Science.gov

Sample records for exploring race sexuality

  1. Race, Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines drug use, including alcohol, as a factor in risky sexual behavior while considering patterns across sex and race. Both factors have been given insufficient attention in prior research. The data for this study come from a survey of 1,052 college students from a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that drug use is associated with…

  2. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension.

  3. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension. PMID:23726211

  4. Race-Based Sexual Stereotyping and Sexual Partnering Among Men Who Use the Internet to Identify Other Men for Bareback Sex

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Valera, Pamela; Ventuneac, Ana; Balan, Ivan; Rowe, Matt; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used sexual scripting theory to explore sexual stereotyping and sexual partnering practices among a racially diverse sample of men who use the Internet to engage in “bareback” sex with other men. The sample included 81 (73%) HIV-negative and 30 (27%) HIV-positive men who were recruited on Web sites where men seek other men to have bareback sex. Participants completed a semi-structured interview that included topics on their racial identification, their sexual experiences tied to race, and their experiences having sex with men of different racial groups. The findings suggested that a variety of race-based sexual stereotypes were used by participants. Sexual stereotyping appeared to directly and indirectly affect the sexual partnering decisions of participants. Sexual scripts may reinforce and facilitate race-based sexual stereotyping, and this behavior may structure sexual networks. PMID:19337934

  5. Negotiating Race and Sexual Orientation in the College Choice Process of Black Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…

  6. Darwin's explanation of races by means of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Roberta L

    2012-09-01

    In Darwin's Sacred Cause, Adrian Desmond and James Moore contend that "Darwin would put his utmost into sexual selection because the subject intrigued him, no doubt, but also for a deeper reason: the theory vindicated his lifelong commitment to human brotherhood" (2009: p. 360). Without questioning Desmond and Moore's evidence, I will raise some puzzles for their view. I will show that attention to the structure of Darwin's arguments in the Descent of Man shows that they are far from straightforward. As Desmond and Moore note, Darwin seems to have intended sexual selection in non-human animals to serve as evidence for sexual selection in humans. However, Darwin's account of sexual selection in humans was different from the canonical cases that Darwin described at great length. If explaining the origin of human races was the main reason for introducing sexual selection, and if sexual selection was a key piece of Darwin's anti-slavery arguments, then it is puzzling why Darwin would have spent so much time discussing cases that did not really support his argument for the origin of human races, and it is also puzzling that his argument for the origin of human races would be so (atypically) poor.

  7. Existence of two sexual races in the planarian species switching between asexual and sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Maezawa, Takanobu; Nakagawa, Haruka; Hoshi, Motonori

    2012-04-01

    In certain planarian species that are able to switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, determining whether a sexual has the ability to switch to the asexual state is problematic, which renders the definition of sexuals controversial. We experimentally show the existence of two sexual races, acquired and innate, in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis. Acquired sexuals used in this study were experimentally switched from asexuals. Inbreeding of acquired sexuals produced both innate sexuals and asexuals, but inbreeding of innate sexuals produced innate sexuals only and no asexuals. Acquired sexuals, but not innate sexuals, were forced to become asexuals by ablation and regeneration (asexual induction). This suggests that acquired sexuals somehow retain asexual potential, while innate sexuals do not. We also found that acquired sexuals have the potential to develop hyperplastic and supernumerary ovaries, while innate sexuals do not. In this regard, acquired sexuals were more prolific than innate sexuals. The differences between acquired and innate sexuals will provide a structure for examining the mechanism underlying asexual and sexual reproduction in planarians.

  8. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  9. Measuring sexual dimorphism with a race-gender face space.

    PubMed

    Hopper, William J; Finklea, Kristin M; Winkielman, Piotr; Huber, David E

    2014-10-01

    Faces are complex visual objects, and faces chosen to vary in 1 regard may unintentionally vary in other ways, particularly if the correlation is a property of the population of faces. Here, we present an example of a correlation that arises from differences in the degree of sexual dimorphism. In Experiment 1, paired similarity ratings were collected for a set of 40 real face images chosen to vary in terms of gender and race (Asian vs. White). Multidimensional scaling (MDS) placed these stimuli in a "face space," with different attributes corresponding to different dimensions. Gender was found to vary more for White faces, resulting in a negative or positive correlation between gender and race when only considering male or only considering female faces. This increased sexual dimorphism for White faces may provide an alternative explanation for differences in face processing between White and Asian faces (e.g., the own-race bias, face attractiveness biases, etc.). Studies of face processing that are unconfounded by this difference in the degree of sexual dimorphism require stimuli that are decorrelated in terms of race and gender. Decorrelated faces were created using a morphing technique, spacing the morphs uniformly around a ring in the 2-dimensional (2D) race-gender plane. In Experiment 2, paired similarity ratings confirmed the 2D positions of the morph faces. In Experiment 3, race and gender category judgments varied uniformly for these decorrelated stimuli. Our results and stimuli should prove useful for studying sexual dimorphism and for the study of face processing more generally.

  10. US Black college women's sexual health in hookup culture: intersections of race and gender.

    PubMed

    Jenkins Hall, Wendasha; Tanner, Amanda E

    2016-11-01

    Approximately 60-80% of college students in the USA report a hookup experience in the form of a casual sexual encounter between individuals without the expectation of a dating or romantic relationship. Given the potential health risk posed by these sexual encounters, the need exists to critically examine this cultural phenomenon on college campuses. Yet, the existing hookup literature is overwhelming White and often exclusive of historically marginalised populations such as Black women. Accordingly, this paper examines the role of the intersecting identities of race and gender and other social factors that influence the sexual health and wellbeing of Black women on US college campuses. Specifically, we explore issues related to the gender ratio disparities present on college campuses, relationship power imbalances, inconsistent condom use and low sexual-risk perception. Moving forward, hookup research needs to utilise an intersectional approach; we offer specific suggestions for the important inclusion of Black women in the broader hookup discourse and future research.

  11. Intersecting Race and Gender Cues are Associated with Perceptions of Gay Men's Preferred Sexual Roles.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2015-07-01

    Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.

  12. Intersecting Race and Gender Cues are Associated with Perceptions of Gay Men's Preferred Sexual Roles.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2015-07-01

    Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities. PMID:25690444

  13. Youth Assets and Sexual Activity: Differences Based on Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2008-01-01

    Race/ethnicity has been associated with the prevalence of sexual activity among youth as well as with youth assets. Research has also shown that youth assets are associated with youth abstinence. However, very few studies have examined whether the relationship between youth assets and sexual activity might differ based on race/ethnicity. The study…

  14. Be Yourself: Class, Race, Gender and Sexuality in South African Schoolchildren's Accounts of Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert; Moletsane, Relebohile

    2004-01-01

    The article examines understandings of class, race, gender and sexuality in the writings of secondary school students in two working-class schools in Durban. The analysis of students' questions and responses to a problem page "agony aunt", indicate how class and race come to be expressed through accounts of sexuality. In the letters many children…

  15. Sexual Orientation- and Race-Based Discrimination and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Among Urban MSM

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  16. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts.

  17. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  18. The influence of target and perceiver race in the categorisation of male sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O

    2011-01-01

    Although sexual orientation can be judged from faces, in previous work Caucasian or racially unspecified targets and perceivers have been primarily studied. Here, target and perceiver race were considered in the accurate categorisation of male sexual orientation. Asian, Black, and Caucasian participants categorised the sexual orientations of Asian, Black, and Caucasian men. Accuracy was significantly above chance and consistent across all combinations of perceivers and targets. Response bias scores showed that targets were significantly more likely to be categorised as straight, rather than gay, regardless of target or perceiver race. Moreover, judgments of individual targets were significantly correlated for perceivers from all three groups, suggesting cross-race consistency in target legibility. The perception of sexual orientation from faces therefore appears to be robust against variations in target and perceiver race.

  19. Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

  20. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  1. Race-based sexual preferences in a sample of online profiles of urban men seeking sex with men.

    PubMed

    White, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L; Dunham, Emilia; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-08-01

    Race-based sexual preferences in the online profiles of men who have sex with men (MSM) may be relevant for understanding the sexual health of this population, including racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection. In October 2011, a content analysis was conducted of the profiles of Boston-area members of a racially diverse website for MSM. The present analysis formatively examined the use of demographic and partner selection criteria by race/ethnicity appearing in the profiles of men who indicated race-based partner preferences (n = 89). Latino men were the most frequently preferred race (54 %), followed by White (52 %), Black (48 %), and Asian (12 %) men. In separate multivariable models adjusted for age and HIV status disclosure, wanting low-risk foreplay was associated with a preference for White men (aOR) = 4.27; 95 % CI = 1.70-10.75; p = 0.002), while wanting group sex was associated with a preference for Black (OR = 2.28; 95 % CI = 1.08-4.81; p = 0.03) and Latino men (OR = 2.56; 95 % CI = 1.25-5.23; p = 0.01). Future studies are needed to replicate findings in larger online samples. Mixed-methods research should explore how racial and behavioral preferences impact the sexual mixing patterns and health of MSM online in urban areas.

  2. Race and ancestry in biomedical research: exploring the challenges

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The use of race in biomedical research has, for decades, been a source of social controversy. However, recent events, such as the adoption of racially targeted pharmaceuticals, have raised the profile of the race issue. In addition, we are entering an era in which genomic research is increasingly focused on the nature and extent of human genetic variation, often examined by population, which leads to heightened potential for misunderstandings or misuse of terms concerning genetic variation and race. Here, we draw together the perspectives of participants in a recent interdisciplinary workshop on ancestry and health in medicine in order to explore the use of race in research issue from the vantage point of a variety of disciplines. We review the nature of the race controversy in the context of biomedical research and highlight several challenges to policy action, including restrictions resulting from commercial or regulatory considerations, the difficulty in presenting precise terminology in the media, and drifting or ambiguous definitions of key terms. PMID:19348695

  3. Risky Sexual Behavior: A Race-Specific Social Consequence of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…

  4. On the transgressiveness of ambiguity: Richard Bruce Nugent and the flow of sexuality and race.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J Edgar

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on the slender corpus of literary work by Harlem Renaissance poet, author and visual artist Richard Bruce Nugent (1906-1987), arguably America's foremost Black aesthete. As an individualist in the footsteps of post-Hegelian and pre-Nietzschean philosopher Max Stirner (1806-1856), Nugent sought to re-think sexuality and race beyond fixed schemes of categorial distribution. To this end, Nugent deployed a strategy of sexual and racial ambiguity that aimed at situating the uniquely sexed and raced individual within the continuities of ever-diversifying Nature. Nugent's deconstructive approach of sexuality and race proves to be convergent with (but not genealogically dependent on) the universalization of sexual intermediariness and racial miscegenation postulated by German-Jewish sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld during the first third of the twentieth century. Nugent's non-identitarian conception of sex acts anticipated by more than a decade comparable insights propounded by Alfred Kinsey.

  5. On the transgressiveness of ambiguity: Richard Bruce Nugent and the flow of sexuality and race.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J Edgar

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on the slender corpus of literary work by Harlem Renaissance poet, author and visual artist Richard Bruce Nugent (1906-1987), arguably America's foremost Black aesthete. As an individualist in the footsteps of post-Hegelian and pre-Nietzschean philosopher Max Stirner (1806-1856), Nugent sought to re-think sexuality and race beyond fixed schemes of categorial distribution. To this end, Nugent deployed a strategy of sexual and racial ambiguity that aimed at situating the uniquely sexed and raced individual within the continuities of ever-diversifying Nature. Nugent's deconstructive approach of sexuality and race proves to be convergent with (but not genealogically dependent on) the universalization of sexual intermediariness and racial miscegenation postulated by German-Jewish sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld during the first third of the twentieth century. Nugent's non-identitarian conception of sex acts anticipated by more than a decade comparable insights propounded by Alfred Kinsey. PMID:25710478

  6. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued. PMID:26281448

  7. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued.

  8. Exploring urban students' constructions about school, work, race, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Blustein, David L; Murphy, Kerri A; Kenny, Maureen E; Jernigan, Maryam; Pérez-Gualdrón, Leyla; Castañeda, Tani; Koepke, Margaret; Land, Marie; Urbano, Alessandra; Davis, Ophera

    2010-04-01

    This qualitative study is an exploration of 32 urban high school students' narratives about the connection between school, work, and societal expectations of their future success related to their racial and ethnic background. The sample varied along 2 contextual dimensions: participation in a psychoeducational intervention (Tools for Tomorrow) and developmental status (i.e., half the sample were 9th-grade students and the other half were 12th-grade students). Using consensual qualitative research, the narratives revealed 3 major domains: future orientation; students' perceptions of society's expectations based on race and ethnicity; and students' perception of the role of their race and ethnicity in future success. Results reveal that the majority of students endorse a connection between school and work, believe that society holds low expectations for them based on their racial and ethnic background, and cannot predict their future success based on their background. PMID:21133576

  9. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  10. An Intersectional Framework for Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Savneet

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for an examination of identity and difference from a sociocultural perspective in art therapy theory and practice. Identity markers such as race, class, gender, and sexuality have tended to be seen in isolation and in ways that hamper the ability to understand and theorize difference. In constructing knowledge and in advancing…

  11. Changing Course: Collaborative Reflections of Teaching/Taking "Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Information Professions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Safiya U.; Austin, Jeanie; Sweeney, Miriam E.; McKeever, Lucas; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reflect on the institutional and disciplinary context of a course on "Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Information Professions" from the perspective of instructors and students. It examines the effectiveness of a course like this as an intervention to the normative landscape of the Library and Information…

  12. Parental Youth Assets and Sexual Activity: Differences by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Fluhr, Janene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how the relationship between parental-related youth assets and youth sexual activity differed by race/ethnicity. Methods: A random sample of 976 youth and their parents living in a Midwestern city participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 3 major ethnic groups controlling for the…

  13. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  14. Sexual Dimorphism: How Female Cells Win the Race.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hansong; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    Sexual dimorphisms are established by sex determination pathways and are maintained during regeneration of adult tissues. Two recent studies in Drosophila elucidate the contribution of cell-autonomous and endocrine mechanisms to the establishment and maintenance of growth dimorphism in larvae and the adult intestine.

  15. Sexual Dimorphism: How Female Cells Win the Race.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hansong; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    Sexual dimorphisms are established by sex determination pathways and are maintained during regeneration of adult tissues. Two recent studies in Drosophila elucidate the contribution of cell-autonomous and endocrine mechanisms to the establishment and maintenance of growth dimorphism in larvae and the adult intestine. PMID:26954444

  16. Race differences in teenage sexuality, pregnancy, and adolescent childbearing.

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, F F

    1987-01-01

    This article has examined the origin and consequences of racial differences in teen sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing. Black/white differences in rates of early and out-of-wedlock childbearing have been declining in the past several decades though the incidence of nonmartial fertility among younger teens is still about five times as high for blacks as for whites. Early sexual behavior, irregular use of contraception, and a much lower probability of marrying prior to having a birth all contribute to the racial differential. Evidence suggests that both normative and socioeconomic differences may account for these demographic patterns. Black teens show markedly higher tolerance for childbearing before marriage. They also express much greater reservations about the viability of marriage, especially at an early age, than do whites. These views may affect their willingness to risk early pregnancy and initiate intercourse at an early age. Several types of interventions that might reduce black/white differences in teen childbearing were reviewed. The most promising of these involved simultaneously strengthening the community sanctions that discourage early parenthood while expanding social opportunities. Presently, poor, especially poor minority youth, may feel that they have little to lose by entering parenthood prematurely. Unless we are able to persuade these youth that they have a larger stake in the future, we are unlikely to see a dramatic decline in the incidence of early childbearing among blacks. This does not necessarily mean that racial differences are destined to persist. Increasingly, white youth are subject to many of the same conditions that have produced high rates of early and out-of-wedlock childbearing among blacks. Thus, racial differences may decline not because the situation of blacks is improving but because white youth are less willing to defer sexual activity or less able to marry when pregnancy occurs. This may at least change the perception

  17. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  18. Race, Class, and Emerging Sexuality: Teacher Perceptions and Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a highly troubling gendered phenomenon that plagues young women on a daily basis. The way in which sexual harassment is perceived and treated is varied and is largely based on racial and class stereotypes. This paper highlights the findings from a study in which a group of middle and high school teachers were interviewed and…

  19. Exploring Race, Culture, and Family in the Identities of Mixed Heritage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pecero, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Family plays an integral role in racial and cultural socialization, yet how mixed heritage students understand the concepts of race and culture in relation to family is unclear. This qualitative study explored the interplay of race, culture, and family in the identity constructions of 25 mixed heritage students. Findings suggest the centrality of…

  20. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  1. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  2. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation.

  3. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  4. Speaking of Race and Ethnic Identities: Exploring Multicultural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arber, Ruth Eileen

    2005-01-01

    New demographic patterns as well as new communication and information technologies and administrative and marketing practices have irrevocably altered schools in Australia's large cities. This study examines the ways that teachers and parents in one urban school speak about race and ethnicity in the midst of these changes. Beneath the ironic…

  5. Courageous Conversations about Race: Exploring Counter-Narratives on Black Heritage Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This personal reflection explores the role of counter-narratives and courageous conversations in the elementary curriculum. It explores how the intentionality of Black Heritage Day at the Folk Arts-Cultural Treasures Charter School and its curriculum guides students and teachers in exploring issues of race, culture, and history. (Contains 1…

  6. The Last Bastion of Sexual and Gender Prejudice? Sexualities, Race, Gender, Religiosity, and Spirituality in the Examination of Prejudice Toward Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    PubMed

    Cragun, Ryan T; Sumerau, J Edward

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has reported that many Americans hold prejudicial attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities. Most of this research analyzed attitudes toward target categories in isolation and not in relation to attitudes toward heterosexuals. In addition, most previous research has not examined attitudes of members of sexual and gender minority categories toward other categories. While some research has examined the influence of religiosity on attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities, none of these studies has examined religiosity while also examining the influence of spirituality. In this article we drew on insights from queer theory to examine attitudes toward heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, as well as individuals who practice polygamy, among college students. Three samples gathered over a four-year period (2009, 2011, 2013) at a private, nonsectarian, midsized urban university in the Southeastern United States were used. We found that heterosexuals had the most positive rating, followed in order of rating by gay/lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, and then those who practice polygamy. Regression analyses revealed gender and race were significant predictors of attitudes toward various sexual and gender categories. Holding a literalistic view of the Bible and self-identifying as more religious were related to more negative views toward sexual minorities, while self-identifying as more spiritual was related to more positive views. PMID:25116166

  7. Race-based sexual stereotypes and their effects on sexual risk behavior in racially diverse young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Michael E; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks.

  8. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  9. Race and Sexual Behavior Predict Uptake of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Stepp, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination initiation by girls at high risk for HPV infection. Method Participants were 2,098 girls enrolled in the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study, who were between the ages of 12 and 15 years in 2008, and their primary caregivers. The study was conducted in the 2 years after the deployment of the first HPV vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Primary caregivers were asked about HPV vaccine uptake. Girls were interviewed about pubertal development and sexually intimate behavior. Results Approximately 60% of the girls had initiated the HPV vaccine in the past year. Among the hypothesized predictors of initiation, African-American race decreased the likelihood and level of sexually intimate behavior in the previous year increased the likelihood of uptake. Controlling for receipt of public assistance, African-American girls were close to 40% less likely to be vaccinated than European-American girls. Conclusion Racial disparities in use of preventive interventions such as the HPV vaccine exist. Lack of information about public financing of the vaccine, timing of vaccination relative to sexual activity, and perceptions of preventive value may limit uptake among those at highest risk for infection and negative sequelae from infection. Further research to probe knowledge and attitudes toward HPV vaccination and the impact of the media on vaccine initiation and uptake may reveal specific targets of intervention. PMID:22229933

  10. Girls, Media, and the Negotiation of Sexuality: A Study of Race, Class, and Gender in Adolescent Peer Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Meenakshi Gigi

    1999-01-01

    Examines how peer-group activity and social context affect middle-school girls' mass-media interactions. Shows emergent gender identity was consolidated via constant reference to acceptable sociocultural standards (which differed according to race and class) of femininity and sexuality. Concludes interventions such as media-literacy efforts must…

  11. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  12. Predicting College Students' Intergroup Friendships across Race/Ethnicity, Religion, Sexual Orientation, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to expand the literature on predicting friendship diversity beyond race/ethnicity to include religion, social class, and sexual orientation. Survey packets elicited information regarding up to four close friendships developed during college. Additional measures assessed pre-college friendship diversity, participation in college…

  13. I Want Your Sex: The Role of Sexual Exploration in Fostering Positive Sexual Self-Concepts for Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Mike C.; Talley, Amelia E.; Schwartz, Esther N.; Hancock, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Openness and self-exploration have been associated with myriad benefits. Within the realm of sexuality, sexual exploration may be 1 facet of openness and self-exploration that yields benefits. Prior literature suggests that such exploration may have benefits for sexual orientation minority persons, though limited research has investigated the benefits of sexual exploration for heterosexuals. The present study used data from 346 adult women (185 exclusively heterosexual, 161 not exclusively heterosexual) to investigate the role of sexual exploration as a mediator between sexual orientation status and positivity toward sex. Results of a structural equation modeling analysis supported mediation of the relationship between sexual orientation and sexual positivity via sexual exploration. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are presented. PMID:26380352

  14. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  15. Exploring the effects of sexual desire discrepancy among married couples.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Farero, Adam M; Busby, Dean M

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have found associations between the individual discrepancy of desired sexual frequency and actual sexual frequency and relational outcomes among premarital couples. The present study extended this research by using a sample of 1,054 married couples to explore how actor and partner individual sexual desire discrepancy (SDD) scores were associated with relationship satisfaction, stability, communication, and conflict during marriage. All participants took an online survey which assessed both couple sexual dynamics and relationship outcomes. Findings suggested that higher actor individual SDD was generally associated with negative relational outcomes, including lower reported relationship satisfaction, stability, and more reported couple conflict. These effects were found after controlling for background factors, baseline sexual frequency and desire, and couple desire discrepancies. Some partner effects were also found and were generally in the same direction. Marital length did not moderate the effects found although gender moderated associations between individual SDD and reported couple communication. Negative associations between individual SDD and communication were particularly strong when the husband reported high discrepancies between desired and actual sexual frequency. Results suggested that higher individual sexual desire discrepancies among married individuals may undermine relationship well-being. Applications of these findings to a clinical setting are also discussed. PMID:24045904

  16. Exploring sexual health among young Black men who have sex with men in New York City.

    PubMed

    Martos, A J; Valera, P; Bockting, W O; Wilson, P A

    2016-06-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for approximately 10% of the total HIV infection in the United States but represent <1% of the population. Few interventions exist that address their unique needs, and those that do adopt a narrow, risk-based framework for prevention. Qualitative data from the Brothers Connect Study were analyzed to explore how a Sexual Health Model (SHM) developed by Robinson et al. (The sexual health model: application of a sexological approach to HIV prevention. Health Educ Res 2002; 17:43-57) could be used as a framework for HIV prevention in YBMSM. Content analysis identified five key themes within SHM: (i) race/ethnicity, including the cultural diversity and unique challenges of YBMSM; (ii) disclosure, as the ongoing process of self-identification rather than a single instance of 'coming out'; (iii) sex, in terms of practices, behaviors and health; (iv) daily challenges, microaggressions and acute instances of discrimination; and (v) the self, resilience and identity. Technology represents a new component for the SHM that may be relevant to YBMSM. YBMSM are in need of comprehensive sexual health programs that go beyond typical HIV frameworks. A tailored SHM could be used for identifying and addressing the specific sexual health needs of YBMSM in research and intervention. PMID:27081188

  17. Women and Work. Exploring Race, Ethnicity, and Class. Women and Work, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth, Ed.; Romero, Mary, Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers exploring the effects of race, ethnicity, and class on women in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Series Editors' Introduction" (Ann Stromberg, Barbara A. Gutek, Laurie Larwood); "Introduction" (Elizabeth Higginbotham). The book is organized in four parts. Part I, "Historical and Economic…

  18. Exploring the Impact of "Race Talk" in the Education Classroom: Doctoral Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Michelle L.; Wilson, Brandy S.; Lewis, Ashlee A.; Wills, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore doctoral students' experiences engaging in conversations about the role of race and racism in education during their programs. We conducted focus groups with graduate students in a School of Education at a predominantly White institution in the South. Our findings support the notion that creating…

  19. Exploring Gender and Race amongst Female Sociologists Exiting Academia in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe, Marlize; Rugunanan, Pragna

    2012-01-01

    This article explores issues of gender and race in the academic careers of female sociologists in South Africa by focusing on selected women who left academic departments in higher education institutions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants who left various Sociology departments at different times. It was found that young black…

  20. Husbands' and Wives' Relative Earnings: Exploring Variation by Race, Human Capital, Labor Supply, and Life Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow-Bowe, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Whereas much research has explored the causes and consequences of the gender wage gap, far less has examined earnings differentials within marriage. This article contributes to this literature by utilizing the 2000 wave of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine variation in husbands' and wives' relative income by race/ethnicity,…

  1. Exploring Urban Students' Constructions about School, Work, Race, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Murphy, Kerri A.; Kenny, Maureen E.; Jernigan, Maryam; Perez-Gualdron, Leyla; Castaneda, Tani; Koepke, Margaret; Land, Marie; Urbano, Alessandra; Davis, Ophera

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study is an exploration of 32 urban high school students' narratives about the connection between school, work, and societal expectations of their future success related to their racial and ethnic background. The sample varied along 2 contextual dimensions: participation in a psychoeducational intervention (Tools for Tomorrow) and…

  2. Exploring the intersection of race and gender in self-defense training.

    PubMed

    Speidel, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Research on the impact of women's self-defense classes has primarily focused on White women. I explore perceptions of race and gender identity of five African American women who participated in a semester-long self-defense class. I examine the relevance of the intersection of race and gender to their self-defense experience, focusing on three concepts commonly considered barriers in self-defense classes: body image and beauty standards, perceptions of strength, and perceived vulnerability to violence. Participants' responses reveal the ways that gender and race are experienced as integrated aspects of identity, pointing to the need for self-defense curricula to include an intersectional approach. PMID:24700362

  3. Pleasure, Affection, and Love Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) versus MSM of Other Races: Countering Dehumanizing Stereotypes via Cross-Race Comparisons of Reported Sexual Experience at Last Sexual Event

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Schick, Vanessa R.; Novak, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U. S. men ages 18–87 (MAge = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010–2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72–87 % orgasmed, 57–82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70–91 % kissed, 47–90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three. PMID:25604209

  4. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three.

  5. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  6. Do Sexual Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City Differ by Race/Ethnicity?

    PubMed

    Tieu, Hong-Van; Nandi, Vijay; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Stewart, Kiwan; Frye, Victoria; Cerda, Magdalena; Ompad, Danielle; Latkin, Carl; Koblin, Beryl A

    2016-01-01

    The United States HIV epidemic disproportionately affects Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM). This disparity might be partially explained by differences in social and sexual network structure and composition. A total of 1267 MSM in New York City completed an ACASI survey and egocentric social and sexual network inventory about their sex partners in the past 3 months, and underwent HIV testing. Social and sexual network structure and composition were compared by race/ethnicity of the egos: black, non-Hispanic (N = 365 egos), white, non-Hispanic (N = 466), and Hispanic (N = 436). 21.1% were HIV-positive by HIV testing; 17.2% reported serodiscordant and serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI) in the last 3 months. Black MSM were more likely than white and Hispanic MSM to report exclusively having partners of same race/ethnicity. Black and Hispanic MSM had more HIV-positive and unknown status partners than white MSM. White men were more likely to report overlap of social and sex partners than black and Hispanic men. No significant differences by race/ethnicity were found for network size, density, having concurrent partners, or having partners with ≥10 years age difference. Specific network composition characteristics may explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection rates among MSM, including HIV status of sex partners in networks and lack of social support within sexual networks. Network structural characteristics such as size and density do not appear to have such an impact. These data add to our understanding of the complexity of social factors affecting black MSM and Hispanic MSM in the U.S. PMID:26745143

  7. Do Sexual Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City Differ by Race/Ethnicity?

    PubMed

    Tieu, Hong-Van; Nandi, Vijay; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Stewart, Kiwan; Frye, Victoria; Cerda, Magdalena; Ompad, Danielle; Latkin, Carl; Koblin, Beryl A

    2016-01-01

    The United States HIV epidemic disproportionately affects Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM). This disparity might be partially explained by differences in social and sexual network structure and composition. A total of 1267 MSM in New York City completed an ACASI survey and egocentric social and sexual network inventory about their sex partners in the past 3 months, and underwent HIV testing. Social and sexual network structure and composition were compared by race/ethnicity of the egos: black, non-Hispanic (N = 365 egos), white, non-Hispanic (N = 466), and Hispanic (N = 436). 21.1% were HIV-positive by HIV testing; 17.2% reported serodiscordant and serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI) in the last 3 months. Black MSM were more likely than white and Hispanic MSM to report exclusively having partners of same race/ethnicity. Black and Hispanic MSM had more HIV-positive and unknown status partners than white MSM. White men were more likely to report overlap of social and sex partners than black and Hispanic men. No significant differences by race/ethnicity were found for network size, density, having concurrent partners, or having partners with ≥10 years age difference. Specific network composition characteristics may explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection rates among MSM, including HIV status of sex partners in networks and lack of social support within sexual networks. Network structural characteristics such as size and density do not appear to have such an impact. These data add to our understanding of the complexity of social factors affecting black MSM and Hispanic MSM in the U.S.

  8. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ...

  9. Separated at birth: the interlinked origins of Darwin's unconscious selection concept and the application of sexual selection to race.

    PubMed

    Alter, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    This essay traces the interlinked origins of two concepts found in Charles Darwin's writings: "unconscious selection," and sexual selection as applied to humanity's anatomical race distinctions. Unconscious selection constituted a significant elaboration of Darwin's artificial selection analogy. As originally conceived in his theoretical notebooks, that analogy had focused exclusively on what Darwin later would call "methodical selection," the calculated production of desired changes in domestic breeds. By contrast, unconscious selection produced its results unintentionally and at a much slower pace. Inspiration for this concept likely came from Darwin's early reading of works on both animal breeding and physical ethnology. Texts in these fields described the slow and unplanned divergence of anatomical types, whether animal or human, under the guidance of contrasting ideals of physical perfection. These readings, it is argued, also led Darwin to his theory of sexual selection as applied to race, a theme he discussed mainly in his book The Descent of Man (1871). There Darwin described how the racial version of sexual selection operated on the same principle as unconscious selection. He thereby effectively reunited these kindred concepts.

