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Sample records for exploring lay understandings

  1. The weaker sex? Exploring lay understandings of gender differences in life expectancy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate

    2008-09-01

    Despite increasing interest in gender and health, 'lay' perceptions of gender differences in mortality have been neglected. Drawing on semi-structured interview data from 45 men and women in two age cohorts (born in the early 1950s and 1970s) in the UK, we investigated lay explanations for women's longer life expectancy. Our data suggest that respondents were aware of women's increased longevity, but found this difficult to explain. While many accounts were multifactorial, socio-cultural explanations were more common, more detailed and less tentative than biological explanations. Different socio-cultural explanations (i.e. gendered social roles, 'macho' constraints on men and gender differences in health-related behaviours) were linked by the perception that life expectancy would converge as men and women's lives became more similar. Health behaviours such as going to the doctor or drinking alcohol were often located within wider structural contexts. Female respondents were more likely to focus on women's reproductive and caring roles, while male respondents were more likely to focus on how men were disadvantaged by their 'provider' role. We locate these narratives within academic debates about conceptualising gender: e.g. 'gender as structure' versus 'gender as performance', 'gender as difference' versus 'gender as diversity'.

  2. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    PubMed

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry.

  3. Assessing Lay Understanding of Common Presentations of Earthquake Hazard Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. J.; Krantz, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities (WGCEP) includes, in its introduction to earthquake rupture forecast maps, the assertion that "In daily living, people are used to making decisions based on probabilities -- from the flip of a coin (50% probability of heads) to weather forecasts (such as a 30% chance of rain) to the annual chance of being killed by lightning (about 0.0003%)." [3] However, psychology research identifies a large gap between lay and expert perception of risk for various hazards [2], and cognitive psychologists have shown in numerous studies [1,4-6] that people neglect, distort, misjudge, or misuse probabilities, even when given strong guidelines about the meaning of numerical or verbally stated probabilities [7]. The gap between lay and expert use of probability needs to be recognized more clearly by scientific organizations such as WGCEP. This study undertakes to determine how the lay public interprets earthquake hazard information, as presented in graphical map form by the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), compiled by the WGCEP and other bodies including the USGS and CGS. It also explores alternate ways of presenting hazard data, to determine which presentation format most effectively translates information from scientists to public. Participants both from California and from elsewhere in the United States are included, to determine whether familiarity -- either with the experience of an earthquake, or with the geography of the forecast area -- affects people's ability to interpret an earthquake hazards map. We hope that the comparisons between the interpretations by scientific experts and by different groups of laypeople will both enhance theoretical understanding of factors that affect information transmission and assist bodies such as the WGCEP in their laudable attempts to help people prepare themselves and their communities for possible natural hazards. [1] Kahneman, D & Tversky, A (1979). Prospect

  4. Redrawing the line: An exploration of how lay people construct child neglect.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sasha Emma

    2017-04-05

    While there has been an increasing professional and political focus on the prevalence and harmfulness of child neglect, little has been done to explore what child neglect means outside child protection circles. This qualitative study explores lay constructions of child neglect by thematically analyzing focus group discussions between 46 self-defined 'lay' people in England. Participants viewed neglect as extremely damaging for children and as arising when children's physical, emotional, training and supervisory needs were unmet due to abnormal parental behavior. Children with unmet needs were positioned as deprived, unloved, uncontrolled and escaping. They were only positioned as neglected when failure to meet their needs was attributable to a lack of parental knowledge and skill (clueless parents), a lack of appropriate parental disposition (underinvested parents) or both (unsuitable parents). 'Normal' parents - those with the appropriate parental disposition, skills and knowledge - who failed to meet their children's needs were not seen as neglectful but rather as overburdened. As 'normal parenting' has fragmented in late modernity, society wide consensus on child neglect was felt by participants to have retreated to child protection definitions, alienating lay understandings. If child neglect really is 'everybody's business', then it is important that lay people are included in forging new definitions of and responses to meeting the needs of children.

  5. Understanding Lay Assessments of Alcohol Use Disorder: Need for Treatment and Associated Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Erienne R.; Kim, Nancy S.; Lincoln, Alisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Three-quarters of people with an alcohol use disorder in the USA never receive treatment. Our understandings of who receives care are informed by sociological perspectives, theories and models, each of which discuss the role of lay people's understanding of illness. However, comparatively little work has been done to unpack the cognitive processes underlying lay assessment. In the context of the Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS), we aim to understand key factors guiding lay people's stigmatizing attitudes, perceptions and assessments of alcohol use disorder behaviors. Methods Lay people read a vignette depicting a male or female adult with a diagnosable alcohol use disorder, along with either a causal life-event explanation for the alcohol use disorder behaviors or no explanation. They then made judgments of the need for treatment, psychological abnormality and the stigma they felt toward the person depicted. Results Causal life-event explanations decreased lay judgments of the need for treatment, psychological abnormality and stigma. Conclusions The results suggest that the availability of a causal life-event explanation may have a complex effect on lay judgments, decreasing the likelihood of recommending treatment for alcohol use disorders, yet simultaneously reducing stigmatizing perceptions (and presumably social distance). PMID:26113491

  6. Lay and health care professional understandings of self-management: A systematic review and narrative synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Charles DA; McKevitt, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Self-management is widely promoted but evidence of effectiveness is limited. Policy encourages health care professionals to support people with long-term conditions to learn self-management skills, yet little is known about the extent to which both parties share a common understanding of self-management. Thus, we compared health care professional and lay understandings of self-management of long-term conditions. Methods: Systematic review and narrative synthesis of qualitative studies identified from relevant electronic databases, hand-searching of references lists, citation tracking and recommendations by experts. Results: In total, 55 studies were included and quality was assessed using a brief quality assessment tool. Three conceptual themes, each with two subthemes were generated: traditional and shifting models of the professional–patient relationship (self-management as a tool to promote compliance; different expectations of responsibility); quality of relationship between health care professional and lay person (self-management as a collaborative partnership; self-management as tailored support) and putting self-management into everyday practice (the lived experience of self-management; self-management as a social practice). Conclusion: Self-management was conceptualised by health care professionals as incorporating both a biomedical model of compliance and individual responsibility. Lay people understood self-management in wider terms, reflecting biomedical, psychological and social domains and different expectations of responsibility. In different ways, both deviated from the dominant model of self-management underpinned by the concept of self-efficacy. Different understandings help to explain how self-management is practised and may help to account for limited evidence of effectiveness of self-management interventions. PMID:26770733

  7. Lay understanding of the causes of binge drinking in the United Kingdom and Australia: a network diagram approach.

    PubMed

    Keatley, David A; Ferguson, Eamonn; Lonsdale, Adam; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-01-03

    Binge drinking is associated with deleterious health, social and economic outcomes. This study explored the lay understanding of the causes of binge drinking in members of the general public in the United Kingdom and Australia. Participants in the United Kingdom (N = 133) and Australia (N = 102) completed a network diagram exercise requiring them to draw causal paths and provide path strength ratings between 12 candidate factors (24-h opening, age, alcohol advertizing, alcohol availability, boredom, drinking culture, income, low cost, parental influence, peer pressure, stress and supermarket discounts) and binge drinking. Results indicated good consistency in paths across samples, although differences in frequency and strength ratings for some paths were found. Drinking culture, peer pressure and low alcohol cost were perceived as direct causes of binge drinking in both samples. Low alcohol cost and drinking culture were most frequently viewed as direct causes of binge drinking in UK and Australian participants, respectively. Supermarket discounts and low cost of alcohol were most frequently viewed as indirect causes of binge drinking by UK and Australian samples. Findings reflect general awareness and prominence of factors affecting binge drinking in both national groups. Findings may inform the development of campaigns to promote public support policies to curb binge drinking.

  8. Charitable giving and lay morality: understanding sympathy, moral evaluations and social positions

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines how charitable giving offers an example of lay morality, reflecting people's capacity for fellow‐feeling, moral sentiments, personal reflexivity, ethical dispositions, moral norms and moral discourses. Lay morality refers to how people should treat others and be treated by them, matters that are important for their subjective and objective well‐being. It is a first person evaluative relation to the world (about things that matter to people). While the paper is sympathetic to the ‘moral boundaries’ approach, which seeks to address the neglect of moral evaluations in sociology, it reveals this approach to have some shortcomings. The paper argues that although morality is always mediated by cultural discourses and shaped by structural factors, it also has a universalizing character because people have fellow‐feelings, shared human conditions, and have reason to value. PMID:27546914

  9. Retracted: Exploring resident reflections to understand burnout.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Abigail Ford; Jakalow, Holli; Benton, Laura; Moss, Haley; Mitchell, Lauren; Feldman, Nathalie

    2016-04-05

    Retraction: Winkel, A. F., Jakalow, H., Benton, L., Moss, H., Mitchell, L. and Feldman, N. (2016), Exploring resident reflections to understand burnout. The Clinical Teacher. doi: 10.1111/tct.12513 The above article, published online on 5th April 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Co-Editors, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to a change in the status of the research project's Institutional Review Board approval, leading to permission to use some of the data in this article being revoked.

  10. Laying medicine open: understanding major turning points in the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B

    1999-03-01

    At different times during its history medicine has been laid open to accountability for its scientific and moral quality. This phenonmenon of laying medicine open has sometimes resulted in major turning points in the history of medical ethics. In this paper, I examine two examples of when the laying open of medicine has generated such turning points: eighteenth-century British medicine and late twentieth-century American medicine. In the eighteenth century, the Scottish physician-philosopher, John Gregory (1724-1773), concerned with the unscientific, entrepreneurial, self-interested nature of then current medical practice, laid medicine open to accountability using the tools of ethics and philosophy of medicine. In the process, Gregory wrote the first professional ethics of medicine in the English-language literature, based on the physician's fiduciary responsibility to the patient. In the late twentieth century, the managed practice of medicine has laid medicine open to accountability for its scientific quality and economic cost. This current laying open of medicine creates the challenge of developing medical ethics and bioethics for population-based medical science and practice.

  11. The Lay Public's Understanding and Perception of Dementia in a Developed Asian Nation

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wai Jia; Hong, Song-Iee; Luo, Nan; Lo, Tong Jen; Yap, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection of dementia aims to improve treatment outcomes. However, poor perception and understanding of dementia are significant barriers. We aim to investigate the public's perception of dementia and identify variables associated with the different profiles of public perception. Methods A custom-designed questionnaire was used to assess laypersons’ knowledge and perception of dementia during a health fair at a public hospital in Singapore, a developed Asian nation. Out of a sample of 370 subjects, 32 declined to participate (response rate = 91.4%). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify meaningful subgroups of subjects from significant associations with multiple indicators of dementia awareness. Multinomial logistic regression was performed exploring variables associated with each of the subgroups derived from LCA. Results The majority of the study participants were female (66.9%), 65 years or older (71.1%), and ethnic Chinese (88.1%). LCA classified the study participants into 3 subgroups: Class 1 (good knowledge, good attitude), Class 2 (good knowledge, poor attitude), and Class 3 (poor knowledge, poor attitude), in proportions of 14.28, 63.83, and 21.88%, respectively. Compared to other classes, participants with good knowledge and good attitude towards dementia (Class 1) were more likely to know someone with dementia and understand the effects of the disease, be married, live in private housing, receive higher monthly income, and not profess belief in Buddhism, Taoism, or Hinduism. Conclusion Our results show that the public in Singapore may not be ready for screening initiatives and early dementia diagnosis. Education efforts should be targeted at lower socioeconomic groups, singles, and those of certain oriental religions. PMID:23139688

  12. Public involvement in suicide prevention: understanding and strengthening lay responses to distress

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Christabel; Owen, Gareth; Lambert, Helen; Donovan, Jenny; Belam, Judith; Rapport, Frances; Lloyd, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Background The slogan "Suicide prevention is everyone's business" has been used in a number of campaigns worldwide in recent years, but most research into suicide prevention has focused on the role of medical professionals in identifying and managing risk. Little consideration has been given to the role that lay people can play in suicide prevention, or to the resources they need in order to do so. The majority of people who take their own lives are not under the care of specialist mental health services, and around half have not had recent contact with their general practitioner. These individuals are not known to be 'at risk' and there is little or no opportunity for clinical intervention. Family members and friends may be the only ones to know that a person is troubled or distressed, and their capacity to recognise, assess and respond to that distress is therefore vitally important. This study aims to discover what the suicidal process looks like from the point of view of relatives and friends and to gain insight into the complex and difficult judgements that people have to make when trying to support a distressed individual. Methods/Design The study uses qualitative methods to build up a detailed picture of 15–20 completed suicides, aged 18–34. Data are gathered by means of in-depth interviews with relatives, friends and others who knew the deceased well. In each case, as many informants as possible are sought using a purposive snowballing technique. Interviews focus on the family and social network of the deceased, the ways in which relatives and friends interpreted and responded to his/her distress, the potential for intervention that may have existed within the lay network and the knowledge, skills and other resources that would have helped members to support the distressed individual more effectively. Discussion The study will inform interventions to promote public mental health awareness and will provide a basis on which to develop community

  13. Preliminary findings exploring the social determinants of Black males' lay health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Johnson, Darin M; Rego, Maria Isabel; Schofield, Kandyce; Amponsah, Alethea; Graham, Louis F

    2012-01-01

    The unequal discussion of Black males' health is a pressing social problem. This study addressed Black males' lay perspectives regarding their health, illness, and mortality, with attention to the determinants of men's health, prevention, lifestyle, and opportunities for health promotion using an exploratory/qualitative research methodology. Participants were 68 Black males aged 15 to 68 years, with an average age of 44 years (SD = 14.5). The narratives represented a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors, ranging from intrapersonal attitudes, interpersonal experiences to discussions about community and public policy injustices. Five prominent themes emerged: (a) lack of chronic disease awareness, (b) fatalism, (c) fear and anxiety of academic-medical settings, (d) hyperactive masculinity fatigue, and (e) the gay-straight divide. The term Tired Black Male Health syndrome was coined in the forum. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of culturally relevant strategies for improving Black male community health engagement.

  14. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joo Ok; Lee, Joohi; Moon, Sung Seek

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the effects of death education on children and their understanding of death. The participants of this study were eighty 5- and 6-year-olds who were enrolled in a suburban kindergarten in Korea. To examine the level of children's understanding of death, researchers interviewed each child in both the control and…

  15. Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

  16. Lay information mediary behavior uncovered: exploring how nonprofessionals seek health information for themselves and others online*EC

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Karen E.; Turner, Anne G.; Durrance, Joan C.; Turner, Tammara Combs

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This research studied motivations for, barriers to, and effects of online health information seeking and explored lay information mediary behavior (LIMB) characteristics in the consumer health information domain. Lay information mediaries (LIMs) seek information on behalf or because of others, without necessarily being asked to do so or engaging in follow up, and have represented more than 50% of health information seekers in prior studies. Methods: A web-based survey was posted on NC Health Info (NCHI) with 211 respondents, self-identified per the information need that brought them to NCHI as 20% LIMs (n = 43), 58% direct users (n = 122), and 22% health or information providers (n = 46). Follow-up telephone interviews were performed with 10% (n = 21). Interview analysis focused on lay participants (n = 15 LIMs and direct users combined). Interviewees were reclassified post-survey as 12 LIMs and 3 direct users when studied information behavior extended beyond NCHI search. Interview data were analyzed using grounded theory approach. Results: Surveyed LIMs were 77% female (n = 33) and searched on behalf or because of family members (81%, n = 35) and people they felt “extremely close” to (77%, n = 33). LIMs reported various information seeking barriers “sometimes” to “often.” LIMs searched mostly without prompting (51%, n = 22). Interview results triangulated survey findings regarding gender, tie strength, and prompting. Conclusions: LIMB may be related to gender and relationship tie strength and appears more internally than externally motivated. Further LIMB research is warranted. PMID:18974809

  17. How has neuroscience affected lay understandings of personhood? A review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The prominence of neuroscience in the public sphere has escalated in recent years, provoking questions about how the public engages with neuroscientific ideas. Commentaries on neuroscience’s role in society often present it as having revolutionary implications, fundamentally overturning established beliefs about personhood. The purpose of this article is to collate and review the extant empirical evidence on the influence of neuroscience on commonsense understandings of personhood. The article evaluates the scope of neuroscience’s presence in public consciousness and examines the empirical evidence for three frequently encountered claims about neuroscience’s societal influence: that neuroscience fosters a conception of the self that is based in biology, that neuroscience promotes conceptions of individual fate as predetermined, and that neuroscience attenuates the stigma attached to particular social categories. It concludes that many neuroscientific ideas have assimilated in ways that perpetuate rather than challenge existing modes of understanding self, others and society. PMID:23833053

  18. Using Electronic Interviews to Explore Student Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D. J.; Rivera, J. J.; Mateycik, Fran; Jennings, Sybillyn

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports on methods used to probe student understandings of optical fibers and total internal reflection (TIR). The study was conducted as part of the expansion and improvement of web-based materials for an innovative introductory physics course. Initially, we conducted face-to-face Piaget-style interviews with a convenience sample. Our next step was to interview students taking the course at Rensselaer. Physical limitations necessitated that this be done from a distance, so we conducted "e-interviews" using a Chat Room. In this paper we focus on the e-interview experience, discussing similarities to and differences from the traditional face-to-face approach. In the process, we address how each method informs us about students' activation of prior experiences in making sense of unfamiliar phenomena (e.g., "transfer of learning").

  19. Same but Different: Exploring Young Children's Understandings about Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouzourou, Chryso

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore young children's understandings about their peers with disabilities as manifested in their daily interactions in classroom and school routines. Using an ecological perspective, children's expressed views about their peers with disabilities were also explored, to examine how these understandings are situated…

  20. Laying the Groundwork for NCLEX Success: An Exploration of Adaptive Quizzing as an Examination Preparation Method.

    PubMed

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A; Phelan, Julia C

    2015-05-01

    First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are an important indicator of nursing school success and quality. Nursing schools use different methods to anticipate NCLEX outcomes and help prevent student failure and possible threat to accreditation. This study evaluated the impact of a shift in NCLEX preparation policy at a BSN program in the southeast United States. The policy shifted from the use of predictor score thresholds to determine graduation eligibility to a more proactive remediation strategy involving adaptive quizzing. A descriptive correlational design evaluated the impact of an adaptive quizzing system designed to give students ongoing active practice and feedback and explored the relationship between predictor examinations and NCLEX success. Data from student usage of the system as well as scores on predictor tests were collected for three student cohorts. Results revealed a positive correlation between adaptive quizzing system usage and content mastery. Two of the 69 students in the sample did not pass the NCLEX. With so few students failing the NCLEX, predictability of any course variables could not be determined. The power of predictor examinations to predict NCLEX failure could also not be supported. The most consistent factor among students, however, was their content mastery level within the adaptive quizzing system. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Advancing understanding of the sustainability of lay health advisor (LHA) programs for African-American women in community settings.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Rachel C; Charles, Thana-Ashley; Dunston, Sheba King; Jandorf, Lina; Erwin, Deborah O

    2017-03-23

    Lay health advisor (LHA) programs have made strong contributions towards the elimination of health disparities and are increasingly being implemented to promote health and prevent disease. Developed in collaboration with African-American survivors, the National Witness Project (NWP) is an evidence-based, community-led LHA program that improves cancer screening among African-American women. NWP has been successfully disseminated, replicated, and implemented nationally in over 40 sites in 22 states in diverse community settings, reaching over 15,000 women annually. We sought to advance understanding of barriers and facilitators to the long-term implementation and sustainability of LHA programs in community settings from the viewpoint of the LHAs, as well as the broader impact of the program on African-American communities and LHAs. In the context of a mixed-methods study, in-depth telephone interviews were conducted among 76 African-American LHAs at eight NWP sites at baseline and 12-18 months later, between 2010 and 2013. Qualitative data provides insight into inner and outer contextual factors (e.g., community partnerships, site leadership, funding), implementation processes (e.g., training), as well as characteristics of the intervention (e.g., perceived need and fit in African-American community) and LHAs (e.g., motivations, burnout) that are perceived to impact the continued implementation and sustainability of NWP. Factors at the contextual levels and related to motivations of LHAs are critical to the sustainability of LHA programs. We discuss how findings are used to inform (1) the development of the LHA Sustainability Framework and (2) strategies to support the continued implementation and sustainability of evidence-based LHA interventions in community settings.

  2. Understanding-misunderstanding: a philosophical and theoretical exploration.

    PubMed

    Condon, Barbara Backer

    2010-10-01

    Understanding-misunderstanding is an intrinsic part of being human. It is understanding that might be said to underscore all communication. This article is an in-depth exploration of the philosophical views regarding human understanding from some of the greatest philosophers in history, and a glimpse into the disciplines of sociology, psychology, and nursing in their views on human understanding or related concepts. Human understanding-misunderstanding is supported in the literature as a paradox--one that continues to be mysterious and illimitable. In fact, it is the belief of this author, in every human encounter, one cannot not understand-misunderstand.

  3. Children's Understandings of Rurality: Exploring the Interrelationship between Experience and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Jaleh

    2002-01-01

    Explores children's material and discursive experiences of rurality in New Zealand and how they contribute to children's understandings of rurality. Highlights common constructions of reality based on experiences of agriculture, nature, and recreation, as well as children's understandings of rurality from discourse with peers and adults. (Contains…

  4. Equine Welfare in England and Wales: Exploration of Stakeholders' Understanding.

    PubMed

    Horseman, Susan V; Buller, Henry; Mullan, Siobhan; Knowles, Toby G; Barr, Alistair R S; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    Investigating how those responsible for the care of nonhuman animals understand the concept of animal welfare is important for animal welfare improvement. In-depth interviews with 31 equine stakeholders were used to explore their perceptions and understanding of welfare. The results showed the stakeholders understood the concept of welfare in 4 ways. Firstly, welfare was understood in terms of the provision of resources-for example, food. Secondly, a "horse-centered" understanding of welfare was articulated; this understanding included the horses' mental state and was linked to natural behavior. Thirdly, the word welfare had negative connotations, and for some, good welfare was achieved through avoidance of negative states. Finally, interviewees discussed incidents that occurred in their own familiar contexts but suggested that these were not welfare problems. Evidence indicated that the ways in which equine stakeholders understood the concept of welfare might have been acting as a barrier to the alleviation of some equine welfare problems. There is a need for strategies aimed at improving equine welfare to consider stakeholder constructs of welfare and the ways in which these constructs are generated and acted upon.

  5. Understanding garnet variability: Application of geometallurgy to diamonds and exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoal, K. O.; Appleby, S. K.; Stammer, J. G.

    2009-05-01

    Peridotitic and eclogitic garnets are a fundamental component in understanding mantle petrology, diamond petrogenesis, and the ascent of mantle materials in kimberlites. They are also critical in exploration programs, as the presence of mantle garnets at the earth's surface provides an indication of dispersion from a deeply derived magmatic carrier. The composition of these garnets further is used as an indicator of diamond prospectivity, on the basis of comparison with garnet compositions known to be in some degree of equilibrium with diamonds. For mantle xenoliths and kimberlites, optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis (EPMA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are the main tools used for understanding key mineralogical and textural variability relationships. Mineralogy and texture reflect diamond genesis, metasomatic alteration, fluid migration and manifestation, volcanological processes, peridotite disaggregation, and other manifestations of mantle processes that are observable, describable, and applicable in exploration and mining. Mineralogy and texture studies lead to further questions that are better addressed by higher resolution chemical analysis of isotopes and rare earth elements, or luminescence. Understanding mineralogical and textural variability is the primary geological input for geometallurgy (geomet), the field integrating the earth sciences with the extractive industries. The framework for geomet encompasses geology, mineralogy, deposit modeling and extraction methods for the optimum value return of resources, and it relies on the fact that the mineralogy and texture of rocks influence subsequent interpretation and downstream applications. Developments in this area have been made possible by the new generation of high-speed SEM-based quantitative mineralogical instruments, enabling the statistical assessment of thousands of grains or particles, or samples, and their application to models for exploration, ore deposits, or geomet

  6. Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2002-08-01

    This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

  7. Advancing Understanding of the Characteristics and Capacity of African American Women Who Serve as Lay Health Advisors in Community-Based Settings.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Rachel C; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S; Erwin, Deborah O

    2017-02-01

    Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This article seeks to address this gap by describing the characteristics and capacity of a sample of 76 female African American LHAs from a nationally disseminated evidence-based LHA program for breast and cervical cancer screening (The National Witness Project), as well as potential differences between cancer survivors and nonsurvivors who serve as LHAs. A conceptual model for understanding LHA capacity and contributions in underserved communities at the individual, social, and organizational levels is presented. We describe LHA experiences and characteristics (e.g., experiences of mistrust and discrimination, racial pride, sociodemographics), capacity at the individual level (e.g., psychological and physical health, health behaviors), capacity at the social level (e.g., social networks, social support), and capacity at the organizational level (e.g., role-related competencies, self-efficacy, leadership, role benefits/challenges). Data were obtained through interview-administered telephone surveys between 2010 and 2011. Findings highlight the critical capacity that LHAs bring to their communities and the importance of supporting LHAs to sustain these programs and to address racial/ethnic health disparities.

  8. Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

  9. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, th Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and grou handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  10. Flight and Integrated Vehicle Testing: Laying the Groundwork for the Next Generation of Space Exploration Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. L.; Cockrell, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated vehicle testing will be critical to ensuring proper vehicle integration of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Ares Projects, based at Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama, created the Flight and Integrated Test Office (FITO) as a separate team to ensure that testing is an integral part of the vehicle development process. As its name indicates, FITO is responsible for managing flight testing for the Ares vehicles. FITO personnel are well on the way toward assembling and flying the first flight test vehicle of Ares I, the Ares I-X. This suborbital development flight will evaluate the performance of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation, testing flight control algorithms, vehicle roll control, separation and recovery systems, and ground operations. Ares I-X is now scheduled to fly in summer 2009. The follow-on flight, Ares I-Y, will test a full five-segment first stage booster and will include cryogenic propellants in the upper stage, an upper stage engine simulator, and an active launch abort system. The following flight, Orion 1, will be the first flight of an active upper stage and upper stage engine, as well as the first uncrewed flight of an Orion spacecraft into orbit. The Ares Projects are using an incremental buildup of flight capabilities prior to the first operational crewed flight of Ares I and the Orion crew exploration vehicle in 2015. In addition to flight testing, the FITO team will be responsible for conducting hardware, software, and ground vibration tests of the integrated launch vehicle. These efforts will include verifying hardware, software, and ground handling interfaces. Through flight and integrated testing, the Ares Projects will identify and mitigate risks early as the United States prepares to take its next giant leaps to the Moon and beyond.

  11. Exploring Elementary Students' Understanding of Energy and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin

    2008-01-01

    As environmental changes become a significant societal issue, elementary science curricula need to develop students' understanding about the key concepts of energy and climate change. For teachers, developing quality learning experiences involves establishing what their students' prior understanding about energy and climate change are. A survey…

  12. Exploring Preservice Teachers' Emerging Understandings of Disciplinary Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Avis M.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative inquiry examined 14 secondary preservice teachers' emerging understandings of disciplinary literacy. Data included preservice teachers' written reflections and annotated lesson plans, which were analyzed for understanding of discipline-specific habits of thinking, texts, reading and writing demands of academic texts, language and…

  13. Mixed-methods exploration of parents' health information understanding.

    PubMed

    Lehna, Carlee; McNeil, Jack

    2008-05-01

    Health literacy--the ability to read, understand, and use health information to make health care decisions--affects health care outcomes, hospitalization costs, and readmission. The purpose of this exploratory mixed-methods study is to determine how two different parent groups (English speaking and Spanish speaking) understand medical care for their children and the procedural and research consent forms required by that care. Quantitative and qualitative data are gathered and compared concurrently. Differences between groups are found in age, grade completed, Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults scores, and ways of understanding health information. Identifying how parents understand health information is the first step in providing effective family-centered health care education.

  14. Exploring the Role of Context in Students' Understanding of Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline R.; McGowan, Herle M.; Weiss, Leigh V.; Cope, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Context provides meaning for data analysis and the evaluation of evidence but may be distracting to students. This research explores the role of context in students' reasoning about sampling: specifically, the relationship between the strength of students' opinions about a topic, which provides the context for a study, and their ability to judge…

  15. Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzu-Bin; Li, Jen-Yi; Deng, Feng; Lee, Ling

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of new media technologies, the role of media in a society has been changed that leads researchers to re-construct the meaning of literacy from classic literacy to new media literacy. There have been continuing efforts to understand new media and promote the importance of becoming new media literate among researchers, educators,…

  16. Exploring Student Beliefs and Understanding in Elementary Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.; Baxter, Juliet A.

    2012-01-01

    This study had the goal of investigating the association among elementary students' (N = 276) science and math beliefs and the relationship between those beliefs and teachers' ratings of mathematical and science understanding. Results of structural path analysis indicate that in science, intellectual risk-taking (IRT; the willingness to share…

  17. Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Pupils' Understanding of Digestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The…

  18. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  19. Primary Students' Understanding of Tessellation: An Initial Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callingham, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Tessellation is included in many mathematics curricula as one way of developing spatial ideas. If students do not understand tessellation in the intended ways, however, the development of other spatial ideas, such as properties of shapes and symmetry, may be compromised. Van Hiele levels were used as a basis for analysing the descriptions of eight…

  20. Exploring and Understanding the Biochemical Diversity of the Human Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Nitzan; Balskus, Emily P

    2016-01-21

    Recent studies have illuminated a remarkable diversity and abundance of microbes living on and within the human body. While we are beginning to appreciate associations of certain bacteria and genes with particular host physiological states, considerable information is lacking about the relevant functional activities of the human microbiota. The human gut microbiome encodes tremendous potential for the biosynthesis and transformation of compounds that are important for both microbial and host physiology. Implementation of chemical knowledge and techniques will be required to improve our understanding of the biochemical diversity of the human microbiota. Such efforts include the characterization of novel microbial enzymes and pathways, isolation of microbial natural products, and development of tools to modulate biochemical functions of the gut microbiota. Ultimately, a molecular understanding of gut microbial activities will be critical for elucidating and manipulating these organisms' contributions to human health and disease.

  1. Advancing Understanding of the Characteristics and Capacity of African American Women Who Serve as Lay Health Advisors in Community-Based Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Dunston, Sheba King; Leoce, Nicole; Jandorf, Lina; Thompson, Hayley S.; Erwin, Deborah O.

    2017-01-01

    Lay Health Advisor (LHA) programs hold tremendous promise for reducing health disparities and addressing social determinants of health in medically underserved communities, including African American populations. Very little is understood about the capacity of LHAs in these roles and the broader contributions they make to their communities. This…

  2. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific principles: conservation of matter, conservation of energy, and the hierarchical nature of biological systems. Data on students' responses to the cluster items and uses of some of the questions in multiple-choice, multiple-true/false, and essay formats are compared. A cross-over study indicates that the multiple-true/false format shows promise as a machine-gradable format that identifies students who have a mixture of accurate and inaccurate ideas. In addition, interviews with students about their choices on three multiple-choice questions reveal the fragility of students' understanding. Collectively, the data show that many undergraduates lack both a basic understanding of the role of photosynthesis in plant metabolism and the ability to reason with scientific principles when learning new content. Implications for instruction are discussed. PMID:22383617

  3. Exploring Turkish upper primary level pupils' understanding of digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakici, Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a study of Turkish children's understanding of digestion in Grades 4 and 5 (ages 10-11). Data collection was carried out through the use of an open-ended questionnaire administered to 283 children in three Turkish primary schools. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 30 children in Grade 4 and 72 children in Grade 5. The most significant finding was the children's conception of the digestive process as 'melting of foods' rather than 'breaking foods down'. Some other children considered digestion to be a filtering process that is performed by the stomach in order to separate the useful and waste parts of food. These views 'melting of foods' and 'filtering of foods' have not been mentioned in the literature previously. The study revealed that social influences and everyday language had an important impact on children's learning of the digestive process.

  4. Exploring senior nurses' understanding of compassionate leadership in the community.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sulekha; Terry, Louise

    2017-02-02

    Developing compassionate leadership is a priority since high profile failings in older people care have come to light. Little is known regarding how compassionate leadership is perceived in community health care organisations. The aim was to understand how leaders and senior staff within a Community NHS Trust perceive compassionate leadership and its importance. This qualitative study employed semi-structured, audio-recorded interviews analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Purposive sampling was used to recruit nursing leaders (n=11) within one Community NHS Trust. Leading and caring with compassion are particularly important in the community. Compassionate leadership involves role modelling, person-centred care and compassion towards staff not just patients. A concept of 'gritty compassion' was identified which could lead to a loss of compassion. Community organisations need compassionate leaders who lead with their heads and their hearts and ensure that patients, clients and families feel cared for not merely treated.

  5. Understanding Words, Understanding Numbers: An Exploration of the Mathematical Profiles of Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor comprehenders are children who show significant deficits in their reading comprehension performance, despite average, or above-average word reading ability. To date, there have been no in-depth studies of the mathematical performance profiles of such children. Aims: This study aimed to explore the mathematical profiles of poor…

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Resistance and Perspectival Understanding in Computer-Mediated Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, SoonAh; Song, Kwangok

    2016-01-01

    This discourse analytic study explored the interconnection between resistance and perspectival understanding when students negotiated and constructed understandings in computer-mediated discussions in a graduate level course on the psychology of learning. Findings showed that resistance expressions often accompanied perspectival understanding as…

  7. An Exploration of Young Children's Understandings of Genetics Concepts from Ontological and Epistemological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady; Gribble, Susan J.; Donovan, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This research examined 9- to 15-year-old children's understandings about basic genetics concepts and how they integrated those understandings with their broader theories of biology. A cross-sectional case study method was used to explore the students' (n = 90) understandings of basic inheritance and molecular genetics concepts such as gene and…

  8. The Struggle to Understand: Exploring Medical Students' Experiences of Learning and Understanding during a Basic Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weurlander, Maria; Scheja, Max; Hult, Håkan; Wernerson, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research reported in this paper was to explore students' "journey" towards conceptual understanding during an undergraduate course. The task that medical students face--to learn a substantial quantity of detailed knowledge and integrate into a coherent whole in a limited time frame--is demanding. Seven students were…

  9. Exploring Students' Understanding of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Computer Algebraic System (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maat, Siti Mistima; Zakaria, Effandi

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are one of the important topics in engineering mathematics that lead to the understanding of technical concepts among students. This study was conducted to explore the students' understanding of ODEs when they solve ODE questions using a traditional method as well as a computer algebraic system, particularly…

  10. Markov Processes: Exploring the Use of Dynamic Visualizations to Enhance Student Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfannkuch, Maxine; Budgett, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to enhance introductory students' understanding of probability ideas and theory is a goal of many first-year probability courses. In this article, we explore the potential of a prototype tool for Markov processes using dynamic visualizations to develop in students a deeper understanding of the equilibrium and hitting times…

  11. An exploration of young children's understandings of genetics concepts from ontological and epistemological perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady; Gribble, Susan J.; Donovan, Jennifer

    2005-07-01

    This research examined 9- to 15-year-old children's understandings about basic genetics concepts and how they integrated those understandings with their broader theories of biology. A cross-sectional case study method was used to explore the students' (n = 90) understandings of basic inheritance and molecular genetics concepts such as gene and DNA. Data were collected by interview and were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. A theoretical framework consisting of an ontological perspective and an epistemological perspective informed the data analysis. The results indicate that the majority of students had a theory of kinship because they could differentiate between socially and genetically inherited characteristics. While these students had heard of the concepts gene and DNA, a bona fide theory of genetics was elusive because they did not know where genes are or what they do. The discussion explores popular cultural origins of students' understandings and potential ontological and epistemological barriers to further learning about genetics.

  12. Exploring Positioning as an Analytical Tool for Understanding Becoming Mathematics Teachers' Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject…

  13. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance…

  14. Exploring the Effectiveness of a Measurement Error Tutorial in Helping Teachers Understand Score Report Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Zwick, Rebecca; Vezzu, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a short web-based tutorial in helping teachers to better understand the portrayal of measurement error in test score reports. The short video tutorial included both verbal and graphical representations of measurement error. Results showed a significant difference in comprehension scores…

  15. Understanding Ozone: Exploring the Good and Bad Facets of a Famous Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1995-01-01

    Presents activities that help students distinguish between the beneficial layer of stratospheric ozone and the dangerous ground-level or tropospheric ozone, understand the chemical processes of ozone breakdown in the stratosphere, find the sources of ground-level ozone, and explore the differences in the patterns of ozone concentration over the…

  16. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  17. A qualitative exploration into young children's perspectives and understandings of emotional difficulties in other children.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Clare; Murray, Craig; Daiches, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Research into children's perspectives and understandings of emotional difficulties is limited and methodologically varied. In this paper we explore young children's perspectives and understandings of emotional difficulties in their peers. We conducted five focus groups involving a total of 25 children. The children, aged eight and nine, were presented with vignettes representing peers experiencing emotional difficulties, and invited to discuss their perspectives on possible causes. We also explored their emotional and behavioural reactions to the vignette characters. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis we identified three themes: Searching for an Explanation; Empathy versus Blame; and Consequences and Solutions. The children drew on their own emotional experiences in their sense-making, and the extent to which they held the character responsible for their behaviour was particularly important in influencing their responses towards the characters.

  18. Meaningful Understanding and Systems Thinking in Organic Chemistry: Validating Measurement and Exploring Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was dual: First, to develop and validate assessment schemes for assessing 11th grade students' meaningful understanding of organic chemistry concepts, as well as their systems thinking skills in the domain. Second, to explore the relationship between the two constructs of interest based on students' performance on the applied assessment framework. For this purpose, (a) various types of objective assessment questions were developed and evaluated for assessing meaningful understanding, (b) a specific type of systemic assessment questions (SAQs) was developed and evaluated for assessing systems thinking skills, and (c) the association between students' responses on the applied assessment schemes was explored. The results indicated that properly designed objective questions can effectively capture aspects of students' meaningful understanding. It was also found that the SAQs can elicit systems thinking skills in the context of a formalistic systems thinking theoretical approach. Moreover, a significant relationship was observed between students' responses on the two assessment strategies. This research provides evidence that students' systems thinking level within a science domain is significantly related to their meaningful understanding of relative science concepts.

  19. Assessing Age-Related Ossification of the Petro-Occipital Fissure: Laying the Foundation for Understanding the Clinicopathologies of the Cranial Base

    PubMed Central

    BALBONI, ARMAND L.; ESTENSON, THOMAS L.; REIDENBERG, JOY S.; BERGEMANN, ANDREW D.; LAITMAN, JEFFREY T.

    2005-01-01

    The petro-occitpital fissure (POF) lies within a critical interface of cranial growth and development in the posterior cranial fossa. The relationships between skeletal and soft tissues make this region especially important for examining biomechanical and basic biologic forces that may mold the cranial base and contribute to significant clinicopathologies associated with the structures located near the POF. Therefore, this study investigates the POF in adults in both preserved human cadavers and dried crania in order to determine if developmental changes can be observed and, if so, their value in age assessment as a model system for describing normal morphogenesis of the POF. This study demonstrates that tissue within the POF undergoes characteristic changes in ossification with age, the onset of which is considerably later than that of other synchondroses of the cranial base. Statistically, there is a moderate to strong correlation between age and stage of ossification within the POF. Further, male crania were observed to reach greater degrees of ossification at a younger age than female crania and that individual asymmetry in ossification of the tissue within the POF was not uncommon. An understanding of the basic temporal biological processes of the POF may yield insight into the development of clinicopathologies in this region of the cranial base. PMID:15584035

  20. Dual Processing and Discourse Space: Exploring Fifth Grade Students' Language, Reasoning, and Understanding through Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in…

  1. Exploring positioning as an analytical tool for understanding becoming mathematics teachers' identities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skog, Kicki; Andersson, Annica

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how a sociopolitical analysis can contribute to a deeper understanding of critical aspects for becoming primary mathematics teachers' identities during teacher education. The question we ask is the following: How may power relations in university settings affect becoming mathematics teachers' subject positioning? We elaborate on the elusive and interrelated concepts of identity, positioning and power, seen as dynamic and changeable. As these concepts represent three interconnected parts of research analysis in an on-going larger project data from different sources will be used in this illustration. In this paper, we clarify the theoretical stance, ground the concepts historically and strive to connect them to research analysis. In this way, we show that power relations and subject positioning in social settings are critical aspects and need to be taken seriously into account if we aim at understanding becoming teachers' identities.

  2. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse

  3. Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: Overview of current understanding, outstanding problems, future research, and exploration significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Robert, F.; Hart, C.J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Metamorphic belts are complex regions where accretion or collision has added to, or thickened, continental crust. Gold-rich deposits can be formed at all stages of orogen evolution, so that evolving metamorphic belts contain diverse gold deposit types that may be juxtaposed or overprint each other. This partly explains the high level of controversy on the origin of some deposit types, particularly those formed or overprinted/remobilized during the major compressional orogeny that shaped the final geometry of the hosting metamorphic belts. These include gold-dominated orogenic and intrusion-related deposits, but also particularly controversial gold deposits with atypical metal associations. There are a number of outstanding problems for all types of gold deposits in metamorphc belts. These include the following: (1) definitive classifications, (2) unequivocal recognition of fluid and metal sources, (3) understanding of fluid migration and focusing at all scales, (4) resolution of the precise role of granitoid magmatism, (5) precise gold-depositional mechanisms, particularly those producing high gold grades, and (6) understanding of the release of CO2-rich fluids from subducting slabs and subcreted oceanic crust and granitoid magmas at different crustal levels. Research needs to be better coordinated and more integrated, such that detailed fluid-inclusion, trace-element, and isotopic studies of both gold deposits and potential source rocks, using cutting-edge technology, are embedded in a firm geological framework at terrane to deposit scales. Ultimately, four-dimensional models need to be developed, involving high-quality, three-dimensional geological data combined with integrated chemical and fluid-flow modeling, to understand the total history of the hydrothermal systems involved. Such research, particularly that which can predict superior targets visible in data sets available to exploration companies before discovery, has obvious spin-offs for global- to deposit

  4. Condemning violence without rejecting sexism? Exploring how young men understand intimate partner violence in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767

  5. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-10-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them experiment, science fair, and hypothesis, is used to probe the students' knowledge structures. Students from grades four, five, and eight, as well as first-year college students were tested to reveal their knowledge structures relating to the scientific method. Younger students were found to have a naïve view of the science process with little understanding of how science relates to the real world. However, students' conceptions about the scientific process appear to be malleable, with science fairs a potentially strong influencer. The strength of associations between words is observed to change from grade to grade, with younger students placing science fair near the center of their knowledge structure regarding the scientific method, whereas older students conceptualize the scientific method around experiment.

