent among the PV-L group patients as compared with the JS group patients (P ≤ 0.009), except for hoarseness of voice, which was less frequent among the PV-L group, but not statistically significant (P ≤ 0.065). Multiple regression models for prediction of intra-cuff pressure after intubation and before extubation revealed a statistically significant association with the technique used for cuff inflation (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The study confirms that PV-L-guided ETT cuff inflation is an effective way to seal the airway and associates with a lower ETT cuff pressure and lower incidence of cuff-related complications. PMID:25191181

  6. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  7. Exploring and validating patient concerns: relation to prescribing for depression.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Ronald M; Shields, Cleveland G; Franks, Peter; Meldrum, Sean C; Feldman, Mitchell; Kravitz, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    This study examined moderating effects of physician communication behaviors on relationships between patient requests for antidepressant medications and subsequent prescribing. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Primary care physicians (N = 152) each had 1 or 2 unannounced visits from standardized patients portraying the role of major depression or adjustment disorder. Each standardized patient made brand-specific, general, or no requests for antidepressants. We coded covert visit audio recordings for physicians' exploration and validation of patient concerns (EVC). Effects of communication on prescribing (the main outcome) were evaluated using logistic regression analysis, accounting for clustering and for site, physician, and visit characteristics, and stratified by request type and standardized patient role. In the absence of requests, high-EVC visits were associated with higher rates of prescribing of antidepressants for major depression. In low-EVC visits, prescribing was driven by patient requests (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for request vs no request = 43.54, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-1,120.87; P < or = .005), not clinical indications (AOR for depression vs adjustment disorder = 1.82; 95% CI, 0.33-9.89; P = NS). In contrast, in high-EVC visits, prescribing was driven equally by requests (AOR = 4.02; 95% CI, 1.67-9.68; P < or = .005) and clinical indications (AOR = 4.70; 95% CI, 2.18-10.16; P < or = .005). More thorough history taking of depression symptoms did not mediate these results. Quality of care for depression is improved when patients participate more actively in the encounter and when physicians explore and validate patient concerns. Communication interventions to improve quality of care should target both physician and patient communication behaviors. Cognitive mechanisms that link patient requests and EVC to quality of care warrant further study.

  8. Failed exstrophy closure.

    PubMed

    Novak, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    Children with bladder exstrophy present a formidable surgical challenge. Like all major reconstructive surgeries, the best hope for a favorable outcome lies in achieving success in the first operative attempt. Regardless of the surgical approach, however, complications do occur. A failed exstrophy closure is a major complication with significant implications on the long-term surgical outcome and ultimate fate of the urinary tract. Successful repeat exstrophy closure can be accomplished in most cases when performed in conjunction with pelvic osteotomy and proper postoperative immobilization. Modern staged repair of exstrophy, complete primary repair of exstrophy, and immediate continent urinary diversion have been advocated by different groups in the management of a failed exstrophy closure. It is apparent that compared with children who undergo successful primary closure, a failed closure with subsequent successful repeat closure makes the child much less likely to achieve sufficient bladder growth to be considered for bladder neck reconstruction, and furthermore, makes them less likely to have a successful bladder neck reconstruction even when they are an acceptable candidate. Although acceptable dryness rates after repeat closure can ultimately be obtained, they are typically at the expense of a commitment to intermittent catheterization and continent diversion. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. EXPLORING THE RELATIONS BETWEEN STUDENT CYNICISM AND STUDENT BURNOUT.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueyan; Wang, Rongrong; Macdonald, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Research on the negative effects of student cynicism has been limited, especially regarding its relation to student burnout. This study examined the relations among student cynicism (policy cynicism, academic cynicism, social cynicism, and institutional cynicism) and student burnout, as evidenced by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, in a sample of 276 Chinese undergraduates. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that four aspects of student cynicism together explained substantial variance in student burnout. Policy cynicism was the strongest contributor to emotional exhaustion. Social cynicism was the primary contributor to depersonalization, and also to reduced personal accomplishment. Student cynicism overall had the strongest relationship with reduced sense of personal achievement. The findings outline the negative functional relations between student cynicism and student burnout.

  10. An Exploration of Relational Aggression in the Nursing Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Dellasega, Cheryl; Volpe, Rebecca L.; Edmonson, Cole; Hopkins, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study provides a 1st look at relational aggression (RA) and the consequences among nurses. Background Interpersonal hostility, bullying, and a toxic work environment can impact patient care delivery as well as nurses’ personal health and job satisfaction. Methods The Relational Aggression Assessment Survey (RAAS), measuring aggressors, victims and bystanders, was used to measure RA in a sample of 842 nurses. Additional variables measured included a demographic profile, job satisfaction and intent to leave. Results Nurses were most likely to identify with victim behaviors, but a minority of nurses reported relying on aggressor behaviors and bystander behaviors. There was a positive correlation among aggressor, victim and bystander items, suggesting overlap in roles. Conclusions A few relationally aggressive individuals can create a toxic work environment. Interventions to address RA among nurses must be tested, as well as strategies for improving job satisfaction and promoting healthy work environments through positive relationships. PMID:24662690

  11. Exploring the transition from special to general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semon, Mark D.; Malin, Shimon; Wortel, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    In a previous paper we discussed two examples of circular motion which are especially useful in relativity courses because they lead to predictions verified by experiments with macroscopic objects. We analyzed these examples by considering motion around an N-gon and then taking the limit as N →∞ and the N-gon becomes a circle. In this paper we use the same approach to illustrate how generalizing special relativity to a theory that includes non-inertial frames can lead to a non-Euclidean geometry. We also derive two properties of clocks at rest in a reference frame traveling on a circular path.

  12. Radioactive springs geochemical data related to uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, R.A.; Felmlee, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive mineral springs and wells at 33 localities in the States of Colorado, Utah, Arizona and New Mexico in the United States were sampled and studied to obtain geochemical data which might be used for U exploration. The major source of radioactivity at mineral spring sites is 226Ra. Minor amounts of 228Ra, 238U and 232Th are also present. Ra is presumed to have been selectively removed from possibly quite deep uranium-mineralized rock by hydrothermal solutions and is either precipitated at the surface or added to fresh surface water. In this way, the source rocks influence the geochemistry of the spring waters and precipitates. Characteristics of the spring waters at or near the surface are also affected by variations in total dissolved solids, alkalinity, temperature and co-precipitation. Spring precipitates, both hard and soft, consist of four major types: (1) calcite travertine; (2) iron- and arsenic-rich precipitates; (3) manganese- and barium-rich precipitates; and (4) barite, in some instances accompanied by S, Ra and U, if present in the spring water, are co-precipitated with the barite, Mn-Ba and Fe-As precipitates. Using parameters based on U and Ra concentrations in waters and precipitates springsite areas are tentatively rated for favourability as potential uraniferous areas. ?? 1977.

  13. Cinema Spin: Exploring Film Depictions of Public Relations Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Cheryl Ann

    2011-01-01

    Films have been used successfully to teach students about "the institutional and cultural role mass media play in creating, sustaining or changing social relations." They have also provided important lessons regarding ethical decision-making. This article presents an activity that enables students to understand the role of media and the concept of…

  14. Learning through Work: Exploring Instances of Relational Interdependencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the inter-psychological processes that constitute learning through work. It does this by drawing on deliberations about the relative contributions of the immediate social world (i.e., workplace setting) that individuals encounter and the personal premises for individuals' learning. This account is realised through…

  15. Exploring Home Economics Related Careers. Introduction to Vocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoggatt, Carolyn, Ed.

    Developed to meet the career educational needs of students enrolled in home economics courses and/or an introductory vocational program, this document (teacher's copy) contains six units of study focusing on the home economics related careers cycles of: child development and care; clothing, textiles and fashion; food services; institutional,…

  16. Cinema Spin: Exploring Film Depictions of Public Relations Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Cheryl Ann

    2011-01-01

    Films have been used successfully to teach students about "the institutional and cultural role mass media play in creating, sustaining or changing social relations." They have also provided important lessons regarding ethical decision-making. This article presents an activity that enables students to understand the role of media and the concept of…

  17. Exploring Factors Regarding Transit-related Walking and Walking Duration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chia-Yuan; Lin, Hsien-Chang

    2016-11-01

    Transit-related walking provides a potential opportunity to promote general walking behavior, yet few studies have examined this issue. Since people's decisions tend to vary as they walk between home and transit and between transit and destination, this study separated trips made in each direction. This study identified the associations between sociodemographics and the 2-step process of transit-related walking: 1) whether transit users walked for home-transit trip or transitdestination trip, and 2) the walking duration for home-transit trip or transit-destination trip among those who walked. This cross-sectional study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and used the Heckman 2-step selection model by including 4042 respondents (10,105 trips) who walked all portions for home-transit trip and 3756 (8075 trips) for transitdestination trip. The mean walking duration for home-transit trips (7.60 minutes) was shorter than transit-destination trips (7.87 minutes). Hispanics were more likely to walk for both directions and had higher walking durations than did whites. Respondents living in low-income households were more likely to walk for home-transit trip, but not for transit-destination trips. This study illustrated several implications regarding to transit-related walking, such as creating short home-transit distances and targeting whites in promoting transit-related walking.

  18. Affect and Acceptability: Exploring Teachers' Technology-Related Risk Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    Educational change, such as technology integration, involves risk. Teachers are encouraged to "take risks", but what risks they are asked to take and how do they perceive these risks? Developing an understanding of teachers' technology-related risk perceptions can help explain their choices and behaviours. This paper presents a way to…

  19. Cavity closure arrangement for high pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Amtmann, Hans H.

    1981-01-01

    A closure arrangement for a pressure vessel such as the pressure vessel of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor wherein a liner is disposed within a cavity penetration in the reactor vessel and defines an access opening therein. A closure is adapted for sealing relation with an annular mounting flange formed on the penetration liner and has a plurality of radially movable locking blocks thereon having outer serrations adapted for releasable interlocking engagement with serrations formed internally of the upper end of the penetration liner so as to effect high strength closure hold-down. In one embodiment, ramping surfaces are formed on the locking block serrations to bias the closure into sealed relation with the mounting flange when the locking blocks are actuated to locking positions.

  20. Caring for a relative with delusional beliefs: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Onwumere, J; Learmonth, S; Kuipers, E

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Delusions are common experiences in psychosis and this is reflected in the number of studies focused on improving our understanding of their development, impact, and treatments. Many service users with psychosis are in informal caregiving relationships and carers can play an instrumental role in the recovery process. There remains a lack of knowledge and understanding about carer experiences and how they cope when their relative's delusions involve them or close others. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Data drawn from five individual carer interviews, which were subject to interpretative phenomenological analysis, identified the importance of six key themes. In addition to a carer's exposure to their relative's illness symptoms and a reported lack of understanding about their relative's delusions, was a fear of delusion-driven behaviours, and the carer's attempt to conceal the true extent of their caregiving challenges to others. Carers' relationships were fractured and their coping was best described as an ongoing process, mainly developed through trial and error. It extends our understanding of important issues faced by a subgroup of carers and facilitates discussion beyond their levels of stress and burden. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The study, with its limitations, indicates some carers may live in fear of harm from their relatives but also be reluctant to disclose to others the full story of what they are coping with. Health professionals must routinely assess for risks that informal carers may be exposed to as part of their role, and offer tailored support and interventions. Background In recent years, there has been a gradual shift towards the study of individual symptom presentations in psychosis, this is particularly found in studies of delusional beliefs. However, the literature remains sparse on informal caregiver experiences of individual symptoms. Aim The study sought to investigate carer

  1. 'Mendelian randomization': an approach for exploring causal relations in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Walia, G K; Sachdeva, M P

    2017-04-01

    To assess the current status of Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in effectively influencing the observational epidemiology for examining causal relationships. Narrative review on studies related to principle, strengths, limitations, and achievements of MR approach. Observational epidemiological studies have repeatedly produced several beneficiary associations which were discarded when tested by standard randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The technique which is more feasible, highly similar to RCTs, and has the potential to establish a causal relationship between modifiable exposures and disease outcomes is known as MR. The technique uses genetic variants related to modifiable traits/exposures as instruments for detecting causal and directional associations with outcomes. In the last decade, the approach of MR has methodologically developed and progressed to a stage of high acceptance among the epidemiologists and is gradually expanding the landscape of causal relationships in non-communicable chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mindful relating: exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Karen; Cordova, James V

    2007-10-01

    This study tested the theory that mindfulness contributes to greater intimate relationship satisfaction by fostering more relationally skillful emotion repertoires. A sample of married couples was administered measures of mindful awareness, emotion skills, and marital quality. We hypothesized that mindfulness would be associated with both marital quality and partners' emotion skills and that the association between mindfulness and marital quality would be mediated by emotion repertoire skill. Findings suggested that emotion skills and mindfulness are both related to marital adjustment, and that skilled emotion repertoires, specifically those associated with identifying and communicating emotions, as well as the regulation of anger expression, fully mediate the association between mindfulness and marital quality. Theoretical implications are discussed.

  3. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  4. Patient-Reported Vision-Related Quality-of-Life Differences between Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chao-Yu; Chen, Yu-Jing; Chen, Mei-Ju; Ko, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Nicole; Liu, Catherine Jui-ling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the different impacts on patient-reported vision-related quality of life (pVRQOL) outcomes in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma(PACG) and primary open-angle glaucoma(POAG). Methods Prospective cross-sectional study. PACG and POAG patients who had a best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA) in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60, intraocular pressure controlled at or below 25 mmHg and reliable visual field test were invited to participate. The control group included patients with BCVA in the better eye equal to or better than 20/60 and who did not have major eye disease. A validated Taiwanese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25(T)) was performed to assess pVRQOL. The association between each domain of NEI VFQ-25(T) among 3 groups was determined using multivariable linear regression analysis. Results A total of 106 PACG, 186 POAG, and 95 controls were enrolled. In multivariable regression analysis of all three groups(PACG/POAG/controls), compared to POAG, PACG showed a weakly positive association with social functioning (R2 = 0.13, β = 0.22, P = 0.04). PACG showed no significantly negative impact on pVRQOL compared to controls. Taking only glaucoma patients into consideration, PACG patients had a higher score on social functioning compared to POAG (R2 = 0.16, β = 0.27, P = 0.01). The results of other domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) between the two groups did not differ significantly(p>0.05). Conclusions In patients with controlled disease, the impact of PACG and POAG on most domains of NEI VFQ-25(T) were similar, except for better social functioning in PACG compared to POAG. PMID:27690232

  5. Exploring age-related brain degeneration in meditation practitioners.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that meditation practices are associated with substantial psychological as well as physiological benefits. In searching for the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial impact of meditation, studies have revealed practice-induced alterations of neurotransmitters, brain activity, and cognitive abilities, just to name a few. These findings not only imply a close link between meditation and brain structure, but also suggest possible modulating effects of meditation on age-related brain atrophy. Given that normal aging is associated with significant loss of brain tissue, meditation-induced growth and/or preservation might manifest as a seemingly reduced brain age in meditators (i.e., cerebral measures characteristic of younger brains). Surprisingly, there are only three published studies that have addressed the question of whether meditation diminishes age-related brain degeneration. This paper reviews these three studies with respect to the brain attributes studied, the analytical strategies applied, and the findings revealed. The review concludes with an elaborate discussion on the significance of existing studies, implications and directions for future studies, as well as the overall relevance of this field of research.

  6. Quick actuating closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, III, Dorsey E. (Inventor); Updike, deceased, Benjamin T. (Inventor); Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A quick actuating closure for a pressure vessel 80 in which a wedge ring 30 with a conical outer surface 31 is moved forward to force shear blocks 40, with conical inner surfaces 41, radially outward to lock an end closure plug 70 within an opening 81 in the pressure vessel 80. A seal ring 60 and a preload ramp 50 sit between the shear blocks 40 and the end closure plug 70 to provide a backup sealing capability. Conical surfaces 44 and 55 of the preload ramp 50 and the shear blocks 40 interact to force the seal ring 60 into shoulders 73 and 85 in the end closure plug 70 and opening 81 to form a tight seal. The end closure plug 70 is unlocked by moving the wedge ring 30 rearward, which causes T-bars 32 of the wedge ring 30 riding within T -slots 42 of the shear blocks 40 to force them radially inward. The end closure plug 70 is then removed, allowing access to the interior of the pressure vessel 80.

  7. PyramidalExplorer: A New Interactive Tool to Explore Morpho-Functional Relations of Human Pyramidal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Toharia, Pablo; Robles, Oscar D; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Makarova, Julia; Galindo, Sergio E; Rodriguez, Angel; Pastor, Luis; Herreras, Oscar; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This work presents PyramidalExplorer, a new tool to interactively explore and reveal the detailed organization of the microanatomy of pyramidal neurons with functionally related models. It consists of a set of functionalities that allow possible regional differences in the pyramidal cell architecture to be interactively discovered by combining quantitative morphological information about the structure of the cell with implemented functional models. The key contribution of this tool is the morpho-functional oriented design that allows the user to navigate within the 3D dataset, filter and perform Content-Based Retrieval operations. As a case study, we present a human pyramidal neuron with over 9000 dendritic spines in its apical and basal dendritic trees. Using PyramidalExplorer, we were able to find unexpected differential morphological attributes of dendritic spines in particular compartments of the neuron, revealing new aspects of the morpho-functional organization of the pyramidal neuron.

  8. PyramidalExplorer: A New Interactive Tool to Explore Morpho-Functional Relations of Human Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Toharia, Pablo; Robles, Oscar D.; Fernaud-Espinosa, Isabel; Makarova, Julia; Galindo, Sergio E.; Rodriguez, Angel; Pastor, Luis; Herreras, Oscar; DeFelipe, Javier; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    This work presents PyramidalExplorer, a new tool to interactively explore and reveal the detailed organization of the microanatomy of pyramidal neurons with functionally related models. It consists of a set of functionalities that allow possible regional differences in the pyramidal cell architecture to be interactively discovered by combining quantitative morphological information about the structure of the cell with implemented functional models. The key contribution of this tool is the morpho-functional oriented design that allows the user to navigate within the 3D dataset, filter and perform Content-Based Retrieval operations. As a case study, we present a human pyramidal neuron with over 9000 dendritic spines in its apical and basal dendritic trees. Using PyramidalExplorer, we were able to find unexpected differential morphological attributes of dendritic spines in particular compartments of the neuron, revealing new aspects of the morpho-functional organization of the pyramidal neuron. PMID:26778972

  9. Fostering career resilience amid a hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Paula A

    2015-01-01

    Resilience involves fostering a positive response or outcome when one faces adverse circumstances. This article provides a personal account of the closure of a public hospital and the resilience the nursing staff and chief nurse found to go forward in their nursing careers. Three major aspects are explored: professional identity, confidence/courage, and a sense of caring or concern.

  10. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  11. Relational and Transcendental Humanism: Exploring the Consequences of a Thoroughly Pragmatic Humanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2007-01-01

    The relational and transcendental elements of humanism are considered. Although the relational component of humanism is extraordinarily valuable, the author argues that the transcendental portion of humanism should be abandoned. The implications of a thoroughly pragmatic humanism are explored.

  12. Soil radium, soil gas radon and indoor radon empirical relationships to assist in post-closure impact assessment related to near-surface radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Cave, M R; Miles, J C H; Sumerling, T J

    2011-03-01

    Least squares (LS), Theil's (TS) and weighted total least squares (WTLS) regression analysis methods are used to develop empirical relationships between radium in the ground, radon in soil and radon in dwellings to assist in the post-closure assessment of indoor radon related to near-surface radioactive waste disposal at the Low Level Waste Repository in England. The data sets used are (i) estimated ²²⁶Ra in the < 2 mm fraction of topsoils (eRa226) derived from equivalent uranium (eU) from airborne gamma spectrometry data, (ii) eRa226 derived from measurements of uranium in soil geochemical samples, (iii) soil gas radon and (iv) indoor radon data. For models comparing indoor radon and (i) eRa226 derived from airborne eU data and (ii) soil gas radon data, some of the geological groupings have significant slopes. For these groupings there is reasonable agreement in slope and intercept between the three regression analysis methods (LS, TS and WTLS). Relationships between radon in dwellings and radium in the ground or radon in soil differ depending on the characteristics of the underlying geological units, with more permeable units having steeper slopes and higher indoor radon concentrations for a given radium or soil gas radon concentration in the ground. The regression models comparing indoor radon with soil gas radon have intercepts close to 5 Bq m⁻³ whilst the intercepts for those comparing indoor radon with eRa226 from airborne eU vary from about 20 Bq m⁻³ for a moderately permeable geological unit to about 40 Bq m⁻³ for highly permeable limestone, implying unrealistically high contributions to indoor radon from sources other than the ground. An intercept value of 5 Bq m⁻³ is assumed as an appropriate mean value for the UK for sources of indoor radon other than radon from the ground, based on examination of UK data. Comparison with published data used to derive an average indoor radon: soil ²²⁶Ra ratio shows that whereas the published data are

  13. Spontaneous closure of stoma.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Narendra; Singh, Harjeet; Kumar, Hemanth; Gupta, Rajesh; Verma, G R

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal loop stoma is a common surgical procedure performed for various benign and malignant abdominal problems, but it rarely undergoes spontaneous closure, without surgical intervention. Two male patients presented to our emergency surgical department with acute abdominal pain. One of them was diagnosed as having rectosigmoid perforation and underwent diversion sigmoid loop colostomy after primary closure of the perforation. The other was a known case of carcinoma of the rectum who had already undergone low anterior resection with covering loop ileostomy; the patient underwent second loop ileostomy, this time for complicated intestinal obstruction. To our surprise, both the loop colostomy and ileostomy closed spontaneously at 8 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively, without any consequences. Spontaneous stoma closure is a rare and interesting event. The exact etiology for spontaneous closure remains unknown, but it may be hypothesized to result from slow retraction of the stoma, added to the concept of a tendency towards spontaneous closure of enterocutaneous fistula. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  14. The Determinants of Care Home Closure

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Stephen; Forder, Julien

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the causes of full closure of care homes in the English care home/nursing home market. We develop theoretical arguments about two causes for closure that are triggered by errors or external shocks: poor economic sustainability and regulatory action. Homes aiming to operate with lower quality in the market are argued for a number of reasons to be more susceptible to errors/shocks in setting quality, especially negative errors, leading to an empirical hypothesis that observed quality should negatively affect closure chance. In addition, given quality, homes facing relatively high levels of local competition should also have an increased chance of closure. We use a panel of care homes from 2008 and 2010 to examine factors affecting their closure status in subsequent years. We allow for the potential endogeneity of home quality and use multiple imputation to replace missing data. Results suggest that homes with comparatively higher quality and/or lower levels of competition have less chance of closure than other homes. We discuss that the results provide some support for the policy of regulators providing quality information to potential purchasers in the market. © 2015 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25760588

  15. Dramatic increase in the relative abundance of large male dungeness crabs Cancer magister following closure of commercial fishing in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, Thomas C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The size structure of the population of the Dungeness crab Cancer magister was studied at six sites in or near Glacier Bay, Alaska, before and after the closure of commercial fishing. Seven years of preclosure and 4 years of postclosure data are presented. After the closure of Glacier Bay to commercial fishing, the number and size of legal-sized male Dungeness crabs increased dramatically at the experimental sites. Female and sublegal-sized male crabs, the portions of the population not directly targeted by commercial fishing, did not increase in size or abundance following the closure. There was not a large shift in the size-abundance distribution of male crabs at the control site that is still open to commercial fishing. Marine protected areas are being widely promoted as effective tools for managing fisheries while simultaneously meeting marine conservation goals and maintaining marine biodiversity. Our data demonstrate that the size of male Dungeness crabs can markedly increase in a marine reserve, which supports the concept that marine reserves could help maintain genetic diversity in Dungeness crabs and other crab species subjected to size-limit fisheries and possibly increase the fertility of females. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  16. The myth of closure.

    PubMed

    Boss, Pauline; Carnes, Donna

    2012-12-01

    Therapies for grief and loss have traditionally focused on the work of grieving. The goal was to reach an endpoint, now popularly called closure. There are, however, many people who, through no fault of their own, find a loss so unclear that there can be no end to grief. They have not failed in the work of grieving, but rather have suffered ambiguous loss, a type of loss that is inherently open ended. Instead of closure, the therapeutic goal is to help people find meaning despite the lack of definitive information and finality. Hope lies in increasing a family's tolerance for ambiguity, but first, professionals must increase their own comfort with unanswered questions. In this article, the authors, one a poet, the other a family therapist and theorist, offer a unique blending of theory, reflection, and poetry to experientially deepen the process of self-reflection about a kind of loss that defies closure. © FPI, Inc.

  17. Tank closure reducing grout

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  18. Ion parallel closures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jeong-Young; Lee, Hankyu Q.; Held, Eric D.

    2017-02-01

    Ion parallel closures are obtained for arbitrary atomic weights and charge numbers. For arbitrary collisionality, the heat flow and viscosity are expressed as kernel-weighted integrals of the temperature and flow-velocity gradients. Simple, fitted kernel functions are obtained from the 1600 parallel moment solution and the asymptotic behavior in the collisionless limit. The fitted kernel parameters are tabulated for various temperature ratios of ions to electrons. The closures can be used conveniently without solving the kinetic equation or higher order moment equations in closing ion fluid equations.

  19. Exploring Parents' and Children's Awareness on Internet Threats in Relation to Internet Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous, Nikleia; Zahariadou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore parents' level of awareness in relation to the threats that children are exposed to when using the internet. Additionally, it explores the parental interest to raise their awareness on internet use and threats, as well as investigating their interest in establishing household environment safety…

  20. Exploring Parents' and Children's Awareness on Internet Threats in Relation to Internet Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous, Nikleia; Zahariadou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to explore parents' level of awareness in relation to the threats that children are exposed to when using the internet. Additionally, it explores the parental interest to raise their awareness on internet use and threats, as well as investigating their interest in establishing household environment safety…

  1. Modeling the Interactions Between Multiple Crack Closure Mechanisms at Threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Riddell, William T.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    A fatigue crack closure model is developed that includes interactions between the three closure mechanisms most likely to occur at threshold; plasticity, roughness, and oxide. This model, herein referred to as the CROP model (for Closure, Roughness, Oxide, and Plasticity), also includes the effects of out-of plane cracking and multi-axial loading. These features make the CROP closure model uniquely suited for, but not limited to, threshold applications. Rough cracks are idealized here as two-dimensional sawtooths, whose geometry induces mixed-mode crack- tip stresses. Continuum mechanics and crack-tip dislocation concepts are combined to relate crack face displacements to crack-tip loads. Geometric criteria are used to determine closure loads from crack-face displacements. Finite element results, used to verify model predictions, provide critical information about the locations where crack closure occurs.

  2. Closure constraints for hyperbolic tetrahedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Christoph; Livine, Etera R.

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the generalization of loop gravity's twisted geometries to a q-deformed gauge group. In the standard undeformed case, loop gravity is a formulation of general relativity as a diffeomorphism-invariant SU(2) gauge theory. Its classical states are graphs provided with algebraic data. In particular, closure constraints at every node of the graph ensure their interpretation as twisted geometries. Dual to each node, one has a polyhedron embedded in flat space {{{R}}3}. One then glues them, allowing for both curvature and torsion. It was recently conjectured that q-deforming the gauge group SU(2) would allow us to account for a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ \

  3. Leading a hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Paula A

    2002-01-01

    Hospital closures have become more common. The challenges facing a nursing leader in this situation are complex and difficult. This author suggests that looking for new beginnings rather than focusing on endings created an approach to closing a public hospital. The article includes approaches to employee morale, staffing, and patient care.

  4. Juvenile hormone and methyl farnesoate production in cockroach embryos in relation to dorsal closure and the reproductive modes of different species of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyi

    2007-12-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), is first detectable after dorsal closure, a conspicuous event in embryogenesis. The present research found that the timing of dorsal closure was consistently at about 45% of the total embryonic development time across most of the oviparous and ovoviviparous cockroach species examined. These included the ovoviviparous cockroaches Blaberus discoidalis, Byrsotria fumigata, Rhyparobia maderae, Nauphoeta cinerea, Phoetalia pallida, Schultesia lampyridiformis, and Panchlora nivea, as well as the oviparous cockroaches Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, Eurycotis floridana, and Supella longipalpa. However, the only known viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata completed dorsal closure at 20.8% of embryo development time. Methyl farnesoate (MF), the immediate precursor of JH III, is considered a functional molecule in crustaceans; however, in insects its function is still unclear. To understand the role of JH and MF in cockroach embryos, I compared JH and MF biosynthesis and release in several cockroach species of known phylogenetic relationships. Using a radiochemical assay, the present research showed that cockroach embryos representing all three reproductive modes produced and released both JH and MF, as previously shown for B. germanica, N. cinerea, and D. punctata. Members of a pair of embryonic CA from B. discoidalis, B. fumigata, R. maderae, and D. punctata were incubated with and without farnesol. MF accumulated in large amounts only in CA of R. maderae in the presence of farnesol, which indicates that control of the last step of biosynthesis of JH, conversion of MF into JH by MF epoxidase, is probably a rate-limiting step in this species.

  5. Ring closure in actin polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Supurna; Chattopadhyay, Sebanti

    2017-03-01

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers.

  6. Procedures for construction of anisotropic elastic plastic property closures for face-centered cubic polycrystals using first-order bounding relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proust, Gwénaëlle; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2006-08-01

    Microstructure-sensitive design (MSD) is a novel mathematical framework that facilitates a rigorous consideration of the material microstructure as a continuous design variable in the engineering design enterprise [Adams, B.L., Henrie, A., Henrie, B., Lyon, M., Kalidindi, S.R., Garmestani, H., 2001. Microstructure-sensitive design of a compliant beam. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49(8), 1639-1663; Adams, B.L., Lyon, M., Henrie, B., 2004. Microstructures by design: linear problems in elastic-plastic design. Int. J. Plasticity 20(8-9), 1577-1602; Kalidindi, S.R., Houskamp, J.R., Lyons, M., Adams, B.L., 2004. Microstructure sensitive design of an orthotropic plate subjected to tensile load. Int. J. Plasticity 20(8-9), 1561-1575]. MSD employs spectral representations of the local state distribution functions in describing the microstructure quantitatively, and these in turn enable development of invertible linkages between microstructure and effective properties using established homogenization (composite) theories. As a natural extension of the recent publications in MSD, we provide in this paper a detailed account of the methods that can be readily used by mechanical designers to construct first-order elastic-plastic property closures. The main focus in this paper is on the crystallographic texture (also called Orientation Distribution Function or ODF) as the main microstructural parameter controlling the elastic and yield properties of cubic (fcc and bcc) polycrystalline metals. The following specific advances are described in this paper: (i) derivation of rigorous first-order bounds for the off-diagonal terms of the effective elastic stiffness tensor and their incorporation in the MSD framework, (ii) delineation of the union of the property closures corresponding to both the upper and lower bound theories resulting in comprehensive first-order closures, (iii) development of generalized and readily usable expressions for effective anisotropic elastic-plastic properties

  7. Origins of Early Mesozoic granitoids and their enclaves from West Kunlun, NW China: implications for evolving magmatism related to closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Liang; Korhonen, Fawna; Yang, Wen-Qiang; Cao, Yu-Ting; He, Shi-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Hui; Liang, Wen-Tian

    2016-04-01

    Early Mesozoic granitoids and microgranular enclaves (MEs) are widespread in the West Kunkun, northwestern Tibetan plateau, and record the tectonic evolution of Eurasia-Tethys in this area. This study reports geochemistry, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for a suite of granitoids and their MEs from the Middle Triassic Bulunkou pluton (BP) and the Late Triassic Akazishan pluton (AP) from the West Kunlun. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating of a sample from the BP host monzogranite and an enclave, as well as a AP monzogranite, yielded ages of 236 ± 2, 230 ± 7 and 208 ± 1 Ma, respectively. The BP monzogranite and its enclaves from the northwestern part of the West Kunlun are mainly weakly peraluminous granites characterised by relatively high Rb, Th, Rb/Sr (2.64-9.03) and HREE contents, and low Mg#, Sr/Y and negative Eu anomalies. Zircons from the BP monzogranite have ɛHf(t) values from -5.7 to -1.6. Zircons from enclaves of the BP show more variable ɛHf(t) values from -4.1 to 3.8. We consider that the BP granites are likely to have been formed by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks at shallow crustal depth, and their enclaves, composed of quartz + biotite + plagioclase + garnet + K-feldspar, are relics from the melting of a source at middle crustal depths. The AP host and its enclaves from the southeastern part of the West Kunlun have low Rb, Rb/Sr (0.15-1.90) and weakly negative Eu anomalies but high HREE contents indicating limited fractionation of plagioclase without residual garnet in their source. The inferred protolith is an intermediate igneous rock in the middle or lower crust. MEs hosted in the AP have high Mg# (39.7-45.0) and Nb and weakly negative Eu anomalies, as well as high Sr, P and Ti, corresponding to a medium-K basaltic rock, which may have originated from mixing of partial melting of metasomatised mantle wedge that has been modified by upwelling asthenospheric mantle and crustal melting in the deep source. Post-collisional southeasternward

  8. An eddy closure for potential vorticity

    SciTech Connect

    Ringler, Todd D

    2009-01-01

    The Gent-McWilliams (GM) parameterization is extended to include a direct influence in the momentum equation. The extension is carried out in two stages; an analysis of the inviscid system is followed by an analysis of the viscous system. In the inviscid analysis the momentum equation is modified such that potential vorticity is conserved along particle trajectories following a transport velocity that includes the Bolus velocity in a manner exactly analogous to the continuity and tracer equations. In addition (and in contrast to traditional GM closures), the new formulation of the inviscid momentum equation results in a conservative exchange between potential and kinetic forms of energy. The inviscid form of the eddy closure conserves total energy to within an error proportional to the time derivative of the Bolus velocity. The hypothesis that the viscous term in the momentum equation should give rise to potential vorticity being diffused along isopycnals in a manner analogous to other tracers is examined in detail. While the form of the momentum closure that follows from a strict adherence to this hypothesis is not immediately interpretable within the constructs of traditional momentum closures, three approximations to this hypothesis results in a form of dissipation that is consistent with traditional Laplacian diffusion. The first two approximations are that relative vorticity, not potential vorticity, is diffused along isopyncals and that the flow is in approximate geostrophic balance. An additional approximation to the Jacobian term is required when the dissipation coefficient varies in space. More importantly, the critique of this hypothesis results in the conclusion that the viscosity parameter in the momentum equation should be identical to the tradition GM closure parameter {Kappa}. Overall, we deem the viscous form of the eddy closure for potential vorticity as a viable closure for use in ocean circulation models.