  10. Students Encountering Race and Negotiating Friendships, Sexuality and Language on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2016-01-01

    By drawing on a theoretical framing based on the geography of encounters, this article examines how students give meaning to racialised encounters on campus. These encounters are mediated by long established notions of difference based on power inequalities where race remains a powerful source of difference. However, race is not simply enacted but…

  11. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior at Four Universities: Do Region, Race, and/or Religion Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Earle, John R.; Davis, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain any differences in sexual attitudes, levels of premarital sexual involvement, and risk-taking sexual practices of college students at four distinctly different universities: a historic Black public university; a predominately white, Southern private university with a religious heritage; a Southwestern public…

  12. Toward an Intersectional Approach in Developmental Science: The Role of Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Immigrant Status.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Katsiaficas, Dalal; Rogers, Leoandra Onnie

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theory and research have often focused on a single social identity category, for example, race or sexual orientation, and examined the consequences of that category on life outcomes. Yet intersectional models of social disadvantage (eg, Cole, 2009; Crenshaw, 1995; King, 1988) suggest that social categories combine to shape the experiences and life outcomes of individuals across life domains. In this chapter, we review empirical research that offers insight into the intersectionality of social identities across three critical developmental periods, namely, middle childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. We also consider the consequences of intersecting identities across several life domains, including intergroup relations and political and civic engagement. Recognizing that the body of work on social identities is expansive, we focus our review on race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and immigrant status. In each developmental stage, we discuss what we know, drawing from the limited empirical literature, and offer suggestions on where we need to go moving forward. We conclude that research that focuses on as a single category and ignores the specific domain of development provides an incomplete and inaccurate picture that will hinder efforts to develop culturally appropriate and clinically effective prevention and intervention programs to meet the needs of our diverse children and youth living in the United States.

  13. Toward an Intersectional Approach in Developmental Science: The Role of Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Immigrant Status.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Katsiaficas, Dalal; Rogers, Leoandra Onnie

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theory and research have often focused on a single social identity category, for example, race or sexual orientation, and examined the consequences of that category on life outcomes. Yet intersectional models of social disadvantage (eg, Cole, 2009; Crenshaw, 1995; King, 1988) suggest that social categories combine to shape the experiences and life outcomes of individuals across life domains. In this chapter, we review empirical research that offers insight into the intersectionality of social identities across three critical developmental periods, namely, middle childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. We also consider the consequences of intersecting identities across several life domains, including intergroup relations and political and civic engagement. Recognizing that the body of work on social identities is expansive, we focus our review on race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and immigrant status. In each developmental stage, we discuss what we know, drawing from the limited empirical literature, and offer suggestions on where we need to go moving forward. We conclude that research that focuses on as a single category and ignores the specific domain of development provides an incomplete and inaccurate picture that will hinder efforts to develop culturally appropriate and clinically effective prevention and intervention programs to meet the needs of our diverse children and youth living in the United States. PMID:26956069

  14. A Classroom Activity Exploring the Complexity of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students categorize the sexual orientation (heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual) of 10 fictional people. Students study aspects of sexual orientation, including its resistance to rigid and consistent definitions. The activity has been used in Psychology of Women, Sexual Behavior, and Psychology of Sexual Orientation…

  15. Exploring Sexual Attitudes and Experiences: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Casey T.

    2011-01-01

    This classroom exercise is designed to facilitate insight and understanding of the relationships between sexual attitudes and sexual experiences among college students. First, students complete a 65-item survey on which they indicate their moderate to traditional sexual attitudes and their corresponding sexual experiences. Next, correlations,…

  16. 'Yummy Mummies': exploring sexuality in the antenatal and postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Kim, HaKyung Maria; Geraghty, Sadie

    2016-06-01

    Sexuality is often bound together with sexual function in contemporary sexual health literature; however, sexuality is a multidimensional phenomenon that has a broader historical concept and cultural meaning. In addition to a significant global decline in sexual function, women may experience decline in emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure up to 4.5 years after giving birth. Midwives have an important role in raising conversations about sexuality on a regular basis during antenatal visits, and informing couples about the decline of libido, desire and orgasm, which may lead to reduction in sexual intercourse frequency, particularly in the last trimester and puerperium.

  17. 'Yummy Mummies': exploring sexuality in the antenatal and postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Kim, HaKyung Maria; Geraghty, Sadie

    2016-06-01

    Sexuality is often bound together with sexual function in contemporary sexual health literature; however, sexuality is a multidimensional phenomenon that has a broader historical concept and cultural meaning. In addition to a significant global decline in sexual function, women may experience decline in emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure up to 4.5 years after giving birth. Midwives have an important role in raising conversations about sexuality on a regular basis during antenatal visits, and informing couples about the decline of libido, desire and orgasm, which may lead to reduction in sexual intercourse frequency, particularly in the last trimester and puerperium. PMID:27451488

  18. The impact of patient race on clinical decisions related to prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): assumptions about sexual risk compensation and implications for access.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Underhill, Kristen; Hansen, Nathan B; Dovidio, John F

    2014-02-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has received increasing recognition as a viable prescription-based intervention for people at risk for HIV acquisition. However, little is known about racial biases affecting healthcare providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP. This investigation sought to explore medical students' stereotypes about sexual risk compensation among Black versus White men who have sex with men seeking PrEP, and the impact of such stereotypes on willingness to prescribe PrEP. An online survey presented participants (n = 102) with a clinical vignette of a PrEP-seeking, HIV-negative man with an HIV-positive male partner. Patient race was systematically manipulated. Participants reported predictions about patient sexual risk compensation, willingness to prescribe PrEP, and other clinical judgments. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that the Black patient was rated as more likely than the White patient to engage in increased unprotected sex if prescribed PrEP, which, in turn, was associated with reduced willingness to prescribe PrEP to the patient.

  19. An Exploration of Counselor Experiences of Adolescents with Sexual Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassman, Linda; Kottler, Jeffrey; Madison, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study of 18 American and Australian counselors explores the impact of working with adolescents with sexual behavior problems. Findings are reported reflecting the counselors' own histories of abuse, their feelings regarding sexual information, their sexual and emotional responses to clients, and the importance of self-care and…

  20. Inappropriate sexual behaviour and dementia: an exploration of staff experiences.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Laura E; Robertson, Noelle; Knight, Caroline

    2013-07-01

    Research assessing the impact of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) on staff working in dementia care is circumscribed, yet studies from comparable settings indicate that ISB appears uniquely challenging, particularly to personal and cultural values. This study explored staff experiences of ISB exhibited by older adults with a dementia. Fourteen staff working within an in-patient setting were interviewed. Participants' experiences of ISB appeared underpinned by complex social and psychological processes. Shock, embarrassment and incomprehension were prominent when ISB was initially encountered. Knowledge of dementia, familiarity with patients and social norms were important in contextualising ISB and staff often minimised its impact by construing a lack of capacity. Feelings about ISB appeared equivocal and findings suggest that the effect of ISB should be routinely considered in preparing staff who work within dementia care.

  1. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  2. Teenagers' Web Questions Compared with a Sexuality Curriculum: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; McCutchen, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teenagers need information about their changing bodies. Many young people do not receive adequate or accurate puberty/sexuality education from their parents or school, so many teenagers are going online to have their sexuality questions answered. Purpose: This research examines teenagers' web questions on sexuality, and an example of…

  3. Neighborhoods and Race/Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Daniel L.; McNulty, Thomas L.; Bellair, Paul E.; Watts, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent sexual risk behavior is important given its links to the differential risk of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections. This article tests a contextual model that emphasizes the concentration of neighborhood disadvantage in shaping racial/ethnic disparities in sexual risk behavior. We focus on two risk behaviors that are prevalent among Black and Hispanic youth: the initiation of sexual activity in adolescence and the number of sex partners. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 6,985; 48% female; 57% non-Hispanic White) evidence indicates that neighborhood disadvantage – measured by concentrated poverty, unemployment rates, and the proportion of female-headed households – partially explains Black and Hispanic disparities from Whites in the odds of adolescent sexual debut, although the prevalence of female-headed households in neighborhoods appears to be the main driver in this domain. Likewise, accounting for neighborhood disadvantage reduces the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparity in the number of sexual partners, although less so relative to sexual debut. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:24214727

  4. The role of romantic attachment security and dating identity exploration in understanding adolescents' sexual attitudes and cumulative sexual risk-taking.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Alyssa D; Kerpelman, Jennifer L; Pittman, Joe F

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed how two normative developmental factors, attachment and identity, are associated with adolescents' sexual attitudes and sexual risk-taking behavior. The sample consisted of 2029 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years) living in the Southeast United States. Path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Higher levels of attachment anxiety predicted more dating identity exploration and less healthy sexual attitudes. Higher levels of attachment avoidance predicted less dating identity exploration and indirectly predicted less healthy sexual attitudes through dating identity exploration. Females with dating or sexual experience showed the weakest associations between the attachment dimensions and dating identity exploration. More dating identity exploration predicted healthier sexual attitudes; this association was strongest for non-virgins. Finally, higher levels of attachment avoidance were associated with higher cumulative sexual risk scores, but only among non-virgin males. Results are interpreted in light of theory and research on attachment, identity exploration, and adolescent sexual relationships.

  5. Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Navarro, Rachel L.; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

    2008-01-01

    Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory…

  6. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  7. Exploring the connection between pornography and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Bergen, R K; Bogle, K A

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between sexual violence and pornography. Data about women's experiences of sexual violence and their abusers' use of pornography were collected at a rape crisis center from 100 survivors. Findings include that 28% of respondents reported that their abuser used pornography and that for 12% of the women, pornography was imitated during the abusive incident. The effects of pornography on women's experiences of sexual violence are discussed.

  8. Dancing Sexual Pleasures: Exploring Teenage Women's Experiences of Sexuality and Pleasure beyond "Sex"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Josie I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the affective and sensual dimensions of sexuality, especially on what feels good in and on the body. Drawing on a longitudinal participatory case study of a young Christian woman's dancing practices, it illustrates how for young women sexual feelings and sexual pleasure are not only pertinent to those practices normatively…

  9. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.

  10. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  11. The Yearbook Photo and Graduation Speech: Intersections of Sexual Identity, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleig, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Only 48.6% of University Council For Educational Administration (UCEA) institutions which focus on social justice in principal preparation programs address sexual orientation, this case describes how the completion of an equity audit for an educational leadership course compelled Principal Olson to reflect on his identity as a social justice…

  12. Exploring pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection testing

    PubMed Central

    Habel, Melissa A.; Scheinmann, Roberta; Verdesoto, Elizabeth; Gaydos, Charlotte; Bertisch, Maggie; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening as alternate testing venues among emergency contraception (EC) users. Methods The study included two phases in February 2011–July 2012. In Phase I, customers purchasing EC from eight pharmacies in Manhattan received vouchers for free STI testing at onsite medical clinics. In Phase II, three Facebook ads targeted EC users to connect them with free home-based STI test kits ordered online. Participants completed a self-administered survey. Results Only 38 participants enrolled in Phase I: 90% female, ≤29 years (74%), 45% White non-Hispanic and 75% college graduates; 71% were not tested for STIs in the past year and 68% reported a new partner in the past 3 months. None tested positive for STIs. In Phase II, ads led to >45 000 click-throughs, 382 completed the survey and 290 requested kits; 28% were returned. Phase II participants were younger and less educated than Phase I participants; six tested positive for STIs. Challenges included recruitment, pharmacy staff participation, advertising with discretion and cost. Conclusions This study found low uptake of pharmacy and home-based testing among EC users; however, STI testing in these settings is feasible and the acceptability findings indicate an appeal among younger women for testing in non-traditional settings. Collaborating with and training pharmacy and medical staff are key elements of service provision. Future research should explore how different permutations of expanding screening in non-traditional settings could improve testing uptake and detect additional STI cases. PMID:26409484

  13. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  14. Exploring Sexuality Education Opportunities at In-Home Sex-Toy Parties in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Christopher; Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Satinsky, Sonya; Fischtein, Dayna

    2010-01-01

    While debates about adolescent sexuality education persist in the United States, little attention has been paid to adult sexuality education. Research suggests that teachable moments may be present in interactions between adult bookstore employees and the consumers who shop at these venues. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential…

  15. Sexual Offences against Children: An Exploration of Attrition in the Northern Ireland Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This paper uses data provided by the Police Service for Northern Ireland (PSNI) to compare the characteristics and outcomes of reported sexual offences involving child and adult victims and explore the factors associated with case outcomes. Method: PSNI provided data on 8,789 sexual offences recorded between April 2001 and March 2006.…

  16. The Psychosexual Profile of Sexual Assistants: An Internet-Based Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Limoncin, Erika; Galli, Debora; Ciocca, Giacomo; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assistance may have some aspects that resemble prostitution and others that might lead one to think of sexual assistants as similar to a group of subjects whose sexual object is disability (devotees). In this study, we investigate whether a rigorous selection and training process on the part of specialised organisations may reduce the risk of training subjects with an atypical sexual interest and behaviours resembling prostitution. Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 152 subjects defining themselves as sexual assistants. Subjects were initially contacted on websites specifically dedicated to sexual assistants and prostitutes. One hundred and twenty subjects were selected, by propensity score analysis, and studied by means of a modified version of a semi-structured questionnaire previously developed to investigate a population of subjects attracted by disability. Results The study group was composed of 80 trained and 40 untrained sexual assistants, with mean ages of 41.5 (SD +/−12.58) and 44.5 (SD +/−11.62), respectively. A significant number of untrained subjects affirmed that their motivation in carrying out sexual assistance was of a remunerative nature, while this number was lower among the trained assistants (p = 0.001). Nearly all untrained subjects claimed to do one or more of the following activities during sexual assistance: sexual intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation. Among the trained subjects, however, only 47.5% claimed to do one or more of these activities, which means that there is a significant gap between trained and untrained assistants (p<0.0001). The existence of an atypical sexual interest was more evident between untrained rather than between trained subjects (p<0.0001). Conclusions Sexual assistance represents a way through which people affected by disabilities may attain the right to explore their sexuality in a safe setting. This can be guaranteed only if sexual assistants are trained and

  17. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms.

  18. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms. PMID:27064364

  19. Testing the Invariance of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire Across Gender, Ethnicity/Race, and Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Anne Q; Hsueh, Loretta; Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Sotelo, Frank L; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Federal and state policies are based on data from surveys that examine sexual-related cognitions and behaviors through self-reports of attitudes and actions. No study has yet examined their factorial invariance--specifically, whether the relationship between items assessing sexual behavior and their underlying construct differ depending on gender, ethnicity/race, or age. This study examined the factor structure of four items from the sexual behavior questionnaire part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). As NHANES provided different versions of the survey per gender, invariance was tested across gender to determine whether subsequent tests across ethnicity/race and generation could be done across gender. Items were not invariant across gender groups so data files for women and men were not collapsed. Across ethnicity/race for both genders, and across generation for women, items were configurally invariant, and exhibited metric invariance across Latino/Latina and Black participants for both genders. Across generation for men, the configural invariance model could not be identified so the baseline models were examined. The four item one factor model fit well for the Millennial and GenerationX groups but was a poor fit for the baby boomer and silent generation groups, suggesting that gender moderated the invariance across generation. Thus, comparisons between ethnic/racial and generational groups should not be made between the genders or even within gender. Findings highlight the need for programs and interventions that promote a more inclusive definition of "having had sex."

  20. Testing the Invariance of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire Across Gender, Ethnicity/Race, and Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Anne Q; Hsueh, Loretta; Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Sotelo, Frank L; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Federal and state policies are based on data from surveys that examine sexual-related cognitions and behaviors through self-reports of attitudes and actions. No study has yet examined their factorial invariance--specifically, whether the relationship between items assessing sexual behavior and their underlying construct differ depending on gender, ethnicity/race, or age. This study examined the factor structure of four items from the sexual behavior questionnaire part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). As NHANES provided different versions of the survey per gender, invariance was tested across gender to determine whether subsequent tests across ethnicity/race and generation could be done across gender. Items were not invariant across gender groups so data files for women and men were not collapsed. Across ethnicity/race for both genders, and across generation for women, items were configurally invariant, and exhibited metric invariance across Latino/Latina and Black participants for both genders. Across generation for men, the configural invariance model could not be identified so the baseline models were examined. The four item one factor model fit well for the Millennial and GenerationX groups but was a poor fit for the baby boomer and silent generation groups, suggesting that gender moderated the invariance across generation. Thus, comparisons between ethnic/racial and generational groups should not be made between the genders or even within gender. Findings highlight the need for programs and interventions that promote a more inclusive definition of "having had sex." PMID:25975212

  1. An exploration of terminology related to sexuality and gender: arguments for standardizing the language.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no consensus on the best ways to define and operationalize research concepts related to sexuality and gender. This article explores some of the ways that sex/gender and sexuality terms have been used in health-related research and in keyword searches in the health sciences. Reasons for the diversity of terms and measurement approaches are explored and arguments for and against standardizing the language are presented. The article ends with recommendations for beginning a productive dialogue among health researchers to create some consistency in the terminology used to assess sexuality and gender.

  2. Juvenile and adult offenders arrested for sexual homicide: an analysis of victim-offender relationship and weapon used by race.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on racial offending patterns of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study used a 30-year U.S. Supplementary Homicide Reports sample of SHOs arrested in single-victim situations (N = 3745). The analysis strength was used to determine whether the findings yielded meaningful patterns for offender profiling. Several important findings emerged for the juvenile offenders. Juvenile White SHOs were likely to target victims with whom they shared a mutual relationship. In contrast, Black juveniles were equally likely to murder strangers and those with whom they had prior and familial relationships. Notably, no juvenile Black SHOs were arrested for murdering intimate partners. Juvenile White SHOs were twice as likely to use edged weapons as their Black counterparts. Black juveniles, conversely, were more likely than White juveniles to use personal weapons. Beyond these findings, known victim-offender relationships and weapon used may not have significant utility for investigators in identifying the SHO race, even after controlling for offender age. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  3. Exploring Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Attitudes: Disparities by Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755

  4. Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

  5. The Dangerous Staircase: Exploring Sexuality between Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De-Malach, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The link between pedagogy and sexuality is an educational twilight zone both dangerous and full of possibilities. Being such a controversial and sensitive issue, teachers should have a safe space to discuss it. I suggest that fiction manages to capture the evasive nature of the subject. To illustrate this point, I analyze the novel "Up the…

  6. An Exploration of Returning Veterans' Sexual Health Issues Using a Brief Self‐Report Measure

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Gregory R.; Latini, David M.; Powers‐James, Catherine; Houlette, Cheryl; Kauth, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    of sexual dysfunction concerns may allow providers to identify and implement more precise sexual functioning interventions. Beaulieu GR, Latini DM, Helmer DA, Powers‐James C, Houlette C, and Kauth MR. An exploration of returning veterans sexual health issues using a brief self‐report measure. Sex Med 2015;3:287–294. PMID:26797063

  7. Sexuality after stroke: an exploration of current professional approaches, barriers to providing support and future directions.

    PubMed

    Richards, Alexandra; Dean, Rachel; Burgess, Gerald H; Caird, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Sexual difficulties post-stroke are common, yet frequently neglected within rehabilitation. This study aimed to explore the process by which healthcare professionals approach and work with the topic of sexuality within stroke rehabilitation. Method Ten participants were recruited from 5 community and inpatient multi-disciplinary stroke rehabilitation teams. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and data were analysed using grounded theory methodology. Results The authors developed a theoretical model of how professionals engage with sexual concerns. Professionals' own personal level of comfort with the topic of sexuality interacted with a series of barriers to limit opportunities for engagement. These barriers included factors relating to the context and workplace environment of stroke rehabilitation, professionals' perceptions that they did not have adequate skills in this area and unhelpful attitudes towards stroke survivors and sexuality. Although the majority of participants rarely engaged with sexual issues, they adopted both direct and indirect strategies for engaging with their service users' sexual concerns. Concerns were usually addressed through the provision of information and supportive conversations. Conclusions The findings suggest that sexuality is not a legitimised topic within stroke rehabilitation, and current work practises limit professionals' abilities to address service-users' concerns. Implications for developing effective training and staff support are discussed. Implications for rehabilitation Professionals working within stroke rehabilitation rarely directly bring up sexuality with patients, but an indirect method of approaching the topic is more common. Addressing sexual concerns often does not require expertise. Training should show professionals how to use transferable knowledge to address sexual issues and also enhance communication skills. Sexuality should be incorporated within local stroke policy and procedures, to

  8. Sexuality after stroke: an exploration of current professional approaches, barriers to providing support and future directions.

    PubMed

    Richards, Alexandra; Dean, Rachel; Burgess, Gerald H; Caird, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Sexual difficulties post-stroke are common, yet frequently neglected within rehabilitation. This study aimed to explore the process by which healthcare professionals approach and work with the topic of sexuality within stroke rehabilitation. Method Ten participants were recruited from 5 community and inpatient multi-disciplinary stroke rehabilitation teams. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and data were analysed using grounded theory methodology. Results The authors developed a theoretical model of how professionals engage with sexual concerns. Professionals' own personal level of comfort with the topic of sexuality interacted with a series of barriers to limit opportunities for engagement. These barriers included factors relating to the context and workplace environment of stroke rehabilitation, professionals' perceptions that they did not have adequate skills in this area and unhelpful attitudes towards stroke survivors and sexuality. Although the majority of participants rarely engaged with sexual issues, they adopted both direct and indirect strategies for engaging with their service users' sexual concerns. Concerns were usually addressed through the provision of information and supportive conversations. Conclusions The findings suggest that sexuality is not a legitimised topic within stroke rehabilitation, and current work practises limit professionals' abilities to address service-users' concerns. Implications for developing effective training and staff support are discussed. Implications for rehabilitation Professionals working within stroke rehabilitation rarely directly bring up sexuality with patients, but an indirect method of approaching the topic is more common. Addressing sexual concerns often does not require expertise. Training should show professionals how to use transferable knowledge to address sexual issues and also enhance communication skills. Sexuality should be incorporated within local stroke policy and procedures, to

  9. Exploring Race Based Differences in Patterns of Life-Course Criminality

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Michael W.; Salvatore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    A persistent issue facing criminologists is the challenge of developing theoretical models that provide comprehensive explanations of the onset and persistence of criminality. One promising theory to develop over the last 30 years has been life-course theory. Using multivariate analysis of variance the main question posed in this research, do elements of social development shape the trajectory of persistent offending in a race-neutral fashion, or are the dynamics shaping life-course criminality unique for people of color, was examined. The results provide a number of useful insights into the relationship between race, life-course transition factors, and longitudinal patterns of criminality. PMID:23436952

  10. Exploration of the impact of messages about genes and race on lay attitudes.

    PubMed

    Condit, C M; Parrott, R L; Bates, B R; Bevan, J; Achter, P J

    2004-11-01

    The effect of messages about genetics on lay audiences was assessed through an experimental study that exposed participants (n = 96) to a Public Service Announcement about race, genes, and heart disease. Participants who received a message that specified either 'Whites' or 'Blacks' as the subject of the message demonstrated elevated levels of racism, genetic basis for racism, and one dimension of genetic discrimination as compared to those receiving a version of the message with no race specification or in a no-message control condition. The presentation of such messages to the public is not recommended until additional research clarifies this finding and perhaps describes mitigating vocabularies or approaches.

  11. An empirical analysis of 30 years of U.S. juvenile and adult sexual homicide offender data: race and age differences in the victim-offender relationship.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Myers, Wade C; Heide, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the racial patterns of crimes committed by sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study examined race and age influences on victim-offender relationship for juvenile and adult SHOs. A large sample (N = 3868) from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (1976-2005) was used. Analyses of victim-offender patterns included examining victim age effects (child, adolescent, adult, and elderly). The findings revealed several race- and age-based differences. Black offenders were significantly overrepresented in the SHO population. This finding held for juveniles and adults independently. White SHOs were highly likely to kill within their race, "intra-racially" (range 91-100%) across four victim age categories, whereas Black SHOs killed both intra-racially (range 24-82%) and inter-racially (18-76%), with the likelihood of their killing inter-racially increasing as the age of the victim increased. This study underscores the importance of considering victim-offender racial patterns in sexual murder investigations, and it offers practical implications for offender profiling.

  12. Disrupting "The Amazing Race": Education, Exploration, and Exploitation in Reality Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on research in the fields of visual culture and critical media literacy to establish a rationale for utilizing popular culture in social studies classroom instruction. One reality television show, CBS's "The Amazing Race", introduces viewers to diverse people and places. Although the decision to use this show to support social…

  13. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…

  14. "Westerners," "Chinese," and/or "Us": Exploring the Intersections of Language, Race, Religion, and Immigrantization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Huamei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a four-year ethnography, I draw on critical race theory and Bourdieuian theory of language to analyze why a Chinese Immigrant couple regarded their 1.5-Generation Chinese Canadian leaders at an evangelical Christian church as "Westerners," and how the leaders differentiated themselves from "Westerners" and…

  15. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploring the Connection among Race, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…

  16. Beyond Race and Ethnicity: Exploring the Effects of Ethnic Identity and Its Implications for Cancer Communication Efforts.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Holt, Lanier F

    2016-01-01

    Within the health communication literature there has been an increased focus on the use of cultural and identity-based message tailoring to enhance the effectiveness of messages and interventions, particularly among minority and underserved populations. Although this approach may be promising, little is known about the effect of ethnic identity on health behaviors and beliefs or how the effects of ethnic identity differ from those of race or ethnicity. This study is among the first to explore relationships between ethnic identity and cancer-related risk factors, knowledge characteristics, and cognitive and affective appraisals. This study utilized a national online sample of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics (N = 1,452). Higher ethnic identity was associated with increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake and decreased body mass index among Whites (p < .05). Higher ethnic identity was also associated with increased cancer risk knowledge (p < .05) but not cancer risk perceptions or self-efficacy (p > .05). Hispanics and Blacks with higher ethnic identity had greater cancer worry. Our results suggest that the effect of ethnic identity is often distinct from that of race/ethnicity and that health communication interventions based solely on race/ethnicity may not be as effective as those that also take ethnic identity into account.

  17. Exploring the Overlap in Male Juvenile Sexual Offending and General Delinquency: Trauma, Alcohol Use, and Masculine Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam; Burton, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Burton and Meezan's (2004) finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully…

  18. A phenomenological exploration of reflections on lived space by child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-12-01

    Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.).

  19. Sexual differences in exploration behavior in Xenopus tropicalis?

    PubMed

    Videlier, Mathieu; Cornette, Raphaël; Bonneaud, Camille; Herrel, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    The two sexes of a species often differ in many ways. How sexes differ depends on the selective context, with females often investing more in reproductive output and males in territory defense and resource acquisition. This also implies that behavioral strategies may differ between the two sexes, allowing them to optimize their fitness in a given ecological context. Here, we investigated whether males and females differ in their exploration behavior in an aquatic frog (Xenopus tropicalis). Moreover, we explored whether females show different behavioral strategies in the exploration of a novel environment as has been demonstrated previously for males of the same species. Our results show significant sex differences, with males exploring their environment more than females. Yet, similar to males, female exploratory behavior varied significantly among individuals and broadly fell into three categories: shy, intermediate and bold. Moreover, like in males, behavioral strategies are decoupled from morphology and performance. Our results suggest that females are more sedentary than males, with males engaging in greater risk taking by exploring novel environments more. Male and female behaviors could, however, be classified into similar groups, with some individuals being bolder than others and displaying more exploration behavior. The decoupling of morphology and performance from behavior appears to be a general feature in the species and may allow selection to act on both types of traits independently.

  20. Wrinkles and sagging flesh: exploring transformations in women's sexual body image.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Beth; Gillen, Meghan M

    2013-01-01

    In American society, the sexually desirable woman is young and thin. Changes associated with aging such as wrinkled skin or weight gain often bring women further from societal ideals of attractiveness. As physical appearance is very much related to desirability, we explore sexual body image and the way that it changes as women age. Based on in-depth interviews with 95 women aged 20-68, we find women's sexuality and feelings of desirability are influenced by physical appearance, media, as well as significant others and family. We also note that sexual body image is more often negative than positive for women of all ages and that women struggle to accept changes in their bodies as a result of the aging process and life experiences; however, women in their 50s and 60s are most likely to accept their bodies and not feel influenced by social pressures. PMID:23199310

  1. Who is Most Susceptible to Movie Smoking Effects? Exploring the Impacts of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Design Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socioeconomic status, the interactions of these variables, and family and background characteristics. Setting National sample of US adolescents. Participants 3653 respondents aged 13–18 years. Measurements Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents’ reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. Findings The proportion having tried smoking was lower for Blacks (0.32) compared to Hispanics (0.41) and Whites (0.38). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among Whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on Blacks. SES further modified the relation among Whites; high SES white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low SES white adolescents. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is not uniformly experienced as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among U.S. adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socioeconomic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among Whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. PMID:22724674

  2. Female Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: An Existential Exploration and Implications for Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kathy D.; Mills, Kimberly T.; Strickland, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, annual prevalence factors indicate that 25% of women are reported survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Existential concerns and basic purposes within the physical, social, personal and spiritual dimensions of female CSA survivors' worldviews are explored. The recognition and meanings of existential purposes and concerns…

  3. Travelling and Sticky Affects: Exploring Teens and Sexualized Cyberbullying through a Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoed, Jette; Ringrose, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we combine the thinking of Deleuze and Guattari (1984, 1987) with Judith Butler's (1990, 1993, 2004, 2009) work to follow the rhizomatic becomings of young people's affective relations in a range of on- and off-line school spaces. In particular we explore how events that may be designated as sexual cyberbullying are constituted and…

  4. Genders and Sexualities: Exploring the Conceptual Limits of Contemporary Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three decades educational research has provided an exciting and dynamic theoretical engagement with gender and sexuality. While acknowledging this contribution, this article is a conceptually-led exploration of a number of theoretical and methodological tensions contained within this research. More specifically, it argues that…

  5. Is Texting Ruining Intimacy? Exploring Perceptions among Sexuality Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of researchers' and educators' concerns about the pervasive use of technology to communicate with one another, this study explored whether the frequency of emerging adults' computer-mediated communication (CMC) is correlated with their perceptions of intimacy, relationship, and sexual satisfaction. The sample included…

  6. Longitudinal relationships between antiretroviral treatment adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race, and sexual orientation among African-American men with HIV.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Klein, David J

    2010-10-01

    African-Americans show worse HIV disease outcomes compared to Whites. Health disparities may be aggravated by discrimination, which is associated with worse health and maladaptive health behaviors. We examined longitudinal effects of discrimination on antiretroviral treatment adherence among 152 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men. We measured adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation at baseline and monthly for 6 months. Hierarchical repeated-measures models tested longitudinal effects of each discrimination type on adherence. Over 6 months, participants took 60% of prescribed medications on average; substantial percentages experienced discrimination (HIV-serostatus, 38%; race/ethnicity, 40%; and sexual orientation, 33%). Greater discrimination due to all three characteristics was significantly bivariately associated with lower adherence (all p's < 0.05). In the multivariate model, only racial discrimination was significant (p < 0.05). Efforts to improve HIV treatment adherence should consider the context of multiple stigmas, especially racism.

