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Sample records for exploring race sexuality

  1. Exploring the Relationship between Weight, Race and Sexual Behaviors among Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Cheryl P.; Gold, Melanie A.; Chang, Judy Chia-Chi; Doswell, Willa; Wiesenfeld, Harold C.; Feng, Wentao; Bost, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective The relationship between weight and sexual behavior among adolescents is poorly understood. In this descriptive study, we examined the relationship between three weight indices and six sexual behaviors in a nationally representative sample of high school girls. Patients and Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of self-reported data from 7,193 high school girls who completed the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance survey. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine associations among three weight indices (body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and weight misperception) and six sexual behaviors (ever had vaginal sex, sex before age 13, ≥ 4 sexual partners, and alcohol, condom and oral contraceptive use at last sex) adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and a history of intimate partner violence. Results Most participants were Caucasian (62%), had a normal BMI (69%) and perceived their weight as ‘about right’ (51%). Almost half (49%) reported ever having sex. In the regression analysis, there were no differences in the likelihood of ever having sex based on BMI or weight perception accuracy; however, girls who perceived themselves as overweight were less likely to have ever had sex. Among sexually-active girls, those with low BMI, who perceived themselves as overweight or with overweight misperceptions were less likely to report condom use at last sex. Sexually active girls who perceived themselves as overweight were also more likely to have had sex before age 13. Associations between the three weight indices and sexual risk behaviors varied across racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Sexual risk behaviors may be more common among girls who are underweight or perceive themselves (accurately or not) to be overweight vary by racial/ethnic group. This suggests girls at weight extremes and those from different racial backgrounds may have unique sexual health education and prevention needs. PMID

  2. Prevalence of Past-Year Sexual Assault Victimization Among Undergraduate Students: Exploring Differences by and Intersections of Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Robert W S; Mair, Christina; Miller, Elizabeth; Blosnich, John R; Matthews, Derrick D; McCauley, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    A critical step in developing sexual assault prevention and treatment is identifying groups at high risk for sexual assault. We explored the independent and interaction effects of sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity on past-year sexual assault among college students. From 2011 to 2013, 71,421 undergraduate students from 120 US post-secondary education institutions completed cross-sectional surveys. We fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine differences in past-year sexual assault. Compared to cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) men, cisgender women (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.29, 2.68) and transgender people (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI 2.68, 5.76) had higher odds of sexual assault. Among cisgender people, gays/lesbians had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals for men (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.81, 4.35) but not for women (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.87, 1.46). People unsure of their sexual identity had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals, but effects were larger among cisgender men (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.10, 4.08) than cisgender women (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.40, 2.02). Bisexuals had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals with similar magnitude among cisgender men (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.37, 4.27) and women (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI 2.05, 2.60). Among transgender people, Blacks had higher odds of sexual assault than Whites (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI 1.09, 62.82). Predicted probabilities of sexual assault ranged from 2.6 (API cisgender men) to 57.7% (Black transgender people). Epidemiologic research and interventions should consider intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity to better tailor sexual assault prevention and treatment for college students.

  3. Exploring the Roles of Race, Ethnicity, Nationality, and Skin Color in the Sexual Partner Choices of Bisexual Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Severson, Nicolette

    2017-09-19

    Racial and ethnic differences are well-documented social factors shaping sexual interactions. However, these racial/ethnic dynamics have been mostly overlooked in the context of sexual fluidity, specifically for bisexual individuals. Furthermore, there is limited literature on how sexual objectification based on skin color and ethnicity, factors well documented to influence individual's sexual partnering decision, might be different for male, female, and/or transgender partners of bisexual individuals. From 2009 to 2014, we conducted a mixed methods study examining how bisexual Latino men construct and participate in their sex markets. In the qualitative component of the study, we asked behaviorally bisexual Latino men (n = 148) how race/ethnicity, prejudice, stereotyping, and objectification intersected with their sexuality, specifically perceptions of their sexual experiences, decision making regarding sexual partners, and their reflection of their own race/ethnicity in their sexuality. We conducted a content analysis and identified three recurrent themes that are fully described in this article: (1) Bisexual Latino men objectify other men based on skin color, ethnicity, and race; (2) the race and ethnicity of women and transgender partners were not a dominant factor in sexual partnering decision making; and (3) sexual objectification based on skin color and ethnicity was a frequent, dominant experience throughout the sexual histories of our study participants. In summary, our findings suggest that bisexual Latino men participate in sex markets where race, ethnic, and nationality differences play a role in shaping men's desires for other men as sexual partners and they themselves are objects of desire.

  4. A Latent Class Analysis of Behavioral and Psychosocial Dimensions of Adolescent Sexuality: Exploring Race Differences.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Maggie L

    2016-12-16

    Adolescent sexuality is a multidimensional concept involving sexual behavior as well as aspects of youth's sexual self-concept and sexual socialization. The current study used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine patterns of adolescent sexuality, with data from a nationally representative sample of youth (Add Health; n = 13,447), incorporating information on behavioral and psychosocial dimensions of adolescent sexual experiences. LCA results highlighted that youth may exhibit similar sexual behaviors but vary on psychosocial dimensions, including sexual self-efficacy, knowledge, and views about sex. Sociodemographic characteristics, family factors, mental health, and substance use emerged as predictors of membership into different latent classes of sexuality. Given persistent racial differences in sexual outcomes and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, the current study also examined how adolescent patterns of sexuality may help mediate racial differences in sexual outcomes by young adulthood. Results suggested that racial differences in adolescent patterns of sexuality help mediate racial differences in the number of sexual partners by young adulthood but not differences in STI diagnosis. Findings highlight the need for research on multiple aspects of adolescent sexuality to understand linkages with later outcomes and group differences.

  5. Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

  6. Sexual orientation differences in attitudes about sexuality, race, and gender.

    PubMed

    Grollman, Eric Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have extensively documented sociodemographic predictors of race and gender attitudes, and the mechanisms through which such attitudes are formed and change. Despite its growing recognition as an important status characteristic, sexual orientation has received little attention as a predictor of Americans' race and gender attitudes. Using nationally representative data from the American National Election Survey 2012 Time Series Study, I compare heterosexuals' and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people's attitudes about sexuality, race, and gender. For most attitudes, LGB people hold significantly more liberal attitudes about sexuality, race, and gender than do heterosexuals, even upon controlling for other powerful sociodemographic determinants of social attitudes. However, a substantial proportion of these sexual orientation gaps in attitudes - especially about race and gender - are explained by LGB people's relatively liberal political ideology. The findings provide evidence for the necessity of incorporating sexual orientation in future assessments of Americans' social and political attitudes.

  7. Race, Drug Use and Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines drug use, including alcohol, as a factor in risky sexual behavior while considering patterns across sex and race. Both factors have been given insufficient attention in prior research. The data for this study come from a survey of 1,052 college students from a Midwestern state. Findings indicate that drug use is associated with…

  8. Race-Based Sexual Stereotyping and Sexual Partnering Among Men Who Use the Internet to Identify Other Men for Bareback Sex

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Valera, Pamela; Ventuneac, Ana; Balan, Ivan; Rowe, Matt; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used sexual scripting theory to explore sexual stereotyping and sexual partnering practices among a racially diverse sample of men who use the Internet to engage in “bareback” sex with other men. The sample included 81 (73%) HIV-negative and 30 (27%) HIV-positive men who were recruited on Web sites where men seek other men to have bareback sex. Participants completed a semi-structured interview that included topics on their racial identification, their sexual experiences tied to race, and their experiences having sex with men of different racial groups. The findings suggested that a variety of race-based sexual stereotypes were used by participants. Sexual stereotyping appeared to directly and indirectly affect the sexual partnering decisions of participants. Sexual scripts may reinforce and facilitate race-based sexual stereotyping, and this behavior may structure sexual networks. PMID:19337934

  9. Ecstasy use among college undergraduates: gender, race and sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban; d'Arcy, Hannah

    2003-04-01

    We examined a random sample (N=3606) of undergraduates at one large midwestern university and explored correlates of ecstasy use and how use varied by gender, race, and sexual identity. Approximately 10% of the sample used ecstasy in their lifetime; 7% had used within the past year and 3% within the past month. Ecstasy was the second most likely illicit drug to be used, marijuana being the first. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that while men and women were equally likely to have used ecstasy, excessive partying, sexual identity, and grade point average were strongly correlated with ecstasy use. After adjusting for several factors, the number of sexual partners increased the likelihood of ecstasy use, as did self-reported sexual identity; gay, lesbian, and bisexual students were more than two times as likely to have used ecstasy in the past year. Significant relationships existed between ecstasy use and other substance use such as binge drinking, marijuana use, and cigarette smoking. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  10. Negotiating Race and Sexual Orientation in the College Choice Process of Black Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…

  11. Negotiating Race and Sexual Orientation in the College Choice Process of Black Gay Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, Dian D.; Mobley, Steve D., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the college choice process for Black gay males and what factors played significant roles in why they chose to attend either HBCUs or PWIs. Findings revealed that these students considered race and sexual orientation in different ways when deciding to attend either an HBCU or PWI. Implications for high school counselors and…

  12. Darwin's explanation of races by means of sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Roberta L

    2012-09-01

    In Darwin's Sacred Cause, Adrian Desmond and James Moore contend that "Darwin would put his utmost into sexual selection because the subject intrigued him, no doubt, but also for a deeper reason: the theory vindicated his lifelong commitment to human brotherhood" (2009: p. 360). Without questioning Desmond and Moore's evidence, I will raise some puzzles for their view. I will show that attention to the structure of Darwin's arguments in the Descent of Man shows that they are far from straightforward. As Desmond and Moore note, Darwin seems to have intended sexual selection in non-human animals to serve as evidence for sexual selection in humans. However, Darwin's account of sexual selection in humans was different from the canonical cases that Darwin described at great length. If explaining the origin of human races was the main reason for introducing sexual selection, and if sexual selection was a key piece of Darwin's anti-slavery arguments, then it is puzzling why Darwin would have spent so much time discussing cases that did not really support his argument for the origin of human races, and it is also puzzling that his argument for the origin of human races would be so (atypically) poor.

  13. Existence of two sexual races in the planarian species switching between asexual and sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Maezawa, Takanobu; Nakagawa, Haruka; Hoshi, Motonori

    2012-04-01

    In certain planarian species that are able to switch between asexual and sexual reproduction, determining whether a sexual has the ability to switch to the asexual state is problematic, which renders the definition of sexuals controversial. We experimentally show the existence of two sexual races, acquired and innate, in the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis. Acquired sexuals used in this study were experimentally switched from asexuals. Inbreeding of acquired sexuals produced both innate sexuals and asexuals, but inbreeding of innate sexuals produced innate sexuals only and no asexuals. Acquired sexuals, but not innate sexuals, were forced to become asexuals by ablation and regeneration (asexual induction). This suggests that acquired sexuals somehow retain asexual potential, while innate sexuals do not. We also found that acquired sexuals have the potential to develop hyperplastic and supernumerary ovaries, while innate sexuals do not. In this regard, acquired sexuals were more prolific than innate sexuals. The differences between acquired and innate sexuals will provide a structure for examining the mechanism underlying asexual and sexual reproduction in planarians.

  14. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  15. Reporting Differences among Sexually Assaulted College Women: A Cultural Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Malia J.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a critical public health problem, and there are many barriers that impede college women from reporting. Although there are many studies that explore these barriers, there is a lack of understanding regarding the cultural implications to reporting. The existing literature often uses race as a proxy for culture when exploring…

  16. Measuring sexual dimorphism with a race-gender face space.

    PubMed

    Hopper, William J; Finklea, Kristin M; Winkielman, Piotr; Huber, David E

    2014-10-01

    Faces are complex visual objects, and faces chosen to vary in 1 regard may unintentionally vary in other ways, particularly if the correlation is a property of the population of faces. Here, we present an example of a correlation that arises from differences in the degree of sexual dimorphism. In Experiment 1, paired similarity ratings were collected for a set of 40 real face images chosen to vary in terms of gender and race (Asian vs. White). Multidimensional scaling (MDS) placed these stimuli in a "face space," with different attributes corresponding to different dimensions. Gender was found to vary more for White faces, resulting in a negative or positive correlation between gender and race when only considering male or only considering female faces. This increased sexual dimorphism for White faces may provide an alternative explanation for differences in face processing between White and Asian faces (e.g., the own-race bias, face attractiveness biases, etc.). Studies of face processing that are unconfounded by this difference in the degree of sexual dimorphism require stimuli that are decorrelated in terms of race and gender. Decorrelated faces were created using a morphing technique, spacing the morphs uniformly around a ring in the 2-dimensional (2D) race-gender plane. In Experiment 2, paired similarity ratings confirmed the 2D positions of the morph faces. In Experiment 3, race and gender category judgments varied uniformly for these decorrelated stimuli. Our results and stimuli should prove useful for studying sexual dimorphism and for the study of face processing more generally.

  17. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI among U.S. adolescents and young adults in three race/ethnicity groups.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Blood, Emily A; Milliren, Carly E; Calzo, Jerel P; Richmond, Tracy K; Gooding, Holly C; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a key public health issue for US youth. Previous research with primarily white samples of youth has indicated that sexual minority females have higher body mass index (BMI) and sexual minority males have lower BMI than their same-gender heterosexual counterparts, with sexual orientation differences in males increasing across adolescence. This research explored whether gender and sexual orientation differences in BMI exist in nonwhite racial/ethnic groups. Using data from Waves I-IV (1995-2009) of the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,306, ages 11-34 years), we examined associations between sexual orientation and BMI (kg/m2) over time, using longitudinal linear regression models, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among males, heterosexual individuals showed greater one-year BMI gains than gay males across all race/ethnicity groups. Among females, white and Latina bisexual individuals had higher BMI than same-race/ethnicity heterosexual individuals regardless of age; there were no sexual orientation differences in black/African Americans. Sexual orientation disparities in BMI are a public health concern across race/ethnicity groups. Interventions addressing unhealthy weight gain in youth must be relevant for all sexual orientations and race/ethnicities.

  18. The influence of race, ethnicity, class, and sexual politics on lesbians' body image.

    PubMed

    Pitman, G E

    2000-01-01

    Based on interviews conducted with eight lesbians, this paper explores how the intersection of gender, sexual identity, race, ethnicity, and class affect lesbians' feelings about their bodies. Their responses suggest that, while being female has a strong effect on lesbians' feelings about their bodies, issues of race, acculturation, and class also affect body image. Lesbian feminism and S/M politics also appear to play a significant role in lesbians' body image. These findings highlight the limitations of existing theories about body image and call for a more complex theory incorporating a more diverse range of experiences.

  19. American Indians, substance use, and sexual behavior: do predictors of sexually transmitted infections explain the race gap among young adults?

    PubMed

    Eitle, David; Greene, Kaylin; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether substance use and risky sexual behaviors predicted sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among American Indian (AI) and white young adults. Furthermore, we explored whether these factors explained the race disparity in STIs. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected in 2001 to 2002. Young adult participants (aged 18-26 years) provided urine specimens that were tested for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis infection. Estimates of the association between AI with any STI were adjusted for sexual and other risk behavior correlates using multivariate regression techniques. Nine percent of AIs (n = 367) and 3.6% of whites (n = 7813) tested positive for an STI. Race differences were found for substance use (injection drug use, 3.1% AI vs. 1.3% white; alcohol use frequency, 2.01% AI vs. 2.5% white; binge drinking frequency, 1.25% AI vs. 1.53% white). Among sexually active respondents, AIs were more likely to have paid for sex (9%) than whites (3%). After adjustment, early sexual initiation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-2.41), no condom use at last sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.01), and AI race (adjusted odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval 1.46-4.11) were significantly associated with having an STI. Individual-level sexual and other risk behaviors do not fully explain disparities in STIs among AIs compared with white young adults. Further examination of network and community factors is needed to explain these disparities.

  20. US Black college women's sexual health in hookup culture: intersections of race and gender.

    PubMed

    Jenkins Hall, Wendasha; Tanner, Amanda E

    2016-11-01

    Approximately 60-80% of college students in the USA report a hookup experience in the form of a casual sexual encounter between individuals without the expectation of a dating or romantic relationship. Given the potential health risk posed by these sexual encounters, the need exists to critically examine this cultural phenomenon on college campuses. Yet, the existing hookup literature is overwhelming White and often exclusive of historically marginalised populations such as Black women. Accordingly, this paper examines the role of the intersecting identities of race and gender and other social factors that influence the sexual health and wellbeing of Black women on US college campuses. Specifically, we explore issues related to the gender ratio disparities present on college campuses, relationship power imbalances, inconsistent condom use and low sexual-risk perception. Moving forward, hookup research needs to utilise an intersectional approach; we offer specific suggestions for the important inclusion of Black women in the broader hookup discourse and future research.

  1. Intersecting Race and Gender Cues are Associated with Perceptions of Gay Men's Preferred Sexual Roles.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2015-07-01

    Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.

  2. Exploring Sociocultural Perspectives on Race, Culture, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; Hand, Victoria M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the potential uses and extensions of sociocultural theoretical perspectives for integrating and further developing research on race, culture, and learning. Two bodies of literature are discussed and synthesized: (1) sociocultural theory and (2) studies on race, culture, and learning. The article proposes how a sociocultural…

  3. Race-Ethnic Differences in Sexual Health Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R

    2012-12-01

    Despite extensive research examining the correlates of unintended fertility, it remains a puzzle as to why racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience an unintended birth than non-Hispanic whites. This paper focuses on sexual literacy, a potential precursor of unintended fertility. Analyses use a unique dataset of unmarried young adults aged 18-29, the 2009 Survey of Unmarried Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Practices, to examine beliefs regarding pregnancy risks, pregnancy fatalism, and contraceptive side effects. At the bivariate level, foreign-born Hispanics hold more erroneous beliefs about the risk of pregnancy than other groups, and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to believe in contraceptive side effects than non-Hispanic whites. Both foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to hold a fatalistic view towards pregnancy. Race-ethnic differences are attenuated for pregnancy misperceptions and fatalism in multivariate models controlling for sources of health information, sexual and fertility experiences, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, non-Hispanic blacks remain more likely than non-Hispanic whites to believe there is a high chance of reduced sexual desire and serious health consequences when using hormonal contraceptives. These differences may contribute to race-ethnic variation in contraceptive use and, ultimately, unintended fertility.

  4. Be Yourself: Class, Race, Gender and Sexuality in South African Schoolchildren's Accounts of Social Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert; Moletsane, Relebohile

    2004-01-01

    The article examines understandings of class, race, gender and sexuality in the writings of secondary school students in two working-class schools in Durban. The analysis of students' questions and responses to a problem page "agony aunt", indicate how class and race come to be expressed through accounts of sexuality. In the letters many…

  5. Youth Assets and Sexual Activity: Differences Based on Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2008-01-01

    Race/ethnicity has been associated with the prevalence of sexual activity among youth as well as with youth assets. Research has also shown that youth assets are associated with youth abstinence. However, very few studies have examined whether the relationship between youth assets and sexual activity might differ based on race/ethnicity. The study…

  6. The Relationship of Race/Ethnicity to Symptoms in Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mennen, Ferol E.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship of race/ethnicity (Latina, African American, or white) to severity of symptoms in sexually abused girls. A racially mixed sample of 134 girls was evaluated in depression, anxiety, and self-worth. Race/ethnicity alone did not predict outcome, but the interaction of race/ethnicity with the type of abuse was…

  7. Exploring attitudes towards older people's sexuality.

    PubMed

    Price, B

    2009-07-01

    Sexuality is an important part of life, for older people as well as for others. Sexual attitudes, beliefs and lifestyles may be as diverse among older people as they are among younger age groups. But for nurses to plan care with patients in ways that take issues of sexuality into account, they need to feel more comfortable talking about sexuality with older people. This article uses case studies to help readers explore their own attitudes and those of colleagues towards sexuality in later years, and prompts discussions on what this might signify for future nursing care so that staff are better equipped to assist patients with this subject.

  8. Sexual Orientation- and Race-Based Discrimination and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Among Urban MSM

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561

  9. Sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among urban MSM.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A

    2015-02-01

    Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts.