  9. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  10. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  11. Hospital closure and economic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Capps, Cory; Dranove, David; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2010-01-01

    We present a new framework for assessing the effects of hospital closures on social welfare and the local economy. While patient welfare necessarily declines when patients lose access to a hospital, closures also tend to reduce costs. We study five hospital closures in two states and find that urban hospital bailouts reduce aggregate social welfare: on balance, the cost savings from closures more than offset the reduction in patient welfare. However, because some of the cost savings are shared nationally, total surplus in the local community may decline following a hospital closure.

  12. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure device must be... subchapter). A torque wrench must be used in securing the flange with a corresponding torque of no more than...

  13. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure device must be... subchapter). A torque wrench must be used in securing the flange with a corresponding torque of no more than...

  14. 49 CFR 178.360-4 - Closure devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 178.360-4 Closure devices. (a) Each closure device must be... subchapter). A torque wrench must be used in securing the flange with a corresponding torque of no more than...

  15. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closure for manhole. 178.337-6 Section 178.337-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-6 Closure for manhole. (a) Each cargo tank marked...

  16. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closure for manhole. 178.337-6 Section 178.337-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-6 Closure for manhole. (a) Each cargo tank marked...

  17. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closure for manhole. 178.337-6 Section 178.337-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-6 Closure for manhole. (a) Each cargo tank marked...

  18. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closure for manhole. 178.337-6 Section 178.337-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-6 Closure for manhole. (a) Each cargo tank marked...

  19. Beyond Relation: A Critical Exploration of "Relational Consciousness" for Spiritual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a philosophical view of the spiritual concept "relational consciousness" first proposed by Rebecca Nye in 1998. I will consider the "relational" aspect of spirituality through the ontology of Heidegger and the dialogical relationship "I and Thou" of Martin Buber, examining the problems that contingency and mediation within…

  20. Beyond Relation: A Critical Exploration of "Relational Consciousness" for Spiritual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a philosophical view of the spiritual concept "relational consciousness" first proposed by Rebecca Nye in 1998. I will consider the "relational" aspect of spirituality through the ontology of Heidegger and the dialogical relationship "I and Thou" of Martin Buber, examining the problems that contingency and mediation within…

  1. To Master or Perform? Exploring Relations between Achievement Goals and Conceptual Change Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…

  2. Exploring the Complex Relations between Achievement Emotions and Self-Regulated Learning Behaviors in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; Jones, Kenneth D., II

    2012-01-01

    Online learning continues to grow, but there is limited empirical research on the personal factors that influence success in online contexts. This investigation addresses this research gap by exploring the relations between several discrete achievement-related emotions (boredom, frustration, and enjoyment) and self-regulated learning behaviors…

  3. Internet Explorations: On-Line Assignments for the Introductory Public Relations Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael F.

    This paper describes a series of assignments called "Internet Explorations," which were developed for an introductory public relations course. The three rationales for the assignments in the paper were illustration and application of course concepts to ongoing public relations activities, student exposure to communication strategies, and…

  4. Teacher Candidates Speak Out: Exploring Concerns Related to Pupil Learning and Efficacy When Learning to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derosier, Sharline; Soslau, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that teachers' efficacy relates to pupil achievement. Strong efficacy, or a self-belief that one can positively impact pupil learning, is risked when teachers develop concerns related to pupil learning. This study explored the perceived concerns of teacher candidates (N = 3) throughout an eight-week clinical field experience.…

  5. Teacher Candidates Speak Out: Exploring Concerns Related to Pupil Learning and Efficacy When Learning to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derosier, Sharline; Soslau, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that teachers' efficacy relates to pupil achievement. Strong efficacy, or a self-belief that one can positively impact pupil learning, is risked when teachers develop concerns related to pupil learning. This study explored the perceived concerns of teacher candidates (N = 3) throughout an eight-week clinical field experience.…

  6. "What Have You Done for Me Lately?": Exploring Effectiveness in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hon, Linda Childers

    Little academic research has examined what public relations actually does for an organization. A study explored definitions of effectiveness in public relations and the value of effective communication. Interviews with 32 practitioners and 10 organization heads revealed numerous definitions of effectiveness, most having to do with achieving…

  7. Effects of customary marine closures on fish behavior, spear-fishing success, and underwater visual surveys.

    PubMed

    Feary, David A; Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Januchowski-Hartley, Fraser A

    2011-04-01

    Customary management systems (i.e., management systems that limit the use of marine resources), such as rotational fisheries closures, can limit harvest of resources. Nevertheless, the explicit goals of customary management are often to influence fish behavior (in particular flight distance, i.e., distance at which an organism begins to flee an approaching threat), rather than fish abundance. We explored whether the flight distance of reef fishes targeted by local artisanal fishers differed between a customary closure and fished reefs. We also examined whether flight distance of these species affected fishing success and accuracy of underwater visual census (UVC) between customary closed areas and areas open to fishing. Several species demonstrated significant differences in flight distance between areas, indicating that fishing activity may increase flight distance. These relatively long flight distances mean that in fished areas most target species may stay out of the range of spear fishers. In addition, mean flight distances for all species both inside and outside the customary-closure area were substantially smaller than the observation distance of an observer conducting a belt-transect UVC (mean [SE]= 8.8 m [0.48]). For targeted species that showed little ability to evade spear fishers, customary closures may be a vital management technique. Our results show that customary closures can have a substantial, positive effect on resource availability and that conventional UVC techniques may be insensitive to changes in flight behavior of fishes associated with fishing. We argue that short, periodic openings of customary closures may allow the health of the fish community to be maintained and local fishers to effectively harvest fishes. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  9. First Steps into Language? Examining the Specific Longitudinal Relations between Walking, Exploration and Linguistic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Volman, M(Chiel). J. M.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical evidence demonstrates relationships between motor and language development that are partially mediated by exploration. This is in line with the embodied cognition approach to development that views language as grounded in real-life sensorimotor interactions with the environment. This view implies that the relations between motor and linguistic skills should be specific. Moreover, as motor development initially changes the possibilities children have to explore the environment, initial relations between motor and linguistic skills should become weaker over time. Empirical evidence pertaining to the duration and specificity of these relations is still lacking. The current study investigated longitudinal relations between attainment of walking and the development of several linguistic skills, and tested whether exploration through self-locomotion mediated these relations. Linguistic skills were measured at age 43 months, which is later than the age used in previous studies. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) the relations between walking and language found at younger ages will decrease over time (2) exploration through self-locomotion will remain an important predictor of spatial language (3) no relation will be found between walking, exploration and the use of grammatical and lexical categories and between exploration and general vocabulary. Thirty-one Dutch children took part in a longitudinal study. Parents reported about age of attainment of walking. Exploration through self-locomotion was measured using observations of play with a standard set of toys at age 20 months. Receptive vocabulary, spatial language and use of grammatical and lexical categories were measured at age 43 months using (standard) tests. Results reveal that age of walking does not directly predict spatial language at age 43 months. Exploration through self-locomotion does significantly and completely mediate the indirect effect of age of walking on spatial language. Moreover

  10. Independently owned pharmacy closures in rural America.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Kaitlin; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2012-07-01

    The closure of rural independently owned pharmacies, including pharmacies that are the sole source of access to local pharmacy services, from 2003 through 2011 coincides with the implementation of two major policies related to payment for prescription medications: (1) Medicare prescription drug discount cards were introduced on January 1, 2004; and (2) the Medicare prescription drug benefit (Part D) began on January 1, 2006. In this brief, we focus on rural pharmacy closure because of the potential threat such closures present to access to any local pharmacy services in a community. Services include providing medications from local stock without delay or travel, overseeing administration of medications to nursing homes and hospitals, and patient consultation.

  11. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  12. Use of bipedicular advancement flaps for intrauterine closure of myeloschisis.

    PubMed

    Mangels, K J; Tulipan, N; Bruner, J P; Nickolaus, D

    2000-01-01

    Several groups have begun to explore the feasibility and utility of intrauterine closure of myelomeningocele. A subset of these fetuses have defects which fall into the category of myeloschisis, and therefore have inadequate skin to enable primary closure. After considerable discussion, it was decided to utilize bipedicular flaps to close these lesions. The procedure is described, and representative examples are shown. To date, 13 of 56 fetuses have required this approach for closure in utero. While this technique generally provides adequate coverage of the dural sac, the cosmetic results have been less than optimal.

  13. Eye closure enhances dark night perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten M.; Witte, Otto W.

    2015-01-01

    We often close our eyes when we explore objects with our fingers to reduce the dominance of the visual system over our other senses. Here we show that eye closure, even in complete darkness, results in improved somatosensory perception due to a switch from visual predominance towards a somatosensory processing mode. Using a tactile discrimination task and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) data were acquired from healthy subjects with their eyes opened and closed in two environments: under ambient light and in complete darkness. Under both conditions the perception threshold decreased when subjects closed their eyes, and their fingers became more sensitive. In complete darkness, eye closure significantly increased occipital blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the somatosensory and secondary visual processing areas. This change in brain activity was associated with enhanced coupling between the sensory thalamus and somatosensory cortex; connectivity between the visual and somatosensory areas decreased. The present study demonstrates that eye closure improves somatosensory perception not merely due to the lack of visual signals; instead, the act of closing the eyes itself alters the processing mode in the brain: with eye closure the brain switches from thalamo-cortical networks with visual dominance to a non-visually dominated processing mode. PMID:26012706

  14. Eye closure enhances dark night perceptions.

    PubMed

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten M; Witte, Otto W

    2015-05-27

    We often close our eyes when we explore objects with our fingers to reduce the dominance of the visual system over our other senses. Here we show that eye closure, even in complete darkness, results in improved somatosensory perception due to a switch from visual predominance towards a somatosensory processing mode. Using a tactile discrimination task and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) data were acquired from healthy subjects with their eyes opened and closed in two environments: under ambient light and in complete darkness. Under both conditions the perception threshold decreased when subjects closed their eyes, and their fingers became more sensitive. In complete darkness, eye closure significantly increased occipital blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the somatosensory and secondary visual processing areas. This change in brain activity was associated with enhanced coupling between the sensory thalamus and somatosensory cortex; connectivity between the visual and somatosensory areas decreased. The present study demonstrates that eye closure improves somatosensory perception not merely due to the lack of visual signals; instead, the act of closing the eyes itself alters the processing mode in the brain: with eye closure the brain switches from thalamo-cortical networks with visual dominance to a non-visually dominated processing mode.

  15. Procedural success and intra-hospital outcome related to left atrial appendage morphology in patients that receive an interventional left atrial appendage closure.

    PubMed

    Fastner, Christian; Behnes, Michael; Sartorius, Benjamin; Wenke, Annika; El-Battrawy, Ibrahim; Ansari, Uzair; Gill, Ishar-Singh; Borggrefe, Martin; Akin, Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    The interventional left atrial appendage (LAA) closure represents an emerging alternative to oral anticoagulation for stroke prevention in certain atrial fibrillation patients. Preliminary results have suggested high procedural success rates and fewer peri-interventional complications; however, there persists an insufficient understanding of the role of many underlying confounding variables (e.g., anatomical characteristics). It was investigated whether varying LAA morphologies influence procedural success as well as in-hospital outcome. Sixty-seven patients ineligible for long-term oral anticoagulation were included in this single-center, prospective, observational registry spanning from the years 2014 to 2016. Interventions were performed with the Watchman occluder (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) or the Amplatzer Amulet (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN), at the operator's discretion. Results derived from the data describing procedural success, fluoroscopy, and peri-interventional safety events were classified according to the presenting LAA morphology (cauliflower, cactus, windsock, and chicken wing). Rates of successful implantation were high across all groups (≥98%; P = 0.326). Surrogate parameters underlining procedural complexity like median total duration (P = 0.415), median fluoroscopy time (P = 0.459), median dose area product (P = 0.698), and the median amount of contrast agent (P = 0.076) demonstrated similar results across all groups. Likewise, the periprocedural complication rate was not significantly different and was mainly restricted to minor bleeding events. Irrespective of the varying morphological presentation of the LAA, the procedural success rates, interventional characteristics, and safety events did not significantly differ among patients receiving an interventional LAA closure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Academic Program Closures: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houpt, Corinne A., Ed.

    The materials in this compendium are intended to assist counsel and administrators at institutions of higher education faced with the need to consider and plan for program closures. Some materials also deal with the closely related issues of financial exigency, faculty reductions, and reductions in force. Section I offers the following papers:…

  17. Academic Program Closures: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houpt, Corinne A., Ed.

    The materials in this compendium are intended to assist counsel and administrators at institutions of higher education faced with the need to consider and plan for program closures. Some materials also deal with the closely related issues of financial exigency, faculty reductions, and reductions in force. Section I offers the following papers:…

  18. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closures. 195.124 Section 195.124 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  19. 49 CFR 195.124 - Closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures. 195.124 Section 195.124 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS...

  20. The effect of contour closure on shape recognition.

    PubMed

    Garrigan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on the Gestalt principle of closure has focused on how the presence of closure affects the ability to detect contours hidden in cluttered visual arrays. Some of the earliest research on closure, however, dealt with encoding and recognizing closed and open shapes, rather than detection. This research re-addresses the relation between closure and shape memory, focusing on how contour closure affects the ability to learn to recognize novel contour shapes. Of particular interest is whether closed contour shapes are easier to learn to recognize and, if so, whether this benefit is due to better encoding of closed contour shapes or easier comparison of closed contour shapes to already learned shapes. The results show that closed contours are indeed easier to recognize and, further, that this advantage appears to be related to better encoding.

  1. Fatigue Crack Closure Analysis Using Digital Image Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, William P.; Newman, John A.; Johnston, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue crack closure during crack growth testing is analyzed in order to evaluate the critieria of ASTM Standard E647 for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates. Of specific concern is remote closure, which occurs away from the crack tip and is a product of the load history during crack-driving-force-reduction fatigue crack growth testing. Crack closure behavior is characterized using relative displacements determined from a series of high-magnification digital images acquired as the crack is loaded. Changes in the relative displacements of features on opposite sides of the crack are used to generate crack closure data as a function of crack wake position. For the results presented in this paper, remote closure did not affect fatigue crack growth rate measurements when ASTM Standard E647 was strictly followed and only became a problem when testing parameters (e.g., load shed rate, initial crack driving force, etc.) greatly exceeded the guidelines of the accepted standard.

  2. Predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Camila T; Brunori, Evelise H Fadini Reis; Santos, Vinicius Batista; Moorhead, Sue A; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; de Barros, Alba L Bottura Leite

    2016-04-01

    Bleeding-related re-exploration is a life-threatening complication after cardiac surgery. Nurses must be aware of important risk factors for this complication so that their assessment, monitoring and evaluation activities can be prioritized, focused and anticipated. To identify the predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery and to describe the sources of postoperative bleeding. This is a prospective cohort study at a tertiary cardiac school-hospital in São Paulo/SP, Brazil. Adult patients (n=323) submitted to surgical correction of acquired cardiac diseases were included. Potential risk factors for bleeding-related re-exploration within the 24 hours following admission to the intensive care unit were investigated in the patients' charts. A univariate analysis and a multiple analysis through logistic regression were conducted to identify the outcome predictors. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated as a measure of accuracy considering the cut-off points with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The univariate factors significantly associated with bleeding-related re-exploration were a lower preoperative platelet count, a lower number of bypasses in coronary artery bypass surgery and postoperatively, a lower body temperature, infusion of lower intravenous volume, a higher positive end-expiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and transfusion of blood products. The independent predictors of bleeding-related re-exploration included postoperative red blood cell transfusion, and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelet or cryoprecipitate units. These predictors had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 99.28% and an accuracy of 97.93%. Blood product transfusion postoperatively is an independent predictor of bleeding-related re-exploration. Surgical errors prevailed as sources of bleeding. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  3. Exploring the Antecedents of Learning-Related Emotions and Their Relations with Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niculescu, Alexandra Corina; Tempelaar, Dirk; Dailey-Hebert, Amber; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Recent work suggests that learning-related emotions (LREs) play a crucial role in performance especially in the first year of university, a period of transition for most students; however, additional research is needed to show how these emotions emerge. We developed a framework which links a course-contextualized antecedent--academic control in…

  4. An exploration of terminology related to sexuality and gender: arguments for standardizing the language.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no consensus on the best ways to define and operationalize research concepts related to sexuality and gender. This article explores some of the ways that sex/gender and sexuality terms have been used in health-related research and in keyword searches in the health sciences. Reasons for the diversity of terms and measurement approaches are explored and arguments for and against standardizing the language are presented. The article ends with recommendations for beginning a productive dialogue among health researchers to create some consistency in the terminology used to assess sexuality and gender.

  5. Low ethnic identity exploration undermines positive interethnic relations: A study among Turkish immigrant-origin youth.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, Olivia; Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Leyendecker, Birgit

    2016-10-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether immigrant-origin youths' ethnic identity exploration moderates the link between ethnic identity commitment and positive interethnic relations, operationalized as cross-ethnic friendships. Turkish-German 4th graders (9-12 years old, n = 73) and 7th graders (13-15 years old, n = 67) reported on their cross-ethnic friendships at Time 1 and approximately 10 months later at Time 2. Commitment and exploration were measured at Time 1 with age appropriate versions of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. About 40% of the children's friendships were cross-ethnic and the amount of cross-ethnic friendships did not change from Time 1 to Time 2. Ethnic identity commitment and exploration were unrelated to cross-ethnic friendships in both age groups. Yet, among the 7th graders, exploration moderated the link between commitment and cross-ethnic friendships: when exploration was low, a higher level of commitment was associated with fewer cross-ethnic friendships. These associations were not significant among 4th-grade children. We conclude that by the age of 13 years, ethnic identity exploration can improve interethnic relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Exploration-Related Research on ISS: Connecting Science Results to Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the U.S. President announced The Vision for Space Exploration, and charged the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with using the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting U.S. space exploration goals. This paper describes: What we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission; The on-going research being conducted in this regard; and Our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address. Specifically, we discuss research carried out on the ISS to determine the mechanisms by which human health is affected on long-duration missions, and to develop countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment. These bioastronautics experiments are key enablers of future long duration human exploration missions. We also discuss how targeted technological developments can enable mission design trade studies. We discuss the relationship between the ultimate number of human test subjects available on the ISS to the quality and quantity of scientific insight that can be used to reduce health risks to future explorers. We discuss the results of NASA's efforts over the past year to realign the ISS research programs to support a product-driven portfolio that is directed towards reducing the major risks of exploration missions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions - it must become a part of the mission design process.

  7. Wind-Ramp-Forecast Sensitivity to Closure Parameters in a Boundary-Layer Parametrization Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, David E.; Takle, Eugene S.; Gallus, William A.

    2017-09-01

    Wind ramps are relatively large changes in wind speed over a period of a few hours and present a challenge for electric utilities to balance power generation and load. Failures of boundary-layer parametrization schemes to represent physical processes limit the ability of numerical models to forecast wind ramps, especially in a stable boundary layer. Herein, the eight "closure parameters" of a widely used boundary-layer parameterization scheme are subject to sensitivity tests for a set of wind-ramp cases. A marked sensitivity of forecast wind speed to closure-parameter values is observed primarily for three parameters that influence in the closure equations the depth of turbulent mixing, dissipation, and the transfer of kinetic energy from the mean to the turbulent flow. Reducing the value of these parameters independently by 25% or by 50% reduces the overall average in forecast wind-speed errors by at least 24% for the first two parameters and increases average forecast error by at least 63% for the third parameter. Doubling any of these three parameters increases average forecast error by at least 67%. Such forecast sensitivity to closure parameter values provides motivation to explore alternative values in the context of a stable boundary layer.

  8. Closure of population biobanks and direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies.

    PubMed

    Zawati, Ma'n H; Borry, Pascal; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2011-09-01

    Genetic research gained new momentum with the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003. Formerly centered on the investigation of single-gene disorders, genetic research is increasingly targeting common complex diseases and in doing so is studying the whole genome, the environment and its impact on genomic variation. Consequently, biobanking initiatives have emerged around the world as a tool to sustain such progress. Whether they are small scale or longitudinal, public or private, commercial or non-commercial, biobanks should consider the possibility of closure. Interestingly, while raising important ethical issues, this topic has hardly been explored in the literature. Indeed, ethical issues associated with sale, insolvency, end of funding, or transfer of materials to other entities (which are all issues either related to or possible consequences of closure) are seldom the subject of discussion. In an attempt to fill this gap, this paper will discuss-using population and direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies' biobanks as case studies-(1) international and national normative documents addressing the issue of closure and (2) the internal policies of population biobanks and DTC genetic testing companies. The analysis will inform the debate on biobank closure and elucidate the underlying ethical issues, which include, but are not limited to informed consent, storage and privacy.

  9. Nevada Test Site closure program

    SciTech Connect

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  10. The Rising Rate of Rural Hospital Closures.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Brystana G; Thomas, Sharita R; Randolph, Randy K; Perry, Julie R; Thompson, Kristie W; Holmes, George M; Pink, George H

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, the rate of rural hospital closures has increased significantly. This study is a preliminary look at recent closures and a formative step in research to understand the causes and the impact on rural communities. The 2009 financial performance and market characteristics of rural hospitals that closed from 2010 through 2014 were compared to rural hospitals that remained open during the same period, stratified by critical access hospitals (CAHs) and other rural hospitals (ORHs). Differences were tested using Pearson's chi-square (categorical variables) and Wilcoxon rank test of medians. The relationships between negative operating margin and (1) market factors and (2) utilization/staffing factors were explored using logistic regression. In 2009, CAHs that subsequently closed from 2010 through 2014 had, in general, lower levels of profitability, liquidity, equity, patient volume, and staffing. In addition, ORHs that closed had smaller market shares and operated in markets with smaller populations compared to ORHs that remained open. Odds of unprofitability were associated with both market and utilization factors. Although half of the closed hospitals ceased providing health services altogether, the remainder have since converted to an alternative health care delivery model. Financial and market characteristics appear to be associated with closure of rural hospitals from 2010 through 2014, suggesting that it is possible to identify hospitals at risk of closure. As closure rates show no sign of abating, it is important to study the drivers of distress in rural hospitals, as well as the potential for alternative health care delivery models. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  11. The cost of failure: The economic impact of failed primary closure in classic bladder exstrophy.

    PubMed

    Hesh, Christopher A; Young, Ezekiel; Intihar, Paul; Gearhart, John P

    2016-08-01

    Failure of primary closure in classic bladder exstrophy (CBE) is a significant cause of morbidity, and yet its relative economic impact has not been well characterized. The authors aim to determine whether CBE patients who underwent failed primary closure incur greater economic burden in the year following their successful closure than those patients who underwent a successful primary closure. After institutional review board approval CBE patients who were successfully closed between 1993 and 2013 were identified in an institutional exstrophy-epispadias database. Patients who were never closed at the study institution and those who had no documented successful closure were excluded. Inpatient hospital charges, hospital costs, and professional fees were collected for the year following successful closure. 162 patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and accounted for 312 inpatient admissions in the year following and including their respective successful bladder closures. 62 of the patients failed their primary closure and the remaining 100 succeeded. Adjusting for covariates, patients who underwent successful primary closure experienced a reduction in inpatient hospital charges of $8497, hospital costs of $9046 and professional fees of $11,180 in the year following their successful closure compared to those patients who failed their primary closure. Apart from the self-evident financial advantages of a successful primary closure, namely the avoidance of reclosure, there appears to be a lasting negative financial impact of failed primary closure even after these patients undergo successful reclosure at the study institution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NOvelty-related motivation of anticipation and exploration by dopamine (NOMAD): implications for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Düzel, Emrah; Bunzeck, Nico; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Düzel, Sandra

    2010-04-01

    Studies in humans and animals show that dopaminergic neuromodulation originating from the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) of the midbrain enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity for novel events and has a motivationally energizing effect on actions through striatal mechanisms. In this review, we discuss how these mechanisms of dopaminergic neuromodulation connect to the behavioural and functional consequences that age-related structural degeneration of the SN/VTA exerts on declarative memory. We propose a framework called 'NOvelty-related Motivation of Anticipation and exploration by Dopamine' (NOMAD) which captures existing links between novelty, dopamine, long-term memory, plasticity, energization and their relation to aging. We propose that maximizing the use of this mechanism by maintaining mobility and exploration of novel environments could be a potential mechanism to slow age-related decline of memory.

  13. Orbiter door closure tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acres, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Safe reentry of the shuttle orbiter requires that the payload bay doors be closed and securely latched. Since a malfunction in the door drive or bulkhead latch systems could make safe reentry impossible, the requirement to provide tools to manually close and secure the doors was implemented. The tools would disconnect a disabled door or latch closure system and close and secure the doors if the normal system failed. The tools required to perform these tasks have evolved into a set that consists of a tubing cutter, a winch, a latching tool, and a bolt extractor. The design, fabrication, and performance tests of each tool are described.

  14. Husbands' and Wives' Relative Earnings: Exploring Variation by Race, Human Capital, Labor Supply, and Life Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow-Bowe, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Whereas much research has explored the causes and consequences of the gender wage gap, far less has examined earnings differentials within marriage. This article contributes to this literature by utilizing the 2000 wave of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine variation in husbands' and wives' relative income by race/ethnicity,…

  15. Husbands' and Wives' Relative Earnings: Exploring Variation by Race, Human Capital, Labor Supply, and Life Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow-Bowe, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Whereas much research has explored the causes and consequences of the gender wage gap, far less has examined earnings differentials within marriage. This article contributes to this literature by utilizing the 2000 wave of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine variation in husbands' and wives' relative income by race/ethnicity,…

  16. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Mental Models of the Environment: Are They Related to Environmental Affect and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2015-01-01

    A draw-and-explain task and questionnaire were used to explore Taiwanese undergraduate students' mental models of the environment and whether and how they relate to their environmental affect and behavioral commitment. We found that students generally held incomplete mental models of the environment, focusing on objects rather than on processes or…

  17. A Qualitative Exploration of the STEM Career-Related Outcome Expectations of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Debbie; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Wachter Morris, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions developed and choices made during the preadolescent and early adolescent years may restrict or enrich youth's future career aspirations. These years are critical for acquiring and exploring academic and career-related interests. In addition, outcome expectations -- what youth believe will happen if they pursue certain interests, tasks,…

  18. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Mental Models of the Environment: Are They Related to Environmental Affect and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2015-01-01

    A draw-and-explain task and questionnaire were used to explore Taiwanese undergraduate students' mental models of the environment and whether and how they relate to their environmental affect and behavioral commitment. We found that students generally held incomplete mental models of the environment, focusing on objects rather than on processes or…

  19. Exploring Factors Related to Young Children's Word-Meaning Derivations during Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how child and text clues were related to 31 kindergarteners' word-meaning derivation outcomes for 372 words presented in books read aloud to children. Data were analyzed using a multilevel, cross-classification, ordered logit model. Children showed no word-meaning derivation 40% of the time, indicating a need for instruction.…

  20. A Qualitative Exploration of the STEM Career-Related Outcome Expectations of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Marie F.; Newsome, Debbie; Barrio Minton, Casey A.; Wachter Morris, Carrie A.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptions developed and choices made during the preadolescent and early adolescent years may restrict or enrich youth's future career aspirations. These years are critical for acquiring and exploring academic and career-related interests. In addition, outcome expectations -- what youth believe will happen if they pursue certain interests, tasks,…

  1. Exploring Factors Related to Young Children's Word-Meaning Derivations during Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how child and text clues were related to 31 kindergarteners' word-meaning derivation outcomes for 372 words presented in books read aloud to children. Data were analyzed using a multilevel, cross-classification, ordered logit model. Children showed no word-meaning derivation 40% of the time, indicating a need for instruction.…

  2. Exploring Careers in Consumer Homemaking and Related Occupations: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlkeld, Joyce C.

    One of 11 guides intended for use at the junior high school level of career exploration, the primary focus of the teacher's guide is on consumer homemaking and the related occupational cluster. Unit one offers an overview of the consumer homemaking field and unit two deals with student self-evaluation. Units three through six investigate four…

  3. Exploring Relationships between Teachers' Philosophical Beliefs and Practices Relative to Unforeseen Interruptions in Elementary Classroom Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Faye Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge, goals, beliefs, and decision-making activities were explored individually and combined relative to their philosophical beliefs and practices in the elementary classroom setting in response to unforeseen interruptions. Schoenfeld's Theory of Teaching-in-Context and Brown's "The Experimental Mind in Education" were…

  4. The Relation between a Mathematics Curriculum-Based Measure and Mathematics Performance on EXPLORE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Carey Abendroth

    2013-01-01

    Educators need clear, actionable data to help them understand students' current levels of performance and students' probable trajectory toward college-and career-readiness in math if they are to make informed programmatic decisions to shape that trajectory. This study explored the relation between CBM-math in Grade 7 as a one-point, teacher…

  5. WASTE PACKAGE OPERATIONS FY99 CLOSURE METHODS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    M. C. Knapp

    1999-09-23

    The waste package (WP) closure weld development task is part of a larger engineering development program to develop waste package designs. The purpose of the larger waste package engineering development program is to develop nuclear waste package fabrication and closure methods that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will find acceptable and will license for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), non-fuel components, and vitrified high-level waste within a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Within the WP closure development program are several major development tasks, which, in turn, are divided into subtasks. The major tasks include: WP fabrication development, WP closure weld development, nondestructive examination (NDE) development, and remote in-service inspection development. The purpose of this report is to present the objectives, technical information, and work scope relating to the WP closure weld development.and NDE tasks and subtasks and to report results of the closure weld and NDE development programs for fiscal year 1999 (FY-99). The objective of the FY-99 WP closure weld development task was to develop requirements for closure weld surface and volumetric NDE performance demonstrations, investigate alternative NDE inspection techniques, and develop specifications for welding, NDE, and handling system integration. In addition, objectives included fabricating several flat plate mock-ups that could be used for NDE development, stress relief peening, corrosion testing, and residual stress testing.