  7. Identity, Peer Relationships, and Adolescent Girls’ Sexual Behavior: An Exploration of the Contemporary Double Standard

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Heidi; Giordano, Peggy; Manning, Wendy; Longmore, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The idea of a sexual double standard emphasizes that men have more sexual freedom, while women are subject to social sanctions for the same behaviors. The current research uses a sample of adolescent women to examine the social consequences of reporting a greater number of sex partners. We explore the broader social costs and low self-worth associated with a high number of sex partners, and also focus on characteristics of the adolescents’ close friends. The analyses of quantitative data (n=600) provide support for the emphasis on the adolescents’ immediate network of friends: friends’ attitudes and behaviors were significant predictors of respondents’ own sexual experience, while those reporting a higher number of sex partners did not report a lack of popularity, desire for more friends, or lower self-esteem. In-depth relationship history narratives collected from a subset of respondents (n=46) provide additional context for the quantitative results. Women often recognized the existence of a double standard on a societal or school level, but support or acceptance provided by the more immediate network of similarly situated friends serves as a buffer against such negative attributions. The findings suggest that programs targeting sexual behaviors should focus on how peer norms influence girls’ sexual choices. PMID:20818574

  8. MSM in HIV-prevention trials are sexual partners with each other: An ancillary study to the EXPLORE intervention.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A; Benet, Dana Jones; Manseau, Marc W; DeSousa, Nancy; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2006-01-01

    The EXPLORE study evaluated a behavioral intervention to prevent HIV seroconversion among men who have sex with men (MSM). The present ancillary study enrolled 345 EXPLORE participants at one study site (Boston) and assessed high-risk sexual behavior with other EXPLORE participants. It also assessed sexual intentions across other EXPLORE participants, HIV-negative individuals, and unknown HIV serostatus partners. Thirty-one percent reported having sex with another EXPLORE participant: 27% unprotected receptive oral sex with ejaculation (UO), 30% unprotected insertive anal sex (UIA), and 34% reported unprotected receptive anal sex (URA). Significant relationships between intentions to engage in UO, UIA, and URA, and type of partner emerged with intentions to engage in UO, UIA, and URA higher in HIV-negative partners, other EXPLORE participants, and unknown-HIV serostatus partners. Future HIV-prevention studies recruiting MSM at increased sexual risk of HIV infection should address participants potentially becoming sexual partners with each other. PMID:16331532

  9. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jennifer A; Clinton, Sarah M; Perry, Adam N; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B

    2013-02-01

    High- versus low-novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively bred for high-novelty exploration (bred-high responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared with low-novelty reactive rats (bred-low responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior-sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse Is Highly Associated With HIV Risk–Taking Behavior and Infection Among MSM in the EXPLORE Study

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Donnell, Deborah; Safren, Steven A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Gortmaker, Steven; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Chesney, Margaret A.; Coates, Thomas J.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found high rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among US men who have sex with men (MSM). CSA history has been associated with a variety of negative effects later in life including behaviors that place MSM at greater risk for HIV acquisition and transmission. The present analysis is the first to examine the longitudinal association between CSA and HIV infection, unprotected anal sex, and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex, as well as mediators of these relationships among a large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Methods The EXPLORE Study was a behavioral intervention trial conducted in 6 US cities over 48 months with HIV infection as the primary efficacy outcome. Behavioral assessments were done every 6 months via confidential computerized assessments. Longitudinal regression models were constructed, adjusting for randomization arm, geographical location of study site, age at enrollment, education, and race/ethnicity. Results Of the 4295 participants enrolled, 39.7% had a history of CSA. Participants with a history of CSA [adjusted hazards ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.69] were at increased risk for HIV infection over study follow-up. A significant association was seen between history of CSA and unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.36) and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.43). Among participants reporting CSA, the EXPLORE intervention had no effect in reducing HIV infection rates. Participants reporting CSA were significantly more likely to have symptoms of depression and use nonprescription drugs. Conclusions A predictive relationship between a history of CSA and subsequent HIV infection was observed among this large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Findings indicate that HIV-uninfected MSM with CSA histories are at greater risk for HIV infection, report higher rates of HIV sexual risk behavior, and may derive less benefit from

  11. Exploring Sexuality Education and the Burdened Teacher: A Participatory Approach in a Rural Primary School in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiragu, Susan Wanjiru

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five years since the onset of HIV/AIDS, young people aged 15-24 now make up half of new HIV infections. This paper advocates for comprehensive sexuality education as an effective panacea to reverse this, with teachers stepping up and embracing their role as sexuality educators. The exploration of this challenge is informed by a small-scale…

  12. Spiritual and Sexual Identity: Exploring Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients' Perspectives of Counseling.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Kristopher M; Buser, Juleen K; Luke, Melissa; Buser, Trevor J

    2016-06-01

    Although religious and spiritual issues have emerged as areas of focus in counseling, very few scholars have explored the meaning and experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients who addressed their sexual and religious/spiritual identities in counseling. Using consensual qualitative research (CQR; Hill, 2012), the current study explores the perspectives of 12 LGB persons who sought counseling that involved religious/spiritual concerns. Four themes in participant interviews are identified, including (a) self-acceptance, (b) goals of counseling, (c) identification with counselor, and (d) counseling environment and relationship. Implications of findings for the counseling field are discussed.

  13. Us & Them? Entering a Three-Dimensional Narrative Inquiry Space with White Pre-Service Teachers to Explore Race, Racism, and Anti-Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Lachuk, Amy S.; Mosley, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two white teacher educators illustrate entering into a three-dimensional narrative space with a white pre-service teacher. The authors explore how their histories have led them to practice teacher education pedagogies that are rooted in ideas of social justice and critical race theory. In order to support the goals and aims of…

  14. Identity development and exploration among sexual minority adolescents: examination of a multidimensional model.

    PubMed

    Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G

    2009-01-01

    Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency.

  15. Stigma as a barrier to treatment of sexually transmitted infection in the American deep south: issues of race, gender and poverty.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen

    2003-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STI) occur at high rates in the US compared to other Western nations. Sociocultural indicators such as race and ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status and historically higher rates of certain diseases, such as syphilis, are correlated factors but do not explain fully why STI rates are particularly high in the American Deep South. One salient factor is the stigma associated with STI and its effect on screening and treatment. This paper presents the results of six focus group interviews that were conducted among mainly African-American health workers, patients and students in Alabama, USA. The results showed that STI-related stigma directly and indirectly affected willingness to be treated for STI at public health clinics. Four dimensions of stigma emerged: (1) Religious ideation affected how health workers felt about 'promiscuous' patients (especially women), (2) privacy fears discouraged male patients from seeking treatment at local clinics, (3) racial attitudes affected willingness to be treated for STI and (4) Stigma transference (being "scarlet lettered") emerged as a potent disincentive to treatment. Partner notification was more likely if patients felt betrayed by a sexual partner. Further research is needed to clarify these stigma-related dimensions and the impact on screening, treatment and partner services.

  16. Exploring Bias in Math Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Ability by Gender and Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Humphries, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    This study explores whether gender stereotypes about math ability shape high school teachers' assessments of the students with whom they interact daily, resulting in the presence of conditional bias. It builds on theories of intersectionality by exploring teachers' perceptions of students in different gender and racial/ethnic subgroups, and advances the literature on the salience of gender across contexts by considering variation across levels of math course-taking in the academic hierarchy. Utilizing nationally representative data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), analyses reveal that disparities in teachers' perceptions of ability that favored white males over minority students of both genders are explained away by student achievement in the form of test scores and grades. However, we find evidence of a consistent bias against white females which, although relatively small in magnitude, suggests that teachers hold the belief that math is easier for white males than it is for white females. We also find some evidence of variation across course level contexts with regard to bias. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for research on the construction of gender inequality.

  17. Exploring Bias in Math Teachers’ Perceptions of Students’ Ability by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Humphries, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether gender stereotypes about math ability shape high school teachers’ assessments of the students with whom they interact daily, resulting in the presence of conditional bias. It builds on theories of intersectionality by exploring teachers’ perceptions of students in different gender and racial/ethnic subgroups, and advances the literature on the salience of gender across contexts by considering variation across levels of math course-taking in the academic hierarchy. Utilizing nationally representative data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), analyses reveal that disparities in teachers’ perceptions of ability that favored white males over minority students of both genders are explained away by student achievement in the form of test scores and grades. However, we find evidence of a consistent bias against white females which, although relatively small in magnitude, suggests that teachers hold the belief that math is easier for white males than it is for white females. We also find some evidence of variation across course level contexts with regard to bias. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for research on the construction of gender inequality. PMID:24187437

  18. Beyond the Face of Race: Emo-Cognitive Explorations of White Neurosis and Racial Cray-Cray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; DiAngelo, Robin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on the emotional and cognitive context that underlies whiteness. They employ interdisciplinary approaches of critical Whiteness studies and critical race theory to entertain how common White responses to racial material stem from the need for Whites to deny race, a traumatizing process that begins in childhood.…

  19. Importance of race and ethnicity: an exploration of Asian, Black, Latino, and multiracial adolescent identity.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M

    2010-04-01

    This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance that adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th- to 12th-grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents' racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants' thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings that adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups. PMID:20438152

  20. Importance of race-ethnicity: An exploration of Asian, Black, Latino, and Multiracial adolescent identity

    PubMed Central

    Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th–12th grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and Multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents’ racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants’ thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups. PMID:20438152

  1. Wives and mothers like ourselves? Exploring white women's intervention in the politics of race, 1920s-1940s.

    PubMed

    Holland, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper takes the issue of the removal of Aboriginal children, and the broader white anxiety over the 'half-caste problem' which underpinned the policy, to explore white women reformers' intervention in the politics of race in the years 1920-40. In these years middle-class women's citizenship was based on maternalism and the defence of motherhood. At the same time the national feminist lobby, the Australian Federation of Women Voters, joined the public debate about the 'Aboriginal problem'. In this context it is necessary to ask: What was the feminist view of Aboriginal women's status? Were they considered 'wives and mothers' like themselves, as Louisa Lawson suggested in the 1890s? What was their view of the 'half-caste problem' and the 'absorption proposal' formulated to solve it? By asking such questions I hope to modify the current feminist historiographical view of white women reformers as 'pro-Aboriginal' and 'radical' and their policies as challenging White Australia in these years. PMID:18159659

  2. Stimulant Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors for HIV in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zule, William A.; Costenbader, Elizabeth; Coomes, Curtis M.; Meyer, William J., Jr.; Riehman, Kara; Poehlman, Jon; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: While literature exists on sexual risks for HIV among rural populations, the specific role of stimulants in increasing these risks has primarily been studied in the context of a single drug and/or racial group. Purpose: This study explores the use of multiple stimulants and sexual risk behaviors among individuals of different races and…

  3. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, M.; Fisher, C.M.; Zhou, J.; Kneip Pelster, A.D.; Schober, D.; Baldwin, K.; Fortenberry, J.; Goldsworthy, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Methods Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted using NVivo. Results Most YDPs (n = 15, 71.4%) described sexuality-related programs for youth. Some YDPs provided informal information (n = 11, 52.4%) and/or referrals for youth (n = 6, 28.6%). Few YDPs (n = 8, 38.1%) were trained to address adolescent sexuality, but some (n = 10, 47.6%) sought outside resources. Conclusions YDPs have a unique opportunity to improve adolescent sexual health and sexuality. Five considerations for organizations that develop programs and training for CBOs are suggested. PMID:27790077

  4. Factors Influencing Access to Sexual Health Care Among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in Vientiane, Laos: A Qualitative Exploration.

    PubMed

    Bowring, Anna L; Pasomsouk, Nakhornphet; Higgs, Peter; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hellard, Margaret; Power, Robert

    2015-11-01

    In Laos, men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and bisexual behavior among men is common. We conducted a qualitative study to explore access and influences on sexual health care seeking among bisexual men in Vientiane. In 2013, behaviorally bisexual men were recruited from bars, clubs and dormitories for 5 focus group discussions and 11 in-depth interviews. Participants (aged 18-35 years) commonly reported high-risk sexual behaviors, yet most had never been tested for HIV, and none reported testing for sexually transmitted infections. Common barriers to testing were low perception of risk, expectation of symptoms, fear of HIV, shyness, perceived stigma, confidentiality concerns, and waiting times. Many men were unaware of available services. Most clinics cannot provide comprehensive HIV and sexually transmitted infection services. Strategies are needed to generate demand for testing, improve the capacity of sexual health care providers, and promote available services among behaviorally bisexual men in Vientiane.

  5. Factors Influencing Access to Sexual Health Care Among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in Vientiane, Laos: A Qualitative Exploration.

    PubMed

    Bowring, Anna L; Pasomsouk, Nakhornphet; Higgs, Peter; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hellard, Margaret; Power, Robert

    2015-11-01

    In Laos, men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and bisexual behavior among men is common. We conducted a qualitative study to explore access and influences on sexual health care seeking among bisexual men in Vientiane. In 2013, behaviorally bisexual men were recruited from bars, clubs and dormitories for 5 focus group discussions and 11 in-depth interviews. Participants (aged 18-35 years) commonly reported high-risk sexual behaviors, yet most had never been tested for HIV, and none reported testing for sexually transmitted infections. Common barriers to testing were low perception of risk, expectation of symptoms, fear of HIV, shyness, perceived stigma, confidentiality concerns, and waiting times. Many men were unaware of available services. Most clinics cannot provide comprehensive HIV and sexually transmitted infection services. Strategies are needed to generate demand for testing, improve the capacity of sexual health care providers, and promote available services among behaviorally bisexual men in Vientiane. PMID:26543164

  6. "Becoming Bold": Alcohol use and sexual exploration among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM)

    PubMed Central

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is correlated with unprotected sex, which may place YMSM who use alcohol with sex at increased risk for contracting HIV. However, little is known about how this link develops. This study used qualitative interviews to explore how alcohol became associated with sex and sexual risk among YMSM. We purposively sampled 20 Black and 20 Latino YMSM (N=40), ages 21–24, who used substances (alcohol, marijuana, and crystal methamphetamine) with sex. Interviews focused on participants’ personal histories to trace how these associations developed for each individual. Drawing on sexual script, emotion regulation, and alcohol expectancy theories, analyses followed a modified grounded theory approach. Participants stated that alcohol enabled them to engage in sexual behaviors with men that they wanted to try, allowing them to be more “bold,” overcome stigma about homosexuality, and feel increased comfort with their sexual desires and identities. The use of alcohol during sex was helpful to some of the participants, but could also lead to sexual risk behaviors. Intervention programs seeking to reduce alcohol misuse and sexual risk should take into account how YMSM conceptualize associations between alcohol and sex. These programs may be more effective if they provide support for sexual identity exploration. PMID:23730733

  7. Exploring Family Factors and Sexual Behaviors in a Group of Black and Hispanic Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucibwa, Naphtal Kaberege; Modeste, Naomi; Montgomery, Susan; Fox, Curtis A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined family factors influencing sexual behavior among black and Hispanic adolescent males from San Bernardino County, California's 1996 Youth Survey. Family structure, parent sexual behaviors, and peer sexual norms closely associated with adolescent sexual attitudes and behaviors. Having a sibling who was a teen parent significantly associated…

  8. Immigrant Sexual Minority Latino Men in Rural North Carolina: An Exploration of Social Context, Social Behaviors, and Sexual Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant Sexual minority Latino men—who may or may not self-identify as gay—constitute a minority within a minority. Often labeled “hidden” and “hard-to-reach,” and marginalized along multiple dimensions, it is a sub-group about whom little is known. Informed by a Social Ecological Framework, we sought to describe key social variables for 190 such men in rural North Carolina and to test associations with three sexual outcomes: consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination. There were unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future research. PMID:24344629

  9. Addressing the Puzzle of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  10. An Exploration of the Sexual Behaviors of Emerging Adult Men Attending a Historically Black College/University

    PubMed Central

    Younge, Sinead N.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Geter, Angelica; Barker, Judith C.; Corneille, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide formative data on the sexual behaviors of emerging adult Black men who attended a historically Black college/university. A convenience sample of 19 participants completed a demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. This study utilized a phenomenological qualitative approach to explore the role of the developmental stage that emerging adulthood has on sexual health. Some of the major themes that emerged included maturation, sexual decision-making, respectability, a future orientation, and masculinity. Despite sexual initiation beginning prior to entering college, participants discussed how the college environment presented them with new information, experiences, and attitudes. This study provides useful information for the future investigation of emerging adult Black men who attend HBCUs. PMID:26146649

  11. Race, Culture and All that: An Exploration of the Perspectives of White Secondary Student Teachers about Race Equality Issues in Their Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Vini

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the racialised perceptions of White students teachers who are preparing to teach in secondary schools in a diverse society. Student teachers' views about Black and minority ethnic (BME) pupils are often cast in the language of otherness. This research was conducted in a post-1992 university in the south of England where the…

  12. The Love That Takes a Toll: Exploring Race and the Pedagogy of Fear in Researching Teachers and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how what I call a "pedagogy of fear" played a role in the sociocultural context of research on teachers and teaching. Drawing from multiple literature on emotions, qualitative research, and race, I examine how a racialized field context framed my subsequent emotional responses and performance as an…

  13. Exploring Social Sexual Scripts Related to Oral Sex: A Profile of College Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson-Blake, Kylie P.; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing attention to the subject, a dearth of information exists regarding college students' perceptions and process of meaning-making related to the act of oral sex. Such perspectives and allied social sexual scripts can have considerable consequences on the sexuality and sexual health of older teens and college-aged populations. The…

  14. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…

  15. Race, Medical Mistrust, and Segregation in Primary Care as Usual Source of Care: Findings from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Arnett, M J; Thorpe, R J; Gaskin, D J; Bowie, J V; LaVeist, T A

    2016-06-01

    Compared to White Americans, African-Americans are less likely to use primary care (PC) as their usual source of care. This is generally attributed to race differences in socioeconomic status and in access to primary care services. Little is known about the relationship between race differences in medical mistrust and the usual source of care disparity. Using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities (EHDIC) study, we examined the role of medical mistrust in choosing usual source of care in 1408 black and white adults who were exposed to the same healthcare facilities and low-income racially integrated community. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between race, medical mistrust, and usual source of care. After adjusting for demographic and health-related factors, African-Americans were more likely than whites to use the emergency department (ED) (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.43 (95 % confidence interval (CI) [1.06-1.94])) and hospital outpatient department (RRR1.50 (95 %CI [1.10-2.05])) versus primary care as a usual source of care. When medical mistrust was added to the model, the gap between African-Americans' and whites' risk of using the ED versus primary care as a usual source of care closed (RRR = 1.29; 95 % CI [0.91-1.83]). However, race differences in the use of the hospital outpatient department remained even after accounting for medical mistrust (RRR = 1.67; 95 % CI [1.16-2.40]). Accounting for medical mistrust eliminated the ED-as-usual-source of care disparity. This study highlights the importance of medical mistrust as an intervention point for decreasing ED use as a usual source of care by low-income, urban African-Americans. PMID:27193595

  16. Race, Medical Mistrust, and Segregation in Primary Care as Usual Source of Care: Findings from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Arnett, M J; Thorpe, R J; Gaskin, D J; Bowie, J V; LaVeist, T A

    2016-06-01

    Compared to White Americans, African-Americans are less likely to use primary care (PC) as their usual source of care. This is generally attributed to race differences in socioeconomic status and in access to primary care services. Little is known about the relationship between race differences in medical mistrust and the usual source of care disparity. Using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities (EHDIC) study, we examined the role of medical mistrust in choosing usual source of care in 1408 black and white adults who were exposed to the same healthcare facilities and low-income racially integrated community. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between race, medical mistrust, and usual source of care. After adjusting for demographic and health-related factors, African-Americans were more likely than whites to use the emergency department (ED) (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.43 (95 % confidence interval (CI) [1.06-1.94])) and hospital outpatient department (RRR1.50 (95 %CI [1.10-2.05])) versus primary care as a usual source of care. When medical mistrust was added to the model, the gap between African-Americans' and whites' risk of using the ED versus primary care as a usual source of care closed (RRR = 1.29; 95 % CI [0.91-1.83]). However, race differences in the use of the hospital outpatient department remained even after accounting for medical mistrust (RRR = 1.67; 95 % CI [1.16-2.40]). Accounting for medical mistrust eliminated the ED-as-usual-source of care disparity. This study highlights the importance of medical mistrust as an intervention point for decreasing ED use as a usual source of care by low-income, urban African-Americans.

  17. Imaging Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have recently begun to use the tools of neuroscience to examine the social psychological responses associated with race. This article serves as a review of the developing literature in this area. It advances the argument that neuroscience studies of race have the potential to shape fundamental assumptions about race, and the interplay…

  18. Exploring gay couples' experience with sexual dysfunction after radical prostatectomy: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Mary-Ellen; Irvine, Jane; Currie, Kristen L; Ritvo, Paul; Trachtenberg, Lianne; Louis, Alyssa; Trachtenberg, John; Jamnicky, Leah; Matthew, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the experience of three gay couples managing sexual dysfunction as a result of undergoing a radical prostatectomy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of a larger study at an urban hospital in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The authors clustered 18 subordinate themes under 3 superordinate themes: (a) acknowledging change in sexual experience (libido, erectile function, sexual activity, orgasmic function); (b) accommodating change in sexual experience (strategies: emphasizing intimacy, embracing plan B, focus on the other; barriers: side-effect concerns, loss of naturalness, communication breakdown, failure to initiate, trial and failure, partner confounds); and (c) accepting change in sexual experience (indicators: emphasizing health, age attributions, finding a new normal; barriers: uncertain outcomes, treatment regrets). Although gay couples and heterosexual couples share many similar challenges, we discovered that gay men have particular sexual roles and can engage in novel accommodation practices, such as open relationships, that have not been noted in heterosexual couples. All couples, regardless of their level of sexual functioning, highlighted the need for more extensive programming related to sexual rehabilitation. Equitable rehabilitative support is critical to assist homosexual couples manage distress associated with prostatectomy-related sexual dysfunction. PMID:23899045

  19. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia.

  20. 'Jumping around': exploring young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health in a remote Aboriginal Australian community.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Narjic, Concepta Wulili; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry; McGrath, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Sexual health indicators for young remote-living Aboriginal women are the worst of all of Australian women. This study aimed to describe and explore young women's behaviour and knowledge in relation to sexual health, as well as to provide health professionals with cross-cultural insights to assist with health practice. A descriptive ethnographic study was conducted, which included: extended ethnographic field work in one remote community over a six-year period; community observation and participation; field notes; semi-structured interviews; group reproductive ethno-physiology drawing and language sessions; focus-group sessions; training and employment of Aboriginal research assistants; and consultation and advice from a local reference group and a Cultural Mentor. Findings reveal that young women in this remote community have a very poor biomedical understanding of sexually transmitted infections and contraception. This is further compounded by not speaking English as a first language, low literacy levels and different beliefs in relation to body functions. In their sexual relationships, young women often report experiences involving multiple casual partners, marijuana use and violence. Together, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the factors underlying sexual health inequity among young Aboriginal women in Australia. PMID:25115988

  1. Searching for Love in all the “Write” Places: Exploring Internet Personals Use by Sexual Orientation, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Janet; Grov, Christian; Royce, Tracy; Gillespie, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Few researchers of Internet sexual exploration have systematically compared variance of use across sexual orientations, with even fewer surveying bisexual respondents. In 2004, 15,246 individuals responded to an online survey of their use of Internet personals and adult websites. Gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals (GLBs) were more likely than heterosexuals to have exchanged correspondence, met others offline, and had sex with someone they met through personal ads. Whereas gay men and lesbians of all ages were most likely to have established a long-term relationship as a result of personals, heterosexuals over age 40 were more likely to have established a long-term relationship than younger heterosexuals. Further, compared to men, women were approximately two times as likely to have established a serious relationship as a result of personals. Qualitative findings suggest that the Internet functions not only as a means of screening for desired characteristics, but also as a shield against prejudice in real life encounters. GLBs and heterosexuals alike used online venues as a means of sexual identity development, sexual exploration, and community building. PMID:20502618

  2. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  3. Exploring Identities to Deepen Understanding of Urban High School Students' Sexual Health Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Jennie S.; Mensah, Felicia Moore; Lesko, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual health is a controversial science topic that has received little attention in the field of science education, despite its direct relevance to students' lives and communities. Moreover, research from other fields indicates that a great deal remains to be learned about how to make school learning about sexual health influence the real-life…

  4. A Belief-Behavior Gap? Exploring Religiosity and Sexual Activity among High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Kathleen Cobb; Scott-Jones, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity, sexual activity, and contraception were examined via questionnaires and interviews in a diverse sample of 118 high school seniors. The majority reported religion to be important; importance and frequency ratings declined from private (e.g., prayer) to public (e.g., group activities) components of religion. Most were sexually active…

  5. Shattering silence: exploring barriers to disclosure for African American sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Shaquita; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Smith, Kimberly; Marks, Alison

    2010-04-01

    National-, community-, and college-based studies have documented the high prevalence of sexual assault among African American women. Although African American women experience sexual assault at alarming rates, they are less likely to disclose or seek help in the aftermath of sexual assault. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a critique of the current literature examining the barriers to disclosure for African American women, such as intrapsychic factors, the damaging effect of an unsupportive response to initial disclosure, stigmatization of African American female sexuality, apprehension regarding racism, and racial loyalty. The authors provide a summary of the literature, gaps in current empirical studies, and needs for future study. Culturally relevant intervention recommendations are described. Finally, implications for sexual assault policy are provided.

  6. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents.

  7. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  8. Exploring intergenerational changes in perceptions of gender roles and sexuality among Indigenous women in Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Karver, Tahilin S; Sorhaindo, Annik; Wilson, Kate S; Contreras, Xipatl

    2016-08-01

    The south of Mexico has traditionally faced disproportionate social, health and economic disadvantage relative to the rest of the country, due in part to lower levels of economic and human development, and barriers faced by Indigenous populations. The state of Oaxaca, in particular, has one of the highest proportions of Indigenous people and consistently displays high rates of maternal mortality, sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy. This study examines how social values and norms surrounding sexuality have changed between two generations of women living in Indigenous communities in Oaxaca. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 19 women from two generational cohorts in 12 communities. Comparison views of these two cohorts suggest that cultural gender norms continue to govern how women express and experience their sexuality. In particular, feelings of shame and fear permeate the expression of sexuality, virginity continues be a determinant of a woman's worth and motherhood remains the key attribute to womanhood. Evidence points to a transformation of norms, and access to information and services related to sexual health is increasing. Nonetheless, there is still a need for culturally appropriate sex education programmes focused on female empowerment, increased access to sexual health services, and a reduction in the stigma surrounding women's expressions of sexuality. PMID:26928352

  9. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M T; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  10. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Diana S.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women’s genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  11. Visualizing sexual assault: an exploration of the use of optical technologies in the medico-legal context.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the visualization of sexual assault in the context of adult women. In investigating the production of visual evidence, we outline the evolution of the specialized knowledge of medico-legal experts and describe the optical technologies involved in medical forensic examinations. We theorize that the principles and practices characterizing medicine, science and the law are mirrored in the medico-legal response to sexual assault. More specifically, we suggest that the demand for visual proof underpins the positivist approach taken in the pursuit of legal truth and that the generation of such evidence is based on producing discrete and decontextualized empirical facts through what are perceived to be objective technologies. Drawing on interview and focus group data with 14 sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) in Ontario, Canada, we examine perceptions and experiences of the role of the visual in sexual assault. Certain of their comments appear to lend support to our theoretical assumptions, indicating a sense of the institutional overemphasis placed on physical damage to sexually assaulted women's bodies and the drive towards the increased technologization of visual evidence documentation. They also noted that physical injuries are frequently absent and that those observed through more refined tools of microvisualization such as colposcopes may be explained away as having resulted from either vigorous consensual sex or a "trivial" sexual assault. Concerns were expressed regarding the possibly problematic ways in which either the lack or particular nature of visual evidence may play out in the legal context. The process of documenting external and internal injuries created for some an uncomfortable sense of fragmenting and objectifying the bodies of those women they must simultaneously care for. We point to the need for further research to enhance our understanding of this issue. PMID:18952339

  12. Speaking about the unspeakable: exploring the impact of mother-daughter sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Peter, Tracey

    2008-09-01

    By embarking on multiple interviews with eight survivors (a total of 29 interviews), this article examines the impact of maternal sexual abuse on daughters. Although it is important to recognize the abuse that women lived through, it tells little about their struggles. Thus, as a way to honor the lives of the women interviewed, I have chosen to follow the model of Liz Kelly (1988), who focuses on the impact of sexual abuse in terms of coping, resisting, and surviving. Findings suggest that the impact of mother-daughter sexual abuse on survivors is particularly profound and experiences of maternal violence are often fraught with disbelief.

  13. The color of welfare sanctioning: exploring the individual and contextual roles of race on TANF case closures and benefit reductions.