  10. Exploring Race and Affirmative Action. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Charles R.

    Designed to help students better understand the controversial issue of affirmative action, this teacher's guide supplements the thirty-minute instructional videotape of the same name. The videotape explores the history of affirmative action in the United States, including its successes, failures, and future. The videotape and the teacher's guide…

  11. Race and ancestry in biomedical research: exploring the challenges

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The use of race in biomedical research has, for decades, been a source of social controversy. However, recent events, such as the adoption of racially targeted pharmaceuticals, have raised the profile of the race issue. In addition, we are entering an era in which genomic research is increasingly focused on the nature and extent of human genetic variation, often examined by population, which leads to heightened potential for misunderstandings or misuse of terms concerning genetic variation and race. Here, we draw together the perspectives of participants in a recent interdisciplinary workshop on ancestry and health in medicine in order to explore the use of race in research issue from the vantage point of a variety of disciplines. We review the nature of the race controversy in the context of biomedical research and highlight several challenges to policy action, including restrictions resulting from commercial or regulatory considerations, the difficulty in presenting precise terminology in the media, and drifting or ambiguous definitions of key terms. PMID:19348695

  12. Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

  13. Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

  14. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Cullen, Kevin; Bowie, Janice; Thorpe, Roland; Fakhry, Carole

    2014-01-01

    This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC). This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69), and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4%) and women (83.2%) had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001). 60-69 year olds (yo) were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo) to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001), although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR) of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03), and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96) were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8) and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1). In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  15. Differences in Oral Sexual Behaviors by Gender, Age, and Race Explain Observed Differences in Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Cullen, Kevin; Bowie, Janice; Thorpe, Roland; Fakhry, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC) Methods This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009–10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20–29, 30–44, 45–59, 60–69), and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. Results Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4%) and women (83.2%) had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001). 60–69 year olds (yo) were less likely than 45–59 or 30–44 (yo) to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001), although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR) of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03), and 45–59 vs. 30–44 year-old men (PR = 0.96) were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3–6.8) and OSCC (IRR = 4.7–8.1). In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. Conclusion There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups. PMID:24475067

  16. The role of ecology, neutral processes and antagonistic coevolution in an apparent sexual arms race.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer C; Garroway, Colin J; Rowe, Locke

    2017-09-01

    Some of the strongest examples of a sexual 'arms race' come from observations of correlated evolution in sexually antagonistic traits among populations. However, it remains unclear whether these cases truly represent sexually antagonistic coevolution; alternatively, ecological or neutral processes might also drive correlated evolution. To investigate these alternatives, we evaluated the contributions of intersex genetic correlations, ecological context, neutral genetic divergence and sexual coevolution in the correlated evolution of antagonistic traits among populations of Gerris incognitus water striders. We could not detect intersex genetic correlations for these sexually antagonistic traits. Ecological variation was related to population variation in the key female antagonistic trait (spine length, a defence against males), as well as body size. Nevertheless, population covariation between sexually antagonistic traits remained substantial and significant even after accounting for all of these processes. Our results therefore provide strong evidence for a contemporary sexual arms race. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  18. Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent cigarette smoking: intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Corliss, Heather L; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A; Newcomb, Michael E; Buchting, Francisco O; Matthews, Alicia K

    2014-06-01

    We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64,397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay-lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians-gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians-gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking.

  19. Risky Sexual Behavior: A Race-Specific Social Consequence of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…

  20. Risky Sexual Behavior: A Race-Specific Social Consequence of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Tamara G. J.; Dias, Janice Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated…

  1. Sexual Behavior Varies Between Same-Race and Different-Race Partnerships: A Daily Diary Study of Highly Sexually Active Black, Latino, and White Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Racial homophily (partnering with those of the same race) has been suggested as contributing to racial disparities in HIV among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Using a daily diary study, we examined racial homophily and its role in anal sexual behaviors in a sample of highly sexually active Black, White, and Latino GBM (N = 294, n = 3107 sexual events). In general, (1) men tended to partner with others of the same race, (2) HIV was more prevalent among men of color, and (3) race acted independent of whether one would engage in behaviors that would put them at highest risk for transmitting HIV (i.e., no main or interaction effects for insertive condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive men, and no main or interaction effects for receptive CAS among HIV-negative men). There were some main and interactive effects observed for lower risk behaviors (receptive CAS among HIV-positive men and insertive CAS among HIV-negative). Our findings suggest that racial disparities in HIV may be due to a higher exposure frequency (i.e., the frequency with which one comes into contact with a partner where a transmission could occur). However, men were also less likely to have anal sex when having sex with someone of the same race-a finding that works against the premise of higher exposure frequency. Future researchers should examine both racial homophily as well as variation in sexual behavior based on same-race or different-race partnerships.

  2. On the transgressiveness of ambiguity: Richard Bruce Nugent and the flow of sexuality and race.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J Edgar

    2015-01-01

    The study focuses on the slender corpus of literary work by Harlem Renaissance poet, author and visual artist Richard Bruce Nugent (1906-1987), arguably America's foremost Black aesthete. As an individualist in the footsteps of post-Hegelian and pre-Nietzschean philosopher Max Stirner (1806-1856), Nugent sought to re-think sexuality and race beyond fixed schemes of categorial distribution. To this end, Nugent deployed a strategy of sexual and racial ambiguity that aimed at situating the uniquely sexed and raced individual within the continuities of ever-diversifying Nature. Nugent's deconstructive approach of sexuality and race proves to be convergent with (but not genealogically dependent on) the universalization of sexual intermediariness and racial miscegenation postulated by German-Jewish sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld during the first third of the twentieth century. Nugent's non-identitarian conception of sex acts anticipated by more than a decade comparable insights propounded by Alfred Kinsey.

  3. Exploring urban students' constructions about school, work, race, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Blustein, David L; Murphy, Kerri A; Kenny, Maureen E; Jernigan, Maryam; Pérez-Gualdrón, Leyla; Castañeda, Tani; Koepke, Margaret; Land, Marie; Urbano, Alessandra; Davis, Ophera

    2010-04-01

    This qualitative study is an exploration of 32 urban high school students' narratives about the connection between school, work, and societal expectations of their future success related to their racial and ethnic background. The sample varied along 2 contextual dimensions: participation in a psychoeducational intervention (Tools for Tomorrow) and developmental status (i.e., half the sample were 9th-grade students and the other half were 12th-grade students). Using consensual qualitative research, the narratives revealed 3 major domains: future orientation; students' perceptions of society's expectations based on race and ethnicity; and students' perception of the role of their race and ethnicity in future success. Results reveal that the majority of students endorse a connection between school and work, believe that society holds low expectations for them based on their racial and ethnic background, and cannot predict their future success based on their background.

  4. Anabolic Steroid Misuse Among US Adolescent Boys: Disparities by Sexual Orientation and Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Calzo, Jerel P; Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Sexual minority boys reported elevated misuse compared with heterosexual boys, within each level of race/ethnicity. Black, Hispanic, and White sexual minority boys reported misuse at approximately 25%, 20%, and 9%, respectively. Sexual orientation health disparities in anabolic steroid misuse disproportionally affect Black and Hispanic sexual minority adolescent boys, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving these disparities.

  5. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued.

  6. Race, gender, and sexual orientation in hate crime victimization: identity politics or identity risk?

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Edward

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.

  7. Intersecting identities and substance use problems: sexual orientation, gender, race, and lifetime substance use problems.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; Bradford, Judith B

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented that sexual minorities are at greater risk for substance use than heterosexuals. However, there are limited studies and mixed findings when investigating these health disparities among racial and ethnic minority samples. We used an intersectionality framework to examine disparities in lifetime substance use problems between heterosexual and sexual minority men and women and within sexual minority groups among a racially diverse sample. A nonprobability sample of heterosexual (n = 1,091) and sexual minority (n = 1,465) patients from an urban community health center ranged in age from 18 to 72 years. Participants completed a brief patient survey and reported demographic information and history of lifetime substance use problems. Logistic regressions analyses were used to examine interactions between and among sexual orientation, gender, and race. We found a significant three-way interaction among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Sexual minorities had a greater risk of self-reported lifetime substance use problems than heterosexuals, with nuanced gender and racial differences. Of greatest note, sexual minority women of color had greater risks than heterosexual women of color and than White sexual minority women. Sexual minority men of color did not differ in their risk when compared with heterosexual men of color, and they had lower risk than White sexual minority men. The results of this study demonstrate that an intersectionality framework is crucial to clearly identify lifetime substance use disparities between racially diverse sexual minority and heterosexual men and women. Future research, treatment, and policy should use intersectionality approaches when addressing substance use disparities.

  8. Intersecting Identities and Substance Use Problems: Sexual Orientation, Gender, Race, and Lifetime Substance Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Bradford, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Research has documented that sexual minorities are at greater risk for substance use than heterosexuals. However, there are limited studies and mixed findings when investigating these health disparities among racial and ethnic minority samples. We used an intersectionality framework to examine disparities in lifetime substance use problems between heterosexual and sexual minority men and women and within sexual minority groups among a racially diverse sample. Method: A nonprobability sample of heterosexual (n = 1,091) and sexual minority (n = 1,465) patients from an urban community health center ranged in age from 18 to 72 years. Participants completed a brief patient survey and reported demographic information and history of lifetime substance use problems. Logistic regressions analyses were used to examine interactions between and among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Results: We found a significant three-way interaction among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Sexual minorities had a greater risk of self-reported lifetime substance use problems than heterosexuals, with nuanced gender and racial differences. Of greatest note, sexual minority women of color had greater risks than heterosexual women of color and than White sexual minority women. Sexual minority men of color did not differ in their risk when compared with heterosexual men of color, and they had lower risk than White sexual minority men. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an intersectionality framework is crucial to clearly identify lifetime substance use disparities between racially diverse sexual minority and heterosexual men and women. Future research, treatment, and policy should use intersectionality approaches when addressing substance use disparities. PMID:24411810

  9. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  10. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  11. An Intersectional Framework for Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Savneet

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for an examination of identity and difference from a sociocultural perspective in art therapy theory and practice. Identity markers such as race, class, gender, and sexuality have tended to be seen in isolation and in ways that hamper the ability to understand and theorize difference. In constructing knowledge and in advancing…

  12. Changing Course: Collaborative Reflections of Teaching/Taking "Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Information Professions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Safiya U.; Austin, Jeanie; Sweeney, Miriam E.; McKeever, Lucas; Sullivan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This article is an attempt to reflect on the institutional and disciplinary context of a course on "Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Information Professions" from the perspective of instructors and students. It examines the effectiveness of a course like this as an intervention to the normative landscape of the Library and Information…

  13. Parental Youth Assets and Sexual Activity: Differences by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Fluhr, Janene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how the relationship between parental-related youth assets and youth sexual activity differed by race/ethnicity. Methods: A random sample of 976 youth and their parents living in a Midwestern city participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 3 major ethnic groups controlling for the…

  14. Parental Youth Assets and Sexual Activity: Differences by Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolma, Eleni L.; Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Beebe, Laura; Fluhr, Janene

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how the relationship between parental-related youth assets and youth sexual activity differed by race/ethnicity. Methods: A random sample of 976 youth and their parents living in a Midwestern city participated in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted for 3 major ethnic groups controlling for the…

  15. Sexual Dimorphism: How Female Cells Win the Race.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hansong; Jasper, Heinrich

    2016-03-07

    Sexual dimorphisms are established by sex determination pathways and are maintained during regeneration of adult tissues. Two recent studies in Drosophila elucidate the contribution of cell-autonomous and endocrine mechanisms to the establishment and maintenance of growth dimorphism in larvae and the adult intestine.

  16. Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.

    PubMed

    Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use.

  17. Exploring Female Sexuality: Embracing the Whole Narrative.

    PubMed

    Bass, Tanya M

    Sexuality is inseparable from sexual health and can refer to sex, gender identities, orientation, pleasure, intimacy, expression, and reproduction. While each element of human sexuality is important, all of these components interconnect to make us complete sexual beings. Educators and other human service providers thus require professional preparation to ensure they can meet the needs of their learners, effectively manage programming, and successfully implement strategies that allow individuals to embrace or manage their sexual existence. An inclusive approach to sexual health is best to meet the sexual health needs of all women, while ensuring their agency and control of their own bodies.

  18. Brief Report: The Number of Sexual Partners and Race-Related Stress in African American Adolescents--Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association between the number of lifetime sexual partners and race-related stress among African American 201 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southeastern region of the country. Students completed the Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  19. Brief Report: The Number of Sexual Partners and Race-Related Stress in African American Adolescents--Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the association between the number of lifetime sexual partners and race-related stress among African American 201 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southeastern region of the country. Students completed the Index of Race-Related Stress-Brief (IRRS-B) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  20. Race differences in teenage sexuality, pregnancy, and adolescent childbearing.

    PubMed

    Furstenberg, F F

    1987-01-01

    This article has examined the origin and consequences of racial differences in teen sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing. Black/white differences in rates of early and out-of-wedlock childbearing have been declining in the past several decades though the incidence of nonmartial fertility among younger teens is still about five times as high for blacks as for whites. Early sexual behavior, irregular use of contraception, and a much lower probability of marrying prior to having a birth all contribute to the racial differential. Evidence suggests that both normative and socioeconomic differences may account for these demographic patterns. Black teens show markedly higher tolerance for childbearing before marriage. They also express much greater reservations about the viability of marriage, especially at an early age, than do whites. These views may affect their willingness to risk early pregnancy and initiate intercourse at an early age. Several types of interventions that might reduce black/white differences in teen childbearing were reviewed. The most promising of these involved simultaneously strengthening the community sanctions that discourage early parenthood while expanding social opportunities. Presently, poor, especially poor minority youth, may feel that they have little to lose by entering parenthood prematurely. Unless we are able to persuade these youth that they have a larger stake in the future, we are unlikely to see a dramatic decline in the incidence of early childbearing among blacks. This does not necessarily mean that racial differences are destined to persist. Increasingly, white youth are subject to many of the same conditions that have produced high rates of early and out-of-wedlock childbearing among blacks. Thus, racial differences may decline not because the situation of blacks is improving but because white youth are less willing to defer sexual activity or less able to marry when pregnancy occurs. This may at least change the perception

  1. Unfixed in a fixated world: identity, sexuality, race and culture.

    PubMed

    Offord, B; Cantrell, L

    1999-01-01

    At the dusk of the twentieth century the confluence of sexuality and the multicultural subject offers a deep interrogation into identity. On the edge of the world, Australia is experiencing a poignant moment of identity crisis. For someone who is from a multicultural, multisexual background, identity is fragmented. Law and society demand unambiguous subjects, fixed by socio-political-cultural mores and expectations. To be unfixed presents difficulties in negotiating systems of knowledge and power which are fundamentally homeostatic. In the end it is all a matter of being unfixed but connected to "others," aware of the substance beyond identity and labels. This is being unfixed in a fixated world, challenging gravity, resisting definition and compromise.

  2. Implications of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race/ethnicity for psychological distress among working-class sexual minorities: the United for Health Study, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Chae, David H; Krieger, Nancy; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane C; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of demographic characteristics, the prevalence of discrimination based on sexuality, gender, and race, and relationships with psychological distress among 178 working-class sexual minorities (i.e., who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or had ever engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors) recruited to the United for Health Study (2003-2004). The results indicated considerable heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior, with a majority of sexual minority participants not identifying as LGB (74.2%). The authors found significant demographic differences in LGB identification by gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic factors. In addition, LGB participants had higher levels of psychological distress than non-LGB-identified sexual minorities. Linear regression analyses revealed that reports of racial/ethnic discrimination and sexuality discrimination were associated with higher levels of psychological distress among sexual minority participants. The results underscore the need to collect multiple measures of sexuality in conducting research on racially diverse working-class communities; to consider demographic factors in collecting sexuality data; and to disaggregate information on sexuality by LGB identification. Findings also highlight the importance of addressing discrimination in ameliorating problematic mental health outcomes among working-class sexual minorities.

  3. Race/ethnicity, sexual partnerships with men involved with drugs, and sexually transmitted infections among a sample of urban young adult women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Leah F; Brown, Qiana; Cavanaugh, Courtenay; Lawson, April

    2015-10-01

    In many urban neighbourhoods in the United States, drug markets borne from disadvantage have produced risk for sexually transmitted infections through altered sexual norms and partnerships. Presently, we examined the association of race, sexual partnerships with men involved with drugs, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections among 240 African American and white women aged 18-30 years. Thirty seven per cent reported ever having a sexually transmitted infection. Almost 30% of Whites reported sex with a drug user, compared to 5% of African Americans. Fifty eight per cent of African Americans compared to 31% of Whites reported sex with a drug dealer. On Step 1 of a sequential logistic regression model, race was associated with lifetime sexually transmitted infections (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.61-8.34). Results from the full sequential logistic regression model indicated a significant, but smaller association of race and lifetime sexually transmitted infections (Adjusted OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.78-7.02) and an association of sex with a drug dealer and lifetime sexually transmitted infections (Adjusted OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.55-5.20). Forming sexual partnerships with drug dealers may place women at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and explain racial disparities. More research focused on drug dealers as core transmitters is needed.

  4. Exploring Race, Culture, and Family in the Identities of Mixed Heritage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pecero, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Family plays an integral role in racial and cultural socialization, yet how mixed heritage students understand the concepts of race and culture in relation to family is unclear. This qualitative study explored the interplay of race, culture, and family in the identity constructions of 25 mixed heritage students. Findings suggest the centrality of…

  5. The Concept of Race on Campus: Exploring the Nature of College Students' Racial Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widely documented benefits associated with racial diversity in higher education, less is known about why and how race matters. A potential answer may be found in how students conceptualize race. This qualitative study explores students' underlying racial conceptions, which have been shown to influence various attitudes and…

  6. Exploring Race, Culture, and Family in the Identities of Mixed Heritage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pecero, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Family plays an integral role in racial and cultural socialization, yet how mixed heritage students understand the concepts of race and culture in relation to family is unclear. This qualitative study explored the interplay of race, culture, and family in the identity constructions of 25 mixed heritage students. Findings suggest the centrality of…

  7. Heterogeneity in Patterns of Sexual Risk Behaviors among African-American Youth: Associations with General and Race-Specific Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrow, Anthony L.; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Gil, Andres G.

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive study employed a within-groups analytic approach to examine patterns of sexual risk behavior and co-occurring general and race/ethnicity-specific risk and protective factors in a community sample of African-American youth (n = 436). Cluster analysis was used to classify young adults by levels of self-reported past year sexual risk…

  8. Race, Class, and Emerging Sexuality: Teacher Perceptions and Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a highly troubling gendered phenomenon that plagues young women on a daily basis. The way in which sexual harassment is perceived and treated is varied and is largely based on racial and class stereotypes. This paper highlights the findings from a study in which a group of middle and high school teachers were interviewed and…

  9. Race, Class, and Emerging Sexuality: Teacher Perceptions and Sexual Harassment in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores

    2011-01-01

    Sexual harassment is a highly troubling gendered phenomenon that plagues young women on a daily basis. The way in which sexual harassment is perceived and treated is varied and is largely based on racial and class stereotypes. This paper highlights the findings from a study in which a group of middle and high school teachers were interviewed and…

  10. Hypersexuality and high sexual desire: exploring the structure of problematic sexuality.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Vieira, Armando L; Jurin, Tanja

    2015-06-01

    The concept of hypersexuality has been accompanied by fierce debates and conflicting conclusions about its nature. One of the central questions under the discussion is a potential overlap between hypersexuality and high sexual desire. With the relevant research in its early phase, the structure of hypersexuality remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to systematically explore the overlap between problematic sexuality and high sexual desire. A community online survey was carried out in Croatia in 2014. The data were first cluster analyzed (by gender) based on sexual desire, sexual activity, perceived lack of control over one's sexuality, and negative behavioral consequences. Participants in the meaningful clusters were then compared for psychosocial characteristics. To complement cluster analysis (CA), multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the same four constructs was carried out. Indicators representing the proposed structure of hypersexuality were included: sexual desire, frequency of sexual activity, lack of control over one's sexuality, and negative behavioral outcomes. Psychosocial characteristics such as religiosity, attitudes toward pornography, and general psychopathology were also evaluated. CA pointed to the existence of two meaningful clusters, one representing problematic sexuality, that is, lack of control over one's sexuality and negative outcomes (control/consequences cluster), and the other reflecting high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity (desire/activity cluster). Compared with the desire/activity cluster, individuals from the control/consequences cluster reported more psychopathology and were characterized by more traditional attitudes. Complementing the CA findings, CFA pointed to two distinct latent dimensions-problematic sexuality and high sexual desire/activity. Our study supports the distinctiveness of hypersexuality and high sexual desire/activity, suggesting that problematic sexuality might be more

  11. Speaking of Race and Ethnic Identities: Exploring Multicultural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arber, Ruth Eileen

    2005-01-01

    New demographic patterns as well as new communication and information technologies and administrative and marketing practices have irrevocably altered schools in Australia's large cities. This study examines the ways that teachers and parents in one urban school speak about race and ethnicity in the midst of these changes. Beneath the ironic…

  12. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  13. Speaking of Race and Ethnic Identities: Exploring Multicultural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arber, Ruth Eileen

    2005-01-01

    New demographic patterns as well as new communication and information technologies and administrative and marketing practices have irrevocably altered schools in Australia's large cities. This study examines the ways that teachers and parents in one urban school speak about race and ethnicity in the midst of these changes. Beneath the ironic…

  14. Complicated Conversations: Exploring Race and Ideology in an Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Liz

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study of an elementary teacher's decision to add multicultural children's books to her curriculum and an analysis of how her ideologies about race shaped the classroom discourse. Although the teacher's stated purpose was to teach the pitfalls of racial stereotypes by encouraging conversations about prejudice, often the classroom…

  15. Courageous Conversations about Race: Exploring Counter-Narratives on Black Heritage Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huynh, Annie

    2013-01-01

    This personal reflection explores the role of counter-narratives and courageous conversations in the elementary curriculum. It explores how the intentionality of Black Heritage Day at the Folk Arts-Cultural Treasures Charter School and its curriculum guides students and teachers in exploring issues of race, culture, and history. (Contains 1…

  16. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  17. "Say Everything": Exploring Young People's Suggestions for Improving Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2005-01-01

    How do young people conceptualise "effective" sexuality education? This paper explores 16-year-old to 19-year-old New Zealanders' vision of effective sexuality education as it emerges in answers to a survey question about improving programmes at secondary school. Young people's responses suggest that their view of what makes sexuality…

  18. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  19. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  20. Exploring the intersection of race and gender in self-defense training.