  6. Evolution of Staged Versus Primary Closure of Gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Joseph N.; Jackson, Richard J.; Smith, Samuel D.; Wagner, Charles W.

    2003-01-01

    Objective Since the introduction of a preformed silo to the authors’ practice in 1997, there has been a decrease in primary closure of gastroschisis. To clarify the impact of this change, the authors reviewed their results over the past 10 years. Methods From patient records, the authors abstracted the closure method, mechanical ventilation days, time to full feeds, mechanical and infectious complications, and length of stay. The authors compared groups using the Student t test and the Mann-Whitney test, as appropriate. Results Between 1993 and the present, 124 patients were identified. Between 1993 and 1997, 38 children presented with gastro-schisis. Thirty-two (84.2%) closures were primary and six (18.8%) were staged. After 1997, the authors treated 80 children with gastroschisis. There were 27 (33.8%) primary and 53 (66.2%) staged closures. Six patients with other lethal anomalies were excluded. Length of stay and ventilator days were higher for the staged closure group, but infection and mechanical complications were less common in the staged closure group. The time to full feeds did not differ. Conclusions A lower incidence of infection and complications related to abdominal compartment syndrome has made staged closure of gastroschisis more common in the authors’ practice. While it has resulted in a longer hospital stay, staged closure decreases the risk of long-term bowel dysfunction and need for reoperation. PMID:12796571

  7. Exploring women's postpartum sexuality: social, psychological, relational, and birth-related contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-09-01

    Women's postpartum sexuality can be influenced by factors related to physical, personal, and relationship transitions after the newborn arrives. Despite this, many experiential and social factors remain unexplored. This study aims to (i) investigate a range of variables thought to influence postpartum sexuality; (ii) expand the focus beyond latency to penis-vagina intercourse; and (iii) assess positive aspects of postpartum sexuality. Via retrospective reporting on the first 3 months postpartum, 304 women completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were retrospective reports of sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to resumption of sexual activity, and perceptions of partner's sexual desire. Other measures were birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), breastfeeding status, perceptions of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and body image (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale). Significant differences in time to resumption were found. Women performed oral sex on their partners earlier than engaging in masturbation, which was followed by intercourse and then receiving oral sex. Post hoc analyses identified birth experience, social support, importance of partner's sexual fulfillment, and perception of partner's desire as contributors to this pattern. Women's postpartum sexual desire was influenced by their perceptions of their partner's postpartum sexuality and individual's level of fatigue. Results suggested that postpartum desire was not significantly influenced by breastfeeding status, vaginal issues, or psychosocial variables including stress, body image, or social support. Results suggest that women's perceptions of their partner's sexuality impact postpartum sexuality more than the physical factors most commonly studied (e.g., vaginal trauma and breastfeeding). These results portray postpartum sexuality as a multidimensional

  8. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  9. Comparison of relation between visual function index and retinal nerve fiber layer structure by optical coherence tomography among primary open angle glaucoma and primary angle closure glaucoma eyes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    To compare the visual field index (VFI) in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes, and to study the correlation with disc variables on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in all stages of severity. Thirty POAG and PACG underwent Humphrey visual field 24-2 along with detailed examination. They also underwent stratus OCT imaging of the optic nerve and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). The correlation of VFI with RNFL thickness was compared in POAG and PACG. The VFI significantly differed between POAG and PACG, with POAG eyes apparently having a better VFI at all severities of glaucoma. There were statistically significant differences in the superior max (Smax) and inferior max (Imax) in early and moderate POAG and PACG eyes. In early and moderate glaucoma, multivariate regression showed that maximum correlation of the VFI was seen with the mean deviation (b = 1.7, P < 0.001), average and superior RNFL thickness (b = 2.1, P < 0.001 and b = 1.8, P = 0.03, respectively), and age (b = 0.7, P = 0.04); while no correlation was seen with intraocular pressure (IOP), axial length, sex, or other clinical variables. VFI did not correlate well with RNFL thickness or other disc variables on OCT in severe glaucoma. VFI may not serve as a useful indicator of visual function in severe glaucoma. More useful indicators are required to monitor glaucoma patients with severe damage.

  10. 49 CFR 178.337-6 - Closure for manhole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.337-6 Closure for manhole. (a) Each...

  11. Interpolative Hyperbolic Realizable Moment Closures for Non-Equilibrium Flows with Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tensuda, Boone Rudy

    The predictive capabilities of a novel, 14-moment, maximum-entropy-based, interpolative closure are explored for multi-dimensional non-equilibrium flows of a monatomic gas with heat transfer. Unlike the maximum-entropy closure on which it is based, the interpolative closure provides closed-form expressions for the closing fluxes while retaining a large region of hyperbolicity. Properties of the moment system are explored via a dispersion analysis and an implicit finite-volume solution procedure is proposed. Multi-dimensional applications of the closure are then examined for several canonical non-equilibrium flow problems in order to provide an assessment of its capabilities. The predictive capabilities of the closure were found to surpass those of the 10-moment Gaussian closure. It was also found to predict interesting non-equilibrium phenomena, such as counter-gradient heat flux. The proposed implicit solver showed improved computational performance compared to the previously studied semi-implicit technique.

  12. Aortic valve closure: relation to tissue velocities by Doppler and speckle tracking in patients with infarction and at high heart rates.

    PubMed

    Aase, Svein A; Björk-Ingul, Charlotte; Thorstensen, Anders; Torp, Hans; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2010-04-01

    To resolve the event in tissue Doppler (TDI)- and speckle tracking-based velocity/time curves that most accurately represent aortic valve closure (AVC) in infarcted ventricles and at high heart rates. We studied the timing of AVC in 13 patients with myocardial infarction and in 8 patients at peak dobutamine stress echo. An acquisition setup for recording alternating B-mode and TDI image frames was used to achieve the same frame rate in both cases (mean 136.7 frames per second [FPS] for infarcted ventricles, mean 136.9 FPS for high heart rates). The reference method was visual assessment of AVC in the high frame rate narrow sector B-mode images of the aortic valve. The initial negative velocities after ejection in the velocity/time curves occurred before AVC, 44.9 +/- 21.0 msec before the reference in the high heart rate material, and 25.2 +/- 15.2 msec before the reference in the infarction material. Using this time point as a marker for AVC may cause inaccuracies when estimating end-systolic strain. A more accurate but still a practical marker for AVC was the time point of zero crossing after the initial negative velocities after ejection, 5.4 +/- 15.3 msec before the reference in high heart rates and 8.2 +/- 12.9 msec after the reference in the infarction material. The suggested marker of AVC at high heart rate and in infarcted ventricles was the time point of zero crossing after the initial negative velocities after ejection in velocity/time curves.

  13. 27 CFR 26.231 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From the Virgin Islands General § 26.231 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

  14. 27 CFR 26.231 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From the Virgin Islands General § 26.231 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices...

  15. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  16. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  17. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  18. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  19. 27 CFR 26.136 - Affixing closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Closures for Distilled Spirits From Puerto Rico § 26.136 Affixing closures. Closures or other devices shall be securely...

  20. Spontaneous ileostomy closure

    PubMed Central

    Alyami, Mohammad S.; Lundberg, Peter W.; Cotte, Eddy G.; Glehen, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic ileostomies are routinely placed during colorectal surgery for the diversion of intestinal contents to permit healing of the distal anastomosis prior to elective reversal. We present an interesting case of spontaneous closure of a diverting ileostomy without any adverse effects to the patient. A 65-year-old woman, positive for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer type-I, with locally invasive cancer of the distal colon underwent en-bloc total colectomy, hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingoophorectomy with creation of a proximal loop ileostomy. The ostomy temporarily closed without reoperation at 10 weeks, after spontaneously reopening, it definitively closed, again without surgical intervention at 18 weeks following the original surgery. This rare phenomenon has occurred following variable colorectal pathology and is poorly understood, particularly in patients with aggressive disease and adjunct perioperative interventions. PMID:27279518

  1. CPT-hole closure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noce, T.E.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The long-term stability of deep holes 1.75 inches. (4.4 cm) in diameter by 98.4 feet (30 m) created by cone penetration testing (CPT) was monitored at a site in California underlain by Holocene and Pleistocene age alluvial fan deposits. Portions of the holes remained open both below and above the 28.6-foot (8.7 m)-deep water table for approximately three years, when the experiment was terminated. Hole closure appears to be a very slow process that may take decades in the stiff soils studied here. Other experience suggests holes in softer soils may also remain open. Thus, despite their small diameter, CPT holes may remain open for years and provide paths for rapid migration of contaminants. The observations confirm the need to grout holes created by CPT soundings as well as other direct-push techniques in areas where protection of shallow ground water is important.

  2. Reaching closure with skin stretching. Applications in the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, D G; Wunderlich, R P; Lavery, L A

    1998-01-01

    At the present time, there are no evidence-based protocols outlining the use of the Sure-Closure Skin Stretching System on diabetic, neuropathic wounds. Ideally, surgical correction of the precipitating deformity and appropriate shoe gear accommodation should be performed con-comitantly with skin stretching (as indicated) to achieve an optimal long-term result. For several years, we have used the Sure-Closure device as an adjunctive treatment for diabetic-foot wound closure, and believe that, ultimately, this device more likely will be used in a clinical setting. In this manner, a patient with an open wound may, under aseptic conditions, be sequestered for a period of 1 to 2 hours during a clinical visit to allow for skin stretching. This procedure may be carried out two or three times weekly until closure is achieved. Mechanically assisted delayed primary closure is a relatively new category of wound closure; however, this device is by no means a panacea. Appropriate patient selection and intraoperative judgment are of critical preoperative and perioperative importance when employing this technique. Currently, we are completing a clinical trial comparing mechanically assisted delayed primary-wound closure to traditional treatment and off-loading in a population of high-risk diabetic patients. We believe that this project will better elucidate the relative indications and contraindications with what may be a very effective tool for the diabetic foot specialist.

  3. Exploring nonlinear relations: models of clinical decision making by regression with optimal scaling.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Armin; Van Der Kooij, Anita J; Zeeck, Almut

    2009-07-01

    In explorative regression studies, linear models are often applied without questioning the linearity of the relations between the predictor variables and the dependent variable, or linear relations are taken as an approximation. In this study, the method of regression with optimal scaling transformations is demonstrated. This method does not require predefined nonlinear functions and results in easy-to-interpret transformations that will show the form of the relations. The method is illustrated using data from a German multicenter project on the indication criteria for inpatient or day clinic psychotherapy treatment. The indication criteria to include in the regression model were selected with the Lasso, which is a tool for predictor selection that overcomes the disadvantages of stepwise regression methods. The resulting prediction model indicates that treatment status is (approximately) linearly related to some criteria and nonlinearly related to others.

  4. Radioactive springs geochemical data related to uranium exploration: basic data and use of multivariate factor scores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, Robert Allen; Felmlee, J. Karen

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive springs and wells at 33 localities in the States of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico have been studied and sampled to obtain geochemical data to determine whether such data are useful in a uranium exploration program. Most samples were collected from mineral-rich springs probably related to hydrothermal systems of various ages. Two sets of data were obtained, the first based on the chemical composition and physical and chemical properties of spring and ground water, and the second based on the chemical composition of mineral precipitates deposited by radioactive springs. Multivariate statistical analysis of the water data suggests four major geochemical factors affecting the 23 parameters measured. These factors were labeled as total dissolved solids, alkalinity, temperature, and Fe-U concentration. Multivariate statistical analysis of the precipitate data suggests five factors affecting the 32 element values measured. These factors were labeled as mineral contamination, Mn precipitation, Fe-As-Be precipitation, heavy metals precipitation, and Ba-Ra precipitation. Relative intensities of the geochemical processes represented by the factors were computed using factor scores. Sample localities were ranked on the basis of relative intensities, and the five localities with the highest intensities were selected as being the most favorable for more intensive exploration for uranium. Immediate use of such selection would be experimental because of the lack of industry experience at this time in the exploration of active hydrothermal systems for uranium.

  5. Cardiac Device Implant Skin Closure with a Novel Adjustable, Coaptive Tape-Based Device.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Gautam G; Schricker, Amir A; Salcedo, Jonathan; Hebsur, Shrinivas; Hsu, Jonathan; Feld, Gregory; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a unique zip-type adjustable coaptive tape-based skin closure device to traditional subcuticular sutures in three domains: time, cosmesis, and wound closure-related outcomes in cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled trial to assess time to wound closure, as well as cosmesis and wound closure-related outcomes. The adjustable coaptive tape-based skin closure device had shorter overall closure time (78 ± 6.6 seconds vs 216 ± 21.5 seconds; P < 0.001) and mean closure time per centimeter (18.0 ± 2.0 s/cm vs 50.1 ± 6.7 s/cm; P < 0.001) versus sutures, with less intersurgeon and interpatient variability with the use of adjustable coaptive device versus sutures (P < 0.001). There was no difference between groups in postoperative pain or scar cosmesis during the follow-up period. Neither group had any closure-related adverse events. The adjustable coaptive tape-based skin closure device demonstrated shorter closure times with less variability when compared to sutures. It is a safe and acceptable alternative to sutures for skin closure following CIED implantation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Temporal factors in school closure policy for mitigating the spread of influenza.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyou; Fu, Xiuju; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Xiao, Gaoxi; Wong, Limsoon; Ma, Stefan; Soh, Harold; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Hung, Terence; Lees, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Is school closure effective in mitigating influenza outbreaks? For Singapore, we developed an individual-based simulation model using real-life contact data. We evaluated the impacts of temporal factors - trigger threshold and duration - on the effectiveness of school closure as a mitigation policy. We found an upper bound of the duration of school closure, where further extension beyond which will not bring additional benefits to suppressing the attack rate and peak incidence. For school closure with a relatively short duration (< 6 weeks), it is more effective to start closure after a relatively longer delay from the first day of infection; if the duration of school closure is long (>6 weeks), however, it is better to start it as early as reasonable. Our studies reveal the critical importance of timing in school closure, especially in cost-cautious situations. Our studies also demonstrate the great potential of a properly developed individual-based simulation model in evaluating various disease control policies.

  7. Children's attentional exploration of threatening information as related to trust in maternal support.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, Adinda; Bosmans, Guy; De Raedt, Rudi; Braet, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing interest in attachment-related social information processing, including children's attentional processing of information regarding the attachment figure. Previous research in middle childhood revealed evidence for a stronger attentional focus toward mother in children with less secure attachment expectations. However, the implication of this attentional focus for children's exploration has not been explored. This study tested the hypothesis that this attentional focus toward mother occurs at the expense of attentional exploration of the environment. Ninety children, aged 8-12, completed questionnaires assessing trust in maternal support, watched a video that induced mild fear of dogs, and completed a dot probe computer task assessing attentional processing of simultaneously presented pictures of mother and pictures of the threatening stimulus (i.e., dogs). Less trust in maternal support was linked to a stronger attentional focus toward the mother pictures versus the dog pictures. These results suggest that, in the presence of mother, children with more secure attachment expectations are better able to freely explore a mildly threatening environment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with...

  9. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with...

  10. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with...

  11. 40 CFR 265.280 - Closure and post-closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contaminants caused by wind erosion; and (4) Compliance with § 265.276 concerning the growth of food-chain... unit as appropriate for its post-closure use; (3) Assure that growth of food chain crops complies with...

  12. Closure report for N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report has been prepared to satisfy Section 3156(b) of Public Law 101-189 (Reports in Connection with Permanent Closures of Department of Energy Defense Nuclear Facilities), which requires submittal of a Closure Report to Congress by the Secretary of Energy upon the permanent cessation of production operations at a US Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facility (Watkins 1991). This closure report provides: (1) A complete survey of the environmental problems at the facility; (2) Budget quality data indicating the cost of environmental restoration and other remediation and cleanup efforts at the facility; (3) A proposed cleanup schedule.

  13. Environmental impact assessment in urban transport planning: Exploring process-related barriers in Spanish practice

    SciTech Connect

    Soria-Lara, Julio A. Bertolini, Luca Brömmelstroet, Marco te

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of EIA for evaluating transport planning projects is increasingly being questioned by practitioners, institutions and scholars. The academic literature has traditionally focused more on solving content-related problems with EIA (i.e. the measurement of environmental effects) than on process-related issues (i.e. the role of EIA in the planning process and the interaction between key actors). Focusing only on technical improvements is not sufficient for rectifying the effectiveness problems of EIA. In order to address this knowledge gap, the paper explores how EIA is experienced in the Spanish planning context and offers in-depth insight into EIA process-related issues in the field of urban transport planning. From the multitude of involved actors, the research focuses on exploring the perceptions of the two main professional groups: EIA developers and transport planners. Through a web-based survey we assess the importance of process-related barriers to the effective use of EIA in urban transport planning. The analyses revealed process issues based fundamentally on unstructured stakeholders involvement and an inefficient public participation - Highlights: • Qualitative research on perceptions of EIA participants on EIA processes. • Web-based survey with different participants (EIA-developers; transport planners). • It was seen an inefficient participation of stakeholders during the EIA processes.

  14. Closure of open wellbores in creeping salt sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijermars, R.; Jackson, M. P. A.; van Harmelen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Safe exploration and production of pre-salt (or subsalt) hydrocarbons require that drilling operations be optimized. We introduce analytical models of wellbore closure, accounting for variations in both the wellbore net pressure and far-field flow rate of an autochthonous or allochthonous salt sheet penetrated by the wellbore. We demonstrate how closure rates of such a wellbore evolve for increasingly stronger Rankine flow. For high viscosity salt (˜1018 Pa s) the wellbore closes by a pure sink flow without any Rankine shift from its vertical trajectory path. For low viscosity salt (˜1016 Pa s) Rankine flow dominates. Wellbore closure in salt sheets may vary within the same wellbore due to differential tectonic creep rates at different depths. Mitigation of wellbore closure by, for example, reaming, jarring, brine solution and thermal control, is most effective if spatial variation in closure rates is understood and quantified. Evaluation of wellbore closure rates due to salt creep should be customarily included in wellbore stability analyses before drilling and during well monitoring.

  15. Solidifying Segregation or Promoting Diversity? School Closure and Rezoning in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Bridges, Kimberly; Shields, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Layered with myriad considerations, school closure and rezoning processes in urban school systems are politically fraught with the potential for damaging consequences. This article explores the politics and impacts of a closure and rezoning process in Richmond, Virginia, through the lens of themes applicable to urban school systems and…

  16. Solidifying Segregation or Promoting Diversity? School Closure and Rezoning in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Bridges, Kimberly; Shields, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Layered with myriad considerations, school closure and rezoning processes in urban school systems are politically fraught with the potential for damaging consequences. This article explores the politics and impacts of a closure and rezoning process in Richmond, Virginia, through the lens of themes applicable to urban school systems and…

  17. Why do physicians treat their relatives? Exploring the influence of social psychology.

    PubMed

    Scarff, Jonathan R

    2013-10-01

    Physicians often receive requests for treatment, medical advice, or other intervention from relatives. Most doctors comply. Reasons for compliance can be categorized by doctors' attitudes toward the relative, colleagues, themselves, ethical guidelines, and the problem. Compliance may be influenced by elements of social psychology as well. Social exchange theory, persuasion techniques, attribution, conformity, desire for approval, and the affinity principle can induce intervention. Future research should explore doctors' attitudes toward relatives, the medium by which requests are made, treatment outcomes, changes in the relationship following treatment, cultural or familial norms, and changes in clinicians' beliefs or behavior that occur when facing opposing requests and guidelines. Awareness of these influences may help physicians to make objective decisions regarding intervention.

  18. Pinhole closure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milam, David; Murray, James E.; Estabrook, Kent G.; Boley, Charles D.; Sell, Walter D.; Nielsen, Norman D.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Zakharenkov, Yuri A.; Afeyan, Bedros B.

    1999-07-01

    Spatial-filter pinholes and knife-edge samples were irradiated in vacuum by 1053-nm, 5-20 ns pulses at intensities to 500 GW/cm2. The knife-edge samples were fabricated of plastic, carbon, aluminum, stainless steel, molybdenum, tantalum, gold, and an absorbing glass. Time- resolved two-beam interferometry with a 40-ns probe pulse was used to observe phase shifts in the expanding laser- induced plasma. For al of these materials, at any time during square-pulse irradiation, the phase shift fell exponentially with distance from the edge of the sample.. The expansion was characterized by the propagation velocity V2(pi ) of the contour for a 2(pi) phase shift. To within experimental error, V2(pi ) was constant during irradiation at a particular intensity, and it increased linearly with intensity for intensities < 300 GW/cm2. For metal samples V2(pi ) exhibited an approximate M-0.5 dependence where M is the atomic mass. Plasmas of plastic, carbon, and absorbing glass produced larger phase shifts, and expanded more rapidly, than plasmas of heavy metals. The probe beam and interferometer were also used to observe the closing of pinholes. With planar pinholes, accumulation of on-axis plasma was observed along with the advance of plasma away from the edge of the hole. On-axis closure was not observed in square, 4-leaf pinholes.

  19. Exploring resting-state EEG brain oscillatory activity in relation to cognitive functioning in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Keune, Philipp M; Hansen, Sascha; Weber, Emily; Zapf, Franziska; Habich, Juliane; Muenssinger, Jana; Wolf, Sebastian; Schönenberg, Michael; Oschmann, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Neurophysiologic monitoring parameters related to cognition in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are sparse. Previous work reported an association between magnetoencephalographic (MEG) alpha-1 activity and information processing speed. While this remains to be replicated by more available electroencephalographic (EEG) methods, also other established EEG markers, e.g. the slow-wave/fast-wave ratio (theta/beta ratio), remain to be explored in this context. Performance on standard tests addressing information processing speed and attention (Symbol-Digit Modalities Test, SDMT; Test of Attention Performance, TAP) was examined in relation to resting-state EEG alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and the theta/beta ratio in 25MS patients. Increased global alpha-1 and alpha-2 activity and an increased frontal theta/beta ratio (pronounced slow-wave relative to fast-wave activity) were associated with lower SDMT processing speed. In an exploratory analysis, clinically impaired attention was associated with a significantly increased frontal theta/beta ratio whereas alpha power did not show sensitivity to clinical impairment. EEG global alpha power and the frontal theta/beta ratio were both associated with attention. The theta/beta ratio involved potential clinical sensitivity. Resting-state EEG recordings can be obtained during the routine clinical process. The examined resting-state measures may represent feasible monitoring parameters in MS. This notion should be explored in future intervention studies. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporary closure of open abdominal wounds: the vacuum pack.

    PubMed

    Brock, W B; Barker, D E; Burns, R P

    1995-01-01

    Temporary closure of abdominal surgical wounds is occasionally required when conditions of the abdominal wall or peritoneal cavity prevent closure or when early re-exploration is planned. The optimal temporary closure should contain and protect the contents of the peritoneal cavity from external contamination and injury; preserve the integrity of the abdominal wall; be simple to perform and maintain; provide ease of reentry; and have minimal adverse physiologic effects. Based on these criteria, a method of temporary abdominal wound closure (termed the vacuum pack) has been designed and evaluated. The operative technique includes 1) placement of a fenestrated polyethylene sheet between the abdominal viscera and anterior parietal peritoneum; 2) placement of a moist, sterile laparotomy towel over the polyethylene sheet; 3) placement of two closed suction drains over the towel; 4) placement of an adhesive backed drape over the entire wound, including a wide margin of surrounding skin; and 5) suction applied to the drains, creating a vacuum and rigid compression of the layers of closure material. This creates a tight, external seal of the adhesive backed drape and facilitates drainage of the peritoneal cavity. From April 1992-December 1993, this temporary abdominal wound closure was performed 56 times in 28 patients, ages 6-78 years, for periods of 1-11 days. The procedure was used in 17 trauma patients and 11 non-trauma patients. Indications for use included increased intra-abdominal pressure in nine, mandatory re-exploration in 10, and a combination of these indications in nine patients. Pre- and postprocedural airway and systemic blood pressures were unaffected by this closure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Investigation of atomic oxygen-surface interactions related to measurements with dual air density explorer satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, B. J.; Ablow, C. M.; Wise, H.

    1973-01-01

    For a number of candidate materials of construction for the dual air density explorer satellites the rate of oxygen atom loss by adsorption, surface reaction, and recombination was determined as a function of surface and temperature. Plain aluminum and anodized aluminum surfaces exhibit a collisional atom loss probability alpha .01 in the temperature range 140 - 360 K, and an initial sticking probability. For SiO coated aluminum in the same temperature range, alpha .001 and So .001. Atom-loss on gold is relatively rapid alpha .01. The So for gold varies between 0.25 and unity in the temperature range 360 - 140 K.

  2. The Female Perspective of Personality in a Wild Songbird: Repeatable Aggressiveness Relates to Exploration Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Thys, Bert; Pinxten, Rianne; Raap, Thomas; De Meester, Gilles; Rivera-Gutierrez, Hector F; Eens, Marcel

    2017-08-09

    Males often express traits that improve competitive ability, such as aggressiveness. Females also express such traits but our understanding about why is limited. Intraspecific aggression between females might be used to gain access to reproductive resources but simultaneously incurs costs in terms of energy and time available for reproductive activities, resulting in a trade-off. Although consistent individual differences in female behaviour (i.e. personality) like aggressiveness are likely to influence these reproductive trade-offs, little is known about the consistency of aggressiveness in females. To quantify aggression we presented a female decoy to free-living female great tits (Parus major) during the egg-laying period, and assessed whether they were consistent in their response towards this decoy. Moreover, we assessed whether female aggression related to consistent individual differences in exploration behaviour in a novel environment. We found that females consistently differed in aggressiveness, although first-year females were on average more aggressive than older females. Moreover, conform life history theory predictions, 'fast' exploring females were more aggressive towards the decoy than 'slow' exploring females. Given that personality traits are often heritable, and correlations between behaviours can constrain short term adaptive evolution, our findings highlight the importance of studying female aggression within a multivariate behavioural framework.

  3. Simulating a Cold-Air Outbreak with SHOC (Simplified Higher-Order Closure)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, S. K.; Bogenschutz, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Grey Zone Project aims to systematically explore convective transport and cloud processes in weather and climate models at various resolutions, ranging from high resolution turbulent resolving scales all the way to coarse resolutions that require full parameterized descriptions of these processes. The first Grey Zone intercomparison case is based on observations of a cold air outbreak during the CONSTRAIN field campaign. The purpose of the intercomparison is two-fold: First, through systematically varying the horizontal resolution, the intercomparison will aim to assess the relative contributions of the resolved and the subgrid-scale (SGS) cloud and convective processes in the Grey Zone for the present CONSTRAIN case. Second, the intercomparison is interesting in its own right as it is the first time that a comprehensive mid-latitude cold-air outbreak case has been organized. We will participate by using a version of a cloud-resolving model, SAM (System for Atmospheric Modeling), that includes SHOC (Simplified Higher-Order Closure, Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) which combines several existing components: A prognostic SGS turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) equation, an assumed double-Gaussian PDF following Golaz et al. (2002), the diagnostic second-moment closure of Redelsperger and Sommeria (1986), the diagnostic closure for by Canuto et al. (2001), and a turbulence length scale related to the SGS TKE (Teixeira and Cheinet 2004) and to eddy length scales.

  4. Autonomic Closure for Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ryan; Hamlington, Peter; Dahm, Werner J. A.

    2015-11-01

    A new autonomic subgrid-scale closure has been developed for large eddy simulation (LES). The approach poses a supervised learning problem that captures nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonequilibrium turbulence effects without specifying a predefined turbulence model. By solving a regularized optimization problem on test filter scale quantities, the autonomic approach identifies a nonparametric function that represents the best local relation between subgrid stresses and resolved state variables. The optimized function is then applied at the grid scale to determine unknown LES subgrid stresses by invoking scale similarity in the inertial range. A priori tests of the autonomic approach on homogeneous isotropic turbulence show that the new approach is amenable to powerful optimization and machine learning methods and is successful for a wide range of filter scales in the inertial range. In these a priori tests, the autonomic closure substantially improves upon the dynamic Smagorinsky model in capturing the instantaneous, statistical, and energy transfer properties of the subgrid stress field.

  5. Hospital admissions before and after shipyard closure.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, L.; Sabroe, S.; Damsgaard, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the effect of job loss on health an investigation was made of admissions to hospitals in 887 men five years before and three years after the closure of a Danish shipyard. The control group comprised 441 men from another shipyard. The information on hospital admissions was obtained from the Danish national register of patients. The relative risk of admission in the control group dropped significantly in terms of the number of men admitted from the study group from 1.29 four to five years before closure to 0.74 in the three years after closure. This was especially true of admissions due to accidents (1.33 to 0.46) and diseases of the digestive system (4.53 to 1.03). For diseases of the circulatory system, particularly cardiovascular diseases, the relative risk increased from 0.8 to 1.60, and from 1.0 to 2.6 respectively. These changes in risk of illness after redundancy are probably a consequence of a change from the effects of a high risk work environment to the effects of psychosocial stresses such as job insecurity and unemployment. PMID:2511968

  6. EPIDERMAL DELETION OF HIF-2α STIMULATES WOUND CLOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Cowburn, Andrew S.; Crotty Alexander, Laura E.; Southwood, Mark; Nizet, Victor; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Johnson, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    Wound closure requires a complex series of micro-environmentally influenced events. A key aspect of wound closure is the migration of keratinocytes across the open wound. It has been found previously that the response to hypoxia via the HIF-1α transcription factor is a key feature of wound closure. The need for hypoxic response is likely due to interrupted wound vasculature as well as infection, and in this work, we investigated the need for a highly related hypoxic response transcription factor, HIF-2α. This factor was deleted tissue-specifically in mice, and the resulting mice were found to have an accelerated rate of wound closure. This is correlated with a reduced bacterial load and inflammatory response in these mice. This indicates that manipulating or reducing the HIF-2α response in keratinocytes could be a useful means to accelerate wound healing and tissue repair. PMID:24037341

  7. RCRA closure of mixed waste impoundments

    SciTech Connect

    Blaha, F.J.; Greengard, T.C.; Arndt, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    A case study of a RCRA closure action at the Rocky Flats Plant is presented. Closure of the solar evaporation ponds involves removal and immobilization of a mixed hazardous/radioactive sludge, treatment of impounded water, groundwater monitoring, plume delineation, and collection and treatment of contaminated groundwater. The site closure is described within the context of regulatory negotiations, project schedules, risk assessment, clean versus dirty closure, cleanup levels, and approval of closure plans and reports. Lessons learned at Rocky Flats are summarized.

  8. Ageism and Autonomy in Health Care: Explorations Through a Relational Lens.

    PubMed

    Pritchard-Jones, Laura

    2017-03-01

    Ageism within the context of care has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Similarly, autonomy has developed into a prominent concept within health care law and ethics. This paper explores the way that ageism, understood as a set of negative attitudes about old age or older people, may impact on an older person's ability to make maximally autonomous decisions within health care. In particular, by appealing to feminist constructions of autonomy as relational, I will argue that the key to establishing this link is the concept of self-relations such as self-trust, self-worth and self-esteem. This paper aims to demonstrate how these may be impacted by the internalisation of negative attitudes associated with old age and care. In light of this, any legal or policy response must be sensitive to and flexible enough to deal with the way in which ageism impacts autonomy.