  6. A New Phase of Exploration and Understanding: Planning for The International Polar Year - 2007/2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapley, C.; Bell, R.

    2004-05-01

    Planning is underway for an International Polar Year in 2007-2008. (IPY 2007/8) which will be a significant research opportunity to further our understanding of polar regions and polar processes. The International Polar Year has the potential to capture the public's imagination and convey the crucial role that the polar regions play in global systems. IPY 2007/8 will be an international programme of coordinated, interdisciplinary, scientific research in the Earth's polar regions to explore new frontiers, to increase our ability to detect changes at the Earth's poles and to deepen our understanding of polar processes and their global linkages. A crucial component of the IPY 2007/8 will be to attract and develop the next generation of polar scientists, engineers and leaders and to capture the interest of the public and decision-makers. The vision is for many nations to work together to gain holistic insights into planetary processes, targeted at exploring and increasing our understanding of the poles and their role in the global system. The concept of an International Polar Year 2007/8 has been endorsed and advanced by a broad range of global and polar research groups both internationally and nationally. To date 18 nations have formed national committees who are coordinating IPY activities nationally. The International Council for Science (ICSU) formed an International Polar Year Planning Group (IPY-PG) to stimulate, encourage and organize a debate on the International Polar Year 2007/8, formulate a set of objectives and develop a high level Science Plan. The Planning Group has sought input from the international science community and to date has received 138 ideas from over 22 nations. This input from the international community covers both poles, global processes and a diverse spectrum of disciplines. To date the input from the science community has identified key questions and proposed projects within the three major themes proposed by the ICSU IPY Planning Group

  7. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-12-01

    Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which has been only scarcely explored in the science education literature. A four-tier diagnostic instrument was used. The instrument comprises 25 questions, and each question has an answer tier, a confidence rating for this tier, a reason tier and a confidence rating for this tier. Versions of the instrument were refined iteratively during the preliminary and pilot phases of the study. This study reports on the results obtained from the main phase of the study, using a sample of 140 students. Overall, the diagnostic test was difficult for the students. The students had a mean score of 38 %, based on correct responses for both answer and reason tiers for the questions. It was accompanied by a mean confidence of only 3.49 out of 6 (that is, 58.2 %) for the whole test. The results indicate that transition metals chemistry is a difficult topic for the students. Twenty-four alternative conceptions have been identified in this study, including some indication of their strengths. Some implications of the study are discussed.

  8. An Exploration of Teachers' Efforts to Understand Identity Work and its Relevance to Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. Cecil; Darfler, Anne

    2012-06-01

    US educators express concern that students are turning away from the study of science and have little interest in pursuing science careers. Nationally, science achievement scores for 8th graders are unchanged since 1996, but 12th graders' scores have significantly decreased. A shortcoming of education reform efforts is lack of attention to students' developmental needs. Science study should enable students to learn about themselves—to develop and refine their skills, define their values, explore personal interests, and understand the importance of science to themselves and others. Effective secondary science instruction requires attention to students' identity development—the key developmental task of adolescence. Secondary science teachers participated in an 8-week course focused on understanding adolescent identity development and methods for addressing identity. Transcripts of the teachers' online discussions of salient issues were analyzed to determine their perceptions regarding classroom identity work. Teachers identified several assets and obstacles to identity work that were organized into two broad categories: teacher knowledge, training opportunities, and administrative support, or lack of these; and, presence of inflexible curricula, standardized testing regimes, and increased teacher accountability. Implications for student growth and science teacher professional development are discussed.

  9. Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxkemper, Andra C.; Hartfiel, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    There is no common agreement on the meaning of the word "understand". However, there is agreement on what students should be able to do with material they understand. Bloom et al. discuss kinds of tasks a student should be able to do, provided that the student understands. In a similar way, Biggs and Collis provide a taxonomy intended to evaluate…

  10. An exploration of middle school science teachers' understandings and teaching practice of science as inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castle, Margaret Ann

    understanding of science increases (Akkus, Gunel & Hand, 2007; Gibson, 2002; Liu, Lee & Linn, 2010). As a result, it is important to explore middle school science teachers' definition of science as inquiry because of its importance in how their understandings are reflected in their practice. Researchers must witness, first- hand, what is taking place in middle school science classrooms with respect to the teaching of scientific inquiry before recommendations for improvements can be made. We must also allow opportunities for middle school science teachers to broach, examine, explore, interpret and report implementation strategies when practicing the elements of scientific inquiry as a science content area. It then stands to reason that more research needs to be done to: (1) assess teachers' knowledge related to reform-based teaching, (2) investigate teachers' views about the goals and purposes of inquiry, and (3) investigate the processes by which teachers carry out SI and motivation for undertaking such a complex and difficult to manage form of instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine middle school science teachers' understandings and skills related to scientific inquiry; how those understandings and skills were translated into classroom practice, and the role the school district played in the development of such understandings and skills.

  11. Understanding Divergent Evolution Among Earth-like Planets, the Case for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.

    2001-11-01

    Venus was once considered to be Earth's twin because of its similar size, mass, and solar distance. Prevailing theories early in the 20th century alternately characterized it as a hot, lifeless desert or a cool, habitable swamp. Venus was therefore the target of intense scrutiny during the first three decades of the space age. Those studies found that although Venus and Earth apparently formed in similar parts of the solar nebula, sharing common inventories of refractory and volatile constituents, these two planets followed dramatically different evolutionary paths. While the Earth evolved into the only known oasis for life, Venus developed an almost unimaginably inhospitable environment for such an Earth-like planet. Some features of Venus can be understood as products of its location in the solar system, but other properties and processes governing the evolution and present state of its interior, surface, and climate remain mysterious or even contradictory. A more comprehensive understanding of these factors is clearly essential as NASA embarks on efforts to detect and then characterize Earth-like planets in other solar systems. As part of the National Research Council's effort to identify themes and priorities for solar system exploration over the next decade, an open community panel was formed to provide input on future Venus exploration. A comprehensive investigation of the processes driving the divergent evolution of Venus is emerging as the primary focus. In other words, why is Venus a failed Earth? From this theme, we will define specific measurement objectives, instrument requirements, and mission requirements. Priorities will then be based on a number of factors including the needs for simultaneous or correlative measurements, technology readiness, and available opportunities.

  12. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  13. The GPS Analysis Package for Exploration and Understanding of Geodetic Sensor Web Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granat, R. A.; Moghaddam, B.; Donnellan, A.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce the GPS Analysis Package (GAP), a Matlab toolbox for GPS data exploration and understanding. The toolbox is designed to support scientists and engineers studying the motion of the solid Earth both in an academic environment and in the course of NASA missions such as UAVSAR and future InSAR satellite missions. It includes an ensemble of low-level routines to perform basic signal processing operations, such as removal of secular motion, de-noising, and removal of seasonal signals. It also includes a suite of more sophisticated statistical pattern recognition techniques, including hidden Markov models and Bayes nets, to detect changes, identify transient signals, understand regional motion, and uncover relationships between geographically removed nodes in the GPS network. Finally, it provides an assortment of methods for estimating missing observations in the network. We provide usage examples of the package applied to particular scenarios, including the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and ongoing slow slip events in the Cascadia region. We also demonstrate the utility of the package within a web portal and web services environment by showcasing its use in the QuakeSim web portal. The QuakeSim portal allows easy access to GPS data sources provided by multiple institutions as well as a map and plotting interface to quickly assess analysis results. Finally, we show the extensibility of the package to other problem domains and sensor network data sources, demonstrating the analysis tools as applied to seismic network data, autonomous robotic navigation, and fault detection in engineering data streams from the International Space Station.

  14. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  15. Lay perspectives on lay health worker roles, boundaries and participation within three UK community-based health promotion projects.

    PubMed

    South, J; Kinsella, K; Meah, A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines lay interpretations of lay health worker roles within three UK community-based health promotion projects. It argues that understanding lay health worker roles requires critical analysis of the complex interrelationships between professionals, lay workers and the communities receiving a programme. Findings are presented that are drawn from a qualitative study of lay engagement in public health programme delivery where a key objective was to examine the perspectives of community members with the experience of receiving services delivered by lay health workers. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 46 programme recipients from three case study projects; a breastfeeding peer support service, a walking for health scheme and a neighbourhood health project. The results show how participants interpreted the function and responsibilities of lay health workers and how those roles provided personalized support and facilitated engagement in group activities. Further insights into community participation processes are provided revealing the potential for active engagement in both formal and informal roles. The paper concludes that social relationships are core to understanding lay health worker programmes and therefore analysis needs to take account of the capacity for community members to move within a spectrum of participation defined by increasing responsibility for others.

  16. Toward understanding life under subzero conditions: the significance of exploring psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Emanuele

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the behavior of proteins under freezing conditions is vital for detecting and locating extraterrestrial life in cold environments, such as those found on Mars and the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. This review highlights the importance of studying psychrophilic "cold-shock" proteins, a topic that has yet to be explored. A strategy for analyzing the psychrophilic RNA helicase protein CsdA (Psyc_1082) from Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4 as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures is proposed. The experimental model presented here was developed based on previous data from investigations of Escherichia coli, P. arcticus 273-4, and RNA helicases. P. arcticus 273-4 is considered a model for life in freezing environments. It is capable of growing in temperatures as cold as -10°C by using physiological strategies to survive not only in freezing temperatures but also under low-water-activity and limited-nutrient-availability conditions. The analyses of its genome, transcriptome, and proteome revealed specific adaptations that allow it to inhabit freezing environments by adopting a slow metabolic strategy rather than a cellular dormancy state. During growth at subzero temperatures, P. arcticus 273-4 genes related to energy metabolism and carbon substrate incorporation are downregulated, and genes for maintenance of membranes, cell walls, and nucleic acid motion are upregulated. At -6°C, P. arcticus 273-4 does not upregulate the expression of either RNA or protein chaperones; however, it upregulates the expression of its cold-shock induced DEAD-box RNA helicase protein A (CsdA - Psyc_1082). CsdA - Psyc_1082 was investigated as a key helper protein for sustaining life in subzero conditions. Proving CsdA - Psyc_1082 to be functional as a key protein for life under freezing temperatures may extend the known minimum growth temperature of a mesophilic cell and provide key information about the mechanisms that underlie cold-induced biological systems in

  17. Using Rasch Modeling to Explore Students' Understanding of Elementary School Ideas about Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann Abell, Cari F.; DeBoer, George E.

    2015-01-01

    Energy plays a central role in our society, so it is essential that all citizens understand what energy is and how it moves and changes form. However, research has shown that students of all ages have difficulty understanding these abstract concepts. This paper presents a summary of elementary, middle, and high school students' understanding of…

  18. Automated Tape Laying Machine for Composite Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The invention comprises an automated tape laying machine, for laying tape on a composite structure. The tape laying machine has a tape laying head...neatly cut. The automated tape laying device utilizes narrow width tape to increase machine flexibility and reduce wastage.

  19. A Notional Example of Understanding Human Exploration Traverses on the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, John

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Gruener received an M.S. in physical science, with an emphasis in planetary geology, from the University of Houston-Clear Lake in 1994. He then began working with NASA JSC.s Solar System Exploration Division on the development of prototype planetary science instruments, the development of a mineral-based substrate for nutrient delivery to plant growth systems in bio-regenerative life support systems, and in support of the Mars Exploration Rover missions in rock and mineral identification. In 2004, Mr. Gruener again participated in a renewed effort to plan and design missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. He participated in many exploration planning activities, including NASA.s Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Global Exploration Strategy Workshop, Lunar Architecture Team 1 and 2, Constellation Lunar Architecture Team, the Global Point of Departure Lunar Exploration Team, and the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture. Mr. Gruener has also been an active member of the science team supporting NASA.s Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS).

  20. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  1. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  2. Exploring Learners' Beliefs about Science Reading and Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, and Their Relations with Science Text Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects…

  3. The Visuo-Haptic and Haptic Exploration of Letters Increases the Kindergarten-Children's Understanding of the Alphabetic Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effect of incorporating a visuo-haptic and haptic (tactual-kinaesthetic) exploration of letters in a training designed to develop phonemic awareness, knowledge of letters and letter/sound correspondences, on 5-year-old children's understanding and use of the alphabetic principle. Three interventions, which differed in the…

  4. From Phenotype to Genotype: Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Genetic Inheritance in a Web-Based Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michelle; Montgomery, Beronda L.; Manokore, Viola

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that students face challenges as they learn about genetic inheritance. The challenges could emanate from the fact that genetic inheritance involves unseen processes at different organizational levels. We explored students' understanding of heredity and related concepts such as cells and reproduction using a Web-based Science Inquiry…

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

  6. "They Just Seem to Live Their Lives in Their Own Little World": Lay Perceptions of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, J. C.; Jones, R. S. P.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders is believed to be higher than that of other conditions, such as Down syndrome or diabetes, yet few studies have explored the ideas lay people have about autism. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how 10 lay people with no knowledge or experience of autism conceptualised autism.…

  7. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  8. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  9. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  10. Testing the Link Between Empathy and Lay Theories of Happiness.

    PubMed

    Tullett, Alexa M; Plaks, Jason E

    2016-09-20

    Happiness is a topic that ignites both considerable interest and considerable disagreement. Thus far, however, there has been little attempt to characterize people's lay theories about happiness or explore their consequences. We examined whether individual differences in lay theories of happiness would predict empathy. In Studies 1a and 1b, we validated the Lay Theories of Happiness Scale (LTHS), which includes three dimensions: flexibility, controllability, and locus. In Study 2, higher dispositional empathy was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, controllable, and internal. In Studies 3 and 4, higher empathy toward a specific target was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, uncontrollable, and external In conjunction, Studies 2, 3, and 4 provide evidence that trait and state empathy are separable and can have opposing relationships with people's lay theories. Overall, these findings highlight generalized beliefs that may guide empathic reactions to the unhappiness of others.

  11. Understanding "Together and Apart": A Case Study of Edward's Explorations at Nursery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Cath

    2009-01-01

    Edward was one of 58 children studied by workers and parents as part of a study on Well-being and Resilience at the Pen Green Nursery. Within the larger study, eight children were studied in greater depth in order to explore connections between cognitive and emotional development. Schematic theory and attachment theory were used as frameworks for…

  12. Understanding Vygotsky's Motive and Goal: An Exploration of the Work of A. N. Leontiev.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts work of Leontiev and Vygotsky. Suggests that Leontiev concentrated on social activity as a whole, whereas Vygotsky made semiotic mediation through culturally developed symbols a central aspect of his analysis. Maintains that they shared a philosophical base and that Leontiev used Vygotsky's ideas as a starting point to explore human…

  13. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-01-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them "experiment," "science fair," and "hypothesis," is used to probe the students' knowledge structures.…

  14. Understanding divergent evolution of Earth-like planets: the case for a Venus exploration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.

    2002-01-01

    Here, we propose a Venus exploration program designed to explain the origin and divergent evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in our solar system, and provide greater insight into the conditions that may affect the habitability of terrestrial planets in other solar systems.

  15. Mapping the Biosphere: exploring species to understand the origin, organization, and sustainability of biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The time is ripe for a comprehensive mission to explore and document Earth’s species. We conclude that a goal to describe 10 million new species in less than 50 years is attainable based on the strength of 250 years of progress, worldwide collections, existing experts, technological innovation, and...

  16. Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Susie

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

  17. Exploring Teachers' Informal Formative Assessment Practices and Students' Understanding in the Context of Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Furtak, Erin Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual…

  18. Designerly Ways to Theoretical Insight: Visualisation as a Means to Explore, Discuss and Understand Design Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Anne Louise; Friis, Silje Alberthe Kamille; Gelting, Anne Katrine Gøtzsche

    2015-01-01

    This paper set out to investigate "how design students learn from visualising theory in design education." The exploration rests on the assumption that the application of tools and techniques from design practice supports design students with an entrance to the theoretical part of the field. The paper is based on teaching experiences…

  19. Explorers, Detectives, Matchmakers, and Lion Tamers: Understanding Jigsaw Puzzlers' Techniques and Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Angela Cora

    2013-01-01

    Why do people enjoy jigsaw puzzles, which--challenging and time-consuming as they are--might be considered more like work than play? The author investigates the motivations, preferences, and satisfactions of individuals working on jigsaw puzzles, and she explores how these elements of play relate to the procedures and strategies puzzlers use to…

  20. Altered motor activity, exploration and anxiety in heterozygous neuregulin 1 mutant mice: implications for understanding schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Karl, T; Duffy, L; Scimone, A; Harvey, R P; Schofield, P R

    2007-10-01

    Human genetic studies have shown that neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Nrg1 influences various neurodevelopmental processes, which are potentially related to schizophrenia. The neurodevelopmental theory of schizophrenia suggests that interactions between genetic and environmental factors are responsible for biochemical alterations leading to schizophrenia. To investigate these interactions and to match experimental design with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we applied a comprehensive behavioural phenotyping strategy for motor activity, exploration and anxiety in a heterozygous Nrg1 transmembrane domain mutant mouse model (Nrg1 HET) using different housing conditions and age groups. We observed a locomotion- and exploration-related hyperactive phenotype in Nrg1 HETs. Increased age had a locomotion- and exploration-inhibiting effect, which was significantly attenuated in mutant mice. Environmental enrichment (EE) had a stimulating influence on locomotion and exploration. The impact of EE was more pronounced in Nrg1 hypomorphs. Our study also showed a moderate task-specific anxiolytic-like phenotype for Nrg1 HETs, which was influenced by external factors. The behavioural phenotype detected in heterozygous Nrg1 mutant mice is not specific to schizophrenia per se, but the increased sensitivity of mutant mice to exogenous factors is consistent with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the neurodevelopmental theory. Our findings reinforce the importance of carefully controlling experimental designs for external factors and of comprehensive, integrative phenotyping strategies. Thus, Nrg1 HETs may, in combination with other genetic and drug models, help to clarify pathophysiological mechanisms behind schizophrenia.

  1. Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Statistical Variation: Implications for Teaching and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sashi

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about the importance of variation in statistics education and a lack of research in this topic led to a preliminary study which explored pre-service teachers' ideas in this area. The teachers completed a written questionnaire about variation in sampling and distribution contexts. Responses were categorised in relation to a framework that…

  2. Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness.

    PubMed

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Brdar, Ingrid; Wissing, Marié P; Araujo, Ulisses; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Freire, Teresa; Hernández-Pozo, María Del Rocío; Jose, Paul; Martos, Tamás; Nafstad, Hilde E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Singh, Kamlesh; Soosai-Nathan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30-60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding.

  3. Lay Definitions of Happiness across Nations: The Primacy of Inner Harmony and Relational Connectedness

    PubMed Central

    Delle Fave, Antonella; Brdar, Ingrid; Wissing, Marié P.; Araujo, Ulisses; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Freire, Teresa; Hernández-Pozo, María Del Rocío; Jose, Paul; Martos, Tamás; Nafstad, Hilde E.; Nakamura, Jeanne; Singh, Kamlesh; Soosai-Nathan, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In well-being research the term happiness is often used as synonymous with life satisfaction. However, little is known about lay people's understanding of happiness. Building on the available literature, this study explored lay definitions of happiness across nations and cultural dimensions, analyzing their components and relationship with participants' demographic features. Participants were 2799 adults (age range = 30–60, 50% women) living in urban areas of Argentina, Brazil, Croatia, Hungary, India, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, and United States. They completed the Eudaimonic and Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI), reporting, among other information, their own definition of happiness. Answers comprised definitions referring to a broad range of life domains, covering both the contextual-social sphere and the psychological sphere. Across countries and with little variation by age and gender, inner harmony predominated among psychological definitions, and family and social relationships among contextual definitions. Whereas relationships are widely acknowledged as basic happiness components, inner harmony is substantially neglected. Nevertheless, its cross-national primacy, together with relations, is consistent with the view of an ontological interconnectedness characterizing living systems, shared by several conceptual frameworks across disciplines and cultures. At the methodological level, these findings suggest the potential of a bottom-up, mixed method approach to contextualize psychological dimensions within culture and lay understanding. PMID:26858677

  4. Using Hydrothermal Plumes and Their Chemical Composition to Identify and Understand Hydrothermal Activity at Explorer Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Lebon, G.; Baker, E.; Walker, S.; Nakamura, K.; Silvers, B.

    2002-12-01

    During June and July, 2002, an extensive survey of the hydrothermal systems of the Explorer Ridge was made aboard the R/V Thomas Thompson. This survey employed hydrocasts and the Autonomous Benthic Explorer (ABE) to locate and map hydrothermal vent fields. A total of 28 hydrocasts (17 verticals and 11 tow-yos) were used to search for hydrothermal activity from 49.5°N to 50.3°N on the Explorer Ridge. During the hydrocasts continuous measurements were made of conductivity, temperature, pressure, light backscatter, eH, Fe, Mn, and pH. Discrete samples were collected for total dissolved Fe and Mn, methane, pH, total CO2, and particulate matter. Most of the strong hydrothermal venting was near the Magic Mountain area of the Explorer Ridge at ~49.76° N, 130.26° W, where strong particulate backscatter signals (~0.130 NTUs) and moderate temperature anomalies (~ 0.05 °C) were detected. The particulate matter causing the backscatter was made up primarily of volatile particulate sulfur (PS) with little to no hydrothermal PFe. PS:PFe ratios exceeded 25 in the areas of most intense venting, . These PFe and PS data suggest that the hydrothermal Fe, if any, is deposited as sulfide minerals beneath the sea floor and that S is far in excess of Fe in the hydrothermal fluids. In the most intense plumes,total dissolvable Fe and Mn were between 20 and 30 nM, pH anomalies exceeded 0.025 pH units (indicating an increase of ~10uM CO2), and methane reached 16nM. These results suggest that the fluids exiting the sea floor are metal-poor and moderately gas-rich.

  5. Exploring Young Children's Understanding of Risks Associated with Internet Usage and Their Concepts of Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ey, Lesley-Anne; Cupit, C. Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The Internet provides remarkable opportunities for children's learning and development. Nevertheless, it is unregulated and hard to control, which potentially places children at risk of exploitation. This study examined five-eight-year-old children's understanding of dangers associated with the Internet, management strategies and sources of their…

  6. Exploring Secondary Students' Understanding of Chemical Kinetics through Inquiry-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chairam, Sanoe; Klahan, Nutsuda; Coll, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    This research is trying to evaluate the feedback of Thai secondary school students to inquiry-based teaching and learning methods, exemplified by the study of chemical kinetics. This work used the multiple-choice questions, scientifically practical diagram and questionnaire to assess students' understanding of chemical kinetics. The findings…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Physics-Related Epistemological Beliefs and Physics Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulou, Christina; Vosniadou, Stella

    2007-01-01

    Three studies are reported that investigated the relationship between secondary school students' physics-related epistemological beliefs and physics conceptual understanding. Study 1 involved the development of a Greek Epistemological Beliefs Evaluation Instrument for Physics (GEBEP) which was administered to 394 students (10th graders). Study 2…

  8. Case Studies of Teachers' Understandings of the Pedagogy of Classroom Talk: Some Critical Moments Explored

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coultas, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    This case study research is informed by Vygotsky's view that talk is essential to organise our thoughts and extend our thinking and that, as Barnes suggested, the teacher needs to use the social situation effectively in the classroom to promote talk for learning. This article focuses on pedagogy and teachers' understandings of how talk works in…

  9. Exploring Children's Understanding of Death: Through Drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The…

  10. Exploring the Impact of Argumentation on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Dogan, Alev

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of argumentation on pre-service science teachers' (PST) conceptual understanding of chemical equilibrium. The sample consisted of 57 first-year PSTs enrolled in a teacher education program in Turkey. Thirty two of the 57 PSTs who participated in this study were in the experimental group and 25 in the control group.…

  11. Increasing Understanding and Social Acceptance of Individuals with Disabilities through Exploration of Comics Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…

  12. Exploring the Use of Concept Chains to Structure Teacher Trainees' Understanding of Science. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key…

  13. Exploring the Use of Concept Chains to Structure Teacher Trainees' Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key…

  14. Exploring Students' Understanding of Electrochemical Cells Using an Enhanced Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Adrian Sin Loy; Subramaniam, R.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of two-tier multiple-choice questions has permitted the diagnosis of students' understanding on various topics in the sciences as well as helped to ascertain the alternative conceptions they have. A limitation of two-tier diagnostic instruments that has been noted in the literature, but which has not been…

  15. Maltreated Children's Social Understanding and Empathy: A Preliminary Exploration of Foster Carers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Nikki; Banerjee, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that parental abuse and neglect can have adverse effects on children's peer relationships and self-perceptions. Emerging theoretical and empirical work suggests that children's social understanding and empathy could play a key role as mediators of these effects, but we have little knowledge about the viability of such a…

  16. Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freidenreich, Hava Bresler; Duncan, Ravit Golan; Shea, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc.…

  17. Exploring Novel Tools for Assessing High School Students' Meaningful Understanding of Organic Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachliotis, Theodoros; Salta, Katerina; Vasiliou, Petroula; Tzougraki, Chryssa

    2011-01-01

    Systemic assessment questions (SAQs) are novel assessment tools used in the context of the Systemic Approach to Teaching and Learning (SATL) model. The purpose of this model is to enhance students' meaningful understanding of scientific concepts by use of constructivist concept mapping procedures, which emphasize the development of systems…

  18. Teaching Games and Sport for Understanding: Exploring and Reconsidering its Relevance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven; Pill, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Over 30 years ago the original teaching games for understanding (TGfU) proposition was published in a special edition of the Bulletin of Physical Education (Bunker and Thorpe, 1982). In that time TGfU has attracted significant attention from a theoretical and pedagogical perspective as an improved approach to games and sport teaching in physical…

  19. Teachers Who Support Reggio--Exploring Their Understandings of the Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardzejewska, Kathie; Coutts, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that for an educational innovation to be successful it needs to be more than a good idea--success requires an understanding of how change is implemented. Reggio, a widely-applied, innovative philosophy in early childhood settings, has some support in primary schools. Yet there is very little research to guide primary…

  20. An Epistemological Inquiry into Organic Chemistry Education: Exploration of Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…

  1. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  2. Exploring Middle School Students' Understanding of Three Conceptual Models in Genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler Freidenreich, Hava; Golan Duncan, Ravit; Shea, Nicole

    2011-11-01

    Genetics is the cornerstone of modern biology and a critical aspect of scientific literacy. Research has shown, however, that many high school graduates lack fundamental understandings in genetics necessary to make informed decisions about issues and emerging technologies in this domain, such as genetic screening, genetically modified foods, etc. Genetic literacy entails understanding three interrelated models: a genetic model that describes patterns of genetic inheritance, a meiotic model that describes the process by which genes are segregated into sex cells, and a molecular model that describes the mechanisms that link genotypes to phenotypes within an individual. Currently, much of genetics instruction, especially in terms of the molecular model, occurs at the high school level, and we know little about the ways in which middle school students can reason about these models. Furthermore, we do not know the extent to which carefully designed instruction can help younger students develop coherent and interrelated understandings in genetics. In this paper, we discuss a research study aimed at elucidating middle school students' abilities to reason about the three genetic models. As part of our research, we designed an eight-week inquiry unit that was implemented in a combined sixth- to eighth-grade science classroom. We describe our instructional design and report results based on an analysis of written assessments, clinical interviews, and artifacts of the unit. Our findings suggest that middle school students are able to successfully reason about all three genetic models.

  3. Lay theories of heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Thomson, L

    1996-07-01

    This study examined the structure and determinants of lay people's implicit theories of heroin addiction. A questionnaire was derived from interviews with lay people about their beliefs and theories of heroin addiction and academic literature on the subject. One hundred and forty-four subjects completed the questionnaire, in which they rated 105 statements about the causes, correlates and cures of heroin addiction. The three parts of the questionnaire were individually factor analyzed and a clear, interpretable factor structure emerged for each. The factors seemed similar to explicit academic theories, but the exception was beliefs about cure, which did not show overall support for the most clinically used models. When the three factor analyses were combined into a single 'higher-order' factor analysis four factors emerged, labelled moralistic, psychosocial, sociocultural and drug treatment, which reflect more or less coherent views on the nature of heroin addiction. Subjects' political beliefs was the greatest (demographic and attitudinal) determinant of lay beliefs in these factors, with experience of addiction, addicts, drugs and age also highly correlated. Vote was the main determinant and best predictor of the four 'higher-order' structured lay theories: right-wing voters emphasizing moralistic and individualistic theory and left-wing voters supporting the psychological and societal ideas. Implications for policy and interventions to addicts of these lay theories are considered.

  4. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  5. "Hello, hello--it's English I speak!": a qualitative exploration of patients' understanding of the science of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stead, M; Eadie, D; Gordon, D; Angus, K

    2005-11-01

    Informed consent may be seriously compromised if patients fail to understand the experimental nature of the trial in which they are participating. Using focus groups, the authors explored how prospective trial participants interpret and understand the science of clinical trials by using patient information sheets relative to their medical condition. An opportunity was provided to hear in the patients' own words how they interpret the information and why there is variable understanding. Respondents struggled to comprehend the meaning and purpose of concepts such as randomisation and double blinding, and found them threatening to their ideas of medical care. Suggestions are made about how to improve the national guidelines on written information for trial participants and pretesting of the information sheets is advocated.

  6. Patterns and Sequences: Interactive Exploration of Clickstreams to Understand Common Visitor Paths.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhicheng; Wang, Yang; Dontcheva, Mira; Hoffman, Matthew; Walker, Seth; Wilson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Modern web clickstream data consists of long, high-dimensional sequences of multivariate events, making it difficult to analyze. Following the overarching principle that the visual interface should provide information about the dataset at multiple levels of granularity and allow users to easily navigate across these levels, we identify four levels of granularity in clickstream analysis: patterns, segments, sequences and events. We present an analytic pipeline consisting of three stages: pattern mining, pattern pruning and coordinated exploration between patterns and sequences. Based on this approach, we discuss properties of maximal sequential patterns, propose methods to reduce the number of patterns and describe design considerations for visualizing the extracted sequential patterns and the corresponding raw sequences. We demonstrate the viability of our approach through an analysis scenario and discuss the strengths and limitations of the methods based on user feedback.

  7. Exploring the role of gaze behavior and object detection in scene understanding

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Kiwon; Peng, Yifan; Samaras, Dimitris; Zelinsky, Gregory J.; Berg, Tamara L.

    2013-01-01

    We posit that a person's gaze behavior while freely viewing a scene contains an abundance of information, not only about their intent and what they consider to be important in the scene, but also about the scene's content. Experiments are reported, using two popular image datasets from computer vision, that explore the relationship between the fixations that people make during scene viewing, how they describe the scene, and automatic detection predictions of object categories in the scene. From these exploratory analyses, we then combine human behavior with the outputs of current visual recognition methods to build prototype human-in-the-loop applications for gaze-enabled object detection and scene annotation. PMID:24367348

  8. Sequential piggyback, dual lay used for Irish Sea pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Guinard, M.

    1995-09-04

    Piggyback and dual pipe lay were used sequentially for the first time in 1993 aboard the lay vessel DLB 1601 in the North Morecambe project, Block 110/2a of the Irish Sea. Development was by British Gas Exploration and Production Ltd. A 3-in. OD pipeline was laid piggybacked onto a 36-in. pipeline for the offshore pull operation and then separated in an unconventional transition operation for dual lay for the offshore section. Detailed engineering studies along with well developed installation procedures resulted in successful pipelaying. Increasing complexities of laying, trenching, and burying offshore pipelines suggest the techniques used in the North Morecambe project will find further applications. In fact, McDermott International Inc.-ETPM Services (U.K.) Ltd. (MET), which executed the North Morecambe project, developed the techniques further in 1994 for the Liverpool Bay development of Hamilton Oil Co. In that project, DLB 1601 laid in dual lay tow 3-in. pipelines in a bundle with a 20-in. pipeline. This first of two articles on the North Morecambe project discusses its background an engineering, primarily for the piggyback and dual lay phases. The conclusion covers the innovative transition operation and reports shore-testing results and observations.

  9. A framework for understanding risk perception, explored from the perspective of the water practitioner.

    PubMed

    Dobbie, Meredith Frances; Brown, Rebekah Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Sustainable urban water systems are likely to be hybrids of centralized and decentralized infrastructure, managed as an integrated system in water-sensitive cities. The technology for many of these systems is available. However, social and institutional barriers, which can be understood as deeply embedded risk perceptions, have impeded their implementation. Risk perceptions within the water sector are often unrecognized or unacknowledged, despite their role in risk management generally in informing value judgments and specifically in ranking risks to achieve management objectives. There has been very little examination of the role of these risk perceptions in advancing more sustainable water supply management through the adoption of alternative sources. To address this gap, this article presents a framework that can be used as a tool for understanding risk perceptions. The framework is built on the relational theory of risk and presents the range of human phenomena that might influence the perception of an "object at risk" in relation to a "risk object." It has been synthesized from a critical review of theoretical, conceptual, and empirical studies of perception broadly and risk perception specifically, and interpreted in relation to water practitioners. For a water practitioner, the risk object might be an alternative water system, a component, a process, or a technology, and the object at risk could be public or environmental health, profitability, or professional reputation. This framework has two important functions: to allow practitioners to understand their own and others' risk perceptions, which might differ, and to inform further empirical research.

  10. Exploring the Construct of Pedagogical Discontentment: A Tool to Understand Science Teachers' Openness to Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southerland, Sherry A.; Sowell, Scott; Blanchard, Margaret; Granger, E. M.

    2011-05-01

    It is well established that many teachers are resistant to take up the messages of reform if these messages require them to substantially shift their teaching practices. What accounts for this resistance? One well established explanation is that teachers lacks the self-efficacy required to attempt something new in their teaching—they simply do not feel capable of effectively enacting the messages. However, there are a host of studies describing teachers with high self—efficacy who remain resistant to messages of change. The purpose of this article is to address the gap in the application of self-efficacy to understand the change or lack of change of science teachers' practice through the introduction of a related construct, pedagogical discontentment. This construct reflects a state of cognitive conflict that exists when an individual recognizes a mismatch between her/his science teaching pedagogical goals and classroom practices. One potential result of this mismatch is that a teacher problematizes her teaching practices, prompting an increased receptivity to reform messages. Building on existing literature, we present vignettes of four hypothetical teachers who exemplify variations of pedagogical discontentment. When combined with self-efficacy, pedagogical discontentment provides a useful lens to understand teachers' consideration and adoption of messages of reform.

  11. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  12. Exploring the use of concept chains to structure teacher trainees' understanding of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key ideas in an increasingly complex and inclusive fashion such that a 'chain' is developed where the initial statements are simple and the final ones more complex. Evaluation of the strategy with trainees over a five-year period revealed promising potential for the strategy as a self-study tool, as well as an audit tool, enabling tutors to more easily identify misconceptions. There was some evidence that trainees found the strategy useful in preparing themselves to teach in the classroom, possibly by enabling meaningful learning to take place according to the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin theory.

  13. Exploring cell apoptosis and senescence to understand and treat cancer: an interview with Scott Lowe.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Scott; Cifra, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    Scott W. Lowe is currently principal investigator at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. After beginning his studies in chemical engineering, he decided to take another path and became fascinated by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology, which ultimately led to an interest in human disease, particularly cancer. During his PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Scott had the opportunity to benefit from the exceptional mentorship of Earl Ruley, David Housman and Tyler Jacks, and contributed to elucidating how the p53 (TP53) tumor suppressor gene limits oncogenic transformation and modulates the cytotoxic response to conventional chemotherapy. This important work earned him a fellowship from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which helped to launch his independent career. Scott is now a leading scientist in the cancer field and his work has helped to shed light on mechanisms of cell apoptosis and senescence to better understand and treat cancer. In this interview, he talks about this incredible scientific journey.

  14. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  15. Exploring ESL students' understanding of mathematics in the early years: factors that make a difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jodie; Warren, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    Students living in disadvantaged contexts and whose second language is English (ESL) are at risk of not succeeding in school mathematics. It has been internationally recognised that students' socioeconomic background and their achievements in mathematics is more pronounced for Australian students (Thomson et al. 2011). This gap is even more prominent for students who also have English as their second language (ESL). This paper explores the impact of the representations, oral language and engagement in mathematics (RoleM) learning experiences on ESL students' performance in mathematics in the early years (foundation-year 2). All students participating in the study are from disadvantaged contexts ( n = 461). The sample comprised 328 students who identified themselves as having English as a second language (ESL) and 133 mainstream students. Pre- and post-tests were conducted at the commencement and completion of each school year. All students demonstrated a significant improvement on their post-test scores, with ESL students displaying greater gains than the mainstream students. Additionally, students' results were meeting norm-referenced expectations for students of the same age. A hypothesised taxonomy was developed to further investigate which types of test items foundation ESL students displayed greatest gains. ESL students again outperformed the mainstream cohort on all levels of test categorisation, including questions that were linguistically and conceptually challenging for foundation students.

  16. Understanding the knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in Karachi, Pakistan: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Burfat, Aziza; Mohammed, Shama; Siddiqi, Osman; Samad, Lubna; Khan, Mansoor Ali; Chinoy, Mohammad Amin

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores local knowledge and perceptions about clubfoot in the Indus Hospital's catchment population in Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected through seven focus group discussions with community members and Lady Health Workers, nine in-depth interviews with parents of children with treated or untreated clubfoot, and one interview with an adult with untreated clubfoot. We found that participants were unable to distinguish clubfoot from other disabilities. Moreover, participants had a number of beliefs about the causes of clubfoot, which included lunar and solar eclipses, religious explanations, the health status and behaviours of parents, and genetics. While participants were aware of surgery and other allopathic treatments for clubfoot, many also believed in traditional and religious treatments or were unaware that clubfoot is a treatable condition. This study is the first of its kind in Pakistan and provides important insights that clubfoot programs need comprehensive strategies to raise awareness about clubfoot amongst community members, health providers, and religious leaders in order to be successful.

  17. Exploring parents' understandings of their child's journey into offending behaviours: A narrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Susan Frances; Eccles, Fiona Jr; Daiches, Anna; Bowers, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Parents are perhaps the best placed individuals to comment upon their child's life story, including early life experiences, transitions and their child's needs. However, research has rarely focussed on the views of parents of young people who have committed serious offences. This research aimed to explore parents' opinions of which factors may have led to their child becoming involved with the criminal justice system. Interviews were undertaken with six parents who were asked to narrate their child's life journey into offending behaviours. The data were then analysed using narrative analysis techniques, and a shared story was created which incorporated the main transitional stages in the children's journeys, as seen by the parents. The findings suggest that it is not just the child but the whole family who have been in a state of distress throughout the child's life. Systemic and environmental factors are argued to contribute to this distress, and the use of diagnosis for this population is critically evaluated. The research highlights a life story in which the child's and family's distress remains unheard and therefore unresolved. Clinical implications for working with this population are discussed.

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Students' Understanding of Conventional Time and Deep (Geologic) Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2013-07-01

    Many geologic processes occur in the context of geologic or deep time. Students of all ages demonstrate difficulty grasping this fundamental concept which impacts their ability to acquire other geoscience concepts. A concept of deep time requires the ability to sequence events on an immense temporal scale (succession) and to judge the durations of geologic processes based on the rates at which they occur. The twin concepts of succession and duration are the same ideas that underlie a concept of conventional time. If deep time is an extension of conventional time and not qualitatively different from it, students should display similar reasoning patterns when dealing with analogous tasks over disparate temporal periods. Thirty-five US students aged 13-24 years participated in individual task-based interviews to ascertain how they thought about succession and duration in conventional and deep time. This is the first attempt to explore this relationship in the same study in over 30 years. Most students successfully completed temporal succession tasks, but there was greater variability in responses on duration tasks. Conventional time concepts appear to impact how students reason about deep time. The application of spatial reasoning to temporal tasks sometimes leads to correct responses but in other instances does not. Implications for future research and teaching strategies are discussed.

  19. Understanding Positive Play: An Exploration of Playing Experiences and Responsible Gambling Practices.

    PubMed

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    This study is one of the first to explore in detail the behaviors, attitudes and motivations of players that show no signs of at-risk or problem gambling behavior (so-called 'positive players'). Via an online survey, 1484 positive players were compared with 209 problem players identified using the Lie/Bet screen. The study identified two distinct groups of positive players defined according to their motivations to play and their engagement with responsible gambling (RG) practices. Those positive players that played most frequently employed the most personal RG strategies. Reasons that positive players gave for gambling were focused on leisure (e.g., playing for fun, being entertained, and/or winning a prize). By contrast, problem gamblers were much more focused upon modifying mood states (e.g., excitement, relaxation, depression and playing when bored or upset). The present study also suggests that online gambling is not, by default, inherently riskier than gambling in more traditional ways, as online gambling was the most popular media by which positive players gambled. Furthermore, most positive players reported that it was easier to stick to their limits when playing the National Lottery online compared to traditional retail purchasing of tickets. Problem players were significantly more likely than positive players to gamble with family and friends, suggesting that, contrary to a popular RG message, social play may not be inherently safer than gambling alone. It is proposed that players (generally) may identify more with the term 'positive play' than the term 'RG' which is frequently interpreted as being aimed at people with gambling problems, rather than all players.