    PubMed

    Speidel, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Research on the impact of women's self-defense classes has primarily focused on White women. I explore perceptions of race and gender identity of five African American women who participated in a semester-long self-defense class. I examine the relevance of the intersection of race and gender to their self-defense experience, focusing on three concepts commonly considered barriers in self-defense classes: body image and beauty standards, perceptions of strength, and perceived vulnerability to violence. Participants' responses reveal the ways that gender and race are experienced as integrated aspects of identity, pointing to the need for self-defense curricula to include an intersectional approach.

  1. The Last Bastion of Sexual and Gender Prejudice? Sexualities, Race, Gender, Religiosity, and Spirituality in the Examination of Prejudice Toward Sexual and Gender Minorities.

    PubMed

    Cragun, Ryan T; Sumerau, J Edward

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has reported that many Americans hold prejudicial attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities. Most of this research analyzed attitudes toward target categories in isolation and not in relation to attitudes toward heterosexuals. In addition, most previous research has not examined attitudes of members of sexual and gender minority categories toward other categories. While some research has examined the influence of religiosity on attitudes toward sexual and gender minorities, none of these studies has examined religiosity while also examining the influence of spirituality. In this article we drew on insights from queer theory to examine attitudes toward heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, as well as individuals who practice polygamy, among college students. Three samples gathered over a four-year period (2009, 2011, 2013) at a private, nonsectarian, midsized urban university in the Southeastern United States were used. We found that heterosexuals had the most positive rating, followed in order of rating by gay/lesbian, bisexual, and transgender individuals, and then those who practice polygamy. Regression analyses revealed gender and race were significant predictors of attitudes toward various sexual and gender categories. Holding a literalistic view of the Bible and self-identifying as more religious were related to more negative views toward sexual minorities, while self-identifying as more spiritual was related to more positive views.

  2. The sexual couple: a psychoanalytic exploration.

    PubMed

    Kernberg, Otto F

    2011-04-01

    Even an originally revolutionary movement like psychoanalysis can become conservative and can take refuge, at last, in reactionary acquiescence. Many revolutionary minds, fighters of yesterday, are tired and now rest their cause on dogmas and preconceived ideas. The progress of science does not tolerate such refuge. The shape of psychoanalysis around the year 2000 of our era will be very different from the concept of the New York Psychoanalytical Society of 1945. No prophetic gift is needed to predict that it will be much more occupied with the total human personality than with the sexual components. The picture of psychoanalysis in the year 2000 will, I am sure, be nearer to that which neo-psychoanalysis sketches then to that of libido theory. It will be recognized then that the crude sex-drive cannot have the power attributed to it by Freud and that early mixtures of sexual and non-sexual urges are clearly to be observed in those very phenomena which impress us as "purely" sexual." (Reik, 1945).

  3. Race-Based Sexual Stereotypes and their Effects on Sexual Risk Behavior in Racially-Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially-diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks. PMID:26116010

  4. Race-based sexual stereotypes and their effects on sexual risk behavior in racially diverse young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Michael E; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. The epidemic is not evenly distributed across MSM, and young racial minority MSM experience the highest rate of new infections. Race-based sexual stereotyping is not uncommon among MSM, and it may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks, which has been found to contribute to increased HIV incidence in Black MSM. The goals of these analyses were to describe the race-based sexual preferences and stereotypes of racially diverse young MSM (YMSM), and to examine whether endorsement of sexual stereotypes was associated with sexual risk behavior when having sex with partners of the stereotyped race. Data were taken from Crew 450, an ongoing longitudinal study of a syndemic of psychosocial health issues linked to HIV among YMSM in Chicago and surrounding areas. Analyses utilized data from three study waves, and longitudinal analyses were conducted with Hierarchical Linear Modeling. YMSM generally endorsed same-race preferences for sexual partners. Black partners were rated highest in displaying stereotypically dominant characteristics and in likelihood of taking the top/insertive sex role, while Latino partners were rated the highest in likelihood of sex being hot and passionate. White partners were rated lowest on each of these domains. Longitudinal analyses found that endorsement of these stereotypes had important implications for the rate of condomless receptive and insertive anal sex with racial minority partners. Findings suggest that sexual stereotypes may contribute to the isolation of racial minority sexual networks.

  5. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes.

  6. Risky sexual behavior: a race-specific social consequence of obesity.

    PubMed

    Leech, Tamara G J; Dias, Janice Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Scant attention has been given to the consequence of actual weight status for adolescents' sexual wellbeing. In this article, we investigate the race-specific connection between obesity and risky sexual behavior among adolescent girls. Propensity scores and radius matching are used to analyze a sample of 340 adolescents aged 16-17 who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Young Adult Survey in 2000 or 2002. Nearly even numbers of these participants identified as white and black (183 and 157, respectively). We find that compared to their non-obese white peers, obese white adolescent girls exhibit higher rates of multiple sex partners and sex with older partners, and are also less likely to use condoms. None of these factors are significantly related to high BMI within the black sample. These findings indicate that the negative social consequences of obesity extend beyond future economic and marriage outcomes to adolescent white women's sexual outcomes. They also highlight the importance of context: the implications of being obese during adolescence depend on cultural meanings of obesity.

  7. Race and sexual behavior predict uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Stepp, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    To identify predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination initiation by girls at high risk for HPV infection. Participants were 2,098 girls enrolled in the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study, who were between the ages of 12 and 15 years in 2008, and their primary caregivers. The study was conducted in the 2 years after the deployment of the first HPV vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Primary caregivers were asked about HPV vaccine uptake. Girls were interviewed about pubertal development and sexually intimate behavior. Approximately 60% of the girls had initiated the HPV vaccine in the past year. Among the hypothesized predictors of initiation, African-American race decreased the likelihood and level of sexually intimate behavior in the previous year increased the likelihood of uptake. Controlling for receipt of public assistance, African-American girls were close to 40% less likely to be vaccinated than European-American girls. Racial disparities in use of preventive interventions such as the HPV vaccine exist. Lack of information about public financing of the vaccine, timing of vaccination relative to sexual activity, and perceptions of preventive value may limit uptake among those at highest risk for infection and negative sequelae from infection. Further research to probe knowledge and attitudes toward HPV vaccination and the impact of the media on vaccine initiation and uptake may reveal specific targets of intervention.

  8. Predicting College Students' Intergroup Friendships across Race/Ethnicity, Religion, Sexual Orientation, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to expand the literature on predicting friendship diversity beyond race/ethnicity to include religion, social class, and sexual orientation. Survey packets elicited information regarding up to four close friendships developed during college. Additional measures assessed pre-college friendship diversity, participation in college…

  9. Girls, Media, and the Negotiation of Sexuality: A Study of Race, Class, and Gender in Adolescent Peer Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Meenakshi Gigi

    1999-01-01

    Examines how peer-group activity and social context affect middle-school girls' mass-media interactions. Shows emergent gender identity was consolidated via constant reference to acceptable sociocultural standards (which differed according to race and class) of femininity and sexuality. Concludes interventions such as media-literacy efforts must…

  10. Unpacking Race, Culture, and Class in Rural Alaska: Native and Non-Native Multidisciplinary Professionals' Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubar, Roe; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to unpack notions of class, culture, and race as they relate to multidisciplinary team (MDT) professionals and their perceptions of prevalence in child sexual abuse cases in Native and non-Native rural Alaska communities. Power and privilege within professional settings is significant for all social work professionals…

  11. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  12. Unpacking Race, Culture, and Class in Rural Alaska: Native and Non-Native Multidisciplinary Professionals' Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubar, Roe; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to unpack notions of class, culture, and race as they relate to multidisciplinary team (MDT) professionals and their perceptions of prevalence in child sexual abuse cases in Native and non-Native rural Alaska communities. Power and privilege within professional settings is significant for all social work professionals…

  13. Predicting College Students' Intergroup Friendships across Race/Ethnicity, Religion, Sexual Orientation, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to expand the literature on predicting friendship diversity beyond race/ethnicity to include religion, social class, and sexual orientation. Survey packets elicited information regarding up to four close friendships developed during college. Additional measures assessed pre-college friendship diversity, participation in college…

  14. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  15. Sexual Positioning and Race-Based Attraction by Preferences for Social Dominance Among Gay Asian/Pacific Islander Men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Pratto, Felicia; Operario, Don; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2014-01-01

    For gay men in the United States, race/ethnicity has been demonstrated to factor importantly into sexual preferences, and race-based beliefs regarding certain racial groups are prevalent within the gay male community. For gay men of color, such beliefs may differentially influence their sexual preferences. Yet, little is known about the social-psychological factors underlying differences in sexual preferences among gay men of color. The present study examined how personal preferences for social hierarchy and dominance may explain variations in sexual positioning preferences, and how this relationship may be further qualified by their race-based sexual attraction among gay Asian/Pacific Islander (API) men. A total of 141 API gay men were recruited to participate in an online survey. Measures assessed participants’ sexual positioning preferences, race-based sexual attraction, and preferences for social hierarchy or social dominance orientation (SDO). Self-identified tops scored higher on SDO than bottoms or versatiles. Participants attracted to non-API men scored higher on SDO compared to participants attracted to API men and participants who reported no race-based attraction. Finally, a significant two-way interaction indicated that tops attracted to non-API men scored the highest on SDO, and bottoms with no race-based attraction in men scored the lowest. Race/ethnicity is a prominent factor in sexual attraction and sexual positioning preferences among gay men, and one’s proclivity for social hierarchy and dominance explains differences in sexual preferences among API gay men. By demonstrating how API gay men negotiate sexual preferences, present findings help elucidate existing race-based sexual dynamics within gay male culture. PMID:23546892

  16. Sexual positioning and race-based attraction by preferences for social dominance among gay Asian/Pacific Islander men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tan, Judy Y; Pratto, Felicia; Operario, Don; Dworkin, Shari L

    2013-10-01

    For gay men in the United States, race/ethnicity has been demonstrated to factor importantly into sexual preferences, and race-based beliefs regarding certain racial groups are prevalent within the gay male community. For gay men of color, such beliefs may differentially influence their sexual preferences. Yet, little is known about the social-psychological factors underlying differences in sexual preferences among gay men of color. The present study examined how personal preferences for social hierarchy and dominance may explain variations in sexual positioning preferences, and how this relationship may be further qualified by their race-based sexual attraction among gay Asian/Pacific Islander (API) men. A total of 141 API gay men were recruited to participate in an online survey. Measures assessed participants' sexual positioning preferences, race-based sexual attraction, and preferences for social hierarchy or social dominance orientation (SDO). Self-identified tops scored higher on SDO than bottoms or versatiles. Participants attracted to non-API men scored higher on SDO compared to participants attracted to API men and participants who reported no race-based attraction. Finally, a significant two-way interaction indicated that tops attracted to non-API men scored the highest on SDO, and bottoms with no race-based attraction in men scored the lowest. Race/ethnicity is a prominent factor in sexual attraction and sexual positioning preferences among gay men, and one's proclivity for social hierarchy and dominance explains differences in sexual preferences among API gay men. By demonstrating how API gay men negotiate sexual preferences, present findings help elucidate existing race-based sexual dynamics within gay male culture.

  17. I Want Your Sex: The Role of Sexual Exploration in Fostering Positive Sexual Self-Concepts for Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Mike C.; Talley, Amelia E.; Schwartz, Esther N.; Hancock, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Openness and self-exploration have been associated with myriad benefits. Within the realm of sexuality, sexual exploration may be 1 facet of openness and self-exploration that yields benefits. Prior literature suggests that such exploration may have benefits for sexual orientation minority persons, though limited research has investigated the benefits of sexual exploration for heterosexuals. The present study used data from 346 adult women (185 exclusively heterosexual, 161 not exclusively heterosexual) to investigate the role of sexual exploration as a mediator between sexual orientation status and positivity toward sex. Results of a structural equation modeling analysis supported mediation of the relationship between sexual orientation and sexual positivity via sexual exploration. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are presented. PMID:26380352

  18. Exploring sexual attitudes of students in health professions.

    PubMed

    Papaharitou, Stamatis; Nakopoulou, Evangelia; Moraitou, Martha; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Konstantinidou, Eleni; Hatzichristou, Dimitrios

    2008-06-01

    Patients' sexual concerns are frequently underestimated because of health professionals' reluctance to address sexual health issues. Though it has been documented that sexual attitudes are extremely influential in everyday clinical practice, limited data exist on identifying health professionals' attitudes. To explore sexual attitudes in medical students and students in allied health professions. The Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI)-Attitude Subscale was used to assess sexual attitudes. The sample included 1st and 4th year college students enrolled in the following academic departments/schools of two academic institutions leading to health professions: medical school, psychology, pharmaceutical school, nursing and midwifery. Demographic data were obtained relating to sexual behaviors and information sources on sexual issues. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test and two-way analysis of variance, as well as logistic regression and Pearson's correlation coefficient. A total of 714 students (81.9% females) participated in the study: 48.5% 1st year students and 51.5% seniors with a mean age of 20.17 years (SD = 1.87, range 17-25). Using iterative cluster analysis on DSFI scores, participants were divided in conservative (N = 167), liberal (N = 224), and neutral (N = 323) clusters. A significant gender difference on sexual attitudes was obtained (P < 0.001) with male students being more liberal compared to females (mean = 18.26 and mean = 11.13, respectively). Differences were also revealed for the field but not for the year of study. Analysis also revealed that liberalism in sexual attitudes is more likely to be affected by a liberal stance toward religion (OR: 2.39), receiving information for sexual matters mainly from peers (OR: 1.86), and media influence on students' sexual life (OR: 1.68). Gender, personal values, and experiences influence students' attitudes toward sexual issues. Since negative attitudes can impede effective sexual

  19. Black gay men as sexual subjects: race, racialisation and the social relations of sex among Black gay men in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Winston; Makoroka, Lydia; Walcott, Rinaldo; Adam, Barry D; George, Clemon; Remis, Robert S; Rourke, Sean B

    2013-01-01

    In this study of Black gay and bisexual men in Toronto, sexually active survey participants reported on their sexual behaviours with male partners of different ethnoracial backgrounds, and interview participants reflected on how their sexual relationships emerged in the context of race and interracial desire. Most survey participants reported sexual relationships with other Black men. Participants were more likely to be insertive with White and other ethnoracial men than with Black men. A significant number of participants who were receptive or versatile with Black partners switched to the insertive role when their sexual partners were not Black. Interview participants ascribed a sense of fulfilment to their sexual relationships with other Black men, but avoided relationships with White men or interpreted such relationships as either purely sexual and/or inflected by their racialised objectification. Others avoided sexual relationships with other Black men or preferred relationships with White men, sometimes in opposition to experiences of oppressive masculinity from some Black partners but mindful of the possibility of racialised encounters with their White partners. Study participants emerge as informed sexual subjects, self-conscious about their sexual relationships and variously inclined to negotiate or resist racialisation and oppression in the private and public spheres.

  20. Exploring Urban Students' Constructions about School, Work, Race, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Murphy, Kerri A.; Kenny, Maureen E.; Jernigan, Maryam; Perez-Gualdron, Leyla; Castaneda, Tani; Koepke, Margaret; Land, Marie; Urbano, Alessandra; Davis, Ophera

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study is an exploration of 32 urban high school students' narratives about the connection between school, work, and societal expectations of their future success related to their racial and ethnic background. The sample varied along 2 contextual dimensions: participation in a psychoeducational intervention (Tools for Tomorrow) and…

  1. Exploring Urban Students' Constructions about School, Work, Race, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.; Murphy, Kerri A.; Kenny, Maureen E.; Jernigan, Maryam; Perez-Gualdron, Leyla; Castaneda, Tani; Koepke, Margaret; Land, Marie; Urbano, Alessandra; Davis, Ophera

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study is an exploration of 32 urban high school students' narratives about the connection between school, work, and societal expectations of their future success related to their racial and ethnic background. The sample varied along 2 contextual dimensions: participation in a psychoeducational intervention (Tools for Tomorrow) and…

  2. Husbands' and Wives' Relative Earnings: Exploring Variation by Race, Human Capital, Labor Supply, and Life Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow-Bowe, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Whereas much research has explored the causes and consequences of the gender wage gap, far less has examined earnings differentials within marriage. This article contributes to this literature by utilizing the 2000 wave of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine variation in husbands' and wives' relative income by race/ethnicity,…

  3. Husbands' and Wives' Relative Earnings: Exploring Variation by Race, Human Capital, Labor Supply, and Life Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow-Bowe, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Whereas much research has explored the causes and consequences of the gender wage gap, far less has examined earnings differentials within marriage. This article contributes to this literature by utilizing the 2000 wave of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine variation in husbands' and wives' relative income by race/ethnicity,…

  4. Exploring the Impact of "Race Talk" in the Education Classroom: Doctoral Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Michelle L.; Wilson, Brandy S.; Lewis, Ashlee A.; Wills, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore doctoral students' experiences engaging in conversations about the role of race and racism in education during their programs. We conducted focus groups with graduate students in a School of Education at a predominantly White institution in the South. Our findings support the notion that creating…

  5. Exploring the Impact of "Race Talk" in the Education Classroom: Doctoral Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Michelle L.; Wilson, Brandy S.; Lewis, Ashlee A.; Wills, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore doctoral students' experiences engaging in conversations about the role of race and racism in education during their programs. We conducted focus groups with graduate students in a School of Education at a predominantly White institution in the South. Our findings support the notion that creating…

  6. "I Thought We Were over This Problem": Explorations of Race in/through Literature Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price-Dennis, Detra; Holmes, Kathlene; Smith, Emily E.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines classroom practices that draw upon students' understandings of race and equity as they engage in critical literature inquiry to explore issues of power in our society. Our research team, comprising a fifth-grade classroom teacher, a doctoral candidate, and a university professor, analyzed students' written and digital…

  7. Women and Work. Exploring Race, Ethnicity, and Class. Women and Work, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth, Ed.; Romero, Mary, Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers exploring the effects of race, ethnicity, and class on women in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Series Editors' Introduction" (Ann Stromberg, Barbara A. Gutek, Laurie Larwood); "Introduction" (Elizabeth Higginbotham). The book is organized in four parts. Part I, "Historical…

  8. Interpersonal Relationships: Exploring Race and Relationship Decisions among African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how race influenced African American men's interpersonal relationships with other men at a predominantly White institution. The use of both semi-structured and photo-elicitation interview formats provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their precollege experiences, identity, and relationships. Two categories emerged…

  9. "I Thought We Were over This Problem": Explorations of Race in/through Literature Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price-Dennis, Detra; Holmes, Kathlene; Smith, Emily E.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines classroom practices that draw upon students' understandings of race and equity as they engage in critical literature inquiry to explore issues of power in our society. Our research team, comprising a fifth-grade classroom teacher, a doctoral candidate, and a university professor, analyzed students' written and digital…

  10. Exploring Gender and Race amongst Female Sociologists Exiting Academia in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe, Marlize; Rugunanan, Pragna

    2012-01-01

    This article explores issues of gender and race in the academic careers of female sociologists in South Africa by focusing on selected women who left academic departments in higher education institutions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants who left various Sociology departments at different times. It was found that young black…

  11. Women and Work. Exploring Race, Ethnicity, and Class. Women and Work, Volume 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth, Ed.; Romero, Mary, Ed.