  9. From Castalia to Wikipedia: Openness and Closure in Knowledge Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter; Peters, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores different forms of openness and closure in two knowledge communities: the fictional world of Castalia in Hermann Hesse's great work "The Glass Bead Game", and the twenty-first-century cyberspatial universe of Wikipedia. These two worlds differ in some important respects, but they also share a number of educationally…

  10. From Castalia to Wikipedia: Openness and Closure in Knowledge Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter; Peters, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores different forms of openness and closure in two knowledge communities: the fictional world of Castalia in Hermann Hesse's great work "The Glass Bead Game", and the twenty-first-century cyberspatial universe of Wikipedia. These two worlds differ in some important respects, but they also share a number of educationally…

  11. Stress and risk avoidance by exploring rats: implications for stress management in fear-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Farshad; Kolb, Bryan; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2013-03-01

    Animals display protective patterns of behaviour. Adoption of such protective patterns requires the assessment of risks posed by the environment and subsequent avoidance of high-risk locations. We hypothesized that adverse experiences lead to formation of a context-specific memory, thus changing the pattern of exploratory behaviours in response to specific cues associated with this experience. Here we examined exploratory movement patterns and compared approach/avoidance behaviours in rats following a stressful experience in the same versus a different environment. Using an open table exploration task, we compared exploratory movements in rats that were either stressed by restraint in a different environment or stressed in the test environment. The following day rats were allowed to explore the open table environment. Different test situations were provided in which rats were given access to a refuge or a large visual object as placed in the vicinity to the open table. The results indicate that stressed rats avoid the specific location associated with a stressful experience. However, when provided with a refuge in this location the salience of the stressful memory is reduced and the refuge will become a preferred location. Exploratory patterns and avoidance behaviours were correlated with corticosterone levels. Behavioural changes were not related to dendritic morphology in the medial prefrontal cortex (layer III). The results provide insights into risk avoidance strategies in rats and suggest that environmental intervention can reverse stress-related changes in behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory: exploring the dimensionality of eating disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum.

  13. Exploring the views of relatives of frail elderly patients about participating in a geriatric dentistry program.

    PubMed

    Ardenghi, Diego Machado; Wyatt, Chris

    2017-02-14

    Elderly residents of long-term care facilities (LTC) have difficulty accessing dental services. Aiming to improve access for this population, the Geriatric Dental Program (GDP) was established by UBC Faculty of Dentistry in 2002. Within the GDP, elderly people receive fee-for-service dental care. The objective of this research was to explore whether accessing these services had an impact on the lives of the patients' relatives. Data was collected through semi-structured, face-to-face, audio-recorded interviews with family members of 12 GDP patients. A criterion sampling method was used to select the interviewed family. Interview transcription and data coding procedures were conducted following Saldaña. NVivo software was used to code and organize the transcripts. Data analysis followed a qualitative thematic analysis. Final analysis shows that patient relatives are worried about their relatives' oral health. They believe that it is difficult to find private dentists with geriatric expertise and to make appointments for their family members in private practice. In addition, they report that the GDP made their life less stressful and relieved the burden of setting up appointments for their relatives. Thus, it is expected that a similar program may positively affect the lives of patient relatives by improving access to dental care services.

  14. Recurrent events after percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale.

    PubMed

    Wallenborn, Julia; Bertog, Stefan C; Franke, Jennifer; Steinberg, Daniel H; Majunke, Nicolas; Wilson, Neil; Wunderlich, Nina; Sievert, Horst

    2013-10-01

    To determine the incidence of symptomatic recurrent embolic events after patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure and potential causes for these events. It is well-known that cerebral or other embolic events may occur after PFO closure. This is a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent PFO closure for secondary prevention of embolic events at a single institution. 1,930 patients (mean age of 50 ± 13.3 years) underwent transcatheter PFO closure. Complete closure occurred in 92%. The annual recurrence rate of embolic events before PFO closure was 22.4% (785 events in 3,497 patient-years). During follow-up (mean 39 months), 63 recurrent events were documented: 25 strokes, 36 transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), and 2 peripheral embolic events. The overall annual recurrence rate after the procedure was 1% per year (63 events in 6,211 patient-years). The majority of events occurred in patients without residual shunts (54/63). There was no significant association between the presence of a residual shunt and recurrent events [hazard ratio (HR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-3.6, P = 0.16]. The most common cause for recurrent events was atherosclerosis. Nine out of 63 events were considered likely or possible paradoxical embolism due to residual shunt [stroke (2), TIA (5), and peripheral embolism (2)]. After PFO closure, the annual rate of events potentially related to paradoxical embolism was 0.14% (9 events in 6,211 patient-years). The incidence of symptomatic embolic events after PFO closure is low. Most recurrent events are related to coexistent conditions associated with thromboembolic risk rather than residual shunts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Extender for securing a closure

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  16. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Antiplatelet Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Søndergaard, Lars; Kasner, Scott E; Rhodes, John F; Andersen, Grethe; Iversen, Helle K; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E; Settergren, Magnus; Sjöstrand, Christina; Roine, Risto O; Hildick-Smith, David; Spence, J David; Thomassen, Lars

    2017-09-14

    The efficacy of closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the prevention of recurrent stroke after cryptogenic stroke is uncertain. We investigated the effect of PFO closure combined with antiplatelet therapy versus antiplatelet therapy alone on the risks of recurrent stroke and new brain infarctions. In this multinational trial involving patients with a PFO who had had a cryptogenic stroke, we randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo PFO closure plus antiplatelet therapy (PFO closure group) or to receive antiplatelet therapy alone (antiplatelet-only group). Imaging of the brain was performed at the baseline screening and at 24 months. The coprimary end points were freedom from clinical evidence of ischemic stroke (reported here as the percentage of patients who had a recurrence of stroke) through at least 24 months after randomization and the 24-month incidence of new brain infarction, which was a composite of clinical ischemic stroke or silent brain infarction detected on imaging. We enrolled 664 patients (mean age, 45.2 years), of whom 81% had moderate or large interatrial shunts. During a median follow-up of 3.2 years, clinical ischemic stroke occurred in 6 of 441 patients (1.4%) in the PFO closure group and in 12 of 223 patients (5.4%) in the antiplatelet-only group (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.62; P=0.002). The incidence of new brain infarctions was significantly lower in the PFO closure group than in the antiplatelet-only group (22 patients [5.7%] vs. 20 patients [11.3%]; relative risk, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.91; P=0.04), but the incidence of silent brain infarction did not differ significantly between the study groups (P=0.97). Serious adverse events occurred in 23.1% of the patients in the PFO closure group and in 27.8% of the patients in the antiplatelet-only group (P=0.22). Serious device-related adverse events occurred in 6 patients (1.4%) in the PFO closure group, and atrial fibrillation occurred in 29

  17. The relationship between productivity and health-related QOL: an exploration.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Werner B F; Meerding, Willem-Jan; Lamers, Leida M; Severens, Johan L

    2005-01-01

    In economic evaluation of healthcare programmes both QOL and productivity of patients are aspects to be studied. Normally, the former is part of the measurement of the effectiveness of the programme and the latter is part of the measurement of its costs. In this paper we highlight the relationship between QOL and productivity. Two aspects are discussed: (i) the relationship between perceived productivity and health-state valuations; and (ii) the observed relationship between productivity and QOL. The first aspect relates to the fact that in health-state valuations, respondents may consider income changes and ability to work. While this may have important methodological and practical implications, little empirical evidence exists in this area. The second aspect relates to the fact that the observed productivity of individuals is expected to be related to their health-related QOL. Worse health states are expected to be associated with lower productivity. Again, empirical investigation is lacking; however, this relationship may prove important, for instance in modelling productivity costs with use of information on QOL. This paper explores these relationships between productivity and QOL to stimulate debate and research in this area.

  18. Acellular dermal matrix provides a good option for abdominal wall closure following small bowel transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asham, E; Uknis, M E; Rastellini, C; Elias, G; Cicalese, L

    2006-01-01

    Following small bowel transplantation (SBTx), approximating the midline abdominal fascia can be problematic in patients with severely retracted abdominal cavities. We first report the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) for abdominal closure following living related SBTx. A 44-year-old woman with ultra-short gut syndrome secondary to multiple bowel resections received a 160-cm segmental intestinal graft from her daughter. The graft ileocolic vessels were anastomosed end to side to the inferior vena cava and distal aorta. A terminal ileostomy was fashioned because the patient had previous panproctocolectomy. The graft perfused well, and the laparotomy was primarily closed. On postoperative day 1, the patient required surgical exploration for evacuation of hematoma. Due to graft edema in a significantly retracted abdominal cavity, a 12x7 cm fascia defect was evident. Leaving the abdomen open or using a mesh was not entertained as options due to the high risk of infections. Primary closure under tension would also jeopardize the transplant, increasing the risk of thrombosis. The fascia defect was closed using a segment of ADM. The patient did well and went home on the postoperative day 11. At 2-year follow-up she is well and on oral diet without fascia defect or incisional hernia. This is the first report of the use of ADM for abdominal closure in patients receiving a SBTx. ADM is considered safe when used in contaminated sites and can allow primary closure of difficult wounds often seen in SBTx patients.

  19. NPAR- products, applications and closure

    SciTech Connect

    Vora, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    Almost a decade ago the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) developed and implemented a comprehensive research program (NUREG-1144) widely known as NPAR or Nuclear Plant Aging Research. The NPAR program is a structured research program specifically oriented to understanding significant age-related degradation mechanisms and their long term effects on properties and performance of important components and systems and ways to mitigate detrimental effects of aging. It provided a road map and a phased approach to research that is applicable to any structure, system, or component of interest. This hardware-oriented engineering research program led the industry worldwide and communicated a need to understand and manage age-related degradation effects in selected but important structures and components. At the conclusion (1995) of the NPAR program, 22 electrical and mechanical components, 13 safety-related systems, and 10 special topics will have been studied and results summarized in 160 technical reports. This reference library of information listed and summarized in NUREG-1377, Rev. No. 4 provides a foundation upon which individual programs can be built for the specific needs of a utility, a regulator, or equipment manufacturers. During the life of the NPAR program, it has provided technical bases and support for license renewal, codes and standards, resolution of generic safety issues, information notices, regulatory guides and the standard Review Plan, as well as the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and The NRC Regions. All ongoing NPAR activities will either be completed or terminated by the end of 1995. No new initiative will be undertaken. This paper summarizes NPAR products and accomplishments, application of the research results, and its status and closure.

  20. Foundational Methane Propulsion Related Technology Efforts, and Challenges for Applications to Human Exploration Beyond Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas; Klem, Mark; McRight, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Current interest in human exploration beyond earth orbit is driving requirements for high performance, long duration space transportation capabilities. Continued advancement in photovoltaic power systems and investments in high performance electric propulsion promise to enable solar electric options for cargo delivery and pre-deployment of operational architecture elements. However, higher thrust options are required for human in-space transportation as well as planetary descent and ascent functions. While high thrust requirements for interplanetary transportation may be provided by chemical or nuclear thermal propulsion systems, planetary descent and ascent systems are limited to chemical solutions due to their higher thrust to weight and potential planetary protection concerns. Liquid hydrogen fueled systems provide high specific impulse, but pose challenges due to low propellant density and the thermal issues of long term propellant storage. Liquid methane fueled propulsion is a promising compromise with lower specific impulse, higher bulk propellant density and compatibility with proposed in-situ propellant production concepts. Additionally, some architecture studies have identified the potential for commonality between interplanetary and descent/ascent propulsion solutions using liquid methane (LCH4) and liquid oxygen (LOX) propellants. These commonalities may lead to reduced overall development costs and more affordable exploration architectures. With this increased interest, it is critical to understand the current state of LOX/LCH4 propulsion technology and the remaining challenges to its application to beyond earth orbit human exploration. This paper provides a survey of NASA's past and current methane propulsion related technology efforts, assesses the accomplishments to date, and examines the remaining risks associated with full scale development.

  1. Determining the Relative Criticality of Diverse Exploration Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle; Anton, Wilma; Robotham, Kwesi

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks, primarily in the context of Continuous Risk Management. Each risk is evaluated in terms of two missions (a six month stay on the Moon and a thirty month round trip to Mars) and three types of consequences (in-mission crew health, post-mission crew health, and in-mission performance). The lack of a common metric between the three consequence scales, such as financial costs or quality adjusted life years lost, makes it difficult to compare the relative criticality of the risks. We are, therefore, exploring the use of a ternary scale of criticality based on the common metric of influencing an operational decision. The three levels correspond to the level of concern the risk generates for a "go/no-go" decision to launch a mission: 1) no-go; 2) go with significant reservations; 3) go. The criticality of each of the 27 risks is scored for the three types of consequence in both types of mission. The scores are combined to produce an overall criticality rating for each risk. The overall criticality rating can then be used to guide the prioritization of resources to affect the greatest amount of risk reduction.

  2. Visual exploration of objects and scenes in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Thibaut, M; Delerue, C; Boucart, M; Tran, T H C

    2016-01-01

    Studies on people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have shown that they are able to detect briefly displayed objects and scenes with high accuracy (above 80%). However, in everyday life we explore our environment to search and to recognize objects. We assessed visual exploration in people with AMD during the identification of objects and scenes. Twenty patients with AMD, fifteen age-matched and twelve young controls participated. We used colored photographs of isolated objects, natural scenes and objects in scenes, displayed centrally on a monitor. Participants were asked to name the objects and scenes. Ocular movements were recorded during the identification task. Scan paths, saccades, fixations, and accuracy were also recorded. People with AMD exhibited lower accuracy (by about 30%). Eye movement parameters were impaired with a larger number of saccades, shorter fixation durations and a larger scan path than controls. Our results are consistent with studies on artificial scotoma in normally sighted people showing that a central scotoma impairs oculomotricity. In contrast to detection tasks, people with central vision loss exhibit impaired performance in identification of objects and scenes (62 to 66%). Eye movement studies suggest that the lower accuracy in patients is likely due to the use of peripheral vision and instability of fixation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Extremes of the jet–accretion power relation of blazars, as explored by NuSTAR

    DOE PAGES

    Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; ...

    2016-07-18

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z > 2 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S5 0014+81 (at z = 3.366) and B0222+185 (at z=2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift/XRT, showing different variability behaviors. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively themore » most luminous accretion disk and the most powerful jet among known blazars. Furthermore, thanks to these properties, they are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disk relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars, to which they are consistent.« less

  4. Interprofessional collaborative patient-centred care: a critical exploration of two related discourses.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ann; Reeves, Scott

    2015-03-01

    There has been sustained international interest from health care policy makers, practitioners, and researchers in developing interprofessional approaches to delivering patient-centred care. In this paper, we offer a critical exploration of a selection of professional discourses related to these practice paradigms, including interprofessional collaboration, patient-centred care, and the combination of the two. We argue that for some groups of patients, inequalities between different health and social care professions and between professionals and patients challenge the successful realization of the positive aims associated with these discourses. Specifically, we argue that interprofessional and professional-patient hierarchies raise a number of key questions about the nature of professions, their relationships with one another as well as their relationship with patients. We explore how the focus on interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred care have the potential to reinforce a patient compliance model by shifting responsibility to patients to do the "right thing" and by extending the reach of medical power across other groups of professionals. Our goal is to stimulate debate that leads to enhanced practice opportunities for health professionals and improved care for patients.

  5. Extremes of the Jet-Accretion Power Relation of Blazars, as Explored by Nustar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Perri, M.; Madejski, G. M.; Stern, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-ray observations are crucial to study the non-thermal jet emission from high-redshift, powerful blazars. We observed two bright z > 2 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in hard X-rays to explore the details of their relativistic jets and their possible variability. S50014+81 (at z = 3.366) and B0222+185 (at z = 2.690) have been observed twice by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) simultaneously with Swift X-ray Telescope, showing different variability behaviors. We found that NuSTAR is instrumental to explore the variability of powerful high-redshift blazars, even when no gamma-ray emission is detected. The two sources have proven to have respectively the most luminous accretion disc and the most powerful jet among known blazars. Thanks to these properties, they are located at the extreme end of the jet-accretion disc relation previously found for gamma-ray detected blazars, to which they are consistent.

  6. Fast-Tracking Colostomy Closures.

    PubMed

    Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2015-12-01

    There have been very few studies on applying fast-track principles to colostomy closures. We believe that outcome may be significantly improved with multimodal interventions in the peri-operative care of patients undergoing this procedure. A retrospective study was carried out comparing patients who had undergone colostomy closures by the fast-track and traditional care protocols at our centre. We intended to analyse peri-operative period and recovery in colostomy closures to confirm that fast-track surgery principles improved outcomes. Twenty-six patients in the fast-track arm and 24 patients in the traditional care arm had undergone colostomy closures. Both groups were comparable in terms of their baseline parameters. Patients in the fast-track group were ambulatory and accepted oral feeding earlier. There was a significant reduction in the duration of stay (4.73 ± 1.43 days vs. 7.21 ± 1.38 days, p = 0.0000). We did not observe a rise in complications or 30-day re-admissions. Fast-track surgery can safely be applied to colostomy closures. It shows earlier ambulation and reduction in length of hospital stay.

  7. Cabled butterfly closure: a novel technique for sternal closure.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Shashank; Flom, Beau; Dyke, Cornelius

    2012-10-01

    Impaired sternal wound healing remains problematic after median sternotomy and can lead to significant morbidity after cardiac surgical procedures. Although metal plating systems exist for closing the sternum, their use is limited by expense and practicality, and simple wire closure remains the most common technique to close the sternum. We describe a cabling technique for sternal closure that is secure, uses standard sternal wire, and may be used on every patient. We have used the technique routinely in 291 patients with no sternal dehiscence or wound healing problems.

  8. Topographic and Air-Photo Lineaments in Various Locations Related to Geothermal Exploration in Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Title: Topographic and Air-Photo Lineaments in Various Locations Related to Geothermal Exploration in Colorado Tags: Colorado, lineaments, air-photo, geothermal Summary: These line shapefiles trace apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in various counties in Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids, as part of a DOE reconnaissance geothermal exploration program. Description: Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. This line shapefile is an attempt to use desktop GIS to delineate possible faults and fracture orientations and locations in highly prospective areas prior to an initial site visit. Geochemical sampling and geologic mapping could then be centered around these possible faults and fractures. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and utility right-of-ways. Still, it is unknown what actual features these lineaments, if they exist, represent. Although the shapefiles are arranged by county, not all areas within any county have been examined for lineaments. Work was focused on either satellite thermal infrared anomalies, known hot springs or wells, or other evidence of geothermal systems

  9. Exploring the concept of manliness in relation to the phenomenon of crying: a Bourdieusian approach.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kelly; Hall, Joanne M

    2011-09-01

    The concept of manliness related to the phenomenon of crying can be better understood by tracing the roots of the language of manliness through history. A Bourdieusian theoretical approach is used, incorporating the analytics of habitus, bodily hexis, and symbolic violence. This less-studied phenomenon of crying is investigated from a holistic, biopsychosocial framework. Manliness is a social construct that has remained surprisingly consistent throughout history. The importance of this concept to physical, psychological, and social health and well-being is addressed from a holistic nursing perspective. This is a timely issue for men's mental health, for example, that of returning combat veterans experiencing loss, grief, and posttraumatic stress. This exploration provides insight for nursing by analyzing the concept of manliness, which stems largely from militaristic roots, and might present obstacles to emotional release. © 2011 The Author(s)

  10. International ultraviolet explorer spectral atlas of planetary nebulae, central stars, and related objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Oliversen, Nancy A.; Nicholsbohlin, Joy; Garhart, Matthew P.

    1988-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archives contain a wealth of information on high quality ultraviolet spectra of approximately 180 planetary nebulae, their central stars, and related objects. Selected are representative low-dispersion IUE spectra in the range 1200 to 3200 A for 177 objects arranged by Right Ascension (RA) for this atlas. For most entries, the combined short wavelength (SWP) (1200to 1900) and long wavelength (LWR) (or LWP, 1900 to 3200 A) regions are shown on 30 cm by 10 cm Calcomp plots on a uniform scale to facilitate intercomparison of the spectra. Each calibrated spectrum is also shown on an expanded vertical scale to bring out some of the weaker features.

  11. Body-related pride in young adults: an exploration of the triggers, contexts, outcomes and attributions.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Gilchrist, Jenna D; Mack, Diane E; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2013-06-01

    This study explored body-related emotional experiences of pride in young adult males (n=138) and females (n=165). Data were collected using a relived emotion task and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Thirty-nine codes were identified and grouped into six categories (triggers, contexts, cognitive attributions, and affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes) for each of two themes (hubristic and authentic pride). Hubristic pride triggers included evaluating appearance/fitness as superior. Cognitions centered on feelings of superiority. Behaviors included strategies to show off. Triggers for authentic pride were personal improvements/maintenance in appearance and meeting or exceeding goals. Feeling accomplished was a cognitive outcome, and physical activity was a behavioral strategy. Contexts for the experience of both facets of pride primarily involved sports settings, swimming/beach, and clothes shopping. These findings provide theoretical support for models of pride as it applies to body image, and advances conceptual understanding of positive body image.

  12. Who Goes Where? Exploring Factors Related to Placement Among Group Homes

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Elizabeth M. Z.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Burns, Barbara J.; Murray, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Despite their widespread use as a placement option for youth with mental health problems, there is relatively little research on group homes for youth. Available data highlight concerns with practices and treatment within group homes and mixed results on youth-level outcomes. However, existing research appears to collapse a wide range of group residential settings into a single amorphous category. This article explores potential variations among group homes to examine whether different programs are systematically serving different types of youth. It examines, in particular, placement in homes using the teaching family model (TFM) versus homes that do not. Findings suggest that demographics are not significantly associated with TFM placement. However, custody status, types of mental health problems, and use of psychotropic medications are. Homes appear to be serving distinct niches within a geographic area. Implications for future research and policy/practice are discussed. PMID:27390510

  13. Who Goes Where? Exploring Factors Related to Placement Among Group Homes.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Elizabeth M Z; Wagner, H Ryan; Burns, Barbara J; Murray, Maureen

    2016-03-01

    Despite their widespread use as a placement option for youth with mental health problems, there is relatively little research on group homes for youth. Available data highlight concerns with practices and treatment within group homes and mixed results on youth-level outcomes. However, existing research appears to collapse a wide range of group residential settings into a single amorphous category. This article explores potential variations among group homes to examine whether different programs are systematically serving different types of youth. It examines, in particular, placement in homes using the teaching family model (TFM) versus homes that do not. Findings suggest that demographics are not significantly associated with TFM placement. However, custody status, types of mental health problems, and use of psychotropic medications are. Homes appear to be serving distinct niches within a geographic area. Implications for future research and policy/practice are discussed.

  14. To master or perform? Exploring relations between achievement goals and conceptual change learning.

    PubMed

    Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M

    2013-09-01

    Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Seventy-three undergraduate students were assessed on their prior knowledge and misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics, and then reported their achievement goals and participated in think-aloud protocols while reading Newtonian physics texts. A mastery-approach goal orientation positively predicted deep processing strategies, shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change. In contrast, a performance-approach goal orientation did not predict either of the processing strategies, but negatively predicted conceptual change. A performance-avoidance goal orientation negatively predicted deep processing strategies and conceptual change. Moreover, deep and shallow processing strategies positively predicted conceptual change as well as recall. Finally, both deep and shallow processing strategies mediated relations between mastery-approach goals and conceptual change. Results provide some support for Dole and Sinatra's (1998) Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model of conceptual change but also challenge specific facets with regard to the role of depth of processing in conceptual change. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Exploring Nurse’s Communicative Role in Nurse-Patient Relations: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Fakhr-Movahedi, Ali; Rahnavard, Zahra; Salsali, Mahvash; Negarandeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recognition the nurses’ communicative roles can influence quality of patient’s care. Therefore, this study was aimed to explore nurse’s role in nurse-patient relations. Methods: This study was a qualitative research in which collected data was analyzed by content analysis method. The participants were 23 nurses, patients and their families in medical and surgical wards of a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. Data were collected by semi-structured interview and observation. Results: Data analysis was led to the emergence of a main conceptual category: The patient's need-based communication. This category was derived from two categories: 1) Identifying the patient’s needs; and 2) Communicative behavior in the face of the patient’s needs. "Identifying the patient’s needs" was related to "type of the patient’s problem", "patients’ inquiring about their health status" and "monitoring the patient’s health status". "Communicative behavior in the face of the patient’s needs" was composed of four subcategories: "caring attention", "informal education of the patient", "inducing calmness to the patient", and "obtaining the trust of the patient". Conclusion: The nurse’s role in relationship with patients is designed according to patients’ needs. Therefore, if the patients’ needs in clinical settings are defined and clarified appropriately, the nurse-patient relations will be enhanced and thereby the quality of care will be improved. PMID:28032071

  16. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  17. Is 'self-medication' a useful term to retrieve related publications in the literature? A systematic exploration of related terms.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Ava; Sarayani, Amir; Ashouri, Asieh; Sherafatmand, Mona; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah

    2015-01-01

    Self-Medication (SM), i.e. using medications to treat oneself, is a major concern for health researchers and policy makers. The terms "self medication" or "self-medication" (SM terms) have been used to explain various concepts while several terms have also been employed to define this practice. Hence, retrieving relevant publications would require exhaustive literature screening. So, we assessed the current situation of SM terms in the literature to improve the relevancy of search outcomes. In this Systematic exploration, SM terms were searched in the 6 following databases and publisher's portals till April 2012: Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Google scholar, ScienceDirect, and Wiley. A simple search query was used to include only publications with SM terms. We used Relative-Risk (RR) to estimate the probability of SM terms use in related compared to unrelated publications. Sensitivity and specificity of SM terms as keywords in search query were also calculated. Relevant terms to SM practice were extracted and their Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR+/-) were calculated to assess their effect on the probability of search outcomes relevancy in addition to previous search queries. We also evaluated the content of unrelated publications. All mentioned steps were performed in title (TI) and title or abstract (TIAB) of publications. 1999 related and 1917 unrelated publications were found. SM terms RR was 4.5 in TI and 2.1 in TIAB. SM terms sensitivity and specificity respectively were 55.4% and 87.7% in TI and 84.0% and 59.5% in TIAB. "OTC" and "Over-The-Counter Medication", with LR+ 16.78 and 16.30 respectively, provided the most conclusive increase in the probability of the relevancy of publications. The most common unrelated SM themes were self-medication hypothesis, drug abuse and Zoopharmacognosy. Due to relatively low specificity or sensitivity of SM terms, relevant terms should be employed in search queries and clear definitions of SM applications should

  18. Closure of Building 624 incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, M.N.; Hallisey, M.L.; Terusaki, S.; Steverson, M.

    1992-06-01

    The Building 624 incinerator was a Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) mixed waste incinerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This incinerator was in operation from 1978 to 1989. The incinerator was to be closed as a mixed waste incinerator, but was to continue burning classified nonhazardous solid waste. The decision was later made to discontinue all use of the incinerator. Closure activities were performed from June 15 to December 15, 1991, when a clean closure was completed. The main part of the closure was the characterization, which included 393 samples and 30 blanks. From these 393 samples, approximately 13 samples indicated the need for further investigation, such as an isotopic scan; however, none of the samples was concluded to be hazardous or radioactive.

  19. Fundamental base closure environmental principles

    SciTech Connect

    Yim, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Military base closures present a paradox. The rate, scale and timing of military base closures is historically unique. However, each base itself typically does not present unique problems. Thus, the challenge is to design innovative solutions to base redevelopment and remediation issues, while simultaneously adopting common, streamlined or pre-approved strategies to shared problems. The author presents six environmental principles that are fundamental to base closure. They are: remediation not clean up; remediation will impact reuse; reuse will impact remediation; remediation and reuse must be coordinated; environmental contamination must be evaluated as any other initial physical constraint on development, not as an overlay after plans are created; and remediation will impact development, financing and marketability.

  20. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis.

  1. Management of Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Parivadhini, Annadurai; Lingam, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    Secondary angle closure glaucomas are a distinct entity from primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG). Unlike PACG, secondary angle closure glaucoma's have an identifable contributory factor/s for angle closure and obstruction of aqueous fow which is usually unrelieved by iridotomy. The treatment of each type of secondary angle closure glaucoma is varied, so identification of the primary cause aids in its effective management. How to cite this article: Annadurai P, Vijaya L. Management of Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma. J Current Glau Prac 2014;8(1):25-32.

  2. The Office of Site Closure: Progress in the Face of Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, J. J.; Murphie, W. E.; Meador, S. W.

    2002-02-26

    The Office of Site Closure (OSC) was formed in November 1999 when the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) reorganized to focus specifically on site cleanup and closure. OSC's objective is to achieve safe and cost-effective cleanups and closures that are protective of our workers, the public, and the environment, now and in the future. Since its inception, OSC has focused on implementing a culture of safe closure, with emphasis in three primary areas: complete our responsibility for the Closure Sites Rocky Flats, Mound, Fernald, Ashtabula, and Weldon Spring; complete our responsibility for cleanup at sites where the DOE mission has been completed (examples include Battelle King Avenue and Battelle West Jefferson in Columbus, and General Atomics) or where other Departmental organizations have an ongoing mission (examples include the Brookhaven, Livermore, or Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the Nevada Test Site); and create a framework a nd develop specific business closure tools that will help sites close, such as guidance for and decisions on post-contract benefit liabilities, records retention, and Federal employee incentives for site closure. This paper discusses OSC's 2001 progress in achieving site cleanups, moving towards site closure, and developing specific business closure tools to support site closure. It describes the tools used to achieve progress towards cleanup and closure, such as the application of new technologies, changes in contracting approaches, and the development of agreements between sites and with host states. The paper also identifies upcoming challenges and explores options for how Headquarters and the sites can work together to address these challenges. Finally, it articulates OSC's new focus on oversight of Field Offices to ensure they have the systems in place to oversee contractor activities resulting in site cleanups and closures.

  3. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Knackstedt, R W; Dixon, J A; O'Neill, P J; Herrera, F A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent.

  4. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Knackstedt, R. W.; Dixon, J. A.; O'Neill, P. J.; Herrera, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent. PMID

  5. Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene Hekimhan Basin (Central Eastern Turkey) as a supra-ophiolite sedimentary/magmatic basin related to the later stages of closure of Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Matthew G.; Robertson, Alastair H. F.; Tasli, Kemal; İnan, Nurdan

    2014-11-01

    The Hekimhan Basin is here put forward as a type example of a globally important class of basin, known as a supra-ophiolite basin. Such basins form after the emplacement of ophiolitic (i.e. oceanic) rocks onto a passive continental margin, but long prior to continental collision. The Hekimhan Basin developed as part of the northern margin of the Tauride microcontinent during the collision and suturing of two Neotethyan oceans to the north, namely the Inner Tauride Ocean and the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean. The basin records two main stages of tectonic development, during latest Cretaceous to Late Eocene time. The first phase of basin development during the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) began with the erosion of emplaced ophiolitic rocks, resulting in non-marine clastic sedimentation. Subsequently, the basin rapidly subsided, in response to inferred regional crustal extension, resulting in the deposition of hemipelagic marls and local sapropelic mudstones. The axial parts of the basin experienced alkaline, within-plate-type, basaltic volcanism. The Late Maastrichtian culminated in deposition of shallow-marine carbonates. Overlying Paleocene sediments are restricted to thin, localised, marine evaporates, associated with a low-angle unconformity. The second stage of basin development began during the Early Eocene with deposition of shallow-marine carbonates, coupled with localised basaltic volcanism, again of extensional type. The basin emerged during the Mid-Late Eocene in a late-stage collisional to post-collisional setting. Compressional deformation largely reflects post-suture tightening. A short-lived marine transgression occurred during the Mid-Miocene. The basin was later deformed by both left-lateral and right-lateral strike-slip. Several different tectonic models are considered, notably extension related to the northward pull of a still-subducting oceanic slab, and back-arc extension related to northward subduction of Neotethys (to the south). The first

  6. Patterns and implications of extensive heterochrony in carnivoran cranial suture closure

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, A; Foley, L; Weisbecker, V

    2013-01-01

    Heterochronic changes in the rate or timing of development underpin many evolutionary transformations. In particular, the onset and rate of bone development have been the focus of many studies across large clades. In contrast, the termination of bone growth, as estimated by suture closure, has been studied far less frequently, although a few recent studies have shown this to represent a variable, although poorly understood, aspect of developmental evolution. Here, we examine suture closure patterns across 25 species of carnivoran mammals, ranging from social-insectivores to hypercarnivores, to assess variation in suture closure across taxa, identify heterochronic shifts in a phylogenetic framework and elucidate the relationship between suture closure timing and ecology. Our results show that heterochronic shifts in suture closure are widespread across Carnivora, with several shifts identified for most major clades. Carnivorans differ from patterns identified for other mammalian clades in showing high variability of palatal suture closure, no correlation between size and level of suture closure, and little phylogenetic signal outside of musteloids. Results further suggest a strong influence of feeding ecology on suture closure pattern. Most of the species with high numbers of heterochronic shifts, such as the walrus and the aardwolf, feed on invertebrates, and these taxa also showed high frequency of closure of the mandibular symphysis, a state that is relatively rare among mammals. Overall, caniforms displayed more heterochronic shifts than feliforms, suggesting that evolutionary changes in suture closure may reflect the lower diversity of cranial morphology in feliforms. PMID:23530892

  7. Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation-Based Proteomic Analysis of Patent and Constricted Ductus Arteriosus Tissues Confirms the Systemic Regulation of Ductus Arteriosus Closure.