    PubMed

    Monnat, Shannon M

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos.

  14. Exploring taboos: comparing male- and female-perpetrated child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female abusers. Results show a prevalence rate of 10.7% for female-perpetrated sexual abuse. Girls were more likely to be victimized for both male- and female-perpetrated sexual violence and females tended to abuse younger children. The majority of children came from families with lower socioeconomic status although one in five victims of female-perpetrated sexual abuse came from middle-class homes. Referrals to child welfare agencies were more likely to be made by nonprofessionals when females abused.

  15. Experiences of Mothers Who Are Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: A Qualitative Exploration.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Harper, Bianca; Classen, Catherine C; Palesh, Oxana; Koopman, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has been associated with a number of problems affecting women over their lifespan, including difficulties with parenting. However, there is a modest number of qualitative studies examining the impact of child sexual abuse on survivors who are mothers. There is a particular need for qualitative investigations that ask survivors who are mothers general questions about the impact of child sexual abuse on their lives rather than those that specifically ask about the impact of child sexual abuse on parenting. The former approach would allow survivors to describe effects that may impact parenting but that survivors do not consciously link to affecting their parenting. Such information may inform interventions to assist this population of survivors. This secondary data analysis examined themes revealed in interviews with 44 survivors of child sexual abuse who were mothers. Participants were seeking treatment for their child sexual abuse and completed an in-person interview in which they were asked open-ended questions about the sexual abuse they experienced as a child and how their abuse affects them now as adults. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. The following six themes emerged from the narratives: (a) being a parent, (b) family of origin dysfunction, (c) the impact of abuse, (d) the abuse history and response to abuse, (e) coping, and (f) hopes and desires for the future. This study highlights several ways in which child sexual abuse impacts survivors who are mothers, areas for further study, and the need for interventions to assist this population in meeting the challenges they face as mothers. PMID:26301437

  16. Migrant Sexual Health Help-Seeking and Experiences of Stigmatization and Discrimination in Perth, Western Australia: Exploring Barriers and Enablers

    PubMed Central

    Agu, Josephine; Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Chigwada, Bethwyn

    2016-01-01

    Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations. PMID:27187423

  17. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  18. Exploring the mechanical basis for acceleration: pelvic limb locomotor function during accelerations in racing greyhounds (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S. B.; Usherwood, J. R.; Jespers, K.; Channon, A. J.; Wilson, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Animals in their natural environments are confronted with a regular need to perform rapid accelerations (for example when escaping from predators or chasing prey). Such acceleration requires net positive mechanical work to be performed on the centre of mass by skeletal muscle. Here we determined how pelvic limb joints contribute to the mechanical work and power that are required for acceleration in galloping quadrupeds. In addition, we considered what, if any, biomechanical strategies exist to enable effective acceleration to be achieved. Simultaneous kinematic and kinetic data were collected for racing greyhounds undergoing a range of low to high accelerations. From these data, joint moments and joint powers were calculated for individual hindlimb joints. In addition, the mean effective mechanical advantage (EMA) of the limb and the `gear ratio' of each joint throughout stance were calculated. Greatest increases in joint work and power with acceleration appeared at the hip and hock joints, particularly in the lead limb. Largest increases in absolute positive joint work occurred at the hip, consistent with the hypothesis that quadrupeds power locomotion by torque about the hip. In addition, hindlimb EMA decreased substantially with increased acceleration – a potential strategy to increase stance time and thus ground impulses for a given peak force. This mechanism may also increase the mechanical advantage for applying the horizontal forces necessary for acceleration. PMID:19181903

  19. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a 'bridge' population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV-prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk-reduction counselling that attends to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics.

  20. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a 'bridge' population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV-prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk-reduction counselling that attends to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724

  1. The Moderating Roles of Race and Gender-Role Attitudes in the Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.

    2007-01-01

    Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially…

  2. The Threat of Captivity: Hollywood and the Sexualization of Race Relations in "The Girls of the White Orchid" and "The Bitter Tea of General Yen."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Gina

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the captivity tale as an outgrowth of two fundamental contradictions within patriarchal ideology. Considers American popular thought in relation to this tale. Relates xenophobia in the 1980s to the sexual and racial politics of "The Girls of the White Orchid." Discusses the racial, sexual, and textual ambivalence in "The Bitter Tea of…

  3. Exploring shame, guilt, and risky substance use among sexual minority men and women.

    PubMed

    Hequembourg, Amy L; Dearing, Ronda L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations among shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, internalized heterosexism (IH), and problematic substance use among 389 gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women. Problematic alcohol and drug use were positively related to shame-proneness and negatively related to guilt-proneness. Bisexuals reported riskier substance use behaviors, lower levels of guilt-proneness, and higher levels of IH than gay men and lesbians. Furthermore, study findings indicated that shame and IH are related. Additional investigations of these associations would supplement current understandings of sexual minority stress and advance the development of substance-related intervention and prevention efforts targeting sexual minorities.

  4. Social Equity Decision Making: Narrative Explorations with Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuxa, Robin Lynn

    2012-01-01

    In this critical postmodern narrative study, I explore with my participants their decision making process/es around social equity issues (race, class, gender, social class, sexual identity, religion, etc.) in their teaching. The purpose of this study is to facilitate a closer examination of this important decision making process--when and how to…

  5. An Exploration of Giving among Gay Male College Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Alex; Gasman, Marybeth

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of sexual orientation and race on college alumni giving. The authors use qualitative methods, interviewing alumni at one university in the Northeast. They also provide recommendations for fundraising and alumni practitioners as well as recommendations for those scholars interested in student identity, fundraising,…

  6. Pharmacogenetics, race and global injustice.

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2008-08-01

    This paper discusses the link between pharmacogenetics and race, and the global justice issues that the introduction of pharmacogenetics in pharmaceutical research and clinical practice will raise. First, it briefly outlines the likely impact of pharmacogenetics on pharmaceutical research and clinical practice within the next five to ten years and then explores the link between pharmacogenetic traits and 'race'. It is shown that any link between apparent race and pharmacogenetics is problematic and that race cannot be used as a proxy for pharmacogenetic knowledge. The final section considers the implications of the development of pharmacogenetics for health care systems in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:19143085

  7. Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

    2013-01-01

    School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

  8. "Queering" development: exploring the links between same-sex sexualities, gender, and development.

    PubMed

    Jolly, S

    2000-03-01

    This article argues that enhancement of gender and development policy and practice requires embracing of the challenges to conventional definitions of sex and gender. Information presented here was based on the insights from cultural studies and experiences of lesbian and gay activists from China. Focusing on same-sex sexuality in relation to gender and development requires the analysis of the link between the sexual behavior and economic and political freedom. Likewise, stereotyping of those opposing the gender norms exists as well as the degradation of human rights among these individuals due to the increasing threat of HIV/AIDS infection. Furthermore, reluctance to address questions of sexuality could be attributed to the following: the right to intervene in the local culture; the notion that homosexuality originated in the West; and the reluctance to bring a ¿developmental machine¿ into their intimate lives. A new approach to sexuality, ¿queer theory,¿ was found beneficial in changing the attitude of the society. Carrying out this approach would require targeting homosexual groups for support; adapting perceptions of the community, household, and family; integrating homosexuality into health, education, and youth work; and institutionalizing homosexuality. The author emphasizes that the adaptation of the ¿queer theory¿ could provide a solution for activists to engage in a process of mutual support and learning and taking on the common obstacles posed by the oppressive gender norms.

  9. An Exploration of Fraternity Culture: Implications for Programs to Address Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Garner, Dallas N.; Thaxter, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Three focus group interviews with multiple men from every fraternity at a small to midsized public university were conducted to study the fraternal culture with regard to alcohol and consent in sexually intimate encounters. Specifically, fraternity men were asked to share their experiences with asking for consent after one or both parties have…

  10. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  11. Exploring the Nature and Reasons for Sexual Violence within Marriage among Young Women in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Shah, Iqbal; Tamang, Jyotsna

    2010-01-01

    Sexual violence within marriage (SVWM) is a major public health and human right issue and yet remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. An exploratory study using free listing, in-depth case histories and causal flow analysis was conducted among two major ethnic groups in Nepal. Descriptive data collected from free listing…

  12. Testing Error Management Theory: Exploring the Commitment Skepticism Bias and the Sexual Overperception Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, David Dryden; Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller

    2010-01-01

    Research on error management theory indicates that men tend to overestimate women's sexual interest and women underestimate men's interest in committed relationships (Haselton & Buss, 2000). We test the assumptions of the theory in face-to-face, stranger interactions with 111 man-woman dyads. Support for the theory emerges, but potential boundary…

  13. Exploring Childhood Memories with Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Concrete Reconstruction and Visualization Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Catherine B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes two memory-enhancing techniques, visualization and concrete reconstruction, that have been successful in counseling adult survivors of sexual abuse. Includes suggested implementations, case examples, and implications for incorporating memory techniques into counseling process. Describes various risk factors involved in using these…

  14. Strategic Embodiment in Virtual Spaces: Exploring an On-Line Discussion about Sexualities Equality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depalma, Renee; Atkinson, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses patterns of participation on a voluntary anonymous Web-based discussion forum, open to students and faculty in one UK university, concerning sexualities equality in schools. Analysis revealed that participants often rejected the security of anonymity and strategically embodied themselves and others (as gay, straight, parents,…

  15. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth across High School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (M[subscript age] = 15 years,…

  16. Research and Teaching. The Science Identity of College Students: Exploring the Intersection of Gender, Race, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This study explores students' self-perceptions across science subjects (biology, chemistry, and physics) by gender and underrepresented minority group membership. The data are drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, which surveyed 7,505 students (enrolled in college English courses required for all…

  17. An Exploration of the Psycho-Sexual Experiences of Women Who Have Undergone Female Genital Cutting: A Case of the Maasai in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Esho, T.

    2012-01-01

    The research explored the link between type II Female Genital Cutting (FGC) and sexual functioning. This thesis summary thus draws from an exploratory ethnographic field study carried out among the Maasai people of Kenya where type II FGC is still being practiced. A purposely sample consisting of 28 women and 19 men, within the ages of 15-80 years took part in individual interviews and 5 focus group discussions. Participants responded to open-ended questions, a method deemed appropriate to elicit insider’s in-depth information. The study found out that one of the desired effects of FGC ritual among the Maasai was to reduce women’s sexual desire, embodied as tamed sexuality. This consequence was however not experienced as an impediment to sexual function. The research established that esteeming transformational processes linked with the FGC ‘rite of passage’ are crucial in shaping a woman’s femininity, identity, marriageable status and legitimating sexuality. In turn, these elements are imperative in inculcating and nurturing a positive body-self image and sex appeal and consequently, positive sexual self actualization. These finding brings to question the validity of conventional sexuality theory, particularly those that subscribe to bio-physical models as universal bases for understanding the subject of female sexual functioning among women with FGC. Socio-cultural-symbolic nexus and constructions of sexuality should also be considered when investigating psychosexual consequences of FGC. PMID:24753899

  18. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  19. An initial exploration of community mental health nurses' attitudes to and experience of sexuality-related issues in their work with people experiencing mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Cort, E M; Attenborough, J; Watson, J P

    2001-12-01

    Human sexuality is a complex dynamic concept that escapes simple definition. Within nursing there seems to be a preference for broad holistic definitions that emphasize sexuality as an aspect of the unique human character. Whilst the nursing literature mostly portrays sexuality as wholesome and good, it also notes that sexuality can be a vehicle for the expression of power, hostility or hatred. In this study, the authors did not prescribe or limit the definition of 'sexuality'. Rather the term 'sexuality' was used in a broad sense in order to embrace the range of variables within the concept and allow respondents to consider the issues according to their own perspective. Despite broad acceptance of sexuality as a legitimate focus of health care, clinicians remain ambivalent about actively broaching sexual issues and there is a potential for clients' needs to go unmet. A number of intertwining variables can influence sexuality-related nursing practice. Nurses' attitudes are regarded as major barriers that prevent open discussion on the topic. This study aims to explore a sample of community mental health nurses' views on the topic of sexuality in relation to their work with clients. The authors adapted a sexual ideology scale previously used for the purposes of teaching students and promoting discussion. The questionnaire was distributed to nurse delegates at an annual CPNA conference. Two of the authors were available throughout the conference to discuss the study. Delegates were asked to recruit CMHN colleagues following the conference in order to increase the sample. The data are described and analysed using SPSS for Windows. Respondent characteristics have been cross-tabulated with item responses and analysed using chi-square and other statistical tests of association. The respondents (n = 122) confirmed sexuality as a relevant clinical issue and there was an overwhelming affirmation of people with mental health problems as sexual beings. Sixty-three per cent (n

  20. Exploring knowledge, belief and experiences in sexual and reproductive health in immigrant Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ≥18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health.

  1. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth Across High School Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (mean age =15 years, n=2,533). Same-sex attracted youth were socially marginalized in a smaller predominantly White school but not in a larger, more racially diverse school. For both schools, homophily was a critical network feature, and could represent social support for and social segregation of such youth. These findings emphasize school context in studying the social lives of sexual minority youth and suggest that youth may be better off socially in larger and more diverse schools. PMID:25689110

  2. Exploring gender differences in body image, eating pathology, and sexual harassment.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Nicole T; Bluestein, Brooke M; Nappa, Alexa C; Woods, Krystle C; Depatie, Melissa M

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between body image (weight/shape concerns), eating pathology, and sexual harassment among men and women (N=2446). Hierarchical regressions controlling for depression revealed main effects of gender such that women reported greater weight/shape concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, and binge eating compared to men. Main effects for sexual harassment indicated that as harassment increased, participants reported increased weight/shape concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors. There were small but significant interactions between gender and harassment for eating pathology total score (which included each of the domains listed above), weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and eating concerns such that the relationship between increased harassment and increased pathology was stronger for women compared to men. The largest interaction was found for compensatory behaviors, such that while women and men's scores both increased as harassment increased, the relationship was stronger for men.

  3. Exploring the relationship between sexual orientation and religious identities for Jewish lesbian college students.

    PubMed

    Abes, Elisa S

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how two Jewish lesbian college students perceived the relationship between their religious and sexual orientation identities over a five-year time span. Based on data from a constructivist, longitudinal qualitative study, these women's stories reveal possibilities and challenges associated with making sense of these two identities individually and in relationship to each other during a time of rapid identity development and changing contexts. Suggestions for educational practice are offered.

  4. The role of mass media in adolescents' sexual behaviors: exploring the explanatory value of the three-step self-objectification process.

    PubMed

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study (N = 730) explored whether the three-step process of self-objectification (internalization of appearance ideals, valuing appearance over competence, and body surveillance) could explain the influence of sexual media messages on adolescents' sexual behaviors. A structural equation model showed that reading sexualizing magazines (Time 1) was related to the internalization of appearance ideals and valuing appearance over competence (Time 2). In turn, the internalization of appearance ideals was positively associated with body surveillance and valuing appearance over competence (all at Time 2). Valuing appearance over competence was also positively associated with body surveillance (all at Time 2). Lastly, body surveillance (Time 2) positively related to the initiation of French kissing (Time 3) whereas valuing appearance over competence (Time 2) positively related to the initiation of sexual intercourse (Time 3). No significant relationship was observed for intimate touching. The discussion focused on the explanatory role of self-objectification in media effects on adolescents' sexual behaviors.

  5. Behind closed doors: an exploration of kinky sexual behaviors in urban lesbian and bisexual women.

    PubMed

    Tomassilli, Julia C; Golub, Sarit A; Bimbi, David S; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This study of 347 urban, self-identified lesbian (n = 289) and bisexual (n = 58) women examined women's engaging in 4 kinky sexual behaviors: bondage/domination, sadomasochism, photo/video exhibitionism, and asphyxiation/breath play. A cross-sectional, brief-intercept survey was administered at 2 New York City gay, lesbian, and bisexual community events. Over 40% reported engaging in at least 1 of these behaviors, and 25% reported engaging in multiple behaviors. Bisexual women were more likely to have engaged in any kinky sexual behavior and photo/video exhibitionism. White women were more likely than women of color to have engaged in bondage/domination. Compared to older women, younger women were more likely to have engaged in photo/video exhibitionism and asphyxiation/breath play. Participants who were younger when they came out to others, and younger at their same-sex sexual debut, were more likely to have engaged in any and each of the behaviors compared to women who were older at those developmental events. PMID:19205998

  6. Exploring the nature and reasons for sexual violence within marriage among young women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mahesh; Shah, Iqbal; Tamang, Jyotsna

    2010-10-01

    Sexual violence within marriage (SVWM) is a major public health and human right issue and yet remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. An exploratory study using free listing, in-depth case histories and causal flow analysis was conducted among two major ethnic groups in Nepal. Descriptive data collected from free listing indicate that about half of the married women aged 15 to 24 years reported ever experiencing SVWM. Data revealed that the underlying reasons for SVWM are complex and complicated due to the multiple forms and contexts in which it occurs. For many couples, multiple factors alongside, and within, their socioeconomic and cultural contexts contribute to the risk of experiencing SVWM. Major factors escalating the risk to SVWM include gender norms, economic dependence of women, poverty, alcohol consumption of husband, lack of knowledge, social stigma, and lack of supportive familial and social environment. Raising awareness about sexual violence is required for its prevention and for managing the consequences. Further research is required to identify the determinants, the effects of SVWM on sexual and reproductive health outcomes and to help programs develop the best strategies for dealing with SVWM among young couples.

  7. Exploring the Sensitivity of Education Costs to Racial Composition of Schools and Race-Neutral Alternative Measures: A Cost Function Application to Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    This article applies the education cost function methodology in order to estimate additional costs associated with black student concentration and with alternative, race-neutral measures of urban poverty. Recent research highlights the continued importance of the role of race in educational outcomes, and how the intersection of peer group effects…

  8. Sexual history disclosure polygraph examinations with cybercrime offences: a first Dutch explorative study.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Jos; Bogaerts, Stefan; Foulger, Sarah; Wilcox, Daniel; Sosnowski, Daniel; Cushman, Barry

    2010-06-01

    This article presents the first study on post-conviction polygraphy in the Netherlands. Importantly, it exclusively focuses on cybercrime offenders. The study is designed to systematically address the different child sexual behaviours exhibited by 25 participants who are in treatment for possessing child abuse images. The results indicate that post-conviction polygraphy can provide additional data to inform the development of theory in this area and contribute to the treatment, supervision, and more effective containment of offending behaviour and the reduction of future victimization.

  9. Exploring young adult sexual minority women’s perspectives on LGBTQ smoking

    PubMed Central

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed. PMID:26508993

  10. Does Daddy Know Best? Exploring the Relationship between Paternal Sexual Communication and Safe Sex Practices among African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Rosnick, Christopher B.; Webb-Bradley, Traice; Kirner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Parental sexual risk communication may influence women's sexual decision-making and safe sexual behaviours. While many studies have focused specifically on the influence of communication from mothers, some authors have argued for the importance of examining father-daughter sexual risk communication as well. However, few studies have…

  11. School-Based HIV/AIDS Education Is Associated with Reduced Risky Sexual Behaviors and Better Grades with Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…

  12. "I Don't Want to Catch It". Boys, Girls and Sexualities in an HIV/AIDS Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Epstein, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines young South African school children's understanding of HIV/AIDS. Based on ethnographic work in two schools in Greater Durban, it explores the impact of HIV/AIDS on the ways in which gender and sexuality are articulated against the backdrop of race and class specific contexts. The first part of the paper examines the children's…

  13. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  14. Racing Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-09-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of the project.

  15. Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Jenee

    2009-01-01

    In many classrooms across America, race and ethnicity are very much on the table. Teachers dream of seeing their students discuss difference in a constructive way. Some educators actively encourage their classes to get outside their comfort zones and confront the country's racial history, but in many faculty rooms, there's little to no talk about…

  16. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  17. An Exploration of Policies Governing Faculty-to-Student Consensual Sexual Relationships on University Campuses: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tara N.; Crittenden, Courtney; Garland, Tammy S.; McGuffee, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Consensual sexual relationships between students and faculty have traditionally been viewed as private matters and have been ignored by university administrators except in cases that resulted in sexual harassment claims. Due to increasing sexual harassment litigation and the liabilities associated with such relationships, universities have…

  18. The relationship between use of sexually explicit media and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men: exploring the mediating effects of sexual self-esteem and condom use self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B R Simon

    2014-02-25

    This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts. PMID:24904709

  19. The relationship between use of sexually explicit media and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men: exploring the mediating effects of sexual self-esteem and condom use self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B R Simon

    2014-02-25

    This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts.

  20. The relationship between use of sexually explicit media and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men: exploring the mediating effects of sexual self-esteem and condom use self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W.; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men’s sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts. PMID:24904709

  1. Is There a Difference? The Impact of Campus Climate on Sexual Minority and Gender Minority Students' Levels of Outness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Bartolo, Adriana N.

    2013-01-01

    Key scholars have studied campus climate, and often these climate studies are done through the lens of race and racial issues on campus. A few studies have explored the interaction between campus climate and sexual and gender minority students. However, those studies, like the climate studies through a racial lens, found that lesbian, gay,…

  2. From the margins to the center: ethnic minority women and the mental health effects of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Chung, Heewoon; Tillman, Shaquita; Belcourt, Annie

    2009-10-01

    The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed.

  3. Race concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category.

  4. Developmental changes in sexual prejudice from early to late adolescence: the effects of gender, race, and ideology on different patterns of change.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Anderson, Carolyn J

    2012-09-01

    This study documented significant changes in prejudice toward gay and lesbian individuals among adolescents from the ages of 12 to 18 years. Moreover, in line with developmental theories of prejudice, there was substantial variability in these patterns, partially predicted by the gender and ideological beliefs (reflected by social dominance orientation [SDO]) of individuals. Boys reported higher prejudice at age 12 than girls. SDO also accounted for initial differences in levels of prejudice. Further, although prejudice toward gay men did decrease among girls over time, it did not decrease among boys. Prejudice toward lesbians decreased at similar rates for boys and girls. These different trajectories are explained within the context of gender socialization processes during adolescence. In addition, fluctuations in adolescents' own SDO corresponded with fluctuations in their level of prejudice, over and above those tied to age-related changes. This association was even stronger among those with overall higher SDO tendencies than others. However, SDO, when treated as a stable invariant factor, did not predict different patterns of progressive age-related change in prejudice. These results extend the research on sexual prejudice by examining it within a broader and more dynamic developmental framework, in greater alignment with developmental theories of prejudice.

  5. The role of sexual behavior in head and neck cancer: implications for prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Rettig, Eleni; Kiess, Ana Ponce; Fakhry, Carole

    2015-01-01

    HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-OSCC) is associated with oral sexual behaviors. The sharp rise in incidence of HPV-OSCC in the USA has been attributed to changes in sexual norms over the past five decades, with lower age at sexual debut and higher numbers of sexual partners per individual. In addition, variations in HPV-OSCC prevalence by race, age cohort and gender may be attributable to differences in oral sexual behaviors among these groups. Oral HPV infection is the putative precursor to HPV-OSCC. Risk factors for oral HPV incidence, prevalence, clearance and persistence are crucial to understanding how, and in whom, oral HPV infection progresses to malignancy. Future investigation should focus on elucidating the natural history of oral HPV infection persistence and malignant transformation, developing effective screening tools and exploring opportunities for prevention such as vaccination and public health education.

  6. BrdsNBz: A Mixed Methods Study Exploring Adolescents' Use of a Sexual Health Text Message Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health text message services are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about who uses such services and why. This project details the implementation of a campaign promoting a state-wide sexual health text message service that allows teens to text directly with a health educator and uses a mixed method design to assess who uses…

  7. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  8. An Exploration in Health Education of an Integrated Theoretical Basis for Sexuality Education Pedagogies for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In Health Education, much sexuality education appears to have little evidence of an acknowledged theoretical basis for its knowledge and skills' teaching and learning. The Health Education teacher can frequently be at a loss to decipher what theoretical principles could or should permeate sexuality education curricula, which may be both detracting…

  9. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects. PMID:23842783

  10. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  11. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  12. [An exploration of sexual knowledge, attitudes and behavior in aboriginal elementary school students in the Ping-Tung area].

    PubMed

    Hsu, H Y; Liu, C A; Lin, Y C

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sexual knowledge, attitudes and behavior of fifth and sixth grade students in aboriginal elementary schools in the Ping-Tung area. A structured questionnaire was administered to 1091 students who were selected by cluster sampling. The results showed: (1) The sexual knowledge score was low but sexual attitudes showed a positive trend. (2) 64.7% and 67.4% of students had at some time seen pictures of male or female sexual organs. (3) About 61% of students had seen sexual magazines or videotapes. (4) 66.2% of male and 88.1% of female students had heard about wet dreams or menstruation before their first experience; more than half of the students thought that wet dreams need treatment. (5) 17.8% of students had masturbation experience, and after that 59.3% of students had fear or guilt feeling. (6) Female students had significantly higher knowledge and attitude scores than male students, Demographic variables produced no significant difference in the above scores. (7) 42.4% of students most desired to know what phenomena indicate sexual maturity. (8) Sex knowledge had significantly positive correlation with sex attitude. PMID:9355399

  13. Exploring the role of gender norms in nutrition and sexual health promotion in a piloted school-based intervention: The Philadelphia Ujima™ experience.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Ana; Robertson-James, Candace; Reels, Serita; Jeter, Janay; Rivera, Hilda; Yusuf, Zena; Liu

    2015-08-01

    Perceptions of masculinity and femininity influence behaviors and can be identified in young children and adolescents (Brannon, 2004). Thus, adolescents' engagement in health risk or promoting behaviors is influenced by perceptions of masculinity and femininity and the differences in expectations, norms and responsibilities for girls and boys (WHO, 2007). Girls and boys have different needs, and gender-based interventions that consider similarities as well as differences are needed. A gender-based nutrition and sexual health promotion program was developed and piloted by the Philadelphia Ujima Coalition in a high school setting. To explore the gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of the influence of gender norms on weight, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual health and the implication of these differences in future gender-integrated health promotion programming for youth, a content analysis of student and facilitator debriefing forms were implemented for the participating schools. The content analysis was used to identify central themes, concepts gained, and overall impact of the intervention sessions. Overall, gender norms influence healthy eating practices and activity through influencing perceptions of body type in adolescents. Gender norms also influence sexual activity and decision making through influencing perceptions of beauty, masculinity, femininity, pressures and popular concepts related to sexual activity. Thus, interventions that address gender may more effectively promote health and wellness in adolescents.

  14. Consequences of Beauty: Effects of Rater Sex and Sexual Orientation on the Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Attractiveness in Real World Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    One of the key behavioral effects of attractiveness is increased visual attention to attractive people. This effect is often explained in terms of evolutionary adaptations, such as attractiveness being an indicator of good health. Other factors could influence this effect. In the present study, we explored the modulating role of sexual orientation on the effects of attractiveness on exploratory visual behavior. Heterosexual and homosexual men and women viewed natural-looking scenes that depicted either two women or two men who varied systematically in levels of attractiveness (based on a pre-study). Participants’ eye movements and attractiveness ratings toward the faces of the depicted people were recorded. The results showed that although attractiveness had the largest influence on participants’ behaviors, participants’ sexual orientations strongly modulated the effects. With the exception of homosexual women, all participant groups looked longer and more often at attractive faces that corresponded with their sexual orientations. Interestingly, heterosexual and homosexual men and homosexual women looked longer and more often at the less attractive face of their non-preferred sex than the less attractive face of their preferred sex, evidence that less attractive faces of the preferred sex might have an aversive character. These findings provide evidence for the important role that sexual orientation plays in guiding visual exploratory behavior and evaluations of the attractiveness of others. PMID:27047365

  15. Consequences of Beauty: Effects of Rater Sex and Sexual Orientation on the Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Attractiveness in Real World Scenes.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Tinio, Pablo P L; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    One of the key behavioral effects of attractiveness is increased visual attention to attractive people. This effect is often explained in terms of evolutionary adaptations, such as attractiveness being an indicator of good health. Other factors could influence this effect. In the present study, we explored the modulating role of sexual orientation on the effects of attractiveness on exploratory visual behavior. Heterosexual and homosexual men and women viewed natural-looking scenes that depicted either two women or two men who varied systematically in levels of attractiveness (based on a pre-study). Participants' eye movements and attractiveness ratings toward the faces of the depicted people were recorded. The results showed that although attractiveness had the largest influence on participants' behaviors, participants' sexual orientations strongly modulated the effects. With the exception of homosexual women, all participant groups looked longer and more often at attractive faces that corresponded with their sexual orientations. Interestingly, heterosexual and homosexual men and homosexual women looked longer and more often at the less attractive face of their non-preferred sex than the less attractive face of their preferred sex, evidence that less attractive faces of the preferred sex might have an aversive character. These findings provide evidence for the important role that sexual orientation plays in guiding visual exploratory behavior and evaluations of the attractiveness of others.

  16. Consequences of Beauty: Effects of Rater Sex and Sexual Orientation on the Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Attractiveness in Real World Scenes.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Tinio, Pablo P L; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    One of the key behavioral effects of attractiveness is increased visual attention to attractive people. This effect is often explained in terms of evolutionary adaptations, such as attractiveness being an indicator of good health. Other factors could influence this effect. In the present study, we explored the modulating role of sexual orientation on the effects of attractiveness on exploratory visual behavior. Heterosexual and homosexual men and women viewed natural-looking scenes that depicted either two women or two men who varied systematically in levels of attractiveness (based on a pre-study). Participants' eye movements and attractiveness ratings toward the faces of the depicted people were recorded. The results showed that although attractiveness had the largest influence on participants' behaviors, participants' sexual orientations strongly modulated the effects. With the exception of homosexual women, all participant groups looked longer and more often at attractive faces that corresponded with their sexual orientations. Interestingly, heterosexual and homosexual men and homosexual women looked longer and more often at the less attractive face of their non-preferred sex than the less attractive face of their preferred sex, evidence that less attractive faces of the preferred sex might have an aversive character. These findings provide evidence for the important role that sexual orientation plays in guiding visual exploratory behavior and evaluations of the attractiveness of others. PMID:27047365

  17. The influence of biological factors on students' sexual behaviour at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutinta, Given; Govender, Kaymarlin; George, Gavin; Gow, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Studies in South African universities reveal that the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour is very high, putting many students at high risk of HIV infection. This study explored the biological influences on students' sexual taking behaviour at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A qualitative approach was used, comprising a total of 80 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions. These were conducted between late 2008 and early 2010. The research had equal representation of male and female students, different races, two campuses and different levels of study. Factors associated with students' sexual behaviour were identified. The data were analysed using thematic analysis, and the themes identified form the basis for discussion in this paper. Students' sexual behaviour was positively associated with the influence of a range of biological factors. Factors such as age, judgement of the health of the partner by looking at appearances, pursuit of physical beauty, sexual debut, sexual fit, and search for sexual pleasure encouraged students to engage in sexual behaviour. Most students are young and lack experience in assessing the influence of biological factors on their sexual behaviours, and need education on biological factors. This poses a big challenge to controlling students' sexual behaviour, especially if HIV and sexually transmitted diseases prevention interventions are to be successful.