  20. Exploring the context of change: Understanding the kinetics of a studio physics implementation effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enderle, Patrick J.; Southerland, Sherry A.; Grooms, Jonathon A.

    2013-06-01

    The SCALE-UP studio physics class involves the physical redesign of a classroom to encourage more collaborative interactions and student-centered teaching, an approach shown to increase student learning on several different measures. However, research into the contextual issues involved in implementing a studio course using the SCALE-UP model remains limited. The research presented here explores the impact of situational factors on the implementation and maintenance of a research-based instructional innovation in a large research university. The specific focus of this investigation was the development and implementation of a studio version of an introductory physics course sequence at a large research university in the southeast United States using the SCALE-UP model. Interview, observation, and artifact data (including documents and Email conversations), collected over a period of two years, were analyzed. Using the Teacher Centered Systemic Reform framework, the data were analyzed to develop themes describing forces that both encouraged and restricted the growth of this studio course. Influential forces operated at the classroom, department, university, and broad cultural levels. The results demonstrate the importance of considering the specific nature of innovations implemented and their alignment with desired learning goals and outcomes. The importance of faculty collegiality emerges as a critical departmental force, as does administrative intervention at the department and university level. Broader, societal conversations related to improving undergraduate science education also provided important contextual framing for the change effort studied. The findings highlight important factors to contemplate when undertaking similar change efforts and recommendations from this study are offered for consideration.

  1. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    PubMed Central

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N.R.; Ogilvie, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. PMID:22486840

  2. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: using social theory to explore everyday commuting.

    PubMed

    Guell, C; Panter, J; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-07-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work ('active commuting') as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions.

  3. Understanding local forces in electrophoretic ink systems: utilizing optical tweezers to explore electrophoretic display devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, David L.; Dickinson, Mark R.; Smith, N.; Gleeson, Helen F.

    2016-09-01

    Optical tweezers can be used as a valuable tool to characterize electrophoretic display (EPD) systems. EPDs are ubiquitous with e-readers and are becoming a commonplace technology where reflective, low-power displays are required; yet the physics of some features crucial to their operation remains poorly defined. We utilize optical tweezers as a tool to understand the motion of charged ink particles within the devices and show that the response of optically trapped electrophoretic particles can be used to characterize electric fields within these devices. This technique for mapping the force can be compared to simulations of the electric field in our devices, thus demonstrating that the electric field itself is the sole governor of the particle motion in an individual-particle regime. By studying the individual-particle response to the electric field, we can then begin to characterize particle motion in `real' systems with many particles. Combining optical tweezing with particle tracking techniques, we can investigate deviations in many particle systems from the single-particle case.

  4. Understanding and Exploration of the Biomineralization Mechanisms for the Controllable Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu

    This thesis is mainly concerned with understanding the biomineralization mechanisms, and further extrapolating them for the controllable synthesis of transition metal compound nanomaterials on graphene sheets for energy storage applications in electrochemical capacitors and lithium ion batteries (LIB). Firstly, we have studied the mimetic biomineralization process of CaCO 3 on a stearic acid or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayer at the air-water interface by in-situ Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and ex-situ electron microscopy. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) precursors are directly nucleated from solvated ions prior to the crystal nuclei on a Langmuir monolayer. On a DPPC monolayer, numerous fresh ACC nanoparticles heterogeneously and continuously nucleated at the air-water interface are transformed into the metastable vaterite nanocrystals. Driven by the trend to decrease surface energy, the vaterite nanocrystals self-aggregate and grow into the loose-packed hollow ellipsoidal vaterite polycrystals. These nanocrystals in vaterite polycrystals are then gradually orientated in the same direction to evolve into tight-packed ellipsoidal mesocrystals. As the crystallization time is further increased, the metastable vaterite mesocrystals are eventually transformed into the most thermodynamically stable calcite crystals. Secondly, organic and inorganic additives control over the shapes, sizes and phases of inorganic nanocrystals and arrange them into ordered structures from amorphous precursors in the organisms. This interesting phenomenon has galvanized many attempts to mimic the biomineralization process for synthesizing novel materials. We have studied the crystallization processes from small citrate molecules stabilized ACC precursors under cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar structures. Amorphous precursors, with a hydrated and disordered structure, are easily transformed and molded into CaCO 3 crystals with

  5. Understanding Science and Technology Interactions Through Ocean Science Exploration: A Summer Course for Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldauf, J.; Denton, J.

    2003-12-01

    , sea level change and geological time). This objective will be achieved by correctly answering 8 of 10 multiple choice items on course posttest on science themes of ODP/IODP. 2. Describe the technical tools and processes for determining sea level history by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on coring. 3. Describe the processes for describing a drill core and apply those processes to core samples from Leg 194 by developing a laboratory analysis report on core samples based on protocol for analyzing cores. 4. Explain the distinguishing features of scientific from industrial coring processes by developing a paper that contrasts scientific from industrial coring processes. 5. Describe the substructure of the ocean basin and the scientific tools (equipment and processes) used to explore this substructure by preparing and presenting a multimedia presentation on bore hole data interpretation. 6. Analyze and interpret data sets from a bore hole by developing a laboratory analysis report on bore-hole data. Student performance data for objectives indicate a 16% average positive change on the science themes addressed in instruction related to objective one occurred. Similarly, a 12% average positive change occurred on science education topics related to earth science among the students in this class. Ongoing contact between faculty members during the academic year is planned as these summer participants engage in implementing IT interventions and professional development experiences based on ocean science data experienced in the summer experience.

  6. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  7. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggression and pecking behavior in laying hens is a serious concern to the production and well-being of the hens. Current breeding programs attempt to reduce aggression in hens without altering production have had limited success. Improved understanding of the neural mediation of aggression, will be...

  8. Exploring learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects of reader beliefs and epistemic beliefs, a new group of 65 10th grade students whose reader and epistemic beliefs were assessed by the newly developed BSRI and an existing SEB questionnaire were invited to take part in a science reading task. Students' text understanding in terms of concept gain and text interpretations was collected and analyzed. By the correlation analysis, it was found that when students had stronger beliefs about meaning construction based on personal goals and experiences (i.e. transaction beliefs), they produced more thematic and critical interpretations of the content of the test article. The regression analysis suggested that students SEBs could predict concept gain as a result of reading. Moreover, among all beliefs examined in the study, transaction beliefs stood out as the best predictor of overall science-text understanding.

  9. 48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....

  10. 48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....

  11. 48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....

  12. 48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....

  13. 48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair....

  14. Exploring and Understanding Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durland, Maryann M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the process of doing social network analysis (SNA) is similar to traditional research and evaluation design, it is in the details that the two traditions diverge. This article describes two areas of differences: (1) the framework for doing SNA; and (2) data collection, analysis, and specific measures. SNA is about relationships and how to…

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder Etiology: Lay Beliefs and the Role of Cultural Values and Social Axioms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Xin; Zaroff, Charles M.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research examining the explanations given by the public (i.e. lay beliefs) for autism spectrum disorder often reveals a reasonably accurate understanding of the biogenetic basis of the disorder. However, lay beliefs often manifest aspects of culture, and much of this work has been conducted in western cultures. In this study, 215…

  16. Lay abstracts and summaries: writing advice for scientists.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Catherine E; Lapane, Kate L

    2014-09-01

    Scientific journals, institutional review boards, and funding sources often require abstracts or research summaries written specifically for the lay public. Making research findings understandable to the public helps raise awareness and speed adoption of practices that may lead to improved health. We provide advice on writing lay abstracts and summaries which includes the following: (1) make reasonable assumptions about grade-level, vocabulary, prior experience, and interests of the audience; (2) practice a verbal explanation with someone from your audience; (3) start writing by using a simple headline followed by a brief and relevant synopsis in common language then expand; (4) read your draft aloud and revise; (5) check readability statistics and simplify as needed; and (6) have both lay audience and peer scientists read your summary to assure that it is accessible to the public while remaining true to the science.

  17. Understanding unexpected courses of multiple sclerosis among patients using complementary and alternative medicine: A travel from recipient to explorer

    PubMed Central

    Salamonsen, Anita; Launsø, Laila; Kruse, Tove E.; Eriksen, Sissel H.

    2010-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Some MS patients experience unexpected improvements of symptoms, which they relate to their use of CAM. The aim of this study was to obtain knowledge and develop understandings of such self-defined unexpected improvement of MS symptoms. Two cases were constructed based on documents and 12 qualitative interviews. Our aim was not to make generalisations from the cases, but to transfer knowledge as working hypotheses. We identified four health-related change processes: the process of losing bodily competence; the process of developing responsibility; the process of taking control; and the process of choosing CAM. The patients explained unexpected improvements in their MS symptoms as results of their own efforts including their choice and use of CAM. In our theoretical interpretations, we found the patients’ redefinition of history, the concept of treatment and the importance of conventional health care to be essential, and leading to a change of patients’ position towards conventional health care from recipients to explorers. The explorers can be perceived as boundary walkers reflecting limitations within the conventional health care system and as initiators regarding what MS patients find useful in CAM. PMID:20616888

  18. The use of a virtual reality simulator to explore and understand the impact of Linac mis-calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavis, Andrew W.; Ward, James W.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: In recent years there has been interest in using Computer Simulation within Medical training. The VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) system is a Flight Simulator for Radiation Oncology professionals, wherein fundamental concepts, techniques and problematic scenarios can be safely investigated. Methods: The system provides detailed simulations of several Linacs and the ability to display DICOM treatment plans. Patients can be mis-positioned with 'set-up errors' which can be explored visually, dosimetrically and using IGRT. Similarly, a variety of Linac calibration and configuration parameters can be altered manually or randomly via controlled errors in the simulated 3D Linac and its component parts. The implication of these can be investigated by following through a treatment scenario or using QC devices available within a Physics software module. Results: One resultant exercise is a systematic mis-calibration of 'lateral laser height' by 2mm. The offset in patient alignment is easily identified using IGRT and once corrected by reference to the 'in-room monitor'. The dosimetric implication is demonstrated to be 0.4% by setting a dosimetry phantom by the lasers (and ignoring TSD information). Finally, the need for recalibration can be shown by the Laser Alignment Phantom or by reference to the front pointer. Conclusions: The VERT system provides a realistic environment for training and enhancing understanding of radiotherapy concepts and techniques. Linac error conditions can be explored in this context and valuable experience gained in a controlled manner in a compressed period of time.

  19. A qualitative study to explore health professionals' experience of treating gout: understanding perceived barriers to effective gout management.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Chloe; Hulme, Richard; Dalbeth, Nicola; Gow, Peter; Arroll, Bruce; Lindsay, Karen

    2016-06-01

    INTRODUCTION The management of gout is challenging and mainly occurs in primary care. This study aims to explore the experience of treating gout among primary care clinicians and understand the perceived barriers to effective therapy. METHODS Fourteen health professionals from primary care practices in South Auckland were recruited. Each participated in a semi-structured interview exploring their experience of treating and managing gout patients were analysed thematically. FINDINGS Participants described the large burden of gout in their communities and the importance of the clinician-patient relationship in gout management. Four themes summarise the perceived barriers to effective urate lowering therapy (ULT); unique gout factors, eg its intermittent nature and potential for stigmatisation; systemic barriers to optimal treatment, or barriers that emerge from working within a certain organisation; uncertainty about ownership, or who should carry responsibility for overcoming barriers to optimal treatment; and cultural barriers to optimal treatment. CONCLUSION Clinicians in primary practice perceive gout management to be mainly acute rather than preventive care. Patients may be stigmatised and management difficult particularly when diet is emphasised over ULT. Practice nurses are a group potentially available and willing to assist in educating patients. These findings may be helpful in planning for and improving healthcare in gout. KEYWORDS Gout; general practice; uric acid; primary health care; allopurinol; primary prevention.

  20. [Lay agency and healthcare: producing healthcare maps].

    PubMed

    Cecilio, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira; Carapinheiro, Graça; Andreazza, Rosemarie; Souza, Ana Lúcia Medeiros de; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Meneses, Consuelo Sampaio; Reis, Denizi Oliveira; Araújo, Eliane Cardoso; Pinto, Nicanor Rodrigues da Silva; Spedo, Sandra Maria

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to characterize which regulatory logics (other than government regulation) result in healthcare output, using a two-stage qualitative study in two municipalities in the ABCD Paulista region in São Paulo State, Brazil. The first stage included interviews with strategic actors (managers and policymakers) and key health professionals. The second phase collected life histories from 18 individuals with high health-services utilization rates. An analysis of the researchers' involvement in the field allowed a better understanding of the narratives. Four regulatory systems were characterized (governmental, professional, clientelistic, and lay), indicating that regulation is a field in constant dispute, a social production. Users' action produces healthcare maps that reveal the existence of other possible health system arrangements, calling on us to test shared management of healthcare between health teams and users as a promising path to the urgent need to reinvent health.

  1. "I feel like half my body is clogged up": Lay models of stroke in Central Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Meriel; Allotey, Pascale; Barrett, Geraldine

    2010-11-01

    Stroke in low and middle income countries is an increasing cause of death and disability, with rates and the estimated burden considerably higher than that of high income countries. Lay explanatory models are believed to be one of the major influences on health seeking behaviour and essential to understand for appropriate education strategies. Despite stroke being a considerable health concern in Indonesia and particularly in Aceh, no studies to date have explored lay stroke models in that context. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study informed by both hermeneutic phenomenology and ethnography. Based in rural communities in Bener Meriah and Aceh Tengah in Central Aceh, Indonesia, data were gathered through interviews, photographs and observations with 11 persons with stroke (aged 32-69 years) and 18 of their carers. Fieldwork was conducted over nine months between 2007 and 2008. The study examined lay concepts of stroke, described as a condition resulting from a local blockage in blood from multiple causes, many of which are not recognised within the biomedical frame. The blockage is understood to be reversible and therefore the condition curable. This understanding is embedded and sustained in the specific political, cultural, religious and social context. The results illustrate similarities and differences with other cross-cultural studies and suggest areas of future research and points of consideration for stroke education strategies.

  2. Exploring Subsurface Flow Paths as a Precursor to Understanding the Spatial Pattern of Weathering in a Rocky Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, A. L.; Tucker, G. E.; Anderson, S. P.; Anderson, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between subsurface flow paths on hillslopes and chemical weathering of bedrock is fundamental to understanding the timing and mechanisms that weather bedrock to create saprolite. The link between chemical weathering of bedrock and contact time with acidic water along flow paths motivates this study. Water drives the chemical alteration of rock into saprolite, yet connected porosity generally declines with depth into the weathered profile. Saprolite formation therefore reflects coupled weathering and permeability development over time. We study the interaction between these two processes in the Boulder Creek watershed, a 1160 km2 catchment that ranges in elevation from high alpine peaks at 4120 masl to the Colorado piedmont at 1480 masl. This research focuses on saprolite development in the 1.7 billion year old Boulder Creek Granodiorite, which is well exposed in the Betasso catchment, at 1900 masl. Six pairs of soil moisture and water potential probes were installed in two vertical profiles in hillslopes at Betasso. Four of these instrument pairs were installed directly into the saprolite, allowing documentation of the timing and magnitude of individual snow melt and rain events. Preliminary data shows distinct responses to rain events, even at the deepest monitoring site. The data collected from these probes guides and informs preliminary modeling of unsaturated zone hydrology on hillslopes. Two dimensional hillslope hydrology models were constructed in VS2DT, a Richards equation-based model, to visualize flow paths in the unsaturated zone. Model variables - hydraulic conductivity of regolith, hydraulic conductivity of saprolite, thickness of regolith, amount of recharge, and slope angle - were explored to determine the conditions necessary for vertical flow into the bedrock and lateral flow in the hillslope. These parameters vary throughout the Boulder Creek watershed with changes in elevation, lithology, and hillslope aspect. We

  3. To do good might hurt bad: exploring nurses' understanding and approach to suffering in forensic psychiatric settings.

    PubMed

    Vincze, Mattias; Fredriksson, Lennart; Wiklund Gustin, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Patients in forensic psychiatric settings not only have to deal with their mental illness, but also memories of criminal activities and being involuntarily hospitalized. The aim of the present study was to explore how nurses working in forensic psychiatric services understand and approach patients' experiences of suffering. Data were generated by semistructured interviews with psychiatric nurses from two different forensic psychiatric units in Sweden. Data were analysed by means of a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur's hermeneutics. The findings are reflected in four main themes: (i) ignoring suffering; (ii) explaining suffering as a natural and inevitable part of daily life in the forensic context; (iii) ascribing meaning to suffering; and, (iv) being present in suffering. To engage in alleviating suffering is a struggle that demands courage and the strength to reflect on its character and consequences. To encounter suffering means that nurses are not only confronted with patients' suffering, but also their own reactions to those patients. If suffering is not recognized or encountered, there is a risk that actions may have a negative impact on patients.

  4. Evaluation of a Well-Established Task-Shifting Initiative: The Lay Counselor Cadre in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Ledikwe, Jenny H.; Kejelepula, Mable; Maupo, Kabelo; Sebetso, Siwulani; Thekiso, Mothwana; Smith, Monica; Mbayi, Bagele; Houghton, Nankie; Thankane, Kabo; O’Malley, Gabrielle; Semo, Bazghina-werq

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence supports the implementation of task shifting to address health worker shortages that are common in resource-limited settings. However, there is need to learn from established programs to identify ways to achieve the strongest, most sustainable impact. This study examined the Botswana lay counselor cadre, a task shifting initiative, to explore effectiveness and contribution to the health workforce. Methods This evaluation used multiple methods, including a desk review, a national lay counselor survey (n = 385; response = 94%), in-depth interviews (n = 79), lay counselors focus group discussions (n = 7), lay counselors observations (n = 25), and client exit interviews (n = 47). Results Interview and focus group data indicate that lay counselors contribute to essentially all HIV-related programs in Botswana and they conduct the majority of HIV tests and related counseling at public health facilities throughout the country. Interviews showed that the lay counselor cadre is making the workload of more skilled health workers more manageable and increasing HIV acceptance in communities. The average score on a work-related knowledge test was 74.5%. However for 3 questions, less than half answered correctly. During observations, lay counselors demonstrated average competence for most skills assessed and clients (97.9%) were satisfied with services received. From the survey, lay counselors generally reported being comfortable with their duties; however, some reported clinical duties that extended beyond their training and mandate. Multiple factors affecting the performance of the lay counselors were identified, including insufficient resources, such as private counseling space and HIV test kits; and technical, administrative, and supervisory support. Conclusion Lay counselors are fulfilling an important role in Botswana's healthcare system, serving as the entry point into HIV care, support, and treatment services. Recommendation

  5. Physiological stress in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mumma, J Odihambo; Thaxton, J P; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Dodson, W L

    2006-04-01

    Stress responses in laying hens were mediated by continuous infusion of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) via osmotic pumps. The ACTH was dissolved in saline solution (0.85%), and each pump delivered 8 IU of ACTH per kilogram of BW per day at the rate of 1 microL/h for 7 d. Control hens received pumps loaded with saline. Measurements were made at 6 d postpump implantation, unless otherwise indicated. The ACTH-treatment increased BW and total carcass, rear half of carcass, intestinal, and liver weights. Proximate analyses of liver showed increases in dry weight, moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and ash content. Weights of the front half of the carcass, as well as weights of the abdominal fat pad, heart, head, feet, and skin were unaffected by ACTH-treatment. Plasma corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins were increased by ACTH, whereas triglycerides were decreased. Feed and water intake, total excreta, and excretory DM were all increased in ACTH-treated hens. The ACTH decreased carbohydrate in excreta, whereas ash, protein, fiber, and gross energy of excreta were unaffected. The ACTH did not affect digestibility of dry matter, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, or gross energy; however, absorption of ash, protein, carbohydrates, and gross energy were increased by ACTH. Antibody levels to sheep red blood cells, cell-mediated immunity (wattle index to phytohemagglutinin-phosphate), and relative spleen weight were reduced by ACTH, whereas heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was increased. Reproduction in hens was negatively affected by ACTH treatment, as measured by cessation of laying on the third day of treatment, atretic follicles, and decreased oviduct weight.

  6. Qualitative exploration of public and smoker understanding of, and reactions to, an endgame solution to the tobacco epidemic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in ending the tobacco epidemic and in applying ‘endgame’ solutions to achieve that goal at national levels. We explored the understanding of, and reactions to, a tobacco-free vision and an endgame approach to tobacco control among New Zealand smokers and non-smokers. Methods We recruited participants in four focus groups held in June 2009: Māori (indigenous people) smokers (n=7); non-Māori smokers (n=6); Māori non-smokers (n=7); and non-Māori non-smokers (n=4). Participants were from the city of Whanganui, New Zealand. We introduced to them the vision of a tobacco-free New Zealand and the concept of a semi-autonomous agency (Tobacco-Free Commission [TFC]) that would control the tobacco market as part of an endgame approach. Results There was mostly strong support for the tobacco-free New Zealand vision among all groups of participants. The reason most commonly given for supporting the vision was to protect children from tobacco. Most participants stated that they understood the TFC concept and reacted positively to it. Nevertheless, rather than focusing on organisational or structural arrangements, participants tended to focus on supporting the specific measures which a future TFC might facilitate such as plain packaging of tobacco products. Various concerns were also raised around the TFC, particularly around the feasibility of its establishment. Conclusions We were able to successfully communicate a complex and novel supply-side focused tobacco control policy intervention to smokers and non-smokers. The findings add to the evidence from national surveys that there is public support, including from smokers, for achieving a tobacco-free vision and using regulatory and policy measures to achieve it. Support for such measures may be enhanced if they are clearly communicated and explained with a rationale which stresses protecting children and future generations from tobacco smoking. PMID:22974338

  7. THE LAY READER PROGRAM IN ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BURKE, VIRGINIA M.

    IN 1960, THE WISCONSIN COUNCIL OF TEACHERS OF ENGLISH CONDUCTED AN INTERVIEW AND QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY OF PARTICIPANTS IN TWO LAY-READER PROGRAMS AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL--(1) A PROGRAM AT RACINE IN ITS FIRST FULL SEMESTER IN WHICH LAY READERS CORRECTED AND EVALUATED, BUT DID NOT GRADE, APPROXIMATELY HALF OF THE THEMES FROM SELECTED CLASSES, AND (2)…

  8. 'Good luck to them if they can get it': exploring working class men's understandings and experiences of income inequality and material standards.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Alan

    2007-07-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the recent debate within the field of inequalities in health that has focused on the relationship between income distribution and health. This has contested the extent to which the main effects of income on health are not directly related to material standards but operate through psychosocial mechanisms, linked to how people experience and perceive their relative position. However, whilst this has focused attention on the qualitative dimensions of income inequality as a potential determinant of health inequality, very little empirical work has directly examined lay perspectives. In this study I attempted to address this gap by exploring how two groups of working class men living in contrasting socio-economic areas understood and experienced differences in income and material circumstances and how these were perceived to impact on their health. This study shows that the anger and resentment felt by these men had their roots largely in the perceptions of others and the way others treated them, rather than in income differentials per se. There was little evidence of feelings of shame or inferiority. For men at the bottom of the social ladder, financial hardship was additionally perceived as having the greatest impact on their health and well-being.

  9. An Exploration of Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Art and the Place of Art in the Primary School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Jenny; Gupta, Mani Das; Lee, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Some research within developmental psychology shows a slow period of development in children's expressive drawings during the primary school years. Developmental researchers suggest that "educational factors" could contribute to this dip in development but have not explored these factors. This study explores links between educational…

  10. Corporate personhood: Lay perceptions and ethical consequences.

    PubMed

    Jago, Arthur S; Laurin, Kristin

    2017-03-01

    Modern conceptions of corporate personhood have spurred considerable debate about the rights that society should afford business organizations. Across eight experiments, we compare lay perceptions of how corporations and people use rights, and also explore the consequences of these judgments. We find that people believe corporations, compared to humans, are similarly likely to use rights in protective ways that prevent harm but more likely to use rights in nonprotective ways that appear independent from-or even create-harm (Experiments 1a through 1c and Experiment 2). Because of these beliefs, people support corporate rights to a lesser extent than human rights (Experiment 3). However, people are more supportive of specific corporate rights when we framed them as serving protective functions (Experiment 4). Also as a result of these beliefs, people attribute greater ethical responsibility to corporations, but not to humans, that gain access to rights (Experiments 5a and 5b). Despite their equitability in many domains, people believe corporations and humans use rights in different ways, ultimately producing different reactions to their behaviors as well as asymmetric moral evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Trauma-Informed Day Services for Individuals with Intellectual/Developmental Disabilities: Exploring Staff Understanding and Perception within an Innovative Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesler, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a systems-level philosophy of service delivery which integrates choice, collaboration, empowerment, safety and trust to create an organizational culture sensitive to trauma. This study explores staff understandings and perceptions within an innovative trauma-informed day program for individuals with…

  12. Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Essential Features of Inquiry-Based Science Teaching Using Evidence-Based Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seung, Eulsun; Park, Soonhye; Jung, Jinhong

    2014-01-01

    This study explored preservice elementary teachers' and their mentors' understanding of the essential features of inquiry-based teaching through the use of evidence-based reflection. The web-based video analysis tool (VAT) system was used to support preservice teachers' and mentors' evidence-based reflection during field…

  13. "It's Harder to Catch a Boy Because They're Tougher": Using Fairytales in the Classroom to Explore Children's Understandings of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Traditional fairytales serve to socially construct gendered categories and reify dominant understandings of masculinities and femininities. Using reading groups and participant observations in an elementary school classroom, this article explores how children actively engage with gendered messages within fairytales--specifically examining…

  14. Constructing Understanding in Primary Science: An Exploration of Process and Outcomes in the Topic Areas of Light and the Earth in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Grant, G.; Topping, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the process and outcomes of constructivist methods of enhancing science understanding in the topic areas of light and the earth in space. The sample was drawn from a group of 41 nine-year-old children, delivered in four two-hour weekly sessions. Each session involved different combinations of interactive discussion and…

  15. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Transition Metals Chemistry with the Use of Cognitive and Confidence Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sreenivasulu, Bellam; Subramaniam, R.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to studies on school students' understanding of various topics in the sciences, studies involving university students have received relatively less attention in the science education literature. In this study, we investigated university students' understanding of transition metals chemistry, a topic in inorganic chemistry, which…

  16. Female Sexuality in Thai Discourses about Maechii ('lay nuns').

    PubMed

    Muecke, Marjorie

    2004-05-01

    By examining competing discourses about women who are maechii (or 'lay nuns') in Buddhist Thai society, this paper demonstrates that, although maechii vow to be celibate, social constructions of their role are grounded in sexuality. The discourses examined are those of the Buddhist canon and Sangha (Order of Monkhood), the Thai Maechii Institute, the mass media, and the government. The analysis is supplemented with field observations and interviews with monks, maechii, and lay persons. Findings suggest that maechii comprise an ambiguous category linguistically, Buddhistically, and in terms of their sexuality. Case studies of the founders of nunneries conducted in ChiangMai indicate that maechii leaders have been resisting the prevalent views that most maechii are social misfits, yet also are capable of undermining monks' celibacy and, by extension, the larger social order. The analysis contributes to the understanding of the interconnectedness of gender and sexuality in contemporary Thai society.

  17. The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee sister species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken; Yang, Mingxian; Wang, Zhengwei; Radloff, Sarah E; Pirk, Christian W W

    2012-04-01

    When a honeybee colony loses its queen, workers activate their ovaries and begin to lay eggs. This is accompanied by a shift in their pheromonal bouquet, which becomes more queen like. Workers of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana show unusually high levels of ovary activation and this can be interpreted as evidence for a recent evolutionary arms race between queens and workers over worker reproduction in this species. To further explore this, we compared the rate of pheromonal bouquet change between two honeybee sister species of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera under queenright and queenless conditions. We show that in both species, the pheromonal components HOB, 9-ODA, HVA, 9-HDA, 10-HDAA and 10-HDA have significantly higher amounts in laying workers than in non-laying workers. In the queenright colonies of A. mellifera and A. cerana, the ratios (9-ODA)/(9-ODA + 9-HDA + 10-HDAA + 10-HDA) are not significantly different between the two species, but in queenless A. cerana colonies the ratio is significant higher than in A. mellifera, suggesting that in A. cerana, the workers' pheromonal bouquet is dominated by the queen compound, 9-ODA. The amount of 9-ODA in laying A. cerana workers increased by over 585% compared with the non-laying workers, that is 6.75 times higher than in A. mellifera where laying workers only had 86% more 9-ODA compared with non-laying workers.

  18. A classification of errors in lay comprehension of medical documents

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Smith, Catherine Arnott

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on participatory medicine requires that patients and consumers participate in tasks traditionally reserved for healthcare providers. This includes reading and comprehending medical documents, often but not necessarily in the context of interacting with Personal Health Records (PHRs). Research suggests that while giving patients access to medical documents has many benefits (e.g., improved patient-provider communication), lay people often have difficulty understanding medical information. Informatics can address the problem by developing tools that support comprehension; this requires in-depth understanding of the nature and causes of errors that lay people make when comprehending clinical documents. The objective of this study was to develop a classification scheme of comprehension errors, based on lay individuals’ retellings of two documents containing clinical text: a description of a clinical trial and a typical office visit note. While not comprehensive, the scheme can serve as a foundation of further development of a taxonomy of patients’ comprehension errors. Eighty participants, all healthy volunteers, read and retold two medical documents. A data-driven content analysis procedure was used to extract and classify retelling errors. The resulting hierarchical classification scheme contains nine categories and twenty-three subcategories. The most common error made by the participants involved incorrectly recalling brand names of medications. Other common errors included misunderstanding clinical concepts, misreporting the objective of a clinical research study and physician’s findings during a patient’s visit, and confusing and misspelling clinical terms. A combination of informatics support and health education is likely to improve the accuracy of lay comprehension of medical documents. PMID:22925723

  19. The Spiritual Dimensions of Lay Ministry Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeph, Catherine P.

    2000-01-01

    Loyola University's Institute for Ministry Education uses such techniques as learning covenants and critical reflection to nourish the development of lay ministers. It demonstrates how adult education principles can contribute to spiritual growth. (SK)

  20. Transforming Our Understanding of the X-ray Universe: The Imaging X-ray Polarimeter Explorer (IXPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Matt, Giorgio; Marshall, Herman; ODell, Stephen L.; Pavlov, George; Ramsey, Brian; Romani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Accurate X-ray polarimetry can provide unique information on high-energy-astrophysical processes and sources. As there have been no meaningful X-ray polarization measurements of cosmic sources since our pioneering work in the 1970's, the time is ripe to explore this new parameter space in X-ray astronomy. To accomplish this requires a well-calibrated and well understood system that-particularly for an Explorer mission-has technical, cost, and schedule credibility. The system that we shall present satisfies these conditions, being based upon completely calibrated imaging- and polarization-sensitive detectors and proven X-ray-telescope technology.

  1. Gene expression profiling in the pituitary gland of laying period and ceased period huoyan geese.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xinhong; Cao, Zhongzan; Xu, Wen; Gao, Ming; Wang, Laiyou; Zhang, Shuwei

    2013-07-01

    Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction); the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1) and Stathmin-2 (STMN2) were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  2. Reducing Peak Power in Automated Weapon Laying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    aiming a weapon is referred to as gun laying. This report describes a method to calculate motion profiles that reach a given lay within the least...amount of time while reducing the amount of peak power required and, therefore, minimizing the forces caused by acceleration. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...Calculating New Acceleration Values 5 Results and Discussions 7 Conclusions 10 Distribution List 11 FIGURES 1 Trapezoidal motion profile 1 2

  3. Lay REC members: patient or public?

    PubMed

    Staley, Kristina

    2013-12-01

    In practice, the role of lay members of research ethics committees (RECs) often involves checking the accessibility of written materials, checking that the practical needs of participants have been considered and ensuring that a lay summary of the research will be produced. In this brief report, I argue that all these tasks would be more effectively carried out through a process of patient involvement (PI) in research projects prior to ethical review. Involving patients with direct experience of the topic under investigation brings added value beyond the contributions typically made by lay REC members, who are often not patients themselves. This is because PI tailors the design and conduct of research to the specific interests and concerns of the people who will actually take part in a project and make use of its findings. If a project has PI in its early stages, then a similar input from lay REC members could at best result in duplication of effort and at worst create the potential for conflict. The rationale for lay REC membership will therefore need to change from 'contributing a patient perspective' to 'ensuring transparency and public accountability in REC decisions'. This has implications for addressing more strategic questions about lay REC membership, including who is best recruited to the role and how they should be expected to contribute in practice.

  4. Impact through Images: Exploring Student Understanding of Environmental Science through Integrated Place-Based Lessons in the Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie; Kern, Anne L.; Charvoz, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1800s, the U.S. President Thomas Jefferson assembled a team of explorers led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to forge a waterway connecting the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean. How has this environment changed in 200 years and how do elementary students make sense of those changes? This study looks at the impact of…

  5. An Autoethnographic Approach to Understanding Asperger's Syndrome: A Personal Exploration of Self-Identity through Reflexive Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of autoethnography in which I, as researcher, explore my own awareness of Asperger's syndrome and how this, in turn, has helped me deal with many day to day situations I have encountered. The work illustrates how actively engaging with one's own life story narratives can help the Asperger's learner come to terms with his or…

  6. Family Day Care Educators: An Exploration of Their Understanding and Experiences Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elise; Priest, Naomi; Davies, Belinda; Smyth, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Herrman, Helen; Sims, Margaret; Harrison, Linda; Cook, Kay; Marshall, Bernie; Williamson, Lara

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to explore family day care (FDC) educators' knowledge of child social and emotional wellbeing and mental health problems, the strategies used to promote children's wellbeing, and barriers and opportunities for promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. Thirteen FDC educators participated in individual semi-structured…

  7. Understanding Children's Curiosity and Exploration through the Lenses of Lewin's Field Theory: On Developing an Appraisal Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chak, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lewin's field theory as a framework to appraise children's momentary state of curiosity and exploratory behavior. Discusses two levels of analysis: child-stimulus situation and child-stimulus-adult situation. Argues that a parent can be a barrier hindering a child's exploration, or a facilitator to remove barriers. (Author/SD)

  8. Exploring Relations among Preservice Elementary Teachers' Ideas about Evolution, Understanding of Relevant Science Concepts, and College Science Coursework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Kaya, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relations among preservice elementary teachers' ideas about evolution, their understanding of basic science concepts and college science coursework. Forty-two percent of 240 participants did not accept the theory of human evolution, but held inconsistent ideas about related topics, such as co-existence of humans and…

  9. In Search of Critical Thinking in Psychology: An Exploration of Student and Lecturer Understandings in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duro, Elaine; Elander, James; Maratos, Frances A.; Stupple, Edward J. N.; Aubeeluck, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study of understandings of critical thinking in higher education aimed to identify themes that could help to demystify critical thinking and inform its more explicit incorporation in the psychology curriculum. Data collected from focus groups with 26 undergraduate psychology students and individual semistructured interviews with 4…

  10. Analysing Vee Diagram Reflections to Explore Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding the Nature of Science in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran-Gencer, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Vee diagrams have been a metacognitive tool to help in learning the nature and structure of knowledge by reflecting on the scientific process and making knowledge much more explicit to learners during the practical work. This study aimed to assess pre-service science teachers' understanding some aspects of NOS by analyzing their reflections on the…

  11. Exploring Effects of High School Students' Mathematical Processing Skills and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts on Algorithmic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The MPC…

  12. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  13. Exploring the Usefulness of Two Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding How Organizational Factors Influence Innovation Implementation in Cancer Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Robin; Sargeant, Joan; Grunfeld, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Moving knowledge into practice and the implementation of innovations in health care remain significant challenges. Few researchers adequately address the influence of organizations on the implementation of innovations in health care. The aims of this article are to (1) present 2 conceptual frameworks for understanding the organizational factors…

  14. An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-01-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

  15. A Social-Cognitive Exploration of the Career and College Understanding of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Hyfantis, Justina; Cihak, David F.; Wright, Rachel; Mynatt, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Students with intellectual disabilities (ID) are less likely to continue their education or become employed after high school. Although transition services are provided, little is known about students' understanding of their post-high school options. Using a social cognitive framework, the authors interviewed students with ID to determine their…

  16. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  17. Exploring Second Graders' Understanding of the Text-Illustration Relationship in Picture Storybooks and Informational Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carol

    2010-01-01

    Our society is increasingly bombarded with visual imagery; therefore, it is important for educators to be knowledgeable about the elements of art and to use our knowledge to help students deepen their reading understanding. Arizpe & Styles (2003) noted that students must be prepared to work with imagery in the future at high levels of…

  18. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay...

  19. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days. 1352.271-86... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as...

  20. 48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days (USCG). 3052.217... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-94 Lay days (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3017.9000(a) and (b), insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day...

  1. 48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Lay days (USCG). 3052.217... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-94 Lay days (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3017.9000(a) and (b), insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day...

  2. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lay days. 1352.271-86... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as...

  3. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay...

  4. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay...

  5. 48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lay days (USCG). 3052.217... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-94 Lay days (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3017.9000(a) and (b), insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day...

  6. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay...

  7. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lay days. 1352.271-86... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as...

  8. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lay days. 1352.271-86... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as...

  9. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay...

  10. 48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lay days (USCG). 3052.217... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-94 Lay days (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3017.9000(a) and (b), insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day...

  11. 48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lay days (USCG). 3052.217... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-94 Lay days (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3017.9000(a) and (b), insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day...

  12. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  13. Combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics to explore novel microbial interactions: towards a systems-level understanding of human microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bikel, Shirley; Valdez-Lara, Alejandra; Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Rico, Karina; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Soberón, Xavier; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The advances in experimental methods and the development of high performance bioinformatic tools have substantially improved our understanding of microbial communities associated with human niches. Many studies have documented that changes in microbial abundance and composition of the human microbiome is associated with human health and diseased state. The majority of research on human microbiome is typically focused in the analysis of one level of biological information, i.e., metagenomics or metatranscriptomics. In this review, we describe some of the different experimental and bioinformatic strategies applied to analyze the 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun sequencing data of the human microbiome. We also discuss how some of the recent insights in the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics can provide more detailed description on the interactions between microorganisms and viruses in oral and gut microbiomes. Recent studies on viromics have begun to gain importance due to the potential involvement of viruses in microbial dysbiosis. In addition, metatranscriptomic combined with metagenomic analysis have shown that a substantial fraction of microbial transcripts can be differentially regulated relative to their microbial genomic abundances. Thus, understanding the molecular interactions in the microbiome using the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics is one of the main challenges towards a system level understanding of human microbiome. PMID:26137199

  14. What Are Lay Theories of Social Class?

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Michael E. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants’ own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people’s beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

  15. Exploring one aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants using the test of understanding graphs in kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-12-01

    The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students) to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is comparable with that

  16. Using example generation to explore students' understanding of the concepts of linear dependence/independence in linear algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Sinan

    2014-08-01

    Linear algebra is a basic mathematical subject taught in mathematics and science depar-tments of universities. The teaching and learning of this course has always been difficult. This study aims to contribute to the research in linear algebra education, focusing on linear dependence and independence concepts. This was done by introducing student-generated examples regarding the concepts. With the help of these examples, we have analysed students' understanding of linear dependence/independence and determined the effect of the example-generation process on student understanding of linear algebra. In addition, we identified some difficulties that were experienced by students learning the concepts of linear dependence/independence. In this study, APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory is the main tool utilized to explain students' written responses. It was also used with regard to the interview questions that were posed to students with the purpose of identifying possible difficulties with linear dependence/independence and observing the adequacy of the relations that students might form between different elements of the genetic decomposition of linear dependence/independence concepts. The findings of this study confirmed that many students do not have appropriate mental structures at object and schema levels. Moreover, in order to ensure the success of such exercises, students must be encouraged to review and validate their responses to the example requests.

  17. Lay-functions for F2 profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossy, L.; Gamache, R. R.; Reinisch, B. W.

    Modern ionosondes calculate the vertical electron density profiles in real time providing a good data base for the global modeling of the ionospheric electron density distribution. The Digisonde 256 outputs the profiles in the form of coefficients for a polynomial representation for each of the layers. When first publishing their results, Reinisch and Huang mentioned the possibility of substituting LAY functions for the polynomial profile presentations. The paper considers the fitting of LAY functions profiles obtained in real time by Digisondes at Argentia, Newfoundland (47 deg N, 54 deg W), Richfield, Utah (39 deg N, 112 deg W) and Natal, Brazil (5.7 deg S, 65 deg W). The LAY parameters SC and HX are determined.

  18. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

    2013-12-01

    Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

  19. The Lay Advocates' Communication Assessment Tool (LACAT).

    PubMed

    Larkey, Linda K; Staten, Lisa K

    2007-01-01

    A tool to assess communication strategies used by lay advocates was developed and tested with 96 Latina and Caucasian study participants who were invited to promote a prevention trial to other women. Subscales showed strong initial reliability estimates and included: (a) telling personal stories, (b) describing the benefits of participation, (c) expressing caring, (d) emphasizing future generations' health, (e) repeating the message, and (e) communicating the importance of the study to one's own ethnic group. The subscales that comprise the Lay Advocacy Communication Assessment Tool may serve as a basis for developing a validated instrument and may subsequently be used to identify effective recruitment strategies.