    PubMed

    Hong, Haifa; Ye, Lincai; Chen, Huiwen; Xia, Yu; Liu, Yue; Liu, Jinfen; Lu, Yanan; Zhang, Haibo

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate global changes in protein expression associated with patency by undertaking proteomic analysis of human constricted and patent ductus arteriosus (DA). Ten constricted and 10 patent human DAs were excised from infants with ductal-dependent heart disease during surgery. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative proteomics, 132 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Of 132 proteins, voltage-gated sodium channel 1.3 (SCN3A), myosin 1d (Myo1d), Rho GTPase activating protein 26 (ARHGAP26), and retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) were selected for validation by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Significant upregulation of SCN3A, Myo1d, and RP1 messenger RNA, and protein levels was observed in the patent DA group (all P ≤ 0.048). ARHGAP26 messenger RNA and protein levels were decreased in patent DA tissue (both P ≤ 0.018). Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that Myo1d, ARHGAP26, and RP1 were specifically expressed in the subendothelial region of constricted DAs; however, diffuse expression of these proteins was noted in the patent group. Proteomic analysis revealed global changes in the expression of proteins that regulate oxygen sensing, ion channels, smooth muscle cell migration, nervous system, immune system, and metabolism, suggesting a basis for the systemic regulation of DA patency by diverse signaling pathways, which will be confirmed in further studies.

  8. Closure phase and lucky imaging.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, William T

    2009-01-01

    Since its introduction by Jennison in 1958, the closure-phase method for removing the effects of electrical path-length errors in radio astronomy and of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy has been based on the non-redundant-spacing triple interferometer. It is shown that through application of lucky imaging concepts it is possible to relax this condition, making closure-phase methods possible with redundantly spaced interferometer configurations and thereby widening their range of application. In particular, a quadruple-interferometer can, under lucky imaging conditions, be treated as though it were a triple interferometer. The slit-annulus aperture is investigated as a special case.

  9. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, J.A.; Stoddard, L.M.

    1984-01-31

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or framework and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  10. Alarm sensor apparatus for closures

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, James A.; Stoddard, Lawrence M.

    1986-01-01

    An alarm sensor apparatus for closures such as doors and windows, and particularly for closures having loose tolerances such as overhead doors, garage doors or the like, the sensor apparatus comprising a pair of cooperating bracket members, one being attached to the door facing or frame work and the other to the door member, two magnetic sensor elements carried by said bracket members, the bracket members comprising a pair of cooperating orthogonal guide slots and plates and a stop member engageable with one of the sensors for aligning the sensors with respect to each other in all three orthogonal planes when the door is closed.

  11. Exploring women's sensory experiences of undergoing colposcopy and related procedures: implications for preparatory sensory information provision.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mairead; Waller, Jo; Gallagher, Pamela; Martin, Cara M; JO'Leary, John; D'Arcy, Tom; Prendiville, Walter; Flannelly, Grainne; Sharp, Linda

    2016-12-01

    Some women experience distress during colposcopy examinations which is partly related to women's fear, or experience, of pain during the procedure. However, little is known about women's sensory experiences of colposcopy (other than pain) or what might impact on these experiences. The aim of this study was to explore women's sensory experiences of colposcopy and related procedures and identify factors which influenced negative sensory experiences. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 women who had undergone, for the first time, a colposcopy (some with related procedures, including punch biopsies and loop excision) as part of follow-up for abnormal cervical cytology. Interviews were analysed thematically using the Framework Approach to organise the data and identify emerging higher-order themes. Women described a range of sensory experiences including pain or discomfort, cramping, stinging and cold sensations (due to the application of acetic acid to the cervix). Four key themes emerged as important aspects of the overall sensory experience: levels of pain, treatment-specific sensations, anaesthetic-specific sensations and solution-specific sensations. Factors that may influence women having a negative sensory experience were sensory expectations of the procedure(s) and lack of preparatory sensory information. Our study provides unique in-depth insight into women's sensory experiences of colposcopy and related procedures and suggests women require more preparatory sensory information. The issues identified as contributing to women having a negative sensory experience may help inform the development of pre-colposcopy information which may better prepare women with abnormal cervical cytology for follow-up examinations.

  12. Exploring the relevance of social justice within a relational nursing ethic.

    PubMed

    Woods, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the last few decades, a growing number of commentators have questioned the appropriateness of the 'justice view' of ethics as a suitable approach in health care ethics, and most certainly in nursing. Essentially, in their ethical deliberations, it is argued that nurses do not readily adopt the high degree of impartiality and objectivity that is associated with a justice view; instead their moral practices are more accurately reflected through the use of alternative approaches such as relational or care-based ethics. Yet, it has also been argued that this viewpoint does not necessarily 'do justice' to the broader moral responsibilities of nurses towards humanity in general, i.e. to the wider socio-cultural and socio-political issues in society, and to the concept of social justice in particular. This criticism has triggered a much closer examination of relational and care-based ethics in nursing at levels beyond individual responsiveness within relationships and brought into the spotlight the need for a more ethically refined nursing response to an increasingly complex set of socio-cultural inequalities. This article explores a relational ethic within nursing practices with contemporary ideas regarding social justice. In particular, it is argued that the synergy between the two actually produces an ethic that is capable of not only challenging the continuing predominance of justice-based ethics within health care, but of replacing it. Subsequently, in the discussion that follows, it is suggested that a combined social justice and relational care-based approach, as a social ethic, should guide the moral deliberations and actions of nurses. It is maintained that such an approach is not only possible, but crucial if nurses are to realize their full potential as ethical agents for individual and social good.

  13. An Exploration of Community Relations between a Public High School District and Faith-Based Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beerbower, John David

    2013-01-01

    An effective school leader explores better ways to communicate with the community stakeholder their district serves. Often, some of the strongest groups in a community are the faith-based organizations (FBOs). A qualitative, action research design was used to explore three primary questions. The study provided an example for exploring perceptions…

  14. An Exploration of Community Relations between a Public High School District and Faith-Based Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beerbower, John David

    2013-01-01

    An effective school leader explores better ways to communicate with the community stakeholder their district serves. Often, some of the strongest groups in a community are the faith-based organizations (FBOs). A qualitative, action research design was used to explore three primary questions. The study provided an example for exploring perceptions…

  15. 40 CFR 265.113 - Closure; time allowed for closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... section, at a hazardous waste management unit or facility, or within 90 days after approval of the closure...) The hazardous waste management unit or facility has the capacity to receive additional hazardous... another person will recommence operation of the hazardous waste management unit or the facility within...

  16. Colostomy closure: how to avoid complications

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Marc A.; Lawal, Taiwo A.; Peña, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Colostomy is an operation frequently performed in pediatric surgery. Despite its benefits, it can produce significant morbidity. In a previous publication we presented our experience with the errors and complications that occurred during cases of colostomy creation. We now have focused in the morbidity related to the colostomy closure. The technical details that might have contributed to the minimal morbidity we experienced are described. Methods The medical records of 649 patients who underwent colostomy closure over a 28-year period were retrospectively reviewed looking for complications following these procedures. Our perioperative protocol for colostomy closure consisted in: clear fluids by mouth and repeated proximal stoma irrigations 24 h prior to the operation. Administration of IV antibiotics during anesthesia induction and continued for 48 h. Meticulous surgical technique that included: packing of the proximal stoma, plastic drape to immobilize the surgical field, careful hemostasis, emphasis in avoiding contamination, cleaning the edge of the stomas to allow a good 2-layer, end-to-end anastomosis with separated long-term absorbable sutures, generous irrigation of the peritoneal cavity and subsequent layers with saline solution, closure by layers to avoid dead space, and avoidance of hematomas. No drains and no nasogastric tubes were used. Oral fluids were started the day after surgery and patients were discharged 48–72 h after the operation. Results The original diagnoses of the patients were: anorectal malformation (583), Hirschsprung’s disease (53), and others (13). 10 patients (1.5%) had complications: 6 had intestinal obstruction (5 due to small bowel adhesions, 1 had temporary delay of the function of the anastomosis due to a severe size discrepancy between proximal and distal stoma with a distal microcolon) and 4 incisional hernias. There were no anastomotic dehiscences or wound infection. There was no bleeding, no anastomotic

  17. Preface--Environmental issues related to oil and gas exploration and production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the essential commodity that powers the expanding global economy. Starting in the 1950s, oil and natural gas became the main sources of primary energy for the rapidly increasing world population (Edwards, 1997). In 2003, petroleum was the source for 62.1% of global energy, and projections by energy information administration (EIA) indicate that oil and gas will continue their dominance, supplying 59.5% of global energy in 2030 (EIA, 2007). Unfortunately petroleum and coal consumption carry major detrimental environmental impacts that may be regional or global in scale, including air pollution, global climate change and oil spills. This special volume of Applied Geochemistry, devoted to “Environmental Issues Related to Oil and Gas Exploration and Production”, does not address these major impacts directly because air pollution and global climate change are issues related primarily to the burning of petroleum and coal, and major oil spills generally occur during ocean transport, such as the Exxon Valdez 1989 spill of 42,000 m3 (260,000 bbl) oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska.

  18. Exploring relations of wellness and athletic coping skills of collegiate athletes: implications for sport performance.

    PubMed

    von Guenthner, Shannon; Hammermeister, Jon

    2007-12-01

    In exploring the relationship between wellness and athletic performance, this study assessed the link between wellness, as defined by a high score on five wellness dimensions of emotional, social, spiritual, intellectual, and physical well-being, with psychological variables thought to be related to athletic performance as measured by athletes' self-report of specific athletic coping skills. 142 collegiate athletes completed a survey composed of the Optimal Living Profile to measure wellness dimensions and the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory to measure specific psychological variables. Analysis indicated that athletes scoring higher on the dimensions of wellness also scored significantly higher on athletic coping skills. Specifically, male athletes who scored higher on wellness also reported higher scores on coachability, concentration, goal setting/mental preparation, and peaking under pressure, and female athletes who scored higher on wellness also reported higher scores in coping with adversity, coachability, concentration, goal setting/mental preparation, and freedom from worry. Various dimensions of wellness seem related to better performance by involving the athletic coping skills of intercollegiate athletes. Implications for coaches and sport psychologists are also discussed.

  19. Exploring the relation between childhood trauma, temperamental traits and mindfulness in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Carmona, Cristina; Martín-Blanco, Ana; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Ruiz, Elisabet; Gomà-I-Freixanet, Montserrat; Pérez, Víctor; Soler, Joaquim

    2015-07-29

    Deficits in mindfulness-related capacities have been described in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, little research has been conducted to explore which factors could explain these deficits. This study assesses the relationship between temperamental traits and childhood maltreatment with mindfulness in BPD. A total of 100 individuals diagnosed with BPD participated in the study. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF), temperamental traits were assessed using the Zuckerman-Khulman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ), and mindfulness capabilities were evaluated with the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed including only those CTQ-SF and ZKPQ subscales that showed simultaneous significant correlations with mindfulness facets. Results indicated that neuroticism and sexual abuse were predictors of acting with awareness; and neuroticism, impulsiveness and sexual abuse were significant predictors of non-judging. Temperamental traits did not have a moderator effect on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and mindfulness facets. These results provide preliminary evidence for the effects of temperamental traits and childhood trauma on mindfulness capabilities in BPD individuals. Further studies are needed to better clarify the impact of childhood traumatic experiences on mindfulness capabilities and to determine the causal relations between these variables.

  20. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  1. Numerical Modelling of Thermal Convection Related to Fracture Permeability - Implications for Geothermal Exploration and Basin Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipsey, Lindsay; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Pluymaekers, Maarten; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    the fracture network geometry within the aquifer. In summary, convective upwellings can create significant temperature enhancements relative to conductive profile and in agreement with the observations in the LTG-01 carbonates. This enhancement is critically dependent on the aquifer thickness and geothermal gradient. Given a gradient of 39°C/km and aquifer thickness of 600 m, a temperature of 203°C can be obtained at a depth of 4500 m directly above upwelling zones. Contrarily, downwelling zones result in a temperature of 185°C at the same depth. This demonstrates the strong spatial variability of thermal anomalies in convective fractured aquifers at large depth and can have strong effects on exploration opportunity and risk of prospective areas. Numerical models can facilitate in exploration workflows to assess thermal variation and location of upwelling zones.

  2. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  3. [Career exploration as related to self-efficacy and the motivation based on self-determination theory].

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Satoko; Hiraoka, Kyoichi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the multivariate relations between career exploration and its predictors. University sophomores and seniors completed a questionnaire about career exploration, career decision-making self-efficacy, career decision-making outcome expectations, and career motivation. Canonical correlation analysis showed that combining all predictors, i.e., career decision-making self-efficacy, career decision-making outcome expectations, and career motivations, accounted for a large portion of the career exploration variance. Of subfactors of career motivation, only "integrated and identified regulation" was significantly related to career exploration. This result suggests that career exploration is predicted by self-efficacy as well as a highly self-determinated extrinsic motivation.

  4. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  5. Different visual exploration of tool-related gestures in left hemisphere brain damaged patients is associated with poor gestural imitation.

    PubMed

    Vanbellingen, Tim; Schumacher, Rahel; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Hopfner, Simone; Cazzoli, Dario; Preisig, Basil C; Bertschi, Manuel; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Bassetti, Claudio L; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M

    2015-05-01

    According to the direct matching hypothesis, perceived movements automatically activate existing motor components through matching of the perceived gesture and its execution. The aim of the present study was to test the direct matching hypothesis by assessing whether visual exploration behavior correlate with deficits in gestural imitation in left hemisphere damaged (LHD) patients. Eighteen LHD patients and twenty healthy control subjects took part in the study. Gesture imitation performance was measured by the test for upper limb apraxia (TULIA). Visual exploration behavior was measured by an infrared eye-tracking system. Short videos including forty gestures (20 meaningless and 20 communicative gestures) were presented. Cumulative fixation duration was measured in different regions of interest (ROIs), namely the face, the gesturing hand, the body, and the surrounding environment. Compared to healthy subjects, patients fixated significantly less the ROIs comprising the face and the gesturing hand during the exploration of emblematic and tool-related gestures. Moreover, visual exploration of tool-related gestures significantly correlated with tool-related imitation as measured by TULIA in LHD patients. Patients and controls did not differ in the visual exploration of meaningless gestures, and no significant relationships were found between visual exploration behavior and the imitation of emblematic and meaningless gestures in TULIA. The present study thus suggests that altered visual exploration may lead to disturbed imitation of tool related gestures, however not of emblematic and meaningless gestures. Consequently, our findings partially support the direct matching hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DNAPL Remediation: Selected Projects Approaching Regulatory Closure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper is a status update on the use of DNAPL source reduction remedial technologies, and provides information about recent projects where regulatory closure has been reached or projects are approaching regulatory closure, following source reduction.

  7. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  8. Closure of the open abdomen.

    PubMed

    Björck, Martin; D'Amours, Scott K; Hamilton, A E Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    The open abdomen is a valuable tool in the management of patients with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome. The longer an abdomen is left open, the greater the potential morbidity, however. From the very start, specific measures should be considered to increase the likelihood of definitive closure and prevent the development of visceral adhesions, lateralization, and/or loss of skin and fascia, ileus, fistulae, and malnutrition. Early definitive closure of all abdominal wall layers is the short-term goal of management once the need for the open abdomen has resolved. Several devices and strategies improve the chances for definitive closure. If a frozen abdomen develops, split-thickness skin grafting of a granulating open abdominal wound base is an alternative. Early coverage of the exposed viscera and acceptance of a large abdominal hernia permit earlier reversal of the catabolic state and lower the risk of fistula formation. When a stoma is required, sealing and separation can become problematic. If a fistula develops, a more complex situation prevails, requiring specific techniques to isolate its output and a longer-term strategy to restore intestinal continuity. Planning the closure of an open abdomen is a process that starts on the first day that the abdomen is opened. Multiple factors need to be addressed, optimized, and controlled to achieve the best outcome.

  9. Links between social network closure and child well-being: the organizing role of friendship context.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Anne C; Hunter, Andrea G; Eanes, Angella Y

    2006-11-01

    Third grade children (N = 404) and their mothers completed questionnaires and participated in interviews designed to identify children's friendships across multiple contexts, determine levels of social network closure for these friendships, and assess child well-being. Cluster analyses revealed distinct patterns in the contexts in which children's friendships were maintained. Closure was highest for children whose friendship clusters heavily represented relatives as friends and lowest when friends were from schools and the broader community. Intermediate levels of closure were observed for the clusters of neighborhood friends and friends from church and school. Both friendship cluster and, to some extent, ethnicity moderated associations between closure and indicators of well-being.

  10. 40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure. (a) Closure Plan. The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste injection well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for closure of the well that meets... injection well who ceases injection temporarily, may keep the well open provided he: (i) Has received...

  11. 40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure. (a) Closure Plan. The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste injection well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for closure of the well that meets... injection well who ceases injection temporarily, may keep the well open provided he: (i) Has received...

  12. 40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure. (a) Closure Plan. The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste injection well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for closure of the well that meets... injection well who ceases injection temporarily, may keep the well open provided he: (i) Has received...

  13. 40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure. (a) Closure Plan. The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste injection well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for closure of the well that meets... injection well who ceases injection temporarily, may keep the well open provided he: (i) Has received...

  14. 40 CFR 146.71 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Waste Injection Wells § 146.71 Closure. (a) Closure Plan. The owner or operator of a Class I hazardous waste injection well shall prepare, maintain, and comply with a plan for closure of the well that meets... injection well who ceases injection temporarily, may keep the well open provided he: (i) Has received...

  15. Weighted Case Closure and Counselor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Use of the 26 closure may lead to serious problems in the evaluation of counselor performance. This article examines some of the shortcomings, briefly reviews several suggestions for weighting case closure, and introduces two possible weighting methods for case closure. (Author)

  16. Sustainable livelihoods and ecosystem health: exploring methodological relations as a source of synergy.

    PubMed

    Connell, David J

    2010-09-01

    Using ecohealth as a transdisciplinary lens to explore the connections among overlapping domains of inquiry, this article examines methodological relations between Sustainable Livelihoods and Ecosystem Health, two approaches for improving rural health and well-being. The experience of working on a project tasked with developing an integrated, systems-based approach for understanding the nature of rural livelihoods and ecosystems provides the base for analysis. Several key insights are discussed: The overarching goals of health and sustainability facilitate collaboration among disciplines; differences arise from how each approach operationalizes systems as variables and indicators; the dependent variables for one approach can be used as the independent variables for the other. In summary, while broad concepts like health and sustainability help transcend differences across disciplines and scales of analysis, variables and indicators cannot, as they are bound to how an observed system is operationalized. An advantage of using an ecohealth lens is that it creates conceptual and analytical spaces in which differences can be reconciled and used as sources of synergy. A source of synergy revealed in this article is the interdependence of variables used by each approach.

  17. The Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation (MREP) Programme: Missions and related technology developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geelen, K.; Vijendran, S.; Rebuffat, D.; Larranaga, J.; Falkner, P.

    2013-09-01

    The European Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation (MREP) programme was widely supported by ESA participating states at the last Council at Ministerial level. The general approach of MREP is to consider a Mars Sample Return mission as a long-term objective and to progress step by step towards this ambitious mission through short and medium term technology developments. In parallel, long term generic enabling technologies are being developed with respect to propulsion and nuclear power systems. Intermediate missions would validate these technologies wherever possible. Mission candidates considered in the current technology development plan, currently under review, are (1) Mars network science mission (INSPIRE), (2) Phobos sample return mission (PHOOTPRINT), (3) Mars precision lander with a small rover and (4) Mars Sample Return. Missions 1 to 3 are scientifically rewarding alternatives to cope with possible MSR delays, while mission 4, and possibly mission 3, may become MSR segments under Europe lead. These missions involve a wide range of enabling capabilities which development is well ongoing, such as: - Mars Entry, Descent and Landing of small or medium-sized landers, including GNC (hazard avoidance, high precision), aerothermodynamics, airbag-based or soft landing, etc., - Sampling, fetching and sample transfer techniques, - Precision landing on low-gravity bodies, - High-speed Earth re-entry, including thermal protection system and aerothermodynamics, etc. - Autonomous rendezvous and capture in Mars orbit, including GNC, capture mechanisms, etc. - Planetary protection, including bio-sealing, monitoring, etc. The ongoing systems studies and technology development relating to the ESA MREP candidates missions are presented here.

  18. Exploring perception-action relations in music production: The asymmetric effect of tonal class.

    PubMed

    Jebb, Andrew T; Pfordresher, Peter Q

    2016-05-01

    When playing musical passages, performers integrate the pitch content of auditory feedback with current action plans. However, this process depends on the degree to which the musical structure of the feedback melody is perceived as similar to the structure of what is planned. Four experiments reported here explored the relationship between the tonal class of planned melodies (tonal or atonal) and the sequence of events formed by auditory feedback. Participants produced short melodies from memory that were either tonal (Experiments 1 and 3) or atonal (Experiments 2 and 4). Auditory feedback matched the planned melody with respect to contour but could vary in tonal class. The results showed that when participants planned a tonal melody, atonal feedback was treated as unrelated to the planned sequence. However, when planning an atonal melody, tonal feedback was still treated as similar to the planned sequence. This asymmetric similarity mirrors findings found within the music perception literature and implies that schematic musical knowledge is highly active in determining perception-action relations during music performance. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Using event related potentials to explore stages of facial affect recognition deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Jonathan K; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2008-07-01

    Schizophrenia patients show impairments in identifying facial affect; however, it is not known at what stage facial affect processing is impaired. We evaluated 3 event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore stages of facial affect processing in schizophrenia patients. Twenty-six schizophrenia patients and 27 normal controls participated. In separate blocks, subjects identified the gender of a face, the emotion of a face, or if a building had 1 or 2 stories. Three ERPs were examined: (1) P100 to examine basic visual processing, (2) N170 to examine facial feature encoding, and (3) N250 to examine affect decoding. Behavioral performance on each task was also measured. Results showed that schizophrenia patients' P100 was comparable to the controls during all 3 identification tasks. Both patients and controls exhibited a comparable N170 that was largest during processing of faces and smallest during processing of buildings. For both groups, the N250 was largest during the emotion identification task and smallest for the building identification task. However, the patients produced a smaller N250 compared with the controls across the 3 tasks. The groups did not differ in behavioral performance in any of the 3 identification tasks. The pattern of intact P100 and N170 suggest that patients maintain basic visual processing and facial feature encoding abilities. The abnormal N250 suggests that schizophrenia patients are less efficient at decoding facial affect features. Our results imply that abnormalities in the later stage of feature decoding could potentially underlie emotion identification deficits in schizophrenia.

  20. Exploring and Exploiting Disease Interactions from Multi-Relational Gene and Phenotype Networks

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Darcy A.; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of electronic health care records is unlocking the potential for novel studies on understanding and modeling disease co-morbidities based on both phenotypic and genetic data. Moreover, the insurgence of increasingly reliable phenotypic data can aid further studies on investigating the potential genetic links among diseases. The goal is to create a feedback loop where computational tools guide and facilitate research, leading to improved biological knowledge and clinical standards, which in turn should generate better data. We build and analyze disease interaction networks based on data collected from previous genetic association studies and patient medical histories, spanning over 12 years, acquired from a regional hospital. By exploring both individual and combined interactions among these two levels of disease data, we provide novel insight into the interplay between genetics and clinical realities. Our results show a marked difference between the well defined structure of genetic relationships and the chaotic co-morbidity network, but also highlight clear interdependencies. We demonstrate the power of these dependencies by proposing a novel multi-relational link prediction method, showing that disease co-morbidity can enhance our currently limited knowledge of genetic association. Furthermore, our methods for integrated networks of diverse data are widely applicable and can provide novel advances for many problems in systems biology and personalized medicine. PMID:21829475

  1. Exploration of Individual and Family Factors Related to Community Reintegration in Veterans With Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Helene; Winter, Laraine; Robinson, Keith; True, Gala; Piersol, Catherine; Vause-Earland, Tracey; Iacovone, Dolores Blazer; Holbert, Laura; Newhart, Brian; Fishman, Deborah; Short, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Community reintegration (CR) poses a major problem for military veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors contributing to CR after TBI are poorly understood. To address the gap in knowledge, an ecological framework was used to explore individual and family factors related to CR. Baseline data from an intervention study with 83 veterans with primarily mild to moderate TBI were analyzed. Instruments measured CR, depressive symptoms, physical health, quality of the relationship with the family member, and sociodemographics. Posttraumatic stress disorder and TBI characteristics were determined through record review. Five variables that exhibited significant bivariate relationships with CR (veteran rating of quality of relationship, physical functioning, bodily pain, posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis, and depressive symptoms) were entered into hierarchical regression analysis. In the final analysis, the five variables together accounted for 35% of the variance, but only depression was a significant predictor of CR, with more depressed veterans exhibiting lower CR. Efforts to support CR of Veterans with TBI should carefully assess and target depression, a modifiable factor. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Exploring safety systems for dispensing in community pharmacies: focusing on how staff relate to organizational components.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jasmine; Avery, Anthony J; Ashcroft, Darren; Boyd, Matthew; Phipps, Denham L; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Identifying risk is an important facet of a safety practice in an organization. To identify risk, all components within a system of operation should be considered. In clinical safety practice, a team of people, technologies, procedures and protocols, management structure and environment have been identified as key components in a system of operation. To explore risks in relation to prescription dispensing in community pharmacies by taking into account relationships between key components that relate to the dispensing process. Fifteen community pharmacies in England with varied characteristics were identified, and data were collected using non-participant observations, shadowing and interviews. Approximately 360 hours of observations and 38 interviews were conducted by the team. Observation field notes from each pharmacy were written into case studies. Overall, 52,500 words from 15 case studies and interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic and line-by-line analyses. Validation techniques included multiple data collectors co-authoring each case study for consensus, review of case studies by members of the wider team including academic and practicing community pharmacists, and patient safety experts and two presentations (internally and externally) to review and discuss findings. Risks identified were related to relationships between people and other key components in dispensing. This included how different levels of staff communicated internally and externally, followed procedures, interacted with technical systems, worked with management, and engaged with the environment. In a dispensing journey, the following categories were identified which show how risks are inextricably linked through relationships between human components and other key components: 1) dispensing with divided attention; 2) dispensing under pressure; 3) dispensing in a restricted space or environment; and, 4) managing external influences. To identify and evaluate risks effectively, an

  3. Exploring safety systems for dispensing in community pharmacies: Focusing on how staff relate to organizational components☆

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Jasmine; Avery, Anthony J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Boyd, Matthew; Phipps, Denham L.; Barber, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying risk is an important facet of a safety practice in an organization. To identify risk, all components within a system of operation should be considered. In clinical safety practice, a team of people, technologies, procedures and protocols, management structure and environment have been identified as key components in a system of operation. Objectives To explore risks in relation to prescription dispensing in community pharmacies by taking into account relationships between key components that relate to the dispensing process. Methods Fifteen community pharmacies in England with varied characteristics were identified, and data were collected using non-participant observations, shadowing and interviews. Approximately 360 hours of observations and 38 interviews were conducted by the team. Observation field notes from each pharmacy were written into case studies. Overall, 52,500 words from 15 case studies and interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic and line-by-line analyses. Validation techniques included multiple data collectors co-authoring each case study for consensus, review of case studies by members of the wider team including academic and practicing community pharmacists, and patient safety experts and two presentations (internally and externally) to review and discuss findings. Results Risks identified were related to relationships between people and other key components in dispensing. This included how different levels of staff communicated internally and externally, followed procedures, interacted with technical systems, worked with management, and engaged with the environment. In a dispensing journey, the following categories were identified which show how risks are inextricably linked through relationships between human components and other key components: 1) dispensing with divided attention; 2) dispensing under pressure; 3) dispensing in a restricted space or environment; and, 4) managing external influences. Conclusions

  4. Container cover closure apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griesau, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to handling and/or storing hazardous waste materials, such as radioactive materials, and is more specifically directed to loading and/or unloading radioactive material into or out of a container, such as a drum, by remote operation, and more particularly the present invention relates to the remote opening and/or closing of a container secured by a compression ring.

  5. Understanding the full breadth of cancer-related patient costs in Ontario: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Longo, Christopher J; Fitch, Margaret; Grignon, Michel; McAndrew, Alison

    2016-11-01

    This research informs existing work by examining the full scope of out-of-pocket costs and lost income, patients' private insurance behaviors, and their overall management of finances during their cancer treatment. The intent was to gain a deeper understanding of patient circumstances and the related costs. Participant qualitative interviews were conducted in person during outpatient clinic visits or by telephone and were recorded between June 2011 and July 2012. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to a descriptive qualitative analysis. The research team collaborated early in the process (after three subjects were enrolled) to develop a preliminary coding framework. The coding framework was modified to incorporate additional emerging content until saturation of data was evident. Transcripts were coded using the qualitative software NVivo version 9.0. Fifteen patients agreed to participate in the study and 14 completed the interview (seven breast, three colorectal, two lung, and two prostate). Consistent with existing published work, participants expressed concerns regarding expenses related to medications, complementary/alternative medicines, devices, parking and travel. These concerns were exacerbated if patients did not have insurance or lost insurance coverage due to loss of work. Although many acknowledged in hindsight that additional insurance would have helped, they also recognized that at the time of their diagnoses, it was not a viable option. Previously unidentified categorical costs identified in this study included modifications to housing arrangements or renovations, special clothing, fitness costs and the impact of an altered diet. We confirmed the results of earlier Canadian quantitative work. Additionally, cost categories not previously explored were identified, which will facilitate the development of an improved and more comprehensive quantitative questionnaire for future research. Many patients indicated that supplemental health

  6. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Exploration of the Care Needs of Post-Chemotherapy Lung Cancer Patients and Related Factors].

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Ying; Lin, Yu-Hua; Wang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Wan-Yi; Chang, Huang-Chih; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy (CT) is the first priority treatment for advanced stage lung cancer. However, symptom distress, impaired ability to conduct daily activities, and post-CT care needs are potential side effects of CT. To explore the factors related to the care needs of post-chemotherapy lung cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was used. One hundred and twenty-one adult patients who had been diagnosed with advanced-stage lung cancer and who had undergone CT using the Platinum and Docetaxel doublet regimen were recruited from a medical center in southern Taiwan. The instruments used included a nursing care needs survey, symptoms distress scale, daily activity interference scale, and patient characteristics datasheet. Participants self-prioritized their emergency management, health consultation, and emotional support activities based on their perceived care needs. The top three post-CT symptoms in terms of severity were: fatigue, appetite change, and sleep disorder. Primary disruptions in daily activities during the post-CT period related to: holding social activities, work, and stair climbing. Significant and positive correlations were found among daily activity interference (r = .30, p < .01), symptoms distress (r = .23, p < .01), and care needs. The regression model indicated daily activity interference as a predictor of care needs, accounting for 10.7% of the total variance. These results highlight the relationships among care needs, symptom distress, and daily activity interference in post-chemotherapy lung-cancer patients. The present study provides a reference for nursing care to reduce the symptom distress, to enhance the performance of daily activities, and to meet the care needs of lung-cancer patients.