    This book contains 10 papers exploring the effects of race, ethnicity, and class on women in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Series Editors' Introduction" (Ann Stromberg, Barbara A. Gutek, Laurie Larwood); "Introduction" (Elizabeth Higginbotham). The book is organized in four parts. Part I, "Historical…

  12. Interpersonal Relationships: Exploring Race and Relationship Decisions among African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how race influenced African American men's interpersonal relationships with other men at a predominantly White institution. The use of both semi-structured and photo-elicitation interview formats provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their precollege experiences, identity, and relationships. Two categories emerged…

  13. Exploring Gender and Race amongst Female Sociologists Exiting Academia in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe, Marlize; Rugunanan, Pragna

    2012-01-01

    This article explores issues of gender and race in the academic careers of female sociologists in South Africa by focusing on selected women who left academic departments in higher education institutions. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants who left various Sociology departments at different times. It was found that young black…

  14. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  15. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  16. Predictors of race, adoption, and sexual orientation related socialization of adoptive parents of young children.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2016-04-01

    Using a sample of 125 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples with young children (M = 6.32 years), this study examined predictors of direct socialization (preparation for adoptism, racism, and heterosexism) and indirect socialization (modeling interactions by responding to outsiders' inquiries about their child's adoptive status, racial background, or family structure). In terms of direct socialization, parents of older children tended to engage in more socialization around adoptism and heterosexism, and parents of daughters tended to engage in more socialization around racism and heterosexism. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more direct socialization around adoptism. Parents of color reported more direct socialization around racism. Having a child of color was related to more direct socialization around heterosexism. Regarding indirect socialization, sexual minority parents reported more socialization around adoption and race. Greater perceived child interest in adoption was related to more indirect adoption socialization. Being more "out" was related to more indirect socialization around parent sexual orientation. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Suicide ideation and bullying among US adolescents: examining the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anna S; James, Wesley; Abrutyn, Seth; Levin, Martin L

    2015-05-01

    We examined how race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation shape adolescents' likelihood of being bullied and vulnerability to suicide ideation. We analyzed pooled data from the 2009 and 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 75 344) to assess race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation variation in being bullied and suicide ideation. White and Hispanic gay and bisexual males, White lesbian and bisexual females, and Hispanic bisexual females were more likely to be bullied than were White heterosexual adolescents. Black lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths' vulnerability to being bullied was not significantly different from that of White heterosexual youths. Black and Hispanic heterosexual youths were less likely to be bullied than were White heterosexual youths. Despite differences in the likelihood of being bullied, sexual minority youths were more likely to report suicide ideation, regardless of their race/ethnicity, their gender, or whether they have been bullied. Future research should examine how adolescents' intersecting identities shape their experience of victimization and suicidality. School personnel should develop antibullying and antihomophobia policies in response to the disproportionate risk of being bullied and reporting suicidality among sexual minority youths.

  18. Pleasure, affection, and love among Black men who have sex with men (MSM) versus MSM of other races: countering dehumanizing stereotypes via cross-race comparisons of reported sexual experience at last sexual event.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Schick, Vanessa R; Novak, David S

    2015-10-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U.S. men ages 18-87 (M Age = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010-2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72-87  % orgasmed, 57-82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70-91 % kissed, 47-90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three.

  19. Pleasure, Affection, and Love Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) versus MSM of Other Races: Countering Dehumanizing Stereotypes via Cross-Race Comparisons of Reported Sexual Experience at Last Sexual Event

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Schick, Vanessa R.; Novak, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Black men have historically been stereotyped as hedonistic, aggressive, and animalistic in their sexual interactions. This study sought to describe pleasure, affection, and love experienced by Black men who have sex with men (MSM) during their last male-partnered sexual event and to examine differences relative to White, Latino, and Asian MSM. A total of 21,696 (793 Black, 18,905 White, 1,451 Latino, and 547 Asian) U. S. men ages 18–87 (MAge = 39) were recruited from social/sexual networking sites targeting MSM in 2010–2011. Participants reported multiple dimensions of sexual experience (pleasure, affection, and love) occurring at their last male-partnered sexual event, partner relationship, and sociodemographic characteristics. Across relationship categories, a sizeable percentage of Black MSM reported pleasure (72–87 % orgasmed, 57–82 % experienced high subjective pleasure) and affection (70–91 % kissed, 47–90 % cuddled). Love was primarily reported for events involving main partners (felt love for partner: 96 %; felt loved by partner: 97 %; verbalized love to partner: 89 %). Latent class analysis with MSM of all races, adjusting for partner relationship and sociodemographic characteristics, revealed three distinct profiles of sexual experience: affection and love (Class 1); affection in the absence of love (Class 2); and neither affection nor love (Class 3). Pleasure was probable across profiles. Some racial differences in profile probability were present, but no overall pattern emerged. Contrary to Black male stereotypes, Black MSM commonly reported pleasure, affection, and love at their last male-partnered sexual event and did not show a meaningful pattern of difference from other-race MSM in their likelihood of experiencing all three. PMID:25604209

  20. A meta-analytic review of the relationship between adolescent risky sexual behavior and impulsivity across gender, age, and race.

    PubMed

    Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Cyders, Melissa A

    2014-11-01

    Impulsivity is frequently included as a risk factor in models of adolescent sexual risk-taking; however, findings on the magnitude of association between impulsivity and risky sexual behavior are variable across studies. The aims of the current meta-analysis were to examine (1) how specific impulsivity traits relate to specific risky sexual behaviors in adolescents, and (2) how the impulsivity-risky sex relationship might differ across gender, age, and race. Eighty-one studies were meta-analyzed using a random effects model to examine the overall impulsivity-risky sex relationship and relationships among specific impulsivity traits and risky sexual behaviors. Overall, results revealed a significant, yet small, association between impulsivity and adolescent risky sexual behavior (r=0.19, p<0.001) that did not differ across impulsivity trait. A pattern of stronger effects was associated with risky sexual behaviors as compared to negative outcomes related to these behaviors. Gender moderated the overall relationship (β=0.22, p=0.04), such that effect sizes were significantly larger in samples with more females. Age, race, study design, and sample type did not moderate the relationship, although there was a pattern suggesting smaller effects for adolescents in juvenile detention settings. Adolescent samples with more females showed a larger impulsivity-risky sex relationship, suggesting that impulsivity may be a more important risk factor for risky sex among adolescent females. Research and treatment should consider gender differences when investigating the role of impulsivity in adolescent sexual risk-taking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  2. White Students' Understanding of Race: An Exploration of How White University Students, Raised in a Predominately White State, Experience Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines White university students' understanding of race. Based in the scholarship on higher education and diversity, and framed in Critical Race Theory (CRT), this study explores the racial awareness of White students. This study contributes to the literature on the racial experience of Whites and an understanding of how White…

  3. Do Sexual Networks of Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City Differ by Race/Ethnicity?

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Vijay; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Stewart, Kiwan; Frye, Victoria; Cerda, Magdalena; Ompad, Danielle; Latkin, Carl; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The United States HIV epidemic disproportionately affects black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM). This disparity might be partially explained by differences in social and sexual network structure and composition. A total of 1267 MSM in New York City completed an ACASI survey and egocentric social and sexual network inventory about their sex partners in the past 3 months, and underwent HIV testing. Social and sexual network structure and composition were compared by race/ethnicity of the egos: black, non-Hispanic (N = 365 egos), white, non-Hispanic (N = 466), and Hispanic (N = 436). 21.1% were HIV-positive by HIV testing; 17.2% reported serodiscordant and serostatus unknown unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse (SDUI) in the last 3 months. Black MSM were more likely than white and Hispanic MSM to report exclusively having partners of same race/ethnicity. Black and Hispanic MSM had more HIV-positive and unknown status partners than white MSM. White men were more likely to report overlap of social and sex partners than black and Hispanic men. No significant differences by race/ethnicity were found for network size, density, having concurrent partners, or having partners with ≥10 years age difference. Specific network composition characteristics may explain racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection rates among MSM, including HIV status of sex partners in networks and lack of social support within sexual networks. Network structural characteristics such as size and density do not appear to have such an impact. These data add to our understanding of the complexity of social factors affecting black MSM and Hispanic MSM in the U.S. PMID:26745143

  4. Sexuality, sexual and reproductive health: an exploration of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of the Greek-Cypriot adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L

    2008-12-01

    This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health in Cyprus. This is the first study in Cyprus that focuses on these issues. During the study, a survey was administered to a random sample of third grade students (N = 697, Mean age = 14 +/- 1 years, 48% males). Descriptive and comparative statistics were primarily used for the data analysis. The results indicated that young Greek-Cypriots have limited knowledge on sexual health issues and that there are gender differences regarding role expectations of sexuality. Thus, in the promotion of healthy sexuality and sexual behaviours among youth, practitioners should include gender and cultural perspectives. Qualitative research is needed to explore in depth how young Greek-Cypriots feel about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health.

  5. Students Encountering Race and Negotiating Friendships, Sexuality and Language on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2016-01-01

    By drawing on a theoretical framing based on the geography of encounters, this article examines how students give meaning to racialised encounters on campus. These encounters are mediated by long established notions of difference based on power inequalities where race remains a powerful source of difference. However, race is not simply enacted but…

  6. Students Encountering Race and Negotiating Friendships, Sexuality and Language on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2016-01-01

    By drawing on a theoretical framing based on the geography of encounters, this article examines how students give meaning to racialised encounters on campus. These encounters are mediated by long established notions of difference based on power inequalities where race remains a powerful source of difference. However, race is not simply enacted but…

  7. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how South African students talk about sexual risk and responsibility.

    PubMed

    van der Riet, Mary; Nicholson, Tamaryn Jane

    2014-01-01

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative study used focus groups and interviews with a sample of 28 tertiary level students and 7 peri-urban youth. The constructions of risk intersected with raced and gendered narratives around sexual risk and responsibility. These constructions were used by the participants to assign and displace responsibility for the risks of HIV and pregnancy, rendering some groups immune to these risks. This constitutes a form of stigmatisation and also has implications for participants' prevention practices.

  8. Relationship of race-, sexual orientation-, and HIV-related discrimination with adherence to HIV treatment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boarts, Jessica M; Bogart, Laura M; Tabak, Melanie A; Armelie, Aaron P; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2008-10-01

    Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) must be close to perfect in order to maintain suppression of HIV viral load, and to prevent the development of drug resistant strains of HIV. People living with HIV (PLWH) often report low levels of adherence. One variable that has been linked to poor adherence is perceived discrimination; however, research has generally not considered the possible unique effects of different types of discrimination on adherence. The present pilot study aimed to examine the association of three types of discrimination (due to HIV+ status, race, or sexual orientation) with adherence among 57 PLWH. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to demonstrate the relationships between each type of discrimination and self-reported adherence. Racial discrimination significantly predicted lower adherence levels, whereas sexual orientation- and HIV-related discrimination did not. Results underscore the importance of addressing discrimination issues, specifically racial, when designing interventions to improve adherence to HAART.

  9. A Classroom Activity Exploring the Complexity of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students categorize the sexual orientation (heterosexual, bisexual, homosexual) of 10 fictional people. Students study aspects of sexual orientation, including its resistance to rigid and consistent definitions. The activity has been used in Psychology of Women, Sexual Behavior, and Psychology of Sexual Orientation…

  10. Exploring Sexual Attitudes and Experiences: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Casey T.

    2011-01-01

    This classroom exercise is designed to facilitate insight and understanding of the relationships between sexual attitudes and sexual experiences among college students. First, students complete a 65-item survey on which they indicate their moderate to traditional sexual attitudes and their corresponding sexual experiences. Next, correlations,…

  11. Exploring Sexual Attitudes and Experiences: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Casey T.

    2011-01-01

    This classroom exercise is designed to facilitate insight and understanding of the relationships between sexual attitudes and sexual experiences among college students. First, students complete a 65-item survey on which they indicate their moderate to traditional sexual attitudes and their corresponding sexual experiences. Next, correlations,…

  12. Toward an Intersectional Approach in Developmental Science: The Role of Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Immigrant Status.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Katsiaficas, Dalal; Rogers, Leoandra Onnie

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theory and research have often focused on a single social identity category, for example, race or sexual orientation, and examined the consequences of that category on life outcomes. Yet intersectional models of social disadvantage (eg, Cole, 2009; Crenshaw, 1995; King, 1988) suggest that social categories combine to shape the experiences and life outcomes of individuals across life domains. In this chapter, we review empirical research that offers insight into the intersectionality of social identities across three critical developmental periods, namely, middle childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. We also consider the consequences of intersecting identities across several life domains, including intergroup relations and political and civic engagement. Recognizing that the body of work on social identities is expansive, we focus our review on race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and immigrant status. In each developmental stage, we discuss what we know, drawing from the limited empirical literature, and offer suggestions on where we need to go moving forward. We conclude that research that focuses on as a single category and ignores the specific domain of development provides an incomplete and inaccurate picture that will hinder efforts to develop culturally appropriate and clinically effective prevention and intervention programs to meet the needs of our diverse children and youth living in the United States. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genders and sexualities in individuation: theoretical and clinical explorations.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Gender assignment, as a key aspect of identity and cultural position, has existed throughout recorded time and across all cultures. An individual's biological sex and particular cultural milieu has a profound effect on their sense of themselves as a gendered being. Sexuality is a more recent marker in identity formation. In the last few decades there has emerged a great deal of interest in the psychology of gender formation, in the interplay of biological sex, culture, brain development, and attachment experiences in the formation of gender identities. Queer theory in its post-modern deconstructionist thinking has suggested that gender is a socially 'constructed' concept having no biological or psychological precursors or realities. Contemporary developmental psychoanalysis is bridging the gap between concepts of gender as purely biological and gender as non-existent. In this paper I explore the emergence of same-sex desire at mid-life, presenting two case histories with extensive dream material. The impact of sexual desire on gender identities is examined through the lenses of culture, dynamic systems theory, neuroscience, and depth psychology. The use of dream analysis as a window into the body/mind movement of gender emergence reflects my sense of gender as a fluidly shifting reality of mind, neither hardwired nor fictional.

  14. An Exploration of Counselor Experiences of Adolescents with Sexual Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassman, Linda; Kottler, Jeffrey; Madison, Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study of 18 American and Australian counselors explores the impact of working with adolescents with sexual behavior problems. Findings are reported reflecting the counselors' own histories of abuse, their feelings regarding sexual information, their sexual and emotional responses to clients, and the importance of self-care and…

  15. The impact of patient race on clinical decisions related to prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): assumptions about sexual risk compensation and implications for access.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Underhill, Kristen; Hansen, Nathan B; Dovidio, John F

    2014-02-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has received increasing recognition as a viable prescription-based intervention for people at risk for HIV acquisition. However, little is known about racial biases affecting healthcare providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP. This investigation sought to explore medical students' stereotypes about sexual risk compensation among Black versus White men who have sex with men seeking PrEP, and the impact of such stereotypes on willingness to prescribe PrEP. An online survey presented participants (n = 102) with a clinical vignette of a PrEP-seeking, HIV-negative man with an HIV-positive male partner. Patient race was systematically manipulated. Participants reported predictions about patient sexual risk compensation, willingness to prescribe PrEP, and other clinical judgments. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that the Black patient was rated as more likely than the White patient to engage in increased unprotected sex if prescribed PrEP, which, in turn, was associated with reduced willingness to prescribe PrEP to the patient.

  16. The Impact of Patient Race on Clinical Decisions Related to Prescribing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): Assumptions About Sexual Risk Compensation and Implications for Access

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Underhill, Kristen; Hansen, Nathan B.; Dovidio, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has received increasing recognition as a viable prescription-based intervention for people at risk for HIV acquisition. However, little is known about racial biases affecting healthcare providers’ willingness to prescribe PrEP. This investigation sought to explore medical students’ stereotypes about sexual risk compensation among Black versus White men who have sex with men seeking PrEP, and the impact of such stereotypes on willingness to prescribe PrEP. An online survey presented participants (n = 102) with a clinical vignette of a PrEP-seeking, HIV-negative man with an HIV-positive male partner. Patient race was systematically manipulated. Participants reported predictions about patient sexual risk compensation, willingness to prescribe PrEP, and other clinical judgments. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that the Black patient was rated as more likely than the White patient to engage in increased unprotected sex if prescribed PrEP, which, in turn, was associated with reduced willingness to prescribe PrEP to the patient. PMID:24366572

  17. Sexual Fantasy and Masturbation Among Asexual Individuals: An In-Depth Exploration.

    PubMed

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2017-01-01

    Human asexuality is generally defined as a lack of sexual attraction. We used online questionnaires to investigate reasons for masturbation, and explored and compared the contents of sexual fantasies of asexual individuals (identified using the Asexual Identification Scale) with those of sexual individuals. A total of 351 asexual participants (292 women, 59 men) and 388 sexual participants (221 women, 167 men) participated. Asexual women were significantly less likely to masturbate than sexual women, sexual men, and asexual men. Asexual women were less likely to report masturbating for sexual pleasure or fun than their sexual counterparts, and asexual men were less likely to report masturbating for sexual pleasure than sexual men. Both asexual women and men were significantly more likely than sexual women and men to report that they had never had a sexual fantasy. Of those who have had a sexual fantasy, asexual women and men were significantly more likely to endorse the response "my fantasies do not involve other people" compared to sexual participants, and consistently scored each sexual fantasy on a questionnaire as being less sexually exciting than did sexual participants. When using an open-ended format, asexual participants were more likely to report having fantasies about sexual activities that did not involve themselves, and were less likely to fantasize about topics such as group sex, public sex, and having an affair. Interestingly, there was a large amount of overlap between sexual fantasies of asexual and sexual participants. Notably, both asexual and sexual participants (both men and women) were equally likely to fantasize about topics such as fetishes and BDSM.

  18. Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health.

    PubMed

    Outram, Simon M; Ellison, George T H

    2006-01-01

    Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore genetic contributions to disparities in health were developed using in-depth qualitative interviews with editorial staff from nineteen genetics journals, focusing on the methodological and conceptual mechanisms required to make race/ethnicity a genetic variable. As such, these analyses explore how and why race/ethnicity comes to be used in the context of genetic research, set against the background of continuing critiques from anthropology and related human sciences that focus on the social construction, structural correlates and limited genetic validity of racial/ethnic categories. The analyses demonstrate how these critiques have failed to engage geneticists, and how geneticists use a range of essentially cultural devices to protect and separate their use of race/ethnicity as a genetic construct from its use as a societal and social science resource. Given its multidisciplinary, biosocial nature and the cultural gaze of its ethnographic methodologies, anthropology is well placed to explore the cultural separation of science and society, and of natural and social science disciplines. Anthropological insights into the use of race/ethnicity to explore disparities in health suggest that moving beyond genetic explanations of innate difference might benefit from a more even-handed critique of how both the natural and social sciences tend to essentialize selective elements of race/ethnicity. Drawing on the example of HIV/AIDS, this paper demonstrates how public health has been undermined by the use of race/ethnicity as an analytical variable, both as a cipher for innate genetic differences in susceptibility and response to treatment, and in its use to identify 'core groups' at greater risk of becoming infected and infecting others. Clearly, a tendency for biological reductionism can place many biomedical issues beyond the scope of public health interventions, while socio-cultural essentialization has

  19. The Sexual Disgust Questionnaire; a psychometric study and a first exploration in patients with sexual dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J; Peters, Madelon L; van Lankveld, Jacques; Melles, Reinhilde; ter Kuile, Moniek M

    2013-02-01

    Disgust may be involved in sexual problems by disrupting sexual arousal and motivating avoidance of sexual intercourse. To test whether heightened disgust for sexual contaminants is related to sexual dysfunctions, the Sexual Disgust Questionnaire (SDQ) has recently been developed. Previous research showed that particularly women with vaginismus display a generally heightened dispositional disgust propensity and heightened disgust toward stimuli depicting sexual intercourse. To determine the psychometric properties of the SDQ and test whether heightened disgust toward sexual stimuli is specific to vaginismus or can be observed in other sexual dysfunctions as well. First, a large sample of undergraduates and university employees completed the SDQ (N = 762) and several trait disgust indices. Next, women with vaginismus (N = 39), dyspareunia (N = 45), and men with erectile disorder (N = 28) completed the SDQ and were compared to participants without sexual problems (N = 70). SDQ to index sexual disgust. The SDQ proved a valid and reliable index to establish disgust propensity for sexual stimuli. Supporting construct validity of the SDQ, sexual disgust correlated with established trait indices. Furthermore, sexual disgust and willingness to handle sexually contaminated stimuli were associated with sexual functioning in women, but not in men. Specifically women with vaginismus displayed heightened sexual disgust compared to women without sexual problems, while men with erectile disorders demonstrated a lower willingness to handle sexually contaminated stimuli compared to men without sexual problems. The SDQ appears a valid and reliable measure of sexual disgust. The pattern of SDQ-scores across males and females with and without sexual dysfunctions corroborates earlier research suggesting that disgust appraisals are involved especially in vaginismus and supports the view that the difficulty with vaginal penetration experienced by women in vaginismus may partly be due to

  20. STD and HIV Risk Factors Among U.S. Young Adults: Variations by Gender, Race, Ethnicity and Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Mojola, Sanyu A.; Everett, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. METHODS Data from Waves 3 (2001–2002) and 4 (2007–2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults’ characteristics. RESULTS Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors—including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration—than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8–6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3–8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). CONCLUSIONS Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. PMID:22681428

  1. Adolescents’ Sexual Initiation: The Interaction of Race/Ethnicity and Immigrant Status

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Karin L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth examination of the joint effects of race/ethnicity and immigrant status on adolescents’ intercourse risk. We employ a sample of 4,535 females and 3,759 males from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS 88/94) who were followed for 6 years beginning in the eighth grade. We use discrete-time logistic regression models to estimate the associations of race/ethnicity and immigrant generational status with first intercourse hazard, and to evaluate the statistical interactions between race/ethnicity and immigrant status. Overall, Asian and Hispanic girls had lower and non-Hispanic Black girls had higher estimated risks relative to non-Hispanic White girls. Hispanic boys and White non-Hispanic boys had similar intercourse risks, but Black boys had higher and Asian boys lower relative risks. However, these patterns are contingent on immigrant status. Among girls, the protective effects of Asian or Hispanic identity are found only among second generation youth. Risk profiles for boys are more complex: being a third-plus generation Hispanic is associated with a higher risk while an Asian identity is associated with a lower risk only among first- and second-generation youth. These findings confirm the importance of accounting for the overlap between race/ethnicity and immigrant status in models of adolescent behavior. As the demographic diversity of the US population grows, researchers must include both race/ethnicity and immigrant status in their models of adolescent behavior. PMID:22102765

  2. Preventive discussions with health care providers: exploring differences by race/ethnicity and place.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Chwastiak, Lydia; Santilli, Alycia; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-02-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to explore differences in discussions of health topics with health care providers by race/ethnicity and place to identify who is receiving this preventive care and where it is being received in a low-income urban area in which people are at increased risk of chronic disease. 1,147 adults responded to a health survey in New Haven, Connecticut. Black and Latino participants reported that their health care providers discussed more topics with them than White participants reported. Participants who received care at community health centers and hospital primary care centers discussed more topics than participants who received care at hospital emergency departments and private doctors' offices. Findings suggest that community health centers are important sources of preventive care in low-income urban settings, thereby supporting the goals of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the community health center model of care delivery.