  18. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  19. BrdsNBz: A mixed methods study exploring adolescents' use of a sexual health text message service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    Sexual health text message services are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about who uses such services and why. This project details the implementation of a campaign promoting a state-wide sexual health text message service that allows teens to text directly with a health educator and uses a mixed method design to assess who uses the service, what motivates use, and potential barriers to using the service. A theory of information seeking through text messaging is posited based on previous information seeking and communication theory and tested with adolescents. A social marketing campaign was created promoting a North Carolina sexual health text message service and conducted in six middle and high schools in the North Carolina Piedmont region in Fall 2012. More than 2000 students in four schools completed online questionnaires that assessed awareness of the service, perceptions, and use. Focus groups and in depth interviews were then conducted with middle and high school students. Results indicate teens who are sexually active and in relationships are more likely to use the service. A teens' level of uncertainty about sexual health influences affect, which in turn leads adolescents to assess various information options. Positive attitudes toward the service and credibility perceptions are direct predictors of intentions to use. Efficacy was found to be an indirect predictor, working through credibility perceptions to influence intentions to use. Although teens may have an interest in using the service, there are barriers associated with use. Survey findings and qualitative results indicate that teens are interested in using a sexual health text message service, but perceived costs, fear of parents finding out about service use, and a lack of understanding of how to use the service were barriers for some teens. This study has implications for sexual health text message services, especially those that allow teens to connect directly with a health

  20. Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Race is a social environmental element in many nursing knowledge contexts. We explore how race and racism have been conceptualized in nursing research and theory, situating these issues in the debate between Critical Race Theory and postracialism. Contemporarily, racism is more subtle than overt. Subtle racism takes the form of microaggressions in everyday discourse and practices by whites toward African Americans. This occurs with little to no awareness on the part of whites. Using this concept, practice and education are explored. We hold that microaggressions contribute to stress for the target person, which may partly account for racial health disparities.

  1. Race and microaggression in nursing knowledge development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanne M; Fields, Becky

    2012-01-01

    Race is a social environmental element in many nursing knowledge contexts. We explore how race and racism have been conceptualized in nursing research and theory, situating these issues in the debate between Critical Race Theory and postracialism. Contemporarily, racism is more subtle than overt. Subtle racism takes the form of microaggressions in everyday discourse and practices by whites toward African Americans. This occurs with little to no awareness on the part of whites. Using this concept, practice and education are explored. We hold that microaggressions contribute to stress for the target person, which may partly account for racial health disparities. PMID:22228388

  2. Exploring the desires and sexual culture of men who have sex with male-to-female transgender women.

    PubMed

    Mauk, Daniel; Perry, Ashley; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Men who have sex with transgender women (MSTW) currently constitute a gap in the research community's understanding of male sexuality and sexual desire. In an effort to address this lack of knowledge, an ethnographic study of MSTW in New York City was conducted between December 2005 and May 2007, including in-depth interviews with MSTW (n = 15), key informant interviews (n = 13), and ethnographic observation of semi-private "tranny" parties held at various venues throughout New York City. The specific objectives were to: (1) describe the sex marketplaces and the sexual experiences of an ethnographic sample of MSTW in New York City and (2) describe the ways MSTW construct their sexual partnering practices and the meanings attributed to those practices in relation to varying social contexts (in and outside the sex marketplace). In this analysis, we described the MSTW sex market landscape in New York and identified three major recurrent themes in the ways that MSTW organized their sexual desire for TW transitioning from sex marketplaces to social spaces in their lives: (1) phallus-centric trade sex market focus; (2) relational-companionship market focus; and (3) specialized market focus. Although the findings from the study are not representative of the broader MSTW population, they represent an important step in amassing a body of knowledge about an understudied and underserved sex market upon which future research is needed.

  3. Norming Suburban: How Teachers Talk about Race without Using Race Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about urban students and urban teaching. The author discusses some cultural aspects of these teachers' definitions of urban and points out their highlighting of race as an essential component of urban teaching. Even though race is rarely named, it is often at play in the teachers' descriptions of urban…

  4. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  5. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  6. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health.

  7. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  8. Exploring Predictors of Professional School Counselors' Ability to Accurately Recognize and Likelihood to Appropriately Report Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behun, Richard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors related to personal characteristics (i.e., level of moral reasoning and personal attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse) and professional characteristics (i.e., experience, and training) of the professional school counselor influencing ability to accurately recognize and likelihood to…

  9. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…

  10. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  11. Uncommonly Good: Exploring How Mass Media May Be a Positive Influence on Young Women's Sexual Health and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Day, Kyla M.; Epstein, Marina

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses several ways in which the media may serve as a positive force in young women's sexual health and development through the information and models they provide and the opportunities they offer for validation and self-expression. (Contains 1 table.)

  12. An Exploration of Therapists' Reactions to Working with Children Displaying Sexually Problematic Behaviour: A Thematic Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevade, Devayani; Norris, Emma; Swann, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Nine therapists were interviewed regarding their reactions to children displaying sexually problematic behaviour and how they managed these reactions. The framework of countertransference was used to understand therapists' reactions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The participants reported a wide range of powerful and…

  13. Through the Looking Glass: Exploring How College Students' Perceptions of the Police Influence Sexual Assault Victimization Reporting.

    PubMed

    James, Veronyka J; Lee, Daniel R

    2015-09-01

    Despite increased attention, education, and prevention programs, sexual assault of college students and underreporting of this victimization remain a pervasive problem. Previous research has examined factors influencing the reporting of crimes by the public to the police, the extent of sexual victimization on college campuses, sexual assault victimization reporting and/or disclosure (for both university victims and non-university victims), and perceptions of police by university students. However, there remains a dearth of research examining whether students' perceptions of police influence their decision to report victimization, in particular sexual assault victimization. The present study examined whether students' perceptions of police influence their decision to report victimization. Using data obtained from a survey of students attending a public university in Southwestern Pennsylvania, the current study examines factors that impact victimization reporting and whether perceptions of police influence victims' decision to report or not. The results of the analyses indicated that victimization reporting and satisfaction with the police were impacted by gender, and support was found for the proposition that perceptions of the police influence the likelihood to report victimization.

  14. A qualitative analysis of partner selection, HIV serostatus disclosure, and sexual behaviors among HIV-positive urban men.

    PubMed

    Relf, Michael V; Bishop, Tammi L; Lachat, Maryanne F; Schiavone, Deborah B; Pawlowski, Lora; Bialko, Matthew F; Boozer, Diedre L; Dekker, Debra

    2009-06-01

    Using grounded theory, 18 interviews with HIV-positive urban men were conducted to understand their sexual relationships. Analysis of the verbatim transcripts revealed that regardless of age, sexual orientation or race/ethnicity, the participants were "making choices" related to their sexual relationships. Some men were "avoiding sex" whereas others were engaging in "just sex" or having sex in a relationship that was "going somewhere." However, dependent upon the type of sexual relationship, these HIV-positive urban men struggled with issues associated with "disclosure" of serostatus, the sexual "behaviors" in which they engaged, and selecting sexual "partners." Health care providers can facilitate sexual health and well-being among HIV-positive urban men by recognizing that men may be seeking sexual intimacy for different purposes, in different types of relationships, or avoiding it entirely. By exploring these decision-making processes, it is possible to facilitate sexual relationships that prevent new infections as well as manage the dissonance associated with this decision-making associated with disclosure, behaviors and their sexual partners.

  15. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  16. Clinician Responses to Sexual Abuse Allegations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Helene; Nuttall, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 656 social workers, pediatricians, psychiatrists, and psychologists rated the credibility of vignettes alleging child sexual abuse. Seven case factors affected credibility: perpetrator's race, relationship to victim, and history of substance abuse; and victims' race, affect, age, and behavioral changes. Several clinician factors were…

  17. Yacht Race Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  18. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  19. Freedom, equality, race.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores come of the reasons for the continuing power of racial categorization in our era, and thus offers some friendly amendments to the more optimistic renderings of the term post-racial. Focusing mainly on the relationship between black and white Americans, it argues that the widespread embrace of universal values of freedom and equality, which most regard as antidotes to racial exclusion, actually reinforce it. The internal logic of these categories requires the construction of the "other." In America, where freedom and equality still stand at the contested center of collective identity, a history of racial oppression informs the very meaning of these terms. Thus the irony: much of the effort exerted to transcend race tends to fuel continuing division. PMID:21469393

  20. Parental Non-verbal Sexual Communication: Its Relationship to Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Guilt.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H; Franca-Koh, A C

    2001-01-01

    The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One hundred and thirty-seven young adults completed questionnaires measuring remembered parental non-verbal sexual communication, current sexual behaviour and sexual guilt. Higher levels of parental non-verbal sexual communication were found to be linked to: earlier onset of sexual activity, fewer sexual partners and lower feelings of aspects of sexual guilt. The findings are discussed in terms of how to advance this area of study. PMID:22049235

  1. Increased substance use and risky sexual behavior among migratory homeless youth: exploring the role of social network composition.

    PubMed

    Martino, Steven C; Tucker, Joan S; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-12-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches.

  2. Contrasting effects of intralocus sexual conflict on sexually antagonistic coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, Tanya M.; de Haas, Freek J. H.; Morrow, Edward H.; van Doorn, G. Sander

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary conflict between the sexes can induce arms races in which males evolve traits that are detrimental to the fitness of their female partners, and vice versa. This interlocus sexual conflict (IRSC) has been proposed as a cause of perpetual intersexual antagonistic coevolution with wide-ranging evolutionary consequences. However, theory suggests that the scope for perpetual coevolution is limited, if traits involved in IRSC are subject to pleiotropic constraints. Here, we consider a biologically plausible form of pleiotropy that has hitherto been ignored in treatments of IRSC and arrive at drastically different conclusions. Our analysis is based on a quantitative genetic model of sexual conflict, in which genes controlling IRSC traits have side effects in the other sex, due to incompletely sex-limited gene expression. As a result, the genes are exposed to intralocus sexual conflict (IASC), a tug-of-war between opposing male- and female-specific selection pressures. We find that the interaction between the two forms of sexual conflict has contrasting effects on antagonistic coevolution: Pleiotropic constraints stabilize the dynamics of arms races if the mating traits are close to evolutionary equilibrium but can prevent populations from ever reaching such a state. Instead, the sexes are drawn into a continuous cycle of arms races, causing the buildup of IASC, alternated by phases of IASC resolution that trigger the next arms race. These results encourage an integrative perspective on the biology of sexual conflict and generally caution against relying exclusively on equilibrium stability analysis. PMID:26755609

  3. Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: exploring strategies used by research organisations working on sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This commentary introduces the HARPS supplement on getting research into policy and practice in sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The papers in this supplement have been produced by the Sexual Health and HIV Evidence into Practice (SHHEP) collaboration of international research, practitioner and advocacy organizations based in research programmes funded by the UK Department for International Development. The commentary describes the increasing interest from research and communication practitioners, policy makers and funders in expanding the impact of research on policy and practice. It notes the need for contextually embedded understanding of ways to engage multiple stakeholders in the politicized, sensitive and often contested arenas of sexual and reproductive health. The commentary then introduces the papers under their respective themes: (1) The theory and practice of research engagement (two global papers); (2) Applying policy analysis to explore the role of research evidence in SRH and HIV/AIDS policy (two papers with examples from Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia); (3) Strategies and methodologies for engagement (five papers on Kenya, South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania and Swaziland respectively); (4) Advocacy and engagement to influence attitudes on controversial elements of sexual health (two papers, Bangladesh and global); and (5) Institutional approaches to inter-sectoral engagement for action and strengthening research communications (two papers, Ghana and global). The papers illustrate the many forms research impact can take in the field of sexual and reproductive health. This includes discursive changes through carving out legitimate spaces for public debate; content changes such as contributing to changing laws and practices, procedural changes such as influencing how data on SRH are collected, and behavioural changes through partnerships with civil society actors such as advocacy groups and journalists. The contributions to this supplement provide a

  4. Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: exploring strategies used by research organisations working on sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Sally; Tulloch, Olivia; Crichton, Joanna; Hawkins, Kate; Zulu, Eliya; Mayaud, Philippe; Parkhurst, Justin; Whiteside, Alan; Standing, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    This commentary introduces the HARPS supplement on getting research into policy and practice in sexual and reproductive health (SRH). The papers in this supplement have been produced by the Sexual Health and HIV Evidence into Practice (SHHEP) collaboration of international research, practitioner and advocacy organizations based in research programmes funded by the UK Department for International Development.The commentary describes the increasing interest from research and communication practitioners, policy makers and funders in expanding the impact of research on policy and practice. It notes the need for contextually embedded understanding of ways to engage multiple stakeholders in the politicized, sensitive and often contested arenas of sexual and reproductive health. The commentary then introduces the papers under their respective themes: (1) The theory and practice of research engagement (two global papers); (2) Applying policy analysis to explore the role of research evidence in SRH and HIV/AIDS policy (two papers with examples from Ghana, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia); (3) Strategies and methodologies for engagement (five papers on Kenya, South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania and Swaziland respectively); (4) Advocacy and engagement to influence attitudes on controversial elements of sexual health (two papers, Bangladesh and global); and (5) Institutional approaches to inter-sectoral engagement for action and strengthening research communications (two papers, Ghana and global).The papers illustrate the many forms research impact can take in the field of sexual and reproductive health. This includes discursive changes through carving out legitimate spaces for public debate; content changes such as contributing to changing laws and practices, procedural changes such as influencing how data on SRH are collected, and behavioural changes through partnerships with civil society actors such as advocacy groups and journalists.The contributions to this supplement provide a body

  5. A Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Risk and HIV Testing Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Rana, Yashodhara; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) may account for most new HIV infections in Lebanon, yet little is known about the factors that influence sexual risk behavior and HIV testing in this population. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 MSM living in Beirut, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. Mean age of the participants was 28.4 years, and all identified as either gay (77%) or bisexual (23%). Half reported not using condoms consistently and one quarter had not been HIV-tested. Many described not using condoms with a regular partner in the context of a meaningful relationship, mutual HIV testing, and a desire to not use condoms, suggesting that trust, commitment and intimacy play a role in condom use decisions. Condoms were more likely to be used with casual partners, partners believed to be HIV-positive, and with partners met online where men found it easier to candidly discuss HIV risk. Fear of infection motivated many to get HIV tested and use condoms, but such affect also led some to avoid HIV testing in fear of disease and social stigma if found to be infected. Respondents who were very comfortable with their sexual orientation and who had disclosed their sexuality to family and parents tended to be more likely to use condoms consistently and be tested for HIV. These findings indicate that similar factors influence the condom use and HIV testing of MSM in Beirut as those observed in studies elsewhere of MSM; hence, prevention efforts in Lebanon can likely benefit from lessons learned and interventions developed in other regions, particularly for younger, gay-identified men. Further research is needed to determine how prevention efforts may need to be tailored to address the needs of men who are less integrated into or do not identify with the gay community. PMID:23029103

  6. A qualitative exploration of sexual risk and HIV testing behaviors among men who have sex with men in Beirut, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn J; Aunon, Frances M; Kaplan, Rachel L; Rana, Yashodhara; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) may account for most new HIV infections in Lebanon, yet little is known about the factors that influence sexual risk behavior and HIV testing in this population. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 MSM living in Beirut, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. Mean age of the participants was 28.4 years, and all identified as either gay (77%) or bisexual (23%). Half reported not using condoms consistently and one quarter had not been HIV-tested. Many described not using condoms with a regular partner in the context of a meaningful relationship, mutual HIV testing, and a desire to not use condoms, suggesting that trust, commitment and intimacy play a role in condom use decisions. Condoms were more likely to be used with casual partners, partners believed to be HIV-positive, and with partners met online where men found it easier to candidly discuss HIV risk. Fear of infection motivated many to get HIV tested and use condoms, but such affect also led some to avoid HIV testing in fear of disease and social stigma if found to be infected. Respondents who were very comfortable with their sexual orientation and who had disclosed their sexuality to family and parents tended to be more likely to use condoms consistently and be tested for HIV. These findings indicate that similar factors influence the condom use and HIV testing of MSM in Beirut as those observed in studies elsewhere of MSM; hence, prevention efforts in Lebanon can likely benefit from lessons learned and interventions developed in other regions, particularly for younger, gay-identified men. Further research is needed to determine how prevention efforts may need to be tailored to address the needs of men who are less integrated into or do not identify with the gay community. PMID:23029103

  7. Sexual Misconduct and Enactment

    PubMed Central

    Plakun, Eric M.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  8. Sexual misconduct and enactment.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct.

  9. Sexual misconduct and enactment.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  10. Can rights stop the wrongs? Exploring the connections between framings of sex workers’ rights and sexual and reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the ways in which legal and human rights issues related to sex work affect sex workers’ vulnerability to HIV and abuses including human trafficking and sexual exploitation. International agencies, such as UNAIDS, have called for decriminalisation of sex work because the delivery of sexual and reproductive health services is affected by criminalisation and social exclusion as experienced by sex workers. The paper reflects on the connections in various actors’ framings between sex workers sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and the ways that international law is interpreted in policing and regulatory practices. Methods The literature review that informs this paper was carried out by the authors in the course of their work within the Paulo Longo Research Initiative. The review covered academic and grey literature such as resources generated by sex worker rights activists, UN policy positions and print and online media. The argument in this paper has been developed reflectively through long term involvement with key actors in the field of sex workers’ rights. Results International legislation characterises sex work in various ways which do not always accord with moves toward decriminalisation. Law, policy and regulation at national level and law enforcement vary between settings. The demands of sex worker rights activists do relate to sexual and reproductive health but they place greater emphasis on efforts to remove the structural barriers that limit sex workers’ ability to participate in society on an equal footing with other citizens. Discussion and conclusion There is a tension between those who wish to uphold the rights of sex workers in order to reduce vulnerability to ill-health and those who insist that sex work is itself a violation of rights. This is reflected in contemporary narratives about sex workers’ rights and the ways in which different actors interpret human rights law. The creation of

  11. A cross-race effect in metamemory: Predictions of face recognition are more accurate for members of our own race.

    PubMed

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Benjamin, Aaron S; Liu, Xiping

    2012-09-01

    The Cross-Race Effect (CRE) in face recognition is the well-replicated finding that people are better at recognizing faces from their own race, relative to other races. The CRE reveals systematic limitations on eyewitness identification accuracy and suggests that some caution is warranted in evaluating cross-race identification. The CRE is a problem because jurors value eyewitness identification highly in verdict decisions. In the present paper, we explore how accurate people are in predicting their ability to recognize own-race and other-race faces. Caucasian and Asian participants viewed photographs of Caucasian and Asian faces, and made immediate judgments of learning during study. An old/new recognition test replicated the CRE: both groups displayed superior discriminability of own-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Importantly, relative metamnemonic accuracy was also greater for own-race faces, indicating that the accuracy of predictions about face recognition is influenced by race. This result indicates another source of concern when eliciting or evaluating eyewitness identification: people are less accurate in judging whether they will or will not recognize a face when that face is of a different race than they are. This new result suggests that a witness's claim of being likely to recognize a suspect from a lineup should be interpreted with caution when the suspect is of a different race than the witness.

  12. Vaginal and Oral Sex Initiation Timing: A Focus on Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Holway, Giuseppina Valle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most previous studies on sexual initiation timing have examined its effects on a variety of subsequent outcomes without first examining the correlates and predictors of these timing categories. Studies that do exist often do not utilize samples through young adulthood, leading to a misclassified set of sexual timing categories. In addition, the literature does not adequately address the issues of oral sex timing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were 1) to explore age-cutoffs that mark the “normative” and “non-normative” entry into vaginal and oral sex among young women and men in the U.S., creating sexual four sexual initiation timing categories – “early,” “normative,” “late,” and “inexperienced,” and; 2) to examine the association between race/ethnicity and sexual initiation timing by gender. Methods The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used in both descriptive and multivariate contexts to determine the net association of gender and race/ethnicity with vaginal and oral sex initiation timing. Results Age-cutoffs for vaginal sex timing were similar for women and men, yet differed by gender for oral sex timing. Women were more likely than men to initiate vaginal sex (20% vs. 18%) and oral sex (19% vs. 16%) at an early age and less likely than men to initiate these behaviors at a late age (18% vs. 19% for vaginal sex, and 15% vs. 16% for oral sex). Although most respondents initiated these two behaviors by young adulthood, a considerable proportion remained inexperienced, with men more likely than women to report inexperience with vaginal sex (7% vs. 5%), and women more likely than men to report abstaining from oral sex (8% vs. 6%). Race/ethnic differences in sexual initiation timing remained robust in the face of controls for both women and men. Conclusions Understanding the timing at which adolescents and young adults transition to first vaginal and first oral sex is critical for

  13. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  14. Spatializing Sexuality in Jaime Hernandez's "Locas"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessica E.

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on Jaime Hernandez's "Locas: The Maggie and Hopey Stories," part of the "Love and Rockets" comic series, I argue that the graphic landscape of this understudied comic offers an illustration of the theories of space in relation to race, gender, and sexuality that have been critical to understandings of Chicana sexuality. Set in a barrio…

  15. Talking about race using critical race theory: recent trends in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Teresa; Jeris, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This study uses critical race theory as an interpretive lens to critique recent race related articles in the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy (JMFT). Our primary goal is to contribute to and inspire dialogue about the perspectives marriage and family therapists (MFTs) are taking in relationship to race. We situate our exploration within the broader context of continuing professional education. We describe the main themes of critical race theory and use them as the conceptual framework. Analyzing 127 articles, we found that only topics related to couples and divorce occurred more frequently than race and social justice. Within the articles on race, evidence suggests that issues of race and racism are emerging as key informants of MFT practice. We point to areas for consideration in future MFT research and practice.

  16. The neuroscience of race.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Jennifer T; Banaji, Mahzarin R; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2012-07-01

    As the racial composition of the population changes, intergroup interactions are increasingly common. To understand how we perceive and categorize race and the attitudes that flow from it, scientists have used brain imaging techniques to examine how social categories of race and ethnicity are processed, evaluated and incorporated in decision-making. We review these findings, focusing on black and white race categories. A network of interacting brain regions is important in the unintentional, implicit expression of racial attitudes and its control. On the basis of the overlap in the neural circuitry of race, emotion and decision-making, we speculate as to how this emerging research might inform how we recognize and respond to variations in race and its influence on unintended race-based attitudes and decisions. PMID:22735516

  17. The Second Space Race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  18. Race-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2008-08-01

    The issue of race in medicine is problematic. Race is not a physiologic grouping, and all persons of a given race do not necessarily share the same clinical phenotype or genetic substrate. Despite clear signals that certain risk factors and diseases vary as a function of race, translating those differences into race-based therapeutics has been awkward and has done little to change the natural history of cardiovascular disease as it affects special populations. Among the varied special populations, the African American population appears to have the most significant and adverse variances for cardiovascular disease as well as worrisome signals that drug responsiveness varies. Recent guideline statements have now acknowledged certain treatment options that are most appropriate for African Americans with cardiovascular disease, especially hypertension and heart failure. As more physiologic markers of disease and drug responsiveness become available, the need for racial designations in medicine may lessen, and therapies can be optimized for all patients without regard to race or ethnicity.

  19. Internet Sex Ads for MSM and Partner Selection Criteria: The Potency of Race/Ethnicity Online

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jay P.; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The explosive growth in Internet use by MSM to find sexual partners has been noted in the research literature. However, little attention has been given to the impact of participating in this online sexual marketplace for MSM of color, despite race/ethnicity as a frequently used selection criterion in personal ads or profiles. Six focus group discussions [n=50], and 35 in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with African American, Latino, Asian and Pacific Islander MSM in Los Angeles, which included discussion of their use of Internet sites to meet/interact with other MSM. Men reported race/ethnicity as a pervasive and powerful factor in facilitating or derailing Internet-mediated sexual encounters. The racialized interactions that MSM of color reported ranged from simple expressions of race-based preferences to blatantly discriminatory/hostile interactions and often demeaning race-based sexual objectification. Experiences of rejection and a perceived hierarchy of value in the sexual market based on race had definite costs for these MSM using these online sites. Furthermore, the private and solitary nature of seeking partners online meant that there was little to buffer the corrosive aspects of those negative experiences. These online dynamics have implications for the power balance in Internet-mediated sexual liaisons, including sexual decision-making and sexual risk. PMID:21322176

  20. The Biological Case Against Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Joseph L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Though modern science considers race a social concept, not a scientific truth, many still believe there are innate racial differences among people. Discusses the development of biology and race theory; basic definitions of race; genes, human variation, and race; genetic variation within and between races; modern genome studies that dismiss…

  1. Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research.

  2. Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research. PMID:24469087

  3. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: The Case of Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hong; Smith-Prince, Jaynina

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors influence the disclosure of child sexual abuse by survivors. While the influence of race and ethnicity on disclosure patterns is getting more attention, little has been written on abused children of Pacific Islanders, due in part to both lack of relevant data and a relatively small Pacific Islander population in the United States. Drawing on interviews with Pacific Islander women who were sexually abused in childhood and who delayed revealing their victimization, we explore the reasons for delayed disclosure. Findings suggest that cultural norms and family dynamics affect disclosure decisions. Concerns for the family and self-blame were the most common reasons for delay and lack of disclosure. We discuss implications of the findings and make policy recommendations. PMID:26061022

  4. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  5. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse. PMID:2329432

  6. Sexual and apomictic plant reproduction in the genomics era: exploring the mechanisms potentially useful in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Perotti, Enrico; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2010-12-01

    Arabidopsis, Mimulus and tomato have emerged as model plants in researching genetic and molecular basis of differences in mating systems. Variations in floral traits and loss of self-incompatibility have been associated with mating system differences in crops. Genomics research has advanced considerably, both in model and crop plants, which may provide opportunities to modify breeding systems as evidenced in Arabidopsis and tomato. Mating system, however, not recombination per se, has greater effect on the level of polymorphism. Generating targeted recombination remains one of the most important factors for crop genetic enhancement. Asexual reproduction through seeds or apomixis, by producing maternal clones, presents a tremendous potential for agriculture. Although believed to be under simple genetic control, recent research has revealed that apomixis results as a consequence of the deregulation of the timing of sexual events rather than being the product of specific apomixis genes. Further, forward genetic studies in Arabidopsis have permitted the isolation of novel genes reported to control meiosis I and II entry. Mutations in these genes trigger the production of unreduced or apomeiotic megagametes and are an important step toward understanding and engineering apomixis.

  7. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Health Practices of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Sternglanz, R. Weylin

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the gender differences in sexual self-concept, personal resources for sexual health, safe sex behaviors, and risky sexual behaviors among homeless adolescents with and without histories of sexual abuse. Data for this secondary analysis were collected in 2003 to 2004 in the first phase of a larger repeated-measures sexual health…

  8. The Amazing Mathematical Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblitt, Bethany A.; Buckley, Brooke E.

    2011-01-01

    Teams, pit stops, clues, time limits, fast forwards, challenges, and prizes are all components of the CBS hit show "The Amazing Race." They were also elements of the Amazing Mathematical Race sponsored by the Math and Stats Club at Northern Kentucky University in April 2009. Held in recognition of Math Awareness Month, which is advocated by the…

  9. RACE AS LIVED EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, John A.; Sanchez, Gabriel R.; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Vargas, Edward D.; Ybarra, Vickie D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of social science research has sought to conceptualize race as a multidimensional concept in which context, societal relations, and institutional dynamics are key components. Utilizing a specially designed survey, we develop and use multiple measures of race (skin color, ascribed race, and discrimination experiences) to capture race as “lived experience” and assess their impact on Latinos’ self-rated health status. We model these measures of race as a lived experience to test the explanatory power of race, both independently and as an integrated scale with categorical regression, scaling, and dimensional analyses. Our analyses show that our multiple measures of race have significant and negative effects on Latinos’ self-reported health. Skin color is a dominant factor that impacts self-reported health both directly and indirectly. We then advocate for the utilization of multiple measures of race, adding to those used in our analysis, and their application to other health and social outcomes. Our analysis provides important contributions across a wide range of health, illness, social, and political outcomes for communities of color. PMID:26681972

  10. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  11. The Kinesiology of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Myosha

    2014-01-01

    In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  13. Kuaering queer theory: my autocritography and a race-conscious, womanist, transnational turn.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wenshu

    2003-01-01

    Critiquing queer theory's omissions in race and class, E. Patrick Johnson (2001) suggests "quare" studies, a turn similar to that being made from feminism to womanism. I fully embrace Johnson's theorizing. But to make relevant the worlds lying beyond the pale of North America, Europe, and the English language to the study of sexualities and other dimensions of systematic discrimination, I use kuaer theory to make another turn. One that is at once race-conscious, womanist and transnational. I travel through three awakenings, and look into nu nu (female-female) words in Taiwanese and Chinese lesbian existence in different historical periods. I also ofter a rhetorical analysis of the title of Ai Bao, the first officially registered Taiwanese lesbian magazine, exploring its persuasiveness via wordplay and multiple entendre. In addition, from jin lan hui to nu tongzhi, from T/puo and lazi to kuer, I provide sketches of heterogeneous and complex Taiwanese and Chinese nu nu worlds. As I get deeper into my autocritography, these women become my women and I learn to utter my own words in a language that is little pre-packaged. My crossing marks a daring but humble beginning. If nothing else, there is at least more space for bringing up race and transnational complicity queerly.