  8. Development of exploration of spatial-relational object properties in the second and third years of life.

    PubMed

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Boom, Jan; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-06-01

    Within a perception-action framework, exploration is seen as a driving force in young children's development. Through exploration, children become skilled in perceiving the affordances in their environment and acting on them. Using a perception-action framework, the current study examined the development of children's exploration of the spatial-relational properties of objects such as the possibility of containing or stacking. A total of 61 children, belonging to two age cohorts, were followed from 9 to 24 months and from 20 to 36 months of age, respectively. Exploration of a standard set of objects was observed in five home visits in each cohort conducted every 4 months. A cohort-sequential augmented growth model for categorical data, incorporating assumptions of item response theory, was constructed that fitted the data well, showing that the development of exploration of spatial-relational object properties follows an overlapping waves pattern. This is in line with Siegler's model (Emerging Minds, 1996), which suggested that skill development can be seen as ebbing and flowing of alternative (simple and advanced) behaviors. Although the probability of observing the more complex forms of exploration increased with age, the simpler forms did not disappear altogether but only became less probable. Findings support a perception-action view on development. Individual differences in observed exploration and their relations with other variables, as well as future directions for research, are discussed.

  9. Microcrack closure in rocks under stress: direct observation

    SciTech Connect

    Batzle, M.L.; Simmons, G.; Siegfried, R.W.

    1980-12-10

    Microcrack closure in rocks under increasing stress was observed directly with a scanning electron microscope. Uniaxial stresses to 300 bars were applied with a small hydraulic press to specimens of Westerly (RI) granite, both unheated and previously heat cycled to 500/sup 0/C, and of Frederick (MD) diabase, heat cycled to 700/sup 0/C. Closure characteristics (rate, final closure pressure, etc.) depend on crack orientation, shape, surface roughness, and on the nature of fracture intersections and interactions. Cracks perpendicular to the applied stress closed while those parallel to the stress tended to open. Long, narrow cracks (low aspect ratio) closed at relatively low pressures. At some intersections, one fracture would open while another simultaneously closed, depending upon their orientations. Many fractures closed uniformly even though offset by other fractures. Local stress concentrations often caused new fracturing at low applied stress. Some fractures were propped open until material lodged inside was crushed. Significant irreversible damage occurred during the first stress cycle. Closure characteristics varied significantly among the samples. The unheated granite has cracks with rough, pitted, and mismatched walls. Only partial closure occurred under stress with many sections remaining open. Crack porosity is reduced but continues to be interconnected. Fractures in the preheated granite and diabase are also irregular, but the walls are well-matched and closure is nearly complete. The cracks in the heated granite closed at lower stresses than in the diabase. As the maximum stress was approached for the heated granite, new transgranular cracks formed and preexisting cracks were enlarged. The variations in closure rate and character were also observed in strain measurements.

  10. Patent foramen ovale closure to prevent secondary neurologic events.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Rosie; Blankenship, James C

    2017-07-03

    In October of 2016 the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the Amplatzer Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) occluder device for use in patients with cryptogenic stroke, to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke. This event followed 15years of off-label use of atrial septal occluder devices, 3 randomized trials, and enormous controversy over the efficacy of this procedure. While none of the trials reached the primary endpoint needed to prove the efficacy of PFO closure in preventing recurrent stroke, meta-analyses and 5-year follow-up of 1 trial suggest that PFO closure decreases the risk of recurrent stroke, especially in sub-groups with large shunts and atrial septal aneurysms, and especially when the Amplatzer device (rather than other devices) is used. While the relative reduction in stroke associated with PFO closure is large (about 50%), the absolute reduction is low (1-2%) and must be balanced against complications of the procedure (about 3%). Thus, PFO closure is restricted to patients with cryptogenic stroke, and depends heavily on patients' personal preferences. Uncertainties about the etiology of stroke in patients with PFO and the efficacy of PFO closure cause a difficult problem for the internal medicine specialist. At one extreme the internist may wonder if every patient with a documented PFO should be referred to a cardiologist. At the other extreme, supported by specialty society guidelines, internists may conclude that PFO closure is rarely necessary. In this paper we review the current status of PFO closure and suggest a rational strategy for this procedure. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A history of metal shaft/portal closures in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Amodt, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    Over the last twelve years the Utah Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program has utilized metal shaft and portal closures when physical constraints required an alternative method of closure to backfill or masonry seals. Eight types of metal closures have been installed with varying degrees of success. Relative advantages/disadvantages of these closures are discussed. The eight closure types are (1) A-frame {open_quotes}bird cages{close_quotes}, (2) large diameter cyclone fence-type grid, (3) bar grates, (4) rebar grates, (5) cable nets, (6) steel doors, (7) angle iron bat grates, and (8) {open_quotes}jail bar{close_quotes} steel bat grates. The primary application of the fabricated metal closures has been in non-coal mines. Only the angle iron bat grate has been installed in abandoned coal mines to date. Bird cages placed in avalanche zones failed and the shafts were later backfilled. Large cyclone fence-type grids were placed in the Wasatch and Tintic mountains in 1985. Rebar grates have been used in the Wasatch and Tintic mountains as an alternative to backfill. Bar grating was used in the Tintic mountains when the aesthetics of an historical headframe dictated a less visible closure. Cable nets have been installed in Canyonlands National Park utilizing a design pioneered in Death Valley National Monument. Steel doors have been utilized where the landowner requests access or a need to access the adit exists. Two types of bat grates have been utilized in both coal and non-coal mines where sensitive or endangered bat species have been identified. The bird cage design has not been as effective as the others. Indications are the rebar grates, angle iron bar grates, and steel doors excel in giving long term protection to the public, with the second generation bat grate giving the maximum protection to the public.

  12. Adherence to RIASEC Structure in Relation to Career Exploration and Parenting Style: Longitudinal and Idiothetic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura

    2006-01-01

    We explored the ''idiothetic'' cognitive structure of RIASEC occupational percepts in a sample of Italian middle and high school students over a one year period, examining the possible bidirectional linkages between cognitive-vocational structure, involvement in career exploration activities, and exposure to authoritative parenting style. The…

  13. Adherence to RIASEC Structure in Relation to Career Exploration and Parenting Style: Longitudinal and Idiothetic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Terence J. G.; Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Soresi, Salvatore; Nota, Laura

    2006-01-01

    We explored the ''idiothetic'' cognitive structure of RIASEC occupational percepts in a sample of Italian middle and high school students over a one year period, examining the possible bidirectional linkages between cognitive-vocational structure, involvement in career exploration activities, and exposure to authoritative parenting style. The…

  14. Issues related to handling Exploration Seismic data within the EU FP7 GeoSeas project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diviacco, Paolo; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    GeoSeas is a sibling of the SeaDataNet initiative, aiming at creating an e-infrastructure where users will be able to identify, locate and access pan-European, harmonized and federated marine Geological and Geophysical data. GeoSeas adopts many of the technologies developed within SeaDataNet. While for most of the designated data types, only minor tuning is required, the case of Exploration Seismics poses several issues needing specific solutions. The main issue is the sampling strategy, where the technologies, practices and the legacies of exploration geophysics differ considerably from those found in Oceanography (the original research field considered by SeaDataNet). Specific extensions to the SeaDataNet framework were required at many levels. The most significant interventions concerned the Common Data Index (CDI) metadatabase and data access mechanisms. The primary feature of interest in marine exploration geophysics is the seismic line (in the 2D case) or the seismic volume (3D). For various reasons seismic lines are often segmented, which poses serious problems to the one-to-one correspondence between the CDI and data files. Furthermore, common practice is for positioning and the observation data to be managed separately. Another issue is that the catalogue of metadata items needed for Seismic data discovery and browsing needs parameters that are not available in the standard CDI. However, in the context of data discovery a common framework for all data types is preferable, so we should avoid unnecessary customization for this data type. Both of these issues have been addressed using the framework provided by the OGC Observations and Measurements standard (O&M - see Cox, this conference). O&M provides a structure for observation metadata, allowing the description of the feature of interest, observation procedure, sampling features and the relationships between them, while still allowing the original encoding of the actual observation result. Thus, the

  15. Earth Remote Sensing: A Column Closure Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Entering the new millennium, there is no doubt that scientists expand greatly their scientific knowledge of the Earth system by utilizing unique capabilities from the vantage points of space. These global satellite observations include the NASA/NOAA Pathfinder and other ongoing data analysis projects, the Earth Observing System (EOS) program, the Earth System Science Pathfinders (ESSP) small research satellite missions, multi-agency planning for the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite (NPOESS), and other international satellite missions. However, using satellite remotely sensed data alone cannot explore fully the physical processes and energetic balance involved in our changing climate. To close the loop, the ground-based remote sensing and airborne in situ measurements are required. This talk provides an overview of the general strategy of Earth remote sensing for a column closure approach and discusses necessary instrumentation.

  16. 40 CFR 258.61 - Post-closure care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Post-closure care requirements. 258.61... FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Closure and Post-Closure Care § 258.61 Post-closure care requirements. (a) Following closure of each MSWLF unit, the owner or operator must conduct post-closure...

  17. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  18. 40 CFR 265.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Closure and Post-Closure § 265.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan... have a written closure plan. Until final closure is completed and certified in accordance with §...

  19. Untangling the Alliance-Outcome Correlation: Exploring the Relative Importance of Therapist and Patient Variability in the Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Scott A.; Wampold, Bruce E.; Imel, Zac E.

    2007-01-01

    Although the therapeutic alliance is a consistent predictor of psychotherapy outcomes, research has not distinguished between the roles of patient and therapist variability in the alliance. Multilevel models were used to explore the relative importance of patient and therapist variability in the alliance as they relate to outcome among 331…

  20. Untangling the Alliance-Outcome Correlation: Exploring the Relative Importance of Therapist and Patient Variability in the Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Scott A.; Wampold, Bruce E.; Imel, Zac E.

    2007-01-01

    Although the therapeutic alliance is a consistent predictor of psychotherapy outcomes, research has not distinguished between the roles of patient and therapist variability in the alliance. Multilevel models were used to explore the relative importance of patient and therapist variability in the alliance as they relate to outcome among 331…

  1. Impact of Vial Capping on Residual Seal Force and Container Closure Integrity.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Ovadia, Robert; Lam, Philippe; Stauch, Oliver; Vogt, Martin; Roehl, Holger; Huwyler, Joerg; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and computed tomography-to characterize different container closure system combinations that had been sealed using different capping process parameter settings. Additionally, container closure integrity of these samples was measured using helium leakage (physical container closure integrity) and compared to characterization data. The different capping equipment settings lead to residual seal force values from 7 to 115 N. High residual seal force values were achieved with high capping pre-compression force and a short distance between the capping plate and plunge. The choice of container closure system influenced the obtained residual seal force values. The residual seal force tester and piezoelectric measurements showed similar trends. All vials passed physical container closure integrity testing, and no stopper rupture was seen with any of the settings applied, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted for the studied container closure system with the chosen capping setting ranges. The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and

  2. GeodesicViewer - A tool for exploring geodesics in the theory of relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Grave, Frank

    2010-02-01

    The GeodesicViewer realizes exocentric two- and three-dimensional illustrations of lightlike and timelike geodesics in the general theory of relativity. By means of an intuitive graphical user interface, all parameters of a spacetime as well as the initial conditions of the geodesics can be modified interactively. This makes the GeodesicViewer a useful instrument for the exploration of geodesics in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Program summaryProgram title: GeodesicViewer Catalogue identifier: AEFP_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFP_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 168 868 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 076 202 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Qt, Qwt, OpenGL Computer: All platforms with a C++ compiler, Qt, Qwt, OpenGL Operating system: Linux, Mac OS X RAM: 24 Mbytes Classification: 1.5 External routines:Gnu Scientific Library (GSL) ( http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/) Motion4D (included in the package). The Motion4D library can also be downloaded from CPC. Catalogue identifier: AEEX Qt ( http://qt.nokia.com/downloads) Qwt ( http://qwt.sourceforge.net/) OpenGL ( http://www.opengl.org/) Nature of problem: Illustrate geodesics in four-dimensional Lorentzian spacetimes. Solution method: Integration of ordinary differential equations. 3D-Rendering via OpenGL. Running time: Interactive. The examples given take milliseconds.

  3. Rate of vision loss in neovascular age-related macular degeneration explored.

    PubMed

    Real, Juan P; Granero, Gladys E; De Santis, Mariana O; Juarez, Claudio P; Palma, Santiago D; Kelly, Simon P; Luna, José D

    2015-11-01

    To explore decline in visual acuity in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (n-AMD) awaiting intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab treatment following initial diagnosis and after disease reactivation. Retrospective analysis of 74 treatment-naïve patients (84 eyes) in two centers in Córdoba, Argentina. The time between treatment indication and intravitreal injection, and the changes in BCVA produced during this delay were studied in both periods. A linear regression model to search the impact of time on progression visual impairment was conducted. In both periods, a significant reduction in vision occurred awaiting intravitreal injection. The longer the delay, the greater the vision loss (R2 = 0.55 p < 0.01) and the less improvement following treatment (Pearson coefficient -0.26). The result of the model shows that the change in vision as a function of initial delay were best described by a polynomic model with a mean loss of 5 letters in the first 3 weeks, a slowdown in the rate of change of VA, and a dependence of visual acuity at the moment of diagnosis . The loss of visual acuity after reactivation shows the same behavior as at the onset of the disease but independent of visual acuity prior to reactivation. Visual loss awaiting injection intravitreal anti-VEGF is clinically significant and with an asymptotic pattern, with early rapid loss of vision in both the onset of the disease and the reactivation. Initiation of anti-VEGF treatment must be undertaken urgently, as should retreatment of disease activation to reduce visual loss.

  4. Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a large decline in female genital circumcision (FGC) in Egypt in recent decades. Understanding how this change has occurred so rapidly has been an area of particular interest to policymakers and public health officials alike who seek to further discourage the practice elsewhere. Methods We document the trends in this decline in the newest cohorts of young girls and explore the influences of three pathways—socioeconomic development, social media messages, and women’s empowerment—for explaining the observed trends. Using the 2005 and 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys, we estimate several logistic regression models to (1) examine individual and household determinants of circumcision, (2) assess the contributions of different pathways through which these changes may have occurred, and (3) assess the robustness of different pathways when unobserved community differences are taken into account. Results Across all communities, socioeconomic status, social media messages, and women’s empowerment all have significant independent effects on the risk of circumcision. However, after accounting for unobserved differences across communities, only mother’s education and household wealth significantly predict circumcision outcomes. Additional analyses of maternal education suggest that increases in women’s education may be causally related to the reduction in FGC prevalence. Conclusions Women’s empowerment and social media appear to be more important in explaining differences across communities; within communities, socioeconomic status is a key driver of girls’ circumcision risk. Further investigation of community-level women’s educational attainment for mothers suggests that investments made in female education a generation ago may have had echo effects on girls’ FGC risk a generation later. PMID:24090097

  5. Exploration of pathways related to the decline in female circumcision in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Modrek, Sepideh; Liu, Jenny X

    2013-10-03

    There has been a large decline in female genital circumcision (FGC) in Egypt in recent decades. Understanding how this change has occurred so rapidly has been an area of particular interest to policymakers and public health officials alike who seek to further discourage the practice elsewhere. We document the trends in this decline in the newest cohorts of young girls and explore the influences of three pathways--socioeconomic development, social media messages, and women's empowerment--for explaining the observed trends. Using the 2005 and 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Surveys, we estimate several logistic regression models to (1) examine individual and household determinants of circumcision, (2) assess the contributions of different pathways through which these changes may have occurred, and (3) assess the robustness of different pathways when unobserved community differences are taken into account. Across all communities, socioeconomic status, social media messages, and women's empowerment all have significant independent effects on the risk of circumcision. However, after accounting for unobserved differences across communities, only mother's education and household wealth significantly predict circumcision outcomes. Additional analyses of maternal education suggest that increases in women's education may be causally related to the reduction in FGC prevalence. Women's empowerment and social media appear to be more important in explaining differences across communities; within communities, socioeconomic status is a key driver of girls' circumcision risk. Further investigation of community-level women's educational attainment for mothers suggests that investments made in female education a generation ago may have had echo effects on girls' FGC risk a generation later.

  6. An exploration of nursing informatics competency and satisfaction related to network education.

    PubMed

    Lin, Juin-Shu; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Jiang, Wey-Wen; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-03-01

    The rapid development of computer technology has driven the growth of the Internet, which has made access to daily services more timely and convenient. Network education strategies for long-distance nursing education are increasingly being implemented to overcome distance barriers and allow nurses to obtain more knowledge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the informatics competency of nurses and their satisfaction regarding network education as well as to explore related factors. A total of 218 nurses answered an online questionnaire after completing 4 hours of network education at their appropriate clinical level. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze data. Study results found that nurses who took computer training less than 3 hours per week, were unable to connect to a network, or held an associate degree as their highest level of education achieved a lower nursing informatics competency than those who were older, were certified at an N4 clinical level, had previous online training experience or attended 4 or more course hours each week. Those who participated in the network education course more than 4 hours per week and owned their own computers were more satisfied with network education. Nurses who had higher nursing informatics competency were also more satisfied with network education. Network education not only enhances learners' computer competency but also improves learning satisfaction. By promoting network education and improving nurses' hardware/software skills and knowledge, nurses can use networks to access learning resources. Healthcare institutions should also enhance their computer infrastructures, and increase the interest of nurses to learn and apply network skills in clinical practice.

  7. Exploring Workarounds Related to Electronic Health Record System Usage: A Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Koelemeijer, Kitty; Jaspers, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care providers resort to informal temporary practices known as workarounds for handling exceptions to normal workflow that are unintentionally imposed by electronic health record (EHR) systems. Although workarounds may seem favorable at first sight, they are generally suboptimal and may jeopardize patient safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of care. Identifying workarounds and understanding their motivations, scope, and impact is pivotal to support the design of user-friendly EHRs and achieve closer alignment between EHRs and work contexts. Objective We propose a study protocol to identify EHR workarounds and subsequently determine their scope and impact on health care providers’ workflows, patient safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of care. First, knowing whether a workaround solely affects the health care provider who devised it, or whether its effects extends beyond the EHR user to the work context of other health care providers, is key to accurately assessing its degree of influence on the overall patient care workflow. Second, knowing whether the consequence of an EHR workaround is favorable or unfavorable provides insights into how to address EHR-related safety, effectiveness, and efficiency concerns. Knowledge of both perspectives can provide input on optimizing EHR designs. Methods In the study, a combination of direct observations, semistructured interviews, and qualitative coding techniques will be used to identify, analyze, and classify EHR workarounds. The research project will be conducted within three distinct pediatric care processes and settings at a large university hospital. Results Data was collected using the described approach from January 2016 to March 2017. Data analysis is underway and is expected to be completed in May 2017. We aim to report the results of this study in a follow-up publication. Conclusions This study protocol provides a grounded framework to explore EHR workarounds from a holistic and integral

  8. The impact of maternal cafeteria diet on anxiety-related behaviour and exploration in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2011-05-03

    Contemporary trends in obesity mean that research into whether unbalanced diets could impact on behavioural traits became increasingly important. The timing of exposure to obesity is particularly important, as sensitive periods during development have been identified where dietary extremes play a critical role in determining adult risk of physiological dysfunction. To this end, female Wistar rats were fed on chow or cafeteria diet (CD) for 8 weeks from weaning until mating. Half of the mated animals within each group were crossed-over to the alternative diet. This generated four treatment groups, differing in their pre-gestational and gestational diets. After birth, offspring of dams from each of the 4 pregnancy groups were further divided into groups, either being fed chow or CD throughout lactation. Anxiety-related behaviour and exploration in the offspring were tested in the Elevated Plus Maze (EMP) and the Open Field (OF) at 10 weeks of age. Maternal obesity significantly reduced the EPM locomotor activity in male and female offspring and grooming in males. Lactational CD had an anxiolytic effect in male offspring as shown in the EPM (increased entries into and more time on open arms) and the OF (shorter latency to enter the centre). In both sexes, lactational CD reduced grooming upon exposure to the EPM and the OF. Post mortem analysis revealed a stimulant effect of lactational CD on adipose tissue growth. The present study demonstrates that pre-gestational, gestational and lactational maternal CD programme behaviour in the offspring with lactational CD reducing anxiety in the male offspring. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploring Workarounds Related to Electronic Health Record System Usage: A Study Protocol.

    PubMed

    Blijleven, Vincent; Koelemeijer, Kitty; Jaspers, Monique

    2017-04-28

    Health care providers resort to informal temporary practices known as workarounds for handling exceptions to normal workflow that are unintentionally imposed by electronic health record (EHR) systems. Although workarounds may seem favorable at first sight, they are generally suboptimal and may jeopardize patient safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of care. Identifying workarounds and understanding their motivations, scope, and impact is pivotal to support the design of user-friendly EHRs and achieve closer alignment between EHRs and work contexts. We propose a study protocol to identify EHR workarounds and subsequently determine their scope and impact on health care providers' workflows, patient safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of care. First, knowing whether a workaround solely affects the health care provider who devised it, or whether its effects extends beyond the EHR user to the work context of other health care providers, is key to accurately assessing its degree of influence on the overall patient care workflow. Second, knowing whether the consequence of an EHR workaround is favorable or unfavorable provides insights into how to address EHR-related safety, effectiveness, and efficiency concerns. Knowledge of both perspectives can provide input on optimizing EHR designs. In the study, a combination of direct observations, semistructured interviews, and qualitative coding techniques will be used to identify, analyze, and classify EHR workarounds. The research project will be conducted within three distinct pediatric care processes and settings at a large university hospital. Data was collected using the described approach from January 2016 to March 2017. Data analysis is underway and is expected to be completed in May 2017. We aim to report the results of this study in a follow-up publication. This study protocol provides a grounded framework to explore EHR workarounds from a holistic and integral perspective. Insights from this study can inform the

  10. Growth faults and salt tectonics in Houston diapir province: relative timing and exploration significance

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1983-09-01

    Oil and gas accumulation in Gulf Coast Tertiary strata is contolled mainly by regional growth faults and by salt-related structures. Salt forms the most prominent set of structures in the Houston diapir province of southeast Texas. Recent work in three study areas shows that the Tertiary growth-fault trends, so well displayed along strike to the south-west, continue through this salt basin as well, but they have been deformed by later salt movement. In the Katy area, seismic data disclose early (pre-Wilcox) salt pillows downdip of the Cretaceous reef trend. Salt stocks were injected upward from the pillows during Clayborne deposition, and were flanked by deep withdrawal basins and turtle structures. In Brazoria County, a major lower Frio growth-fault trend affecting the Houston delta system, was deformed by later salt domes, by a salt-withdrawal basin, and by a possible turtle structure at Chocolate Bayou. A productive geopressured aquifer exists in the salt-withdrawal basin bounded by the previously formed growth faults. In Jefferson County, in contrast, salt-tectonic activity and growth faulting appear to have been coeval. Early salt-cored ridges continued to rise throughout Frio deposition; growth faults occur both updip and downdip. Hydrocarbons accumulated over the salt domes in growth-fault anticlines and in stratigraphic traps. Recognition that shelf-margin growth faulting preceded the development of the present pattern of domes and basins has important implications for hydrocarbon exploration. Growth faults may be migration paths for hydrocarbons; furthermore, early formed traps, distorted by salt movement, may still be found to contain hydrocarbons.

  11. Groups as Epistemic Providers: Need for Closure and the Unfolding of Group-Centrism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Pierro, Antonio; Mannetti, Lucia; De Grada, Eraldo

    2006-01-01

    Theory and research are presented relating the need for cognitive closure to major facets of group behavior. It is suggested that a high need for closure, whether it is based on members' disposition or the situation, contributes to the emergence of a behavioral syndrome describable as group-centrism--a pattern that includes pressures to opinion…

  12. 43 CFR 423.16 - Who can be exempted from closures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who can be exempted from closures? 423.16 Section 423.16 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION... Open and Closed to Public Use § 423.16 Who can be exempted from closures? (a) You may be exempted from...

  13. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  14. How Crawling and Manual Object Exploration are Related to the Mental Rotation Abilities of 9-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Gudrun; Freitag, Claudia; Schum, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored five toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror) object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

  15. How Crawling and Manual Object Exploration are Related to the Mental Rotation Abilities of 9-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Gudrun; Freitag, Claudia; Schum, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard–Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored five toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror) object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects. PMID:23459565

  16. Exploration-Related Research on the International Space Station: Connecting Science Results to the Design of Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Sawin, Charles F.; Ahlf, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2004, the US President announced a vision for space exploration, and charged NASA with utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) for research and technology targeted at supporting the US space exploration goals. This paper describes: 1) what we have learned from the first four years of research on ISS relative to the exploration mission, 2) the on-going research being conducted in this regard, 3) our current understanding of the major exploration mission risks that the ISS can be used to address, and 4) current progress in realigning NASA s research portfolio for ISS to support exploration missions. Specifically, we discuss the focus of research on solving the perplexing problems of maintaining human health on long-duration missions, and the development of countermeasures to protect humans from the space environment, enabling long duration exploration missions. The interchange between mission design and research needs is dynamic, where design decisions influence the type of research needed, and results of research influence design decisions. The fundamental challenge to science on ISS is completing experiments that answer key questions in time to shape design decisions for future exploration. In this context, exploration-relevant research must do more than be conceptually connected to design decisions-it must become a part of the mission design process.

  17. Effects of cumulus parameterization closures on simulations of summer precipitation over the United States coastal oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Fengxue; Liang, Xin-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the effects of major cumulus parameterization closures on summer precipitation simulations over the U.S. Atlantic Coasts and Gulf of Mexico. A series of mesoscale regional climate model simulations using an Ensemble Cumulus Parameterization (ECP) that incorporates multiple alternate closure schemes into a single cloud model formulation are conducted and compared to determine the systematic errors and relative performances of individual and combined closures in capturing precipitation spatiotemporal variations. The results show that closure algorithms largely affect precipitation's geographic distribution, frequency and intensity, and diurnal cycle. The quasi-equilibrium and total instability adjustment closures simulate widespread wet biases, while the instability tendency closure produces systematic dry biases. Two closure algorithms based on the average vertical velocity at the cloud base and column moisture convergence complementarily reproduce the observed precipitation pattern and amount, and capture the frequency of heavy rainfall events better than other closures. In contrast, the instability tendency closures are better at capturing the diurnal phase but yield much larger deficits in amount. Therefore, cloud base vertical velocity and moisture convergence may be the primary factors controlling precipitation seasonal mean and daily variation, while the instability tendency may play a critical role in regulating the diurnal cycle phase.

  18. Acceptable results of early closure of loop ileostomy to protect low rectal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Perdawid, Sharafaden Karim; Andersen, Ole Bjørn

    2011-06-01

    This was a pilot project performed prior to full implementation of early loop ileostomy closure (within two weeks) following low anterior resection of the rectum in a group of patients selected according to previously recommended criteria for safe, early ileostomy closure. Retrospective review of medical records. Patients undergoing loop ileostomy closure between December 2009 and October 2010 were analyzed. Data were collected on demographics, tumour characteristics, information about the perioperative period, operative details, postoperative complications, closure operation, the postoperative closure period and follow-up. Eleven patients were included (men, n = 4) with a median age of 58 years (range 47-79 years). Ileostomy closure was performed at a median of ten days (range 8-13 days) following rectum resection. The median hospital stay was 16 days (range 14-24 days). No re-laparotomies were performed. One patient developed a pelvic pus collection ten days post closure and was treated conservatively. One patient died 32 days after closure for reasons not related to surgery. The results of this small retrospective study show morbidity rates associated with early loop ileostomy closure that are probably acceptable. Safety, feasibility, timing and selection criteria should be clarified in large randomized studies. not relevant. not relevant.

  19. Generalized Convective Quasi-Equilibrium Closure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi; Plant, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Arakawa and Schubert proposed convective quasi-equilibrium as a basic principle for closing their spectrum mass-flux convection parameterization. In deriving this principle, they show that the cloud work function is a key variable that controls the growth of convection. Thus, this closure hypothesis imposes a steadiness of the cloud work function tendency. This presentation shows how this principle can be generalized so that it can also encompasses both the CAPE and the moisture-convergence closures. Note that the majority of the current mass-flux convection parameterization invokes a CAPE closure, whereas the moisture-convergence closure was extremely popular historically. This generalization, in turn, includes both closures as special cases of convective quasi-equilibrium. This generalization further suggests wide range of alternative possibilities for convective closure. In general, a vertical integral of any function depending on both large-scale and convective-scale variables can be adopted as an alternative closure variables, leading to an analogous formulation as Arakawa and Schubert's convective quasi-equilibrium formulation. Among those, probably the most fascinating possibility is to take a vertical integral of the convective-scale moisture for the closure. Use of a convective-scale variable for closure has a particular appeal by not suffering from a loss of predictability of any large-scale variables. That is a main problem with any of the current convective closures, not only for the moisture-convergence based closure as often asserted.

  20. Endobronchial closure of bronchopleural fistulas with Amplatzer vascular plug.

    PubMed

    Fruchter, Oren; Bruckheimer, Elchanan; Raviv, Yael; Rosengarten, Dror; Saute, Milton; Kramer, Mordechai R

    2012-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary fistula (BPF) is a severe complication following lobectomy or pneumonectomy and is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. We have developed a novel minimally invasive method of central BPF closure using Amplatzer vascular plug (AVP) device that was originally designed for the transcatheter closure of vascular structures in patients with small BPF. Patients with BPFs were treated under conscious sedation by bronchoscopic closure of BPFs using AVP. After locating the fistula using bronchography, the self-expanding nitinol made AVP occluder to be delivered under direct bronchoscopic guidance over a loader wire into the fistula followed by bronchography to assure correct device positioning and sealing of the BPF. Six AVPs were placed in five patients, four males and one female, with a mean age of 62.3 years (range: 51-82 years). The underlying disorders and etiologies for BPF development were lobectomy (two patients), pneumonectomy for lung cancer (one patient), lobectomy due to necrotizing pneumonia (one patient), and post-tracheostomy tracheo-pleural fistula (one patient). In all the patients, the bronchoscopic procedure was successful and symptoms related to BPF disappeared following closure by the AVP. The results were maintained over a median follow-up of 9 months (range: 5-34 months). Endobronchial closure using the AVP is a safe and effective method for treatment of small postoperative BPF. The ease of their implantation by bronchoscopy under conscious sedation adds this novel technique to the armatorium of minimally invasive modalities for the treatment of small BPF.

  1. The Dimensions of Eyes with Chronic Angle-closure Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Salmon, J F; Swanevelder, S A; Donald, M A

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of eyes with primary angle-closure glaucoma has been comprehensively documented in people of European ethnic origin. In comparison, few biometric studies have examined the relationship of one intraocular structure to another in people of Oriental or African ethnic background with primary angle-closure glaucoma. To determine the ocular characteristics of people with this ethnic background suffering from chronic angleclosure glacoma, both eyes of 46 patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma were measured by contact A-scan ultrasonography, and the measurements were compared with those found in two groups of 23 matched normals. The correlation between the measurements obtained in the right and left eyes in each group was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Although the mean axial length was less (22.43 mm vs. 23.17 and 23.25 mm, p = 0.0001), the mean anterior chamber depth shallower (2.48 mm vs. 2.80 and 2.81 mm, p < 0.001). and the mean "relative lens position'' more anterior in eyes with chronic angle-closure glaucoma compared with normal, the mean lens thickness in all three groups was similar (4.73 mm). These measurements are significantly different from those reported in other ethnic groups. In comparison with the previously reported findings in Europeans, an anterior lens position without significant lens enlargement is responsible for the crowded anterior segment in our patients with chronic angle-closure glaucoma.