  20. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

  1. Multi-domain patient reported outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome: exploring person centered perspectives to better understand symptom severity scores

    PubMed Central

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Jaccard, James; Baum, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Patient reported outcomes (PRO) assessing multiple gastrointestinal symptoms are central to characterizing the therapeutic benefit of novel agents for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Common approaches that sum or average responses across different illness components must be unidimensional and have small unique variances to avoid aggregation bias and misinterpretation of clinical data. This study sought to evaluate the unidimensionality of the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) and to explore person centered cluster analytic methods for characterizing multivariate-based patient profiles. Methods Ninety-eight Rome-diagnosed IBS patients completed the IBS-SSS and a single, global item of symptom severity (UCLA Symptom Severity Scale) at pretreatment baseline of an NIH funded clinical trial. A k-means cluster analyses were performed on participants symptom severity scores. Results The IBS-SSS was not unidimensional. Exploratory cluster analyses revealed four common symptom profiles across five items of the IBS-SSS. One cluster of patients (25%) had elevated scores on pain frequency and bowel dissatisfaction, with less elevated but still high scores on life interference and low pain severity ratings. A second cluster (19%) was characterized by intermediate scores on both pain dimensions, but more elevated scores on bowel dissatisfaction. A third cluster (18%) was elevated across all IBS-SSS sub-components. The fourth and most common cluster (37%) had relatively low scores on all dimensions except bowel dissatisfaction and life interference due to IBS symptoms. Conclusions PRO endpoints and research on IBS more generally relying on multicomponent assessments of symptom severity should take into account the multidimensional structure of symptoms to avoid aggregation bias and to optimize the sensitivity of detecting treatment effects. PMID:23337220

  2. Seeking to understand: using generic qualitative research to explore access to medicines and pharmacy services among resettled refugees.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese

    2016-06-01

    Introduction There are challenges associated with selecting a qualitative research approach. In a field abundant with terminology and theories, it may be difficult for a pharmacist to know where and how to begin a qualitative research journey. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into generic qualitative research and to describe the journey of data collection of a novice qualitative researcher in the quest to answer her research question: 'What are the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services for resettled refugees in Queensland, Australia?' Methodology Generic qualitative research draws on the strengths of one or more qualitative approaches. The aim is to draw out participants' ideas about things that are 'outside themselves'; rather than focussing on their inner feelings the research seeks to understand a phenomenon, a process, or the perspectives of participants. Sampling is designed to obtain a broad range of opinions about events and experiences and data collection includes interviews, questionnaires or surveys; thematic analysis is often used to analyse data. When to use Generic qualitative research provides an opportunity to develop research designs that fit researchers' epistemological stance and discipline, with research choices, including methodology and methods, being informed by the research question. Limitations Generic qualitative research is one of many methodologies that may be used to answer a research question and there is a paucity of literature about how to do it well. There is also debate about its validity as a qualitative methodology.

  3. Understanding Family Migration in Rural South Africa: Exploring Children's Inclusion in the Destination Households of Migrant Parents

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Rachel; Hosegood, Victoria; Newell, Marie-Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Despite the removal of restrictions on movement and increasing female participation in migration, only a minority of migrant parents in South Africa include their children in their destination household. Quantitative analyses of the circumstances in which children accompany a migrant parent have been limited by the lack of available data that document family arrangements from the perspective of more than one household. This paper uses data about members of rural households in a demographic surveillance population in KwaZulu-Natal and a linked sample survey of adult migrants to examine factors associated with children's inclusion in the destination household of migrant parents, analyse the timing and sequence of children's moves to parental destination households, and describe the composition of parental origin and destination households. The findings confirm that in contemporary South Africa, only a small percentage (14%) of migrants' children who are members of the parental origin household are also members of the parental destination household. Membership of the parental destination household is associated with parental characteristics and the child's age, but not measures of socio-economic status, and children most commonly migrate several years after their migrant parent. Children included in the destination household of migrant fathers frequently live in small households, which also include their mother, whereas children included in the destination household of migrant mothers live in larger households. This study contributes to understanding the contexts of children's inclusion in parental destination households in South Africa and demonstrates the potential of data collected in migrants' origin and destination households. PMID:25983667

  4. Communication and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janicki, Karol

    2011-01-01

    This article consists of two sections: in the first one, I discuss one of the most prevalent lay myths in the Western world with respect to communication and understanding, namely, the view that meaning resides in words and that it is transmitted from one language user to another in a conduit, as it were. In the second section, I refer to my own…

  5. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  6. Laying Out of a Practical Air Route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, V S; Carroll, T

    1922-01-01

    Unfortunately the problem of laying out an air route has been approached by all who give it consideration as one of the hardest tasks in the world. Whereas, as a matter of fact, a very serviceable air route can be laid out with an absolute minimum of ground work.

  7. Social Skills: Laying the Foundation for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon A.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2010-01-01

    Well-informed teachers of young children recognize the importance of children's social development. The development of social skills lays a critical foundation for later academic achievement as well as work-related skills. Social development is such a key issue with young children that a number of methods to address social skills have been…

  8. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six…

  9. Laying hens learn to avoid feathers.

    PubMed

    Harlander-Matauschek, A; Wassermann, F; Zentek, J; Bessei, W

    2008-09-01

    Previous work demonstrated an association between feather pecking and feather eating in laying hens. This raised the question if digestive feedback affects feather eating or feather pecking in laying hens. We hypothesized that feathers enriched with sugar form a positive feedback and feathers enriched with quinine sulfate form a negative feedback. Forty-eight laying hens were kept in individual cages and fed a pelleted diet ad libitum. Twenty-four birds were offered feathers on a daily basis; 12 of these birds were offered feathers soaked in 4% quinine sulfate solution (Q), and the other 12 were offered feathers soaked in 4% sucrose solution (S). The other 24 birds were kept as a control (C) without access to feathers. After a 10-d feather feeding period, 3 groups of 4 S and 4 C birds each and 3 groups of 4 Q and 4 C birds each were assembled. Feather-pecking behavior was recorded over a period of 8 d. The number of Q feathers eaten was significantly lower than the number of S feathers. Birds that were offered Q feathers in the feather feeding phase showed significantly less severe feather pecking than S and C birds. The results clearly show that Q as an unpalatable substance was the signal the animal used to avoid damaging the feather cover in laying hens.

  10. Skill Standards for Open Cut Pipe Laying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

    This document identifies skill standards for utility construction in a format that uses scenarios to provide a picture of the construction process under consideration. The scenarios provide a general description of the pipe laying and utility construction process. An introduction describes use and benefits of skill standards. Section 2 presents…

  11. A Case Study: The Impact of an Immersion Experience on the Vocation of Lay Teacher-Leaders in American Jesuit High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case study explores the impact of an immersion experience to a least developed country on the vocation of lay teacher leaders in American Jesuit High Schools. Nine lay teacher leaders engaged in a four stage process of immersion from November 2009 to August 2010. The study employed the conceptual framework of Edward…

  12. Participant-Observation and Pile Sorting: Methods for Eliciting Local Understandings and Valuations of Plants as a First Step towards Informed Community Participation in Environment and Health Initiatives in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollin, Lisa X.; McMillen, Heather; Wilcox, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted to explore local, lay perceptions and valuations of native and nonnative flora in order to better understand and anticipate community perceptions of, and potential participation in revegetation or eradication conservation efforts in multiethnic communities of Oahu, Hawai'i. The authors detail the…

  13. Lay theory of healing in northwestern New Spain.

    PubMed

    Kay, M

    1987-01-01

    Northwestern New Spain experienced not only a territorial and a spiritual conquest, but a medical conquest. This medical conquest came from a tradition, established after the conquest of central New Spain, that had fused classical medicine of the Old World with medicine of indigenous groups, in the writings of European doctors and scientists as well as graduates of Mexican colleges. The medical conquest of Sonora was accomplished by laymen, explorers and missionaries who carried the theory of healing resulting from these syncretic processes into the northern lands, adding new materials that they learned from indigenous peoples there. When the Indians were ill with epidemic disease or injuries, they were cared for by missionaries brought up on European domestic medicine. The theory of illness and its cure held by the lay healers became predominantly that of the conquest culture. The conquerers', missionaries' and colonists' interpretations of native plant, animal and mineral remedies that they learned from northwestern native medicine were colored by their own concepts of disease and healing, resulting in an epistemology which continues to guide lay or domestic medicine not only in Sonora but also in the rest of the American Mexican west today.

  14. Science and Me: A Student-Driven Science Outreach Program for Lay Adult Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Hannah; Waldron, Anna M.; Abell, Sandra K.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing need for communicating science to the public suggests that future scientists and science educators should be educated in science outreach and trained to communicate with lay audiences. We present a recently developed novel graduate course, which trains students in outreach efforts aimed to increase the public's understanding of…

  15. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, A Lay Version for the Common Man, Woman and Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, Alice Doumanian

    This lay version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (the original version was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948) has been written in simplified vocabulary to make it understandable to a wider range of ages and reading abilities. The declaration consists of a preamble followed by a listing of 30 goals common to…

  16. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  17. Lay Theories of Gender Identity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered. PMID:24059967

  18. Pragmatic abilities in children with congenital visual impairment: an exploration of non-literal language and advanced theory of mind understanding.

    PubMed

    Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P J; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-11-01

    Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of congenital visual impairments have a delay in more advanced theory of mind understanding, in particular second-order theory of mind (i.e. awareness that other people have beliefs about beliefs) and non-literal language (e.g. irony or figure of speech). Twenty-four children with congenital visual impairment and 24 typically developing sighted children aged between 6 and 13 were included. All children were presented with a series of stories involving understanding of theory of mind and non-literal language. When compared with sighted children of similar age and verbal intelligence, performance of children with congenital visual impairment on advanced theory of mind and non-literal stories was alike. The ability to understand the motivations behind non-literal language was associated with age, verbal intelligence and theory of mind skills, but was not associated with visual ability.

  19. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... floating, whatever the hour, shall not be paid as lay day time, and days when no work is performed by the contractor shall not be paid as lay day time. Days in which work is performed that are considered normal “non-work” days (weekends or holidays) shall not be paid as lay day time if the ship would have...

  20. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  1. Lay knowledge, social movements and the use of medicines: Personal reflections.

    PubMed

    Britten, Nicky; Maguire, Kath

    2016-03-01

    This article consists of two personal reflections about the changing status of lay knowledge over the last 20 years. The first reflection is by Nicky Britten from the perspective of a sociologist working in medical schools whose interest in this topic was motivated by my own personal experience of health care and of teaching general practitioners. Starting with the problematic deficit model of 'ignorant patients', I trace the literature on patient-centredness, shared decision-making, lay knowledge, public involvement in research and social movements. Looking at medicines use in particular, I deplore the continued hegemony of the concept of compliance in the face of extensively documented problems with the licensing, regulation, prescribing and monitoring of medicines. I argue that lay knowledge is now taken more seriously, not so much because of advocacy by clinicians and academics, but because of social movements and social action. We may have moved from 'anecdotes' to 'lived experience' but there is still a way to go, particularly when it comes to medicines use. I end with a possible future scenario. The second reflection is by Kath Maguire and is a response from the perspective of someone who came to work in this field with the express purpose of improving engagement with lay knowledge. It questions my own 'layness' and explores the issues raised by Nicky Britten using the lens of lived experience. Finally, it questions the paradigm of social movements and highlights the importance of developing different ways of listening.

  2. Pathogenic bacteria and timing of laying

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Soler, Juan J; Nielsen, Jan Tøttrup; Galván, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria constitute a serious threat to viability of many organisms. Because growth of most bacteria is favored by humid and warm environmental conditions, earlier reproducers in seasonal environments should suffer less from the negative consequences of pathogenic bacteria. These relationships, and the effects on reproductive success, should be particularly prominent in predators because they are frequently exposed to pathogenic microorganisms from sick prey. Here, we presented and tested this hypothesis by sampling bacteria on adult and nestling goshawks Accipiter gentilis. We predicted that early breeders and their offspring should have fewer bacteria than those reproducing later during the breeding season. Adult goshawks with a high abundance of Staphylococcus on their beak and claws were easier to capture and their laying date was delayed. Moreover, goshawks that laid their eggs later had offspring with more Staphylococcus on their beaks and claws. The strength of the association between laying date and bacterial density of nestlings was stronger during the warm spring of 2013, when nestlings suffered from a higher abundance of pathogenic bacteria. Hatching failure and fledging failure were more common in nests with a higher abundance of Staphylococcus independently of the number of years occupied, laying date, and age of the female nest owner. These findings imply that timing of reproduction may be under the influence of pathogenic bacteria. Because early breeding goshawks produce more recruits than later breeders, our results suggest a role for pathogenic bacteria in the optimal timing of reproduction. PMID:25937910

  3. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing.

    PubMed

    Brown, P

    1992-09-01

    Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data.

  4. Popular epidemiology and toxic waste contamination: lay and professional ways of knowing

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P. )

    1992-09-01

    Building on a detailed study of the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster, this paper examines lay and professional ways of knowing about environmental health risks. Of particular interest are differences between lay and professional groups' definitions of data quality, methods of analysis, traditionally accepted levels of measurement and statistical significance, and relations between scientific method and public policy. This paper conceptualizes the hazard-detection and solution-seeking activities of Love Canal, Woburn, and other communities as popular epidemiology: the process by which lay persons gather data and direct and marshal the knowledge and resources of experts in order to understand the epidemiology of disease, treat existing and prevent future disease, and remove the responsible environmental contaminants. Based on different needs, goals, and methods, laypeople and professionals have conflicting perspectives on how to investigate and interpret environmental health data.

  5. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture.

    PubMed

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi

    2008-10-01

    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  6. The dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in commercial laying hen flocks throughout a laying period.

    PubMed

    Schulz, J; Van Hoorebeke, S; Hald, B; Hartung, J; Van Immerseel, F; Radtke, I; Kabell, S; Dewulf, J

    2011-06-01

    Contaminated eggs and egg products have been recognized for many years as an important source of Salmonella infections in humans in the European Union and in the United States. Longitudinal studies can help to increase our knowledge about the dynamics of the occurrence of Salmonella in the course of a laying period. The total of 41 laying hen flocks-18 in Belgium, six in Denmark and 17 in Germany-were followed during an entire laying period. Samples taken from the empty cleaned and disinfected poultry houses were all negative for Salmonella. After hens arrived on the farms, five pooled faecal samples, one pooled dust sample and 40 cloacal swabs (Belgium and Germany) or 40 swabs from fresh droppings (Denmark) were taken four times from 18 flocks, three times from 21 flocks and two times from two flocks in the course of the laying period. Ten flocks (two Belgian and eight German flocks) tested up to three times positive for Salmonella. Forty-three out of 50 positive samples contained Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 (29 isolates) or phage type 8 (14 isolates). The probability of subsequent Salmonella-positive findings increased significantly in Salmonella-positive flocks (P<0.05, odds ratio = 6.4). However, the probability of finding Salmonella did not depend on the time of sampling in the laying period or the season.

  7. A concept mapping exploration of social workers' and mental health nurses' understanding of the role of the Approved Mental Health Professional.

    PubMed

    Bressington, Daniel T; Wells, Harvey; Graham, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    This study uses concept mapping and participant interviews to explore how differing professional viewpoints and levels of knowledge held by social workers and mental health nurses affect perceptions of the Approved Mental Health Professional (AMHP) role during an interprofessional training programme. The results suggest that social workers entering the programme had a greater understanding of the role in comparison to mental health nurses; however, on completion of the programme, both professional groups demonstrated similar levels of learning. The study challenges assumptions that nurses may be inherently disadvantaged by their professional background in terms of learning about a role that is traditionally associated with social work practice. Study participants valued the concept mapping process and felt that the approach may be a valuable tool for clinical supervision.

  8. The attitudes of Greek physicians and lay people on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Parpa, Efi; Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Tsilika, Eleni; Sakkas, Pavlos; Patiraki, Elisabeth; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Galanos, Antonis; Vlahos, Lambros

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of lay people and physicians regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in terminally ill cancer patients in Greece. The sample consisted of 141 physicians and 173 lay people. A survey questionnaire was used concerning issues such as euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and so forth. Many physicians (42.6%) and lay people (25.4%, P = .002) reported that in the case of a cardiac and/or respiratory arrest, there would not be an effort to revive a terminally ill cancer patient. Only 8.1% of lay people and 2.1% of physicians agreed on physician-assisted suicide (P = .023). Many of the respondents, especially physicians, supported sedation but not euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. However, many of the respondents would prefer the legalization of a terminally ill patient's hastened death.

  9. Investigation of a reflective pedagogy to encourage pre-service physics teachers to explore argumentation as an aid to conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Greg; Cooper, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    An emerging focus of recent science education research advocates the benefits of using argumentation as an approach in which teachers can better engage students in a more authentic experience of the epistemic work of scientists (Bricker and Bell, 2008). Logical argument and critical thinking are considered essential skills for an effective and successful undertaking of scientific inquiry and analysis. Early research suggests the practise of encouraging students to engage in scientific discourse in the classroom (Kuhn, 2010) can provide rich experiences for students and teachers to hone their cognitive abilities. This paper explores the use of critical `discussion problems' purposefully designed for pre-service physics teachers to investigate their own alternative conceptual understandings of key physics ideas. It also discusses how these problems are then used to generate classroom discourse which focuses on the importance of developing effective pedagogical content knowledge (See Shulman, 1986 for a detailed explanation of pedagogical content knowledge) rather than just mastery of scientific content and its mathematical applications. Further, the paper will detail a preliminary study in which pre-service physics teachers were introduced to a number of discussion problems via an online learning environment and asked to first consider the problem and post a solution in isolation from their peers. A considerable challenge was persuading the pre-service teachers to resist the common practice of "Googling the answer" via the internet before posting their solution attempt. Although most students initially appeared to believe that posting "the correct" answer was the main task objective, the vast majority eventually came to realise that discussing the range of unresearched solutions was much more beneficial for their conceptual understanding and professional practice. Over time, this approach generally encouraged students to post original ideas and to be less influenced

  10. Understanding of catalysis on early transition metal oxide-based catalysts through exploration of surface structure and chemistry during catalysis using in-situ approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Franklin

    2015-09-14

    Two main categories of heterogeneous catalysts are metal and metal oxide which catalyze 80% chemical reactions at solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces. Metal oxide catalysts are much more complicated than metal catalysts. The reason is that the cations of the metal atoms could exhibit a few different oxidation states on surface of the same catalyst particle such as Co3O4 or change of their oxidation states under different reactive environments. For a metal catalyst, there is only one oxidation state typically. In addition, surface of a metal oxide can be terminated with multiple surface functionalities including O atoms with different binding configurations and OH group. For metal, only metal atoms are exposed typically. Obviously, the complication of surface chemistry and structure of a metal oxide makes studies of surface of an oxide catalyst very challenging. Due to the complication of surface of a meal oxide, the electronic and geometric structures of surface of a metal oxide and the exposed species have received enormous attention since oxide catalysts catalyze at least 1/3 chemical reactions in chemical and energy industries. Understanding of catalytic reactions on early transition metal oxide-based catalysts is fundamentally intriguing and of great practical interest in energy- and environment-related catalysis. Exploration of surface chemistry of oxide-based catalysts at molecular level during catalysis has remained challenging though it is critical in deeply understanding catalysis on oxide-based catalysts and developing oxide-based catalysts with high activity and selectivity. Thus, the overall objective of this project is to explore surface chemistry and structure of early transition metal oxide-based catalysts through in-situ characterization of surface of catalysts, measurements of catalytic performances, and then build an intrinsic correlation of surface chemistry and structure with their catalytic performances in a few

  11. [Lay theories regarding myocardial infarction in a transcultural comparison].

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Isaac; Bursch, Stephanie; Muthny, Fritz A

    2006-08-01

    Culturally influenced lay theories about myocardial infarction which exist in healthy individuals have an impact on treatment compliance. However, empirical data on the subject is rare. Using healthy subjects, a transcultural survey comparing three different ethnic groups was conducted. The groups were: Germans in Germany, Spaniards in Spain, and 1st generation Spaniards in Germany. Subjects were paralleled according to age, sex, and education. The groups were compared regarding cultural differences in casual attributions and locus of control with respect to myocardial infarction. While all three groups show a psycho-social understanding of myocardial infarction, it is most predominate in the German group. The results show both common factors as well as some significant differences between Germans and Spaniards, the Spaniards reporting more external attributions. Consequences for prevention concepts and medical care in a multicultural society were derived from the results.

  12. Effects of photoperiod on broodiness, egg-laying and endocrine responses in native laying hens.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Xu, S F; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Chu, Q; Liu, H G

    2014-01-01

    1. The effects of photoperiod on broodiness, egg-laying and endocrine responses in native laying hens were investigated. A total of 648, 18-week-old native laying hens (Beijing You Chicken, BYC) were randomly allocated to 6 groups with 3 replicates. The birds were exposed to 1 of 6 different photoperiods, including 16L:8D (06:00 to 22:00 h) for group 1; 12L:2D:4L:6D for group 2; 8L:4D:4L:8D for group 3; 16L:8D (03:00 to 19:00 h) for group 4; 14L:10D for group 5; and 18L:6D for group 6. 2. The broodiness rate and egg-laying rate for weeks 20-26, 27-33, 34-40, 41-47, 48-54 and 55-61 were calculated, and serum prolactin (PRL), luteinising hormone (LH), 17-beta-oestradiol (E2), melatonin (Mel) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were measured at the end of each stage. 3. Significant effects were observed on the rate of broodiness by the photoperiod and stage, but the interaction of photoperiod and stage was not significant. The rate of broodiness for group 3 (5.9%) was significantly higher than other groups, with group 2 being the lowest (2.8%). Broodiness rate was the highest for weeks 41-47 (9.9%). Significant effects were observed on average egg-laying rate by photoperiod and stage: the rate of egg-laying of groups 2 and 5 were significantly higher than groups 1, 4 and 6. 4. There were no significant effects of photoperiod on PRL, LH and Mel concentrations at 26, 33, 40 and 54 weeks of age (P > 0.05), but at 47 weeks of age, PRL and LH concentrations of group 1 were significantly lower than those in other groups. 5. The study suggests that the photoperiod of group 2 (12L:2D:4L:6D) is optimal for the birds' performance to give the lowest broodiness rate and the highest egg-laying rate during the whole laying period, and 41-47 weeks may be a key stage for the photomodulation of broodiness.

  13. Lay beliefs about hypertension among HIV-infected adults in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Temu, Tecla M; Bahiru, Ehete; Bukachi, Fredrick; Bloomfield, Gerald S; Muiruri, Peter; Farquhar, Carey

    2017-01-01

    Objective Hypertension affects 23% of Kenyans and is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite this, hypertension awareness and treatment adherence is very low. We conducted a qualitative study to explore lay beliefs about hypertension among HIV-infected adults to inform the development of culture sensitive hypertension prevention and control program. Methods Eight focus group discussions were held for 53 HIV-infected adults at the HIV clinic in Kenya. Results Respondents had difficulties in describing hypertension. Hypertension was considered a temporary illness that is fatal and more serious than HIV. Stress was perceived as a main cause for hypertension with a large majority claiming stress reduction as the best treatment modality. Alcohol and tobacco use were not linked to hypertension. Obesity was cited as a cause of hypertension but weight control was not considered as a treatment modality even though the majority of our participants were overweight. Most participants did not believe hypertension could be prevented. Conclusion Our findings suggest a limited understanding of hypertension among people living with HIV and points to an urgent need to integrate hypertension education programmes in HIV care facilities in Kenya. To effect change, these programmes will need to tie in the culture meaning of hypertension.

  14. From causes to solutions - insights from lay knowledge about health inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a qualitative study of lay knowledge about health inequalities and solutions to address them. Social determinants of health are responsible for a large proportion of health inequalities (unequal levels of health status) and inequities (unfair access to health services and resources) within and between countries. Despite an expanding evidence base supporting action on social determinants, understanding of the impact of these determinants is not widespread and political will appears to be lacking. A small but growing body of research has explored how ordinary people theorise health inequalities and the implications for taking action. The findings are variable, however, in terms of an emphasis on structure versus individual agency and the relationship between being 'at risk' and acceptance of social/structural explanations. Methods This paper draws on findings from a qualitative study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, to examine these questions. The study was an integral part of mixed-methods research on the links between urban location, social capital and health. It comprised 80 in-depth interviews with residents in four locations with contrasting socio-economic status. The respondents were asked about the cause of inequalities and actions that could be taken by governments to address them. Results Although generally willing to discuss health inequalities, many study participants tended to explain the latter in terms of individual behaviours and attitudes rather than social/structural conditions. Moreover, those who identified social/structural causes tended to emphasise individualized factors when describing typical pathways to health outcomes. This pattern appeared largely independent of participants' own experience of advantage or disadvantage, and was reinforced in discussion of strategies to address health inequalities. Conclusions Despite the explicit emphasis on social/structural issues expressed in the study focus and

  15. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Bain, M. M.; Nys, Y.; Dunn, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production.One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the “long life” layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird’s physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied.The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens.The “long life” layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. PMID:26982003

  16. Lay perceptions of breast cancer in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Naanyu, Violet; Asirwa, Chite Fredrick; Wachira, Juddy; Busakhala, Naftali; Kisuya, Job; Otieno, Grieven; Keter, Alfred; Mwangi, Anne; Omenge, Orango Elkanah; Inui, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore lay perceptions of causes, severity, presenting symptoms and treatment of breast cancer. METHODS: In October-November 2012, we recruited men and women (18 years and older) from households and health facilities in three different parts of Western Kenya, chosen for variations in their documented burdens of breast cancer. A standardized and validated tool, the breast cancer awareness measure (BCAM), was administered in face-to-face interviews. Survey domains covered included socio-demographics, opinions about causes, symptoms, severity, and treatment of breast cancer. Descriptive analyses were done on quantitative data while open-ended answers were coded, and emerging themes were integrated into larger categories in a qualitative analysis. The open-ended questions had been added to the standard BCAM for the purposes of learning as much as the investigators could about underlying lay beliefs and perceptions. RESULTS: Most respondents were female, middle-aged (mean age 36.9 years), married, and poorly educated. Misconceptions and lack of knowledge about causes of breast cancer were reported. The following (in order of higher to lower prevalence) were cited as potential causes of the condition: Genetic factors or heredity (n = 193, 12.3%); types of food consumed (n = 187, 11.9%); witchcraft and curses (n = 108, 6.9%); some family planning methods (n = 56, 3.6%); and use of alcohol and tobacco (n = 46, 2.9%). When asked what they thought of breast cancer’s severity, the most popular response was “it is a killer disease” (n = 266, 19.7%) a lethal condition about which little or nothing can be done. While opinions about presenting symptoms and signs of breast cancer were able to be elicited, such as an increase in breast size and painful breasts, early-stage symptoms and signs were not widely recognized. Some respondents (14%) were ignorant of available treatment altogether while others felt breast cancer treatment is both dangerous and expensive. A

  17. Effect of excess dietary fluoride on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Miao, L P; Zhou, M Y; Zhang, X Y; Yuan, C; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2017-03-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of excess dietary fluoride (F) on laying performance and antioxidant capacity of laying hens. A total of 576 laying hens, 51 wk old, was randomly divided into 6 groups, each of which included 6 replicates of 16 hens. Graded amounts of sodium fluoride (NaF) were added to the basal diet to achieve concentrations of 16 (control), 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg F, respectively. Dietary F at 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased ADFI, laying rate, and average egg weight, and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in serum total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level or catalase (CAT) concentration among all the treatments, while hens fed F at 800 and 1,000 mg/kg had higher activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) as compared to the control group. Compared with the control group, dietary F at 400 mg/kg increased liver MDA concentration (P < 0.001), and decreased CAT concentration of liver (P < 0.001); 600 mg/kg F decreased liver T-AOC levels (P < 0.001); and 800 mg/kg of F decreased liver total superoxide dismutases (T-SOD) activity (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, feeding F at 600 mg/kg decreased kidney T-AOC levels and T-SOD activity (P < 0.001), and increased MDA concentration of kidney (P < 0.001), while dietary 1,000 mg/kg of F decreased kidney GSH-PX activity (P < 0.05) and CAT concentration (P < 0.001). In conclusion, these results indicated that excessive F ingestion had an adverse effect on laying performance by inducing oxidative stress and impairing the antioxidant system of laying hens.

  18. Effects of dietary L-isoleucine on laying performance and immunomodulation of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dong, X Y; Azzam, M M M; Zou, X T

    2016-10-01

    Isoleucine may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with a lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance and the immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible isoleucine levels during the peak production period. A total number of 400 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, were allocated to 5 dietary treatment groups, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens per replicate (4 cages / replicate; 80 hens / treatment). L-isoleucine was added to the experimental diet (14% CP) containing synthetic amino (methionine, lysine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine) by zero, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding to 0.54%, 0.64%, 0.74%, 0.84, and 0.94% digestible isoleucine, respectively. At the end of the experiment (wk 40), dietary isoleucine did not affect laying performance or egg quality. Serum albumin concentration increased quadratically (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Serum free isoleucine and lysine increased (P < 0.05) in response to digestible dietary isoleucine at 0.74%. Digestible dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the serum concentrations of total antioxidative capability (T-AOC), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD). There was no significant (P > 0.05) response of excess digestible isoleucine level on the serum level of IgG, IgA, or IgM. In addition, dietary isoleucine levels did not affect the concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), or interleukin (IL-2 and IL-6) in the ileum. Also, expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA, sIgA mRNA, and IL-1β mRNA were not changed (P > 0.05) by excess digestible isoleucine level. Furthermore, excess digestible isoleucine level did not change mRNA expression of ileal tight junction protein (claudin-1 and occludin). No effect occurred when isoleucine was supplemented, suggesting that it is

  19. The ancient art of laying rope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, J.; Olsen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of rope-making. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them — and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains why nearly identically appearing ropes can be made from very different materials and it is also the reason behind the unyielding nature of ropes. Maximally rotated strands behave as zero-twist structures. Hence, under strain they neither rotate in one direction nor in the other. The necessity for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes.

  20. Heterosis in normal versus dwarf laying hens.

    PubMed

    Merat, P; Minvielle, F; Bordas, A; Coquerelle, G

    1994-01-01

    The effect of genotype at the sex-linked dwarf locus on heterosis in crosses between a White Leghorn and a brown egg line for body weight, egg production, and related traits was studied. Heterozygous Dw/dw males were used to produce normal and dwarf pullets in each of the pure lines and their reciprocal crosses (eight genotype-line combinations). There were 54 pullets per combination. Line differences were significant for shank length, body weights at 8, 17, and 52 wk, age at first egg, egg number, clutch length, rate of lay, and egg weight. Heterosis was observed for all of these traits. Body weight as a covariate was not important in analyses of egg number, clutch length, and egg weight. The egg production reduction associated with the dw gene in pure lines was smaller in F1 hens. This discovery may be adequate to warrant use of dwarf crossbred hens for egg production.

  1. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P < 0.001) and in the late morning for Flock 2 (all P < 0.001). Overall, 174 incidents of piling behavior were observed between the 2 flocks, with piles varying in size, duration, and time of occurrence; however, no smothering was detected. Crowding on the open litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling.

  2. Understanding the Molecular Determinants of Substrate and Inhibitor Specificities in the Carbapenemase KPC-2: Exploring the Roles of Arg220 and Glu276

    PubMed Central

    Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M.; Taracila, Magdalena A.; Smith, Kerri M.; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    β-Lactamases are important antibiotic resistance determinants expressed by bacteria. By studying the mechanistic properties of β-lactamases, we can identify opportunities to circumvent resistance through the design of novel inhibitors. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis of class A β-lactamases reveals that many enzymes possess a localized positively charged residue (e.g., R220, R244, or R276) that is critical for interactions with β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors. To better understand the contribution of these residues to the catalytic process, we explored the roles of R220 and E276 in KPC-2, a class A β-lactamase that inactivates carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors. Our study reveals that substitutions at R220 of KPC-2 selectively impact catalytic activity toward substrates (50% or greater reduction in kcat/Km). In addition, we find that residue 220 is central to the mechanism of β-lactamase inhibition/inactivation. Among the variants tested at Ambler position 220, the R220K enzyme is relatively “inhibitor susceptible” (Ki of 14 ± 1 μM for clavulanic acid versus Ki of 25 ± 2 μM for KPC-2). Specifically, the R220K enzyme is impaired in its ability to hydrolyze clavulanic acid compared to KPC-2. In contrast, the R220M substitution enzyme demonstrates increased Km values for β-lactamase inhibitors (>100 μM for clavulanic acid versus 25 ± 3 μM for the wild type [WT]), which results in inhibitor resistance. Unlike other class A β-lactamases (i.e., SHV-1 and TEM-1), the amino acid present at residue 276 plays a structural rather than kinetic role with substrates or inhibitors. To rationalize these findings, we constructed molecular models of clavulanic acid docked into the active sites of KPC-2 and the “relatively” clavulanic acid-susceptible R220K variant. These models suggest that a major 3.5-Å shift occurs of residue E276 in the R220K variant toward the active S70 site. We anticipate that this shift alters the shape of the

  3. Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale.

    PubMed

    Yeager, David S; Walton, Gregory M; Brady, Shannon T; Akcinar, Ezgi N; Paunesku, David; Keane, Laura; Kamentz, Donald; Ritter, Gretchen; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Urstein, Robert; Gomez, Eric M; Markus, Hazel Rose; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Dweck, Carol S

    2016-06-14

    Previous experiments have shown that college students benefit when they understand that challenges in the transition to college are common and improvable and, thus, that early struggles need not portend a permanent lack of belonging or potential. Could such an approach-called a lay theory intervention-be effective before college matriculation? Could this strategy reduce a portion of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic achievement gaps for entire institutions? Three double-blind experiments tested this possibility. Ninety percent of first-year college students from three institutions were randomly assigned to complete single-session, online lay theory or control materials before matriculation (n > 9,500). The lay theory interventions raised first-year full-time college enrollment among students from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds exiting a high-performing charter high school network or entering a public flagship university (experiments 1 and 2) and, at a selective private university, raised disadvantaged students' cumulative first-year grade point average (experiment 3). These gains correspond to 31-40% reductions of the raw (unadjusted) institutional achievement gaps between students from disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged backgrounds at those institutions. Further, follow-up surveys suggest that the interventions improved disadvantaged students' overall college experiences, promoting use of student support services and the development of friendship networks and mentor relationships. This research therefore provides a basis for further tests of the generalizability of preparatory lay theories interventions and of their potential to reduce social inequality and improve other major life transitions.

  4. Teaching a lay theory before college narrows achievement gaps at scale

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, David S.; Walton, Gregory M.; Brady, Shannon T.; Akcinar, Ezgi N.; Paunesku, David; Keane, Laura; Kamentz, Donald; Ritter, Gretchen; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Urstein, Robert; Gomez, Eric M.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Dweck, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that college students benefit when they understand that challenges in the transition to college are common and improvable and, thus, that early struggles need not portend a permanent lack of belonging or potential. Could such an approach—called a lay theory intervention—be effective before college matriculation? Could this strategy reduce a portion of racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic achievement gaps for entire institutions? Three double-blind experiments tested this possibility. Ninety percent of first-year college students from three institutions were randomly assigned to complete single-session, online lay theory or control materials before matriculation (n > 9,500). The lay theory interventions raised first-year full-time college enrollment among students from socially and economically disadvantaged backgrounds exiting a high-performing charter high school network or entering a public flagship university (experiments 1 and 2) and, at a selective private university, raised disadvantaged students’ cumulative first-year grade point average (experiment 3). These gains correspond to 31–40% reductions of the raw (unadjusted) institutional achievement gaps between students from disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged backgrounds at those institutions. Further, follow-up surveys suggest that the interventions improved disadvantaged students’ overall college experiences, promoting use of student support services and the development of friendship networks and mentor relationships. This research therefore provides a basis for further tests of the generalizability of preparatory lay theories interventions and of their potential to reduce social inequality and improve other major life transitions. PMID:27247409

  5. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  6. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  7. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. 18.701 Section 18.701 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS... Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. If the witness is not testifying as an expert, the witness'...

  8. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  9. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  10. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is...

  11. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  12. "Physiology in the News": Using Press Releases to Enhance Lay Communication and Introduce Current Physiology Research to Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kevin L.; Poteracki, James M.; Steury, Michael D.; Wehrwein, Erica A.

    2015-01-01

    Michigan State University's senior-level undergraduate physiology capstone laboratory uses a simple exercise termed "Physiology in the News," to help students explore the current research within the field of physiology while also learning to communicate science in lay terms. "Physiology in the News" is an activity that charges…

  13. Effects of colored light-emitting diode illumination on behavior and performance of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Huber-Eicher, B; Suter, A; Spring-Stähli, P

    2013-04-01

    The best method for lighting poultry houses has been an issue for many decades, generating much interest in any new systems that become available. Poultry farmers are now increasingly using colored LED (light-emitting diodes) to illuminate hen houses (e.g., in Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, and England). In Switzerland all newly installed systems are now equipped with LED, preferably green ones. The LED give monochromatic light from different wavelengths and have several advantages over conventional illuminants, including high energy efficiency, long life, high reliability, and low maintenance costs. The following study examines the effects of illumination with white, red, and green LED on behavior and production parameters of laying hens. Light intensities in the 3 treatments were adjusted to be perceived by hens as equal. Twenty-four groups of 25 laying hens were kept in identical compartments (5.0 × 3.3 m) equipped with a litter area, raised perches, feed and drinking facilities, and nest boxes. Initially, they were kept under white LED for a 2-wk adaptation period. For the next 4 wk, 8 randomly chosen compartments were lit with red LED (640 nm) and 8 others with green LED (520 nm). Behavior was monitored during the last 2 wk of the trial. Additionally weight gain, feed consumption, onset of lay, and laying performance were recorded. The results showed minor effects of green light on explorative behavior, whereas red light reduced aggressiveness compared with white light. The accelerating effect of red light on sexual development of laying hens was confirmed, and the trial demonstrated that this effect was due to the specific wavelength and not the intensity of light. However, an additional effect of light intensity may exist and should not be excluded.

  14. Lay navigator model for impacting cancer health disparities.

    PubMed

    Meade, Cathy D; Wells, Kristen J; Arevalo, Mariana; Calcano, Ercilia R; Rivera, Marlene; Sarmiento, Yolanda; Freeman, Harold P; Roetzheim, Richard G

    2014-09-01

    This paper recounts experiences, challenges, and lessons learned when implementing a lay patient navigator program to improve cancer care among medically underserved patients who presented in a primary care clinic with a breast or colorectal cancer abnormality. The program employed five lay navigators to navigate 588 patients. Central programmatic elements were the following: (1) use of bilingual lay navigators with familiarity of communities they served; (2) provision of training, education, and supportive activities; (3) multidisciplinary clinical oversight that factored in caseload intensity; and (4) well-developed partnerships with community clinics and social service entities. Deconstruction of healthcare system information was fundamental to navigation processes. We conclude that a lay model of navigation is well suited to assist patients through complex healthcare systems; however, a stepped care model that includes both lay and professional navigation may be optimal to help patients across the entire continuum.

  15. A new pipelaying experience -- Piggyback to dual lay

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Guinard, M.

    1995-12-31

    On the British Gas North Morecambe Development Project in 1993, the derrick-lay barge DLB 1601 used a dual lay operation. A 3 inch {O} pipeline was laid piggybacked onto a 36 inch {O} pipeline for the shore pull operation and then separated to follow a dual lay for the offshore section. Transformation for piggyback laying mode to the dual lay mode was performed making use of a newly developed transition operation. This paper reports the challenges which had to be met to ensure a successful outcome. Results of various engineering studies are first presented. The set-up and observations of the (onshore) prototype testing are then described. Lastly, the special measures taken for the transition operation and certain field observations during the installation phase are briefly discussed. It is believed that the information presented in this paper will be of use to other similar projects in the future.

  16. Demand for nest boxes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J J; Appleby, M C

    1996-04-01

    Domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from commercial laying strains have been selected for high egg yield and may lay over 300 eggs in their working lives. In conventional wire cages, there is little opportunity to perform either nest seeking or nest building activities, which may lead to frustration each time an egg is laid. To measure the demand for a well-defined nest-site, which may act as a consummatory stimulus for nest seeking behaviour and an appetitive stimulus for nest building behaviour, 16 hens were allowed to work to gain access to a pen containing two littered, enclosed nest boxes. The cost of access to the nest boxes was varied by changing the width of the vertical gap, which divided a home pen containing food, water and a perch from the pen containing the nest boxes (gaps of 220, 140, 125, 110 and 95 mm, compared with mean body width of 117 mm). The number of entries to the nest pen declined with narrowing gap, whilst the number of failed attempts to enter rose, but all 16 hens persevered with entering the nest pen prior to oviposition and laid in the nest boxes. Between 120 and 30 min to oviposition hens made many entries with the 220 mm gap (27.6), but this declined to no entries with 95 mm gap. Hens made few entries in the last half hour prior to ovipositoin (1.3) but there was no significant decline in entries as the gap narrowed (1.1 with 95 mm gap). The number of nest inspections and nest entries also declined with width of gap, but there was no effect on time spent in the nest boxes. Hens passed gaps of 220, and 140 mm to return to the nest pen following oviposition, but did not pass gaps of 125, 110 or 95 mm. We therefore conclude that the narrow gap width can be used to assess the demand for environmental requirements. Hens were willing to pay a high cost to gain access to a nest box prior to oviposition, so prelaying behaviour may be frustrated in hens without a well-defined, littered nest site.