  14. Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

  15. The Role of Sexual Precedence in Verbal Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Buddie, Amy M.; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Experiences of verbal sexual coercion are common and have potential for negative consequences, yet are not well understood. This study used qualitative and descriptive statistics to examine verbal sexual coercion experiences among a community sample of 114 women and explored the role of sexual precedence in these experiences. Analyses revealed…

  16. Association of Sexual Revictimization with Sexuality and Psychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…

  17. Racial Identity Development of Mixed Race College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Helen Diamond

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence mixed race college students' choice of racial identity. This study also explored whether or not there are any differences among each of the racial identity groups' perceptions of institutional support for mixed race college students. The theoretical framework of this…

  18. Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class in Introductory Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puentes, Jennifer; Gougherty, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We update Ferree and Hall’s (1996) examination of the stratification systems of gender, race, and class in introductory textbooks. Using a sample of textbooks from 2003 through 2010, we explore 24 introductory sociology textbooks to determine the relationship between categories of gender, race, and class and levels of analysis. Previous research…

  19. Critical Race Pedagogy 2.0: Lessons from Derrick Bell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Marvin; Jennings, Michael E.; Hughes, Sherick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we attempt to honor the rich legacy of Derrick Bell by detailing how exploring his specific contributions to critical race theory (CRT) provided lessons for developing and refining critical race pedagogy (CRP). We examine Bell's racial realism thesis in connection with his pedagogical work. In doing so, we find that he was as…

  20. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  1. Unpacking the "Colorblind Approach": Accusations of Racism at a Friendly, Mixed-Race School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The desire to ignore race in favor of a "colorblind" approach has so permeated the cultural ethos of the US, that many whites, teachers included, fear that talking about race in any capacity leaves them open to accusations of racism. As a result, race has become a taboo subject in many US classrooms. This article explores the…

  2. Chimerical categories: caste, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Sharjeel

    2003-12-01

    Is discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste-based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa.

  3. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  4. Race-related PTSD: the Asian American Vietnam veteran.

    PubMed

    Loo, C M

    1994-10-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework by which to understand race-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for the Asian American Vietnam veteran. The framework draws from cognitive schema theory, social behaviorism, the notion of cumulative racism as trauma, and the assumption that bifurcation and negation of one's bicultural identity is injurious. Classifications of race-related stress or trauma that may be experienced by Asian American Vietnam veterans, with exemplifying clinical case material, are presented. These types of stressors include being mistaken for Vietnamese, verbal and physical assaults that are race-related, death and near-death experiences that are race-related, racial stigmatization, dissociation from one's Asian identity, and marginalization. As studies of combat trauma and sexual assault forced the psychological stresses attendant to war and sexist oppression into public consciousness, so this article addresses psychological stress and trauma attendant to racism.

  5. [Race and medicine].

    PubMed

    Doron, Claude-Olivier

    2013-10-01

    In this article, I argue that the problematic of "race and medicine", which has been the object of many recent debates, has a long history that it may be useful to understand better. I show more specifically that, from the very first uses of the concept of "race" in natural history during the XVIII(th) century, medical concepts and analogies served as important models. These medical models were especially useful to analyze "races" as alterations from an original identity. Different analogies are studied here. 1. The analogy between races' peculiar temperaments and morbid alterations of human constitution. 2. The analogy between the transmission of the alterations along generations and hereditary diseases. In this second analogy, I differentiate between two models: the degeneration of the human type and the transmission of a molecular alteration of one character.

  6. The Race Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Edwin C.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the biggest obstacle to urban education reform is the unwillingness of educators to discuss the impact of increased racial and ethnic segregation on student achievement. Poverty is discussed, but not race. (PKP)

  7. Intelligence, race, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They further argue that race is a social construction with no scientific definition. Thus, studies of the relationship between race and other constructs may serve social ends but cannot serve scientific ends. No gene has yet been conclusively linked to intelligence, so attempts to provide a compelling genetic link of race to intelligence are not feasible at this time. The authors also show that heritability, a behavior-genetic concept, is inadequate in regard to providing such a link.

  8. Reversing the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    von Hippel, F. ); Sagdeev, R.Z. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains proceedings of Reversing The Arms Race. Topics covered include: Verifying Reductions of Nuclear Warheads; Verifying Limits on Nuclear-Armed Cruise Missiles; and The Technical Basis for Warhead Detection.

  9. Exploring the sexual health priorities and needs of immigrant Latinas in the southeastern United States: a community-based participatory research approach.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Rebecca; Eng, Eugenia; Simán, Florence; Rhodes, Scott D

    2011-06-01

    Latinas living in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. However, few effective interventions currently exist that are designed to meet the priorities and needs of recently arrived and less acculturated immigrant Latinas who are settling in the southeastern United States. To identify sexual health priorities, gaps in information and skills, and key intervention characteristics to improve sexual health among immigrant Latinas, a community-based participatory research partnership conducted four focus groups with Latinas, in central North Carolina. Findings revealed a lack of knowledge about sexual health, shame and embarrassment related to clinical exams and conversations about sex, multilevel barriers to sexual health, and disease transmission misinformation. Findings also suggested that interventions should include information about a broad range of sexual and reproductive health topics and skill building. Such interventions could serve to assist in diminishing health disparities experienced among this vulnerable population.

  10. Exploring the Sexual Health Priorities and Needs of Immigrant Latinas in the Southeastern US: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cashman, Rebecca; Eng, Eugenia; Simán, Florence; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Latinas living in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few effective interventions currently exist that are designed to meet the priorities and needs of recently arrived and less acculturated immigrant Latinas who are settling in the southeastern US. To identify sexual health priorities, gaps in information and skills, and key intervention characteristics to improve sexual health among immigrant Latinas, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership conducted four focus groups with Latinas, in central North Carolina. Findings revealed: a lack of knowledge about sexual health; shame and embarrassment related to clinical exams and conversations about sex; multi-level barriers to sexual health; and disease transmission misinformation. Findings also suggested that interventions should include information about a broad range of sexual and reproductive health topics and skill-building. Such interventions could serve to assist in diminishing health disparities experienced among this vulnerable population. PMID:21696242

  11. Race, money and medicines.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited. PMID:17144179

  12. Race, money and medicines.

    PubMed

    Bloche, M Gregg

    2006-01-01

    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  13. A Harassing Climate? Sexual Harassment and Campus Racial Climate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…

  14. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Drug Use and Risky Sex among Detained Youth

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; King, Kelly; Schneider, John; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Tan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with drug use and risky sex in a number of populations. However, these relationships have had limited examination among adolescents, and to date, have not been explored among detained youth, a group with some of the highest rates of illicit drug use and STIs. To better understand these relationships we utilized A-CASI to collect data on sociodemographics, sexual sensation seeking, drug use and risky sexual behaviors among a sample of 550 detained youth. A series of multivariable regression models controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and risky peer networks indicated that sexual sensation seeking was associated with alcohol and ecstasy use. Additionally, sexual sensation seeking was associated with having sex while high on drugs; having sex with a partner who was high on drugs; exchanging sex for drugs; exchanging sex for money; having more sexual partners in the last two months; having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex; and a less condom use during oral sex. These data have important implications for STI/drug use prevention interventions among detained adolescents. PMID:24383042

  15. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  16. A Bioecological Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse of Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jordahl, Tina; Lohman, Brenda J.

    2009-01-01

    Microsystem risk and protective factors associated with early sexual intercourse among low-income adolescents were assessed using bioecological theory and a risk and resiliency framework. Waves 1 and 2 of Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N=984, 10–14 years). Findings showed age, gender, race, two-parent households, separated households, households where the mother formed a union between waves, transitioning onto welfare between waves, and delinquency increased the odds that adolescents were sexually active. Protective factors for early sexual activity included maternal education and father involvement. Risk factors for early sexual debut were age, gender, race, two-parent households, separated households, and delinquency. A protective factor for early sexual debut was maternal education. Findings differed by gender, race, and race*gender. Policy implications include increasing social and human capital among low-income mothers to promote family stability and providing diversified sexual education programs due to gender differences. PMID:20161569

  17. Boys must be men, and men must have sex with women: a qualitative CBPR study to explore sexual risk among African American, Latino, and White gay men and MSM.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Vissman, Aaron T; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F

    2011-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), White (n=21), and biracial/ethnic (n=6). The mean age was 27 years (range=18-60 years). Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually "dominant" and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of "barebacking." Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets, harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM, and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action.

  18. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  19. BiDil: race medicine or race marketing?

    PubMed

    Sankar, Pamela; Kahn, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first drug with a race-specific indication has fueled the controversy over the meaning of race and ethnicity and raised questions over whether this move should be seen as an advance or a setback in the struggle to address disparities in health status associated with race. The drug, BiDil, combines two generics long recognized as benefiting patients with heart failure, irrespective of race or ethnicity. The push to bring these drugs to market as a race-specific treatment was motivated by the culiarities of U.S. patent law and willingness exploit race to gain commercial and regulatory advantage.

  20. Prime time sexual harrassment.

    PubMed

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811

  1. Keeping It Frat: Exploring the Interaction among Fraternity Membership, Disinhibition, and Hypermasculinity on Sexually Aggressive Attitudes in College-Aged Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corprew, Charles S., III.; Mitchell, Avery D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines correlates that contribute to sexually aggressive attitudes toward women. Using a sample that includes 217 college males from 3 southern universities, the study evaluates the relationship between college men's hypermasculine and sexually aggressive attitudes, as well as how fraternity membership and disinhibition moderate…

  2. Training Materials for Handling Claims of Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Betty

    1982-01-01

    Reviews resource materials for handling claims of sexual harassment. Includes guidelines for administrators in handling complaints of sexual harassment and discusses the responsibilities of management. Explores the definition of sexual harassment. (RC)

  3. The sexual habitus of transgender men: negotiating sexuality through gender.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Kristen; Windsor, Elroi

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider how trans men's decisions about physical body modifications impact their sense of themselves as gendered and sexual actors. Based on interviews with 74 trans men, the authors explore how their embodiment, gender identity, erotic ideation, lifetime of sexual practices, and domain of potential partners-what the authors term "sexual habitus"-can be affirmed, transformed, or challenged as their embodiment changes. These changes underscore the dynamic relationship between gender and sexuality and illustrate how bodies matter in sexual trajectories across the life course.

  4. Addictive sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Myers, W A

    1994-01-01

    Case material is presented from two patients suffering from addictive sexual behavior. The term addiction is used because of the intense, driven quality of the behavior and because of its mood-elevating effects. Psychodynamically, the patients' sexual acts helped to undo feelings of rejection at the hands of their mothers and to enhance feelings of lovability and of self-esteem. The behavior also helped to neutralize powerful feelings of rage toward the mother. In one patient, the acts also helped to ease inner turmoil related to an underlying attention deficit disorder. I speculate that some adults with addictive sexual behavior may have underlying attention deficit disorders. In both my patients, the sexual behaviors served the self-regulatory function of alleviating inner feelings of anhedonia and depression. When they decreased their sexual activities during the course of the treatment, they required adjunctive antidepressant medication. The underlying meaning of the medication and countertransference attitudes toward such patients are explored.

  5. Emancipatory Sexuality Education and Sexual Assault Resistance: Does the Former Enhance the Latter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Charlene Y.; Gee, Stephanie S.; Thake, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether adding emancipatory sexuality education, which encourages the exploration of women's own sexual values and desires, to a sexual assault resistance program would improve women's resistance to sexual assault by known men. The participants were 214 first-year university students. A randomized experimental design…

  6. Race-ing Class Ladies: Lineages of Privilege in an Elite South African School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on fieldwork done in Greystone School in South Africa, a single sex girls' school. I explore how the legacy of coloniser and colonised is reconfigured through the history of the school and the particular racialised politics of South Africa, where race and class have always been imbricated in differently nuanced ways before,…

  7. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.

  8. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  9. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  10. Racing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    In 1,950 mile Australian race, the General Motors Sunraycer, was powered by space-derived solar cell technology incorporating a number of other aerospace technologies. The 547 lb one seater averaged better than 41 miles per hour and finished 600 miles ahead of the nearest competitor.

  11. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  12. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…

  13. “Boys Must be Men, and Men Must Have Sex with Women”: A Qualitative CBPR Study to Explore Sexual Risk among African American, Latino, and White Gay Men and MSM

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Stowers, Jason; Davis, A. Bernard; Hannah, Anthony; Alonzo, Jorge; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted by HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). This study was designed to explore sexual risk among MSM using community-based participatory research (CBPR). An academic-community partnership conducted nine focus groups with 88 MSM. Participants self-identified as African American/Black (n=28), Hispanic/Latino (n=33), white (n=21), and bi-racial/ethnic (n=6). Mean age was 27 (range 18–60) years. Grounded theory was used. Twelve themes related to HIV risk emerged, including low HIV and STD knowledge particularly among Latino MSM and MSM who use the Internet for sexual networking; stereotyping of African American MSM as sexually “dominant” and Latino MSM as less likely to be HIV infected; and the eroticization of “barebacking.” Twelve intervention approaches also were identified, including developing culturally congruent programming using community-identified assets; harnessing social media used by informal networks of MSM; and promoting protection within the context of intimate relationships. A community forum was held to develop recommendations and move these themes to action. PMID:20413391

  14. Gender, relationship dynamics and South African girls' vulnerability to sexual risk.

    PubMed

    Bhana, Deevia; Anderson, Bronwynne

    2013-03-01

    South African researchers have stressed the importance of gender and relationship dynamics underlying sexual risk, particularly among 15- to 19-year-olds. Nevertheless, we know little about these factors among young girls, who are especially at risk of HIV. The main objective in this study was to explore the ways that young girls aged 16 to 17 years give meaning to boys and boyfriends and the processes through which these relationship dynamics are shaped. In-depth interviews were conducted with a group of black girls in a working class context in Durban about their sexual relationships with boys. Dominant gender norms underlined the ways in which girls discussed these sexual relationships in relation to their lack of power and condom use. Factors such as their class, race and gender interacted with girls' vulnerability to risk of HIV. While girls were complicit in their subordination, particularly in relation to cheating boyfriends, many were critical of boys who displayed patterns of sexual domination. Efforts aimed at reducing sexual risk must work toward shifting dominant patterns of masculinity over femininity to broaden pathways of love, trust, loyalty and understanding.

  15. Military men and sexual practices: discourses of 'othering' in safer sex in the light of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Mankayi, Nyameka

    2009-03-01

    Despite recent reports that there is increasing condom use, generally resistance to condom use is still high. This paper focuses on factors inhibiting condom use and explores issues of responsibility for safe sex practices to prevent infection among a group of 14 South African male soldiers. Military men are particularly vulnerable to HIV because of their working conditions; for example, working far from home and being among communities where they have greater economic and political power, as well as in relation to their identities and sexualities as men, and how that is exaggerated by the institutional framework of the military. The data in this paper were drawn from a larger qualitative study exploring a group of military men's narratives on their masculinity, sexuality, sexual relationships and HIV/AIDS. Semi-structured interviews were the main data collection method, and the interview transcripts were analysed primarily through interpretive discourse analysis. Findings of this study show that most participants used the socially desirable discourse that safe sex practices (specifically condom use) should be everybody's responsibility. However, there was also the discourse of the 'other' responsible person, which was linked to gender, race, ethnicity, education and rank. The paper concludes with a recommendation that tackling HIV in the military needs to involve the rigorous examination of social factors such as gender, race and ethnicity. PMID:19399314

  16. Race, Ethnicity, and Eating Disorder Recognition by Peers

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Margarita; Reyes-Rodríguez, Mae Lynn; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Bardone-Cone, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated racial/ethnic stereotyping in the recognition and referral of eating disorders with 663 university students. We explored responses to problem and eating disorder recognition, and health care referral after reading a vignette concerning a patient of different race/ethnic background presenting with eating disorders. A series of three 4 × 3 ANOVAs revealed significant main effects for eating disorder across all three outcome variables. There were no significant main effects across the four different race/ethnicity conditions and no significant race by condition interactions. Lack of general eating disorder recognition and health care referral by student participants were found. PMID:24044598

  17. The complexity of internet sexuality.

    PubMed

    Daneback, Kristian; Ross, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown men and women of all ages and sexual orientations to use the Internet for sexual purposes. For example, the Internet is used to access pornography, to find sex-related information, to purchase sexual merchandise, and to find partners for romance and sex. The specific characteristics of the medium have made it attractive for engaging in sexual behaviors that are regulated by societal and cultural norms offline. Thus, the Internet has made it easier to explore and express one's sexuality at less risk of negative personal sanctions. In this regard, the technological innovation has meant a sexual revolution, particularly for disenfranchised groups. While generally being perceived as positive, concerns have been raised about potential risks associated with the Internet. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with an empirical and theoretical overview of the first 15 years of research in the field of Internet sexuality. PMID:22005208

  18. Race Is...Race Isn't: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Laurence, Ed.; Deyhle, Donna, Ed.; Villenas, Sofia, Ed.

    Critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--in fact help form and police the boundaries of white supremacy and racism. Critical race theory can be used to deconstruct the meaning of "educational achievement," to recognize that the…

  19. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues. PMID:23057505

  20. A question of blood, race, and politics.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Michael G

    2006-10-01

    This article explores the political and intellectual context of a controversy arising from a proposal made at the 1959 meetings of the American Society of Blood Banks to divide the blood supply by race. The authors, a group of blood-bankers and surgeons in New York, outlined difficulties in finding compatible blood for transfusion during open-heart surgery, which they attributed to prior sensitization of their patient, a Caucasian, by a previous transfusion from an African American donor. Examining the statistical distribution of blood-group antigens among the various races, they concluded that risk of adverse hemolytic reactions and the cost of testing could be reduced by establishing separate donor pools. The media reported the suggestion, which, given the political climate of the day, rapidly became a public issue involving geneticists, blood-bankers, physical anthropologists, and the African American medical community. Liberals condemned it, whereas eugenically inclined segregationists used the finding to support their views concerning evolutionary distance between the races and the dangers of miscegenation. Here we examine the contribution of comparative racial serology to this affair, the arguments and background of the main players, and the relevance of the debate to discussions about the role of "race" in post-genomic medicine. PMID:16788092

  1. Dance and sexuality: many moves.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Judith Lynne

    2010-03-01

    This literature review of dance and sexual expression considers dance and religion, dance and sexuality as a source of power, manifestations of sexuality in Western theater art and social dance, plus ritual and non-Western social dance. Expressions of gender, sexual orientation, asexuality, ambiguity, and adult entertainment exotic dance are presented. Prominent concerns in the literature are the awareness, closeting, and denial of sexuality in dance; conflation of sexual expression and promiscuity of gender and sexuality, of nudity and sexuality, and of dancer intention and observer interpretation; and inspiration for infusing sexuality into dance. Numerous disciplines (American studies, anthropology, art history, comparative literature, criminology, cultural studies, communication, dance, drama, English, history, history of consciousness, journalism, law, performance studies, philosophy, planning, retail geography, psychology, social work, sociology, and theater arts) have explored dance and sexual expression, drawing upon the following concepts, which are not mutually exclusive: critical cultural theory, feminism, colonialism, Orientalism, postmodernism, poststructuralism, queer theory, and semiotics. Methods of inquiry include movement analysis, historical investigation, anthropological fieldwork, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, and self-reflection or autobiographical narrative. Directions for future exploration are addressed.

  2. Dance and sexuality: many moves.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Judith Lynne

    2010-03-01

    This literature review of dance and sexual expression considers dance and religion, dance and sexuality as a source of power, manifestations of sexuality in Western theater art and social dance, plus ritual and non-Western social dance. Expressions of gender, sexual orientation, asexuality, ambiguity, and adult entertainment exotic dance are presented. Prominent concerns in the literature are the awareness, closeting, and denial of sexuality in dance; conflation of sexual expression and promiscuity of gender and sexuality, of nudity and sexuality, and of dancer intention and observer interpretation; and inspiration for infusing sexuality into dance. Numerous disciplines (American studies, anthropology, art history, comparative literature, criminology, cultural studies, communication, dance, drama, English, history, history of consciousness, journalism, law, performance studies, philosophy, planning, retail geography, psychology, social work, sociology, and theater arts) have explored dance and sexual expression, drawing upon the following concepts, which are not mutually exclusive: critical cultural theory, feminism, colonialism, Orientalism, postmodernism, poststructuralism, queer theory, and semiotics. Methods of inquiry include movement analysis, historical investigation, anthropological fieldwork, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, and self-reflection or autobiographical narrative. Directions for future exploration are addressed. PMID:20358462

  3. The effects of phencyclidine (PCP) on anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark exploration test are age dependent, sexually dimorphic, and task dependent.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, Sarah M; Kim, Daniel; Pritchard, Melissa; Salgado, Sanjay; Thaler, Alison

    2011-11-01

    Previous research in our laboratory revealed sexually dimorphic effects of prior exposure to phencyclidine (PCP) on elevated plus maze behavior. In an attempt to examine the developmental time course of this effect and determine the extent to which it generalizes to other anxiety paradigms, young adult (61-64 days old) and adult (96-107 days old) male and female rats were treated with PCP (15 mg/kg) or saline. Following a two week withdrawal period, animals were tested in either the elevated plus maze (EPM) or a light-dark exploration (LD) test. In adults, both tests revealed a sexually dimorphic effect driven by PCP-induced decreases in anxiety in females as indicated by increased time spent in the open arms of the EPM and in the lit compartment of the LD test and increased anxiety in males as indicated by decreased time spent in the lit compartment of the LD. In young animals, PCP pretreatment decreased open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze, indicating increased anxiety. However, PCP increased time spent in the light compartment in the light-dark exploration test, indicating decreased anxiety. Corticosterone levels measured 15 min after the onset of the EPM failed to reveal an association between the behavioral effects of PCP and corticosterone levels. The results in adults substantiate the previously observed sexually dimorphic effect of PCP on elevated plus maze behavior in adults and indicate that the effect generalizes to another anxiety paradigm. The results in the younger animals suggest an age dependent effect of PCP on anxiety in general and indicate that behaviors in the elevated plus maze and the light-dark exploration test reflect dissociable psychobiological states.

  4. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  5. Beholder and Beheld: A Multilevel Model of Perceived Sexual Appeal.

    PubMed

    Mackaronis, Julia E; Strassberg, Donald S; Cundiff, Jeanne M; Cann, Deanna J

    2015-11-01

    When individuals (observers) assess how appealing they find sexual stimuli (targets), which factors matter and to whom? The present study examined how observer and target characteristics interact and impact perceived sexual appeal. Participants were 302 men (206 heterosexual, 96 gay) and 289 women (196 heterosexual, 93 lesbian) between the ages of 18 and 67 years, who viewed 34 photographs of targets of their preferred gender and rated each target for sexual appeal, masculinity-femininity, and estimated age. Participants also rated their own masculinity-femininity. A baseline model indicated that roughly 30 % of the variance in sexual appeal ratings was at the observer level (between observers) and 70 % of the variance was at the target level (within observers). In the final model, five characteristics of the participant observers (gender, sexual orientation, age, race/ethnicity, and self-described masculinity-femininity) and six characteristics of the target photographs (gender, whether the photographs were taken from heterosexual versus gay/lesbian media, race/ethnicity, perceived masculinity-femininity, and estimated age) were independently and interactively related to observer ratings of target sexual appeal. Observers displayed preferences for similar targets in terms of race/ethnicity and masculinity-femininity, while also displaying a general preference for target youth. Variation in the strength of these preferences occurred according to observers' own gender, race/ethnicity, masculinity-femininity, and sexual orientation.

  6. Identification of the meiotic toolkit in diatoms and exploration of meiosis-specific SPO11 and RAD51 homologs in the sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta

    DOE PAGES

    Patil, Shrikant; Moeys, Sara; von Dassow, Peter; Huysman, Marie J. J.; Mapleson, Daniel; De Veylder, Lieven; Sanges, Remo; Vyverman, Wim; Montresor, Marina; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata

    2015-11-14

    Sexual reproduction is an obligate phase in the life cycle of most eukaryotes. Meiosis varies among organisms, which is reflected by the variability of the gene set associated to the process. Diatoms are unicellular organisms that belong to the stramenopile clade and have unique life cycles that can include a sexual phase. The exploration of five diatom genomes and one diatom transcriptome led to the identification of 42 genes potentially involved in meiosis. While these include the majority of known meiosis-related genes, several meiosis-specific genes, including DMC1, could not be identified. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses supported gene identification and revealed ancestralmore » loss and recent expansion in the RAD51 family in diatoms. The two sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta were used to explore the expression of meiosis-related genes: RAD21, SPO11-2, RAD51-A, RAD51-B and RAD51-C were upregulated during meiosis, whereas other paralogs in these families showed no differential expression patterns, suggesting that they may play a role during vegetative divisions. An almost identical toolkit is shared among Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Fragilariopsis cylindrus, as well as two species for which sex has not been observed, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, suggesting that these two may retain a facultative sexual phase. Lastly, our results reveal the conserved meiotic toolkit in six diatom species and indicate that Stramenopiles share major modifications of canonical meiosis processes ancestral to eukaryotes, with important divergences in each Kingdom.« less

  7. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    PubMed

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record. PMID:9196622

  8. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

  9. The arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, M.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive examination of the nature of the contemporary arms race, the forces that encourage arms competition, and the means by which these forces can be controlled. The author provides analyses of such specific issues as the viability of arms control agreements; the possibilities for nuclear disarmament; the means of deterrence, detection, and defense; and the methods of destruction themselves - nuclear, conventional, chemical, and space weapons.

  10. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  11. Space race functional responses.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  12. Space race functional responses

    PubMed Central

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis–Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka–Volterra predator–prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats. PMID:25589602

  13. Initial Teacher Training: Understanding "Race," Diversity and Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Rhamie, Jasmine

    2014-01-01

    There is little research which has explored how students on Initial Teacher Training (ITT) courses understand and conceptualise discourses of "race," diversity and inclusion. This article will focus on student understandings of racialised identities; it will explore the discourses by which students understand what it means to be White…

  14. Sexuality, Television and Broadcast Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Melvin S.

    This monograph provides a rationale for contemporary guidelines for the television and broadcast network management of sexual content in proposed progam materials. Beginning with a brief outline of the professional practices and responsibilities of broadcast standards editors, it then explores the relationships between sexual development,…

  15. A Study on the Effect of a Program Teaching Healthy Sexuality Values on Adolescent Sexual Awareness and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sang Huy

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of a program teaching healthy sexuality values on adolescent sexual awareness and sexual behavior. For this study, the present researcher, along with two other professors, developed a 4-h program on 4 different subjects, and conducted the full education program through four different 4-h…

  16. Exploring the Sexual Health Priorities and Needs of Immigrant Latinas in the Southeastern United States: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Rebecca; Eng, Eugenia; Siman, Florence; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Latinas living in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. However, few effective interventions currently exist that are designed to meet the priorities and needs of recently arrived and less acculturated immigrant Latinas who are settling in the southeastern United States. To identify…

  17. Making 'good girls': sexual agency in the sexuality education of low-income black girls.

    PubMed

    Froyum, Carissa M

    2010-01-01

    Critics argue that abstinence-only programmes reinforce gender inequality when they contain discourses that equate being a 'good girl' with sexual restraint. Yet they too often overlook how racial and class inequalities shape discourses about girls' sexual agency. This ethnography extends gender scholarship by analysing the racialised, classed and gendered dynamics of an abstinence-only programme for low-income black girls. It finds that black adults viewed the girls as sexually vulnerable because of racism and class inequality. They tried to mediate this vulnerability by transforming girls into sexual agents. They did so, though, by exaggerating the gendered discourses of the official sexuality education curricula that framed girls as victims and their sexual restraint as a matter of morality. Thus, the programme reinforced gender inequality while trying to disrupt race and class inequalities.

  18. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  19. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria N; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C

    2014-08-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol's role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n = 1,137) and women (n = 458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women's alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates. PMID:24806889

  20. Exploring the relationships among food insecurity, alcohol use, and sexual risk taking among men and women living in South African townships

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria N.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C.

    2014-01-01

    South African townships have among the highest rates of HIV infection in the world. Considerable research on understanding the high rates of HIV transmission in this country has identified alcohol use as a critical factor in driving the HIV epidemic. Although the relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking is well documented, less is known about how other factors, such as food insecurity, might be important in understanding alcohol’s role in sexual risk-taking. Furthermore, prior research has highlighted how patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk-taking tend to vary by gender. We examined how food insecurity is related to both alcohol use and sexual risk-taking. We administered anonymous community surveys to men (n=1137) and women (n=458) residing within four contiguous Black African townships outside of Cape Town, South Africa. In multivariate linear regression, we found that food insecurity was related to having higher numbers of male sex partners and condom-protected sex acts among women only. These relationships, however, were fully mediated by women’s alcohol use. Among men, we found that food insecurity was negatively related to unprotected sex; that is, men with greater food security reported more unprotected sex acts. Unlike the results found among women, this relationship was not mediated by alcohol use. Food insecurity appears to be an important factor in understanding patterns of sexual risk-taking in regards to gender and alcohol use, and may serve as an important point of intervention for reducing HIV transmission rates. PMID:24806889

  1. Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lisa; Mann, Janice; McMahon, Sharon; Wong, Thomas

    2004-08-25

    HEALTH ISSUE: Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. KEY FINDINGS: Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15-24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. DATA GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.

  2. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16–20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure. PMID:26327361

  3. Psychosexual Correlates of Sexual Double Standard Endorsement in Adolescent Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emmerink, Peggy M J; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Ter Bogt, Tom F M

    2016-01-01

    Endorsement and enactment of the (hetero)sexual double standard (SDS), prescribing sexual modesty for girls and sexual prowess for boys, has been shown to be negatively related to sexual and mental health. To be able to challenge the SDS, more insight is needed into the conditions that shape gendered sexual attitudes. A survey was conducted among 465 heterosexual adolescents (aged 16-20 years), examining the relationship between a number of relevant demographic and psychosexual variables and SDS endorsement. SDS endorsement was assessed using a newly developed instrument, the Scale for the Assessment of Sexual Standards Among Youth (SASSY). Gender (being male) and religiousness were significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. For both boys and girls, increased feelings of entitlement to self-induced sexual pleasure (e.g., masturbation) were significantly associated with reduced SDS endorsement, whereas higher gender investment was significantly associated with increased SDS endorsement. Furthermore, increased feelings of entitlement to partner-induced sexual pleasure and more frequent talking about sexuality with peers were associated with increased SDS endorsement among boys but not among girls. We conclude that future research should explore peer influence processes through peer communication about sex, gender investment, and feelings of entitlement to both self and partner-induced sexual pleasure.