  2. PFO and Migraine: Is There a Role for Closure?

    PubMed

    Rayhill, Melissa; Burch, Rebecca

    2017-03-01

    Observational studies suggest that closure of a patent foramen ovale for other indications may reduce or even eliminate migraine attacks, particularly migraine with aura. The first randomized clinical trial of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for prevention of migraine, the MIST trial, showed negative results. The results of the other two completed studies in this area have recently been published in the last year. PRIMA and PREMIUM were also both negative for their primary endpoints. The PREMIUM trial did show a reduction in headache days in the migraine with aura subgroup but the final results of this subset analysis have not been published. There may be an as yet undetermined subgroup of patients with migraine who would benefit from closure, but slow recruitment has been a barrier to further study. Several potentially life-threatening procedure-related adverse events occurred in the clinical trials. At this time, we recommend against offering PFO closure as a preventive treatment for migraine. Based on available observational data, patients for whom PFO closure is indicated for other reasons may see some improvement in their migraines.

  3. [Laparotomy closure in advanced peritonitis].

    PubMed

    Bensman, V M; Savchenko, Yu P; Shcherba, S N; Golikov, I V; Triandafilov, K V; Chaykin, V V; Pyatakov, S N; Saakyan, A S; Saakyan, E A

    to improve the results of advanced peritonitis management. 743 patients with advanced peritonitis were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment strategy. Programmed relaparotomy combined with removable draining musculoaponeurotic seams during laparotomy closure decreased mortality from 47.8±2.7% to 24.1±2.3% (p<0.001) and provided 4-fold reduction of postoperative suppuration incidence (p<0.001). Refusal from removable draining musculoaponeurotic seams and use of only cutaneous seams in persistent abdominal hypertension were associated with further decrease of mortality to 15.8±2.7% (p<0.05). Programmed relaparotomy combined with removable draining musculoaponeurotic seams are advisable for advanced peritonitis management. Laparotomy closure with only cutaneous seams is indicated in case of persistent abdominal hypertension. Large eventration always requires abdominal wall repair. APACHE-III scale scores have significant prognostic value in patients with advanced peritonitis.

  4. Military Base Closure: Socioeconomic Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-18

    RS22147 May 18, 2005 Military Base Closure: Socioeconomic Impacts Tadlock Cowan Analyst in Rural and Regional Development Policy Resources, Science, and...dire effects that many communities expected. For rural areas, however, the impacts can be greater and the economic recovery much slower. Drawing...from existing studies, this report assesses the potential community impacts and proposals for minimizing those impacts . Background. To better confront

  5. Infering and Calibrating Triadic Closure in a Dynamic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Higham, Desmond J.

    In the social sciences, the hypothesis of triadic closure contends that new links in a social contact network arise preferentially between those who currently share neighbours. Here, in a proof-of-principle study, we show how to calibrate a recently proposed evolving network model to time-dependent connectivity data. The probabilistic edge birth rate in the model contains a triadic closure term, so we are also able to assess statistically the evidence for this effect. The approach is shown to work on data generated synthetically from the model. We then apply this methodology to some real, large-scale data that records the build up of connections in a business-related social networking site, and find evidence for triadic closure.

  6. Independently owned pharmacy closures in rural America, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Kaitlin; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this policy brief is to provide policy makers, researchers, and stakeholders with information about the closure of rural independently owned pharmacies, including pharmacies that are the sole source of access to local pharmacy services, from 2003 through 2010. This period coincides with the implementation of two major policies related to payment for prescription medications: (1) Medicare prescription drug discount cards were introduced on January 1, 2004; and (2) the Medicare prescription drug benefit began on January 1, 2006. In this brief, we focus on rural pharmacy closure because of the potential threat such closures present to access to any local pharmacy services in a community. Those services include providing medications as needed (not waiting for mail order), overseeing administration of medications to nursing homes and hospitals, and patient consultation.

  7. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    SciTech Connect

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-06-28

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion.

  8. The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related kinase 2 gene SAPK9 improves drought tolerance and grain yield in rice by modulating cellular osmotic potential, stomatal closure and stress-responsive gene expression.

    PubMed

    Dey, Avishek; Samanta, Milan Kumar; Gayen, Srimonta; Maiti, Mrinal K

    2016-07-13

    Family members of sucrose non-fermenting 1-related kinase 2 (SnRK2), being plant-specific serine/threonine protein kinases, constitute the central core of abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways, and are key regulators of abiotic stress adaptation in plants. We report here the functional characterization of SAPK9 gene, one of the 10 SnRK2s of rice, through developing gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes by transgenesis. The gene expression profiling revealed that the abundance of single gene-derived SAPK9 transcript was significantly higher in drought-tolerant rice genotypes than the drought-sensitive ones, and its expression was comparatively greater in reproductive stage than the vegetative stage. The highest expression of SAPK9 gene in drought-tolerant Oryza rufipogon prompted us to clone and characterise the CDS of this allele in details. The SAPK9 transcript expression was found to be highest in leaf and upregulated during drought stress and ABA treatment. In silico homology modelling of SAPK9 with Arabidopsis OST1 protein showed the bilobal kinase fold structure of SAPK9, which upon bacterial expression was able to phosphorylate itself, histone III and OsbZIP23 as substrates in vitro. Transgenic overexpression (OE) of SAPK9 CDS from O. rufipogon in a drought-sensitive indica rice genotype exhibited significantly improved drought tolerance in comparison to transgenic silencing (RNAi) lines and non-transgenic (NT) plants. In contrast to RNAi and NT plants, the enhanced drought tolerance of OE lines was concurrently supported by the upgraded physiological indices with respect to water retention capacity, soluble sugar and proline content, stomatal closure, membrane stability, and cellular detoxification. Upregulated transcript expressions of six ABA-dependent stress-responsive genes and increased sensitivity to exogenous ABA of OE lines indicate that the SAPK9 is a positive regulator of ABA-mediated stress signaling

  9. The role of closure in defining the "objects" of object-based attention.

    PubMed

    Marino, Alexandria C; Scholl, Brian J

    2005-10-01

    Many recent studies have concluded that the underlying units of visual attention are often discrete objects whose boundaries constrain the allocation of attention. However, relatively few studies have explored the particular stimulus cues that determine what counts as an "object" of attention. We explore this issue in the context of the two-rectangles stimuli previously used by many investigators. We first show, using both spatial-cuing and divided-attention paradigms, that same-object advantages occur even when the ends of the two rectangles are not drawn. This is consistent with previous reports that have emphasized the importance of individual contours in guiding attention, and our study shows that such effects can occur in displays that also contain grouping cues. In our divided-attention experiment, however, this contour-driven same-object advantage was significantly weaker than that obtained with the standard stimulus, with the added cue of closure--demonstrating that contour-based processes are not the whole story. These results confirm and extend the observation that same-object advantages can be observed even without full-fledged objects. At the same time, however, these studies show that boundary closure-one of the most important cues to objecthood per se-can directly influence attention. We conclude that object-based attention is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon; object-based effects can be independently strengthened or weakened by multiple cues to objecthood.

  10. Paradigm for Subgrid Scale Closure Modeling in Multiphase Geophysical Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, J.; Simeonov, J.; Penko, A. M.; Bateman, S. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Holland, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new paradigm for modeling multiphase geophysical flows to produce highly accurate and highly efficient forecasting of the complexity of the natural environment across the full range of relevant length and time scales. The assumption that computing technology will never allow us to perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the natural environment often limits our ambition in forward thinking model development and produces only incremental improvements in the state-of-the-art technology. Regional and global forecasting models for earth, ocean, and atmospheric processes based on averaged equations (e.g. RANS) must advance beyond simple closures relations obtained for single-phase fluid turbulence (e.g., k-epsilon, k-omega, and Mellor-Yamada). We propose using a hierarchy of computationally intensive, high fidelity simulations to resolve subgrid processes across a range of cascading length and time scales in the model domain to generate numerical interpolations for the unresolved physical processes. Further, we believe that it is possible to use the cumulative results of these subgrid scale simulations to develop a Bayesian network, for example, which may eventually replace the computationally intensive simulations with a highly efficient probabilistic closure model for the unresolved physical processes. The success of our approach will be greatly enhanced through rigorous validation of our subgrid scale models using three-dimensional laboratory and field measurements of fluid-particle turbulence at the scales of interest. Recent advances in optical imaging techniques have made it possible to make highly resolved three-dimensional measurements of fluid-particle turbulent interactions in the laboratory with spatial and temporal resolutions at or near the Kolmogorov scales. Additional work must be done to transition these technologies for use in the field. As a pilot test case we introduce our new paradigm using a hierarchy of models we have developed

  11. Echocardiographic guidance and monitoring of left atrial appendage closure with AtriClip during open-chest cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Contri, Rachele; Clivio, Sara; Torre, Tiziano; Cassina, Tiziano

    2017-09-12

    Left atrial appendage (LAA) closure prevents thromboembolic risk and avoids lifelong anticoagulation due to atrial fibrillation (AF). Nowadays, AtriClip, a modern epicardial device approved in June 2010, allows external and safe closure of LAA in patients undergoing cardiac surgery during other open-chest cardiac surgical procedures. Such a surgical approach and its epicardial deployment differentiates LAA closure with AtriClip from percutaneous closure techniques such as Watchman (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA), Lariat (SentreHEART Inc., Redwood City, CA, USA), and Amplatzer Amulet (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) device procedures. AtriClip positioning must consider perioperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to confirm LAA anatomical features, to explore the links with neighboring structures, and finally to assess its successful closure. We report a sequence of images to document the role of intraoperative TEE during an elective aortic valve replacement and LAA external closure with AtriClip. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. White adipose tissue reference network: a knowledge resource for exploring health-relevant relations.

    PubMed

    Kelder, Thomas; Summer, Georg; Caspers, Martien; van Schothorst, Evert M; Keijer, Jaap; Duivenvoorde, Loes; Klaus, Susanne; Voigt, Anja; Bohnert, Laura; Pico, Catalina; Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Arola, Lluis; van Erk, Marjan; van Ommen, Ben; Radonjic, Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Optimal health is maintained by interaction of multiple intrinsic and environmental factors at different levels of complexity-from molecular, to physiological, to social. Understanding and quantification of these interactions will aid design of successful health interventions. We introduce the reference network concept as a platform for multi-level exploration of biological relations relevant for metabolic health, by integration and mining of biological interactions derived from public resources and context-specific experimental data. A White Adipose Tissue Health Reference Network (WATRefNet) was constructed as a resource for discovery and prioritization of mechanism-based biomarkers for white adipose tissue (WAT) health status and the effect of food and drug compounds on WAT health status. The WATRefNet (6,797 nodes and 32,171 edges) is based on (1) experimental data obtained from 10 studies addressing different adiposity states, (2) seven public knowledge bases of molecular interactions, (3) expert's definitions of five physiologically relevant processes key to WAT health, namely WAT expandability, Oxidative capacity, Metabolic state, Oxidative stress and Tissue inflammation, and (4) a collection of relevant biomarkers of these processes identified by BIOCLAIMS ( http://bioclaims.uib.es ). The WATRefNet comprehends multiple layers of biological complexity as it contains various types of nodes and edges that represent different biological levels and interactions. We have validated the reference network by showing overrepresentation with anti-obesity drug targets, pathology-associated genes and differentially expressed genes from an external disease model dataset. The resulting network has been used to extract subnetworks specific to the above-mentioned expert-defined physiological processes. Each of these process-specific signatures represents a mechanistically supported composite biomarker for assessing and quantifying the effect of interventions on a

  13. Effect of short-term school closures on the H1N1 pandemic in Japan: a comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Uchida, M; Tsukahara, T; Kaneko, M; Washizuka, S; Kawa, S

    2012-10-01

    The 2009 worldwide influenza A/H1N1 pandemic particularly affected younger people, including schoolchildren. We assessed the effects of class/school closure during the pandemic on the spread of H1N1 infection in Japan. We prospectively monitored 2,141 schoolchildren in 57 classes at two elementary schools and two junior high schools in Japan, and evaluated the effects of class/school closures on the spread of H1N1 using descriptive epidemiological methods. The cumulative rate of H1N1 infection among these children was 40.9% (876 children). There was a total of 53 closures of 40 classes, including school closures, during the pandemic. Time-course changes in the epidemic curve showed that school closure reduced the following epidemic peak more than class closure. A Poisson regression model showed that a longer duration of closure was significantly related to decreased H1N1 occurrence after the resumption of classes. School closure more effectively inhibits subsequent epidemic outbreaks than class closure. Longer school closures are effective in reducing the spread of infection, and school closure should be implemented as early as possible.

  14. Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions 'Catalyze' Broader Management?

    PubMed

    Oliver, Thomas A; Oleson, Kirsten L L; Ratsimbazafy, Hajanaina; Raberinary, Daniel; Benbow, Sophie; Harris, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Eight years of octopus fishery records from southwest Madagascar reveal significant positive impacts from 36 periodic closures on: (a) fishery catches and (b) village fishery income, such that (c) economic benefits from increased landings outweigh costs of foregone catch. Closures covered ~20% of a village's fished area and lasted 2-7 months. Octopus landings and catch per unit effort (CPUE) significantly increased in the 30 days following a closure's reopening, relative to the 30 days before a closure (landings: +718%, p<0.0001; CPUE: +87%, p<0.0001; n = 36). Open-access control sites showed no before/after change when they occurred independently of other management ("no ban", n = 17/36). On the other hand, open-access control sites showed modest catch increases when they extended a 6-week seasonal fishery shutdown ("ban", n = 19/36). The seasonal fishery shutdown affects the entire region, so confound all potential control sites. In villages implementing a closure, octopus fishery income doubled in the 30 days after a closure, relative to 30 days before (+132%, p<0.001, n = 28). Control villages not implementing a closure showed no increase in income after "no ban" closures and modest increases after "ban" closures. Villages did not show a significant decline in income during closure events. Landings in closure sites generated more revenue than simulated landings assuming continued open-access fishing at that site (27/36 show positive net earnings; mean +$305/closure; mean +57.7% monthly). Benefits accrued faster than local fishers' time preferences during 17-27 of the 36 closures. High reported rates of illegal fishing during closures correlated with poor economic performance. We discuss the implications of our findings for broader co-management arrangements, particularly for catalyzing more comprehensive management.

  15. The Status of the School Public Relations Practitioner: A Statewide Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoch, Lynn M.; Patterson, Beth S.; Olson, Deborah L.

    1997-01-01

    Studies public relations practitioners in school districts in South Carolina. Utilizes survey research to investigate several questions relating to public relations role enactment, hierarchical level of the public relations function, salary, job satisfaction, and encroachment into public relations. Finds that practitioners fulfill both the manager…

  16. 49 CFR 179.200-15 - Closures for manways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures for manways. 179.200-15 Section 179.200-15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  17. 49 CFR 179.100-17 - Closures for openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closures for openings. 179.100-17 Section 179.100-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  18. 49 CFR 179.200-21 - Closures for openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closures for openings. 179.200-21 Section 179.200-21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  19. 49 CFR 179.200-15 - Closures for manways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closures for manways. 179.200-15 Section 179.200-15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  20. 49 CFR 179.200-21 - Closures for openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Closures for openings. 179.200-21 Section 179.200-21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  1. 49 CFR 179.200-21 - Closures for openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Closures for openings. 179.200-21 Section 179.200-21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  2. 49 CFR 179.201-6 - Manways and manway closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manways and manway closures. 179.201-6 Section 179.201-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  3. 49 CFR 179.201-6 - Manways and manway closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manways and manway closures. 179.201-6 Section 179.201-6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  4. 49 CFR 179.100-17 - Closures for openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Closures for openings. 179.100-17 Section 179.100-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  5. 49 CFR 179.100-17 - Closures for openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closures for openings. 179.100-17 Section 179.100-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  6. 49 CFR 179.200-15 - Closures for manways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Closures for manways. 179.200-15 Section 179.200-15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK...

  7. 49 CFR 179.200-21 - Closures for openings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closures for openings. 179.200-21 Section 179.200-21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS...

  8. Records access and management on closure of a medical practice.

    PubMed

    Carter, David J

    2015-07-20

    Despite uneven regulation, health practitioners registered with the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency have immediate and continuing obligations to patients when contemplating practice closure. Recent enforcement actions by regulators highlight the importance of knowledge and compliance with requirements relating to record management.

  9. Effect of chronic piracetam on age-related changes of cross-maze exploration in mice.

    PubMed

    Salimov, R; Salimova, N; Shvets, L; Shvets, N

    1995-11-01

    Normal aging is known to deteriorate memory, spatial orientation, and perceptual recognition. Experiment 1 examined behavioral manifestations of aging by using a cross-maze exploration test in 2-, 6-, and 10-month-old hybrid mice (CBA x C57BL). A decrease in explorative patrolling and an increase in arm reentries, a latency to start and a total time of exploration were found in 10-month-old mice. In Experiment 2, administration of the cognition enhancer piracetam (2-oxo-1-pirrolidone acetamide) (400 mg/kg, IP, once a day for 10 days) enhanced arm patrolling and decreased reentries in 10-month-old mice to the level displayed by the 2-month-old animals. The results suggest that the cross-maze test may be useful for a preliminary screening of antisenescent drugs.

  10. The use of barbed sutures during scoliosis fusion wound closure: a quality improvement analysis.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Alfred; Ballard, Ryan; Garg, Sumeet; Baulesh, David; Erickson, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Growing evidence in the orthopaedic arthroplasty literature supports the use of running bidirectional barbed suture (barbed suture) for closure of knee arthrotomies. More rapid wound closure and suture line integrity are described as its major advantages. No studies of barbed suture for the closure of posterior spinal wounds exist. The purpose of this project is to compare wound closure times and hospital charges using traditional closure versus barbed suture closure of posterior spine wounds created during scoliosis surgery. A quality improvement project was initiated at a single tertiary-referral children's hospital spine program evaluating traditional layered interrupted suture closure (group 1) and running bidirectional barbed suture closure (Quill SRS) (group 2). Data regarding wound closure time, length of incision, fusion levels, suture cost, and hospital charges were prospectively collected over a 1-month period. Ten incisions comprised group 1 and 15 comprised group 2. The average wound closure times were 29.5 and 17 minutes, respectively, P=0.006. The wound lengths between the groups were statistically comparable (P=0.15). Taking into account the wound length, the average closure time in group 1 was 1.29 cm/min compared with 1.97 cm/min in group 2 (P<0.01). When accounting for the extra cost associated with the use of barbed sutures ($62.54; P<0.0001), the impact of a more rapid closure resulted in a difference in hospital charges of $884.60 per case (P=0.0013). Barbed suture closure of spinal fusion incisions results in a 40% reduction in closure time, resulting in an $884.60 decrease in hospital charges related to operating room time. This may represent significant yearly cost savings in a high-volume spine fusion center and warrants further investigation comparing patient-related outcomes. This quality improvement analysis provides preliminary economic justification for using barbed suture for scoliosis fusion wound closure resulting in decreased

  11. Preliminary recommendations on the design of the characterization program for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks: A system analysis. Volume 2, Closure-related analyte priorities, concentration thresholds, and detection limit goals based on public health concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Peffers, M.S.; Hwang, S.T.

    1991-11-01

    The work described in this volume was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide preliminary recommendations on data quality objectives (DQOs) to support the Waste Characterization Plan (WCP) and closure decisions for the Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs). The WCP describes the first of a two-phase characterization program that will obtain information to assess and implement disposal options for SSTs. This work was performed for the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the current operating contractor on the Hanford Site. The preliminary DQOs contained in this volume deal with the analysis of SST wastes in support of the WCP and final closure decisions. These DQOs include information on significant contributors and detection limit goals (DLGs) for SST analytes based on public health risk.

  12. Exploring the Supply Side: Factors Related to Charter School Openings in NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saultz, Andrew; Fitzpatrick, Dan; Jacobsen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    School choice policies have led to a proliferation of new schools opening. While economic theory suggests that new charters would open in high demand locations, limited work examines whether this is, indeed, occurring. Framing our study in geography, we explore both space factors and place factors as contrasting explanations for where new charters…

  13. Exploring the Supply Side: Factors Related to Charter School Openings in NYC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saultz, Andrew; Fitzpatrick, Dan; Jacobsen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    School choice policies have led to a proliferation of new schools opening. While economic theory suggests that new charters would open in high demand locations, limited work examines whether this is, indeed, occurring. Framing our study in geography, we explore both space factors and place factors as contrasting explanations for where new charters…

  14. Ghosts from the Past: Exploring Community Cultures and School Cultures in Relation to Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    This article explores poverty from the perspective of the intergenerational transmission. That is, it suggests that communities, and specifically a post-industrial community in South Wales, had developed coping strategies to manage the precarious character of employment associated with the mining and steel industries. These post-industrial…

  15. Exploring the Relations between Childhood Experiences in Nature and Young Adults' Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research study with young adults who explored the connections between their early childhood experiences in nature and their attitudes and actions towards the environment in adulthood. Drawing on E. Wilson's (1984) work, environmental or ecological consciousness is theorised to connect to ecological identity…

  16. Students' Interpersonal Trust and Attitudes towards Standardised Tests: Exploring Affective Variables Related to Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Man-Wai; Guo, Qi; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and psychometric variables have directed research on student test performance. However, student learning involves a substantial affective component. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between two kinds of affective variables--interpersonal trust and attitudes towards standardised tests--likely to underlie student…

  17. Exploring School- and Home-Related Protective Factors for Economically Disadvantaged Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okilwa, Nathern S. A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the experiences of middle school students, particularly focusing on the academic achievement of economically disadvantaged students. For low SES middle school students, the known cumulative effects of poverty coupled with school transition and early adolescence development heighten the potential risks for school failure. By…

  18. Faculty Bullying: An Exploration of Leadership Strategies to Reduce Relational Violence in Nursing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Melody F.

    2010-01-01

    Nurses eat their young. Bullying in nursing is well documented and an almost inherent part of the nursing subculture. There is no research exploring the origin of bullying in nursing. The basic premise of the study was that bullying is a learned behavior that begins in nursing school when nurse educators bully their students. With the…

  19. Faculty Bullying: An Exploration of Leadership Strategies to Reduce Relational Violence in Nursing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Melody F.

    2010-01-01

    Nurses eat their young. Bullying in nursing is well documented and an almost inherent part of the nursing subculture. There is no research exploring the origin of bullying in nursing. The basic premise of the study was that bullying is a learned behavior that begins in nursing school when nurse educators bully their students. With the…

  20. Ghosts from the Past: Exploring Community Cultures and School Cultures in Relation to Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivinson, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    This article explores poverty from the perspective of the intergenerational transmission. That is, it suggests that communities, and specifically a post-industrial community in South Wales, had developed coping strategies to manage the precarious character of employment associated with the mining and steel industries. These post-industrial…

  1. Towards an Inter-Language of Talking Science: Exploring Students' Argumentation in Relation to Authentic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olander, Clas; Ingerman, Ake

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the idea that learning science involves appropriation of the school-science language and how it manifests in the classroom. This is done through an analysis of peer group discussions in Swedish secondary schools; discussions that served both as an arena for learning and as a research tool. In this arena, the students are…

  2. Towards an Inter-Language of Talking Science: Exploring Students' Argumentation in Relation to Authentic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olander, Clas; Ingerman, Ake

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the idea that learning science involves appropriation of the school-science language and how it manifests in the classroom. This is done through an analysis of peer group discussions in Swedish secondary schools; discussions that served both as an arena for learning and as a research tool. In this arena, the students are…

  3. Students' Interpersonal Trust and Attitudes towards Standardised Tests: Exploring Affective Variables Related to Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Man-Wai; Guo, Qi; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and psychometric variables have directed research on student test performance. However, student learning involves a substantial affective component. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between two kinds of affective variables--interpersonal trust and attitudes towards standardised tests--likely to underlie student…

  4. "Borrowing Happiness from the Future": Exploring College Students' Own Experiences on Health-Related Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Yarnal, Careen; Bram, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Combining the theory of emerging adulthood with self-authorship, the authors utilized students' reflection papers (n = 111) to explore their current lifestyles and reasons behind behavioral changes. Decreased physical activity, increased substance use, irregular sleep patterns, and unhealthy dietary habits emerged after students transitioned to…

  5. Exploring College Counselor Spiritual Competency in Relation to Training and Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Abigail Holland

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to explore factors contributing to college counselors' spiritual competency by obtaining quantitative results from surveying 199 current members of the American College Counseling Association (ACCA) and then following up with 32 purposefully selected respondents based on high…

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence from 10 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between High School Students' Physics-Related Personal Epistemologies and Self-Regulated Learning in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen C.; Willson, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical exploration of the relations and strengths among Turkish grades 9-11 students' (n = 209) personal epistemologies (justification of knowledge, certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, development of knowledge), self-regulated learning (extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, rehearsal, elaboration,…

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  9. Exploring the Relationship between High School Students' Physics-Related Personal Epistemologies and Self-Regulated Learning in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen C.; Willson, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an empirical exploration of the relations and strengths among Turkish grades 9-11 students' (n = 209) personal epistemologies (justification of knowledge, certainty of knowledge, source of knowledge, development of knowledge), self-regulated learning (extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, rehearsal, elaboration,…

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Absolute and Relative Position and Late-Life Depression: Evidence from 10 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladin, Keren; Daniels, Norman; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Socioeconomic inequality has been associated with higher levels of morbidity and mortality. This study explores the role of absolute and relative deprivation in predicting late-life depression on both individual and country levels. Design and Methods: Country- and individual-level inequality indicators were used in multivariate logistic…

  11. Using a Five-Factor Lens to Explore the Relation Between Personality Traits and Violence in Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Miller, Joshua D.; Mulvey, Edward; Tiemann, Jenny; Monahan, John

    2005-01-01

    Recent work suggests that predictors of violence are similar for individuals with and without mental illness. Although psychopathy is among the most potent of such predictors, the nature of its relation to violence is unclear. On the basis of a sample of 769 civil psychiatric patients, the authors explore the possibility that measures of…

  12. Exploring the Relations between Parent Depressive Symptoms, Family Religious Involvement, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Test of Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  14. Using a Five-Factor Lens to Explore the Relation Between Personality Traits and Violence in Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Miller, Joshua D.; Mulvey, Edward; Tiemann, Jenny; Monahan, John

    2005-01-01

    Recent work suggests that predictors of violence are similar for individuals with and without mental illness. Although psychopathy is among the most potent of such predictors, the nature of its relation to violence is unclear. On the basis of a sample of 769 civil psychiatric patients, the authors explore the possibility that measures of…

  15. Student Voices: A Phenomenological Exploration of Minority Girls' Experiences and Beliefs Related to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpren, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    For decades, measures of academic outcomes have demonstrated the underachievement of minority students. The purpose of this study was to include student voices in a discussion of achievement by exploring the experiences and beliefs of minority girls that related to academic achievement in one single-sex urban high school. Moreover, the research…

  16. Determinants of hospital closure in South Korea: use of a hierarchical generalized linear model.

    PubMed

    Noh, Maengseok; Lee, Youngjo; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Il; Lee, Moo-Song; Khang, Young-Ho

    2006-11-01

    Understanding causes of hospital closure is important if hospitals are to survive and continue to fulfill their missions as the center for health care in their neighborhoods. Knowing which hospitals are most susceptible to closure can be of great use for hospital administrators and others interested in hospital performance. Although prior studies have identified a range of factors associated with increased risk of hospital closure, most are US-based and do not directly relate to health care systems in other countries. We examined determinants of hospital closure in a nationally representative sample: 805 hospitals established in South Korea before 1996 were examined-hospitals established in 1996 or after were excluded. Major organizational changes (survival vs. closure) were followed for all South Korean hospitals from 1996 through 2002. With the use of a hierarchical generalized linear model, a frailty model was used to control correlation among repeated measurements for risk factors for hospital closure. Results showed that ownership and hospital size were significantly associated with hospital closure. Urban hospitals were less likely to close than rural hospitals. However, the urban location of a hospital was not associated with hospital closure after adjustment for the proportion of elderly. Two measures for hospital competition (competitive beds and 1-Hirshman--Herfindalh index) were positively associated with risk of hospital closure before and after adjustment for confounders. In addition, annual 10% change in competitive beds was significantly predictive of hospital closure. In conclusion, yearly trends in hospital competition as well as the level of hospital competition each year affected hospital survival. Future studies need to examine the contribution of internal factors such as management strategies and financial status to hospital closure in South Korea.

  17. Exploring college students' use of general and alcohol-related social media and their associations with alcohol-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Eric W; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Public and private university students (N = 637) participated November and December 2011 and April 2012. College students completed online surveys to measure their exposure to social and online media generally, as well as their alcohol-related digital media use and alcohol use. Use of social media related to alcohol marketing predicted alcohol consumption and engaging in risky behaviors, whereas the use of social media more generally did not. Students' use of alcohol-related social media-marketing content associates with their problem drinking. Results have implications for alcohol abuse reduction efforts targeted at college students and suggest the importance of considering social, cultural, and cognitive factors in campaign planning and design.

  18. Quasi-explicit algebraic turbulence closures for compressible reacting flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adumitroaie, Virgil

    A consistent and complete set of quasi-explicit algebraic closures for turbulent reacting flows is proposed as approximate solutions to the full second order moment equations. Quasi-explicit algebraic scalar flux models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows are derived from a hierarchy of second-order moment closures. The mathematical procedure is based on the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and is an extension of the scheme developed by Taulbee (1992). Several closures for the pressure-scalar gradient correlations are considered and explicit algebraic relations are provided for the velocity-scalar correlations in both non-reacting and reacting flows. In the latter, the role of the Damkohler number is exhibited in isothermal turbulent flows with nonpremixed reactants. The relationship between these closures and traditional models based on the linear gradient diffusion approximation is theoretically established. The results of model predictions are assessed via comparison with available laboratory data in turbulent jet flows. The development of the quasi-explicit algebraic models for Reynolds stresses, temperature fluxes and reacting scalar fluxes is extended to high-speed turbulent reacting flows under a density weighted average formalism. New closures are proposed for the pressure-strain and the pressure-scalar gradient correlations. These accommodate compressibility corrections subject to the magnitude of the turbulent Mach number, the density gradient, the pressure gradient and the mean dilatation effects. Non-reacting and reacting flows with heat release are considered. In the latter, a second-order irreversible chemical reactions in turbulent flows with initially segregated reactants is considered. The models are tested in simple compressible free-shear flows. Comparisons are made between the full second order moment computations and the algebraic closure predictions. For a mixing layer, experimental data are used to validate the predicted results.