  3. Exploring sexual risks in a forensic mental health hospital: perspectives from patients and nurses.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Patients utilising forensic mental health inpatient services experience a range of sexual risks, including vulnerability to sexual exploitation and exposure to sexually transmissible infections. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the issue of sexual risks from the standpoint of patients and the nurses who work closely with them in inpatient secure settings. This article presents findings from a qualitative exploratory study, which investigated the views of patients and nurses about sexual relationships in forensic mental health settings. Risk was a major theme arising from the data and is the focus of this article. Subthemes from nurse participants included sexual safety, sexual vulnerability, unplanned pregnancies, and male sexuality issues. Subthemes from patients included risks associated with sexual activity, access to information and sexual health care, unplanned pregnancies, vulnerability, and male sexuality issues. Knowledge about these sexual risks by patients and nurses were well articulated, however information and assistance were considered by patients to be less than satisfactory in improving their knowledge or in providing the support they considered important to reduce sexual risks. The issue of risk needs to be addressed, and nurses would be well placed to contribute; however they require education to improve their ability to provide sexual health education to patients along with strategies to ensure patients receive the support and services they require to reduce their exposure to sexual risks.

  4. Exploring a Contextual Model of Sexual Self-Disclosure and Sexual Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randal D; Weigel, Daniel J

    2017-03-13

    Sexual self-disclosure is a critical component of relationship and sexual satisfaction, yet little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate a person's engagement in sexual self-disclosure. Individuals (N = 265) involved in romantic relationships participated in an online study testing a contextual model of sexual self-disclosure across three contexts: relationship context, sexual self-disclosure context, and outcome of sexual self-disclosure. Results suggest that sexual satisfaction was predicted by a positive relationship context and a positive sexual self-disclosure context. In addition, the sexual self-disclosure context was predicted by the relationship context. These findings emphasize the importance of examining contextual influences that determine whether an individual will engage in or avoid sexual self-disclosure and the consequences of this engagement or avoidance on sexual satisfaction.

  5. Neighborhoods and Race/Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Daniel L.; McNulty, Thomas L.; Bellair, Paul E.; Watts, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent sexual risk behavior is important given its links to the differential risk of teen pregnancy, childbearing, and sexually transmitted infections. This article tests a contextual model that emphasizes the concentration of neighborhood disadvantage in shaping racial/ethnic disparities in sexual risk behavior. We focus on two risk behaviors that are prevalent among Black and Hispanic youth: the initiation of sexual activity in adolescence and the number of sex partners. Using data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 6,985; 48% female; 57% non-Hispanic White) evidence indicates that neighborhood disadvantage – measured by concentrated poverty, unemployment rates, and the proportion of female-headed households – partially explains Black and Hispanic disparities from Whites in the odds of adolescent sexual debut, although the prevalence of female-headed households in neighborhoods appears to be the main driver in this domain. Likewise, accounting for neighborhood disadvantage reduces the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparity in the number of sexual partners, although less so relative to sexual debut. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:24214727

  6. Teenagers' Web Questions Compared with a Sexuality Curriculum: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; McCutchen, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teenagers need information about their changing bodies. Many young people do not receive adequate or accurate puberty/sexuality education from their parents or school, so many teenagers are going online to have their sexuality questions answered. Purpose: This research examines teenagers' web questions on sexuality, and an example of…

  7. Exploring Parental Perspectives on Parent-Child Sexual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Gross, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined parental perspectives about parent-child sexual communication through four focus groups conducted with 25 parents of young children. Participant comments fell into six areas: 1) personal experience with sexuality education, 2) current sexuality education efforts, 3) comfort and confidence, 4) content and timing, 5) importance of a…

  8. Exploring Parental Perspectives on Parent-Child Sexual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Sharon M.; Gross, Kevin H.

    2009-01-01

    We examined parental perspectives about parent-child sexual communication through four focus groups conducted with 25 parents of young children. Participant comments fell into six areas: 1) personal experience with sexuality education, 2) current sexuality education efforts, 3) comfort and confidence, 4) content and timing, 5) importance of a…

  9. Teenagers' Web Questions Compared with a Sexuality Curriculum: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; McCutchen, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Teenagers need information about their changing bodies. Many young people do not receive adequate or accurate puberty/sexuality education from their parents or school, so many teenagers are going online to have their sexuality questions answered. Purpose: This research examines teenagers' web questions on sexuality, and an example of…

  10. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  11. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  12. Exploring co-parent experiences of sexuality in the first 3 months after birth.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M; Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Research on postpartum sexuality has focused primarily on mothers, though new findings suggest that relational perceptions may have a strong influence over sexual desire and behavior. Little investigation exists regarding sexuality in partners of postpartum women. Additionally, recent findings point to the importance of a partner's sexuality for postpartum women's perceptions of their own sexuality in this time. The goal of this research was to explore women's partners' sexuality in the early postpartum phase taking into account psychosocial context. Partners (N = 114; 95 men, 18 women, 1 unspecified) of postpartum women completed a retrospective online questionnaire about their sexuality during the 3 months following their youngest child's birth. Primary measures included sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to sexual behavior, and enjoyment and initiation of sexual behavior. Other psychosocial variables were investigated: partners' perceptions of the birth mother's sexual desire, perceptions of the birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), postpartum stress (Perceived Stress Scale), body image self-consciousness (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), fatigue, and experiences surrounding breastfeeding. Partners reported most frequent engagement in intercourse in the postpartum period, earliest engagement in masturbation, and highest enjoyment of receiving oral sex compared with other sexual activities. Partners' sexual desire was not correlated with the psychosocial variables measured in the study. Findings for partners' sexuality were similar by gender, except for perceptions of social support and likelihood to engage in intercourse. This study provided a novel perspective on the study of postpartum sexuality by investigating physical and psychosocial influences on the experiences of partners of parous women. Given parallels between sexuality

  13. Between (Racial) Groups and a Hard Place: An Exploration of Social Science Approaches to Race and Genetics, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Byrd, W Carson; Best, Latrica E

    2016-01-01

    As the social sciences expand their involvement in genetic and genomic research, more information is needed to understand how theoretical concepts are applied to genetic data found in social surveys. Given the layers of complexity of studying race in relation to genetics and genomics, it is important to identify the varying approaches used to discuss and operationalize race and identity by social scientists. The present study explores how social scientists have used race, ethnicity, and ancestry in studies published in four social science journals from 2000 to 2014. We identify not only how race, ethnicity, and ancestry are classified and conceptualized in this growing area of research, but also how these concepts are incorporated into the methodology and presentation of results, all of which structure the discussion of race, identity, and inequality. This research indicates the slippage between concepts, classifications, and their use by social scientists in their genetics-related research. The current study can assist social scientists with clarifying their use and interpretations of race and ethnicity with the incorporation of genetic data, while limiting possible misinterpretations of the complexities of the connection between genetics and the social world.

  14. Does comparing alcohol use along a single dimension obscure within-group differences? Investigating men's hazardous drinking by sexual orientation and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Conron, Kerith J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some studies have found that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher odds of alcohol abuse and dependence than heterosexual men, but others have found no differences. We investigated whether the association between sexual orientation and hazardous drinking varied by race/ethnicity. Methods We estimated the odds of past-year heavy daily, heavy weekly, and binge drinking by sexual orientation and race/ethnicity among non-Latino White, non-Latino Black, and Latino (any race) men (n=9,689) who reported current alcohol use in the 2004-2005 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Interaction terms were included in multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate possible effect modification. Results In most comparisons, sexual minority men reported equivalent or lower levels of hazardous drinking than heterosexual peers. There was no association between sexual orientation and heavy daily drinking. Sexual minority Black men had lower odds of heavy weekly drinking and binge drinking than both heterosexual White men and heterosexual Black men. Among Latinos, the odds of heavy weekly drinking were higher for sexual minority men than heterosexuals; there was no difference by sexual orientation for binge drinking among Latinos. Conclusions With one exception, sexual minority men were at equivalent or lower risk of hazardous drinking than heterosexual men. The Black-White advantage observed in other alcohol studies was observed in our study and was heightened among sexual minority men, suggesting the presence of protective factors that curb hazardous drinking. Additional research is necessary to identify the mechanisms responsible for these patterns. PMID:25835229

  15. The Busy Citizen's Discussion Guides. Suggestions for Informal Conversations: Racism and Race Relations; Sexual Harrassment; Civil Rights for Gays and Lesbians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topsfield Foundation, Pomfret, CT. Study Circles Resource Center.

    This set of discussion guides includes units on "Racism and Race Relations"; "Sexual Harassment"; and "Civil Rights for Gays and Lesbians." Each guide presents a brief introduction to the issue and suggestions for ways to discuss both personal attitudes and public policy. Cases, examples, questions, and a range of…

  16. Psychosocial factors and high-risk sexual behavior: race differences among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doljanac, R F; Zimmerman, M A

    1998-10-01

    Adolescence is a period of sexual experimentation. We examined psychosocial predictors of high-risk sexual behavior and condom use. The sample included 824 ninth-graders, most of whom are African American. We conducted separate analyses for whites and African Americans. Predictors included alcohol and substance use, delinquency, prosocial behaviors, and family and peer influences. We found that problem behaviors predicted high-risk sexual behavior, but the effects were stronger for white youth. We also found that friends' behaviors were more predictive than family influences, except for family conflict. In general, the models explained more variance for white youths than for African-American youths. The results suggest that problem behavior theory and social interactions theory may be most relevant for white youth and that other models may be necessary to explain high-risk sexual behavior among African-American youths.

  17. Gay Penguins, Sissy Ducklings ... and Beyond? Exploring Gender and Sexuality Diversity through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renée

    2016-01-01

    From 2006 to 2008 UK-based primary school teachers in the "No Outsiders" project explored possibilities for addressing sexualities equality in their classrooms. What all teachers had in common was a resource pack that included 27 children's books exploring themes of gender and sexuality diversity either directly or indirectly (i.e. by…

  18. Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Navarro, Rachel L.; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

    2008-01-01

    Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory…

  19. Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Navarro, Rachel L.; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

    2008-01-01

    Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory…

  20. Gay Penguins, Sissy Ducklings ... and Beyond? Exploring Gender and Sexuality Diversity through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renée

    2016-01-01

    From 2006 to 2008 UK-based primary school teachers in the "No Outsiders" project explored possibilities for addressing sexualities equality in their classrooms. What all teachers had in common was a resource pack that included 27 children's books exploring themes of gender and sexuality diversity either directly or indirectly (i.e. by…

  1. Exploring Latino College Students' Sexual Behaviors in Relation to Their Sexual Attitudes, Religiousness, and Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Pérez, Miguel A

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between religiosity, spirituality, sexual attitudes, and sexual behaviors among Latino and non-Latino college students. The sample included 230 undergraduate college students enrolled at a mid-sized University in the western USA. Sexual behaviors among Latinos were significantly correlated with sexual attitudes and spiritual disclosure in close relationships. However, sexual behaviors for non-Latino respondents were only significantly related to sexual attitudes, not indices of religiousness or spirituality. Sexual educators, health educators, college-level instructors, and counselors can use these results to help Latino and non-Latino students alike understand the relationship between their religious and spiritual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and sexual behaviors.

  2. The association between sexual orientation identity and behavior across race/ethnicity, sex, and age in a probability sample of high school students.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G

    2014-02-01

    We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities.

  3. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  4. Exploring the connection between pornography and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Bergen, R K; Bogle, K A

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between sexual violence and pornography. Data about women's experiences of sexual violence and their abusers' use of pornography were collected at a rape crisis center from 100 survivors. Findings include that 28% of respondents reported that their abuser used pornography and that for 12% of the women, pornography was imitated during the abusive incident. The effects of pornography on women's experiences of sexual violence are discussed.

  5. Dancing Sexual Pleasures: Exploring Teenage Women's Experiences of Sexuality and Pleasure beyond "Sex"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Josie I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the affective and sensual dimensions of sexuality, especially on what feels good in and on the body. Drawing on a longitudinal participatory case study of a young Christian woman's dancing practices, it illustrates how for young women sexual feelings and sexual pleasure are not only pertinent to those practices normatively…

  6. Sexual Victimization among Sorority Women: Exploring the Link between Sexual Violence and Institutional Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copenhaver, Stacey; Grauerholz, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Uses the Sexual Experiences Survey to investigate the incidence and nature of sexual coercion among 140 sorority women in the context of their involvement in fraternal life. Provides evidence that the fraternity environment tolerates and even encourages sexual coercion of women. (CJS)

  7. Dancing Sexual Pleasures: Exploring Teenage Women's Experiences of Sexuality and Pleasure beyond "Sex"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Josie I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the affective and sensual dimensions of sexuality, especially on what feels good in and on the body. Drawing on a longitudinal participatory case study of a young Christian woman's dancing practices, it illustrates how for young women sexual feelings and sexual pleasure are not only pertinent to those practices normatively…

  8. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  9. The Yearbook Photo and Graduation Speech: Intersections of Sexual Identity, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleig, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Only 48.6% of University Council For Educational Administration (UCEA) institutions which focus on social justice in principal preparation programs address sexual orientation, this case describes how the completion of an equity audit for an educational leadership course compelled Principal Olson to reflect on his identity as a social justice…

  10. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  11. The Yearbook Photo and Graduation Speech: Intersections of Sexual Identity, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleig, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Only 48.6% of University Council For Educational Administration (UCEA) institutions which focus on social justice in principal preparation programs address sexual orientation, this case describes how the completion of an equity audit for an educational leadership course compelled Principal Olson to reflect on his identity as a social justice…

  12. Why Sexual Abuse? An Exploration of the Intergenerational Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    1989-01-01

    The study of 154 cases of intrafamilial sexual abuse found that a third of the offenders and about half of the mothers had experienced or been exposed to sexual abuse as children. Offenders are analyzed in terms of being the biological father in an intact family, stepfather/mother's live-in partner, or noncustodial father. (DB)

  13. Race and Place: Exploring the Intersection of Inequity and Volunteerism Among Older Black and White Adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Ernest; Shen, Huei-Wern; Wang, Yi; Martinez, Linda Sprague; Norstrand, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Although the historical impact of racial segregation and ongoing health and economic inequities between older Black and White adults is well documented, little is known about the relationships among race, individual- and neighborhood-resources, and formal volunteering in later life. This study explores this intersection. Individual-level data from 268 respondents aged 55+ were collected in the St. Louis metropolitan area through paper-based mail surveys. Objective neighborhood data were obtained at the zip code level from secondary sources and matched with respondents. Using exploratory factor analysis, we constructed a 14-item environmental scale with 3 neighborhood dimensions (economic, social, and built environment). Older Black adults had lower levels of education; had fewer financial assets; lived in neighborhoods with less economic resources and lower built environment scores; and fewer formally volunteered when compared to older White adults. Individual resources (financial assets, health) and neighborhood resources (social and built environment) were positively associated with formal volunteering among older Black adults. Only individual resources (age, marital status, financial assets, health) were associated with formal volunteering among older White adults. A coherent set of policies that bolsters individual and environmental capacities may increase the rate of volunteerism among older black adults.

  14. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.

  15. Exploring pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection testing

    PubMed Central

    Habel, Melissa A.; Scheinmann, Roberta; Verdesoto, Elizabeth; Gaydos, Charlotte; Bertisch, Maggie; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening as alternate testing venues among emergency contraception (EC) users. Methods The study included two phases in February 2011–July 2012. In Phase I, customers purchasing EC from eight pharmacies in Manhattan received vouchers for free STI testing at onsite medical clinics. In Phase II, three Facebook ads targeted EC users to connect them with free home-based STI test kits ordered online. Participants completed a self-administered survey. Results Only 38 participants enrolled in Phase I: 90% female, ≤29 years (74%), 45% White non-Hispanic and 75% college graduates; 71% were not tested for STIs in the past year and 68% reported a new partner in the past 3 months. None tested positive for STIs. In Phase II, ads led to >45 000 click-throughs, 382 completed the survey and 290 requested kits; 28% were returned. Phase II participants were younger and less educated than Phase I participants; six tested positive for STIs. Challenges included recruitment, pharmacy staff participation, advertising with discretion and cost. Conclusions This study found low uptake of pharmacy and home-based testing among EC users; however, STI testing in these settings is feasible and the acceptability findings indicate an appeal among younger women for testing in non-traditional settings. Collaborating with and training pharmacy and medical staff are key elements of service provision. Future research should explore how different permutations of expanding screening in non-traditional settings could improve testing uptake and detect additional STI cases. PMID:26409484

  16. Exploring the intersection of partner stalking and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Cole, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    This study examined a range of sexually abusive acts women with protective orders against violent partners experienced using three groups: (a) women who never experience stalking or rape by the violent partner; (b) women who experienced stalking but who had never been raped by the violent partner; and (c) women who were stalked and raped by the violent partner. Findings suggest that women in violent relationships experienced a wide range of sexually abusive experiences and that there is a significant association of partner stalking and partner sexual abuse beyond rape. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  17. Sexual but not reproductive: exploring the junction and disjunction of sexual and reproductive rights.

    PubMed

    Miller, A M

    2000-01-01

    Although the term "sexual rights" has gained widespread currency, its concrete scope and content have not yet been fully defined. The need for definition is critical not only for promoting governmental accountability but also for ensuring that sexual rights can be claimed by diverse persons around the world. Ironically, the concept of "sexual and reproductive rights" poses a challenge to this effort; practices and people not traditionally addressed by reproductive rights work must be explicitly named and protected. This article considers how international norms have contributed to a gendered regulation of sexuality and of contemporary theories of "socially constructed sexuality," and it proposes a focus on the conditions that contribute to the ability to choose and on the links between sexuality, conduct, identity, social structures, and reproduction. Given the probable politically charged responses, global coalition-building is needed.

  18. Sexual Offences against Children: An Exploration of Attrition in the Northern Ireland Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This paper uses data provided by the Police Service for Northern Ireland (PSNI) to compare the characteristics and outcomes of reported sexual offences involving child and adult victims and explore the factors associated with case outcomes. Method: PSNI provided data on 8,789 sexual offences recorded between April 2001 and March 2006.…

  19. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  20. Exploring Sexuality Education Opportunities at In-Home Sex-Toy Parties in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Christopher; Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Satinsky, Sonya; Fischtein, Dayna

    2010-01-01

    While debates about adolescent sexuality education persist in the United States, little attention has been paid to adult sexuality education. Research suggests that teachable moments may be present in interactions between adult bookstore employees and the consumers who shop at these venues. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential…

  1. Sexual Offences against Children: An Exploration of Attrition in the Northern Ireland Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This paper uses data provided by the Police Service for Northern Ireland (PSNI) to compare the characteristics and outcomes of reported sexual offences involving child and adult victims and explore the factors associated with case outcomes. Method: PSNI provided data on 8,789 sexual offences recorded between April 2001 and March 2006.…

  2. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  3. Exploring Sexuality Education Opportunities at In-Home Sex-Toy Parties in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Christopher; Herbenick, Debby; Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Satinsky, Sonya; Fischtein, Dayna

    2010-01-01

    While debates about adolescent sexuality education persist in the United States, little attention has been paid to adult sexuality education. Research suggests that teachable moments may be present in interactions between adult bookstore employees and the consumers who shop at these venues. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential…

  4. Exploring young adults' contraceptive knowledge and attitudes: disparities by race/ethnicity and age.

    PubMed

    Craig, Amaranta D; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C; Rocca, Corinne H

    2014-01-01

    Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18-19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20-29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  5. Race and sexual identity: perceptions about medical culture and healthcare among Black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed Central

    Malebranche, David J.; Peterson, John L.; Fullilove, Robert E.; Stackhouse, Richard W.