  4. HIV-Positive Men Sexually Active with Women: Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Risks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gunjeong; Howard, Joyce Moon; Caban, Maria; Abramson, David; Messeri, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examines patterns of sexual behavior, sexual relating, and sexual risk among HIV-positive men sexually active with women. A total of 278 HIV-positive men were interviewed every 6–12 months between 1994 and 2002 and reported considerable variability in sexual behaviors over time. Many were not sexually active at all for months at a time; many continued to have multiple female and at times male partners. Over one-third of the cohort had one or more periods when they had engaged in unprotected sex with a female partner who was HIV-negative or status unknown (unsafe sex). Periods of unsafe sex alternated with periods of safer sex. Contextual factors such as partner relations, housing status, active drug use, and recently exchanging sex showed the strongest association with increased odds of unsafe sex. A number of predictors of unsafe sex among African American men were not significant among the Latino sub-population, suggesting race/ethnic differences in factors contributing to heterosexual transmission. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:16770702

  5. Mixed Race: Understanding Difference in the Genome Era

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Odunlami, Adebola O.; Bonham, Vence L.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of multiracial individuals’ understanding of identity, race and human genetic variation. The debate regarding the correlation between race, genetics and disease has expanded, but limited empirical data has been collected regarding the lay public’s perspective. Participants in this study explore their identity and its relationships to their health care interactions. Participants also share their views on race-based therapeutics, health disparities and the connections between race, ancestry and genetics. Their voices highlight the limitations of racial categories in describing differences within our increasingly diverse communities. The genomic era will be a pivotal period in challenging current understandings and uses of racial categories in health. PMID:19079741

  6. Race, Segregation, and Physicians' Participation in Medicaid

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Jessica; Blustein, Jan; Weitzman, Beth C

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have explored the extent to which physicians' characteristics and Medicaid program factors influence physicians' decisions to accept Medicaid patients. In this article, we turn to patient race/ethnicity and residential segregation as potential influences. Using the 2000/2001 Community Tracking Study and other sources we show that physicians are significantly less likely to participate in Medicaid in areas where the poor are nonwhite and in areas that are racially segregated. Surprisingly—and contrary to the prevailing Medicaid participation theory—we find no link between poverty segregation and Medicaid participation when controlling for these racial factors. Accordingly, this study contributes to an accumulating body of circumstantial evidence that patient race influences physicians' choices, which in turn may contribute to racial disparities in access to health care. PMID:16771818

  7. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  8. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  9. Bike Racing Helmet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.

  10. Sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Hosken, David J; House, Clarissa M

    2011-01-25

    Sexual selection is a concept that has probably been misunderstood and misrepresented more than any other idea in evolutionary biology, confusion that continues to the present day. We are not entirely sure why this is, but sexual politics seems to have played its role, as does a failure to understand what sexual selection is and why it was initially invoked. While in some ways less intuitive than natural selection, sexual selection is conceptually identical to it, and evolution via either mechanism will occur given sufficient genetic variation. Recent claims that sexual selection theory is fundamentally flawed are simply wrong and ignore an enormous body of evidence that provides a bedrock of support for this major mechanism of organic evolution. In fact it is partly due to this solid foundation that current research has largely shifted from documenting whether or not sexual selection occurs, to addressing more complex evolutionary questions. PMID:21256434

  11. Compulsory sexuality.

    PubMed

    Emens, Elizabeth F

    2014-02-01

    Asexuality is an emerging identity category that challenges the common assumption that everyone is defined by some type of sexual attraction. Asexuals--those who report feeling no sexual attraction to others--constitute one percent of the population, according to one prominent study. In recent years, some individuals have begun to identify as asexual and to connect around their experiences interacting with a sexual society. Asexuality has also become a protected classification under the antidiscrimination law of one state and several localities, but legal scholarship has thus far neglected the subject. This Article introduces asexuality to the legal literature as a category of analysis, an object of empirical study, and a phenomenon of medical science. It then offers a close examination of the growing community of self-identified asexuals. Asexual identity has revealing intersections with the more familiar categories of gender, sexual orientation, and disability, and inspires new models for understanding sexuality. Thinking about asexuality also sheds light on our legal system. Ours is arguably a sexual law, predicated on the assumption that sex is important. This Article uses asexuality to develop a framework for identifying the ways that law privileges sexuality. Across various fields, these interactions include legal requirements of sexual activity, special carve-outs to shield sexuality from law, legal protections from others' sexuality, and legal protections for sexual identity. Applying this framework, the Article traces several ways that our sexual law burdens, and occasionally benefits, asexuals. This Article concludes by closely examining asexuality's prospects for broader inclusion into federal, state, and local antidiscrimination laws.

  12. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  13. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  14. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  15. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  16. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  17. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  18. Researching Race in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Within mathematics education research, policy, and practice, race remains undertheorized in relation to mathematics learning and participation. Although race is characterized in the sociological and critical theory literatures as socially and politically constructed with structural expressions, most studies of differential outcomes in…

  19. Racing for an Early Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    States jockey for position as the U.S. Education Department readies billions of dollars in "Race to the Top" awards--the stimulus program's grand prize. Even before they've finished spending their first block of federal stimulus aid, states are getting a head start in a national "race to the top" for better public education, without even knowing…

  20. Two Patterns of Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla, Eduardo Seda

    What North Americans term "race" is not structurally isomorphic to and, thus, not synonymous with what Latin Americans apply the term to. The social identities determined by "race", and consequently the expected behavior ascribed to these identities, are so dissimilar that meetings between persons of both cultures produce uncertainty and discord.…

  1. Modelling the evolution of common cuckoo host-races: speciation or genetic swamping?

    PubMed

    Krüger, O; Kolss, M

    2013-11-01

    Co-evolutionary arms races have provided clear evidence for evolutionary change, especially in host-parasite systems. The evolution of host-specific races in the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), however, is also an example where sexual conflict influences the outcome. Cuckoo females benefit from better adaptation to overcome host defences, whereas cuckoo males face a trade-off between the benefits of better adaptation to a host and the benefits of multiple mating with females from other host-races. The outcome of this trade-off might be genetic differentiation or prevention of it by genetic swamping. We use a simulation model to test which outcome is more likely with three sympatric cuckoo host-races. We assume a cost for cuckoo chicks that express a host adaptation allele not suited to their foster host species and that cuckoo males that switch to another host-race experience either a fitness benefit or cost. Over most of the parameter space, cuckoo male host-race fidelity increases significantly with time, and gene flow between host-races ceases within a few thousand to a hundred thousand generations. Our results hence support the idea that common cuckoo host-races might be in the incipient stages of speciation.

  2. Sexual behavior problems in preteen children: developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, W N; Davies, W Hobart; Feher, Eleonora; Wright, John

    2003-06-01

    A large sample of 2-12 year old children (N = 2311) was studied to determine the relationship between three sexually intrusive behavior items (SIBs) measured by the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI) and a range of developmental, ecological, and behavioral correlates. The variables studied included age, gender, race, family income, single parent status, maternal education, family sexual behaviors, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence, social competence of the child, and three scales from the CBCL (Internalizing, Externalizing, and PTSD). Sexual abuse was not the primary predictor of SIB, but a model incorporating family adversity, modeling of coercive behavior, child behavior, and modeling of sexuality predicted a significant amount of variance. PMID:12839889

  3. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration.

  4. Constructing the Color-Blind Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives on Race and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore teachers' attitudes towards race and schooling, and the ways in which they "do" race in contemporary "color-blind" learning environments where social location is not believed to exert any meaningful influence on students' potential for success. Data for this study were gathered…

  5. New Approaches to Gender, Class, and Race in Second Language Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes constructivist and poststructuralist approaches to gender discussed in second language (L2) learning and applied key concepts to issues of gender, class, and race in L2 writing and interrelations among them. Suggests that new approaches to gender, class, and race be dialectic in that they should both explore differences between social…

  6. The Colour of Numbers: Surveys, Statistics and Deficit-Thinking about Race and Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the traditions of critical race theory, the paper is presented as a chronicle--a narrative--featuring two invented characters with different histories and expertise. Together they explore the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative approaches to race equality in education. In societies that are structured in racial domination, such as…

  7. Race and Research Methods Anxiety in an Undergraduate Sample: The Potential Effects of Self-Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckberg, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores race as a potential predictor of research methods anxiety among a sample of undergraduates. While differences in academic achievement based on race and ethnicity have been well documented, few studies have examined racial differences in anxiety with regard to specific subject matter in undergraduate curricula. This exploratory…

  8. Coping with Stressful Events: Influence of Parental Alcoholism and Race in a Community Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amodeo, Maryann; Griffin, Margaret L.; Fassler, Irene; Clay, Cassandra; Ellis, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    The study explores the role of race and differences in coping among 290 white women and black women with and without alcoholic parents, addressing two questions: (1) Does coping vary by parental alcoholism or race? and (2) How is coping in adulthood affected by childhood stressors and resources and by adulthood resources? Standardized…

  9. Race Specialists: What a Black Administrator Ought to Be and Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, D. Chanele

    2013-01-01

    Based on qualitative analysis from 22 semistructured interviews, this article explores how Black women principals and assistant principals experience educational administration, with attention to issues of race at work in suburban school settings. Findings suggest that because they may be perceived as race tokens by White educators, Black women…

  10. Counterstories of College Persistence by Undocumented Mexicana Students: Navigating Race, Class, Gender, and Legal Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Susana Maria; Maldonado, Marta Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from four sets of four in-depth interviews and one subsequent focus group to examine how undocumented Mexicana students navigate identities and the meanings of race, gender, class, and legal status. We mobilize a critical race theory framework to center and explore the content of students' counterstories. While majoritarian…

  11. Race for Results: Building a Path to Opportunity for All Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In this policy report, the Annie E. Casey Foundation explores the intersection of kids, race, and opportunity. The report features the new Race for Results index, which compares how children are progressing on key milestones across racial and ethnic groups at the national and state level. The index is based on 12 indicators that measure a…

  12. Race and Writing Assessment. Studies in Composition and Rhetoric. Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Asao B., Ed.; Poe, Mya, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Race and Writing Assessment" brings together established and up-and-coming scholars in composition studies to explore how writing assessment needs to change in order to account for the increasing diversity of students in college classrooms today. Contributors identify where we have ignored race in our writing assessment approaches and explore…

  13. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines.

    PubMed

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C; Harrington, Ellen F

    2013-01-01

    Although women of color have been hypothesized to experience double jeopardy in the form of chronic exposure to both race-based (RBD) and gender-based discrimination (GBD; Beal, 1970), few empirical investigations that examine both RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups have been conducted. In addition to being one of the only simultaneous examinations of RBD and GBD in multiple comparison groups, the current study includes both self-report and objective behavioral data to examine the independent and interactive effects of both forms of discrimination. This study is also the first of its kind to examine these constructs in these ways and to explore their impact in a unique sample of ethnically diverse male and female Marine recruits (N = 1,516). As anticipated, both RBD and GBD had a strong and consistent negative impact on mental health symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety), independent of the contributions of gender and race. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that people of color are able to maintain resiliency (as measured by physical fitness testing) in the face of low levels of RBD, but are less able to overcome the negative effects of discrimination at high levels. It is interesting to note that the interaction between race, gender, and levels of discrimination was only found with objective physical fitness test scores but not with self-report measures. These findings underscore the importance of including objective measures when assessing the impact of discrimination in order to understand these complex interrelationships.

  14. Exploring opportunities to project a "responsible man" image: gatekeepers views of young men's sexual and reproductive health needs in Uttaranchal, India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M E; Mishra, Anurag; Morankar, Sudhakar

    Increase in extramarital sex among youths, gender-based violence, lack of contraceptive knowledge among newly married couples and lack of knowledge of protection against diseases like STIs/HIV are the information and service needs of young people that need to be addressed urgently in order to make them future knowledgeable, responsible, and non-violent partners. In addressing these needs the gatekeepers, including parents, formal and informal community leaders and teachers, play a critical role, by facilitating/hindering access to appropriate and correct information about sexual and reproductive health to young people. The study was conducted in a district of Uttaranchal, India. The specific objective was to understand the social context and gatekeepers' views on family planning and sexual and reproductive health needs of young men. Thirty-two in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with parents, formal and informal community leaders, teachers, and selected development officials. The findings indicate that gatekeepers are worried about rapid changes in the aspiration, expectation, and behavior of young men. Most of them were seriously concerned about the increasing drinking habit, use of drugs, and changing values of sexuality leading to various risk behaviors among young men. They felt that many of these changes are consequences of wider societal changes, rising aspirations, explosion of electronic media, and globalization of a new youth culture where extramarital sex, alcohol consumption, and violence are expressions of different facets of masculinity and symbols of the affluent class. Overall, there was a feeling that TV/films and their peers now influence more the socialization of young people and parents are losing control in guidance and mentoring of their children. PMID:18644762

  15. Exploring the venue's role in risky sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men: an event-level analysis from a national online survey in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H; Humberstone, Mike; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2013-02-01

    Venue-based characteristics (e.g., alcohol in bars, anonymous chat online, dark/quiet spaces in bathhouses) can impact how men who have sex with men (MSM) negotiate sex and HIV-associated risk behavior. We sought to determine the association between HIV-associated risk factors and the venues where MSM met their most recent new (first-time) male sex partner, using data from a 2004 to 2005 national online anonymous survey of MSM in the U.S. (n = 2,865). Most men (62%) met their partner through the Internet. Among those reporting anal sex during their last encounter (n = 1,550), half had not used a condom. In multivariate modeling, and among men reporting anal sex during their last encounter, venue where partner was met was not significantly associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Nevertheless, venue was related to other factors that contextualized men's sexual encounters. For example, HIV status disclosure was lowest among men who met their most recent partner in a park, outdoors, or other public place and highest among men who met their most recent partner online. Alcohol use prior to/during the last sexual encounter was highest among men who met their most recent partner in a bathhouse or a bar/club/party/event. These data suggest it is possible to reach men online who seek sex in many different venues, thus potentially broadening the impact of prevention messages delivered in virtual environments. Although not associated with UAI, venues are connected to social-behavioral facets of corresponding sexual encounters, and may be important arenas for differential HIV and STI education, treatment, and prevention. PMID:22012413

  16. Exploring opportunities to project a "responsible man" image: gatekeepers views of young men's sexual and reproductive health needs in Uttaranchal, India.

    PubMed

    Khan, M E; Mishra, Anurag; Morankar, Sudhakar

    Increase in extramarital sex among youths, gender-based violence, lack of contraceptive knowledge among newly married couples and lack of knowledge of protection against diseases like STIs/HIV are the information and service needs of young people that need to be addressed urgently in order to make them future knowledgeable, responsible, and non-violent partners. In addressing these needs the gatekeepers, including parents, formal and informal community leaders and teachers, play a critical role, by facilitating/hindering access to appropriate and correct information about sexual and reproductive health to young people. The study was conducted in a district of Uttaranchal, India. The specific objective was to understand the social context and gatekeepers' views on family planning and sexual and reproductive health needs of young men. Thirty-two in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with parents, formal and informal community leaders, teachers, and selected development officials. The findings indicate that gatekeepers are worried about rapid changes in the aspiration, expectation, and behavior of young men. Most of them were seriously concerned about the increasing drinking habit, use of drugs, and changing values of sexuality leading to various risk behaviors among young men. They felt that many of these changes are consequences of wider societal changes, rising aspirations, explosion of electronic media, and globalization of a new youth culture where extramarital sex, alcohol consumption, and violence are expressions of different facets of masculinity and symbols of the affluent class. Overall, there was a feeling that TV/films and their peers now influence more the socialization of young people and parents are losing control in guidance and mentoring of their children.

  17. Characteristics of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adolescence Influence Sexual Risk Behavior in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite

    2006-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse has been associated with subsequent (adult) sexual risk behavior, but the effects of force and type of sexual abuse on sexual behavior outcomes have been less well-studied. The present study investigated the associations between sexual abuse characteristics and later sexual risk behavior, and explored whether gender of the child/adolescent moderated these relations. Patients attending an STD clinic completed a computerized survey that assessed history of sexual abuse as well as lifetime and current sexual behavior. Participants were considered sexually abused if they reported a sexual experience (1) before age 13 with someone 5 or more years older, (2) between the ages of 13 and 16 with someone 10 or more years older, or (3) before the age of 17 involving force or coercion. Participants who were sexually abused were further categorized based on two abuse characteristics, namely, use of penetration and force. Analyses included 1177 participants (n=534 women; n=643 men). Those who reported sexual abuse involving penetration and/or force reported more adult sexual risk behavior, including the number of lifetime partners and number of previous STD diagnoses, than those who were not sexually abused and those who were abused without force or penetration. There were no significant differences in sexual risk behavior between nonabused participants and those who reported sexual abuse without force and without penetration. Gender of the child/adolescent moderated the association between sexual abuse characteristics and adult sexual risk behavior; for men, sexual abuse with force and penetration was associated with the greatest number of episodes of sex trading, whereas for women, those who were abused with penetration, regardless of whether the abuse involved force, reported the most episodes of sex trading. These findings indicate that more severe sexual abuse is associated with riskier adult sexual behavior. PMID:17192833

  18. Sexualities, Teenage Pregnancy and Educational Life Histories in Portugal: Experiencing Sexual Citizenship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Laura; Araujo, Helena C.; Santos, Sofia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on Portuguese working-class teenage girls' voices and experiences concerning sexuality and pregnancy. Within a sociological, feminist and educational framework, it explores the girls' perspective on sexual and intimate citizenship as evidence of fairer forms of regulation of teenage sexualities. Through building life histories…

  19. The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Robert W.; Beuhring, Trisha; Shew, Marcia L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Sieving, Renee E.; Resnick, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, violence, suicide, and sexual intercourse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health indicated that though some behaviors appeared to relate to the factors, when taken together, these factors…

  20. The Continuum of Disclosure: Exploring Factors Predicting Tentative Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations During Forensic Interviews and the Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwendolyn D

    2016-01-01

    When a child sexual abuse investigation ensues, many children do not disclose readily to professionals. Defining disclosure beyond the disclosure versus nondisclosure dichotomy is essential, yet little research exists on factors associated with a continuum of disclosure, including active and tentative disclosure. Through the coding of 196 forensic interviews using content analysis and subsequent regression analysis, findings suggest that children of color, children abused by adults, unintentional initial disclosure, and those lacking family support were more likely to tentatively disclose in this study. Implications include a need to understand tentative disclosure as part of a normal continuum of disclosure within court proceedings and investigations of abuse allegations. PMID:27266535

  1. The role of ethnicity, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior in sexual revictimization during the transition to emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Jenny K; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Musci, Rashelle J; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Lenberg, Kathryn L

    2014-01-01

    An experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) substantially increases women's risk of adult sexual assault (ASA), but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Previous research often has not examined the full range of ASA experiences or included the influence of ethnicity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes on CSA and severity of ASA. The current study utilized path analysis to explore the relationships among ethnicity, sexual attitudes, number of lifetime sexual partners, CSA, and severity of ASA in emerging adult women. Results indicated a significant relationship between CSA and more severe ASA that was partially explained by having more lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, European American women, relative to Hispanic women, reported more severe victimization, which was fully explained by more positive attitudes toward casual sex and having more lifetime sexual partners. These results have implications in the design and implementation of universal and selective prevention programs aimed at reducing ASA and revictimization among emerging adult women. PMID:25258422

  2. The role of ethnicity, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior in sexual revictimization during the transition to emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Jenny K; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Musci, Rashelle J; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Lenberg, Kathryn L

    2014-01-01

    An experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) substantially increases women's risk of adult sexual assault (ASA), but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Previous research often has not examined the full range of ASA experiences or included the influence of ethnicity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes on CSA and severity of ASA. The current study utilized path analysis to explore the relationships among ethnicity, sexual attitudes, number of lifetime sexual partners, CSA, and severity of ASA in emerging adult women. Results indicated a significant relationship between CSA and more severe ASA that was partially explained by having more lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, European American women, relative to Hispanic women, reported more severe victimization, which was fully explained by more positive attitudes toward casual sex and having more lifetime sexual partners. These results have implications in the design and implementation of universal and selective prevention programs aimed at reducing ASA and revictimization among emerging adult women.

  3. Sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry.

  4. Science, Technology and the Nuclear Arms Race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeer, Dietrich

    1984-09-01

    A comprehensive survey of the nuclear arms race from a technological point of view, which will appeal to the scientist and non-scientist alike. Provides information for the layman on this current topic and is designed for undergraduate courses in political science, history, international studies, as well as physics courses on the subject. Explores the motivation behind the development of various nuclear arms technologies and their deployment and examines the effects these technologies have on military, political and social strategies. Discusses the nature of deterrence and alternatives to it, arms control, and disarmament.

  5. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  6. Race, Reason and Reasonableness: Toward an "Unreasonable" Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lissovoy, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the contemporary critical-theoretical notion of an "objective violence" that organizes social reality in capitalism, including processes of systemic racism, as well as from phenomenological inquiries into processes of race and identity, this article explores the relationship between racism and reasonableness in education…

  7. Race, the Black Male, and Heterogeneous Racisms in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Ray, Nichole; Lasker-Scott, Tennille

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the effects of historical and current racism on the educational experiences of American Black males. The authors use critical race theory to illustrate how assumptions about culture and gender have subverted the egalitarian ideals of adult education. Teachers and students are urged to use critical reflection and open…

  8. Changing the Odds: The Race for Results in Atlanta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Janelle; Torian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Casey has invested in several southwest Atlanta communities for more than 10 years. This report explores how race and community of residence continue to create barriers that keep the city's kids, particularly those of color, from reaching their full potential. The report highlights three key areas that support or thwart children's healthy…

  9. Citizenship and Race in Second-Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the links between citizenship and race in second-language education through an examination of the ways in which citizenship is linked to English language proficiency within a key Canadian federal adult English as a Second Language assessment document, the "Canadian Language Benchmarks" ("CLB"). It uses…

  10. Race, Ethnicity, and Self: Identity in Multicultural Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salett, Elizabeth Pathy, Ed.; Koslow, Diane R., Ed.

    The impact that race and ethnicity have on an individual's identity development in the United States are explored through the theoretical framework, issues of dominance, identity development, and questions of biraciality. The following chapters address these issues: (1) "Identity, Self, and Individualism in a Multicultural Perspective" (Alan…

  11. Race and TESOL: Introduction to Concepts and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko; Lin, Angel

    2006-01-01

    The field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) brings people from various racialized backgrounds together in teaching, learning, and research. The idea of race, racialization, and racism are inescapable topics that arise in the contact zones created by teaching English worldwide and thus are valid topics to explore in the…

  12. Race, School, and Seinfeld: Autoethnographic Sketching in Black and White

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsted, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Applying the Deluzoguattarian concept of the trace, this article explores interactions between a White teacher and his Black students and the way race is coconstructed therein. Using a short story by the Argentine mystery writer Jorge Luis Borges as a frame, the author connects the poststructural philosophy of the trace to current notions of…

  13. HPTN 062: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial Exploring the Effect of a Motivational-Interviewing Intervention on Sexual Behavior among Individuals with Acute HIV Infection in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Corneli, Amy; Kamanga, Gift; McKenna, Kevin; Rosenberg, Nora E.; Yu, Xuesong; Ou, San-San; Massa, Cecilia; Wiyo, Patricia; Lynn, Diana; Tharaldson, Jenae; Golin, Carol; Hoffman, Irving

    2015-01-01

    Objective We pilot tested a Motivational Interviewing (MI) –based counseling intervention for individuals with Acute HIV Infection (AHI) to reduce risky sexual behavior in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods Twenty-eight individuals diagnosed with AHI were randomized to receive either brief education alone, or the brief education plus the MI-based intervention, called Uphungu Wanga. Participants in Uphungu Wanga received four sessions delivered on the day of diagnosis, three days later and at weeks 1 and 2 with a booster session at week 8; participants were followed for 24 weeks from diagnosis. An interviewer administered quantitative questionnaire was conducted at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (SSI) were conducted at weeks 2, 8, 12, and 24. Results The majority of participants in both arms reported rapid and sustained behavior change following diagnosis with AHI. Very few participants reported having sex without a condom after diagnosis. Participants reported a trend towards fewer sex partners and abstaining from sex during study follow-up. Participants in the MI-based arm provided concrete examples of risk reduction strategies in the SSIs while those in the brief education arm primarily described reducing risk behavior, suggesting that the MI-based group may have acquired more risk reduction skills. Conclusions Individuals in both study arms reduced risky sexual behaviors after diagnosis with AHI. We found few major differences between study arms during the 6-month follow up period in self-reported sexual behaviors therefore a MI-based intervention may not be needed to trigger behavior change following AHI. However, comparing the MI-based intervention to repeated brief education sessions made it difficult to assess the potential benefit of an MI-based intervention in a setting where standard counseling often consists of one post-test session. Nevertheless, provision of counseling immediately following diagnosis

  14. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. PMID:24689369

  15. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other.

  16. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  17. Sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Morales, Mercedes; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2007-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed.

  18. Maximizing Peak Running on Race Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consolo, Kitty

    2008-01-01

    Distance runners spend many hours training assiduously for competition, yet on race day they can often make mistakes that sabotage their performance. This article addresses five common race-day mistakes: (1) failure to bring proper equipment to the race; (2) failure to eat an appropriate race-day meal; (3) failure to hydrate properly; (4) failure…

  19. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  20. Enhancing ethical decision making in sexuality and AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C E; Piercy, F P

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, sexuality education has consisted of teaching adolescents about human anatomy, reproduction, and sexually transmitted diseases. Most sexuality and AIDS education curricula have emphasized neither the relational aspects nor the ethical meaning of sexual behavior. However, current guidelines for comprehensive sexuality education from the National Guidelines Task Force acknowledge the ethical dimensions of sexuality. This paper advocates providing sexuality and AIDS education in a way that helps adolescents explore the ethical meaning of their sexual behavior. Principles from Rest's model of moral development are presented as one example of an ethical framework that could inform sexuality and AIDS education curricula. Rest describes four internal processes that produce moral behavior: moral sensitivity, moral judgment, moral motivation, and moral character. For each of these processes, illustrative questions and activities are suggested here which can be used by sexuality and AIDS educators to facilitate discussions with adolescents about the ethical meaning and implications of their sexual behavior.

  1. Sexual Risk Behaviors and Steroid Use among Sexual Minority Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; Jampel, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has extensively examined the relationship between the use of alcohol and illicit substances with sexual risk behaviors among sexual minority (i.e., gay and bisexual) male youth; however, no known studies have assessed the association of steroid use to risk behaviors among this population. Methods Participants were 556 sexually active sexual minority adolescent boys (M age = 16.2, SD = 1.3), taken from a pooled dataset of the 14 jurisdictions from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys that assessed sexual orientation. The association between lifetime use of steroids and sexual risk behaviors were examined. Results Controlling for number of sexual partners, depression, victimization, and race, boys who reported increased steroid use were at increased odds of engaging in condomless sex, OR = 1.55, p = .003, and use of alcohol/drugs during sex, OR = 1.48, p = .002. Conclusions Steroid use among sexual minority adolescent boys is prevalent and associated with HIV/STI sexual transmission risk behaviors. PMID:26144592

  2. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…

  3. Some Ideas on Racing Seaplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegna, Giovanni

    1932-01-01

    This report presents the author's designs and construction of various seaplanes to raced in the Schneider Cup. The results of tests are presented as well as discussions of various structures like floats and wings.

  4. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person is biologically male or female), gender identity (how people identify themselves as male, female or ... positive health benefits, such as reducing stress, improving self-esteem, and cardiovascular health. A person’s physical sexual ...

  5. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Sexual Health Basic Facts & Information All adults, including older people, ... the opportunity to enjoy a satisfying and fulfilling sex life. In fact, most of them do, even ...

  6. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing. PMID:8914287

  7. Blame It on Tyra: Race, Refugeity and Sexual Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a performative autoethnography in order to make transparent-in-context relationships and research data arising from an ethnocinematic doctoral study entitled: "Cross-marked: Sudanese Australian Young Women Talk Education". The performative structure of this paper reflects contemporary developments in qualitative and education…

  8. Discriminating Coercive from Sadomasochistic Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Smith, Felix; Quirk, Stuart W

    2016-07-01

    Sadomasochistic (SM) sexual interest is reported by a wide range of individuals. Within the sex offender literature, the presence of SM interest is often viewed as a herald of criminal sexual behavior; however, research indicates that SM interests are not predictive of coercive sexual behavior. In the current study, we measured a range of sexual fantasies and behaviors, and then applied cluster analyses to determine (1) if individuals endorsed elevated SM interests also endorsed coercive fantasies and, (2) to explore cluster membership correlates using measures of sensation seeking, externalizing and antisocial behaviors, attitudes toward rape, and empathic capacity. A total of 550 participants were recruited through a variety of on-line discussion areas. A four cluster solution best fit the data with distinct clusters observed for those endorsing SM behaviors and those reporting coercive sexual behavior. Additional analyses revealed greater endorsement of victim blaming attitudes and lower empathic concern among members of the coercive sexual behavior cluster. Elevated sensation seeking and externalizing behaviors were reported by members of clusters marked by SM and coercive sexual behavior. Results provide further support for the differentiation between SM and coercive sexual behaviors as representative of individuals with divergent attitudes, traits, and behaviors. PMID:26370404

  9. Sexual narcissism: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Hurlbert, D F; Apt, C; Gasar, S; Wilson, N E; Murphy, Y

    1994-01-01

    Sexual narcissism, an egocentric pattern of sexual behavior, has recently been described in the literature and has been discovered to be associated with cluster B type personality disorders. Although the research seems to have validated sexual narcissism as a characteristic of borderline and histrionic personality disorders, it is yet to be tested with narcissistic personalities. In an effort to further explore this relationship as well as the validity of sexual narcissism, this study systematically compared a sample (ages 24-33 years) of males with narcissistic personality disorder with an adequately matched sample of males without personality disorders. As compared to the control group, narcissistic men were found to have significantly lower self-esteem, more negative attitudes toward sex, greater egocentric patterns of sexual behavior, more conservative or traditional gender-role orientation, and greater sexual preoccupation. Despite these findings, there were no significant differences between the groups on sexual depression and the narcissistic men evidenced significantly higher sexual esteem. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  10. Education for sexual health care.