  19. Sustained eye closure slows saccades

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Wong, Aaron L.; Optican, Lance M.; Miura, Kenichiro; Solomon, David; Zee, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements rapidly orient the line of sight towards the object of interest. Pre-motor burst neurons (BNs) controlling saccades receive excitation from superior colliculus and cerebellum, but inhibition by omnipause neurons (OPNs) prevents saccades. When the OPNs pause, BNs begin to fire. It has been presumed that part of the BN burst comes from post-inhibitory rebound (PIR). We hypothesized that in the absence of prior inhibition from OPNs there would be no PIR, and thus the increase in initial firing rate of BNs would be reduced. Consequently, saccade acceleration would be reduced. We measured eye movements and showed that sustained eye closure, which inhibits the activity of OPNs and thus hypothetically should weaken PIR, reduced the peak velocity, acceleration, and deceleration of saccades in healthy human subjects. Saccades under closed eyelids also had irregular trajectories; the frequency of the oscillations underlying this irregularity was similar to that of high-frequency ocular flutter (back-to-back saccades) often seen in normal subjects during attempted fixation at straight ahead while eyes are closed. Saccades and quick phases of nystagmus are generated by the same pre-motor neurons, and we found that the quick-phase velocity of nystagmus was also reduced by lid closure. These changes were not due to a mechanical hindrance to the eyes, because lid closure did not affect the peak velocities or accelerations of the eyes in the “slow-phase” response to rapid head movements of comparable speeds to those of saccades. These results indicate a role for OPNs in generating the abrupt onset and high velocities of saccades. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is PIR in pre-motor burst neurons. PMID:20573593

  20. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOEpatents

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  1. More than Just a Lack of Uniformity: Exploring the Evolution of Public Relations Master's Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briones, Rowena L.; Shen, Hongmei; Parrish, Candace; Toth, Elizabeth L.; Russell, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Public relations is well known for its adaptability through continual change, and as a result, public relations master's programs have been re-conceptualized to remain rigorous and competitive. To further assess both the state and changes of these programs, 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with administrators of public relations master's…

  2. Patent foramen ovale closure using a bioabsorbable closure device: safety and efficacy at 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Van den Branden, Ben J; Post, Martijn C; Plokker, Herbert W; ten Berg, Jurriën M; Suttorp, Maarten J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mid-term safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure using a bioabsorbable device (BioSTAR, NMT Medical, Boston, Massachusetts). Closure of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke has proven to be safe and effective using different types of permanent devices. All consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous PFO closure with the bioabsorbable closure device between November 2007 and January 2009 were included. Residual shunt was assessed using contrast transthoracic echocardiography. Sixty-two patients (55% women, mean age 47.7 ± 11.8 years) underwent PFO closure. The in-hospital complications were a surgical device retrieval in 2 patients (3.2%), device reposition in 1 (1.6%), and a minimal groin hematoma in 6 patients (9.7%). The short-term complications at 1-month follow-up (n = 60) were a transient ischemic attack in the presence of a residual shunt in 1 patient and new supraventricular tachycardia in 7 patients (11.3%). At 6-month follow-up (n = 60), 1 patient without residual shunt developed a transient ischemic attack and 1 developed atrial fibrillation. A mild or moderate residual shunt was noted in 51.7%, 33.9%, and 23.7% after 1-day, 1-month, and 6-month follow-up, respectively. A large shunt was present in 8.3%, 3.4%, and 0% after 1-day, 1-month, and 6-month follow-up. Closure of PFO using the bioabsorbable device is associated with a low complication rate and a low recurrence rate of embolic events. However, a relatively high percentage of mild or moderate residual shunting is still present at 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of crack closure in fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, T. T.; Wei, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Crack closure phenomenon in fatigue was studied by using a Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The occurrence of crack closure was directly measured by an electrical-potential method, and indirectly by load-strain measurement. The experimental results showed that the onset of crack closure depends on both the stress ratio, and the maximum stress intensity factor. No crack closure was observed for stress ratio, greater than 0.3 in this alloy. A two-dimensional elastic model was used to explain the behavior of the recorded load-strain curves. Closure force was estimated by using this model. Yield level stress was found near the crack tip. Based on this estimated closure force, the crack opening displacement was calculated. This result showed that onset of crack closure detected by electrical-potential measurement and crack-opening-displacement measurement is the same. The implications of crack closure on fatigue crack are considered. The experimental results show that crack closure cannot fully account for the effect of stress ratio, on crack growth, and that it cannot be regarded as the sole cause for delay.

  4. 100-D Ponds closure plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The 100-D Ponds is a Treatment, Storage, and Disposal (TSD) unit on the Hanford Facility that received both dangerous and nonregulated waste. This Closure Plan (Rev. 1) for the 100-D Ponds TSD unit consists of a RCRA Part A Dangerous Waste Permit Application (Rev. 3), a RCRA Closure Plan, and supporting information contained in the appendices to the plan. The closure plan consists of eight chapters containing facility description, process information, waste characteristics, and groundwater monitoring data. There are also chapters containing the closure strategy and performance standards. The strategy for the closure of the 100-D Ponds TSD unit is clean closure. Appendices A and B of the closure plan demonstrate that soil and groundwater beneath 100-D Ponds are below cleanup limits. All dangerous wastes or dangerous waste constituents or residues associated with the operation of the ponds have been removed, therefore, human health and the environment are protected. Discharges to the 100-D Ponds, which are located in the 100-DR-1 operable unit, were discontinued in June 1994. Contaminated sediment was removed from the ponds in August 1996. Subsequent sampling and analysis demonstrated that there is no contamination remaining in the ponds, therefore, this closure plan is a demonstration of clean closure.

  5. Spontaneous closure of congenital coronary artery fistulas.

    PubMed

    Schleich, J M; Rey, C; Gewillig, M; Bozio, A

    2001-04-01

    Six cases of full spontaneous closure of congenital coronary artery fistulas, and one case of near closure, as seen by colour Doppler echocardiography, are presented. It is worth reconsidering the classical view that nearly all cases of spontaneous closure are eligible for surgical or percutaneous correction to prevent the development of significant and potentially fatal complications. As the natural course of coronary artery fistulas is still poorly defined, asymptomatic patients, especially those under 7 years old with small shunts, should be periodically followed up by echocardiography rather than be subjected to operative closure, even by catheterisation.

  6. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale: safe and effective but underutilized.

    PubMed

    Nietlispach, Fabian; Meier, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    With three recently published randomized trials on patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure, the concept of PFO closure to reduce recurrent strokes has been proven; however, PFO closure is currently only considered for secondary prevention. Given the potential devastating consequences of a PFO-related event, we advocate screening for and closure of a PFO for primary prevention in high-risk populations. Such populations include patients who are suffering from a disease that is associated with PFO (e.g., migraine) or patients with high-risk hobbies/professions (e.g., weight-lifters, frequent-flyers, and deep sea divers). Looking at young people with a remaining average life expectancy of 50 years, we have to close 2.4 PFOs to prevent one stroke. This should support a more proactive attitude toward PFO screening and closure.

  7. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    SciTech Connect

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-08-02

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure.

  8. Closure and ratio correlation analysis of lunar chemical and grain size data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Major element and major element plus trace element analyses were selected from the lunar data base for Apollo 11, 12 and 15 basalt and regolith samples. Summary statistics for each of the six data sets were compiled, and the effects of closure on the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient were investigated using the Chayes and Kruskal approximation procedure. In general, there are two types of closure effects evident in these data sets: negative correlations of intermediate size which are solely the result of closure, and correlations of small absolute value which depart significantly from their expected closure correlations which are of intermediate size. It is shown that a positive closure correlation will arise only when the product of the coefficients of variation is very small (less than 0.01 for most data sets) and, in general, trace elements in the lunar data sets exhibit relatively large coefficients of variation.

  9. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  10. Exploring Personal Attitudes towards Parent Involvement as It Relates to Relational Aggression Acted out through Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Karla M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression acted out through social media or cyber bullying is an ever-growing limitedly researched issue that is impacting students and parents alike. A mixed-method study was conducted using existing older and aspiring younger social workers and counselors to investigate attitudes (focus groups and text box comments) and relationships…

  11. Exploring Personal Attitudes towards Parent Involvement as It Relates to Relational Aggression Acted out through Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Karla M.

    2015-01-01

    Relational aggression acted out through social media or cyber bullying is an ever-growing limitedly researched issue that is impacting students and parents alike. A mixed-method study was conducted using existing older and aspiring younger social workers and counselors to investigate attitudes (focus groups and text box comments) and relationships…

  12. Exploring How Teacher-Related Factors Relate to Student Achievement in Learning Advanced Algebra in Technology-Enhanced Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegedus, Stephen J.; Tapper, John; Dalton, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relationship between contextual variables related to teachers and student performance in Advanced Algebra classrooms in the USA. The data were gathered from a cluster-randomized study on the effects of SimCalc MathWorlds®, a curricular and technological intervention as a replacement for Algebra 2 curriculum, on…

  13. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  14. Exploring How Teacher-Related Factors Relate to Student Achievement in Learning Advanced Algebra in Technology-Enhanced Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegedus, Stephen J.; Tapper, John; Dalton, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relationship between contextual variables related to teachers and student performance in Advanced Algebra classrooms in the USA. The data were gathered from a cluster-randomized study on the effects of SimCalc MathWorlds®, a curricular and technological intervention as a replacement for Algebra 2 curriculum, on…

  15. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  16. Modified Off-Midline Closure of Pilonidal Sinus Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Aly

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous surgical procedures have been described for pilonidal sinus disease, but treatment failure and disease recurrence are frequent. Conventional off-midline flap closures have relatively favorable surgical outcomes, but relatively unfavorable cosmetic outcomes. Aim: The author reported outcomes of a new simplified off-midline technique for closure of the defect after complete excision of the sinus tracts. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients of both sexes were enrolled for modified D-shaped excisions were used to include all sinuses and their ramifications, with a simplified procedure to close the defect. Results: The overall wound infection rate was 12%, (12.2% for males and 11.1% for females). Wound disruption was necessitating laying the whole wound open and management as open technique. The overall wound disruption rate was 6%, (6.1% for males and 5.5% for females) and the overall recurrence rate was 7%. Conclusion: Our simplified off-midline closure without flap appeared to be comparable to conventional off-midline closure with flap, in terms of wound infection, wound dehiscence, and recurrence. Advantages of the simplified procedure include potentially reduced surgery complexity, reduced surgery time, and improved cosmetic outcome. PMID:24926445

  17. On consistent boundary closures for compact finite-difference WENO schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehm, C.

    2017-04-01

    The accuracy of compact finite-difference schemes can be degraded by inconsistent domain or box boundary treatments. A consistent higher-order boundary closure is especially important for block-structured Cartesian AMR solvers, where the computational domain is generally decomposed into a large number of boxes containing a relatively small number of grid points. At each box boundary, a consistent higher-order boundary closure needs to be applied to avoid a reduction of the formal order-of-accuracy of the numerical scheme. This paper presents such a boundary closure for the fifth-order accurate compact finite-difference WENO scheme by Ghosh and Baeder [1]. The accuracy of the new boundary closure is validated by employing the method of manufactured solutions. A comparison of the new compact boundary closure with the original explicit boundary closure demonstrates the improved accuracy for the new compact boundary closure, while the behavior of the scheme across discontinuities appears unaffected. The linear stability analysis results indicate that a linearly stable compact WENO boundary closure is achieved.

  18. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  19. 40 CFR 264.112 - Closure plan; amendment of plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Closure plan; amendment of plan. 264... Closure and Post-Closure § 264.112 Closure plan; amendment of plan. (a) Written plan. (1) The owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility must have a written closure plan. In addition,...

  20. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  1. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the requirements... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If,...

  2. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the requirements... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If,...

  3. 40 CFR 265.1202 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... post-closure care. (a) At closure of a magazine or unit which stored hazardous waste under this subpart... estimates for closure, and financial responsibility for magazines or units must meet all of the requirements... as long as it remains in service as a munitions or explosives magazine or storage unit. (b) If,...

  4. Identification of Selected Child-Resistant Closures (Continuous Thread, Lug-Bayonet, and Snap Closures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Rosalind L.; White, Harry E.

    This publication describes a selected group of child-resistant closures used in packaging five categories of medicine and household products. The material in the document was collected to train survey personnel to identify closures for a planned household study of the effectiveness of child-resistant packaging. The 39 closures described are of…

  5. 40 CFR 265.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 265.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and...

  6. 40 CFR 264.197 - Closure and post-closure care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Tank Systems § 264.197 Closure and post-closure care. (a) At closure of a tank system, the owner or operator must remove or decontaminate all waste residues, contaminated containment system components (liners, etc.), contaminated soils, and structures and equipment contaminated with waste, and manage them...

  7. Effect of pressure on closure temperature of a trace element in cooling petrological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yan

    2017-03-01

    Closure temperature is important to many diffusion-related problems involving cooling. The classic model of Dodson and its modifications for cooling petrological systems are formulated at constant pressure. Many petrologic processes involve changes in both temperature and pressure. The effect of changing pressure on diffusional loss in cooling petrological systems has not been considered in Dodson's model. During upwelling, the decompression rate is related to the cooling rate through the slope of the upwelling path. Simple analytical expressions for the average or mean closure temperature and closure pressure in cooling-upwelling mono-mineralic and bi-mineralic systems are obtained by noting that both temperature and pressure decrease as a function of time along the upwelling path. These pressure-adjusted equations are nearly identical to closure temperature equations for isobaric cases if one replaces the activation energy and pre-exponential factor for diffusion in the isobaric formulations by the path-dependent activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The latter also depend on the slope of the upwelling path. The competing effects between pressure and temperature on diffusion during upwelling result in reductions in the effective activation enthalpy for diffusion and exchange enthalpy for partitioning, which in turn leads to systematic deviations in closure temperatures from cases of constant pressure. For systems with large activation volume for diffusion, it may be possible to deduce upwelling path and upwelling rate from closure temperatures and closure pressures of selected elements. Examples of closure temperature and closure pressure for REE diffusion in garnet and clinopyroxene and in garnet-clinopyroxene aggregates are presented and discussed in the context of the minor's rule and the REE-in-garnet-clinopyroxene thermobarometer. Closure temperatures for middle-to-heavy REE in garnet-clinopyroxene aggregates are controlled primarily by diffusion in

  8. Development of an animal model to investigate optimal laparoscopic trocar site fascial closure.

    PubMed

    Van Sickle, Kent R; Nanda Kumar, Hanuma Reddy; Parikh, Amit; Ayon, Arturo A; Cohn, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    The rate of hernia formation after closure of 10-12 mm laparoscopic trocar sites is grossly under-reported. Using an animal model, we have developed a method to assess trocar site fascial dehiscence and the strength of different methods of fascial closure. Pigs (n = 9; 17 ± 2.5 lbs) underwent placement of 12 mm Hasson trocars with pneumoperitoneum maintained for 1 h. Three closure techniques (Figure-of-eight; simple interrupted; pulley) were compared with no fascial closure and to native fascia at five randomly allocated abdominal wall midline locations. Necropsy was performed on the fourth postoperative d. Statistical comparisons of tensile strength and breaking strength based on closure type and trocar location were made using ANOVA with Tukey's tests. The mean (SD) force (Newtons) required for fascial disruption varied significantly with closure type [Native Fascia 170 (39), Figure-of-eight 169 (31), Pulley 167 (59), Simple Interrupted 151 (27), No Closure 108 (28)]; P = 0.007. The mean force required for fascial disruption was significantly increased for Native Fascia, Figure-of-eight, and Pulley relative to No Closure (P = 0.013, P = 0.015, P = 0.023, respectively). The mean (SD) force (in Newtons) required for fascial disruption also varied significantly with location of trocar [subxiphoid 181 (43), supraumbilical 151 (23), Umbilical 146 (23), infraumbilical 168 (62), suprapubic 120 (38)]; P = 0.03. The mean force for subxiphoid location was significantly increased relative to the suprapubic location (P = 0.021). We have developed a novel assessment model that reliably detects differences in fascial integrity after laparoscopic trocar placement and closure. This model will allow for further testing of various trocars and closure techniques, and facilitate hernia prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors influencing the morbidity of colostomy closure.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D; Pezikis, A; Melissas, J; Parekh, D; Pickles, G

    1988-04-01

    A series consisting of 110 patients who had colostomy closure was studied in an attempt to define the role of various factors in causing colon-related morbidity. The overall complication rate was 14.5 percent (wound sepsis 11.8 percent and anastomotic leak 2.7 percent). Patient age, the underlying pathologic abnormality (trauma versus nontrauma), the type of colostomy (loop versus end colostomy), the site of the stoma (right side, left side, or transverse), whether a drain was inserted or not, and the timing of the operation did not influence morbidity. Oral preoperative antibiotics appeared to be associated with less morbidity than parenteral antibiotics (p less than 0.01), and experienced surgeons had less complications than junior surgeons (p less than 0.05).

  10. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  11. Transitional nuclei near shell closures

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, G.

    2014-08-14

    High spin states in Bismuth and Thallium nuclei near the Z = 82 shell closure and Cesium nuclei near the N = 82 shell closure in A = 190 and A = 130 regions, respectively, have been experimentally investigated using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction and by detecting the gamma rays using the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA). Interesting shape properties in these transitional nuclei have been observed. The results were compared with the neighboring nuclei in these two regions. The total Routhian surface (TRS) calculations have been performed for a better understanding of the observed properties. In mass region A = 190, a change in shape from spherical to deformed has been observd around neutron number N = 112 for the Bi (Z = 83) isotopes with proton number above the magic gap Z = 82, whereas, the shape of Tl (Z = 81) isotopes with proton number below the magic gap Z = 82 remains stable as a function of neutron number. An important transition from aplanar to planar configuration of angular momentum vectors leading to the occurance of nuclar chirality and magnetic rotation, respectively, has been proposed for the unique parity πh{sub 11/2}⊗νh{sub 11/2} configuration in Cs isotopes in the mass region A ∼ 130 around neutron number N = 79. These results are in commensurate with the TRS calculations.

  12. Higher order turbulence closure models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.

  13. Investigating a Hierarchy of Eulerian Closure Models for Scalar Transfer Inside Forested Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, Jehn-Yih; Katul, Gabriel G.; Siqueira, Mario B.; Stoy, Paul C.; McCarthy, Heather R.

    2008-07-01

    Modelling the transfer of heat, water vapour, and CO2 between the biosphere and the atmosphere is made difficult by the complex two-way interaction between leaves and their immediate microclimate. When simulating scalar sources and sinks inside canopies on seasonal, inter-annual, or forest development time scales, the so-called well-mixed assumption (WMA) of mean concentration (i.e. vertically constant inside the canopy but dynamically evolving in time) is often employed. The WMA eliminates the need to model how vegetation alters its immediate microclimate, which necessitates formulations that utilize turbulent transport theories. Here, two inter-related questions pertinent to the WMA for modelling scalar sources, sinks, and fluxes at seasonal to inter-annual time scales are explored: (1) if the WMA is to be replaced so as to resolve this two-way interaction, how detailed must the turbulent transport model be? And (2) what are the added predictive skills gained by resolving the two-way interaction vis-à-vis other uncertainties such as seasonal variations in physiological parameters. These two questions are addressed by simulating multi-year mean scalar concentration and eddy-covariance scalar flux measurements collected in a Loblolly pine ( P. taeda L.) plantation near Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A. using turbulent transport models ranging from K-theory (or first-order closure) to third-order closure schemes. The multi-layer model calculations with these closure schemes were contrasted with model calculations employing the WMA. These comparisons suggested that (i) among the three scalars, sensible heat flux predictions are most biased with respect to eddy-covariance measurements when using the WMA, (ii) first-order closure schemes are sufficient to reproduce the seasonal to inter-annual variations in scalar fluxes provided the canonical length scale of turbulence is properly specified, (iii) second-order closure models best agree with measured mean scalar

  14. Second Moment Closure Near the Two-component Limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Girimaji, Sharath S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some wider implications of the two-component limit for both single point turbulence models and spectral closure theories. Although the two-component limit arises most naturally in inhomogeneous problems like wall-bounded turbulence, the analysis will be restricted to homogeneous turbulence. But since homogeneous turbulence is the crucial case for realizability, the conclusions will nevertheless be applicable to modeling. Th essential point of our argument is that whereas the evolution of the stochastic velocity field is Markovian because it is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, the exact stress evolution equation is not Markovian because it is unclosed. This property of moment evolution has been stressed by Kraichnan (1959). We will show that modeling stress evolution at the two-component limit with a closure that is Markovian in the stresses alone leads to basic inconsistencies in single-point modeling and, perhaps surprisingly, in spectral modes as well.

  15. Wrench characteristic of Hexiwu East Master Fault and its relation to hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z. )

    1992-01-01

    Hexiwu east master fault is nearly vertical in a seismic section. It cuts off the shallow reflections from Neogene-Quaternary systems and the deep reflections from Paleozoic erathem (the basement). The secondary faults, upward radiating, appear as imbricate arrangement; and the cone deformation zone is characterized by big fault throws in deep formations and small fault throws in shallow formations, showing overall a flower structure. This paper reports that, on the structural map of each geological horizon in this are, the echelon faults trending in NE direction intersect obliquely the east master fault trending in northeast by north; and the diabase which penetrated in the formations nearby the east master fault has been broken by later wrench-faulting. All of these indicate that Hexiwu east master fault is a basement involved dextral fault. Under the control of the master fault, hydrocarbon traps in each formation in this area also occur in echelon belts. Applying this structural style to hydrocarbon exploration, we can greatly improve exploration efficiency.

  16. Exploring Children's Thinking. Part 3: The Development of Quantitative Relations; Conservation (Preschool - Third Grade).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alward, Keith R.; Saxe, Geoffrey B.

    This unit of the Flexible Learning System (FLS), the third of a 3-volume series on children's thinking focuses on the development of quantitative relations in children between 3 and 8 years of age. The series is based on the application of Jean Piaget's work to early childhood education. Quantitative relations concerns all notions of units and…

  17. "My Place": Exploring Children's Place-Related Identities through Reading and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton, Emma; Cliff Hodges, Gabrielle; Pointon, Pam; Nikolajeva, Maria; Spring, Erin; Taylor, Liz; Wyse, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how children perceive and represent their placed-related identities through reading and writing. It reports on the findings of an 18-month interdisciplinary project, based at Cambridge University Faculty of Education, which aimed to consider children's place-related identities through their engagement with, and creation of,…

  18. Exploring the Connection between Age and Strategies for Learning New Technology Related Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiselwitz, Gabriele; Chakraborty, Suranjan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the connection between age and strategies for learning new technology related tasks. Many users have to learn about new devices and applications on a frequent basis and use a variety of strategies to accomplish this learning process. Approaches to learning new technology related tasks vary and can contribute to a user's…

  19. Exploring the Essence of Relational Leadership in the Role of University President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Aaron P.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, the literature on leadership studies has displayed a gradual shift away from traditional, hierarchical models of leadership and management, towards more democratic and relational approaches. Reciprocal leadership theories, which emphasize the mutual and relational nature of the leadership process, have been the focus of…

  20. Comprehensive treatment approach is necessary for the closure of open window thoracostomy: an institutional review of 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Hato, Tai; Suzuki, Shigeki; Harada, Masahiko; Horio, Hirotoshi

    2014-03-01

    Although life-threatening situations can be avoided using an open window thoracostomy (OWT), the closure is often difficult. We investigated the predictors of a successful closure of an OWT at the time of OWT creation. Thirty-five consecutive patients who underwent an OWT at our institute between January 1991 and December 2010 were reviewed. We directly compared the patients with and without a successful OWT closure. A logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the predictive factors of a successful closure. OWT closure was only achieved in 12 patients. The closure of the OWT and absence of diabetes mellitus significantly influenced the survival of the OWT patients. The OWT in patients with preceding lung resection was difficult to close, especially if the underlying disease was lung cancer. The existence of a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) was not related to successful closure. Among the post-lung resection patients, the nutritional status tended to affect the success of the closure. Successful closure is difficult to predict at the time of the creation of an OWT. A comprehensive approach, including nutritional support and the precise timing of intervention is critical to promote a successful closure.

  1. Airborne Aerosol Closure Studies During PRIDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, Beat; Reid, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    relative to the extinction obtained from the sunphotometer measurements. However, a more extensive analysis of all available AATS-6 and in situ size distribution data is necessary to ascertain whether the preliminary results regarding the degree of extinction closure is representative of the entire range of dust conditions encountered in PRIDE. Finally, we will compare the spectral extinction measurements obtained in PRIDE to similar data obtained in Saharan dust layers encountered above the Canary Islands during ACE-2 (Aerosol Characterization Experiment) in July 1997. Thus, the evolution of Saharan dust spectral properties during its transport across the Atlantic can be investigated, provided the dust origin and microphysical properties are found to be comparable.

  2. Exploring intergenerational relations in a multi-cultural context: the example of filial responsibility in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Hillcoat-Nallétamby, Sarah

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore attitudes towards filial responsibility amongst dyads of parents and young adult children using qualitative data from Mauritius, and to draw on the intergenerational solidarity-conflict and ambivalence frameworks to see whether they provide relevant interpretive tools for understanding these attitudes in a multi-cultural society. The study shows that although both generations agree that younger kin should support parents in later life, their motives vary: parents' attitudes reflect norms of obligation, children those of reciprocity; parents want autonomy and independence, but are ambivalent about expectations of future support. Both generations think providing support will be mediated by past parent-child relationships, socialization experiences, gender expectations and cultural tradition. The study suggests that attitudes towards filial responsibility are influenced by a broad set of mechanisms, which can be equated with concepts of structure, function, association, consensus and norm, as well as conflict and ambivalence.

  3. Enzyme activity in terrestrial soil in relation to exploration of the Martian surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardakani, M. S.; Mclaren, A. D.; Pukite, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    An exploration was made of enzyme activities in soil, including abundance, persistence and localization of these activities. An attempt was made to develop procedures for the detection and assaying of enzymes in soils suitable for presumptive tests for life in planetary soils. A suitable extraction procedure for soil enzymes was developed and measurements were made of activities in extracts in order to study how urease is complexed in soil organic matter. Mathematical models were developed, based on enzyme action and microbial growth in soil, for rates of oxidation of nitrogen as nitrogen compounds are moved downward in soil by water flow. These biogeochemical models should be applicable to any percolating system, with suitable modification for special features, such as oxygen concetrations, and types of hydrodynamic flow.

  4. Europe, the professions and interprofessional education: an exploration in inter-culture relativity.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Walter

    2009-09-01

    This paper seeks to understand the inter-cultural relationships between the notions of Europe, the professions and interprofessional education (IPE) in developing an argument for the necessity of interprofessional education for meeting the complex challenges for the professions and society in the 21st century. The concept of "strange loops" is used to explore the paradoxes and recursions in understanding what Europe, the professions and interprofessional education really are. After questioning perceptions of the professions in a changing Europe, I challenge interprofessional education to greater heights. IPE has to accompany all professional exchanges across borders as a critical, constructive process that focuses on differences in theory and practice within the different professional fields to overcome their problems of adjustment to changing user needs and cultural requirements.

  5. Exploration Into the Business Priorities Related to Corporate Engagement in Community Health Improvement Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Baase, Catherine; May, Jeanette; Terry, Paul; Moseley, Karen

    2017-07-24

    To explore factors that matter to business in making decisions regarding engagement in community health improvement efforts. Using qualitative methods, domains of interest were identified through literature reviews and expert interviews. Relevance of the domains in terms of potential priorities for action was tested through employer and community stakeholder interviews. Factors that employers considered important to sustained community collaboration as a business priority included (1) credibility of the convener, (2) broad representation of the community, (3) strong mission and goals, (4) individual commitment to health, (5) organizational commitment to health, and (6) demonstrated commitment from leadership. Priorities have been identified for engaging business in community health efforts. Implications for research, practice, and policy include the need for measurement, transparency in reporting, and agreement on principles for public-private partnership in this area.

  6. An exploration of how perceptions of the risk of avian influenza in poultry relate to urbanization in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Melissa L; Nghiem, Tuyen; Saksena, Sumeet; Nguyen, Lam; Fox, Jefferson; Spencer, James H; Thau, Trinh Dinh

    2014-01-01

    This research examined how perceptions of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 in poultry are related to urbanization. Via in-depth interviews with village leaders, household farmers, and large farm operators in modern, transitional, and traditional communes in the north of Vietnam, we explored behaviors, attitudes, cultural values, and traditions that might amplify or attenuate HPAI outbreaks. We also explored conceptualizations of urbanization and its impacts on animal husbandry and disease outbreaks. Qualitative theme analyses identified the key impacts, factors related to HPAI outbreaks, and disease prevention and management strategies. The analyses also highlighted how urbanization improves some aspects of life (e.g., food security, family wealth and health, more employment opportunities, and improved infrastructure), but simultaneously poses significant challenges for poultry farming and disease management. Awareness of qualitative aspects of HPAI risk perceptions and behaviors and how they vary with urbanization processes may help to improve the prevention and management of emerging infectious diseases.

  7. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dückers, Michel L A; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Wagner, Cordula; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2009-11-17

    Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful implementation of QICs, applied changes, perceived successes, and actual outcomes. Twenty-four Dutch hospitals participated in a dissemination programme based on QICs. A questionnaire was sent to 237 leaders of teams who joined 18 different QICs to measure changes in working methods and activities, overall perceived success, team organisation, and supportive conditions. Actual outcomes were extracted from a database with team performance indicator data. Multi-level analyses were conducted to test a number of hypothesised relations within the cross-classified hierarchical structure in which teams are nested within QICs and hospitals. Organisational and external change agent support is related positively to the number of changed working methods and activities that, if increased, lead to higher perceived success and indicator outcomes scores. Direct and indirect positive relations between conditions and perceived success could be confirmed. Relations between conditions and actual outcomes are weak. Multi-level analyses reveal significant differences in organisational support between hospitals. The relation between perceived successes and actual outcomes is present at QIC level but not at team level. Several of the expected relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes, and perceived successes could be verified. However, because QICs vary in topic, approach, complexity, and promised advantages, further research is required: first, to understand why some QIC innovations fit better within the context of the units where they are implemented; second, to assess the influence of perceived success and actual outcomes on the further dissemination of projects over new patient groups.

  8. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful implementation of QICs, applied changes, perceived successes, and actual outcomes. Methods Twenty-four Dutch hospitals participated in a dissemination programme based on QICs. A questionnaire was sent to 237 leaders of teams who joined 18 different QICs to measure changes in working methods and activities, overall perceived success, team organisation, and supportive conditions. Actual outcomes were extracted from a database with team performance indicator data. Multi-level analyses were conducted to test a number of hypothesised relations within the cross-classified hierarchical structure in which teams are nested within QICs and hospitals. Results Organisational and external change agent support is related positively to the number of changed working methods and activities that, if increased, lead to higher perceived success and indicator outcomes scores. Direct and indirect positive relations between conditions and perceived success could be confirmed. Relations between conditions and actual outcomes are weak. Multi-level analyses reveal significant differences in organisational support between hospitals. The relation between perceived successes and actual outcomes is present at QIC level but not at team level. Discussion Several of the expected relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes, and perceived successes could be verified. However, because QICs vary in topic, approach, complexity, and promised advantages, further research is required: first, to understand why some QIC innovations fit better within the context of the units where they are implemented; second, to assess the influence of perceived success and actual outcomes on the further dissemination of

  9. Pedagogy of complex relationality exploring complexity theory, neuro-phenomenology, and attentiveness for education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattar, Randa

    What do the new sciences of complex relationality offer education? This work draws on complexity theory, neurological understandings of biology and phenomenology, and attentiveness to study what the new sciences might offer education and the possibilities of a pedagogical understanding of embodied knowing. Complexity theory provides understandings of local-global relationality, self-organization, far-from-equilibrium conditions, and emergent dynamics that are important for describing pedagogical relationality. In itself, however, complexity theory is lacking an attention to issues of embodiment that respond directly to an ethical understanding of relationality. Phenomenology provides important views on the human experience of perception, for example, Merleau-Ponty's, whose research opens up possibilities for embodiment and attentiveness. At the level of pedagogical practice, I will pose, following biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela's autopoietic self-making understanding of life, that attentiveness perspectives, which have been largely absent from western pedagogical theory and practice, are crucial to promoting embodied knowing for education. Maturana and Varela's autopoietic perspective offers an embodied understanding of living---and therefore education---which opens up necessary attentive spaces to listen to one another in non judgmental awareness in the present moment of experience. I offer insights into a relationally complex conception of education drawing on this biological and autopoietically-grounded framework. These insights are framed in the context of five clusters of relations: (1) emergence, far-from-equilibrium, and local-global relationality; (2) autopoietic autonomy, structural determination and sensory-motor coupling; (3) triggering perturbations, structural plasticity, and autopoietic organization; (4) knowing as adequate action, domains of interaction, and blind spots; and (5) attentiveness and responsive relationality. Four

  10. 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 2005 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission is proud to present its Final Report for your consideration. As required by law, the Commission thoroughly and objectively reviewed the domestic installation closure and realignment recommendations proposed by the Secretary of Defense on May 13, 2005.

  11. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED...

  12. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED...

  13. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED...

  14. 50 CFR 20.26 - Emergency closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... wildlife conservation agency, and announcement on local radio and television. (b) Any such closure or... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency closures. 20.26 Section 20.26 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED...

  15. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  16. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  17. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  18. 40 CFR 265.404 - Closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment § 265.404 Closure. At closure, all hazardous waste and hazardous...

  19. 33 CFR 52.32 - Administrative closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Closure § 52.32 Administrative closure. (a) The Chair may administratively close a case after it has been docketed and at any time prior to its consideration by the Board if the Chair determines that: (1) The... been administratively closed by the Chair may resubmit their applications with a request for further...

  20. 33 CFR 52.32 - Administrative closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Closure § 52.32 Administrative closure. (a) The Chair may administratively close a case after it has been docketed and at any time prior to its consideration by the Board if the Chair determines that: (1) The... been administratively closed by the Chair may resubmit their applications with a request for further...