  17. Recent glacial events in the Norwegian North Sea - implications towards a better understanding of charging/leakage of oil fields and its impact oil exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddart, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    of tilting/leakage of oil accumulations through time can be recognized in several oil fields on the Utsira High. The giant Johan Sverdrup discovery oil columns contain paleo-OWC, residual oil zones/paleo-oil columns, and oil shows considerably deeper than the current OWC or residual oil columns. Lundin has performed detailed mapping of the seabed and water column in the Alvheim/Utsira High areas in order to identify areas of gas leakage and its geological manifestations on the seabed and ultimately resulting in the collection of high quality samples. Results shows that gas leakage is prominent over the Alvheim and Utsira High areas and the implications of this to oil exploration will be discussed. In summary, Lundin's approach to oil migration is to better understand the fluid/gas movement throughout the whole basin through time. The talk will focus on the role of glaciations on the timing of charge from the South Viking Graben, fill-spill directions on the Southern Utsira High, the effects of late tilting/leakage on the charge/re-distribution of oil, and seabed / water column characterization and sampling. All placed in the context of oil exploration.

  18. Investigating Teachers' Exploration of a Professional Development Website: An Innovative Approach to Understanding the Factors that Motivate Teachers to Use Internet-Based Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Pamela; Willows, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined an innovative methodology, combining screen capture technology and a retrospective think aloud, for exploring the use of Internet-based resources by elementary teachers. Pre-service and in-service teachers explored "The Balanced Literacy Diet," a free, interactive, and evidenced-informed professional…

  19. The conspiratorial style in lay economic thinking

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of lay perception of economics, and in particular the place of conspiratorial thinking regarding the economic domain. We devised four types of accounts in the economic domain, over a range of questions regarding different aspects of the economy: the classical neo-liberal economic view (which we labeled Econ101), and the Conspiracy view (the destructive outcomes of economy are due to small and powerful groups who are manipulating the markets), to which we added the Government malfunction view (failures in the economy are due to the authorities), and the Bad Invisible Hand view (the invisible hand may go wrong, and the equilibrium reached by its doings may be undesirable). The last two views are the ones most strongly endorsed by our respondents, in the US, Israel and Switzerland. The pattern of inter-correlations between the four accounts, and that between each and the psycho-social variables we examined, exhibits two clusters, Econ101 vs. the other three views of economy. This corresponds to a general opposition between people who trust the neoliberal economic system, and those opposed to it. What sets economic conspiratorial thinking apart are its links with other conspirational beliefs and with paranormal beliefs. PMID:28257506

  20. The conspiratorial style in lay economic thinking.

    PubMed

    Leiser, David; Duani, Nofar; Wagner-Egger, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of lay perception of economics, and in particular the place of conspiratorial thinking regarding the economic domain. We devised four types of accounts in the economic domain, over a range of questions regarding different aspects of the economy: the classical neo-liberal economic view (which we labeled Econ101), and the Conspiracy view (the destructive outcomes of economy are due to small and powerful groups who are manipulating the markets), to which we added the Government malfunction view (failures in the economy are due to the authorities), and the Bad Invisible Hand view (the invisible hand may go wrong, and the equilibrium reached by its doings may be undesirable). The last two views are the ones most strongly endorsed by our respondents, in the US, Israel and Switzerland. The pattern of inter-correlations between the four accounts, and that between each and the psycho-social variables we examined, exhibits two clusters, Econ101 vs. the other three views of economy. This corresponds to a general opposition between people who trust the neoliberal economic system, and those opposed to it. What sets economic conspiratorial thinking apart are its links with other conspirational beliefs and with paranormal beliefs.

  1. Lay Conceptions of Sexual Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; LaFrance, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Bisexual people are often implored to "pick a side," implying that bisexuality is both more controllable and less desirable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. Bisexual people's status as a social group perceived to fall between a traditionally advantaged group and a traditionally disadvantaged group may have the potential to clarify lay conceptions of sexual orientation. We examined participants' views of groups varying in sexual orientation by randomly assigning participants (including heterosexual men and women as well as gay men and lesbian women) from four samples to evaluate heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual targets (N = 1379). Results provided strong evidence for the previously untested theoretical argument that bisexuality is perceived as less stable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. In addition, participants low in Personal Need for Structure rated female (but not male) bisexuality as relatively stable, suggesting that a preference for simple, binary thinking can partially explain a negative conception of an ostensibly "intermediate" identity. Bisexual targets were perceived as falling between heterosexual and homosexual targets in terms of gender nonconformity, and less decisive, less monogamous, and lacking in positive traits that were associated with homosexual targets. In sum, views of bisexual people were both more negative than and qualitatively different from views of gay men and lesbian women. We discuss the results as an illustration of the complex ways that perceivers' attitudes can differ depending on which target groups they are considering, suggesting that intergroup bias cannot be fully understood without attending to social categories viewed as intermediate.

  2. Psychological well-being and social support among elders employed as lay helpers.

    PubMed

    Gammonley, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Impacts on lay helpers of participation in part-time work supporting rural elders with severe mental illness were explored in a group of 17 older adults employed in a demonstration project. Self-rated well-being and social support were assessed over 1 year. Ratings of autonomy and positive relations with others varied over 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of social support provided showed a trend toward improvement at 1 year. Results are considered in the context of role theory and illustrated with an ethnographic case study of the service environment. The lay helper role is a form of productive engagement through paid caregiving, with potential to supplement rural mental health service systems while supporting elders' needs for meaningful civic engagement.

  3. Lay health mentors in community-based older adult disability prevention programs: provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Almas; Capitman, John A

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we explored provider perspectives on the benefits of and implementation challenges in using lay health mentor peers in a community-based replication of an efficacious 12-month older adult disability prevention program. In addition, we describe the association of the mentor program with site features and program completion. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with nurses, social workers, and site managers and obtained primary data on site features and secondary data on program completion. Major themes included the importance of the health mentor program and implementation challenges. Sites with mentor programs were more likely to have older adults complete the program compared with sites without mentor programs. Rural, small, and less diverse sites were more likely to have health mentor programs than urban, large, and more diverse sites. Implications include a need to fund more lay health mentor programs, obtain adequate staffing including minority staff for health mentor support, and implement strategies to improve program efficiency.

  4. What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women.

  5. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  6. Exogenous estradiol improves shell strength in laying hens at the end of the laying period

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cracked shells, due to age related reduction of shell quality, are a costly problem for the industry. Parallel to reduced shell quality the skeleton becomes brittle resulting in bone fractures. Calcium, a main prerequisite for both eggshell and bone, is regulated by estrogen in a complex manner. The effects of estrogen, given in a low continuous dose, were studied regarding factors involved in age related changes in shell quality and bone strength of laying hens. A pellet containing 0.385 mg estradiol 3-benzoate (21-day-release) or placebo was inserted subcutaneously in 20 birds each of Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL) and Lohmann Brown (LB) at 70 weeks of age. Eggs were collected before and during the experiment for shell quality measurements. Blood samples for analysis of total calcium were taken three days after the insertion and at sacrifice (72 weeks). Right femur was used for bone strength measurements and tissue samples from duodenum and shell gland were processed for morphology, immunohistochemical localization of estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and histochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase (CA). Results Estrogen treatment increased shell thickness of both hybrids. In addition, shell weight and shell deformation improved in eggs from the brown hybrids. The more pronounced effect on eggs from the brown hybrid may be due to a change in sensitivity to estrogen, especially in surface epithelial cells of the shell gland, shown as an altered ratio between ERα and ERβ. A regulatory effect of estrogen on CA activity, but not PMCA, was seen in both duodenum and shell gland, and a possible connection to shell quality is discussed. Bone strength was unaffected by treatment, but femur was stronger in LSL birds suggesting that the hybrids differ in calcium allocation between shell and bone at the end of the laying period. Plasma calcium concentrations and egg production were unaffected. Conclusions A low

  7. AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -3 8 Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation G eo te ch ni ca l a nd...Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program ERDC/GSL TR-14-38 September 2014 AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation Timothy W. Rushing, Lyan...brickwork pattern. Therefore, the 3-4 alternate lay pattern was designed to allow Marines to use any mats on hand to fill in designated portions of the

  8. Lay Worker Health Literacy: A Concept Analysis and Operational Definition.

    PubMed

    Cadman, Kathleen Paco

    2017-04-13

    The concept of lay worker health literacy is created by concurrently analyzing and synthesizing two intersecting concepts, lay workers and health literacy. Articulation of this unique intersection is the result of implementing a simplified Wilson's Concept Analysis Procedure. This process incorporates the following components: a) selecting a concept, b) determining the aims/purposes of analysis, c) identifying all uses of the concept, d) determining defining attributes, e) identifying a model case, f) identifying borderline, related, contrary, and illegitimate cases, g) identifying antecedents and consequences, and h) defining empirical referents. Furthermore, as current literature provides no operational definition for lay worker health literacy, one is created to contribute cohesion to the concept.

  9. Lay people's perceptions of sexually transmitted infections in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nuwaha, F; Faxelid, E; Neema, S; Höjer, B

    1999-11-01

    In order to understand lay people's perceptions of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with community members and patients with STIs in Mbarara and Kampala, Uganda. Symptoms of common STIs and the modes of transmission methods were known. STIs were perceived as naturalistic diseases caused by a tiny insect called akakoko or akawutka, although female infertility, one of the common complications of STIs, was perceived as a supernatural ailment. There was no stigma towards people with AIDS, although stigma towards people with other STIs was high. There were also strong negative attitudes towards the use of condoms. More than 60% of the patients interviewed had received treatment from the informal sector which included self-treatment and traditional healers. To reduce the incidence and complications of STIs, there may be a need to collaborate with the informal sector, to further evaluate the beliefs and practices identified in this study and to target them for health education.

  10. Ohtsuki Kenji and the beginnings of lay analysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Blowers, G; Chi, S Y

    2001-02-01

    The authors outline the major role played by Ohtsuki Kenji in the formation of the Japanese Psychoanalytic Society. Unlike the other pioneers of psychoanalysis in Japan, Ohtsuki never went abroad or met Freud. He was a literature graduate who taught himself the fundamentals of psychoanalysis. He organised the translation of Freud's complete works, formed a psychoanalytic training institute and started a journal that carried English-language editorials. These became the major means whereby foreign analysts came to know and understand the Japanese psychoanalytic scene. A number of rival groups amalgamated to form the Japanese Psychoanalytical Association in the mid-fifties, excluding Ohtsuki's group despite its pre-war prominence. The authors reconsider Ohtsuki's role in the light of his many articles, his autobiography, new information uncovered in interviews conducted with current analysts and with Ohtsuki's widow and son. They describe his championing of lay analysis, and his criticisms of medicalisation of the discipline and of the view from abroad that questioned the suitability of Japanese culture for psychoanalytic therapy, as well as his efforts to modify some of the basic tenets of psychoanalysis to accord with his own views in his later work.

  11. Incidence, Severity, and Welfare Implications of Lesions Observed Postmortem in Laying Hens from Commercial Noncage Farms in California and Iowa.

    PubMed

    Kajlich, Anya S; Shivaprasad, H L; Trampel, Darrell W; Hill, Ashley E; Parsons, Rebecca L; Millman, Suzanne T; Mench, Joy A

    2016-03-01

    The egg industry is moving away from the use of conventional cages to enriched cage and noncage laying hen housing systems because of animal welfare concerns. In this study, the prevalence and severity of lesions in noncage laying hens from commercial farms in two of the largest egg-producing states, California and Iowa, were evaluated by postmortem examination. Hens that died or were culled were collected during early, mid, and late stages of the laying cycle from 16 houses on three farms. Of the 25 gross lesions identified for study, 22 were observed, with an average of four lesions per hen. Vent cannibalism, reduced feather cover, keel bone deformation, and beak abnormalities were the most frequent lesions, observed in ≥40% of hens. Other common lesions were cloacal prolapse (30.5%), footpad dermatitis (24.3%), and septicemia (23.1%). Beak abnormality and enteric disease had the highest proportion of severe lesions. Pearson chi-square analysis revealed a number of stage-of-lay effects (P ≤ 0.05), some of which differed by state. For both states combined, the lesions observed more frequently during early lay were beak abnormalities, northern fowl mite infestation, and cage layer fatigue, whereas during mid lay, they were poor feather cover, vent cannibalism, footpad dermatitis, keel bone deformation, respiratory disease and roundworms. Feather pecking and cloacal prolapse were most common during late lay. Although differences in hen genetics, farm management practices, and environmental factors could all have affected the results of this study, the information provides a better understanding of hen health in noncage housing systems and could help to identify potential interventions to reduce hen welfare problems.

  12. An Exploration of the Concept Map as an Interview Tool To Facilitate the Externalization of Students' Understandings about Global Atmospheric Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rye, James A.; Rubba, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of two different types of interviews: one that embeds a concept map, and one that does not embed a concept map in order to elicit post-instructional understandings. Focuses on students' understandings of chlorofluorocarbons and their role in global atmospheric change. Contains 71 references. (DDR)

  13. [Fatty liver syndrome in laying hens].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A; Antonov, S; Stoianov, P; Petrova, L; Aleksandrova, E

    1980-01-01

    Pathomorphological and biochemical investigations on liver and blood serum laying hens affected by the liver obesity syndrome were carried out. It was established that the mortality due to the liver obesity syndrome varies within the range of 3.1 and 3.7% for the entire period of exploitation. A rise in mortality is observed in case fodder mixtures with higher peroxide and aldehyde number are prepared. Besides the typical changes in the liver, the pathologo-anatomical investigation established varying in its expression duodenitis of rupture of the liver and hemorrhage. In hens suffering from advanced liver obesity an increased content of total protein in the blood serum was observed. The relative and absolute content of prealbumens and albumens was also higher, while the content of globulins was relatively lower. The content of beta-lipoproteins was raised and total lipids in the blood serum were considerably increased. The investigation on total lipids and lipid fractions in the liver established a correlation between the extent of obesity and the content of total lipids. A trend toward increasing the total and particularly the esterificated holesterin was evident in affected birds. The chemical investigation of various lots of fodder mixtures established often cases of rancid fats, which was manifested by high values of the peroxide and aldehyde number. The aminoacid composition of fodder also varied too much. It is assumed that besides the genetic control of liver obesity rancid fats and insufficient content of essential amino acids in the fodder mixtures also lead to an increased mortality percentage in the affected birds.

  14. Exploring the Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) space exploration studies, focusing on Voyager at Saturn, advanced Jupiter exploration, infrared observatory, space telescope, Dynamics Explorers (satellites designed to provide understanding of earth/sun energy relationship), and ozone studies. (JN)

  15. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  16. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens. PMID:27282970

  17. Exploring multi/full polarised SAR imagery for understanding surface soil moisture and roughness by using semi-empirical and theoretical models and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lu; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean countries are at high risk for an even pronounced susceptibility to water stress and drought, which is expected to have severe direct impact on agricultural productivity. Improved knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of near surface soil moisture, as monitored by remote sensing, can be used to better mitigate and adapt to severe drought situations by means of adjusted irrigation strategies. The presented project is aiming to conjointly employ field monitoring and spaceborne SAR to support adaptive water resources management and best agricultural practice. To make substantial progress in decision-making for an optimised irrigation strategy, a regular, e.g. weekly, monitoring of near surface soil moisture in various agricultural land-uses is anticipated. This becomes possible with current co-polarised ENVISAT/ASAR Alternating Polarisation (AP) Mode imagery (C-band). However, since the backscattering signal is affected by several surface characteristics, a better measurement/estimation of surface roughness is crucial in retrieving near-surface soil moisture. The sensor PALSAR, on board ALOS, and the more recently launched satellite-Radarsat-2 provide new opportunities to retrieve information about surface roughness by means of full-polarised, high-resolution L-band and C-band radar data respectively. It is expected that these data sources can be utilised to better separate the dielectric from the surface roughness component in radar backscattering. For parameter retrieval and validation, intensive in-situ measurements are conducted in a fully equipped agricultural area in a Mediterranean environment in Sardinia, Italy, while ENVISAT/ASAR, ALOS/PALSAR and Radarsat-2 data are acquired. A close range digital photogrammetric technique is applied to monitor surface roughness. This paper is aiming at exploring the capability of ENVISAT/ASAR AP Mode imagery and Radarsat-2 data for near surface soil moisture inversion using ALOS/PALSAR and close

  18. Science and the lay perspective: lay people's involvement in assessing tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zoeller, Katharina

    2014-10-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) is a scientific field that will have an influence on our daily lives. It has the potential to revolutionize medical treatments, but it has also an impact on our human image and is associated with potential risks and ethical aspects. Among the publicly controversial issues are embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, cloning, uncertainties regarding risks and informed consent issues. To maintain public confidence in the science of TE, a good solution is public dialogues with patients and other interested lay people that gives the public the chance to independently evaluate TE issues and build their own opinion based on information from different perspectives. The article describes public participation projects in TE on stem cell research and gene therapy and presents the case study of the EU-Gene Activated Matrices for Bone and Cartilage Regeneration on Arthritis (GAMBA) panels, a dialogue with patient and citizen panels in three European countries. In the GAMBA panels, lay participants assessed the basic research project aimed at finding ways of healing osteoarthritis through a matrix composed of adult stem cells, gene vectors, nanoparticles, and biomaterials. The results of the dialogues in different countries, such as Denmark, Japan, Ireland, Switzerland, and Germany, are compared and the evaluation criteria for high quality dialogues are presented, including multiperspectivity, openness of results, a clear mandate, impartial facilitation of the panels, and transparency.

  19. Age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system promotes matricidal hatching in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Christopher L; Kornfeld, Kerry

    2013-08-01

    The identification and characterization of age-related degenerative changes is a critical goal because it can elucidate mechanisms of aging biology and contribute to understanding interventions that promote longevity. Here, we document a novel, age-related degenerative change in C. elegans hermaphrodites, an important model system for the genetic analysis of longevity. Matricidal hatching--intra-uterine hatching of progeny that causes maternal death--displayed an age-related increase in frequency and affected ~70% of mated, wild-type hermaphrodites. The timing and incidence of matricidal hatching were largely independent of the levels of early and total progeny production and the duration of male exposure. Thus, matricidal hatching appears to reflect intrinsic age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system rather than use-dependent damage accumulation. Consistent with this model, mutations that extend longevity by causing dietary restriction significantly delayed matricidal hatching, indicating age-related degeneration of the egg-laying system is controlled by nutrient availability. To identify the underlying tissue defect, we analyzed serotonin signaling that triggers vulval muscle contractions. Mated hermaphrodites displayed an age-related decline in the ability to lay eggs in response to exogenous serotonin, indicating that vulval muscles and/or a further downstream function that is necessary for egg laying degenerate in an age-related manner. By characterizing a new, age-related degenerative event displayed by C. elegans hermaphrodites, these studies contribute to understanding a frequent cause of death in mated hermaphrodites and establish a model of age-related reproductive complications that may be relevant to the birthing process in other animals such as humans.

  20. Alaska Resource Data File, Point Lay quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Point Lay 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  1. Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

  2. Perch use by laying hens in a commercial aviary1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. L. M.; Makagon, M. M.; Swanson, J. C.; Siegford, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-cage housing systems, such as the aviary, are being implemented by the laying hen industry, including in North America, in an attempt to improve the welfare of hens. Perches are a resource that is consistently included in aviaries. Hens are strongly motivated to perch, and perching can improve leg bone strength. However, hens may prefer elevated perches, particularly at night, and thus simply providing perches is not enough to improve welfare; they must be provided in a way that allows all hens to access them. Observations of laying hens using perches and ledges (flat, solid metal shelves to assist hens’ movement between tiers) in a commercial aviary revealed variation in where hens roosted within the tiered aviary enclosure across the flock cycle (peak, mid and end of lay; P < 0.001 for all age points). Hens most often preferred roosting in the highest enclosure levels, leading to crowding on upper perches and ledges while perch space remained available on lower levels. Restricted access to preferable perches may cause frustration in hens, leading to welfare issues. Hens roosted more on perches at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001) but roosted less on ledges at peak lay than mid and end lay (P < 0.001). Additionally, more hens roosted on both perches and ledges in the ‘dark’ observation period compared with the number of hens roosting during the ‘light’ observation period (P < 0.001). Further research should look at all structural elements within the system that are used by hens for roosting, such as edges of tiers and upper wire floors, to evaluate how changes in perching preferences across the lay cycle may correlate with system design and bird-based parameters. PMID:26994206

  3. The age of production system and previous Salmonella infections on-farm are risk factors for low-level Salmonella infections in laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorebeke, S; Van Immerseel, F; De Vylder, J; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F; de Kruif, A; Dewulf, J

    2010-06-01

    An explorative field study was carried out to determine risk factors for Salmonella infections in commercial laying hen flocks. For this purpose, 29 laying hen farms, including farms using conventional and alternative housing systems, were intensively sampled. An on-farm questionnaire was used to collect information on general management practices and specific characteristics of the sampled flock such as flock size, age of the hens, and age of the infrastructure. Salmonella was detected in laying hens from 6 of the 29 sampled farms. Using multivariate logistic regression with the Salmonella status of the flock as an outcome variable, a previous Salmonella contamination on the farm and the age of the production system were identified as risk factors for the presence of Salmonella in laying hens (P<0.05). The housing system did not have a significant influence on the prevalence of Salmonella in the current study.

  4. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Fröhlich, Ernst K F

    2015-11-27

    Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely.

  5. Lay health workers and HIV programmes: implications for health systems.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Lehmann, U

    2010-01-01

    One of the consequences of massive investment in antiretroviral access and other AIDS programmes has been the rapid emergence of large numbers of lay workers in the health systems of developing countries. In South Africa, government estimates are 65,000, mostly HIV/TB care-related lay workers contribute their labour in the public health sector, outnumbering the main front-line primary health care providers and professional nurses. The phenomenon has grown organically and incrementally, playing a wide variety of care-giving, support and advocacy roles. Using South Africa as a case, this paper discusses the different forms, traditions and contradictory orientations taken by lay health work and the system-wide effects of a large lay worker presence. As pressures to regularise and formalize the status of lay health workers grow, important questions are raised as to their place in health systems, and more broadly what they represent as a new intermediary layer between state and citizen. It argues for a research agenda that seeks to better characterise types of lay involvement in the health system, particularly in an era of antiretroviral therapy, and which takes a wider perspective on the meanings of this recent re-emergence of an old concept in health systems heavily affected by HIV/AIDS.

  6. Working on Mars: Understanding How Scientists, Engineers and Rovers Interacted Across Space and Time during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana C.

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation summarizes the scheduling and planning difficulties inherent in operating the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) during the overlapping terrestrial day and Martian sol. The presentation gives special empahsis to communication between the teams controlling the rovers from Earth, and keeping track of time on the two planets.

  7. Playing the Field(s): An Exploration of Change, Conformity and Conflict in Girls' Understandings of Gendered Physicality in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on data from a year-long ethnographic study of a group of 12- to 13-year-old girls that explored the processes through which they negotiated gendered physicality within the context of physical education. Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and social fields and McNay's extension of his work underpin a discussion of three contexts where…

  8. Pragmatic Abilities in Children with Congenital Visual Impairment: An Exploration of Non-Literal Language and Advanced Theory of Mind Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijnacker, Judith; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Children with congenital visual impairment have been reported to be delayed in theory of mind development. So far, research focused on first-order theory of mind, and included mainly blind children, whereas the majority of visually impaired children is not totally blind. The present study set out to explore whether children with a broader range of…

  9. Exploring Elementary Science Methods Course Contexts to Improve Preservice Teachers' NOS of Science Conceptions and Understandings of NOS Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Weiland, Ingrid; Rogers, Meredith Park; Pongsanon, Khemmawaddee; Bilican, Kader

    2014-01-01

    We explored adaptations to an elementary science methods course to determine how varied contexts could improve elementary preservice teachers' conceptions of NOS as well as their ideas for teaching NOS to elementary students. The contexts were (a) NOS Theme in which the course focused on the teaching of science through the consistent teaching…

  10. Exploring the Use of Slow Motion Animation (Slowmation) as a Teaching Strategy to Develop Year 4 Students' Understandings of Equivalent Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Kristy

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, as a beginning teacher in a Western Sydney school, the author explored slow motion animation ("slowmation") as a strategy for teaching Year 4 students about equivalent fractions. She taught at this school five days a week, teaching Kindergarten, Year 4, and Year 5. Slowmation can be defined as a simplified version of claymation…

  11. Latino men’s qualitative perspectives on a lay health advisor intervention to promote their sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Wagoner, Kim G.; Downs, Mario; Alonzo, Jorge; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Lay health advisor (LHA) approaches are a promising strategy to reduce health disparities among communities considered “hard to reach” by researchers and practitioners. LHAs have addressed a variety of health issues, but limited studies have included men as LHAs. The purpose of this to study was to better understand the roles of male LHAs and their male-helping relationships. We used an inductive approach to explore Latino men’s perspectives on serving as LHAs for other Latino men and Latino men’s views on receiving sexual health information from a male LHA. We collected qualitative data in 2009 and 2010 as part of an LHA intervention designed to reduce the risk of HIV infection among immigrant Latinos through the social networks of soccer teams. We analyzed and interpreted data from 30 in-depth interviews with Latino men who served as LHAs and their social networks in North Carolina, USA. Participants shared perceptions on social network importance for immigrant Latinos, facilitators and challenges of helping other men, recommendations for intervention modification, and suggestions for future work involving the Latino community. Findings revealed that Latino men are receptive to fulfilling the roles of health advisors and opinion leaders and can effectively serve as LHAs. Social network members valued the social support they received. Working through sports teams and identifying existing leaders to be LHAs may be a culturally congruent approach to meeting Latino community needs. More research is needed on the potential of male LHAs to address other health issues. PMID:25475213

  12. Transcriptome profiling of the hypothalamus during prelaying and laying periods in Sichuan white geese (Anser cygnoides).

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangliang; Li, Qin; Zhao, Xianzhi; Ding, Ning; Han, Qing; Su, Jian; Wang, Qigui

    2015-08-01

    The Sichuan White goose is a Chinese breed well known for the quality of its meat. However, reproductive performance in this goose is not ideal, and little information is available regarding the abundance of transcripts. To better understand the molecular mechanism(s) underpinning prelaying and laying periods in the Sichuan white goose, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed to analyze the transcriptome in the hypothalamus. After sequencing and annotation, 26,921 unigenes were obtained, with 48 transcripts up-regulated in the prelaying period and 180 transcripts up-regulated during the laying period. These transcripts were primarily related to diseases, cancers, signaling molecules and interactions, the nervous system and the immune system. Eight transcripts were selected for further analyses with quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The qRT-PCR results were mostly consistent with those from the high-throughput RNA sequencing. Among these transcripts, serine/threonine-protein kinase (AMPK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were differentially expressed during the prelaying and laying periods. The results of this study provide a useful resource for future studies examining the hypothalamus in geese.

  13. Autism spectrum disorder etiology: Lay beliefs and the role of cultural values and social axioms.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Zaroff, Charles M; Bernardo, Allan Bi

    2016-08-01

    Recent research examining the explanations given by the public (i.e. lay beliefs) for autism spectrum disorder often reveals a reasonably accurate understanding of the biogenetic basis of the disorder. However, lay beliefs often manifest aspects of culture, and much of this work has been conducted in western cultures. In this study, 215 undergraduate university students in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China, completed self-report measures assessing two beliefs concerning autism spectrum disorder etiology: (1) a belief in parental factors and (2) a belief in genetic factors. Potential correlates of lay beliefs were sought in culture-specific values, and more universal social axioms. Participants were significantly more likely to endorse parenting, relative to genetic factors, as etiological. A perceived parental etiology was predicted by values of mind-body holism. Beliefs in a parental etiology were not predicted by values assessing collectivism, conformity to norms, a belief in a family's ability to obtain recognition through a child's achievement, or interpersonal harmony, nor by the social axioms measured (e.g. social cynicism, reward for application, social complexity, fate control, and religiosity). Beliefs in a genetic etiology were not predicted by either culture-specific values or social axioms. Implications of the current results are discussed.

  14. Motion Picture Effects on Public Understanding, Recruitment and Retention in the Military: Exploring the Situational Factors of Involvement and Celebrity Influence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    formative or evaluative research method for Army Public Affairs practitioners. Practical Application If the medium is truly the message as McLuhan ...the lack of past research by affording more research populations. McLuhan --known for exploring the possibilities of technological determinism by...is the viewing environment. Can low involvement be aroused in the largely distraction-free dark mystery of the movie house? McLuhan (1967) boldly

  15. How Pre-Service Teachers Navigate Trade-Offs of Food Systems across Time Scales: A Lens for Exploring Understandings of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Lina; Hayes, Kathryn; Trexler, Cary J.

    2017-01-01

    In response to the increasing recognition of the need for sustainable food systems, research on students' and educators' knowledge of food systems and sustainability more broadly has grown but has generally focused on what people "fail" to understand. Moving away from this deficit approach, the present study used semi-structured…

  16. Exploring Musical Expectations: Understanding the Impact of a Year-Long Primary School Music Project in the Context of School, Home and Prior Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Stephanie E.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a year-long project carried out in three UK primary schools, which aimed to understand the expectations and experiences of children participating in a series of workshops delivered by the chamber music organisation, Music in the Round. Through drawings, discussions, questionnaires and observations, the children's developing…

  17. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  18. Exploring the Relationships between Independent Listening and Listening-Reading-Writing Tasks in Chinese Language Testing: Toward a Better Understanding of the Construct Underlying Integrated Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xinhua; Li, Xueyan; Yu, Guoxing; Cheong, Choo Mui; Liao, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Integrated assessment tasks have been increasingly used in language tests, but the underlying constructs of integrated tasks remain elusive. This study aimed to improve understanding of the construct of integrated writing tasks in Chinese Language examinations in Hong Kong by looking at the language competences measured in the…

  19. Impact of commercial housing systems and nutrient and energy intake on laying hen performance and egg quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Karcher, D M; Jones, D R; Abdo, Z; Zhao, Y; Shepherd, T A; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    The US egg industry is exploring alternative housing systems for laying hens. However, limited published research related to cage-free aviary systems and enriched colony cages exists related to production, egg quality, and hen nutrition. The laying hen's nutritional requirements and resulting productivity are well established with the conventional cage system, but diminutive research is available in regards to alternative housing systems. The restrictions exist with limited availability of alternative housing systems in research settings and the considerable expense for increased bird numbers in a replicate due to alternative housing system design. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of nutrient and energy intake on production and egg quality parameters from laying hens housed at a commercial facility. Lohmann LSL laying hens were housed in three systems: enriched colony cage, cage-free aviary, and conventional cage at a single commercial facility. Daily production records were collected along with dietary changes during 15 production periods (28-d each). Eggs were analyzed for shell strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, vitelline membrane properties, and egg solids each period. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) coupled with a principal components analysis (PCA) approach was utilized to assess the impact of nutritional changes on production parameters and monitored egg quality factors. The traits of hen-day production and mortality had a response only in the PCA 2 direction. This finds that as house temperature and Met intake increases, there is an inflection point at which hen-day egg production is negatively effected. Dietary changes more directly influenced shell parameters, vitelline membrane parameters, and egg total solids as opposed to laying hen housing system. Therefore, further research needs to be conducted in controlled research settings on laying hen nutrient and energy intake in the alternative housing systems

  20. Pushing the boundaries of lawful assisted dying in The Netherlands? Existential suffering and lay assistance.

    PubMed

    Ost, Suzanne; Mullock, Alexandra

    2011-03-01

    Two matters that have a significant presence in the contemporary Dutch assisted dying debate, are the nature of the suffering required for an assisted death to be lawful, and the issue of who can lawfully assist. This article explores whether the lawful medical assisted dying model is too restrictive in failing to recognise existential suffering, considering selected case studies involving such suffering and lay assisted death. It addresses the question whether The Netherlands would take a trip down a slippery slope if the lawful model of assisted death were extended to cases where individuals are 'tired of life'.

  1. Cross-cultural perspectives on physician and lay models of the common cold.

    PubMed

    Baer, Roberta D; Weller, Susan C; de Alba García, Javier García; Rocha, Ana L Salcedo

    2008-06-01

    We compare physicians and laypeople within and across cultures, focusing on similarities and differences across samples, to determine whether cultural differences or lay-professional differences have a greater effect on explanatory models of the common cold. Data on explanatory models for the common cold were collected from physicians and laypeople in South Texas and Guadalajara, Mexico. Structured interview materials were developed on the basis of open-ended interviews with samples of lay informants at each locale. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from each sample on causes, symptoms, and treatments for the common cold. Consensus analysis was used to estimate the cultural beliefs for each sample. Instead of systematic differences between samples based on nationality or level of professional training, all four samples largely shared a single-explanatory model of the common cold, with some differences on subthemes, such as the role of hot and cold forces in the etiology of the common cold. An evaluation of our findings indicates that, although there has been conjecture about whether cultural or lay-professional differences are of greater importance in understanding variation in explanatory models of disease and illness, systematic data collected on community and professional beliefs indicate that such differences may be a function of the specific illness. Further generalizations about lay-professional differences need to be based on detailed data for a variety of illnesses, to discern patterns that may be present. Finally, a systematic approach indicates that agreement across individual explanatory models is sufficient to allow for a community-level explanatory model of the common cold.

  2. Evaluation of dietary calcium requirements for laying Longyan shelducks.

    PubMed

    Xia, W G; Zhang, H X; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T

    2015-12-01

    To establish the dietary Ca requirements for laying ducks during their peak laying period, 5 Ca levels (2.8, 3.2, 3.6, 4.0, and 4.4%) were used, and laying performance, eggshell quality, serum variables, and bone quality were examined. A total of 1,620 Longyan shelducks with similar BW at 20 wk of age were fed for 13 wk in 5 treatment groups, each with 4 replicates of 81 birds. Dietary Ca increased egg production and egg mass (linear, P<0.01) and reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR), but egg weight was not affected. Dietary Ca level did not affect eggshell properties or any reproductive organ index except for shell weight (highest with the 4.0% Ca diet, P<0.05). Serum concentrations of Ca and calcitonin increased with dietary Ca level (linear, P<0.01), and a quadratic response (P<0.01) was seen in alkaline phosphatase activity; the highest values were in ducks fed the 3.6% Ca diet. Tibial fresh weight was affected by dietary Ca (linear and quadratic, P<0.05) with tibiae from the 2.8% Ca ducks weighing less than those from ducks fed any other Ca level. Other tibial measurements were unaffected by dietary Ca. According to the regression model, the Ca levels required for laying Longyan shelducks during their peak laying period are 3.4 and 3.2% for maximal serum alkaline phosphatase activity and tibial fresh weight, respectively. The results showed that diets containing 3.2 to 3.6% Ca provide for superior productive performance and bone quality in laying Longyan shelducks during their peak laying period.

  3. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  4. The emotional wellbeing of lay HIV counselling and testing counsellors.

    PubMed

    Visser, Maretha; Mabota, Princess

    2015-01-01

    The HIV testing, treatment and care programme of the South African public healthcare system depends on HIV counselling and testing (HCT) that is primarily delivered by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors are expected to educate clients about HIV/AIDS, advocate behaviour change, convey test results and support those infected and affected to cope with the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this influences the quality of services they provide. A mixed methods approach was used. The emotional wellbeing, level of burnout, depression and coping style of 50 lay HCT counsellors working at the City of Tshwane clinics were assessed. Additionally, five focus group discussions were conducted. The results showed that HCT counsellors reported average emotional wellbeing, high levels of emotional exhaustion and depression. They had a sense of personal accomplishment and positive coping skills. The results revealed that they may have difficulty dealing with clients' emotional distress without adequate training and supervision. This creates a dilemma for service delivery. In the light of the important role they play in service delivery, the role of the lay HCT counsellor needs to be reconsidered. HCT should develop as a profession with specific training and supervision to develop their emotional competencies to conduct effective counselling sessions.

  5. Lay theories of anorexia nervosa: a discourse analytic study.

    PubMed

    Benveniste, J; Lecouteur, A; Hepworth, J

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies on lay theories of anorexia nervosa have examined the 'accuracy' of lay knowledge, and the identification of factors by family and friends that would encourage early interventions (Huon, Brown, & Morris, 1988, 7, 239-252; Murray, Touyz, & Beumont, 1990, 9, 87-93). In contrast to these approaches, we examine lay theories of anorexia nervosa using a critical psychology perspective. We argue that the use of a discourse analysis methodology enables the examination of the construction of lay theories through dominant concepts and ideas. Ten semi-structured interviews with five women and five men aged between 15 and 25 years were carried out. Participants were asked questions about three main aspects of anorexia nervosa: aetiology, treatment and relationship to gender. Each interview was analysed in terms of the structure, function and variability of discourse. Three discourses: sociocultural, individual and femininity, are discussed in relation to the interview questions. We conclude that, in this study, lay theories of anorexia nervosa were structured through key discourses that maintained a separation between sociocultural aspects of anorexia nervosa and individual psychology. This separation exists in dominant psychomedical conceptualizations of anorexia nervosa, reinforcing the concept that it is a form of psychopathology.

  6. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the understanding of the regional setting of base metal deposits in the North West Cape Province, South Africa. [mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.

  7. Making sense of dementia: Exploring the use of the Markers of Assimilation of Problematic Experiences in Dementia scale to understand how couples process a diagnosis of dementia.

    PubMed

    Snow, Katie; Cheston, Richard; Smart, Cordet

    2016-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to see whether the Markers of Assimilation of Problematic Experiences in Dementia (MAPED) scale could be applied to couples. It aimed to explore the interactions between couples and how this affected the levels of assimilation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four heterosexual couples. The results suggested that MAPED can be usefully applied to couples. It highlighted the oscillating process which couples undergo as they process a dementia diagnosis. This supports the notion that making sense of a dementia diagnosis is not static, but a fluctuating and ever changing process. The strategies couples employed either facilitated or prevented the expression and integration of the Problematic Voice. The study highlights the importance of supporting couples together during a dementia diagnosis.

  8. GPS and GIS integration in cable laying applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, B.; Balis, V.; Liapakis, C.

    1995-12-31

    Cable laying applications require real time positioning related to information included in maps. GPS technology provides the most reliable real time positioning and timing while GIS is the most appropriate environment for managing maps in digital form. Experienced from projects already undertaken has shown that it is crucial to enrich the positioning information with spatial and dynamic data. Specifically, cable laying activities need position to be combined with information related to seafloor morphology, seabed geomorphology, coastline, etc. together with information like sea current velocity, laid cable length, cable tension, etc. Based on the above approach, the design of a navigating and monitoring system for cable laying in introduced. The system is built on a GIS platform connected to the appropriate spatial database and is attached to GPS receiver and the necessary sensors.

  9. Exploring application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour to self-injurious behaviour among women prisoners: Proposing a new model of understanding.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Jane L; York, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the application of capacity, psychological distress, coping and personality to an understanding of self-injurious behaviour, with a specific focus on testing the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behaviour (IPTSB). One hundred and ninety women prisoners took part, completing a history questionnaire and measures of personality, coping styles and psychological distress. It was expected that self-injurious behaviour would be predicted by higher levels of emotional functioning difficulties, by an increased capacity to engage in such behaviours, by previous self-injurious behaviour, decreased levels of emotional stability and increased levels of emotional coping behaviour. Results supported the capacity component of the IPTSB, indicating that an increased history of self-injurious behaviour and of engagement in reckless behaviour were particular predictors. Increased psychological distress in some domains was also a predictor although the exact domain varied across the type of self-injurious engagement Increased levels of extraversion and decreased emotional coping predicted increased self-injurious engagement, although emotional coping only related to threats and cognition. The results point to the applicability of Interpersonal-Psychological Theory to understanding self-injurious behaviour and the importance of developing a revised model. The paper presents this in the form of the Integrated Model of Self-Injurious Activity.

  10. Comparison of the coagulation profile of fatty liver haemorrhagic syndrome-susceptible laying hens and normal laying hens.

    PubMed

    Thomson, A E; Gentry, P A; Squires, E J

    2003-09-01

    1. The rate of thrombin generation in plasma from Fatty Liver Haemorrhagic Syndrome-susceptible laying hens (FLHS, UCD-003) is more rapid than in plasma from age-matched normal Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) laying hens. 2. The rate of thrombin generation in plasma was determined by measuring the biological activity of the specific coagulation proteins, Factors V, VII, VIII, IX and X. 3. The higher activity of Factors V, VII and X in FLHS-susceptible laying hens compared with normal SCWL hens remained consistent after plasma lipid concentrations were reduced. 4. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids showed that in normal SCWL laying hens phosphatidylethanolamine contained C18:3n3 whereas it contained C20:3n3 in FLHS-susceptible laying hens. 5. The results suggest that alterations in the composition of the phospholipids that are essential cofactors in the biochemical reactions involved in thrombin generation may be a contributing factor in the development of FLHS.