    PubMed

    Katzman, E M

    1990-03-01

    I have described the content of a sexuality course in a college of nursing and its professional application for 78 female and male nursing students. Responses to open-ended questions indicated that the course helped the students better deal with the sexual concerns of their patients and clients. As one participant said, "This class has led me to believe in sexual health care by nurses. I would have been content to leave it to the doctors or social workers who I thought were taking care of it. However, I was not aware of how little attention was given to the patients' sexual concerns by any health professional until I started looking for it. I now believe that nurses, more than anyone, can help bring about positive changes in these areas." Another student said, "I think more resources for sexuality teaching should be available for nurses. I have cared for many patients who could have used this type of intervention, but I was not prepared to give it." Given the AIDS epidemic, it is vital that nurses be prepared to deal with the sensitive aspects of sexuality in AIDS prevention, with people with AIDS, and with their significant others and caregivers. Of all health care professionals, nurses are in a unique position to help such patients and clients. A sexuality course can help nurses explore their own values and feelings as well as learn the effects of illness on patients' sexuality. Patients, their families, and nurses will all benefit.

  11. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation.

  12. Hyperdiagnostics: postcolonial utopics of race-based biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Whitmarsh, Ian

    2009-07-01

    The expansion of biomedical research into countries outside the United States and Western Europe is positing new biological links between populations based on race. This expansion includes six international projects occurring in Barbados, premised on the idea that the population is genetically representative of other black people. Based on ethnographic research tracking one such study, a genetics of asthma project, this article explores the ways Caribbean meanings of ethnicity and illness are reworked as Barbadian state medical practitioners become involved in facilitating the international genetics research on race and disease. As the state attempts to participate in an imagined future of genetic medicine, the hyperspecificity of genetic technologies create new medical meanings of race and disease. These changes rely on a paradoxical response by medical practitioners toward the high technology American genetic research as both authoritative and inapplicable, creating unexpected etiologies of illness and ethnicity.

  13. Race Salience and Essentialist Thinking in Racial Stereotype Development

    PubMed Central

    Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Apfelbaum, Evan P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the emergence and antecedents of racial stereotyping in 89 children ages 3–10 years. Children completed a number of matching and sorting tasks, including a measure designed to assess their knowledge and application of both positive and negative in-group and out-group stereotypes. Results indicate that children start to apply stereotypes to the out-group starting around 6 years of age. Controlling for a number of factors, two predictors contributed significantly towards uniquely explaining the use of these stereotypes: race salience (i.e., seeing and organizing by race) and essentialist thinking (i.e., believing that race cannot change). These results provide insight into how and when real-world interventions aimed at altering the acquisition of racial stereotypes may be implemented. PMID:21077865

  14. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  15. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  16. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence.

  17. Criminal consequences of childhood sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Widom, C P; Ames, M A

    1994-04-01

    Using a prospective cohorts design, we assess the long-term criminal consequences of childhood sexual abuse through an examination of official criminal histories for a large sample of validated cases of childhood sexual abuse, compared to cases of physical abuse and neglect and a control group matched for age, race, sex, and approximate family socioeconomic status. Compared to other types of abuse and neglect, early childhood sexual abuse does not uniquely increase an individual's risk for later delinquent and adult criminal behavior. Childhood sexual abuse victims were at increased risk of arrest as a juvenile for being a runaway. As adults, child sexual abuse victims were at higher risk of arrest for sex crimes than controls, as were victims of physical abuse and neglect. Childhood sexual abuse victims were more likely to be arrested for prostitution as adults than other abuse and neglect victims and controls, regardless of gender. However, there was no support for a direct relationship among child sexual abuse, arrests for running away in adolescence, and adult arrests for prostitution. The findings also suggest an association for males between physical abuse and arrests for violent sex crimes (rape and/or sodomy). Caution is needed in interpreting these findings because of exclusive reliance on official record data and the possible impact of agency intervention. PMID:8187016

  18. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:27294412

  19. Individual and Family Correlates of Adolescents' Sexual Behavior: Multiethnic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…

  20. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  1. "Race", ethnicity and haemoglobin disorders.

    PubMed

    Dyson, S M

    1998-07-01

    The new genetics has brought forth concerns that such developments as screening for genetic diseases will accentuate the oppression of minority ethnic groups [Bradby (1996) Genetics and racism. In The Troubled Helix: social and psychological aspects of the new human genetics, ed. T. Marteau and M. Richards, pp. 295-316. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. Haemoglobin disorders primarily affect minority ethnic groups in the U.K. but have been the subject of protest regarding lack of services as much as the unwelcome advent of them. This paper examines various conceptions of "race", from biological reductionism, through notions of ethnicity, racialized groups, sociological conceptions of "race", political and analytical uses of the term "Black" and so-called "new ethnicities" such as situational and plastic ethnicity in order to examine the consequences of these competing conceptions of race for a social analysis of sickle cell anaemia and beta-thalassaemia. The paper concludes that any group of people associated with the haemoglobin disorders are subject both to constraints upon their actions and opportunities for re-interpreting their social world. In conclusion it is proposed that no nomenclature classifies the phenomenon unproblematically. The notion of race as a political construct [Goldberg (1993) Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Blackwell, Oxford] is used to suggest that attempts to construct all-embracing definitions themselves signal the potential abuses which may be attendant upon programmatic or mechanistic conceptions of the relationship between race and haemoglobin disorders.

  2. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-02-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  3. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  4. Sexual communication and sexual behavior among young adult heterosexual latinos.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Bauermeister, José A; Villarruel, Antonia M

    2014-01-01

    We examined verbal sexual health communication, pleasure discussions, and physical sexual communication in relation to condom use by young adult, heterosexual Latinos (ages 18-30 years). Participants (N = 220, 51% female) were recruited in a Midwestern state. Verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with consistent condom use among men (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, p < .05) and women (OR = 3.12, p < .05). For men, pleasure discussions were negatively associated with consistent condom use (OR = 0.21, p < .05). For women, verbal sexual health communication was positively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.75, p < .05), whereas physical sexual communication was negatively associated with condom use at last sex (OR = .29, p < .05). Various aspects of sexual communication may be important in HIV-prevention programs with young Latinos. Physical sexual communication and pleasure discussions, in particular, warrant further exploration given negative relationships with condom use.

  5. White Teachers Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Avner; Garrett, James

    2013-01-01

    In light of the increasing racial diversity in American schools and the consistently homogenous teacher workforce in the United States, understanding the ways white teachers consider and attend to racial issues is of crucial importance to the educational landscape. This paper, based on a qualitative study, explores five white American…

  6. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  7. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  8. Genes, race, and culture in clinical care: racial profiling in the management of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Linda M; Truesdell, Nicole D; Kreiner, Meta J

    2013-06-01

    Race, although an unscientific concept, remains prominent in health research and clinical guidelines, and is routinely invoked in clinical practice. In interviews with 58 primary care clinicians we explored how they understand and apply concepts of racial difference. We found wide agreement that race is important to consider in clinical care. They explained the effect of race on health, drawing on common assumptions about the biological, class, and cultural characteristics of racial minorities. They identified specific race-based clinical strategies for only a handful of conditions and were inconsistent in the details of what they said should be done for minority patients. We conclude that using race in clinical medicine promotes and maintains the illusion of inherent racial differences and may result in minority patients receiving care aimed at presumed racial group characteristics, rather than care selected as specifically appropriate for them as individuals.

  9. Exploring racism.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Helen

    2002-10-01

    Whilst the concept of 'race' has no basis in genetics or biology, the dynamics of racism pervade all aspects of modern life--including the consulting room. In this paper the relationship between a white therapist and a black patient is explored through an unbidden thought and a verbal slip that occurred in the course of the therapy. The amplification and examination of these unwanted 'slips' are used to shed light on the subtleties of the effects of difference in colour on the relationship. It is argued here that the interaction reflects and illuminates the asymmetrical relationship between 'black' and 'white' in modern-western society. This is then considered using the concepts of the cultural unconscious and social unconscious as ways of understanding the tenacity of racism in ourselves.

  10. The nature of sexual reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, L L; Holloway, K S; Domjan, M

    1993-01-01

    Sexual reinforcers are not part of a regulatory system involved in the maintenance of critical metabolic processes, they differ for males and females, they differ as a function of species and mating system, and they show ontogenetic and seasonal changes related to endocrine conditions. Exposure to a member of the opposite sex without copulation can be sufficient for sexual reinforcement. However, copulatory access is a stronger reinforcer, and copulatory opportunity can serve to enhance the reinforcing efficacy of stimulus features of a sexual partner. Conversely, under certain conditions, noncopulatory exposure serves to decrease reinforcer efficacy. Many common learning phenomena such as acquisition, extinction, discrimination learning, second-order conditioning, and latent inhibition have been demonstrated in sexual conditioning. These observations extend the generality of findings obtained with more conventional reinforcers, but the mechanisms of these effects and their gender and species specificity remain to be explored. PMID:8354970

  11. Breaking the Silence: Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogart, Karen; Stein, Nan

    1987-01-01

    This article examines a range of behaviors which females in secondary schools and higher education institutions have experienced and described as sexual harassment, explores the underlying dynamics of harassment, and evaluates legal and other strategies for preventing and addressing sexual harassment. (IAH)

  12. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  13. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  14. "Race" and Community Care. "Race," Health and Social Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Waqar I. U., Ed.; Atkin, Karl, Ed.

    This collection offers a wide-ranging introduction to contemporary issues surrounding the health care needs of members of minority ethnic communities within the framework of community care in Britain. The following chapters consider state welfare, minority communities, family structures, and social change: (1) "'Race' and Community Care: An…

  15. Association of Race Consciousness With the Patient–Physician Relationship, Medication Adherence, and Blood Pressure in Urban Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Race consciousness (the frequency with which one thinks about his or her own race) is a measure that may be useful in assessing whether racial discrimination negatively impacts blood pressure (BP). However, the relation between race consciousness and BP has yet to be empirically tested, especially within the context of the patient–physician relationship and medication adherence. METHODS Race-stratified generalized estimating equations were used to assess the relationship of race consciousness on BP, measures of the patient–physician relationship, and self-reported medication adherence, controlling for patients being nested within physicians and for patient age and sex. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 61.3 years, 62% were black, and 65% were women. Black patients were more likely to ever think about race than were white patients (49% vs. 21%; P < 0.001). Race-conscious blacks had significantly higher diastolic BP (79.4 vs. 74.5mm Hg; P = 0.004) and somewhat higher systolic BP (138.8 vs. 134.7mm Hg; P = 0.13) than blacks who were not race conscious. Race-conscious whites were more likely to perceive respect from their physician (57.1% vs. 25.8%; P = 0.01) but had lower medication adherence (62.4% vs. 82.9%; P = 0.05) than whites who were not race-conscious. CONCLUSIONS Among blacks, race consciousness was associated with higher diastolic BP. In contrast, among whites, there was no association between race consciousness and BP, but race consciousness was associated with poor ratings of adherence, despite more favorable ratings of the patient–physician relationship. Future work should explore disparities in race consciousness and its impact on health and health-care disparities. PMID:23864583

  16. Relating sexual sadism and psychopathy to one another, non-sexual violence, and sexual crime behaviors.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Carrie A; Knight, Raymond A

    2014-01-01

    Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor.

  17. Relating Sexual Sadism and Psychopathy to One Another, Non-Sexual Violence, and Sexual Crime Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Carrie A.; Knight, Raymond A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. PMID:24019144

  18. Sexual Pleasure and Sexual Risk among Women who Use Methamphetamine: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Lorvick, Jennifer; Bourgois, Philippe; Wenger, Lynn D.; Arreola, Sonya G.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Kral, Alex H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The intersection of drug use, sexual pleasure and sexual risk behavior is rarely explored when it comes to poor women who use drugs. This paper explores the relationship between sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in a community-based sample of women, exploring not only risk, but also desire, pleasure and the challenges of overcoming trauma. Methods Quantitative data were collected using standard epidemiological methods (N=322) for community-based studies. In addition, using purposive sampling, qualitative data were collected among a subset of participants (n=34). Data were integrated for mixed methods analysis. Results While many participants reported sexual risk behavior (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse) in the quantitative survey, sexual risk was not the central narrative pertaining to sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in qualitative findings. Rather, desire, pleasure and disinhibition arose as central themes. Women described feelings of power and agency related to sexual behavior while high on methamphetamine. Findings were mixed on whether methamphetamine use increased sexual risk behavior. Conclusion The use of mixed methods afforded important insights into the sexual behavior and priorities of methamphetamine-using women. Efforts to reduce sexual risk should recognize and valorize the positive aspects of methamphetamine use for some women, building on positive feelings of power and agency as an approach to harm minimization. PMID:22954501

  19. An Analysis of a White Preservice Teacher's Reflections on Race and Young Children within an Urban School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Tambra O.; Bryan, Michelle L.; Larkin, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    Building upon research that theorizes and documents students' perceptions of race, racial attitudes, and treatment by teachers, this article explores the impact of resegregation on how children of Color see and experience race in schools, specifically in relation to their teachers. Drawing upon our interpretations of a White preservice teacher's…

  20. "Race" and Early Childhood Education: An International Approach to Identity, Politics, and Pedagogy. Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…

  1. Interracial Families and the Racial Identification of Mixed-Race Children: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsma, David L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a nationally-representative sample of kindergarten-aged children is used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to explore the structure of parental racial designation of mixed-race children. The variation in these parental designations of a variety of mixed-race children is described. Parental racial designations in the…

  2. Television viewing and adolescents' sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Newcomer, S F

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades the sexual content on television has increased in frequency and explicitness but has seldom included depiction of the use of contraceptives. Concurrently, the age of initiation of heterosexual intercourse has decreased and the number of teenaged pregnancies has remained high. Are these trends related? This survey of 391 adolescents found that those who chose heavier diets of sexy television shows were more likely than those who viewed a smaller proportion of sexual content on television to have had sexual intercourse. This relationship held regardless of perceived peer encouragement to engage in sex and across race and gender groups. While causal direction is not clear from these data, the relationship suggests that either sexual activity results in increased interest in sexual content in the media and/or that viewing such content leads to sexual activity. In either case, the finding points to the need for further research and increased discussion and portrayal of the use of contraceptives on television.

  3. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  4. Sexual Addiction and the Internet: Implications for Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Brian J.; Chaney, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors present an overview of sexual addiction and explore the relationship between Internet use and sexual compulsivity. The role of Internet use in gay men's sexual behavior is described. Implications for the counseling profession are discussed, and a clinical case study is presented.

  5. The Sexual Harassment of Faculty Members by Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matchen, Jim; DeSouza, Eros

    2000-01-01

    College students and faculty completed a questionnaire exploring student sexual harassment of faculty members. Female faculty reported significantly more unwanted sexual attention from students and were more bothered by it than male faculty. Both sexes experienced equal amounts of sexual harassment, but females were more bothered by it. There were…

  6. The Sexuality Education and Attitudes of College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the type and quality of sexuality education received by college students in Hangzhou, China. Their attitudes towards sex and sexuality were also explored. To set the broader context the regulations and laws governing the provision of sexuality education in China have also been examined.…

  7. Educational Psychologists' Constructions of Sexuality and the Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Chloe

    2012-01-01

    Despite an underlying inclusion agenda, sexuality equality remains a low priority in education. Review of literature suggests the marginalization of sexual minority young people (SMYP) in schools. This study explores educational psychologists' (EPs') constructions of sexuality and the implications for practice. Discursive psychology was used to…

  8. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  9. Do Mothers' Opinions Matter in Teens' Sexual Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…

  10. Beyond Alphabet Soup: Helping College Health Professionals Understand Sexual Fluidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Evans, Samantha; Drott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many college students today are no longer using the terms straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender to self-identify their sexual orientation or gender identity. This commentary explores research related to fluidity of sexual identities, emerging sexual identities used by college students, and how these identities interact with the health…

  11. Education in Disguise: Sanctioning Sexuality in Elementary School Halloween Celebrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Erica Misako

    2016-01-01

    Halloween as celebrated in US elementary schools provides a rare opportunity to explore the more tangible manifestations of sexuality. A time of celebration, Halloween is perceived as a festive event for children, being both "innocent" and fun. Yet, because it is the one school day where sexuality is on display, sexuality becomes a…

  12. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  13. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  14. "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools": Queering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John

    2012-01-01

    This essay reviews Maria Pallotta-Chiarolli's (2010) Lambda Award-winning monograph "Border Sexualities, Border Families in Schools", in which queer and mestizage pedagogies frame a groundbreaking and highly accessible exploration of the issues that sexual border dwellers experience. Her particular focus areas are bisexual "sexually fluid"…

  15. A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour:…

  16. Race Categorization Modulates Holistic Face Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Caroline; Corneille, Olivier; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that same-race (SR) faces are processed more holistically than other-race (OR) faces, a difference that may underlie the greater difficulty at recognizing OR than SR faces (the "other-race effect"). This article provides original evidence suggesting that the holistic processing of faces may be sensitive to the observers'…

  17. Race, Social Class, and IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr-Salapatek, Sandra

    1971-01-01

    Environmental influences were important determiners of aptitude and ability as measured by the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills in a twin study using black and white students. There were insufficient data to determine the relative contribution of environmental and genetic variance between races. (AL)

  18. Race, Culture and Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  19. Race: scientific nonproblem, cultural quagmire.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Ian

    2004-05-01

    The matter of biological differentiation among human beings has been a perennial concern of physical anthropologists, whose profession grew out of the monogenist/polygenist debates of the 18th century, and who periodically feel impelled to issue sonorous pronouncements on the subject. In spite of (or perhaps because of) the extensive and difficult cultural ramifications of the race issue, such pronouncements have usually presented the matter of race as one that requires extensive bioanthropological exegesis. In reality, however, race is the most banal of biological issues. Within any species, including Homo sapiens, two biological processes are possible: physical differentiation (as routinely occurs in small population isolates) and reintegration (should the resulting differentiated populations come together in the absence of any barrier to mating). The history of Homo sapiens reflects both of these processes: initial differentiation among small, scattered populations in the later part of the Pleistocene, and subsequent reintegration as the human population expanded and these populations came together once more. It is for this reason that, while certain modal physical types can be recognized on any urban street today (differentiation), it is impossible to recognize any clear boundaries between them (reintegration). All of this is perfectly unremarkable in evolutionary terms, and requires no special explanation. The complexities of the race issue are real, of course, and it is important that we come to terms with them; but they will not be resolved by biologists.

  20. Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Philip S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

  1. Game Plan. Race against Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Presents a learning center game that will help children develop and improve skills with reference books while helping to familiarize them with the problem of endangered species. Emphasizes that saving endangered species is a race against time. Provides an alternative activity for younger learners. (CW)

  2. RACE pulls for shared control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Michael B., Jr.; Cassiday, Brian K.

    1992-11-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. An organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. The small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALCs will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  3. Rethinking the American Race Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Roy L.

    Whereas political inequality was once seen as the key element of the American race problem, today the problem can be seen in terms of social and economic disparities. Three general socioeconomic classes have emerged in the United States, a middle class, a working class, and a poverty-stricken class. The status of African Americans can no longer be…

  4. Two-Dice Horse Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  5. Race Relations in Western Nebraska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Melvin L.

    This report is derived from a community forum held in Scottsbluff (Nebraska) on April 28-29, 1993, by the Nebraska Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Views on race relations in selected areas of western Nebraska were expressed by concerned citizens; community leaders; government officials (federal, state, and…

  6. On the Complexity of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyphur, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Although a variety of studies have indicated that using statistical clustering techniques to examine genetic information may allow for geographically based groupings of individuals that tenuously map onto some conceptions of race, these studies have also indicated that the amount of genetic variation within these groupings is significantly larger…

  7. Racing toward the Finish Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents replies to published comments on the authors' original article (R. L. Sternberg, E. L. Grigorenko, and K. K. Kidd. G. Carey cited in his response to their article a study by Tang et al. (2005) showing that "of 3,636 subjects of varying race/ethnicity, only 5 (0.14%) showed genetic cluster membership different from their…

  8. Grower Recommendations: Fusarium Race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium, particularly race 4, has become a significant management issue in the San Joaquin Valley cotton production area of California. Recommendations for limiting spread of inoculum of this fungal disease have been modified somewhat over the approximately 10 years of experience with this disease,...

  9. The Shadow of Physical Harm? Examining the Unique and Gendered Relationship Between Fear of Murder Versus Fear of Sexual Assault on Fear of Violent Crime.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Samantha; Cook, Carrie L

    2015-09-01

    The shadow hypothesis regarding the impact of fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime suggests that female fear of crime is characterized by concern about sexual assault as a contemporaneous victimization event during a violent crime event. Recent research has found that other types of crime, namely physical assault, may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. We know of no research that has examined the unique impact of fear of murder versus fear of sexual assault on fear of violent crime. There is also a lack of research that explores how these two types of fear uniquely affect men and women. In addition to gender, we examine factors that have been suggested in previous research to correlate with fear of crime: race, victimization, vicarious victimization, and perceived risk. Through survey methodology, this research examines the unique relationship between both fear of murder and fear of sexual assault and fear of three types of violent crime for men and women. Results suggest differences in how fear of murder and fear of sexual assault are related to fear of other types of violence for men and women. Specifically, fear of murder is important in estimating male fear of robbery and aggravated assault. However, fear of sexual assault is almost as important as fear of murder for men in estimating fear of home invasion. Similarly, for women, fear of sexual assault and fear of murder both are significant factors associated with fear of violent crime, and differences between the levels of significance are marginal. This study is a first to examine whether murder may also be feared as a contemporaneous offense. The results are informative in identifying what drives fear of crime, particularly violent crime, for both men and women. Avenues for future research are discussed.

  10. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  11. Sexual coercion and behavior among a sample of sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Sexual coercion may affect the sexual experiences of sexual minority women differently. Women (n=445) aged 18 to 71 years (Mean=30.38) answered an online survey on sexual orientation, lifetime coercion, and sexual history. Sexual minority women (45.8%, n=204) were more likely to report having been coerced into unwanted sexual behavior (56.5%) than heterosexual women (44.8 %; p=0.010). Coerced sexual minority women reported earlier ages of initiation into performing oral sex (p=0.016), penile-vaginal (p=0.024), and penile-anal (p=0.027) intercourse. In multiple logistic regression models, currently being in a partnered relationship was the sole factor related to lifetime engagement in penile-vaginal intercourse and receiving oral sex from partners. Having at least a graduate degree was the only characteristic related to engagement in lifetime penile-anal intercourse. Sexual coercion was not related to any lifetime sexual behavior outcomes. The nature of sexual initiation and coercion should be explored further among sexual minority women, with the goal of incorporating their experiences into prevention and treatment initiatives.

  12. Sexual coercion and behavior among a sample of sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Sexual coercion may affect the sexual experiences of sexual minority women differently. Women (n=445) aged 18 to 71 years (Mean=30.38) answered an online survey on sexual orientation, lifetime coercion, and sexual history. Sexual minority women (45.8%, n=204) were more likely to report having been coerced into unwanted sexual behavior (56.5%) than heterosexual women (44.8 %; p=0.010). Coerced sexual minority women reported earlier ages of initiation into performing oral sex (p=0.016), penile-vaginal (p=0.024), and penile-anal (p=0.027) intercourse. In multiple logistic regression models, currently being in a partnered relationship was the sole factor related to lifetime engagement in penile-vaginal intercourse and receiving oral sex from partners. Having at least a graduate degree was the only characteristic related to engagement in lifetime penile-anal intercourse. Sexual coercion was not related to any lifetime sexual behavior outcomes. The nature of sexual initiation and coercion should be explored further among sexual minority women, with the goal of incorporating their experiences into prevention and treatment initiatives. PMID:24400673

  13. Subjective Sexual Experiences of Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States: Sexual Attraction, Sexual Behaviors, & Condom Use

    PubMed Central

    Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Goncalves, Gabriel; Martinez, Omar; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Malebranche, David; Murray, Maresa; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Studies concerning behaviorally bisexual men continue to focus on understanding sexual risk in according to a narrow range of sexual behaviors. Few studies have explored the subjective meanings and experiences related to bisexual men’s sexual behaviors with both male and female partners. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 75 men who engaged in bisexual behavior within the past six months. Participants were asked about their subjective sexual experiences with male and female partners. Findings suggest adherence to normative gender roles, with attraction to men and women conforming to these stereotypes, as well as a segregation of sexual behaviors along gendered lines. Overall, condom use was influenced by perceptions of potential negative consequences. Based on these findings, it remains critical that public health and other social and behavioral sciences continue to study bisexual men’s sexual health issues as separate and distinct from their exclusively homosexual and heterosexual counterparts. PMID:22745592

  14. Interactive computer graphics: the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Hafemeister, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    By using interactive computer graphics (ICG) it is possible to discuss the numerical aspects of some arms race issues with more specificity and in a visual way. The number of variables involved in these issues can be quite large; computers operated in the interactive, graphical mode, can allow exploration of the variables, leading to a greater understanding of the issues. This paper will examine some examples of interactive computer graphics: (1) the relationship between silo hardening and the accuracy, yield, and reliability of ICBMs; (2) target vulnerability (Minuteman, Dense Pack); (3) counterforce vs. countervalue weapons; (4) civil defense; (5) gravitational bias error; (6) MIRV; (7) national vulnerability to a preemptive first strike; (8) radioactive fallout; (9) digital-image processing with charge-coupled devices. 17 references, 11 figures, 1 table.

  15. Sexual health, marital sex, and sexual risk in urban poor communities in India.

    PubMed

    Bojko, Martha J; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Burleson, Joseph A; Moonzwe, Lwendo S; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2010-07-01

    Marital sex has been an unaddressed component of sexual risk. This article explores marital sex and its link to men's extramarital sexual behavior in 3 economically marginal communities in Mumbai, India. Using in-depth interviews with women, men, and couples, qualitative results are presented on first night experiences, ability of women to refuse their husbands' demands for sex, sexual communication, and sexual pleasure associated with marital sex. Using regression analysis of survey data for 260 couples, the quantitative results indicate that greater sexual satisfaction for both men and women is significantly related to men's lesser involvement in extramarital sex. These results provide a basis for a couples' intervention effort that can yield greater marital and sexual communication and reduction in sexual risk.

  16. Sexual bondage: a review and unobtrusive investigation.

    PubMed

    Ernulf, K E; Innala, S M

    1995-12-01

    To investigate unobtrusively how individuals experience sexual bondage, we analyzed all messages about sexual bondage (N = 514) mailed to an international computerized discussion group on sexual bondage in 1990. The most frequent individual experience reported (n = 60) was playful use of bondage to explore new areas of sexual pleasure. Other frequent experiences were the exchange of power, intensified sexual pleasure, and tactile stimulation and bodily sensations. Preference for the dominant-initiator role was expressed in 71% of the messages by male heterosexuals, 11% of the messages by heterosexual females, and 12% of the messages by homosexual males. Preference for the submissive-recipient role was expressed in 29% of the messages by heterosexual males, 89% by heterosexual females, and 88% by homosexual males. In 33% of messages subjects stated that sexual bondage occurred simultaneously with sadomasochism or was perceived as part of it. PMID:8572912

  17. Sensual sexuality education with young parenting women.

    PubMed

    Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B

    2014-08-01

    Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing.

  18. Injuries in professional motor car racing drivers at a racing circuit between 1996 and 2000

    PubMed Central

    Minoyama, O; Tsuchida, H

    2004-01-01

    Background: Research on injuries in racing drivers is limited. Objective: To gain more information about such injuries. Methods: Injuries recorded during and after races between 1996 and 2000 were investigated using the medical charts from the circuit medical centre at Fuji Speedway, which is one of the biggest circuits in Japan. Races were in either single seat/formula cars or saloon cars. Results: Data were obtained from 39 races in single seat cars (1030 participating cars) and 42 races in saloon cars (1577 cars). Fifty injuries were recorded during the single seat car races, and 62 during the saloon car races (injury rate 1.2 per 1000 competitors per race and 0.9 per 1000 competitors per race respectively). Thirteen injuries were recorded after the race, 12 of them in saloon car racing. Bruises were the major injury in single seat car racing (58%). Lower limb bruising was more common than upper limb bruising. Most of the injuries in saloon car racing (53.2%) were neck sprains. The incidence of concussion was high in both groups compared with other high risk sports. Conclusions: There were some differences in injuries between the two types of car. No serious injuries occurred except for one death. However, the driver's body is subjected to large forces in a crash, hence the high incidence of concussion. The injuries recorded after the race emphasise that motor racing is a demanding sport. PMID:15388550

  19. The spectre of race in American medicine.

    PubMed

    Fofana, Mariam O

    2013-12-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices.

  20. Developmental craniofacial anthropometry: Assessment of Race effects

    PubMed Central

    Durtschi, Reid B.; Chung, Dongjun; Gentry, Lindell R.; Chung, Moo K.; Vorperian, Houri K.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in craniofacial anatomy among racial groups have been documented in a variety of structures but the oral and maxillofacial regions have been shown to be a particularly defining region of variability between different racial/ethnic groups. Such comparisons are informative, but they neither address developmental changes of the craniofacial anatomy, nor do they assess or take into account the natural variability within individual races that may account for similar reported, across-group variations. The purpose of this report was to compare – using medical imaging studies – the growth trend of select race sensitive craniofacial variables in the oral and pharyngeal regions when all races: White, Asian, Black, and Hispanic (AR) are included versus only a single race category: White (WR). Race effect was tested by comparing sex specific growth fits (4th degree polynomial model) for AR versus WR data. Findings indicate that the inclusion of all races versus a single race did not significantly alter the growth model fits. Thus, the inclusion of all races permits the advancement of general growth models; however, methodologically it is best to treat the race variable as a covariate in all future analysis to test for both potential all race effects or individual race effects, on general growth models. PMID:19753647