    2004-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. Using a qualitative approach, the authors describe the healthcare experiences of BMSM in New York State and Atlanta, GA, exploring the social issues that influence barriers to care, communication, and adherence in medical settings. Racial and sexual discrimination socially displace BMSM, and are often compounded by negative encounters within medical institutions. The internalization of these experiences influences healthcare utilization, HIV testing, communication, and adherence behaviors among members of this population. Increasing the number of ethnic and sexual minority providers, expanding current definitions of cultural competency curricula at academic institutions, targeting future research efforts on BMSM, and improving the structural and communication barriers within healthcare settings should be incorporated into our HIV prevention and routine healthcare interventions for BMSM. PMID:14746359

  6. Winning a Race: Narratives of Healing and Psychotherapy in Children and Adolescents Who Have Been Sexually Abused.

    PubMed

    Capella, Claudia; Lama, Ximena; Rodríguez, Loreto; Águila, Daniela; Beiza, Gretchen; Dussert, Denise; Gutierrez, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the process of recovering from sexual abuse according to children and adolescents who have been sexually abused and have successfully completed psychotherapy. In this qualitative study, interviews were conducted with 20 participants from 8 to 18 years of age and then subject to narrative analysis. Results show that participants' narratives of recovery involve an improvement of psychological well-being. Moreover, they feel better equipped to overcome future challenges, feeling empowered and able to retake control of their lives. Factors that support and inhibit recovery are examined, as are developmental differences. Discussion underlines the valuable role of psychotherapy in helping children and adolescents in their healing process, changing the meaning of the abusive experience, and developing new capacities.

  7. Women's Self-Report of Sexual Victimization: An Experimental Examination of the Influence of Race, Mode of Inquiry, Setting, and Researcher Contact.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Ethan B; Peterson, Zoë D

    2016-06-21

    Female college students (N = 255) provided self-report of adult sexual assault (ASA) and child sexual abuse (CSA) in one of eight randomly assigned conditions which manipulated three methodological variables (level of researcher contact, setting, and inquiry mode). The impact of methodology on reporting was examined, with race as a moderator. Non-White participants reported significantly more CSA than White participants out of lab, but differences were not observed in lab. White participants reported significantly more ASA than non-White participants on pencil-and-paper surveys, but there were no differences on computer surveys. Interpretation of race-related differences in self-reported victimization may require consideration of methodological effects.

  8. Exploring Discursive Barriers to Sexual Health and Social Justice in the New Zealand Sexuality Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland-Levett, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Sexuality education is a compulsory part of "The New Zealand Curriculum" for state-funded schools. In 2015, the Ministry of Education has published an updated revision of their official guidelines for schools on the teaching of sexuality education. This paper employs Foucauldian discourse analysis to argue that this policy document,…

  9. Exploring Discursive Barriers to Sexual Health and Social Justice in the New Zealand Sexuality Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland-Levett, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Sexuality education is a compulsory part of "The New Zealand Curriculum" for state-funded schools. In 2015, the Ministry of Education has published an updated revision of their official guidelines for schools on the teaching of sexuality education. This paper employs Foucauldian discourse analysis to argue that this policy document,…

  10. Suicide Risk Among College Student. The Intersection of Sexual Orientation and Race.

    PubMed

    Shadick, Richard; Backus Dagirmanjian, Faedra; Barbot, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Research on young adults in the general population has identified a relationship between sexual minority identification and risk for suicide. Differential rates of suicidal ideation and attempts have also been found across racial and ethnic groups. This study examined risk for suicide among university students, based on membership in one or more marginalized groups (sexual minority and racial minority identification). Data were collected from first-year college students (N = 4,345) at an urban university. Structural equation modeling was employed to model a suicidality construct, based on which a "risk for suicide" category system was derived. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were then conducted to estimate the relationship between the background variables of interest and suicide risk. Students who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) were associated with higher suicide risk than their heterosexual peers. Students of color were slightly less at risk than their heterosexual peers. However, LGB students of color were associated with elevated suicide risk relative to heterosexual peers. Results indicate that belonging to multiple marginalized groups may increase one's risk for suicide, though these effects are not simply additive. Findings highlight the complexity of the intersection between marginalized identities and suicidality.

  11. Exploring sexual risk taking among American Indian adolescents through protection motivation theory.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms.

  12. An exploration of terminology related to sexuality and gender: arguments for standardizing the language.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no consensus on the best ways to define and operationalize research concepts related to sexuality and gender. This article explores some of the ways that sex/gender and sexuality terms have been used in health-related research and in keyword searches in the health sciences. Reasons for the diversity of terms and measurement approaches are explored and arguments for and against standardizing the language are presented. The article ends with recommendations for beginning a productive dialogue among health researchers to create some consistency in the terminology used to assess sexuality and gender.

  13. Testing the Invariance of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey's Sexual Behavior Questionnaire Across Gender, Ethnicity/Race, and Generation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Anne Q; Hsueh, Loretta; Roesch, Scott C; Vaughn, Allison A; Sotelo, Frank L; Lindsay, Suzanne; Klonoff, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    Federal and state policies are based on data from surveys that examine sexual-related cognitions and behaviors through self-reports of attitudes and actions. No study has yet examined their factorial invariance--specifically, whether the relationship between items assessing sexual behavior and their underlying construct differ depending on gender, ethnicity/race, or age. This study examined the factor structure of four items from the sexual behavior questionnaire part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). As NHANES provided different versions of the survey per gender, invariance was tested across gender to determine whether subsequent tests across ethnicity/race and generation could be done across gender. Items were not invariant across gender groups so data files for women and men were not collapsed. Across ethnicity/race for both genders, and across generation for women, items were configurally invariant, and exhibited metric invariance across Latino/Latina and Black participants for both genders. Across generation for men, the configural invariance model could not be identified so the baseline models were examined. The four item one factor model fit well for the Millennial and GenerationX groups but was a poor fit for the baby boomer and silent generation groups, suggesting that gender moderated the invariance across generation. Thus, comparisons between ethnic/racial and generational groups should not be made between the genders or even within gender. Findings highlight the need for programs and interventions that promote a more inclusive definition of "having had sex."

  14. Juvenile and adult offenders arrested for sexual homicide: an analysis of victim-offender relationship and weapon used by race.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Myers, Wade C

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on racial offending patterns of sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study used a 30-year U.S. Supplementary Homicide Reports sample of SHOs arrested in single-victim situations (N = 3745). The analysis strength was used to determine whether the findings yielded meaningful patterns for offender profiling. Several important findings emerged for the juvenile offenders. Juvenile White SHOs were likely to target victims with whom they shared a mutual relationship. In contrast, Black juveniles were equally likely to murder strangers and those with whom they had prior and familial relationships. Notably, no juvenile Black SHOs were arrested for murdering intimate partners. Juvenile White SHOs were twice as likely to use edged weapons as their Black counterparts. Black juveniles, conversely, were more likely than White juveniles to use personal weapons. Beyond these findings, known victim-offender relationships and weapon used may not have significant utility for investigators in identifying the SHO race, even after controlling for offender age. Limitations and future directions are discussed. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Effects of Experimenter Contact, Setting, Inquiry Mode, and Race on Women's Self-Report of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Ethan B; Peterson, Zoë D

    2015-11-01

    Factors related to the research context, such as inquiry mode, setting, and experimenter contact, may affect participants' comfort with and willingness to disclose certain sexual attitudes or admit to engaging in sensitive sexual behaviors. In this study, 255 female undergraduates (42.7 % non-White) completed a survey containing measures of sexual behavior and attitudes. The level of experimenter contact (high vs. low contact), setting (in lab vs. out of lab), and inquiry mode (pencil-and-paper vs. computer) were manipulated and participants were randomly assigned to conditions. We hypothesized that low-contact, out-of-lab, computer conditions would be associated with more liberal sexual attitudes and higher rates of reported sexual behaviors than high-contact, in-lab, and paper-and-pencil conditions, respectively. Further, we hypothesized that effects would be moderated by race, such that differences would be greater for non-White participants because of concerns that reporting socially undesirable behavior might fuel racial stereotypes. For attitudinal measures, White participants endorsed more liberal attitudes toward sex in high-contact conditions and non-White participants endorsed more liberal attitudes in low-contact conditions. For behavioral measures, non-White participants reported more behaviors on pencil-and-paper surveys than on computers. White participants demonstrated no significant mode-related differences or reported more sexual behaviors in computer conditions than paper-and-pencil conditions. Overall, results suggest that experimenter contact and mode significantly impact sexual self-report and this impact is often moderated by race.

  16. The Dangerous Staircase: Exploring Sexuality between Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De-Malach, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The link between pedagogy and sexuality is an educational twilight zone both dangerous and full of possibilities. Being such a controversial and sensitive issue, teachers should have a safe space to discuss it. I suggest that fiction manages to capture the evasive nature of the subject. To illustrate this point, I analyze the novel "Up the…

  17. The Dangerous Staircase: Exploring Sexuality between Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De-Malach, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The link between pedagogy and sexuality is an educational twilight zone both dangerous and full of possibilities. Being such a controversial and sensitive issue, teachers should have a safe space to discuss it. I suggest that fiction manages to capture the evasive nature of the subject. To illustrate this point, I analyze the novel "Up the…

  18. Propensity to Sexually Harass: An Exploration of Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Elissa L.; Schmidtke, James M.; Kulik, Carol T.

    1998-01-01

    The propensity of 67 predominantly white male and 97 female college students to engage in severe forms of sexual harassment was studied. Results indicate that males have significantly higher propensities to harass members of the opposite sex than females. Males and females also attended to different aspects of harassment situations. (SLD)

  19. Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

  20. Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

  1. An exploration of sexual desire and sexual activities of women with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Huguelet, Philippe; Mohr, Sylvia; Miserez, Céline; Castellano, Patrizia; Lutz, Christian; Boucherie, Maria; Yaron, Michal; Perroud, Nader; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    Sexual disturbances in patients with severe mental disorders can be related to medication, to psychological issues such as self-stigma and anhedonia, but also to the social context. This research aims to gain knowledge of desire and sexual practices in women suffering from schizophrenia. Women outpatients suffering from schizophrenia were compared with healthy women. Contrary to previous research, women with schizophrenia featured dyadic and individual desire similar to women of comparable age. Yet, only half of women with psychosis had sexual practice, either alone or with a partner. They were less satisfied with their activity, both in terms of function and psychological issues such as sexual self-esteem. Keeping into account the fact that most clinicians avoid this topic, this finding underscores the stigmatization these women suffer from, which prevents the opportunity of a possible improvement in this important interpersonal domain.

  2. Sexual trauma in the military: Exploring PTSD and mental health care utilization in female veterans.

    PubMed

    Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Ray-Letourneau, Diana; Ozuna, Sara M; Munch, Christopher; Xintarianos, Elizabeth; Hasson, Anthony M; Castro, Carl A

    2015-11-01

    Sexual trauma remains a pervasive problem in the military. The deleterious mental health outcomes related to incidents of sexual assault have been well-documented in the literature, with particular attention given to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and utilization of mental health services. Much effort has focused on addressing issues of sexual trauma in the military. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidences of sexual assault in female veterans, the relationship to PTSD and mental health care utilization. The research explored differences in pre- and post-9/11 veterans. Data were collected using a 6-prong recruitment strategy to reach veterans living in Southern California. A total of 2,583 veterans completed online and in-person surveys, of which 325 female veterans were identified for inclusion in the analysis. Forty percent of the sample reported experiencing sexual assault during their military service. A history of military sexual trauma was found to be a substantial contributor to symptoms of PTSD. A majority of female veterans who indicated being sexually assaulted during their military service met the cutoff for a diagnosis of PTSD. Although only a minority of participants who indicated being a victim of sexual assault reported receiving immediate care after the incident, most had received mental health counseling within the past 12 months. Findings point to the need for additional prevention programs within the military and opportunities for care for victims of military sexual assault. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. What Is to Be Gained by Looking White People in the Eye? Culture, Race, and Gender in Cases of Sexual Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razack, Sherene

    1994-01-01

    Explores the cultural context of victims of sexual violence and their attackers by focusing on the webs of domination in which women are caught. The author suggests that women of color in North America who talk about sexual violence in court are still subjected to the arrogant gaze of imperialism, racism, and sexism. (GLR)

  4. Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mir, Ali M; Wajid, Abdul; Pearson, Stephen; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan

    2013-04-11

    In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16-45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8-7.7, p < 0.000), less than 10 years of schooling (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.2, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.3, p < 0.000), being exposed to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0-7.7, p < 0.000) and being a migrant (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.4, p < 0.002). Factors significantly associated with exclusive homosexual behaviour were having sexual debut at a younger age i.e. 16-22 years (adjusted OR 12.5, 95% CI: 3.8-40.7, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 8.8, 95% CI: 3.0-26.0, p = 0.000), having had exposure to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5-7.2, p = 0.002). To prevent the spread of STI's in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated men offering them with appropriate counselling and skills to adopt "safe sex practices" through

  5. "Westerners," "Chinese," and/or "Us": Exploring the Intersections of Language, Race, Religion, and Immigrantization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Huamei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a four-year ethnography, I draw on critical race theory and Bourdieuian theory of language to analyze why a Chinese Immigrant couple regarded their 1.5-Generation Chinese Canadian leaders at an evangelical Christian church as "Westerners," and how the leaders differentiated themselves from "Westerners" and…

  6. Exploring the Perceptions of Campus Climate among Mixed Race Students Attending a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Catherine Team

    2016-01-01

    This narrative inquiry intended to capture the lived stories told by nine, full-time, undergraduate students, who self-identified as two or more races, to better understand their perceptions of campus climate at a predominately white institution (PWI). The conceptual framework consisted of the study of multiraciality, Renn's Ecological Theory of…

  7. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploring the Connection among Race, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…

  8. Exploring family forest landowner diversity: Place, race, and gender in Alabama, United States

    Treesearch

    John Schelhas; Yaoqui Zhang; Robert Zabawa; Bin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Family forestry is characterized by heterogeneity in ownership structure, owners’ objectives, and management practices. Differences among forest landowners by age and occupation have been regularly documented, but other social dimensions, such as race and gender, have received considerably less attention. We conducted exploratory research on racial and gender...

  9. Developing Transfer Pride: An Exploration of Critical Race Pedagogy and the Summer Transfer Enrichment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Dimpal; Lucero, Iris; Bernal, Santiago; Herrera, Alfred; Solorzano, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the critical race pedagogy of the Summer Transfer Enrichment Program (STEP) over a 5-year span and how the curriculum and supplemental academic programming aided in the development of a positive transfer identity for its participants. Method: A mixed method convergent parallel design approach was used to collect…

  10. "It Gets under Your Skin": Using Process Drama to Explore Race and Privilege with Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the use of process drama in an undergraduate Intergroup Dialogue and how the use of this drama-based pedagogy shaped participants' attitudes and understandings about race and privilege. The research focused on the creation of and subsequent reflection on improvised, episodic scenes and images structured around…

  11. "Westerners," "Chinese," and/or "Us": Exploring the Intersections of Language, Race, Religion, and Immigrantization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Huamei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a four-year ethnography, I draw on critical race theory and Bourdieuian theory of language to analyze why a Chinese Immigrant couple regarded their 1.5-Generation Chinese Canadian leaders at an evangelical Christian church as "Westerners," and how the leaders differentiated themselves from "Westerners" and…

  12. Exploring the Perceptions of Campus Climate among Mixed Race Students Attending a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturm, Catherine Team

    2016-01-01

    This narrative inquiry intended to capture the lived stories told by nine, full-time, undergraduate students, who self-identified as two or more races, to better understand their perceptions of campus climate at a predominately white institution (PWI). The conceptual framework consisted of the study of multiraciality, Renn's Ecological Theory of…

  13. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…

  14. "It Gets under Your Skin": Using Process Drama to Explore Race and Privilege with Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the use of process drama in an undergraduate Intergroup Dialogue and how the use of this drama-based pedagogy shaped participants' attitudes and understandings about race and privilege. The research focused on the creation of and subsequent reflection on improvised, episodic scenes and images structured around…

  15. Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Sylvia; Vosko, Leah F.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the 2002-2004 waves of Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, this article investigates the consequences of different types of temporary employment--fixed-term or contract, casual, agency and seasonal employment--for differently situated workers in Canada. Attention to intersecting social locations of gender, race and immigrant…

  16. Exploring the Experiences and Self-Labeling of Mixed-Race Individuals with Two Minority Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    With increasing numbers of multiracial individuals and interracial relationships, the potential for rapid growth of this population on campus is unprecedented. Despite this emerging reality, the literature on mixed-race and multiracial persons is very limited, providing little guidance for student affairs educators. To address this need, the…

  17. Exploring the Experiences and Self-Labeling of Mixed-Race Individuals with Two Minority Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Donna M.

    2008-01-01

    With increasing numbers of multiracial individuals and interracial relationships, the potential for rapid growth of this population on campus is unprecedented. Despite this emerging reality, the literature on mixed-race and multiracial persons is very limited, providing little guidance for student affairs educators. To address this need, the…

  18. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Exploring the Connection among Race, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Kelly L.; Trepal, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic identity in relation to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included freshmen at 2 universities, who were predominantly female. Final inferential statistics examined differences across Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Asian American, and Multiracial students, finding African Americans and Asian…

  19. “Enjoy Your Sexuality, but Do it in Secret”: Exploring Undergraduate Women’s Reports of Friends’ Sexual Communications

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    In the current study I used mixed methods to explore the messages that undergraduate women (n = 415) reported receiving from their male and female friends regarding sex and romantic relationships. Reports of friends’ messages varied widely and entailed both support for and criticism of sexual gatekeeping and sex positivity (e.g., sexual agency) and advice regarding sex and romantic relationships. Four individuals, including the author, developed codes to examine this wide range of responses to sexual expectations and prohibitions and independently and reliably coded the data. Response patterns illustrate that reports of female friends’ messages were typically longer and more nuanced than reports of male friends’ messages. Sex-positive messages and sexual gatekeeping messages were frequently reported simultaneously, and this pattern of co-occurrence illustrates the tensions between diverse discourses regarding women’s sexuality. The diversity in reports of friends’ messages challenges popular notions that friends’ influences are wholly problematic and highlights a need for more gender-focused sex education curricula. PMID:27092014

  20. Childhood sexual abuse, teenage pregnancy, and partnering with adult men: exploring the relationship.

    PubMed

    Harner, Holly M

    2005-08-01

    Although the mechanism by which early victimization, specifically sexual abuse, increases the risk of adolescent pregnancy is unclear, a relationship between previous victimization and adolescent pregnancy has been demonstrated. While partnering with an older man may initially offer the means necessary to escape a neglectful or violent family of origin, this protection be accompanied by an imbalance of power and control. Both adolescent mothers partnered with adult men and adolescent mothers partnered with male peers reported sexual abuse perpetrated by family members, family friends, strangers, and peers. Policies developed to protect young people from victimization, including mandatory reporting and statutory rape laws, should be evaluated for their consistent application to all children, regardless of age, race, gender, or pregnancy status.

  1. Beyond Race and Ethnicity: Exploring the Effects of Ethnic Identity and Its Implications for Cancer Communication Efforts.

    PubMed

    Hovick, Shelly R; Holt, Lanier F

    2016-01-01

    Within the health communication literature there has been an increased focus on the use of cultural and identity-based message tailoring to enhance the effectiveness of messages and interventions, particularly among minority and underserved populations. Although this approach may be promising, little is known about the effect of ethnic identity on health behaviors and beliefs or how the effects of ethnic identity differ from those of race or ethnicity. This study is among the first to explore relationships between ethnic identity and cancer-related risk factors, knowledge characteristics, and cognitive and affective appraisals. This study utilized a national online sample of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics (N = 1,452). Higher ethnic identity was associated with increased physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake and decreased body mass index among Whites (p < .05). Higher ethnic identity was also associated with increased cancer risk knowledge (p < .05) but not cancer risk perceptions or self-efficacy (p > .05). Hispanics and Blacks with higher ethnic identity had greater cancer worry. Our results suggest that the effect of ethnic identity is often distinct from that of race/ethnicity and that health communication interventions based solely on race/ethnicity may not be as effective as those that also take ethnic identity into account.

  2. Exploring young adult sexual minority women's perspectives on LGBTQ smoking.

    PubMed

    Youatt, Emily J; Johns, Michelle M; Pingel, Emily S; Soler, Jorge H; Bauermeister, José A

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed.

  3. Development, reliability, and validity of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MOSIEC).

    PubMed

    Worthington, Roger L; Navarro, Rachel L; Savoy, Holly Bielstein; Hampton, Dustin

    2008-01-01

    Four studies were conducted on the development and validation of the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (MoSIEC). Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded a 22-item measure with 4 distinct factors assessing commitment, exploration, sexual orientation identity uncertainty, and synthesis/integration. Exploratory factor analysis findings support the argument that sexual identity is a broad, multidimensional construct and that the MoSIEC assesses the construct of sexual identity in a manner consistent with J. E. Marcia's (1966) model of identity development. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the stability of the MoSIEC factor structure, providing evidence of construct validity. Test-retest stability, internal consistency, and validity coefficients supported the use and continued development of the MoSIEC. Significant differences in levels of exploration and sexual orientation identity uncertainty were found among different sexual orientation identity groups, establishing the criterion-related validity of the MoSIEC. Implications for further development and use of the MoSIEC are discussed.