  11. Reactions and coping strategies in lay rescuers who have provided CPR to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Mathiesen, Wenche Torunn; Bjørshol, Conrad Arnfinn; Braut, Geir Sverre; Søreide, Eldar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provided by community citizens is of paramount importance for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims' survival. Fortunately, CPR rates by community citizens seem to be rising. However, the experience of providing CPR is rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to explore reactions and coping strategies in lay rescuers who have provided CPR to OHCA victims. Methods, participants This is a qualitative study of 20 lay rescuers who have provided CPR to 18 OHCA victims. We used a semistructured interview guide focusing on their experiences after providing CPR. Setting The study was conducted in the Stavanger region of Norway, an area with very high bystander CPR rates. Results Three themes emerged from the interview analysis: concern, uncertainty and coping strategies. Providing CPR had been emotionally challenging for all lay rescuers and, for some, had consequences in terms of family and work life. Several lay rescuers experienced persistent mental recurrences of the OHCA incident and had concerns about the outcome for the cardiac arrest victim. Unknown or fatal outcomes often caused feelings of guilt and were particularly difficult to handle. Several reported the need to be acknowledged for their CPR attempts. Health-educated lay rescuers seemed to be less affected than others. A common coping strategy was confiding in close relations, preferably the health educated. However, some required professional help to cope with the OHCA incident. Conclusions Lay rescuers experience emotional and social challenges, and some struggle to cope in life after providing CPR in OHCA incidents. Experiencing a positive patient outcome and being a health-educated lay rescuer seem to mitigate concerns. Common coping strategies are attempts to reduce uncertainty towards patient outcome and own CPR quality. Further studies are needed to determine whether an organised professional follow-up can mitigate the concerns and uncertainty

  12. Identifying reproductive events using archival tags: egg-laying behaviour of the small spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Wearmouth, V J; Southall, E J; Morritt, D; Sims, D W

    2013-01-01

    The use of archival depth telemetry as a means of remotely assessing the reproductive rates of free-ranging fishes is explored. This is achieved by electronically tracking the vertical movements of individual female small spotted catsharks Scyliorhinus canicula in the natural environment, whilst simultaneously evaluating the temporal and vertical distributions of egg-laying in this species. Distinctive patterns of short-term (0·3-3·7 h), shallow-water activity are documented in the time-depth profiles of female S. canicula that occur at an appropriate depth (1·0-2·3 m) and periodicity (every 10-12 days) to represent egg-laying behaviour. Putative egg-laying behaviour was exhibited simultaneously by two individually tracked female S. canicula during late-spring and early-summer. The results highlight that, provided species behaviour is suitable and complementary methods such as previous data, laboratory experiments and field surveys can be used to validate the patterns observed, archival depth telemetry offers an unobtrusive means by which egg production and egg-laying behaviour of free-living fishes can be estimated. As precise information regarding life-history parameters is difficult to obtain for free-ranging fish species, this technique could be used to improve the parameterization of species demographic models that are relevant to the management of wild fish populations.

  13. Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    2014-11-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

  14. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  15. Reproductive biology in egg-laying mammals.

    PubMed

    Grützner, F; Nixon, B; Jones, R C

    2008-01-01

    The duck-billed platypus and short-beaked echidna are iconic species in Australia. Their morphology and physiology have puzzled scientists all over the world for more than 200 years. Recent genetic studies, particularly the platypus whole-genome sequencing project, have revealed the molecular basis of some of the extraordinary characteristics of monotremes. This and other works demonstrate the great value of research on our most distantly related mammalian relatives for comparative genomics and developmental biology. In this review we focus on the reproductive biology of monotremes and discuss works that unravel genes involved in lactation, testicular descent, gamete biology and fertilization, and early development. In addition we discuss works on the evolution of the complex sex chromosome system in platypus and echidna, which has also significant impact on our general understanding of mammalian sex chromosomes and sex determination.

  16. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    to the shed in free-range flocks. This study suggests that hens in the outer range engaged more in walking and foraging activities and showed signs of better welfare than those closer to the shed. Abstract In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower

  17. New Views of the Moon II 2008-2018; An initiative to integrate new lunar information into our fundamental understanding of the Moon and the next stages of international lunar exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C.; Neal, C. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Mackwell, S.; Lawrence, S.

    2015-10-01

    In 1998, the Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials (CAPTEM)sponsored a longterm initiative to improve our understanding of the Moon and its history by integrating all available types of data: in situ investigations, analyses of lunar samples, telescopic observations, and spacecraft datasets. This initiative, New Views of the Moon (NVM-I),was supported by NASA's Science Mission Directorate andthe Lunar and Planetary Institute and guided principally by Brad Jolliff, Charles Shearer,Mark Wieczorek,and Clive Neal. The goals of the original NVM-Iinitiative were (1) tosummarize new insights that have been gained about the Moon as a result of recent global data sets(Clementine, Lunar Prospector), and their integration with sample and other data;(2) to define current understanding of the Moon's geologic history, resources, and potential for scientific exploration; and (3) to communicate implications ofknowledge gained from research and exploration of the Moon for planetary science and exploration beyond the Moon. The NVM- Iinitiative ultimately involved contributions and data synthesis from over 100 individual scientists and engineers at numerous workshops and special sessions at worldwide scientific meetings.NVM-I culminated in a book "New Views of the Moon" published in 2006 as volume 60 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry published by the Mineralogical Society of America. In 2012, the book was translated into Chinese.NVM-I went to press prior to analysis of the data from missions flown since 2000, and before the major discoveries from sample analyses made this century

  18. Exploring and understanding the functional role, and biochemical and structural characteristics of an acidic phospholipase A2, AplTx-I, purified from Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma snake venom.

    PubMed

    Resende, L M; Almeida, J R; Schezaro-Ramos, R; Collaço, R C O; Simioni, L R; Ramírez, D; González, W; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Marangoni, S; da Silva, S L

    2017-03-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) constitute a class of extensively studied toxins, isolated from snake venoms. Basic PLA2 isoforms mediate various toxicological effects, while the acidic isoforms generally have higher enzymatic activities, but do not promote evident toxic effects. The functions of these acidic isoforms in snake venoms are still not completely understood and more studies are needed to characterize the biological functions and diversification of acidic toxins in order to justify their abundant presence in these secretions. Recently, Lomonte and collaborators demonstrated, in a proteomic and toxicological study, high concentrations of PLA2s in the venom of Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma. We have, herein, purified and characterized an acidic PLA2 from this snake venom, denominated AplTx-I, in order to better understand its biochemical and structural characteristics, as well as its biological effects. AplTx-I was purified using two chromatographic steps, in association with enzymatic and biological assays. The acidic toxin was found to be one of the most abundant proteins in the venom of A. p. leucostoma; the protein was monomeric with a molecular mass of 13,885.8 Da, as identified by mass spectrometry ESI-TOF and electrophoresis. The toxin has similar primary and tridimensional structures to those of other acidic PLA2s, a theoretical and experimental isoelectric point of ≈5.12, and a calcium-dependent enzyme activity of 25.8985 nM/min/mg, with maximum values at 37 °C and pH 8.0. Despite its high enzymatic activity on synthetic substrate, AplTx-I did not induce high or significant myotoxic, coagulant, anticoagulant, edema, neuromuscular toxicity in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations or antibacterial activities. Interestingly, AplTx-I triggered a high and selective neuromuscular toxicity in chick biventer cervicis preparations. These findings are relevant to provide a deeper understanding of the pharmacology, role and diversification of acidic

  19. Exploring professionals’ understanding, interpretation and implementation of the ‘appropriate medical treatment test’ in the 2007 amendment of the Mental Health Act 1983

    PubMed Central

    Champaneri, Nina; Griffiths, Frances; Paul, Moli; Islam, Zoebia; Rugkåsa, Jorun; Burns, Tom; Tyrer, Peter; Crawford, Michael; Deb, Shoumitro; Singh, Swaran P.

    2017-01-01

    Background The appropriate medical treatment test (ATT), included in the Mental Health Act (MHA) (1983, as amended 2007), aims to ensure that detention only occurs when treatment with the purpose of alleviating a mental disorder is available. Aims As part of the Assessing the Impact of the Mental Health Act (AMEND) project, this qualitative study aimed to assess professionals’ understanding of the ATT, and its impact on clinical practice. Method Forty-one professionals from a variety of mental health subspecialties were interviewed. Interviews were coded related to project aims, and themes were generated in an inductive process. Results We found that clinicians are often wholly relied upon for the ATT. Considered treatment varied depending on the patient’s age rather than diagnosis. The ATT has had little impact on clinical practice. Conclusions Our findings suggest the need to review training and support for professionals involved in MHA assessments, with better-defined roles. This may enable professionals to implement the ATT as its designers intended. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28316797

  20. A fundamental understanding of catechol and water adsorption on a hydrophilic silica surface: exploring the underwater adhesion mechanism of mussels on an atomic scale.

    PubMed

    Mian, Shabeer Ahmad; Yang, Li-Ming; Saha, Leton Chandra; Ahmed, E; Ajmal, Muhammad; Ganz, Eric

    2014-06-17

    Mussels have a remarkable ability to bond to solid surfaces under water. From a microscopic perspective, the first step of this process is the adsorption of dopa molecules to the solid surface. In fact, it is the catechol part of the dopa molecule that is interacting with the surface. These molecules are able to make reversible bonds to a wide range of materials, even underwater. Previous experimental and theoretical efforts have produced only a limited understanding of the mechanism and quantitative details of the competitive adsorption of catechol and water on hydrophilic silica surfaces. In this work, we uncover the nature of this competitive absorption by atomic scale modeling of water and catechol adsorbed at the geminal (001) silica surface using density functional theory calculations. We find that catechol molecules displace preadsorbed water molecules and bond directly on the silica surface. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we observe this process in detail. We also calculate the interaction force as a function of distance, and observe a maximum of 0.5 nN of attraction. The catechol has a binding energy of 23 kcal/mol onto the silica surface with adsorbed water molecules.

  1. Contesting lifestyle risk and gendering coronary candidacy: lay epidemiology of heart disease in Finland in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Jauho, Mikko

    2017-02-24

    This study addresses two issues currently under critical discussion in the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the relative neglect of women and the individualised nature of key risk factors. It focuses on the North Karelia project (NKP), a community programme aimed at coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention in a predominantly rural Finnish region in the early 1970s, that is, during a period when the epidemiological understanding of CVD still was relatively new and actively promoted. Adopting the notions of lay epidemiology and coronary candidacy, culturally mediated explanatory models lay people use to assess who is likely to develop heart disease and why, the study shows that locals targeted by the project critically engaged with both of these bias. Based on the rich materials resulting from project activities the study shows, first, how many locals subsumed the individualised and lifestyle-based approach to CHD prevention promoted by NKP under a more general framework emphasising the health effects of ongoing structural changes in the area, and second, how women constructed themselves as viable coronary candidates. The case supports the position in the current discussions on lay expertise that wants to integrate lay experiences more firmly into epidemiological studies and public health.

  2. Local neuropeptide signaling modulates serotonergic transmission to shape the temporal organization of C. elegans egg-laying behavior.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Navonil; Bhattacharya, Raja; Gorczyca, Michael; Collins, Kevin M; Francis, Michael M

    2017-04-06

    Animal behaviors are often composed of distinct alternating behavioral states. Neuromodulatory signals are thought to be critical for establishing stable behavioral states and for orchestrating transitions between them. However, we have only a limited understanding of how neuromodulatory systems act in vivo to alter circuit performance and shape behavior. To address these questions, we have investigated neuromodulatory signaling in the context of Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying. Egg-laying activity cycles between discrete states-short bursts of egg deposition (active phases) that alternate with prolonged quiescent periods (inactive phases). Here using genetic, pharmacological and optogenetic approaches for cell-specific activation and inhibition, we show that a group of neurosecretory cells (uv1) located in close spatial proximity to the egg-laying neuromusculature direct the temporal organization of egg-laying by prolonging the duration of inactive phases. We demonstrate that the modulatory effects of the uv1 cells are mediated by peptides encoded by the nlp-7 and flp-11 genes that act locally to inhibit circuit activity, primarily by inhibiting vesicular release of serotonin from HSN motor neurons. This peptidergic inhibition is achieved, at least in part, by reducing synaptic vesicle abundance in the HSN motor neurons. By linking the in vivo actions of specific neuropeptide signaling systems with the generation of stable behavioral outcomes, our study reveals how cycles of neuromodulation emanating from non-neuronal cells can fundamentally shape the organization of a behavioral program.

  3. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Brunberg, Emma I; Rodenburg, T Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain-gut-microbiota axis.

  4. Omnivores Going Astray: A Review and New Synthesis of Abnormal Behavior in Pigs and Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Brunberg, Emma I.; Rodenburg, T. Bas; Rydhmer, Lotta; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Jensen, Per; Keeling, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    Pigs and poultry are by far the most omnivorous of the domesticated farm animals and it is in their nature to be highly explorative. In the barren production environments, this motivation to explore can be expressed as abnormal oral manipulation directed toward pen mates. Tail biting (TB) in pigs and feather pecking (FP) in laying hens are examples of unwanted behaviors that are detrimental to the welfare of the animals. The aim of this review is to draw these two seemingly similar abnormalities together in a common framework, in order to seek underlying mechanisms and principles. Both TB and FP are affected by the physical and social environment, but not all individuals in a group express these behaviors and individual genetic and neurobiological characteristics play an important role. By synthesizing what is known about environmental and individual influences, we suggest a novel possible mechanism, common for pigs and poultry, involving the brain–gut–microbiota axis. PMID:27500137

  5. Situated Motives of Lay Participants in Community Collaboratives for Children's Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Potter, Deborah Anne

    2016-02-01

    Publicly funded programs in many industrialized countries increasingly require the participation of citizens. In this article, I explore the "situated motives" of family members who participated alongside professionals in implementing children's mental health programs in two communities in the United States. I conducted in-depth interviews with family members and observed monthly meetings of Community Collaboratives to assess how family members understood their participation. The inductive data analysis demonstrates that family members participated (a) as a therapeutic outlet, (b) to pay it forward, (c) to gain new skills, (d) to have a voice, and/or (e) to empower the community. I then use Giddens' concepts of "life politics" and "emancipatory politics" to explore how these accounts variously reflected lay members' orientations as consumers, empowered individuals, and/or citizen advocates. In the absence of articulated and specific objectives for family participation, these "situated motives" were salient and had implications for how policy was implemented.

  6. Exploring drivers for safe male circumcision: Experiences with health education and understanding of partial HIV protection among newly circumcised men in Wakiso, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Marguerite; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Makumbi, Fredrick Edward; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2017-01-01

    Introduction About 2.5 million men have voluntarily been circumcised since Uganda started implementing the WHO recommendation to scale up safe male circumcision to reduce HIV transmission. This study sought to understand what influences men's circumcision decisions, their experiences with health education at health facilities and their knowledge of partial HIV risk reduction in Wakiso district. Methods Data were collected in May and June 2015 at five public health facilities in Wakiso District. Twenty-five in-depth interviews were held with adult safe male circumcision clients. Data were analysed using thematic network analysis. Findings Safe male circumcision decisions were mainly influenced by sexual partners, a perceived need to reduce the risk of HIV/STIs, community pressure and other benefits like hygiene. Sexual partners directly requested men to circumcise or indirectly influenced them in varied ways. Health education at facilities mainly focused on the surgical procedure, circumcision benefits especially HIV risk reduction, wound care and time to resumption of sex, with less focus on post-circumcision sexual behaviour. Five men reported no health education. All men reported that circumcision only reduces and does not eliminate HIV risk, and could mention ways it protects, although some extended the benefit to direct protection for women and prevention of other STIs. Five men thought social marketing messages were ‘misleading’ and feared risk compensation within the community. Conclusions Participants reported positive community perception about safe male circumcision campaigns, influencing men to seek services and enabling female partners to impact this decision-making process. However, there seemed to be gaps in safe male circumcision health education, although all participants correctly understood that circumcision offers only partial protection from HIV. Standard health education procedures, if followed at health facilities offering safe male

  7. A Long-Term Study of Science Literacy and Attitudes Towards Science: Exploring Changes Among College Undergraduate and Public Understanding over Twenty-Two Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, C.; Antonellis, J.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Assessing science literacy has been an important goal of science educators and policy makers for many years. Various studies including international, school, and public comparisons have painted a bleak picture of science literacy in the United States. We are conducting a study focused on undergraduates’ science literacy using a database of over 10,000 student responses from a large research university collected over a twenty-two year period, between 1989 - 2011. Survey questions were derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators), some of which are still used in public assessments of science literacy. Analysis has shown that our university students outperform the public on almost all topics on the survey. Despite targeted university interventions and the rise of public access to knowledge, student science literacy scores have not changed over twenty-two years. Demographic variables explain less than 10% of the variance in students’ scores of which the number of university science courses completed is the best predictor. There is a small correlation between students’ beliefs in non-scientific phenomenon and lower science literacy scores but students’ beliefs about science and technology also explain little variance in their overall scores. We have also compared responses of scientists and students on the same questions about science. We will discuss implications of evaluating students’ scientific knowledge in a time when students have access to more resources than ever before, an important goal as we continue to work towards increasing students’ understanding of scientific concepts. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the

  8. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  9. "Picturing" Lay Ministry: Photovoice and Participatory Group Spiritual Gifts Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefz, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    The "Picturing Lay Ministry" project uses the visual methodology of photovoice as a way of generating participatory laity discernment around the topics of calling, rural ministry, and spiritual gifts. The project involves working with curriculum action research embedded within one-day ministry discernment events for laity. Measurement…

  10. Laying a Solid Foundation: Strategies for Effective Program Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerville, Geri

    2009-01-01

    The replication of proven social programs is a cost-effective and efficient way to achieve large-scale, positive social change. Yet there has been little guidance available about how to approach program replication and limited development of systems--at local, state or federal levels--to support replication efforts. "Laying a Solid Foundation:…

  11. 7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Another picture of workers laying up the graphite core of the 105-B pile. This view is towards the rear of the pile. The gun barrels can be seen protruding into the pile. D-3047 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  12. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  13. Laying the Foundation for Literacy: An Anti-Bias Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Defines an anti-bias curriculum as accepting the legitimacy of children's home languages, acknowledging all attempts at communication, and promoting active involvement of traditional, extended, and non-traditional families. Examines anti-bias education, language, and literacy. Identifies six tenets of anti-bias educators. Advocates laying the…

  14. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  15. Social injury: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the attitudes towards suicide of lay persons in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osafo, Joseph; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity Sylvia; Knizek, Birthe Loa

    2011-01-01

    One way of furthering our understanding of suicidal behaviour is to examine people's attitudes towards it and how they conceive the act. The aim of this study was to understand how lay persons conceive the impact of suicide on others and how that influences their attitudes towards suicide; and discuss the implications for suicide prevention in Ghana. This is a qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide to investigate the attitudes and views of 27 lay persons from urban and rural settings in Ghana. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that the perceived breach of interrelatedness between people due to suicidal behaviour influenced the informants’ view of suicide as representing a social injury. Such view of suicide influenced the negative attitudes the informants expressed towards the act. The negative attitudes towards suicide in Ghana are cast in consequential terms. Thus, suicide is an immoral act because it socially affects others negatively. The sense of community within the African ethos and The Moral Causal Ontology for Suffering are theoretical postulations that are used to offer some explanations of the findings in this study. PMID:22065981

  16. Salmonella enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Guard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to Salmonella Enteritidis testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk-reduction requires a detailed and comprehensive understanding of how Salmonella Enteritidis infections in hens result in deposition of the pathogen inside eggs. The present study sought to resolve some incompletely defined aspects of the relationship between Salmonella Enteritidis oral-exposure dose levels in experimentally infected laying hens and the frequency and location of subsequent egg contamination. In two trials, groups of specific-pathogen-free hens were experimentally inoculated with oral doses of 10(4), 10(6), or 10(8) CFU of a phage type 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strain. Eggs were collected 5 to 23 days postinoculation, and the yolk and albumen of each egg were cultured separately to detect Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. Larger oral doses of Salmonella Enteritidis administered to hens were associated with significant increases in the frequencies of both yolk and albumen contamination. Moreover, Salmonella Enteritidis was found in the albumen of a far-higher proportion of contaminated eggs from hens given the largest dose than from the other two groups. Salmonella Enteritidis contamination was detected in 0.7% of yolk and 0.2% of albumen samples after inoculation of hens with 10(4) CFU, 4.0% of yolk and 1.7% of albumen samples after inoculation with 10(6) CFU, and 6.5% of yolk and 10.8% of albumen samples after inoculation with 10(8) CFU. These results demonstrate that oral-exposure doses of Salmonella Enteritidis for laying hens can significantly affect both the frequency and location of deposition of this pathogen inside eggs.

  17. From dose rate to websites: making measurements accessible, understandable and helpful to the lay public.

    PubMed

    Zähringer, M; Luff, R; Schiesewitz, M; Burbeck, S; Högg, R

    2014-08-01

    The key role of public information in emergency preparedness has more recently been corroborated by the experience of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and the subsequent nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP. Information should meet quality criteria such as openness, accessibility and authenticity. Existing information portals of radiation monitoring networks were frequently used even in Europe, although there was no imminent radiation risk. BfS responded by increasing the polling frequency, publishing current data not validated, refurbishing the website of the BfS 'odlinfo.bfs.de' and adding explanatory text. Public feedback served as a valuable input for improving the site's design. Additional services were implemented for developers of smart phone apps. Websites similar to 'ODLInfo' are available both on European and international levels. NGOs and grass root projects established platforms for uploading and visualising private dose rate measurements in Japan after 11 March 2011. The BfS site is compared with other platforms. Government information has to compete with non-official sources. Options on information strategies are discussed.

  18. Beliefs of Health Care Providers, Lay Health Care Providers and Lay Persons in Nigeria Regarding Hypertension. A Systematic Mixed Studies Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinlua, James Tosin; Meakin, Richard; Fadahunsi, Philip; Freemantle, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a major health risk factor for mortality globally, resulting in about 13% of deaths worldwide. In Nigeria, the high burden of hypertension remains an issue for urgent attention. The control of hypertension, among other factors, is strongly determined by personal beliefs about the illness and recommended treatment. Objective The aim of this review is to systematically synthesize available data from all types of studies on beliefs of the Nigerian populace about hypertension Methods We searched the following electronic databases; Medline, EMBase, PsycInfo, AMED from their inception till date for all relevant articles. A modified Kleinman’s explanatory model for hypertension was used as a framework for extraction of data on beliefs about hypertension. Results The search yielded a total of 3,794 hits from which 16 relevant studies (2 qualitative, 11 quantitative and 3 mixed methods studies) met the inclusion criteria for the review. Overall, most health care providers (HCPs) believe that stress is a major cause of hypertension. Furthermore, reported cut-off point for uncomplicated hypertension differed widely among HCPs. Lay Health Care Providers such as Patent Medicine Vendors’ beliefs about hypertension seem to be relatively similar to health care professionals in areas of risk factors for hypertension, course of hypertension and methods of treatment. Among Lay persons, misconception about hypertension was quite high. Although some Nigerians believed that life style habits such as alcohol intake, exercise levels, cigarette smoking were risk factors for developing hypertension, there was discordance between belief and practice of control of risk factors. However, beliefs across numerous ethnic groups and settings (urban/rural) in Nigeria have not been explored. Conclusion In order to achieve control of hypertension in Nigeria, interventions should be informed, among other factors, by adequate knowledge of beliefs regarding hypertension

  19. Lay health influencers: how they tailor brief tobacco cessation interventions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nicole P; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2012-10-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented.

  20. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  1. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women.

    PubMed

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L

    2016-08-26

    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  2. 25 CFR 11.205 - Are there standards for the appearance of attorneys and lay counselors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lay counselors? 11.205 Section 11.205 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW...; Administration § 11.205 Are there standards for the appearance of attorneys and lay counselors? (a) No defendant... professional attorneys and lay counselors....

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  4. 46 CFR 30.10-37 - Keel laying date-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Keel laying date-TB/ALL. 30.10-37 Section 30.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-37 Keel laying date—TB/ALL. The term keel laying date means the date upon which...

  5. Lay denial of knowledge for justified true beliefs.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A

    2013-12-01

    Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief.

  6. Professional and lay people perceptions of anterior maxillary esthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslan, Husniyati; Lillywhite, Graeme

    2016-12-01

    Achieving esthetic outcomes with implant-based restorations in the esthetic zone is a challenge due to the difficulty in replacing lost papillae. This study aimed to assess the influence of contact point position on the overall perception of esthetics as assessed by dental professionals and lay people. A cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 300 prosthodontists, general dentists and lay people in the United Kingdom. The questionnaire consisted of photographic images of a smile, intentionally altered using image manipulation software. Variations in contact length between maxillary central incisors were created to mimic the clinical situation when missing teeth were replaced with implant-supported crowns. These images were rated using VAS. One-way and two-way ANOVAs, and Tukey's test were used to analyze the data. The overall response rate by the three groups was 72%. Lay people and general dentists were more critical than prosthodontists in all VAS ratings (p < 0.000). Overall, all the groups perceived that the esthetic value reduced as the contact point increased in its length.

  7. Potential zoonotic pathways of Salmonella enteritidis in laying farms.

    PubMed

    El-Tras, Wael F; Tayel, Ahmed A; Samir, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a communicable zoonotic bacterium. The present investigation was done to evaluate the potential occurrence of Salmonella Enteritidis in laying hen farms and its contamination pathways. Samples were collected from 10 laying hen farms located in the Delta of Egypt. Cloacal swabs (n=300), eggshell swabs (n=400), and hand swabs from egg packagers (n=38) were collected. Pools of ovary and oviduct were obtained from 150 hens; all samples were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Results indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis may initially occupy in ovary, oviduct, and cloaca. The risk for eggshell contamination is highly impending from laying hen flocks infected with Salmonella Enteritidis with percentage of >30%. Farms having eggshell contamination percentage of >60% with Salmonella Enteritidis provided a high risk for packagers' hand contamination. Questionnaire of egg packagers specified that seven out of the eight smoker packagers suffered from repeated Salmonellosis. Thus, smoking during egg packing process could be considered as an exposure factor to contract the infection via hand-cigarette-mouth route.

  8. Defining workplace bullying behaviour professional lay definitions of workplace bullying.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Paula; Huynh, Amy; Goodman-Delahunty, Jane

    2007-01-01

    As is commonly the case in new areas of research, workplace bullying researchers and practitioners have struggled to establish a single agreed-upon definition of this phenomenon. As a consequence, there are numerous definitions of workplace bullying currently in use around the world to investigate this serious workplace issue, to educate the workforce about this form of harassment and to assess claims involving allegations of workplace bullying. Additionally, little is known about how employees and people in general define workplace bullying behaviour, and whether current researcher, practitioner and legal definitions coincide with lay definitions of bullying. To compare researcher, practitioner and legal definitions of workplace bullying with lay definitions, the content of definitions composed by adults from diverse personal and professional backgrounds (N=1095) was analysed. Results confirmed that components commonly used by researchers and practitioners, including the occurrence of harmful and negative workplace behaviours, were frequently cited by participants as central defining components of bullying behaviour. In addition, lay definitions often included themes of fairness and respect. The emergence of these themes has important consequences for organisations responding to, and attempting to prevent the occurrence of workplace bullying behaviour in that organisations in which bullying is tolerated may violate both local laws as well as their ethical responsibility to provide employees with a safe, professional and respectful workplace.

  9. The Expert and the Lay Public: Reflections on Influenza A (H1N1) and the Risk Society

    PubMed Central

    Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Trust between the lay public and scientific experts is a key element to ensuring the efficient implementation of emergency public health measures. In modern risk societies, the management and elimination of risk have become preeminent drivers of public policy. In this context, the protection of public trust is a complex task. Those actors involved in public health decision-making and implementation (e.g., mass vaccination for influenza A virus) are confronted with growing pressures and responsibility to act. However, they also need to accept the limits of their own expertise and recognize the ability of lay publics to understand and be responsible for public health. Such a shared responsibility for risk management, if grounded in participative public debates, can arguably strengthen public trust in public health authorities and interventions. PMID:22397338

  10. Rural Young Adults' Lay Theories of Intimate Partner Violence: A Qualitative Examination.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie M; Banyard, Victoria L; Moschella, Elizabeth A; Seavey, Katherine M

    2016-12-01

    This study qualitatively examined rural emerging adults' ways of thinking (i.e., lay theories) about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and ideas on how to prevent IPV most effectively. Participants were 74 individuals (majority Caucasian, heterosexual, low income) between the ages of 18 and 24 who resided in one of 16 rural communities. Participants' perceptions of the causes of IPV included (a) individual-level pathology, stress, and lack of education; (b) intergenerational transmission of violence and early-life factors; (c) relationship stressors and challenges; and (d) community factors. Furthermore, participants felt that IPV could most effectively be prevented through (a) education and awareness; (b) victim-focused efforts (e.g., teaching self-esteem); and (c) job creation. Overall, participants identified a number of established risk factors for IPV perpetration across the social ecological model, although a number were never or rarely mentioned (e.g., peer group norms, positive bystander action, and collective efficacy). Future research should examine if and how perceptions of the causes of IPV impact IPV prevention engagement and impact. Further, prevention initiatives that take into account understandings of lay theories about IPV may be more impactful in reducing IPV than prevention initiatives that do not.

  11. Predicting the Lay Preventive Strategies in Response to Avian Influenza from Perceptions of the Threat

    PubMed Central

    Raude, Jocelyn; Setbon, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background The identification of patterns of behaviors that lay people would engage in to protect themselves from the risk of infection in the case of avian influenza outbreak, as well as the lay perceptions of the threat that underlie these risk reduction strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A population-based survey (N = 1003) was conducted in 2008 to understand and describe how the French public might respond to a possible outbreak. Factor analyses highlighted three main categories of risk reduction strategies consisting of food quality assurance, food avoidance, and animal avoidance. In combination with the fear of contracting avian influenza, mental representations associated with the manifestation and/or transmission of the disease were found to significantly and systematically shape the behavioral responses to the perceived threat. Conclusions/Significance This survey provides insight into the nature and predictors of the protective patterns that might be expected from the general public during a novel domestic outbreak of avian influenza. PMID:21949799

  12. Connecting Robots and Humans in Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Louis

    2000-07-01

    Mars exploration is a very special public interest. It's preeminence in the national space policy calling for "sustained robotic presence on the surface," international space policy (witness the now aborted international plan for sample return, and also aborted Russian "national Mars program") and the media attention to Mars exploration are two manifestations of that interest. Among a large segment of the public there is an implicit (mis)understanding that we are sending humans to Mars. Even among those who know that isn't already a national or international policy, many think it is the next human exploration goal. At the same time the resources for Mars exploration in the U.S. and other country's space programs are a very small part of space budgets. Very little is being applied to direct preparations for human flight. This was true before the 1999 mission losses in the United States, and it is more true today. The author's thesis is that the public interest and the space program response to Mars exploration are inconsistent. This inconsistency probably results from an explicit space policy contradiction: Mars exploration is popular because of the implicit pull of Mars as the target for human exploration, but no synergy is permitted between the human and robotic programs to carry out the program. It is not permitted because of narrow, political thinking. In this paper we try to lay out the case for overcoming that thinking, even while not committing to any premature political initiative. This paper sets out a rationale for Mars exploration and uses it to then define recommended elements of the programs: missions, science objectives, technology. That consideration is broader than the immediate issue of recovering from the failures of Mars Climate OrbIter, Mars Polar Lander and the Deep Space 2 microprobes in late 1999. But we cannot ignore those failures. They are causing a slow down Mars exploration. Not only were the three missions lost, with their planned

  13. Feather-pecking response of laying hens to feather and cellulose-based rations fed during rearing.

    PubMed

    Kriegseis, I; Bessei, W; Meyer, B; Zentek, J; Würbel, H; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies in laying hens have shown that feather peckers eat more feathers than nonpeckers. We hypothesized that food pellets containing feathers would decrease the birds' appetite for feathers and thereby also decrease feather pecking. To separate the effect of feathers from that of insoluble fiber per se, additional control groups were fed pellets containing similar amounts of cellulose. Sixty (experiment 1) and 180 (experiment 2) 1-d-old Lohmann-Selected Leghorn birds were divided into 12 groups of 5 (experiment 1) and 15 (experiment 2) birds, respectively, and kept on slatted floors. During the rearing period, 4 groups each had ad libitum access to either a commercial pelleted diet, a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of chopped feathers, respectively, or a pelleted diet containing 5% (experiment 1) or 10% (experiment 2) of cellulose, respectively. In the consecutive laying period, all groups received a commercial pelleted diet. In experiment 1, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to wk 16. In the laying period, observations were made in wk 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 30. In experiment 2, feather pecking was recorded weekly from wk 5 to 11, in wk 16 to wk 18, and in wk 20 and 21. At the end of the rearing period, plumage condition per individual hen was scored. Scores from 1 (denuded) to 4 (intact) were given for each of 6 body parts. The addition of 10% of feathers to the diet reduced the number of severe feather-pecking bouts (P < 0.0129) and improved plumage condition of the back area (P < 0.001) significantly compared with control diets. The relationship between feather pecking/eating and the gastrointestinal consequences thereof, which alter feather pecking-behavior, are unclear. Understanding this relationship might be crucial for understanding the causation of feather pecking in laying hens.

  14. Melatonin implantation improved the egg-laying rate and quality in hens past their peak egg-laying age

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yaxiong; Yang, Minghui; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Liang; Song, Yukun; Wang, Jing; Qin, Wenxiang; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-01-01

    The egg-laying rates of hens approximately 470 days of age exhibited a positive correlation to blood melatonin levels. The hens with an egg-laying rate <30%, 30~90% and ≥90% had blood melatonin levels of 5.8 ± 2.6, 74.0 ± 32.9 and 445.9 ± 115.3 ng/ml, respectively. When 10 mg of melatonin was implanted into the hens at 300, 360, 470 and 550 days of age, the egg-laying rates increased 4.63 ± 0.46%, 8.38 ± 1.45%, 4.93 ± 0.85% and 7.93 ± 0.91%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. Melatonin implantation in hens at 300–470 days of age was observed to enhance egg production and reduce the rate of appearance of sharpei eggs. Melatonin (10 mg) implanted in hens 360 days of age did not influence the blood levels of progesterone (P4) or the gene expression levels of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), oestradiol receptor alpha (ERα), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). In contrast, melatonin significantly elevated the serum oestradiol-17β (E2) content, down-regulated the gene expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor (GnIHR), and enhanced the expression of melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). This result indicates that the improved egg-laying rate by melatonin was the result of increased serum oestradiol and decreased ovarian GnIHR. These alterations may be mediated by MT2 activation. PMID:28008984

  15. Melatonin implantation improved the egg-laying rate and quality in hens past their peak egg-laying age.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yaxiong; Yang, Minghui; Zhu, Kuanfeng; Wang, Liang; Song, Yukun; Wang, Jing; Qin, Wenxiang; Xu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Guoshi

    2016-12-23

    The egg-laying rates of hens approximately 470 days of age exhibited a positive correlation to blood melatonin levels. The hens with an egg-laying rate <30%, 30~90% and ≥90% had blood melatonin levels of 5.8 ± 2.6, 74.0 ± 32.9 and 445.9 ± 115.3 ng/ml, respectively. When 10 mg of melatonin was implanted into the hens at 300, 360, 470 and 550 days of age, the egg-laying rates increased 4.63 ± 0.46%, 8.38 ± 1.45%, 4.93 ± 0.85% and 7.93 ± 0.91%, respectively, compared to that of the controls. Melatonin implantation in hens at 300-470 days of age was observed to enhance egg production and reduce the rate of appearance of sharpei eggs. Melatonin (10 mg) implanted in hens 360 days of age did not influence the blood levels of progesterone (P4) or the gene expression levels of ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), oestradiol receptor alpha (ERα), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) or melatonin receptor 1 (MT1). In contrast, melatonin significantly elevated the serum oestradiol-17β (E2) content, down-regulated the gene expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor (GnIHR), and enhanced the expression of melatonin receptor 2 (MT2). This result indicates that the improved egg-laying rate by melatonin was the result of increased serum oestradiol and decreased ovarian GnIHR. These alterations may be mediated by MT2 activation.

  16. Safety evaluation of phytosterols in laying hens: effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, and organ development.

    PubMed

    Shi, S R; Shen, Y R; Chang, L L; Zhou, C J; Bo, Z; Wang, Z Y; Tong, H B; Zou, J M

    2014-03-01

    Phytosterols are intended for use as a novel food ingredient with plasma cholesterol-lowering activity. Although phytosterols are naturally present in the normal diet, daily consumption is insufficient to ensure plasma cholesterol-lowering levels. Therefore, phytosterols may be added to the diets to achieve the desired cholesterol-lowering activity. A subchronic laying hen safety study was conducted to examine if high-dose phytosterols could affect the safety of hens. Three hundred sixty 21-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds each; after 3 wk, birds were fed diets supplemented with 0, 20, 80, 400, and 800 mg/kg of phytosterols for 12 wk. Throughout the study, clinical observations and laying performance were measured. At the end of the study, birds were subjected to a full postmortem examination: blood samples were taken for clinical pathology, selected organs were weighed, and specified tissues were taken for subsequent histological examination. No treatment-related changes that were considered to be of toxicological significance were observed. Therefore, a nominal phytosterol concentration of 800 mg/kg was considered to be the no-observed-adverse-effect level.

  17. Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…

  18. Calcium transport in strongly calcifying laying birds: mechanisms and regulation.

    PubMed

    Bar, Arie

    2009-04-01

    Birds that lay long clutches (series of eggs laid sequentially before a "pause day"), among them the high-producing, strongly-calcifying Gallus gallus domesticus (domestic hen) and Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quail), transfer about 10% of their total body calcium daily. They appear, therefore, to be the most efficient calcium-transporters among vertebrates. Such intensive transport imposes severe demands on ionic calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, and activates at least two extremely effective mechanisms for Ca2+ transfer from food and bone to the eggshell. This review focuses on the development, action and regulation of the mechanisms associated with paracellular and transcellular Ca2+ transport in the intestine and the eggshell gland (ESG); it also considers some of the proteins (calbindin, Ca2+ATPase, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, epithelial calcium channels (TRPVs), osteopontin and carbonic anhydrase (CA) associated with this phenomenon. Calbindins are discussed in some detail, as they appear to be a major component of the transcellular transport system, and as only they have been studied extensively in birds. The review aims to gather old and new knowledge, which could form a conceptual basis, albeit not a completely accepted one, for our understanding of the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. In the intestine, the transcellular pathway appears to compensate for low Ca2+ intake, but in birds fed adequate calcium the major drive for calcium absorption remains the electrochemical potential difference (ECPD) that facilitates paracellular transport. However, the mechanisms involved in Ca2+ transport into the ESG lumen are not yet established. In the ESG, the presence of Ca2+-ATPase and calbindin--two components of the transcellular transport pathway--and the apparently uphill transport of Ca2+ support the idea that Ca2+ is transported via the transcellular pathway. However, the positive (plasma with respect to mucosa) electrical potential difference (EPD) in the

  19. Incubating knowledge: A critical exploration with teachers studying live chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauchwerk, Susan I.

    This thesis documents a professional development workshop conducted with eight teachers who worked at Drumlin Farm, an outdoor education center, organic farm and wildlife sanctuary (Appendix C). The participants studied live chickens for eight consecutive workshop sessions. Seven years later the same group met for two follow-up sessions to discuss the effects of the workshop on their teaching practice. The workshop and follow-up sessions were conducted using a teaching-research method developed by Eleanor Duckworth called critical exploration (Duckworth, in press). In this thesis, findings from the eight-week workshop and the two followup sessions are documented in a narrative format showing how and what individuals and the group as a whole, came to understand from studying live chickens, as well as the process and application of the critical exploration method. Over the course of the workshop and the follow-up sessions, group explorations focused on the biological concept of broodiness (the desire to sit, tend, and hatch eggs) in domestic laying hens. In the process of developing and investigating their questions about broodiness, the participants developed and used a scientific process. Their experiences as learners in critical exploration with chickens as the subject matter, resulted in participants both thinking about, and modifying, their ideas about teaching and learning.

  20. Guide for Occupational Exploration: A New Approach in Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohmenger, C. Todd; Padgett, Adaline

    1979-01-01

    Describes the Guide for Occupational Exploration, which is designed to provide an easy method of relating people potential to job requirements. It presents the student, the lay person, and others not conversant with technical language with a means of self-exploration and job opportunities appropriate for their potential. (Author)

  1. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, AK; Vahabi, M; Prakash, V; Banerjee, L; Bansal, P; Goel, S; Dunn, S

    2017-01-01

    explore how to provide infrastructure for lay health educator training and time. PMID:28331296

  2. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Frito Lay's Electric Delivery Trucks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 medium-duty Smith Newton electric vehicles (EVs) and 10 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Frito Lay North America in the Seattle, Washington, area. Launched in late 2013, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data, such as fuel economy and maintenance costs, to better understand how to optimize the use of such vehicles in a large-scale commercial operation. In addition to the on-road portion of this evaluation, NREL is analyzing charging data to support total cost of ownership estimations and investigations into smart charging opportunities. NREL is also performing a battery life degradation analysis to quantify battery pack health, track battery performance over time, and determine how various drive cycles and battery charging protocols impact battery life.

  3. Evaluation of Dietary Multiple Enzyme Preparation (Natuzyme) in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. W.; Choi, Y. I.; Moon, E. J.; Oh, S. T.; Lee, H. H.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2014-01-01

    The current experiment was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding the multi-enzyme mixture (Natuzyme) into layers’ diets with different levels of energy and available phosphorus in relation to laying performance, egg qualities, blood cholesterol level, microflora and intestinal viscosity. Two hundred and fifty 43-wk-old Hy-Line commercial layers were divided into five groups with five replicates per group (10 birds per replicate) and fed one of five experimental diets. A corn and soybean meal-based control diet was formulated and used as a control diet. Two experimental control diets were formulated to reduce energy and crude protein contents (rE) or energy, crude protein and phosphorus contents (rEP). In addition, Natuzyme was added into either rE (rE-Natu500) or rEP (rEP-Natu500) diet to reach a concentration of 500 mg per kg of diet. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg qualities such as eggshell color or Haugh unit, total cholesterol, relative organ weights and cecal microflora profiles between any dietary treatments. Natu500 supplementation into the rE diet, but not rEP diet significantly increased egg mass and eggshell qualities such as strength and thickness, but it decreased cecal ammonia concentration and intestinal viscosity in laying hens. In conclusion, the present study shows that adding multiple enzyme preparation could improve performance of laying hens fed energy and protein restricted diets. PMID:25358369

  4. Activity of the C. elegans egg-laying behavior circuit is controlled by competing activation and feedback inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kevin M; Bode, Addys; Fernandez, Robert W; Tanis, Jessica E; Brewer, Jacob C; Creamer, Matthew S; Koelle, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Like many behaviors, Caenorhabditis elegans egg laying alternates between inactive and active states. To understand how the underlying neural circuit turns the behavior on and off, we optically recorded circuit activity in behaving animals while manipulating circuit function using mutations, optogenetics, and drugs. In the active state, the circuit shows rhythmic activity phased with the body bends of locomotion. The serotonergic HSN command neurons initiate the active state, but accumulation of unlaid eggs also promotes the active state independent of the HSNs. The cholinergic VC motor neurons slow locomotion during egg-laying muscle contraction and egg release. The uv1 neuroendocrine cells mechanically sense passage of eggs through the vulva and release tyramine to inhibit egg laying, in part via the LGC-55 tyramine-gated Cl- channel on the HSNs. Our results identify discrete signals that entrain or detach the circuit from the locomotion central pattern generator to produce active and inactive states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21126.001 PMID:27849154

  5. A review on development of novel strategies for controlling Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in laying hens: fiber-based molt diets.