  4. Assistive technology use by disability type and race: exploration of a population-based health survey.

    PubMed

    Ilunga Tshiswaka, Daudet; Loggins Clay, Shondra; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Alston, Reginald; Lewis, Allen

    2015-09-28

    To examine the relationships among Assistive Technology (AT) use, race, type of disability and selected other demographic characteristics. Using 2009 National Health Interview Survey, descriptive statistics, statistical interactions and binary logistic regression were performed to identify, contrast and predict the likelihood of using AT based on the type of disability among African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). We found that more AAs (10% within group proportion of total AAs) used AT compared to EAs (7.5% within group proportion of total EAs). Physical (p < 0.001), auditory (p = 0.028) and emotional (p = 0.008) impairments were statistically significant predictors of AT use. However, physical impairment as a predictor of AT use was greater among AAs (OR = 222.49, CI: 64.04-773.04, p < 0.001) than EAs (OR = 50.77, CI: 31.78-81.12, p < 0.001). EAs had a greater number of disabling conditions that predict the use of AT than AAs, whereas AAs had more demographic characteristics beyond race that predict AT use than EAs. Disparities were observed in AT usage by disability types and demographic characteristics between AAs and EAs. Moreover, the predictive strength of AT usage based on disability types and other demographic variables differed by races. Overall, the findings about the different relationships among race, disability type, and AT use are found. Implications for Rehabilitation The finding may inform the development of initiatives by rehabilitation leaders to encourage the use of AT by AAs and EAs according to their type of impairment. Having identified physical impairment as statistically significant predictor of AT use greater among AAs, rehabilitation leaders should ensure that people living with those types of disability have access to the corresponding type of AT and can use them effectively.

  5. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, p<.001) and global eating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, p<.001). Females had a stronger relationship between food cravings and eating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  6. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, p<.001) and global eating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, p<.001). Females had a stronger relationship between food cravings and eating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Gendered discourses of youth sexualities--an exploration of PubMed articles on prevention of sexually transmissible infections.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Eva E; Alex, Lena; Christianson, Monica

    2014-10-01

    To explore how gender is addressed in medical articles on the prevention of sexually transmissible infections (STI) among adolescents. Sixtyone articles were retrieved from a PubMed search and scrutinized by qualitative content analysis. Most articles were affiliated with North American research institutions, but there were also reports from Europe, Africa, South America, and Asia. Gender turned up in the following four recurrent discourses: Gendered Receptiveness for Information, Stereotyped Heterosexual Expectations, Power Imbalance in Sexual Relations, and Gendered Prevention Approaches. Young women were described as knowledgeable, communicative, and responsible, but at risk because of feminine ideals and a lack of negotiating power. Men were described as less informed, more reluctant to discuss, and more risk taking due to masculine ideals and power dominance. Prevention approaches concerned how to postpone sex and/or tailor gender-sensitive programs for specific groups of young women and men. Researchers' own gender expectations might have a substantial impact on how sex and sexual health is considered in prevention research. To avoid reconstruction of current inequalities and stereotypes regarding sexual practices of young women and men, the impact of gender, the power structures in intimate relations, and the cultural context should be considered. Medical research on STI prevention could benefit from including a wider array of gender perspectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the Overlap in Male Juvenile Sexual Offending and General Delinquency: Trauma, Alcohol Use, and Masculine Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Adam; Burton, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite Burton and Meezan's (2004) finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully…

  9. Sexual Harassment of Women Professors by Students: Exploring the Dynamics of Power, Authority, and Gender in a University Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauerholz, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaire explores the sexual harassment of women professors by students to gain insight into how widespread the problem is, and to understand better how both gender and status define an individual's vulnerability to sexual harassment. Survey data show a range of incidents, from sexist comments to sexual assault. (Author/JS)

  10. Who is Most Susceptible to Movie Smoking Effects? Exploring the Impacts of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Design Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socioeconomic status, the interactions of these variables, and family and background characteristics. Setting National sample of US adolescents. Participants 3653 respondents aged 13–18 years. Measurements Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents’ reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. Findings The proportion having tried smoking was lower for Blacks (0.32) compared to Hispanics (0.41) and Whites (0.38). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among Whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on Blacks. SES further modified the relation among Whites; high SES white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low SES white adolescents. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is not uniformly experienced as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among U.S. adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socioeconomic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among Whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. PMID:22724674

  11. A phenomenological exploration of reflections on lived space by child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-12-01

    Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.).

  12. Wrinkles and sagging flesh: exploring transformations in women's sexual body image.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Beth; Gillen, Meghan M

    2013-01-01

    In American society, the sexually desirable woman is young and thin. Changes associated with aging such as wrinkled skin or weight gain often bring women further from societal ideals of attractiveness. As physical appearance is very much related to desirability, we explore sexual body image and the way that it changes as women age. Based on in-depth interviews with 95 women aged 20-68, we find women's sexuality and feelings of desirability are influenced by physical appearance, media, as well as significant others and family. We also note that sexual body image is more often negative than positive for women of all ages and that women struggle to accept changes in their bodies as a result of the aging process and life experiences; however, women in their 50s and 60s are most likely to accept their bodies and not feel influenced by social pressures.

  13. Are black Hispanics black or Hispanic? Exploring disparities at the intersection of race and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    LaVeist-Ramos, Thomas Alexis; Galarraga, Jessica; Thorpe, Roland J; Bell, Caryn N; Austin, Chermeia J

    2012-07-01

    Disparities in health among blacks and Hispanics compared to whites individuals exist for a number of health measures; however, the health profile of individuals who are both black and Hispanic is not well known. We sought to determine whether race and ethnicity have synchronous or independent effects on health-related outcomes. We combined the National Health Interview Survey for 2000-2007 to identify 896 black Hispanics. We selected health-related outcomes where white Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks significantly differed. We computed adjusted prevalence estimates for black Hispanics and compared them to determine whether their health-related outcomes more closely resemble white Hispanics or non-Hispanic blacks. All prevalence estimates were adjusted for age, sex, education, marital status, income and survey year. Black Hispanics' health behaviours resembled white Hispanics or were similar to both white Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. For health services outcomes, they resembled non-Hispanic blacks. However, their health status was influenced by both race and ethnicity, with black Hispanics resembling both white Hispanic and non-Hispanic black people. We conclude that health behaviour interventions incorporating knowledge of Hispanic cultures may be sufficient to reach black Hispanics. However, health services or health status, interventions targeted broadly to Hispanic people may not be sufficient. In some respects black Hispanic people comprise a distinct subgroup that may require targeted attention in public health interventions.

  14. White Americans’ Genetic Lay Theories of Race Differences and Sexual Orientation: Their Relationship with Prejudice toward Blacks, and Gay Men and Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Jayaratne, Toby Epstein; Ybarra, Oscar; Sheldon, Jane P.; Brown, Tony N.; Feldbaum, Merle; Pfeffer, Carla; Petty, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between White Americans’ genetic explanations, conceptualized as genetic lay theories, for perceived racial differences and for sexual orientation, and attitudes toward Blacks, and gay men and lesbians, respectively. Considering contrasting public discourse surrounding race and sexual orientation, we predicted that genetic lay theories would be associated with greater prejudice toward Blacks, but less prejudice toward gay men and lesbians. The findings, based on a representative sample of 600 White Americans, were consistent with expectations. Results are discussed in relation to the literature on essentialism and implicit theories of the malleability of traits. The present research broadens our view of lay theories by showing how they support either prejudice or tolerance, depending on the target group. PMID:24260013

  15. Sexual identity in the American Deep South: the concordance and discordance of sexual activity, relationships, and identities.

    PubMed

    Baunach, Dawn Michelle; Burgess, Elisabeth O

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the association between sexual identity and sexual behavior and how that association varies across gender and race in the American Deep South. Multinomial logistic regression analysis is used to determine the likelihood of each sexual identity given past sexual behavior, sexual relationships, and other social characteristics. The more traditional cultural climate of the South appears to suppress identification as a sexual minority. Sexual identification in the Deep South is primarily a product of sexual activity and sexual relationships, although attitudes toward and contact with the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community play a minor role. Although most participants' sexual behaviors and identities were in concordance, sexual discordance was highest for White women and lowest for White men. Discordance was also associated with traditional men's roles attitudes, negative homosexuality attitudes, and contact with the LGBT community. It is hoped that these results encourage scholarship that deconstructs the sexual behavior and identity of all groups, not just oppressed groups.

  16. Is Texting Ruining Intimacy? Exploring Perceptions among Sexuality Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of researchers' and educators' concerns about the pervasive use of technology to communicate with one another, this study explored whether the frequency of emerging adults' computer-mediated communication (CMC) is correlated with their perceptions of intimacy, relationship, and sexual satisfaction. The sample included 298 young…

  17. Female Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: An Existential Exploration and Implications for Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kathy D.; Mills, Kimberly T.; Strickland, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, annual prevalence factors indicate that 25% of women are reported survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Existential concerns and basic purposes within the physical, social, personal and spiritual dimensions of female CSA survivors' worldviews are explored. The recognition and meanings of existential purposes and concerns…

  18. Travelling and Sticky Affects: Exploring Teens and Sexualized Cyberbullying through a Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoed, Jette; Ringrose, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we combine the thinking of Deleuze and Guattari (1984, 1987) with Judith Butler's (1990, 1993, 2004, 2009) work to follow the rhizomatic becomings of young people's affective relations in a range of on- and off-line school spaces. In particular we explore how events that may be designated as sexual cyberbullying are constituted and…

  19. Travelling and Sticky Affects: Exploring Teens and Sexualized Cyberbullying through a Butlerian-Deleuzian-Guattarian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofoed, Jette; Ringrose, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we combine the thinking of Deleuze and Guattari (1984, 1987) with Judith Butler's (1990, 1993, 2004, 2009) work to follow the rhizomatic becomings of young people's affective relations in a range of on- and off-line school spaces. In particular we explore how events that may be designated as sexual cyberbullying are constituted and…

  20. Is Texting Ruining Intimacy? Exploring Perceptions among Sexuality Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of researchers' and educators' concerns about the pervasive use of technology to communicate with one another, this study explored whether the frequency of emerging adults' computer-mediated communication (CMC) is correlated with their perceptions of intimacy, relationship, and sexual satisfaction. The sample included 298 young…

  1. Exploring the Association between Race and Health among Older Adults Who Are Incarcerated.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Shi, Qiuhu; Forseth, Kirsten; Laureano, Pedro; Viola, Deborah

    2017-04-03

    One of the little known ironies in the field of prison health is the notion that prison may actually have health-stabilizing effects for some groups. This study contributes to this line of inquiry by examining a variety of physical and mental health indicators among an older cohort of prisoners. Furthermore, this study's focus on race addresses a notable gap in the growing literature on older prisoner health. A cross-section of 625 males who were incarcerated residing in a northeastern state prison system was surveyed and data on self-reported health status and stress and individual demographics characteristics were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to quantify racial differences with respect to self-reported stress after adjusting for potential confounders. Results suggest that Black men who are older and incarcerated appear to be more resilient than White men who are older. An association was found between race and self-reported stress though not statistically significant. Health status is a significant predictor of self-reported stress in univariate and multivariate analyses. Having ever committed a violent offense and having received mental health services (in and out patient) are statistically associated with self-reported stress. Black men who were older in this study appear to cope better with stress related to incarceration than White men who were older, which may in turn affect other physical and mental health outcomes. Future research is needed to address factors that stabilize health and reduce stress among a racially diverse, aging prison population.

  2. Longitudinal relationships between antiretroviral treatment adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race, and sexual orientation among African-American men with HIV.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Laura M; Wagner, Glenn J; Galvan, Frank H; Klein, David J

    2010-10-01

    African-Americans show worse HIV disease outcomes compared to Whites. Health disparities may be aggravated by discrimination, which is associated with worse health and maladaptive health behaviors. We examined longitudinal effects of discrimination on antiretroviral treatment adherence among 152 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men. We measured adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation at baseline and monthly for 6 months. Hierarchical repeated-measures models tested longitudinal effects of each discrimination type on adherence. Over 6 months, participants took 60% of prescribed medications on average; substantial percentages experienced discrimination (HIV-serostatus, 38%; race/ethnicity, 40%; and sexual orientation, 33%). Greater discrimination due to all three characteristics was significantly bivariately associated with lower adherence (all p's < 0.05). In the multivariate model, only racial discrimination was significant (p < 0.05). Efforts to improve HIV treatment adherence should consider the context of multiple stigmas, especially racism.

  3. Longitudinal Relationships Between Antiretroviral Treatment Adherence and Discrimination Due to HIV-Serostatus, Race, and Sexual Orientation Among African–American Men with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Bogart, Laura M.; Wagner, Glenn J.; Galvan, Frank H.; Klein, David J.

    2010-01-01

    African–Americans show worse HIV disease outcomes compared to Whites. Health disparities may be aggravated by discrimination, which is associated with worse health and maladaptive health behaviors. We examined longitudinal effects of discrimination on antiretroviral treatment adherence among 152 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men. We measured adherence and discrimination due to HIV-serostatus, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation at baseline and monthly for 6 months. Hierarchical repeated-measures models tested longitudinal effects of each discrimination type on adherence. Over 6 months, participants took 60% of prescribed medications on average; substantial percentages experienced discrimination (HIV-serostatus, 38%; race/ethnicity, 40%; and sexual orientation, 33%). Greater discrimination due to all three characteristics was significantly bivariately associated with lower adherence (all p’s<0.05). In the multivariate model, only racial discrimination was significant (p<0.05). Efforts to improve HIV treatment adherence should consider the context of multiple stigmas, especially racism. PMID:20552416

  4. Moffies, artists, and queens: race and the production of South African gay male drag.

    PubMed

    Swarr, Amanda Lock

    2004-01-01

    This article draws on seventeen months of ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa to explore the experiences of urban and township drag performers. I show that two distinct sex-gender-sexuality systems have emerged based in the sociopolitical history of South Africa, and I argue that urban drag produces race oppositionally and examine how township femininity creates raced forms of gender, sex, and sexuality. Contemporary South African drag foregrounds the performativity and constitution of race and gender. My analysis attempts to challenge definitions of "drag" and "audience," suggesting the necessity for an integrated reconceptualization of drag studies.

  5. Regretful liaisons: exploring the role of partner regret in the association between sexual and relationship satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Karlene; German, Nicole M; Mattson, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Regrets over partner selection can negatively influence romantic relationship functioning. It may even undermine stability in otherwise satisfied unions. The present study extends research on partner regret by exploring its several possible links with sexual satisfaction and satisfaction with the relationship as a whole. The authors analyzed data provided by 351 individuals using path analysis. Primary findings indicate that partner regret reduces sexual satisfaction by first depreciating satisfaction with the relationship as a whole. This effect was especially pronounced for parents and women. Implications for assessment and targeted interventions for partner regret are discussed.

  6. Exploring childhood cancer survivors' views about sex and sexual experiences -findings from online focus group discussions.

    PubMed

    Jervaeus, Anna; Nilsson, Jenny; Eriksson, Lars E; Lampic, Claudia; Widmark, Catarina; Wettergren, Lena

    2016-02-01

    To explore childhood cancer survivors' views about sex and sexual experiences and, as an additional aim, their possible needs for care and support from health care professionals regarding sexual life. Written online focus group discussions were performed with survivors of childhood cancer, identified through the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry; 133 (36%; aged 16-25) participated. Written text was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in one main category: Could my cancer experience have an impact on my sexual life? with four generic categories: Sex considered to be good, Feeling insecure and falling behind, Relating sex to a stable relationship and Concerns related to the physical body. In general, participants had not reflected on the possibility that their cancer experience could impact on sexual life. Sex was often considered to be something natural, important and taken for granted. However, thoughts and worries were expressed including being shy, feeling insecure and falling behind peers. Physical concerns included vaginal dryness and difficulties related to erection and reaching orgasm. Many participants stated that sexual issues had not been discussed with health care professionals, however, the need for such support differed. Many of the childhood cancer survivors' did not relate their sexual experiences to previous cancer treatment. However, problems were expressed, both of emotional and physical nature. Many participants stated that they had not received any information or support regarding sexual issues from health care professionals, why it is recommended to be regularly addressed in follow-up care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Race Differences in Family Experience and Early Sexual Initiation: Dynamic Models of Family Structure and Family Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Thomson, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects of family structure on age at first sexual intercourse before marriage for a recent cohort of women. For neither White nor Black women are results consistent with hypotheses positing earlier initiation of sexual activity for women with prolonged exposure to a single-mother or father-absent family. (BF)

  8. Exploring differences in youth and parent reports of antisociality among adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Skilling, Tracey A; Doiron, James M; Seto, Michael C

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis of adolescent or parent report, though the difference was much larger for parent reports. Examining this discrepancy more closely, we found that parents of sexual offenders reported less antisocial behavior than did their sons, whereas parents of nonsexual offenders reported more antisocial behavior than did their sons. The same pattern of results was obtained for reports on impulsivity, but much less so with respect to antisocial personality traits such as narcissism and callousness. Measures of family functioning were generally not related to these parent-adolescent discrepancies in reports of conduct problems, but these discrepancies were positively correlated with parental reports of stress. The implications of these findings for the interpretation of research on adolescent sexual offenders and comparisons of sexual and nonsexual offenders are discussed.

  9. Mobility and its liminal context: exploring sexual partnering among truck drivers crossing the Southern Brazilian border.

    PubMed

    Lippman, Sheri A; Pulerwitz, Julie; Chinaglia, Magda; Hubbard, Alan; Reingold, Arthur; Díaz, Juan

    2007-12-01

    Mobile populations, including truck drivers, are at elevated risk of acquiring HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, measures of mobility have been poorly operationalized and little research exists exploring the psychosocial context of mobility and sexual risk taking. A systematic sample of 1775 male truck drivers underwent interview at two customs stations on the Southern Brazilian international border in 2003. The psychosocial effect of being mobile was assessed by clustering truckers based on perceptions of the liminal environment, or being outside of one's normal social environment. The relationship between physical mobility (nights spent at home) and liminal cluster with sexual partnerships was assessed. The clustering procedure yielded three dispositions towards the liminal environment. Compared to truckers in the baseline cluster, those who perceive the environment as (1) very, or (2) moderately permissive had increased odds of reporting a commercial sex partner in the past six months and reported increased numbers of commercial partners. For each week slept at home, the odds of reporting a commercial partner decreased by a factor of 0.73 and the average number of commercial partners decreased by a rate of 0.76. Physical and psychosocial measures of mobility were associated independently with increased partnering on the road. Additional exploration of how the liminal environment shapes mobile populations' sexual decision making and vulnerability to STI is warranted.

  10. Male rats that differ in novelty exploration demonstrate distinct patterns of sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Jennifer A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Perry, Adam N.; Akil, Huda; Becker, Jill B.

    2014-01-01

    High versus low novelty exploration predicts a variety of behavioral differences. For example, rats selectively-bred for high novelty exploration (bred High Responders, bHR) exhibit exaggerated aggression, impulsivity, and proclivity to addictive behaviors compared to low novelty-reactive rats (bred Low Responders, bLRs), which are characterized by a high anxiety/depressive-like phenotype. Since bHR/bLR rats exhibit differences in dopaminergic circuitry and differential response to rewarding stimuli (i.e., psychostimulants, food), the present study examined whether they also differ in another key hedonic behavior – sex. Thus, adult bHR/bLR males were given five 30-min opportunities to engage in sexual activity with a receptive female. Sexual behavior and motivation were examined and compared between the groups. The bHR/bLR phenotype affected both sexual motivation and behavior, with bLR males demonstrating reduced motivation for sex compared with bHR males (i.e., fewer animals copulated, longer latency to engage in sex). The bHR males required more intromissions at a faster pace per ejaculation than did bLR males. Thus, neurobiological differences that affect motivation for drugs of abuse, aggression, and impulsivity in rats also affect sexual motivation and performance. PMID:23398441

  11. Exploring the diversity of gender and sexual orientation identities in an online sample of transgender individuals.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Laura E; Nussbaum, Robin; Mustanski, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Although the term transgender is increasingly used to refer to those whose gender identity or expression diverges from culturally defined categories of sex and gender, less is known about the self-identities of those who fall within this category. Historically, recruitment of transgender populations has also been limited to specialized clinics and support groups. This study was conducted online, with the aim of exploring the gender identities, sexual orientation identities, and surgery and hormonal statuses of those who identify with a gender identity other than, or in addition to, that associated with their birth sex (n = 292). Genderqueer was the most commonly endorsed gender identity, and pansexual and queer were the most commonly endorsed sexual orientation identities. Participants indentified with a mean of 2.5 current gender identities, 1.4 past gender identities, and 2 past sexual orientation identities. The majority of participants either did not desire or were unsure of their desire to take hormones or undergo sexual reassignment surgery. However, birth sex and age were significant predictors of "bottom" surgery and hormone status/desire, along with several identities and orientations. This study explores explanations and implications for these patterns of identification, along with the potential distinctiveness of this sample.