    PubMed

    Ricke, S C; Dunkley, C S; Durant, J A

    2013-02-01

    Limiting Salmonella Enteritidis from table eggs can involve intervention approaches at several levels of the production cycle, beginning at the hatchery and ending at the processing or table egg production facilities. Likewise, interventions that limit Salmonella Enteritidis dissemination can be implemented at various stages during the life cycle of infection of Salmonella in the laying hen. However, achieving complete elimination of Salmonella infestation in egg products has remained elusive. There is a multitude of reasons for this, including adaptability of the organism, virulence properties, and persistence. Likewise, environmental factors in the layer house such as transmission routes, reservoirs, and feed sources can influence the exposure of susceptible laying hens to Salmonella Enteritidis. Consequently, successful applications of control measures depend not only on the timing of when they are applied but also on effective surveillance to detect frequency and level of infection of Salmonella. Several studies demonstrated that molt induction by feed withdrawal altered the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract of hens, making them susceptible to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. To alleviate this, the development of alternative methods to induce a molt became necessary. The use of several fiber-containing diets was shown to effectively induce a molt with alfalfa-based diets being the most extensively studied. Further reduction of Salmonella Enteritidis levels in eggs will probably require application of multiple interventions at several steps during egg production and processing as well as a better understanding of the mechanisms used by Salmonella Enteritidis to persist in laying flocks.

  6. Egg-laying demand induces aversion of UV light in Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Edward Y; Guntur, Ananya R; He, Ruo; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster females are highly selective about the chemosensory quality of their egg-laying sites, an important trait that promotes the survival and fitness of their offspring. How egg-laying females respond to UV light is not known, however. UV is a well-documented phototactic cue for adult Drosophila, but it is an aversive cue for larvae. Here, we show that female flies exhibit UV aversion in response to their egg-laying demand. First, females exhibit egg-laying aversion of UV: they prefer to lay eggs on dark sites when choosing between UV-illuminated and dark sites. Second, they also exhibit movement aversion of UV: positional tracking of single females suggests that egg-laying demand increases their tendency to turn away from UV. Genetic manipulations of the retina suggest that egg-laying and movement aversion of UV are both mediated by the inner (R7) and not the outer (R1-R6) photoreceptors. Finally, we show that the Dm8 amacrine neurons, a synaptic target of R7 photoreceptors and a mediator of UV spectral preference, are dispensable for egg-laying aversion but essential for movement aversion of UV. This study suggests that egg-laying demand can temporarily convert UV into an aversive cue for female Drosophila and that R7 photoreceptors recruit different downstream targets to control different egg-laying-induced behavioral modifications.

  7. Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

  8. Cancer in Utah Mormon men by lay priesthood level.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J W; Lyon, J L

    1982-08-01

    Mormons have been shown to have low cancer rates at several common sites, particularly those associated with tobacco and alcohol use. This likely reflects adherence to their Church doctrines advocating abstention from the use of these substances. All Mormons, however, do not adhere to the health practices of their Church, and this study classifies Utah Mormon men by their lay priesthood offices, which reflect degree of adherence to Church doctrines. Follow-up cancer rates for 1966-1970 indicate that the most devout group (Seventies and High Priests) have lung cancer rates 80% lower than those of the least devout group. The same was seen for all smoking- and alcohol-associated cancer sites combined. Cancer of the stomach and the leukemias and lymphomas also had lower rates in the most devout group. Cancers of the colon-rectum, prostate, and pancreas showed little difference in rates when classified by lay priesthood office. These data provide a demonstration of the effects of a healthy lifestyle on cancer occurrence in men.

  9. [Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler.

  10. Buddhist thought and nursing: a hermeneutic exploration.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Graham; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Moules, Nancy J

    2012-04-01

    In this paper I lay out the ground for a creative dialogue between Buddhist thought and contemporary nursing. I start from the observation that in tracing an arc from the existential human experience of suffering to finding compassionate responses to suffering in everyday practice Buddhist thought already appears to present significant affinities with nursing as a practice discipline. I discuss some of the complexities of entering into a cross-cultural dialogue, which is already well under way in the working out of Western forms of Buddhism, and which is beginning to be reflected in nursing literature. I introduce philosophical hermeneutics as a useful framework for elaborating an open and constructive exchange. I then discuss key Mahayana Buddhist concepts of emptiness and two truths that lead to a dynamic and open way of understanding reality and responding in the world. I turn to examples of original texts to give a flavour of the varied and distinctive forms of literature in the Buddhist tradition. This is intended partly to keep the reader alert to cultural difference (from a Western standpoint, that is) while exploring the creative potential of Buddhist thought. Hermeneutics again provides a framework for interpretation. This paper establishes a philosophical ground for a critical and creative dialogue between Buddhist thought and nursing.

  11. Growing Fixed With Age: Lay Theories of Malleability Are Target Age-Specific.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Lassetter, Bethany

    2015-11-01

    Beliefs about whether people can change ("lay theories" of malleability) are known to have wide-ranging effects on social motivation, cognition, and judgment. Yet rather than holding an overarching belief that people can or cannot change, perceivers may hold independent beliefs about whether different people are malleable-that is, lay theories may be target-specific. Seven studies demonstrate that lay theories are target-specific with respect to age: Perceivers hold distinct, uncorrelated lay theories of people at different ages, and younger targets are considered to be more malleable than older targets. Both forms of target-specificity are consequential, as target age-specific lay theories predict policy support for learning-based senior services and the rehabilitation of old and young drug users. The implications of target age-specific lay theories for a number of psychological processes, the social psychology of aging, and theoretical frameworks of malleability beliefs are discussed.

  12. West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    Documents completion of Milestone A.2-1, "Issue Tanks Lay-Up Strategies for WVDP," in Technical Task Plan RL30WT21A, "Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up." This task is a collabrative effort among Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Servies. The primary objective of the overall task is to develop and evaluate conceptual strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two large high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Functions and requirements for tank lay-up were developed and previously documented in "Functions and Requirements for WVDP Lay-Up". Theses functions and requirements will serve as decision criteria to support selection of a strategy for safe and cost-effective lay-up of the HLW tanks.

  13. Decision Plan for West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    Documents completion of Milestone A.3-1, "Issue Decision Plan for WVDP Tank Lay-Up," in Technical Task Plan RL30WT21A, "Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up." This task is a collaborative effort among, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Services. Thi primary objective of the overall task is to develop and evaluate conceptual strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two large high-level waste storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Functions and requirments for tank lay-up were developed and previously documented in "Functions and Requirements for WVDP Lay-Up". These functions nad requirments served as the basis for cristeria to evaluate potential aly-up options documented in "West Valey High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies".

  14. The quality of medical care delivered by lay practitioners in a feminist clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Elhai, L S

    1981-01-01

    The completion of essential components of patient encounters by lay paramedics in a feminist clinic was compared to that of nurse practitioners in a student health gynecology clinic using explicit criteria for the gynecological annual examination and the examination for vulvo-vaginitis. According to evidence charted in medical records, the lay paramedics conducted patient encounters as well as the nurse practitioners, with the exception that the lay paramedics consulted more frequently. PMID:7258450

  15. Air samplings in a Campylobacter jejuni positive laying hen flock.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa Fawzy El Metwaly; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The air in laying hen houses contains high concentrations of airborne bacteria. The numbers of these bacteria can be influenced by the efficiency of the chosen sampling method. In the presented study, AGI-30 Impingers and the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler were compared in terms of their efficiency in sampling aerobic mesophilic bacteria in a laying hen house. Measurements were conducted in a laying hen flock with high prevalences of C. jejuni in order to investigate if culturable cells of this organism can also be detected by the applied methods. Airborne dust was also analyzed for the presence of C. jejuni specific DNA to assess the possible occurrence of non-culturable C. jejuni in the hen house air. The numbers of mesophilic airborne bacteria ranged from 8 × 10(4) - 2 × 10(6) CFU/m(-3) when sampled using AGI-30 Impingers, and from 2 × 10(5) - 4 × 10(6) CFU/m -3 when sampled using a Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler. The concentrations detected simultaneously by both devices correlated well (rPearson = 0.755), but the Coriolis(®)µ air Sampler showed a significantly higher sampling efficiency (p<0.001). Although, the within flock prevalence of C. jejuni was high during the experiments (between 70-93%), neither of the air sampling methods could detect culturable C. jejuni from the air. However, C. jejuni specific DNA was detected in 15 out of 18 airborne dust samples by mapA PCR. Based on the results, it can be concluded that airborne culturable C. jejuni were not detectable, even with an efficient air sampler, because of their low concentration. Therefore, the risk of airborne infection to poultry workers on inhaling airborne C. jejuni seems negligible. Also, the transmission of culturable C. jejuni to neighboring farms by the airborne route is unlikely. Otherwise, the detection of airborne C. jejuni specific DNA suggests that non-culturable cells could appear in the hen house air, and in future it should be verified whether sampling stress of the air sampling methods

  16. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  17. Analysis on differential expressed genes of ovarian tissue between high- and low-yield laying hen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Song, Ling-Jun; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    In order to elucidate molecular genetic mechanism of laying hen reproduction at the transcriptional level and the structure of significantly differential genes, the mRNA differential display and reverse northern dot-blot were used to detect the differential expression of genes in the ovary tissue of low-yield laying hens and high-yield laying hens in the present study. Sixteen 32-week-old CAU-pink laying hens divided into two groups were used and the laying performance was measured. The results showed that only the egg numbers were significantly different between the two groups; and from 15 primer pairs, a total of 336 bands were displayed of which 59 cDNA bands were found to be differentially expressed in both high-yield and low-yield laying hen. The sequence analysis indicated that the expression of such bands as H-AP5, H-P5, and H-P4 was significantly potentiated in high-yield laying hen using primer pairs AP5/HT11G, P5/HT11G and P4/HT11G and these transcripts had high homology (98%) to HoxDb, HoxCa, and HoxBa, respectively. The differentially expressed gene fragments may be relevant to the progression of the high-yield hens to the egg-laying stage. And further study is required to elucidate the molecular function to improve the productivity of laying hens.

  18. Are vaccination programmes delivered by lay health workers cost-effective? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A recently updated Cochrane systematic review on the effects of lay or community health workers (LHWs) in primary and community health care concluded that LHW interventions could lead to promising benefits in the promotion of childhood vaccination uptake. However, understanding of the costs and cost-effectiveness of involving LHWs in vaccination programmes remains poor. This paper reviews the costs and cost-effectiveness of vaccination programme interventions involving LHWs. Methods Articles were retrieved if the title, keywords or abstract included terms related to 'lay health workers', 'vaccination' and 'economics'. Reference lists of studies assessed for inclusion were also searched and attempts were made to contact authors of all studies included in the Cochrane review. Studies were included after assessing eligibility of the full-text article. The included studies were then reviewed against a set of background and technical characteristics. Results Of the 2616 records identified, only three studies fully met the inclusion criteria, while an additional 11 were retained as they included some cost data. Methodologically, the studies were strong but did not adequately address affordability and sustainability and were also highly heterogeneous in terms of settings and LHW outcomes, limiting their comparability. There were insufficient data to allow any conclusions to be drawn regarding the cost-effectiveness of LHW interventions to promote vaccination uptake. Studies focused largely on health outcomes and did illustrate to some extent how the institutional characteristics of communities, such as governance and sources of financial support, influence sustainability. Conclusion The included studies suggest that conventional economic evaluations, particularly cost-effectiveness analyses, generally focus too narrowly on health outcomes, especially in the context of vaccination promotion and delivery at the primary health care level by LHWs. Further studies

  19. The wealthy get healthy, the poor get poorly? Lay perceptions of health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rosemary; Kitzinger, Jenny; Hunt, Kate

    2006-05-01

    Research repeatedly identifies an association between health and socio-economic status-richer people are healthier than poorer people. Richard Wilkinson has posited that socio-psychological mechanisms may be part of the explanation for the fact that socio-economic inequalities run right across the social spectrum in wealthy societies. He argues that polarised income distributions within countries have a negative impact on stress, self-esteem and social relations which, in turn, impact on physical well-being. How people experience and perceive inequalities is central to his thesis. However, relatively little empirical work has explored such lay perceptions. We attempt to address this gap by exploring how people see inequality, how they theorise its impact on health, and the extent to which they make personal and social comparisons, by drawing on 14 focus group discussions in Scotland and the north of England. Contrary to other research which suggests that people from more deprived backgrounds are more reluctant to acknowledge the effects of socio-economic deprivation, our findings demonstrate that, in some contexts at least, people from less favourable circumstances converse in a way to suggest that inequalities deeply affect their health and well-being. We discuss these findings in the light of the methodological challenges presented for pursuing such research.

  20. Activating Lay Health Influencers to Promote Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Hall, John R.; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z.; Lando, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay “health influencers,” on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Methods Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. Results In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants’ prior intervention experience, 80–86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71–79% reported ≥1 in the past 30. Conclusions Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation. PMID:24636035

  1. Egg-laying butterflies distinguish predaceous ants by sight.

    PubMed

    Sendoya, Sebastián F; Freitas, André V L; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2009-07-01

    Information about predation risks is critical for herbivorous insects, and natural selection favors their ability to detect predators before oviposition and to select enemy-free foliage when offspring mortality risk is high. Food plants are selected by ovipositing butterflies, and offspring survival frequently varies among plants because of variation in the presence of predators. Eunica bechina butterflies oviposit on Caryocar brasiliense, an ant-defended plant. Experiments with dried Camponotus and Cephalotes ants pinned to leaves revealed that butterflies use ant size and form as visual cues to avoid ovipositing on plant parts occupied by ants more likely to kill larval offspring. Presence of sap-sucking bugs did not affect butterfly oviposition. This is the first demonstration that visual recognition of predators can mediate egg-laying decisions by an insect herbivore and that an insect will discriminate among different species of potential predators. This unusual behavioral capability permits specialization on a risky, ant-defended food plant.

  2. What do lay people want to know about the disposal of nuclear waste? A mental model approach to the design and development of an online risk communication.

    PubMed

    Skarlatidou, A; Cheng, T; Haklay, M

    2012-09-01

    Public participation requires the involvement of lay people in the decision-making processes of issues that concern them. It is currently practiced in a variety of domains, such as transport and environmental planning. Communicating risks can be a complex task, as there may be significant differences between the risk perceptions of experts and those of lay people. Among the plethora of problems that require public involvement is the site selection of a nuclear waste disposal site in the United Kingdom, which is discussed in this article. Previous ineffective attempts to locate a site provide evidence that the problem has a strong social dimension, and studies ascribe public opposition to a loss of public trust in governmental agencies and decisionmakers, and to a lack of public understanding of nuclear waste issues. Although the mental models approach has been successfully used in the effective communication of such risks as climate change, no attempt has been made to follow a prescriptive mental model approach to develop risk communication messages that inform lay people about nuclear waste disposal. After interviewing 20 lay people and 5 experts, we construct and compare their corresponding mental models to reveal any gaps and misconceptions. The mental models approach is further applied here to identify lay people's requirements regarding what they want to know about nuclear waste, and how this information should be presented so that it is easily understood. This article further describes how the mental models approach was used in the subsequent development of an online information system for the site selection of a nuclear waste repository in the United Kingdom, which is considered essential for the improvement of public understanding and the reestablishment of trust.

  3. Dietary safflower phospholipid reduces liver lipids in laying hens.

    PubMed

    An, B K; Nishiyama, H; Tanaka, K; Ohtani, S; Iwata, T; Tsutsumi, K; Kasai, M

    1997-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary safflower phospholipids (crude safflower phospholipid and purified safflower phospholipid) on performance and lipid metabolism of laying hens. Sixty-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were divided into four groups of seven birds each, and were given one of four experimental diets containing 5% beef tallow (served as a control, tallow), a mixture of safflower oil and palm oil (SP-oil), crude safflower phospholipid (Saf-PLcrude), or purified safflower phospholipid (Saf-PL) for 7 wk. Egg production ratio and daily egg mass were significantly higher in hens fed Saf-PLcrude diets than in hens of the other diet groups. There were no significant differences in egg weight among groups. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride contents were significantly decreased in all treated groups as compared with the control. The activity of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was the highest in hens fed the Saf-PLcrude diet. Serum esterified cholesterol concentration was decreased by feeding of SP-oil, Saf-PLcrude, or Saf-PL diets. Serum lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity was highest in hens fed the tallow diet. Excreta neutral steroid excretion was significantly increased in the Saf-PLcrude or Saf-PL diet groups, although acidic steroid excretion was not affected by dietary treatments. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid contents in egg yolks were not different for any dietary treatments. The fatty acid compositions of egg yolks from hens fed Saf-PLcrude diets were not different with those fed the SP-oil diet, although eggs of hens fed the Saf-PL diet showed lower total polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that dietary safflower phospholipids may be a valuable ingredient to layers for reducing liver triglycerides and serum cholesterol without any adverse effects.

  4. Determination of space use by laying hens using kinematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mench, Joy A; Blatchford, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Two states in the United States now have legislation requiring that laying hens be provided with sufficient space to perform particular behaviors. To provide a framework for translating these performance standards into a space requirement, kinematic analysis was used to measure the amount of space needed for White Leghorn hens to stand, turn around 180°, lie down, and wing flap. Hyline W-36 hens (n = 9) were marked on the tops of their heads and the tips of both wings and 3 toes with black livestock marker. Each hen was then placed in a floor pen (91.4 × 91.4 cm) and filmed using 2 high-speed cameras. The resulting images were processed using a software program that generated 3-dimensional space use for each behavior. Because none of the hens lay down in the test pen, the 2-dimensional space required for lying was determined by superimposing a grid over videos of the hens lying down in their home cages. On average, hens required a mean area of 563 (± 8) cm(2) to stand, 1,316 (± 23) cm(2) to turn around, 318 (± 6) cm(2) to lie down, and 1,693 (± 136) cm(2) to wing flap. The mean heights used were 34.8 (± 1.3) cm for standing, 38.6 (± 2.3) cm for turning, and 49.5 (± 1.8) cm for wing flapping. However, space requirements for hens housed in multiple-hen groups in cage or noncage systems cannot be based simply on information about the space required for local movement by a single hen. It must also incorporate consideration of the tendency of hens in a flock to synchronize their behaviors. In addition, it must include not just local movement space but also the space that hens may need to use for longer-distance movements to access resources such as food, water, perches, and nest boxes.

  5. Discourse analysis: a new methodology for understanding the ideologies of health and illness.

    PubMed

    Lupton, D

    1992-06-01

    Discourse analysis is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry which has been little employed by public health practitioners. The methodology involves a focus upon the sociocultural and political context in which text and talk occur. Discourse analysis is, above all, concerned with a critical analysis of the use of language and the reproduction of dominant ideologies (belief systems) in discourse (defined here as a group of ideas or patterned way of thinking which can both be identified in textual and verbal communications and located in wider social structures). Discourse analysis adds a linguistic approach to an understanding of the relationship between language and ideology, exploring the way in which theories of reality and relations of power are encoded in such aspects as the syntax, style and rhetorical devices used in texts. This paper argues that discourse analysis is pertinent to the concerns of public health, for it has the potential to lay bare the ideological dimension of such phenomena as lay health beliefs, the doctor-patient relationship, and the dissemination of health information in the entertainment mass media. This dimension is often neglected by public health research. The method of discourse analysis is explained, and examples of its use in the area of public health given.

  6. Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon

    PubMed Central

    Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Lepore, Emiliano; Ventola, Luigi; Asinari, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a suitable area to spiders where to lay eggs is promoted in terms of Darwinian fitness. Despite its importance, the underlying factors behind this key decision are generally poorly understood. Here, we designed a multidisciplinary study based both on in-field data and laboratory experiments focusing on the European cave spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) and aiming at understanding the selective forces driving the female in the choice of the depositional area. Our in-field data analysis demonstrated a major role of air velocity and distance from the cave entrance within a particular cave in driving the female choice. This has been interpreted using a model based on the Entropy Generation Minimization - EGM - method, without invoking best fit parameters and thanks to independent lab experiments, thus demonstrating that the female chooses the depositional area according to minimal level of thermo-fluid-dynamic irreversibility. This methodology may pave the way to a novel approach in understanding evolutionary strategies for other living organisms. PMID:25556697

  7. Cave spiders choose optimal environmental factors with respect to the generated entropy when laying their cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Isaia, Marco; Mammola, Stefano; Lepore, Emiliano; Ventola, Luigi; Asinari, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola Maria

    2015-01-01

    The choice of a suitable area to spiders where to lay eggs is promoted in terms of Darwinian fitness. Despite its importance, the underlying factors behind this key decision are generally poorly understood. Here, we designed a multidisciplinary study based both on in-field data and laboratory experiments focusing on the European cave spider Meta menardi (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) and aiming at understanding the selective forces driving the female in the choice of the depositional area. Our in-field data analysis demonstrated a major role of air velocity and distance from the cave entrance within a particular cave in driving the female choice. This has been interpreted using a model based on the Entropy Generation Minimization - EGM - method, without invoking best fit parameters and thanks to independent lab experiments, thus demonstrating that the female chooses the depositional area according to minimal level of thermo-fluid-dynamic irreversibility. This methodology may pave the way to a novel approach in understanding evolutionary strategies for other living organisms.

  8. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  9. Biochemical and haematological profile of pheasant hens during the laying period.

    PubMed

    Schumann, J; Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Hrabcakova, P; Chloupek, J; Pistekova, V

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides new experimental data on the biochemical and haematological profile of blood in pheasant hens, and points out the changes in both biochemical and haematological parameters that occur during the laying period. Significant effects of egg laying on both the biochemical and the haematological blood parameters of pheasant hens were found. Biochemical analyses revealed a significant increase in the metabolites cholesterol, uric acid, lactate, the enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the minerals calcium and phosphorous, as well as a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and glucose in the course of the laying period. Haematological analyses revealed a significant increase in the count of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils and monocytes due to egg laying. In addition, the erythrocyte count and haemoglobin content significantly decreased in the middle of the laying period and then rebounded at the end of the laying period. The haematocrit content gradually decreased till the end of the laying period. All together, the results of this study underline the impact of the reproduction status of pheasant hens on basic blood parameters. The biochemical and haematological values presented in this study may be of help in assessing disease conditions in laying pheasant hens.

  10. Effects of repeated oral corticosterone administration on performance and stress parameters of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of repeated stress during rearing on performance and physiology of laying hens was studied using a corticosterone (Cort) model. 240 Hisex laying hens were reared in environmentally controlled battery cages. At 7, 11, and 15 wk of age they were exposed for 1 wk to the following treatments...

  11. Dynamic simulation and tension compensation research on subsea umbilical cable laying system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Guojun; Zhu, Shaohua; Liu, Jun; Fang, Xiaoming; Wang, Liquan

    2013-12-01

    For studying the dynamic performance of subsea umbilical cable laying system and achieving the goal of cable tension and laying speed control, the rigid finite element method is used to discrete and transform the system into a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body system which consists of rigid elements and spring-damping elements. The mathematical model of subsea umbilical cable laying system kinematic chain is presented with the second order Lagrange equation in the joint coordinate system, and dynamic modeling and simulation is performed with ADAMS. The dynamic analysis is conducted assuming the following three statuses: ideal laying, practical laying under wave disturbance, and practical laying with tension compensation. Results show that motion disturbances of the laying budge under sea waves, especially with heaving and pitching, will cause relatively serious fluctuations in cable tension and laying speed. Tension compensation, i.e., active back tension torque control can restrict continuous tension increasing or decreasing effectively and rapidly, thus avoiding cable breach or buckling.

  12. Effects of organic selenium and zinc on the aging process of laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study was to determine whether supplementing the diets of post-molted hens with organic selenium (Se) (Sel-Plex®) and/or organic Zinc (Zn) (Bio-Plex®) could improve laying hen performance. Prior to molting, 120-78 wk old laying hens were separated into four treatment groups of ...

  13. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2007-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2006 draws upon available information from literature, industry and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based upon these data.

  14. Understanding and Designing Military Organizations for a Complex Dynamic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    recognize and develop an understanding about the relationships between organizational design, organizational processes, and the attributes of leadership...and are associated with evolution, ecological niches, social process, human behavior, and economies.4 In other words, complex systems can be...and the Environment The rational approach to defining environmental conditions was used in detail because it lays the ground work for developing an

  15. Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals' understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public's perspective. Participants in this study…

  16. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2008 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry, and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  17. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Vasil, R.L.; Nolting, A.

    2011-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2010 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry.

  18. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Bourget, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2009 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on industry exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  19. Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

  20. Housing conditions alter properties of the tibia and humerus during the laying phase in Lohmann white Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Regmi, P; Smith, N; Nelson, N; Haut, R C; Orth, M W; Karcher, D M

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis in caged hens is one driving factor for the United States egg industry to explore options regarding alternative housing systems for laying hens. The aim of our research was to study the influence of housing systems on tibiae and humeri of 77-week-old Lohmann White hens. Pullets raised in an aviary system were either continued in aviary hen systems (AV) or conventional cages (AC) whereas pullets reared in conventional cages continued in conventional hen cages (CC) or enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. From each group, 120 hens were randomly euthanized and right and left tibae and humeri were excised for structural and mechanical analysis. Volumetric density of the cortical bone was measured using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Aviary (AV) hens had greater cortical thickness and density but similar outer dimensions to AC hens (P < 0.05). Hens in EN system had humeri with similar cortical thickness and density but wider outer dimensions than the humeri of CC hens (P < 0.05). Cortical geometry of the tibiae was the same for the EN and CC hens, whereas EN hens had denser tibial cortex than CC hens (P < 0.05). Geometrical changes in the humeri suggest that hens in the AV system were better able to protect their structure from endosteal resorption during the laying phase. Humeri of AV and EN hens had increased second moment of area compared to the AC and CC hens; however, the changes were not observed in tibiae. Mechanical property differences were observed, with bones of AV hens having greater failure moment and stiffness than AC hens and the same difference was observed between the EN and CC hens, (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that movement limitation causes loss of bone mass and density whereas provision of moderate movement increases certain bone quality parameters during adulthood in laying hens.

  1. Tocopherol and annatto tocotrienols distribution in laying-hen body.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Wang, T; Dolde, David; Xin, Hongwei

    2015-10-01

    The impact of supplementing laying-hen feed with annatto tocotrienols (T3s) and alpha-tocopherol on the distribution of various forms of vitamin E and cholesterol throughout the hen's body was evaluated. A total of 18 organs or tissues (skin, fat pad, liver and gall bladder, heart, oviduct, forming yolk, laid yolk, lungs, spleen, kidney, pancreas, gizzard, digestive tract, brain, thigh, breast, manure, and blood) were collected after 7 wk of feeding on diets enriched with various levels of alpha-tocopherol and annatto extract that contained gamma-T3 and delta-T3. Tissue weights, contents of lipid, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-T3, delta-T3, cholesterol, and fatty acid composition of extracted lipids from the collected organs and tissues were determined. Tissue weight and lipid content did not change significantly with feed supplementation treatments, except that the liver became heavier with increased levels of supplementation. Overall, the main organs that accumulated the supplemented vitamin E were fat pad, liver and gall bladder, oviduct, forming yolks, laid yolks, kidney, brain, thigh, and breast. Much of annatto gamma-T3 and delta-T3 (> 90%) was found in the manure, indicating poor uptake. In some tissues (brain and oviduct,) a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen with increased supplementation. Alpha-tocopherol impacted the transfer of gamma-T3 to forming and laid yolks, but did not impact delta-T3 transfer. No significant differences were found in most of the tissues in cholesterol, except a reduction in heart, based on tissue as-is. Blood samples showed large variations in individual hens with no significant differences in total and HDL cholesterol, or total triacylglycerols. Supplementing feed with annatto T3s and alpha-tocopherol showed that the vitamin E profile and distribution of the laying-hen body can be altered, but to different extents depending on tissue. The result of this research has significance in enhancing meat nutrient

  2. Loss of fat with increased adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis in adipose tissue during laying stages in quail.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shujin; Suh, Yeunsu; Choi, Young Min; Shin, Sangsu; Han, Jae Yong; Lee, Kichoon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate regulation of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in adipose and liver to relate lipolytic and lipogenic capacities with physiological changes at the pre-laying, onset of laying, and actively laying stages of quail. Followed by a 50 % increase from pre-laying to onset of laying, adipose to body weight ratio was significantly reduced by 60 % from the onset of laying to the actively laying stage (P < 0.05), mainly resulting from the significantly increased adipocyte size from the pre-laying stage to the onset of laying and reduction of adipocyte size from the onset of laying to the actively laying stage (P < 0.05). In the adipose tissue of actively laying quail, increased protein expression and phosphorylation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) together with an elevated mRNA expression of comparative gene identification-58, an activator of ATGL, contributes to increased lipolytic activity, as proved by increased amounts of plasma non-esterified fatty acid (P < 0.05). In addition, decreased mRNA expression of fatty acid transport protein in the actively laying quail could contribute to the adipocyte hypotrophy (P < 0.05). In the liver, relative mRNA expression of apo-very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-II increased significantly from the pre-laying to actively laying stages (P < 0.05), indicating increased apoVLDL-II actively facilitated VLDL secretion in the actively laying quail. These results suggest that the laying birds undergo active lipolysis in the adipocyte, and increase VLDL secretion from the liver in order to secure a lipid supply for yolk maturation.

  3. Public culture and public understanding of genetics: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Bates, Benjamin R

    2005-01-01

    As the role of genetic science in everyday life has grown, policymakers have become concerned about Americans' understandings of this science. Much effort has been devoted to formal schooling, but less attention has been paid to the role of public culture in shaping public understanding of genetics. Research into public cultural messages about genetics has claimed that the public is likely to adopt problematic accounts, but few studies have explored the public's articulation of these messages. This study is based on 25 focus groups convened to explore the lay public's understanding of genetics. The study found that the public processed a greater variety of messages than assumed by previous researchers, including documentaries, non-science-fiction films, and popular television in addition to previous researchers' focus on science fiction and news media. The study also found that the public does not process the messages through the linear, transmission model assumed by previous research. The public processes messages about genetics complexly and critically. On the basis of these findings, the study suggests that researchers should include a greater variety of texts about genetics in their research and attend more fully to audience processing in addition to content analyses of these texts.

  4. The effect of vitamin E on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens fed corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Licong; Shan, Anshan

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E on laying performance, egg quality, egg fatty acid composition, antioxidant capacity, and several biochemical parameters of laying hens fed corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) during the laying period (40 to 63 wk of age). A total of 360 Hy-Line Variety Brown hens were randomly assigned to 6 groups, consisting of 6 replicates with 10 hens each. Hens were allocated to diets 1 through 6 in a 3 × 2 factorial design. The dietary treatments included 3 levels of DDGS (0, 10, and 20%) and 2 levels of vitamin E (0 and 200 mg/kg). The results indicated that yolk color and eggshell thickness increased with increasing DDGS (P < 0.05). However, increasing DDGS to 20% in laying hen diets significantly reduced feed conversion (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 200 mg/kg of vitamin E significantly improved egg production and yolk percentage (P < 0.05). Increasing the dietary levels of vitamin E caused a decrease in cholesterol and an increase in the α-tocopherol concentration of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). Diets supplemented with DDGS decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in egg yolk (P < 0.05). Supplementation with high levels of vitamin E decreased malondialdehyde and increased glutathione peroxidase and total superoxide dismutase concentrations of the egg yolk and serum (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that DDGS was successfully fed to laying hens at levels up to 10% without adverse effects on laying performance. Additionally, vitamin E supplementation improved egg production and egg quality and provided health benefits to laying hens.

  5. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, Elaine L.; Ritchie, Timothy D.; Igou, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer. PMID:25741302

  6. Brood parasites lay eggs matching the appearance of host clutches

    PubMed Central

    Honza, Marcel; Šulc, Michal; Jelínek, Václav; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific brood parasitism represents a prime example of the coevolutionary arms race where each party has evolved strategies in response to the other. Here, we investigated whether common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) actively select nests within a host population to match the egg appearance of a particular host clutch. To achieve this goal, we quantified the degree of egg matching using the avian vision modelling approach. Randomization tests revealed that cuckoo eggs in naturally parasitized nests showed lower chromatic contrast to host eggs than those assigned randomly to other nests with egg-laying date similar to naturally parasitized clutches. Moreover, egg matching in terms of chromaticity was better in naturally parasitized nests than it would be in the nests of the nearest active non-parasitized neighbour. However, there was no indication of matching in achromatic spectral characteristics whatsoever. Thus, our results clearly indicate that cuckoos select certain host nests to increase matching of their own eggs with host clutches, but only in chromatic characteristics. Our results suggest that the ability of cuckoos to actively choose host nests based on the eggshell appearance imposes a strong selection pressure on host egg recognition. PMID:24258721

  7. Hormonal regulation of medullary bone metabolism in the laying hen

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new organ culture system for the study of bone formation has been developed using medullary bone, a non-structural, metabolically active form of bone which is found in the marrow cavities of egg-laying birds. In the presence of fetal calf serum, bone explants were viable in culture by morphological criteria, and retained large numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and non-collagen protein (NCP) was determined using purified bacterial collagenase. Collagen accounted for over 10% of the total protein labeled. The calcium-regulating hormones, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), caused a dose-dependent inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into CDP. The effective dose range of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 0.1 nM to 100 nM, while that of PTH was 1.0 nM to 100 nM. The effect of both hormones was specific for collagen, since /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into NCP was unaffected. Hydroxyproline analysis of bone explants and culture medium revealed that both hormones decreased the total hydroxyroline content of the cultures, suggesting that the inhibition of /sup 3/H-proline incorporation into DCP is due to inhibition of collagen synthesis.

  8. Experimentally induced "fatty liver syndrome" condition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Harms, R H; Roland, D A; Simpson, C F

    1977-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted with aged laying hens to determine the influence of feeding 5,000 p.p.m. of iodine as potassium iodine (KI) and/or injecting 12 mg. of estradiol upon fat accumulation in the liver and serum cholesterol levels. The KI was fed for 8 days before making liver and blood determinations, and the estradiol was injected 3 days prior to making the determinations. The feeding of KI or injection of estradiol resulted in significantly increased liver weight. When the two treatments were combined a further significant increase in liver weights was obtained. The percent of fat in the liver was significantly increased by the injection of estradiol. However, the feeding of KI in the presence or absence of estradiol did not affect the percentage of fat in the liver. Neither of the treatments significantly affected the fatty acid composition of the liver fat. Feeding of KI or injection of estradiol significantly increased total serum cholesterol levels. When the two treatments were combined a further increase in serum cholesterol level was observed. Histological changes of the livers of hens treated with KI and estradiol were similar to those previously described for the "fatty liver syndrome."

  9. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A. M.; Zhang, H. X.; Chen, W.; Xia, W. G.; Ruan, D.; Wang, S.; Zheng, C. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr) levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64%) to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05). The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age. PMID:27282968

  10. Cooler butterflies lay larger eggs: developmental plasticity versus acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Eenhoorn, Evelien; Bot, Adriane N M; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

    2003-10-07

    We use a full factorial design to investigate the effects of maternal and paternal developmental temperature, as well as female oviposition temperature, on egg size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Butterflies were raised at two different temperatures and mated in four possible sex-by-parental-temperature crosses. The mated females were randomly divided between high and low oviposition temperatures. On the first day after assigning the females to different temperatures, only female developmental temperature affected egg size. Females reared at the lower temperature laid larger eggs than those reared at a higher temperature. When eggs were measured again after an acclimation period of 10 days, egg size was principally determined by the prevailing temperature during oviposition, with females ovipositing at a lower temperature laying larger eggs. In contrast to widely used assumptions, the effects of developmental temperature were largely reversible. Male developmental temperature did not affect egg size in either of the measurements. Overall, developmental plasticity and acclimation in the adult stage resulted in very similar patterns of egg size plasticity. Consequently, we argue that the most important question when testing the significance of acclamatory changes is not at which stage a given plasticity is induced, but rather whether plastic responses to environmental change are adaptive or merely physiological constraints.

  11. Genetic improvement of laying hens viability using survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ducrocq, Vincent; Besbes, Badi; Protais, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The survival of about eight generations of a large strain of laying hens was analysed separating the rearing period (RP) from the production period (PP), after hens were housed. For RP (respectively PP), 97.8% (resp., 94.1% ) of the 109 160 (resp., 100 665) female records were censored after 106 days (resp., 313 days) on the average. A Cox proportional hazards model stratified by flock (= season) and including a hatch-within-flock (HWF) fixed effect seemed to reasonably fit the RP data. For PP, this model could be further simplified to a non-stratified Weibull model. The extension of these models to sire-dam frailty (mixed) models permitted the estimation of the sire genetic variances at 0.261 ± 0.026 and 0.088 ± 0.010 for RP and PP, respectively. Heritabilities on the log scale were equal to 0.48 and 0.19. Non-additive genetic effects could not be detected. Selection was simulated by evaluating all sires and dams, after excluding all records from the last generation. Then, actual parents of this last generation were distributed into four groups according to their own pedigree index. Raw survivor curves of the progeny of extreme parental groups substantially differed (e.g., by 1.7% at 300 days for PP), suggesting that selection based on solutions from the frailty models could be efficient, despite the very large proportion of censored records. PMID:14736405

  12. Guidelines for rescue training of the lay public.

    PubMed

    Abrams, J I; Pretto, E A; Angus, D; Safar, P

    1993-01-01

    The fundamental goal of emergency medical response in disaster is to save lives and reduce injury and permanent disability. It has been observed that urgent emergency medical care of seriously injured earthquake casualties trapped under building rubble, cannot be provided unless the victims have been extricated and transported to medical facilities by friends or relatives, or are accessible to field rescue and medical teams. Equally important is the fact that extrication of seriously injured, trapped victims by laypersons is hazardous, unless the following conditions are met: 1) the rescuer has basic knowledge of extrication, and; 2) there is early application of effective life-supporting first-aid (LSFA) and/or advanced trauma life support (ATLS) at the scene. Time is the critical factor in such an effort. In previous studies of death and dying in earthquakes, it was noted that extrication of trapped victims will be attempted by survivors. Therefore, it is suggested that citizens living in regions of high seismic risk and trained in basic search and rescue and in LSFA are the most immediate resource for early response after an earthquake. An accompanying paper addresses the issue of citizen LSFA training. This paper focuses on the basic concepts of search and rescue training for the lay public.

  13. Serological detection of experimental Salmonella enteritidis infections in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gast, R K; Beard, C W

    1990-01-01

    The antibody response of laying hens to experimental Salmonella enteritidis infection was evaluated in microagglutination, tube agglutination, and rapid whole-blood plate agglutination assays. Hens of three different ages were infected by either oral inoculation or horizontal contact transmission. Blood was collected at weekly intervals, and the presence of specific antibodies was assessed by reaction with antigens prepared from strains of S. enteritidis and S. pullorum. The sensitivity of detection of infected hens did not vary significantly between the assays, as all three tests effectively identified most exposed hens as seropositive. Within each test, however, variation was observed in the detection sensitivity when different antigens were used. The microagglutination titers of serum samples were determined by serial dilution. Antibody titers peaked at 1 to 2 weeks postinoculation and declined steadily, although most birds were still identified as seropositive at 10 weeks postinoculation. The mean microtest titers obtained with S. enteritidis antigens were higher than with an S. pullorum antigen, indicating greater test sensitivity. However, use of the S. pullorum antigen resulted in fewer false positives when sera from uninfected control hens were tested. The titers of contact-exposed hens peaked later and at lower values than did those of inoculated hens, but these two groups of hens had similar antibody titers after the third week postinoculation.

  14. Lay perspectives on the social and psychological functions of heroes.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Elaine L; Ritchie, Timothy D; Igou, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Declaring and thinking about heroes are common human preoccupations but surprisingly aspects of heroism that reinforce these behaviors are not well-understood. In four thematically consistent studies, we attempt to identify lay perspectives about the psychological functions served by heroes. In Study 1, participants (n = 189) freely generated open-ended descriptions of hero functions, which were then sorted by independent coders into 14 categories (e.g., instill hope, guide others). In Study 2, in an attempt to identify the most important functions associated with heroes, participants (n = 249) rated how each function corresponded with their personal views about heroes. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor model of hero functions fit the data well: participants thought that heroes enhanced the lives of others, promoted morals, and protected individuals from threats. In Study 3 (n = 242), participants rated heroes as more likely to fulfill a protecting function than either leaders or role models. In Studies 4A (n = 38) and 4B (n = 102), participants indicated that thinking about a hero (relative to a leader or an acquaintance) during psychological threat fulfilled personal enhancement, moral modeling, and protection needs. In all, these findings provide an empirical basis to spur additional research about the social and psychological functions that heroes offer.

  15. Embodied understanding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner. PMID:26175701

  16. Parental perceptions of the impacts the built environment has on young children׳s health: a qualitative examination and lay assessment amongst residents in four Scottish communities.

    PubMed

    Teedon, Paul; Gillespie, Morag; Lindsay, Kate; Baker, Keith

    2014-07-01

    The built environment is important for children׳s health and development. Qualitative research in four communities in Scotland explored with groups of parents of young children their lay perceptions of their local environment with specific reference to its impact upon their children׳s health. Valuing most strong supportive communities; good quality public spaces and social housing, parents׳ key concerns included anti-social behaviour, incivility and a range of locally-specific concerns. As knowledgeable key gatekeepers to children׳s use of home environments and public spaces, parent׳s qualitative lay input is important for the development of children׳s effective use of outdoor spaces and the built environment over the long term.

  17. Differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Beatrice; Zentek, Jürgen; Harlander-Matauschek, Alexandra

    2013-02-17

    Feather pecking in laying hens is a serious behavioral problem and is often associated with feather eating. There is some evidence that ingested feathers affect gut function. The aim of the present study was to explore whether differences in intestinal microbial metabolites in laying hens with high and low levels of repetitive feather-pecking behavior exist. Sixty high feather-pecking birds (H) and sixty low feather-pecking birds (L) of the White Leghorn breed were used for behavioral recordings of feather pecking. Feather pecking activity was observed for 5 weeks, after which 22 H birds with the highest and 22 L birds with the lowest feather pecking activity were chosen. The number of whole feathers and feather parts in the gizzard and intestinal microbial metabolites in the ileum and ceca of these laying hens was examined. Biogenic amines, short-chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate were measured as microbial metabolites. A higher number of feather parts and particles were found in H than in L birds. Putrescine and cadaverine concentrations were higher in the ileum of the hens with low pecking activity (P<0.001 and P=0.012). In the cecum the amounts of l-lactate, d-lactate and total lactate and SCFA were higher in H birds (P=0.007, P=0.005, P=0.006, and P<0.001). Acetate, i-butyrate, i-valeriate and n-valeriate all displayed significantly higher molar ratios in the cecal contents of L birds (P=0.001, P=0.003, P=0.001, and P<0.001). Propionate and n-butyrate showed higher molar ratios in H birds (P<0.001 and P=0.034). Ammonia was higher in the ileum and cecum of the L birds (P<0.001 and P=0.004). For the first time, this study shows that birds with high and low numbers of repetitive pecking movements to the plumage of other birds differ in their intestinal microbial metabolism. Further experiments should be conducted to investigate whether these differences alter behavior in H and L feather pecking birds. The present results, however, open new avenues of research

  18. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  19. Exploration Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  20. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  1. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2007 draws upon available information from industry, literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based upon these data.

  2. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2005 draws upon available information from literature, industry and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. It provides data on exploration budgets by global region and mineral commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analysis of the mineral industry based on these data.

  3. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Rapstine, T.D.; Lee, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2011 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. This summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents surveys returned by companies primarily focused on precious (gold, platinum-group metals and silver) and base (copper, lead, nickel and zinc) metals.

  4. The Evolution of "Association" as a Model for Lay/Religious Collaboration in Catholic Education, Part II: The Emergence of Shared Mission as a Ministry Paradigm, 1986-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidd, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    In Part I of this two-part series (published in the March 2009 issue), the author traced the evolution of the Brothers of the Christian Schools' (Christian Brothers in the United States) understanding of how they related to the lay people with whom they increasingly shared their apostolate of Catholic education. From a stance of wary distance in…

  5. Understanding Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  6. Understanding Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Richard D.

    2001-01-01

    A language arts teacher at a California middle school describes an exercise he developed to help students understand disabilities through virtual, firsthand experience. As students simulate being blind, unable to walk, they learn how to adjust, innovate, compensate, cooperate, and empathize with one another. (MLH)

  7. Understanding Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Val

    This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

  8. Understanding Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The learning experiences in the teacher's guide focus on helping students at the ninth grade level develop understanding of themselves as individuals and recognition that others may not perceive them as they see themselves. The materials are best utilized in a group guidance setting. Each student is encouraged to look at himself, to examine his…

  9. Individual variation in avian reproductive physiology does not reliably predict variation in laying date.

    PubMed

    Schaper, Sonja V; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J; Caro, Samuel P; Visser, Marcel E

    2012-10-01

    Most animals reproduce seasonally. They time their reproduction in response to environmental cues, like increasing photoperiod and temperature, which are predictive for the time of high food availability. Although individuals of a population use the same cues, they vary in their onset of reproduction, with some animals reproducing consistently early or late. In avian research, timing of reproduction often refers to the laying date of the first egg, which is a key determinant of fitness. Experiments measuring temporal patterns of reproductive hormone concentrations or gonadal size under controlled conditions in response to a cue commonly assume that these proxies are indicative of the timing of egg laying. This assumption often remains untested, with few studies reporting both reproductive development and the onset of laying. We kept in total 144 pairs of great tits (Parus major) in separate climate-controlled aviaries over 4 years to correlate pre-breeding plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and gonadal growth with the timing of laying. Individuals varied consistently in hormone concentrations over spring, but this was not directly related to the timing of gonadal growth, nor with the laying date of the first egg. The timing of gonadal development in both sexes was similarly not correlated with the timing of laying. This demonstrates the female's ability to adjust the onset of laying to environmental conditions irrespective of substantial differences in pre-laying development. We conclude that stages of reproductive development are regulated by different cues, and therefore egg laying dates need to be studied to measure the influences of environmental cues on timing of seasonal reproduction.

  10. Developing lay health worker policy in South Africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past half decade South Africa has been developing, implementing and redeveloping its Lay Health Worker (LHW) policies. Research during this period has highlighted challenges with LHW programme implementation. These challenges have included an increased burden of care for female LHWs. The aim of this study was to explore contemporary LHW policy development processes and the extent to which issues of gender are taken up within this process. Methods The study adopted a qualitative approach to exploring policy development from the perspective of policy actors. Eleven policy actors (policy makers and policy commentators) were interviewed individually. Data from the interviews were analysed thematically. Results Considerations of LHW working conditions drove policy redevelopment. From the interviews it seems that gender as an issue never reached the policy making agenda. Although there was strong recognition that the working conditions of LHWs needed to be improved, poor working conditions were not necessarily seen as a gender concern. Our data suggests that in the process of defining the problem which the redeveloped policy had to address, gender was not included. There was no group or body who brought the issue of gender to the attention of policy developers. As such the issue of gender never entered the policy debates. These debates focused on whether it was appropriate to have LHWs, what LHW programme model should be adopted and whether or not LHWs should be incorporated into the formal health system. Conclusion LHW policy redevelopment focused on resolving issues of LHW working conditions through an active process involving many actors and strong debates. Within this process the issue of gender had no champion and never reached the LHW policy agenda. Future research may consider how to incorporate the voices of ordinary women into the policy making process. PMID:22410185

  11. Thermo-mechanical stresses in the lumps of laying of thermal neutron pulsed graphite reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Boyko, V.I.; Guralev, S.S.; Koshelev, F.P.

    1993-12-31

    The research thermal neutron pulsed graphite reactor (PGR) is intended to get powerful neutron and gamma radiation streams. The reactor is the homogeneous carbon-uranium reactor with a graphite reflector. The reactor laying consists of a number of columns and it`s sizes are 2400* 2400*4500mm. The shape of the active zone is almost cubic, it`s sizes are 1400*1400*1330mm. There is a vertical experimental channel in the reactor laying for irradiation of test samples. The operation of the reactor is briefly described. Evaluations about the workability of the reactor laying lumps in the neutron flashout regime are made.

  12. Final Report West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    This report documents completion of Milestone A.4-1 "Issue Tank Lay-Up Strategies for WVDP Final Report," in Technical Task Plan RL3-WT21A, "Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up." This task was a collaborative effort among Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Services. The primary objective of the overall task was to develop and evaluate conceptual strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two large high-level waste storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project.

  13. Developing ovarian cancer stem cell models: laying the pipeline from discovery to clinical intervention.

    PubMed

    Ffrench, Brendan; Gasch, Claudia; O'Leary, John J; Gallagher, Michael F

    2014-12-11

    Despite decades of research, ovarian cancer is still associated with unacceptably high mortality rates, which must be addressed by novel therapeutic approaches. One avenue through which this may be achieved is targeting of tumor-initiating 'Cancer Stem Cells' (CSCs). CSCs are sufficient to generate primary and recurrent disease through extensive rounds of asymmetric division, which maintain the CSC pool while producing the tissues that form the bulk of the tumor. CSCs thrive in the harsh tumor niche, are generally refractory to therapeutic intervention and closely-linked to the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition process, which facilitates invasion and metastasis. While it is well-accepted that CSC-targeting must be assessed as a novel therapeutic avenue, few ovarian CSC models have been developed due to perceived and actual difficulties associated with the process of 'CSC Discovery'. In this article we review contemporary approaches to CSC Discovery and argue that this process should start with an understanding of the specific challenges associated with clinical intervention, laying the pipeline backwards towards CSC Discovery. Such an approach would expedite the bridging of the gap between laboratory isolation and clinical targeting of ovarian CSCs.

  14. Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Kempenaers, Bart; Borgström, Pernilla; Loës, Peter; Schlicht, Emmi; Valcu, Mihai

    2010-10-12

    Associated with a continued global increase in urbanization, anthropogenic light pollution is an important problem. However, our understanding of the ecological consequences of light pollution is limited. We investigated effects of artificial night lighting on dawn song in five common forest-breeding songbirds. In four species, males near street lights started singing significantly earlier at dawn than males elsewhere in the forest, and this effect was stronger in naturally earlier-singing species. We compared reproductive behavior of blue tits breeding in edge territories with and without street lights to that of blue tits breeding in central territories over a 7 year period. Under the influence of street lights, females started egg laying on average 1.5 days earlier. Males occupying edge territories with street lights were twice as successful in obtaining extra-pair mates than their close neighbors or than males occupying central forest territories. Artificial night lighting affected both age classes but had a stronger effect on yearling males. Our findings indicate that light pollution has substantial effects on the timing of reproductive behavior and on individual mating patterns. It may have important evolutionary consequences by changing the information embedded in previously reliable quality-indicator traits.

  15. Effects of carbon percentage, Stelmor cooling rate and laying head temperature on tensile strength gain in low carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Surya Prakash

    Low carbon steel wire rods are used to produce finished products such as fine wire, coat hangers, staples, and roofing nails. These products are subjected to excessively high work hardening rates during wire drawing process resulting in a variation in wire tensile strength. This research analyzes the effects of carbon percentage, StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature on the tensile strength gain in wire drawn low carbon steels using design of experiments. The probable reasons for variations in tensile strength gain are analyzed by observing the microstructural changes during experiments. Microstructural analysis was done extensively using optical microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and it was found that the tensile strength gain variation is mainly caused by the increase in the dislocation density in wire rod and wire due to high cooling rate and high laying head temperature, within the range considered. This research concludes that a low carbon wire rod can be produced with minimum tensile strength gain, lower dislocation density and finer ferrite grain size by maintaining a low cooling rate in the StelmorRTM cooling zone and low laying head temperature, which is the temperature at which the wire rod coils are laid on the Stelmor RTM deck. It is also concluded from the results of the present study that: (1) The lowest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 (0.07 wt.% Carbon) with low cooling rate of 14°F/s and low laying head temperature of 1500°F. (2) The highest tensile strength gain is for NS 1006T-3 with high cooling rate of 26°F/s and high laying head temperature of 1650°F. (3) The effect of StelmorRTM cooling rate and laying head temperature and their interaction are found to be the significant factors causing the variation in wire tensile strength gain. The StelmorRTM cooling rate has the most significant effect on tensile strength gain among the three factors. (4) The effect of carbon percentage on wire tensile strength

  16. Laying Bare Educational Crosstalk: A Study of Discursive Repertoires in the Wake of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Cormac; Laksov, Klara Bolander

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of the Bologna process, many European universities are undergoing comprehensive educational reform. Our attention in this paper is focused on how a medical university came to terms with the challenges presented therein. We wished to explore how educators identify, understand and deal with opportunities for change at a medical…

  17. Understanding Flight

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  18. Understanding Depression

    PubMed Central

    McNair, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    To understand the effects of depression on a patient's life, the physician must be aware how depression manifests itself. Somatic tension, strategies to relieve discomfort and social withdrawal must be recognized as symptoms of depression. An awareness of life situations which can give rise to these symptoms, as well as the effect of the physician's own reactions to the patient's depression, are helpful. PMID:21289767

  19. Understanding hospitality.

    PubMed

    Patten, C S

    1994-03-01

    Bridging patient/"customer" issues and business aspects can be aided through developing a specific nursing basis for hospitality. The ancient practice of hospitality has evolved into three distinct levels: public, personal and therapeutic. Understanding these levels is helpful in integrating various dimensions of guest relations programs in hospitals into a more comprehensive vision. Hospitality issues must become a greater part of today's nursing management.

  20. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  1. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  2. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  3. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  4. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    PubMed

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  5. Health Promotion in the Community: Impact of Faith-Based Lay Health Educators in Urban Neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Ooi, Gavyn; Teague, Paula; Daniel Hale, W

    2016-06-01

    Promoting wellness and providing reliable health information in the community present serious challenges. Lay health educators, also known as community health workers, may offer a cost-effective solution to such challenges. This is a retrospective observational study of graduates from the Lay Health Educator Program (LHEP) at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center from 2013 to 2014. Students were enrolled from the surrounding community congregations and from the hospital's accredited clinical pastoral education program. There were 50 events implemented by the lay health educators during the 2014-2015 time period, reaching a total of 2004 individuals. The mean time from date of graduation from the LHEP to implementation of their first health promotional event was 196 ± 76 days. A significant number of lay health educators implemented events within the first year after completing their training. Ongoing monitoring of their community activity and the clinical impact of their efforts should be a priority for future studies.

  6. The 2015 Resuscitation Council of Asia (RCA) guidelines on adult basic life support for lay rescuers.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Phil; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Lim, Swee Han; Ma, Mathew Huei-Ming; Wang, Tzong-Luen; Lavapie, Francis; Krisanarungson, Sopon; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Hwang, Sung Oh

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces adult basic life support (BLS) guidelines for lay rescuers of the resuscitation council of Asia (RCA) developed for the first time. The RCA BLS guidelines for lay rescuers have been established by expert consensus among BLS Guidelines Taskforce of the RCA on the basis of the 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. The RCA recommends compression-only CPR for lay rescuers and emphasizes high-quality CPR with chest compression depth of approximately 5cm and chest compression rate of 100-120min(-1). Role of emergency medical dispatchers in helping lay rescuers recognize cardiac arrest and perform CPR is also emphasized. The RCA guidelines will contribute to help Asian countries establish and implement their own CPR guidelines in the context of their domestic circumstances.

  7. Higher precision level at individual laying performance tests in noncage housing systems.

    PubMed

    Icken, W; Thurner, S; Heinrich, A; Kaiser, A; Cavero, D; Wendl, G; Fries, R; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R

    2013-09-01

    With the Weihenstephan funnel nest box, 12 laying hen flocks were tested for their individual laying performance, egg quality, and nesting behavior in a noncage environment. During the whole observation period of 8 yr, a transponder-based data recording system was continuously improved and resulted in a recording accuracy of 97%. At peak production, heritabilities for the number of eggs laid are in some flocks higher than expected. With improved data accuracy, heritability estimates on individual egg weights are more stable. Heritabilities for nesting behavior traits range between a low to moderate level, providing very useful information for laying hen selection to help improve traits that cannot be recorded in cages. Over the years, the benefits of the Weihenstephan funnel nest box for laying hen breeders have grown. This is due to higher data recording accuracies and extended testing capacities, which result in more reliable genetic parameters.

  8. The influence of naive causal theories on lay concepts of mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nancy S; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments, incorporating both real-life (Experiment 1) and artificial (Experiment 2) stimuli, demonstrated that lay concepts of mental disorders can be reliably predicted from subjects' naive causal theories about those disorders. Symptoms that are deeper causes (X, where X causes Y, which causes Z) are more important in lay concepts than intermediate causes (Y), which in turn are more important than terminal effects (Z). In addition, symptoms that cause or are caused by other symptoms are more important in lay concepts than symptoms not participating in any causal relationships. Implications of these results for current models of categorization and for research on lay theories of mental disorders are discussed, and future directions for research are suggested.

  9. Lay Proselytization of Christianity in Japan in the Meiji Period: The Career of E. Warren Clark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Daniel A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the work of E. Warren Clark, a lay missionary officially employed by the Japanese government as a university teacher during the 1870s. Provides excerpts from Clark's book, "Life and Adventure in Japan" (1878), written after his return. (JDH)

  10. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities.

  11. Consultation etiquette in general practice: a qualitative study of what makes it different for lay cancer caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is commonplace for lay caregivers to overlook their own health concerns when supporting someone with advanced cancer. During this time, caregivers' needs as patients are often marginalised by health professionals, including General Practitioners (GPs), who may miss the breadth of caregivers' needs by focusing on the practicalities of caregiving. GPs traditionally rely on patients to raise their concerns, and then respond to these concerns, but caregivers as patients may be disinclined to cue their GP. The norms of engagement when caregivers consult their GP are less defined, and how they interact with their GP regarding their own health is under-explored. This sub-study investigates the norms, assumptions and subtleties which govern caregiver-GP consultations, and explores factors affecting their interaction regarding caregivers' own health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with six lay caregivers and 19 health professionals in Brisbane, Australia, and analyzed the interview transcripts thematically. Results Traditional norms of engagement are subjected to assumptions and expectations which caregivers and GPs bring to the consultation. Practice pressures also influence both parties' capacity and willingness to discuss caregivers' health. Nonetheless, some GPs monitor caregivers' health opportunistically. Their interaction is enhanced by the quality of the caregiver-GP relationship and by the GP's skills. Conclusions Caregivers are caught in a paradox whereby their health needs may become subsumed by the care recipient's needs in a setting where patient needs are normally scrutinised and supported. Caregivers may not raise their health concerns with their GP, who instead may need to cue them that it is timely and safe to do so. The routine use of a prompt may help to address caregivers' needs systematically, but it needs to be complemented by GPs' desire and capacity to engage with patients in a caregiving role. The potential

  12. Linking pre-laying energy allocation and timing of breeding in a migratory arctic raptor.

    PubMed

    Lamarre, Vincent; Franke, Alastair; Love, Oliver P; Legagneux, Pierre; Bêty, Joël

    2017-03-01

    For migratory species, acquisition and allocation of energy after arrival on the breeding grounds largely determine reproductive decisions. Few studies have investigated underlying physiological mechanisms driving variation in breeding phenology so far. We linked physiological state to individual timing of breeding in pre-laying arctic-nesting female peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius). We captured females from two populations 2-20 days before egg-laying to assess plasma concentration of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BUTY) and triglyceride (TRIG), two metabolites known to reflect short-term changes in fasting and fattening rate, respectively. We also assessed baseline corticosterone (CORTb), a hormone that mediates energy allocation, and the scaled mass index (SMI) as an indicator of somatic body reserves. Plasma BUTY was slightly higher during the pre-recruiting period compared to the period of rapid follicular growth, indicating a reduction in catabolism of lipid reserves before investment in follicle development. Conversely, TRIG levels increased in pre-recruiting females, and best-predicted individual variation in pre-laying interval and lay date. A marked increase in CORTb occurred concomitantly with the onset of rapid follicle growth. SMI was highly variable possibly reflecting variation in food availability or individuals at different stages. Results suggest that (1) lower rates of pre-laying fattening and/or lower mobilization rate of lipoproteins to ovarian follicles delayed laying, and (2) an elevation in pre-laying CORTb may result from, or be required to compensate for, the energetic costs of egg production. Results of this study illustrate how variation in the allocation of energy before laying can influence individual fitness-related reproductive decisions.

  13. The development of sausage including meat from spent laying hen surimi.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Kim, I S; Jung, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, Y J; Hur, S J

    2007-12-01

    The sausage samples were made from pork with spent laying hen breast surimi. The samples were divided into 4 groups [sausage made from pork (control) and sausage made from pork with 20% (T1), 40% (T2), and 60% (T3) of spent laying hen breast surimi]. In proximate compositions, the moisture and ash contents of the control were higher than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples in all storage periods. The pH and cooking loss were higher in T3 compared with other sausage samples. However, there was no significant difference in water-holding capacity among the sausage samples, whereas shear force was significantly higher in T2. In meat color, sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples (T1, T2, and T3) have shown to have higher lightness (L) compared with control, and redness (a) was significantly higher in control and T1. Total amino acid content and essential amino acids were increased in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples at 0 d of storage. In fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acid was higher in control than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was lower in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples than control at 2 and 4 wk of storage. Cholesterol content was lower in control compared with sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. In sensory evaluation, most test items were not significantly different among the sausage samples although tenderness was higher in T2 and T3 at 0 d of storage.

  14. Failed landings after laying hen flight in a commercial aviary over two flock cycles.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Goodwin, S L; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    Many egg producers are adopting alternative housing systems such as aviaries that provide hens a tiered cage and a litter-covered open floor area. This larger, more complex environment permits expression of behaviors not seen in space-limited cages, such as flight. Flight is an exercise important for strengthening bones; but domestic hens might display imperfect flight landings due to poor flight control. To assess the potential implications of open space, we evaluated the landing success of Lohmann white laying hens in a commercial aviary. Video recordings of hens were taken from 4 aviary sections at peak lay, mid lay and end lay across two flock cycles. Observations were made in each focal section of all flights throughout the day noting flight origin and landing location (outer perch or litter) and landing success or failure. In Flock 1, 9.1% of all flights failed and 21% failed in Flock 2. The number of flights decreased across the laying cycle for both flocks. Proportionally more failed landings were observed in the double row sections in Flock 2. Collisions with other hens were more common than slipping on the ground or colliding with aviary structures across sections and flocks. More hens slipped on the ground and collided with physical structures at peak lay for Flock 2 than at other time points. More collisions with other hens were seen at mid and end lay than at peak lay for Flock 2. Landings ending on perches failed more often than landings on litter. These results indicate potential for flight-related hen injuries in aviary systems resulting from failed landings, which may have implications for hen welfare and optimal system design and management.

  15. The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J

    2011-08-01

    Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery.

  16. Understanding resilience

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathé, Aleksander A.

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

  17. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Pande, Vivek V.; Devon, Rebecca L.; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.

    2016-01-01

    compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens. PMID:26941727

  18. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R L; Cheng, H W

    2011-11-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in the regulation of aggression in many species, especially via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways. To investigate heritable differences in this regulation, 2 high aggressive strains [Dekalb XL (DXL) and low group egg productivity and survivability (LGPS)] and one low aggressive strain (low group egg productivity and survivability; HGPS) of laying hens were used in the study. The HGPS and LGPS lines were diversely selected using group selection for high and low group production and survivability. The DXL line is a commercial line selected through individual selection based on egg production. Heritable differences in aggressive propensity between the strains have been previously assessed. The birds were pair housed within the same strain and labeled as dominant or subordinate based on behavioral observation. For both experiments 1 and 2, behavioral analysis was performed on all 3 strains whereas neurotransmitter analysis was performed only on the most aggressive (DXL) and least aggressive (HGPS) strains. In experiment 1, the subordinate birds were treated with D1 agonist, D2 agonist, or saline controls (n = 12). In experiment 2, the dominant birds from a separate flock were treated with D1 antagonist, D2 antagonist, or saline controls (n = 12). Treatment-associated changes in aggressive behaviors and central neurotransmitters were measured. Aggression was increased in all strains in response to D1 agonism but increased only in the less aggressive HGPS birds with D2 agonism. Aggression was decreased and hypothalamic serotonin and epinephrine were increased in birds from all strains treated with D2 receptor antagonist. The D1 receptor antagonism elicited different behavioral and neurotransmitter responses based on the aggressive phenotype of the genetic strains. Aggressive strains DXL and LGPS but not the HGPS strain decreased aggressiveness following antagonism of the D1 receptor. The data show evidence for distinct

  19. Litter lipid content affects dustbathing behavior in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Scholz, B; Kjaer, J B; Urselmans, S; Schrader, L

    2011-11-01

    Within the European Union, the provision of dustbathing material in layer housing systems will be compulsory beginning in 2012. In cage systems, food particles are mainly used as litter material and are provided on scratching mats by an automatic transporting system. However, because dustbathing is a means for hens to remove stale lipids from their plumage, lipid content of a substrate may be an important asset with regard to its adequacy. This study analyzes dustbathing behavior as affected by lipid content of feed used as litter material. A total of 72 laying hens of 2 genotypes (Lohmann Selected Leghorn, Lohmann Brown) were kept in 12 compartments (6 hens each). Compartments were equipped with a plastic grid floor (G) and additionally contained 3 different dustbathing trays (each 1,000 cm(2)/hen) holding low-lipid (0.82%; L), normal-lipid (4.2%; N), and high-lipid (15.7%; H) food particles. The experiment began at 20 wk of life, and video recordings were done at wk 23, 26, and 29. Number of dustbaths, time spent dustbathing, average dustbath duration, foraging, and single behaviors within dustbaths were analyzed during the light period over 2 d in each observation week. Dustbaths occurred most frequently in the L compared with the N, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). Total time spent dustbathing was longest in the L treatment compared with the N and H treatments (P < 0.001). No difference in the average duration of single dustbaths was found between the L, N, and H treatments. However, when dustbath interruptions (less than 10 min) were excluded, the duration of single dustbaths was longer in the H compared with the L (P = 0.009) and N (P = 0.024) treatments. Foraging was most frequently observed in the N compared with the L, H, and G treatments (all P < 0.001). More body wing shakes occurred in the L compared with the N treatment, and the number of vertical wing shakes was higher in the N compared with the H treatment (all P ≤ 0.05). Our results showed

  20. Study of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Pande, Vivek V; Devon, Rebecca L; Sharma, Pardeep; McWhorter, Andrea R; Chousalkar, Kapil K

    2016-01-01

    compared to previously published studies. The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S. Typhimurium in laying hens.

  1. Prevention of mother to child transmission lay counsellors: Are they adequately trained?

    PubMed

    Thurling, Catherine H; Harris, Candice

    2012-06-05

    South Africa's high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women requires a comprehensive health care approach to pregnancy because of the added risk of their HIV status. As a result of the shortage of health care workers in South Africa, lay counsellors play important roles in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). There is no standardization of training of lay counsellors in South Africa, and training varies in length depending on the training organisation. The study aimed to investigate the training of lay counsellors by analysing their training curricula and interviewing lay counsellors about their perceptions of their training. A two phase research method was applied. Phase one documented an analysis of the training curricula. Phase two was semi-structured interviews with the participants. Purposive sampling was undertaken for this study. The total sample size was 13 people, with a final sample of 9 participants, determined at the point of data saturation. The research was qualitative, descriptive and contextual in design. The curricula analysed had different styles of delivery, and the approaches to learning and courses varied, resulting in inconsistent training outcomes. A need for supervision and mentorship in the working environment was also noted. The training of lay counsellors needs to be adapted to meet the extended roles that they are playing in PMTCT. The standardization of training programmes, and the incorporation of a system of mentorship in the work environment, would ensure that the lay counsellors are adequately prepared for their role in PMTCT.

  2. High Throughput Assay to Examine Egg-Laying Preferences of Individual Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gou, Bin; Zhu, Edward; He, Ruo; Stern, Ulrich; Yang, Chung-Hui

    2016-03-24

    Recently, egg-laying preference of Drosophila has emerged as a genetically tractable model to study the neural basis of simple decision-making processes. When selecting sites to deposit their eggs, female flies are capable of ranking the relative attractiveness of their options and choosing the "greater of two goods." However, most egg-laying preference assays are not practical if one wants to take a systematic genetic screening approach to search for the circuit basis underlying this simple decision-making process, as they are population-based and laborious to set up. To increase the throughput of studying of egg-laying preferences of single females, we developed custom chambers that each can simultaneously assay egg-laying preferences of up to thirty individual flies as well as a protocol that ensures each female has a high egg-laying rate (so that their preference is readily discernable and more convincing). Our approach is simple to execute and produces very consistent results. Additionally, these chambers can be equipped with different attachments to allow video recording the egg-laying animals and to deliver light for optogenetics studies. This article provides the blueprints for fabricating these chambers and the procedure for preparing the flies to be assayed in these chambers.

  3. A single pair of neurons modulates egg-laying decisions in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chou, Yen-Yun; Yeh, Sheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Animals have to judge environmental cues and choose the most suitable option for them from many different options. Female fruit flies selecting an optimum site to deposit their eggs is a biologically important reproductive behavior. When given the direct choice between ovipositing their eggs in a sucrose-containing medium or a caffeine-containing medium, female flies prefer the latter. However, the neural circuits and molecules that regulate this decision-making processes during egg-laying site selection remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found that amnesiac (amn) mutant flies show significant defects in egg-laying decisions, and such defects can be reversed by expressing the wild-type amn transgene in two dorsal paired medial (DPM) neurons in the brain. Silencing neuronal activity with an inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.1) in DPM neurons also impairs egg-laying decisions. Finally, the activity in mushroom body αβ neurons is required for the egg-laying behavior, suggesting a possible "DPM-αβ neurons" brain circuit modulating egg-laying decisions. Our results highlight the brain circuits and molecular mechanisms of egg-laying decisions in Drosophila.

  4. Enantioselective Characteristics and Montmorillonite-Mediated Removal Effects of α-Hexachlorocyclohexane in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueke; Shen, Zhigang; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chang; Yao, Guojun; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-07

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) is a chiral organochlorine pesticide that is often ubiquitously detected in various environmental matrices and may be absorbed by the human body via food consumption, with serious detriments to human health. In this study, enantioselective degradation kinetics and residues of α-HCH in laying hens were investigated after a single dose of exposure to the pesticide, whereas enantioselectivity and residues of α-HCH in eggs, droppings, and various tissues were investigated after long-term exposure. Meanwhile, montmorillonite (MMT), a feed additive with high capacity of adsorption, was investigated for its ability to remove α-HCH from laying hens. Most non-brain tissues enantioselectively accumulated (-)-α-HCH, while (+)-α-HCH was preferentially accumulated in the brain. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) in most tissues gradually decreased, implying continuous depletion of (+)-α-HCH in laying hens. After 30 days of exposure and 31 days of elimination, the concentration of α-HCH in eggs and tissues of laying hens with MMT-containing feed was lower than that with MMT-free feed, indicating the removal effects of MMT for α-HCH in laying hens. The findings presented herein suggest that modified MMT may potentially be useful in reducing the enrichment of α-HCH in laying hens and eggs, thus lowering the risk of human intake of α-HCH.

  5. Rapid increase of carbonate in cortical bones of hens during laying period.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Li, Q; Wang, S-J; Zhang, L; Qiu, J-Y; Wu, Y; Zhou, Z-L

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of carbonate has been recognized as an evident change in bone mineral (bioapatite) during aging. Laying hens (Gushi layer) at 4 stages of age (8 hens each stage) were studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray radiography to investigate the mineralogical changes and bone density, respectively. Cortical bones of the humerus and femur show a rapid increase of carbonate (∼1.9 wt.%) from sexual maturity to the peak of hens' laying period, while the densities of the cortical bones are relatively stable. Before sexual maturity, the density of the cortical bones increases considerably during aging. However, after the peak of the laying period, only femoral density continues elevating. Carbonate contents in the cortical bones reach the maximum at the peak of the laying period. Two pathways (halted growth of density and Ca-release due to the CO3 incorporation) could both contribute to the intense Ca requirement for egg laying. Crystallization, however, has no significant changes during aging and the laying period. This study could shed light on the mechanism of mineral losses due to CO3 incorporation, and also shows the advantages of Raman spectroscopy in tracking mineral loss in poultry bone.

  6. Haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period in common pheasant hens housed in enhanced cages.

    PubMed

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period.

  7. Communal egg-laying in reptiles and amphibians: evolutionary patterns and hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Doody, J Sean; Freedberg, Steve; Keogh, J Scott

    2009-09-01

    Communal egg-laying is widespread among animals, occurring in insects, mollusks, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds, just to name a few. While some benefits of communal egg-laying may be pervasive (e.g., it saves time and energy and may ensure the survival of mothers and their offspring), the remarkable diversity in the life histories of the animals that exhibit this behavior presents a great challenge to discovering any general explanation. Reptiles and amphibians offer ideal systems for investigating communal egg-laying because they generally lack parental care--a simplification that brings nest site choice behavior into sharp focus. We exhaustively reviewed the published literature for data on communal egg-laying in reptiles and amphibians. Our analysis demonstrates that the behavior is much more common than previously recognized (occurring in 481 spp.), especially among lizards (N = 255 spp.), where the behavior has evolved multiple times. Our conceptual review strongly suggests that different forces may be driving the evolution and maintenance of communal egg-laying in different taxa. Using a game theory approach, we demonstrate how a stable equilibrium may occur between solitary and communal layers, thus allowing both strategies to co-exist in some populations, and we discuss factors that may influence these proportions. We conclude by outlining future research directions for determining the proximate and ultimate causes of communal egg-laying.

  8. Haematological and Biochemical Parameters during the Laying Period in Common Pheasant Hens Housed in Enhanced Cages

    PubMed Central

    Hrabčáková, Petra; Voslářová, Eva; Bedáňová, Iveta; Pištěková, Vladimíra; Chloupek, Jan; Večerek, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The development of selected haematological and biochemical parameters during the laying period was monitored in common pheasant hens housed in an enhanced cage system. The cages were enhanced by the addition of two perches and a shelter formed by strips of cloth hanging in the corner of the cage. The results showed significant changes in the haematological and biochemical parameters monitored during egg laying. At the time when laying capacity approached a maximum, a decrease was observed (P < 0.05) in haematocrit, erythrocytes, and haemoglobin values, whereas monocytes, eosinophils, the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, phosphorus, and calcium exhibited an increase (P < 0.05). At the end of the laying period, an increase (P < 0.05) was recorded in the count of leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes and basophils, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, and the concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, phosphorus, and calcium, whereas lower values (P < 0.05) were recorded for haematocrit and plasma total protein in comparison with the values of the indicators at the beginning of the laying period. The results provide new information about dynamic changes in selected haematological and biochemical parameters in clinically healthy common pheasant hens during the laying period. PMID:25121117

  9. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  10. Children's Understanding of Ownership Transfers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Peter R.; Harris, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of ownership entails the recognition that ownership can be transferred permanently and the ability to differentiate legitimate from illegitimate transfers. Two experiments explored the development of this understanding in 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-year olds, using stories about gift-giving and stealing. The possibility that children use…

  11. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 27 percent in 2003 from the 2002 budget, according to the Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes after five years of declining spending for mineral exploration.

  12. Understanding osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, R.

    1991-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved recently in our understanding of the normal process by which bone mass is regulated. Age-related trabecular bone loss is characterized not simply by a global loss of bone but also by cortical porosity and loss of trabecular connections. Because bone strength depends on architectural as well as material properties, bone quantity alone cannot define fracture risk with precision. Traditional therapies for osteoporosis increase bone mass, and estrogen therapy, in particular, profoundly decreases fracture risk. The pharmacologic restoration of bone quantity and quality, however, remains elusive. Modern biotechnology offers the hope that progress may come about through the development of growth factors and other osteotropic compounds for clinical use. Images PMID:1877231

  13. Understanding independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annan, James; Hargreaves, Julia

    2016-04-01

    In order to perform any Bayesian processing of a model ensemble, we need a prior over the ensemble members. In the case of multimodel ensembles such as CMIP, the historical approach of ``model democracy'' (i.e. equal weight for all models in the sample) is no longer credible (if it ever was) due to model duplication and inbreeding. The question of ``model independence'' is central to the question of prior weights. However, although this question has been repeatedly raised, it has not yet been satisfactorily addressed. Here I will discuss the issue of independence and present a theoretical foundation for understanding and analysing the ensemble in this context. I will also present some simple examples showing how these ideas may be applied and developed.

  14. Effect of dietary threonine on laying performance and intestinal immunity of laying hens fed low-crude-protein diets during the peak production period.

    PubMed

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2016-06-30

    Threonine (Thr) may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance, and the intestinal immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible Thr levels. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480), 28 weeks of age, were allocated to six dietary treatments, each of which included five replicates of 16 hens. Dietary crude protein (CP) 16.18% diet was offered as the positive control diet. L-Thr was added to the negative diet (14.16% CP) by 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding 0.44%, 0.43%, 0.49%, 0.57%, 0.66% and 0.74% digestible Thr. At 40 weeks, a reduction in CP level decreased laying performance (p < 0.05). In the low CP, increasing dietary Thr increased (p < 0.05) egg production and egg mass and rose to a plateau between 0.57% and 0.66%. The hens fed 0.66% Thr showed the lowest value (p < 0.05) of feed conversion ratio (FCR). Serum level of uric acid showed the lowest values (p < 0.05) at 0.57-0.66%. In addition, serum-free Thr maximized (p < 0.05) between 0.66% and 0.74%. Digestive trypsin activity decreased (p < 0.05) when hens fed the low-CP diet compared with hens fed CP (16.18%) and hens fed 0.57-0.66%. Expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA maximized (p < 0.05) at 0.66% Thr. Occludin mRNA increased with increasing Thr level (p < 0.05). sIgA mRNA reached to the maximum level (p < 0.05) at 0.66% and 0.74% Thr. INF-γ mRNA reached to the lowest level (p < 0.05) at 0.65%. Expressions of ileal IL-2, IL-6, IL-1β mRNA decreased with increasing Thr level (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Thr supplementation resulting in optimal laying performance and stimulated the mucosal immune system, suggesting that it is a limiting amino acid in the low-crude-protein diet of laying hens during the peak production period.

  15. Lay the Foundation for Great Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the "learning leader," exploring "What is professional learning leadership at its core?" Leaders of professional learning come to their responsibility from many roles, from teacher to district administrator, to instructional coach. They set the agenda for professional learning by aligning it to…

  16. Revisiting the "Art Bias" in Lay Conceptions of Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the "art bias"--the pervasive association between creativity and art in implicit theories of creativity. It also attempts to connect creativity research in this area with literature on the theory of social representations. The data comes from an online survey completed by 195 participants mainly from the United…

  17. Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

    2012-10-01

    There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning.

  18. How to Fairly Allocate Scarce Medical Resources: Ethical Argumentation under Scrutiny by Health Professionals and Lay People

    PubMed Central

    Rosemann, Thomas; Törnblom, Kjell Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Societies are facing medical resource scarcities, inter alia due to increased life expectancy and limited health budgets and also due to temporal or continuous physical shortages of resources like donor organs. This makes it challenging to meet the medical needs of all. Ethicists provide normative guidance for how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, but legitimate decisions require additionally information regarding what the general public considers to be fair. The purpose of this study was to explore how lay people, general practitioners, medical students and other health professionals evaluate the fairness of ten allocation principles for scarce medical resources: ‘sickest first’, ‘waiting list’, ‘prognosis’, ‘behaviour’ (i.e., those who engage in risky behaviour should not be prioritized), ‘instrumental value’ (e.g., health care workers should be favoured during epidemics), ‘combination of criteria’ (i.e., a sequence of the ‘youngest first’, ‘prognosis’, and ‘lottery’ principles), ‘reciprocity’ (i.e., those who provided services to the society in the past should be rewarded), ‘youngest first’, ‘lottery’, and ‘monetary contribution’. Methods 1,267 respondents to an online questionnaire were confronted with hypothetical situations of scarcity regarding (i) donor organs, (ii) hospital beds during an epidemic, and (iii) joint replacements. Nine allocation principles were evaluated in terms of fairness for each type of scarcity along 7-point Likert scales. The relationship between demographic factors (gender, age, religiosity, political orientation, and health status) and fairness evaluations was modelled with logistic regression. Results Medical background was a major predictor of fairness evaluations. While general practitioners showed different response patterns for all three allocation situations, the responses by lay people were very similar. Lay people rated ‘sickest first’ and

  19. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Désirée S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results

  20. Effects of stock density on the laying performance, blood parameter, corticosterone, litter quality, gas emission and bone mineral density of laying hens in floor pens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H. K.; Park, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stocking density on the performance, egg quality, leukocyte concentration, blood biochemistry, corticosterone levels, bone mineral density, and noxious gas emission of laying hens were investigated. Eight hundred 34-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments, each of which was replicated 4 times. Four stocking densities, including 5, 6, 7, and 10 birds/m2, were compared. A commercial-type basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for laying hens from the National Research Council. The diet was fed to the hens ad libitum for 8 wk. Results indicated that hen-day egg production, egg mass, and feed intake were less for (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. Production rate of floor and broken eggs and eggshell strength were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 stock density than other stock densities. There were no significant differences in the level of leukocytes among densities. However, heterophils and the H/L ratio were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than in stock density of 6 or 7 birds/m2. Serum corticosterone was greater (P < 0.01) 10 birds/m2 than stock density than other stock densities. Litter moisture and gas emission (CO2 and NH3) were greater (P < 0.01) for 10 birds/m2 than stock density than 6 and 7 birds/m2 stock density. Bone mineral content was not influenced by increasing stock density. However, bone mineral density was less (P < 0.05) for 10 m2 stock density than other stock densities. These results indicate that increasing the density beyond 5 birds/m2 elicits some negative effects on laying performance of Hy-Line brown laying hens. PMID:27578881