  12. Us & Them? Entering a Three-Dimensional Narrative Inquiry Space with White Pre-Service Teachers to Explore Race, Racism, and Anti-Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Lachuk, Amy S.; Mosley, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two white teacher educators illustrate entering into a three-dimensional narrative space with a white pre-service teacher. The authors explore how their histories have led them to practice teacher education pedagogies that are rooted in ideas of social justice and critical race theory. In order to support the goals and aims of…

  13. Us & Them? Entering a Three-Dimensional Narrative Inquiry Space with White Pre-Service Teachers to Explore Race, Racism, and Anti-Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Lachuk, Amy S.; Mosley, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two white teacher educators illustrate entering into a three-dimensional narrative space with a white pre-service teacher. The authors explore how their histories have led them to practice teacher education pedagogies that are rooted in ideas of social justice and critical race theory. In order to support the goals and aims of…

  14. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  15. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  16. Disabling sexualities: Exploring the impact of the intersection of HIV, disability and gender on the sexualities of women in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Stephanie; Yoshida, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women with a disability are often characterised as a homogenous social group consigned to a cultural stereotype with assumptions of dependence, asexuality and gender neutrality. Furthermore, there is a void of research about the experience of people with disabilities following diagnosis with HIV. Little is known about how HIV diagnosis intersects with disability and gender and how it shapes the experiences of intimacy and gender roles of those negotiating this intersection. Objective The objective of this study was to explore how HIV, disability and gender shape the perspectives of HIV-positive women with disabilities regarding intimacy and gender roles. Methods Twelve women in Lusaka, Zambia were recruited for in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences of having a disability and living with HIV. Interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja and Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted, followed by in-depth gender analyses of data relating to intimacy and gender roles. Results Data analysis led to the identification of two main themes: the impact of HIV diagnosis on intimate relationships amongst the participants; and the disruption and renegotiation of gender roles. These findings demonstrate the loss of intimacy (often decided by the participants) and changes in women’s gender roles (infrequently decided by them). Conclusions The narrow approaches to sexuality and HIV that reinforce misconceptions and stereotypes need to change. In their place should be inclusive and disability and sex-positive approaches that are informed by the diverse realities of women’s lives. Further research is needed to develop stronger evidence of the impact of HIV and disability on gender roles and sexuality. PMID:28729990

  17. Disabling sexualities: Exploring the impact of the intersection of HIV, disability and gender on the sexualities of women in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Wickenden, Anna; Nixon, Stephanie; Yoshida, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Women with a disability are often characterised as a homogenous social group consigned to a cultural stereotype with assumptions of dependence, asexuality and gender neutrality. Furthermore, there is a void of research about the experience of people with disabilities following diagnosis with HIV. Little is known about how HIV diagnosis intersects with disability and gender and how it shapes the experiences of intimacy and gender roles of those negotiating this intersection. The objective of this study was to explore how HIV, disability and gender shape the perspectives of HIV-positive women with disabilities regarding intimacy and gender roles. Twelve women in Lusaka, Zambia were recruited for in-depth semi-structured interviews to explore their experiences of having a disability and living with HIV. Interviews were conducted in English, Bemba, Nyanja and Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted, followed by in-depth gender analyses of data relating to intimacy and gender roles. Data analysis led to the identification of two main themes: the impact of HIV diagnosis on intimate relationships amongst the participants; and the disruption and renegotiation of gender roles. These findings demonstrate the loss of intimacy (often decided by the participants) and changes in women's gender roles (infrequently decided by them). The narrow approaches to sexuality and HIV that reinforce misconceptions and stereotypes need to change. In their place should be inclusive and disability and sex-positive approaches that are informed by the diverse realities of women's lives. Further research is needed to develop stronger evidence of the impact of HIV and disability on gender roles and sexuality.

  18. Spiritual and Sexual Identity: Exploring Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients' Perspectives of Counseling.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Kristopher M; Buser, Juleen K; Luke, Melissa; Buser, Trevor J

    2016-06-01

    Although religious and spiritual issues have emerged as areas of focus in counseling, very few scholars have explored the meaning and experiences of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients who addressed their sexual and religious/spiritual identities in counseling. Using consensual qualitative research (CQR; Hill, 2012), the current study explores the perspectives of 12 LGB persons who sought counseling that involved religious/spiritual concerns. Four themes in participant interviews are identified, including (a) self-acceptance, (b) goals of counseling, (c) identification with counselor, and (d) counseling environment and relationship. Implications of findings for the counseling field are discussed.

  19. Exploring Sexuality Education and the Burdened Teacher: A Participatory Approach in a Rural Primary School in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiragu, Susan Wanjiru

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-five years since the onset of HIV/AIDS, young people aged 15-24 now make up half of new HIV infections. This paper advocates for comprehensive sexuality education as an effective panacea to reverse this, with teachers stepping up and embracing their role as sexuality educators. The exploration of this challenge is informed by a small-scale…

  20. Exploring Bias in Math Teachers’ Perceptions of Students’ Ability by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Riegle-Crumb, Catherine; Humphries, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether gender stereotypes about math ability shape high school teachers’ assessments of the students with whom they interact daily, resulting in the presence of conditional bias. It builds on theories of intersectionality by exploring teachers’ perceptions of students in different gender and racial/ethnic subgroups, and advances the literature on the salience of gender across contexts by considering variation across levels of math course-taking in the academic hierarchy. Utilizing nationally representative data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS), analyses reveal that disparities in teachers’ perceptions of ability that favored white males over minority students of both genders are explained away by student achievement in the form of test scores and grades. However, we find evidence of a consistent bias against white females which, although relatively small in magnitude, suggests that teachers hold the belief that math is easier for white males than it is for white females. We also find some evidence of variation across course level contexts with regard to bias. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for research on the construction of gender inequality. PMID:24187437

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse Is Highly Associated With HIV Risk–Taking Behavior and Infection Among MSM in the EXPLORE Study

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Donnell, Deborah; Safren, Steven A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Gortmaker, Steven; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Chesney, Margaret A.; Coates, Thomas J.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found high rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among US men who have sex with men (MSM). CSA history has been associated with a variety of negative effects later in life including behaviors that place MSM at greater risk for HIV acquisition and transmission. The present analysis is the first to examine the longitudinal association between CSA and HIV infection, unprotected anal sex, and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex, as well as mediators of these relationships among a large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Methods The EXPLORE Study was a behavioral intervention trial conducted in 6 US cities over 48 months with HIV infection as the primary efficacy outcome. Behavioral assessments were done every 6 months via confidential computerized assessments. Longitudinal regression models were constructed, adjusting for randomization arm, geographical location of study site, age at enrollment, education, and race/ethnicity. Results Of the 4295 participants enrolled, 39.7% had a history of CSA. Participants with a history of CSA [adjusted hazards ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.69] were at increased risk for HIV infection over study follow-up. A significant association was seen between history of CSA and unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.36) and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.43). Among participants reporting CSA, the EXPLORE intervention had no effect in reducing HIV infection rates. Participants reporting CSA were significantly more likely to have symptoms of depression and use nonprescription drugs. Conclusions A predictive relationship between a history of CSA and subsequent HIV infection was observed among this large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Findings indicate that HIV-uninfected MSM with CSA histories are at greater risk for HIV infection, report higher rates of HIV sexual risk behavior, and may derive less benefit from

  2. Exploring the sexual diversity of flatworms: Ecology, evolution, and the molecular biology of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ramm, Steven A

    2017-02-01

    Flatworms exhibit huge diversity in their reproductive biology, making this group an excellent model system for exploring how differences among species in reproductive ecology are reflected in the physiological and molecular details of how reproduction is achieved. In this review, I consider five key "lifestyle choices" (i.e., alternative evolutionary/developmental outcomes) that collectively encompass much of flatworm sexual diversity, beginning with the decisions: (i) whether to be free-living or parasitic; (ii) whether to reproduce asexually or sexually; and (iii) whether to be gonochoristic (separate-sexed) or hermaphroditic. I then examine two further decisions involving hermaphroditism: (iv) outcrossing versus selfing and (v) the balance of investment into the male versus the female sex function (sex allocation). Collectively, these lifestyle choices set the basic rules for how reproduction occurs, but as I emphasize in the second part of the review, the reproductive biology of flatworms is also greatly impacted by the near-pervasive and powerful pressure of sexual selection, together with the related phenomena of sperm competition and sexual conflict. Exactly how this plays out, however, is strongly affected by the particular combination of reproductive strategies adopted by each species. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 120-131, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Importance of race-ethnicity: An exploration of Asian, Black, Latino, and Multiracial adolescent identity

    PubMed Central

    Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th–12th grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and Multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents’ racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants’ thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups. PMID:20438152

  4. Importance of race and ethnicity: an exploration of Asian, Black, Latino, and multiracial adolescent identity.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M

    2010-04-01

    This mixed-method study used a grounded theory approach to explore the meanings underlying the importance that adolescents attach to their racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 923 9th- to 12th-grade students from Black, Latino, Asian, and multiracial backgrounds. Thematic findings identified a broad range of explanations for adolescents' racial-ethnic centrality, ranging from pride and cultural connection to ambivalence and colorblind attitudes. While racial-ethnic groups differed in reported levels of racial-ethnic centrality, few group differences were identified in participants' thematic explanations, with the exception of racial-ethnic and gender differences for Positive Regard and Disengagement. These findings highlight the diversity of meanings that adolescents attribute to their racial-ethnic centrality as well as the many commonalities among adolescents across gender and racial-ethnic groups.

  5. Exploration of Social, Environmental, and Familial Influences on the Sexual Health Practices of Urban African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Michelle L; Baiardi, Janet M; Tate, Nutrena H; Rouen, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Despite efforts to examine social influences and provide interventions that lead to safer sexual practices for African American (AA) adolescent girls, statistics have demonstrated this population continues to have the highest rates of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV when compared with adolescent girls of other races. Guided by the principles of Black Feminist Thought and Photovoice and focus group methodology, this descriptive study aimed to discover the social realities influencing a group of eight AA adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 years. Data from individual interviews and a focus group session were collected from November 11, 2012, to February 1, 2013. Analysis of selected photographs, interviews, and focus group conversations through a feminist lens suggests AA adolescents of low socioeconomic status continue to foster racial and mental inferiority stereotypes by using their sexuality as a bargaining tool for acceptance, value, and even love. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Beyond the Face of Race: Emo-Cognitive Explorations of White Neurosis and Racial Cray-Cray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Cheryl E.; DiAngelo, Robin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on the emotional and cognitive context that underlies whiteness. They employ interdisciplinary approaches of critical Whiteness studies and critical race theory to entertain how common White responses to racial material stem from the need for Whites to deny race, a traumatizing process that begins in childhood.…

  7. Church-based social support and health in old age: exploring variations by race.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2002-11-01

    A conceptual model is evaluated that explores the relationship between church-based support and health. In the process, an effort is made to see if the relationships in this model differ for older White and African American people. Interviews were conducted with a national sample of 748 older White and 752 older Black people. The responses of 1,126 of these study participants are used in the analyses presented herein. Survey measures were administered to assess church-based social ties and health. Empirical support was provided for the following theoretical linkages: Older people who attend church often feel their congregations are more cohesive; older people in highly cohesive congregations receive more spiritual and emotional support from their fellow parishioners; older respondents who receive more church-based support have a more personal relationship with God; older people who feel more closely connected with God are more optimistic; and older people who are more optimistic enjoy better health. Data further reveal that older Black people are more likely than older White people to reap the health-related benefits of religion. The findings contribute to research on religion and health by specifying how the salubrious effects of religion may arise.

  8. Women's perspectives on family planning service quality: an exploration of differences by race, ethnicity and language.

    PubMed

    Becker, Davida; Klassen, Ann C; Koenig, Michael A; LaVeist, Thomas A; Sonenstein, Freya L; Tsui, Amy O

    2009-09-01

    Despite calls to make family planning services more responsive to the values, needs and preferences of clients, few studies have asked clients about their experiences or values, and most have used surveys framed by researchers', rather than clients', perspectives. Forty in-depth interviews exploring lifetime experiences with and values regarding services were conducted with 18-36-year-old women who visited family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area in 2007. Women were categorized as black, white, English- or Spanish-speaking Latina, or of mixed ethnicity to allow examination of differences by racial, ethnic and language group. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and coded thematically; matrices were then used to compare the themes that emerged across the subgroups. Eight themes emerged as important to women's views of services: service accessibility, information provision, attention to client comfort, providers' personalization of care, service organization, providers' empathy, technical quality of care and providers' respect for women's autonomy. Women reported that it was important to feel comfortable during visits, to feel that their decision-making autonomy was respected, to have providers show empathy and be nonjudgmental, and to see the same provider across visits. The only notable difference among racial, ethnic and language groups was that Spanish-speaking Latinas wanted to receive language-appropriate care and contraceptive information. Future surveys of family planning service quality should include measures of the factors that women value in such care, and efforts to improve providers' communication and counseling skills should emphasize the personalization of services and respect for clients' autonomy.

  9. Wives and mothers like ourselves? Exploring white women's intervention in the politics of race, 1920s-1940s.

    PubMed

    Holland, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper takes the issue of the removal of Aboriginal children, and the broader white anxiety over the 'half-caste problem' which underpinned the policy, to explore white women reformers' intervention in the politics of race in the years 1920-40. In these years middle-class women's citizenship was based on maternalism and the defence of motherhood. At the same time the national feminist lobby, the Australian Federation of Women Voters, joined the public debate about the 'Aboriginal problem'. In this context it is necessary to ask: What was the feminist view of Aboriginal women's status? Were they considered 'wives and mothers' like themselves, as Louisa Lawson suggested in the 1890s? What was their view of the 'half-caste problem' and the 'absorption proposal' formulated to solve it? By asking such questions I hope to modify the current feminist historiographical view of white women reformers as 'pro-Aboriginal' and 'radical' and their policies as challenging White Australia in these years.

  10. The Race to Nourish: Exploring resource equity in a coupled human coastline model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Z. C.; McNamara, D.; Murray, A.; Smith, M.

    2011-12-01

    Many coastal communities are faced with eroding shorelines due to gradients in the alongshore transport of sediment and rising sea level. These communities often employ a beach nourishment mitigation strategy to counter erosion from natural forces. These nourishment activities provide economic benefits in the form of protection from storms and enhanced recreation on the stabilized beach. Previous work has shown that economically optimal nourishment decisions indicate that rising nourishment costs can lead to more frequent nourishment. Given that the cost of nourishing is likely to rise as offshore sediment borrow sites become more scarce, this suggests a positive feedback whereby nourishment that dwindles offshore borrow sites causes more frequent nourishment. We explore the dynamics of this feedback in a coupled economic-coastline model and how resulting long term shoreline and economic patterns respond to forcing changes in the form of increased sea level rise and changing storminess along both a straight shoreline and a cuspate Carolina like shoreline. The economic model utilizes myopic manager agents that inform a community of the optimal nourishment interval based on the current cost of sand and locally observed erosion rate since the last nourishment episode. Communities nourish independently but can affect the erosion rate of adjacent communities through alongshore sediment transport dynamics. The coastline model tracks large-scale coastline change via alongshore sediment transport calculations and erosion due to rising sea level. Model experiments show that when the economic model is coupled to a flat coastline, the feedback in sand cost leads to resource inequity as communities that become caught in the feedback nourish frequently while adjacent communities maintain coastline position by "free riding" on these neighbor towns. Model experiments also show that on cuspate coastlines, the emergent cuspate features enhance the cost feedback and create unequal

  11. Child and Interviewer Race in Forensic Interviewing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Amy K; Mackey, Tomiko D; Langendoen, Carol; Barnard, Marie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of child race and interviewer race on forensic interviewing outcomes. The results of the regression analysis indicated that child race and interviewer race had a significant effect on interview outcome category (no findings, inconclusive, or findings consistent with sexual abuse). Furthermore, the results indicate that the interaction of child and interviewer race had predictive value for rates of findings consistent with sexual abuse but not in the direction predicted. Cross-race dyads had significantly higher rates of interview outcomes consistent with sexual abuse. These findings suggest that more research into the effect of race on disclosure of child sexual abuse is needed.

  12. An Event-Level Comparison of Risk-Related Sexual Practices Between Black and Other-Race Men Who Have Sex with Men: Condoms, Semen, Lubricant, and Rectal Douching

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, Joshua G.; Schick, Vanessa R.; Novak, David S.; Reece, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Black men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. An online survey of sexual behavior was completed by Black, White, Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander, and other-race MSM (n=11,766) ages 18–87 years. Complete condom use, semen exposure, pre-coital rectal douching (enema use), and lubricant use at last male-partnered sexual event were compared by race, controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables and stratifying by sexual position (receptive, insertive, or both). Across sexual positions, 55–62% of Black MSM reported condom use, 5–8% reported semen exposure, 18–53% reported douching, and 33–43% reported lubricant use. Reported behavioral profiles were not significantly different from other races, except that Black MSM reported greater condom use than White MSM in the insertive position. Although findings argue against disproportionate rates of risk behavior accounting for racial disparities in HIV prevalence, they nonetheless highlight a need for continued behavioral intervention. PMID:23373663

  13. Why Does Early Sexual Intercourse Predict Subsequent Maladjustment? Exploring Potential Familial Confounds

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, Kelly L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have found an association between early age at first sexual intercourse and subsequent psychosocial maladjustment. Using a quasi-experimental approach, we examined the extent to which this observed association may be due to familial confounds not explored in prior research. Methods Using a population-based cohort of Swedish adult twins (ages 19–47; N = 12,126), we examined the nature of the association between early sexual intercourse (i.e., first intercourse occurring before age 16) and various outcomes reflecting psychosocial health, including substance use, depression, criminal convictions, and adolescent childbearing. We used two methods—discordant-twin analyses and bivariate twin modeling—to estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds explained observed associations. Results Individuals who engaged in early intercourse were at greater risk for most of the adverse psychosocial health outcomes measured in this study. Twin pairs discordant for engaging in early intercourse, however, did not differ significantly in their risk for psychosocial maladjustment. Our results indicated that early age at first sexual intercourse and subsequent psychosocial maladjustment may be associated due to familial factors shared by twins. Conclusion Early intercourse may be associated with poor psychosocial health largely due to shared familial influences rather than through a direct causal connection. Effective and efficient interventions, therefore, should address other risk factors common to both early intercourse and poor psychosocial health. PMID:22708520

  14. Exploring Client and Therapist Experiences of Sexual Offender Intervention: Developing a Model of "Significant Events".

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, David M; O' Reilly, Gary; Travers, Olive; Quinn, Paul; Stack, Jon; Cartin, Martin; Finnegan, Eileen; Ewart-Boyle, Shirley

    2016-06-01

    This research explored the therapeutic events both clients and therapists from community-based treatment interventions for perpetrators of sexual abuse identify as significant in their experience of psychological therapy. A qualitative design was utilized to address this research objective. The sample for the present research is comprised of three different treatment programs for sexual offending. Twenty-five clients and nine therapists participated in the study. Two qualitative measures were used to elicit client and therapist responses. Significant Aspects of Therapy Form was administered every second treatment session during each intervention program. The Significant Aspects Follow-Up Interview was conducted with a sub-sample of participants at the conclusion of each treatment module. Thematic analysis was used to identify significant themes noted by clients and therapists from forms and interviews. Thematic analysis resulted in a model of significant events in therapy. In this model, significant events were categorized into six domains. The six domains were as follows: (a) the process of therapy, (b) making changes and progress in therapy, (c) content and structure of therapy, (d) therapist contributions, (e) negative contributions to therapy, and (f) other factors Each domain further contained between 6 and 18 themes, which are also reported. This study found much overlap and similarity in the experiences of therapy between clients of sexual offender therapy and general psychotherapy. Furthermore, there is overlap between therapists and clients in the aspects of therapy they identify as significant. The implications of these findings on effective service development and comprehensive service evaluations are discussed.

  15. What are the characteristics of 'sexually ready' adolescents? Exploring the sexual readiness of youth in urban poor Accra.

    PubMed

    Biney, Adriana A E; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo

    2016-01-05

    Adolescent sexual activity, especially among the urban poor, remains a challenge. Despite numerous interventions and programs to address the negative consequences arising from early and frequent sexual activity among youth in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana, only slight progress has been made. A plausible explanation is that our understanding of what adolescents think about sex and about their own sexuality is poor. In that sense, examining how adolescents in urban poor communities think about their sexual readiness, and identifying characteristics associated with that sexual self-concept dimension, should deepen our understanding of this topical issue. A total of 196 male and female adolescents, ages 12 to 19, were surveyed in the 2011 RIPS Urban Health and Poverty Project in Accra, Ghana. The youth responded to three statements which determined their levels of sexual readiness. Other background characteristics were also obtained enabling the assessment of the correlates of their preparedness to engage in sex. The data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression models. Overall, the majority of respondents did not consider themselves ready for sex. Multivariate analyses indicated that sexual experience, exposure to pornographic movies, gender, ethnicity and household wealth were significantly linked to their readiness for sex. Sexual readiness is related to sexual activity as well as other characteristics of the adolescents, suggesting the need to consider these factors in the design of programs and interventions to curb early sex. The subject of sexual readiness has to be investigated further to ensure adolescents do not identify with any negative effects of this sexual self-view.

  16. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, M.; Fisher, C.M.; Zhou, J.; Kneip Pelster, A.D.; Schober, D.; Baldwin, K.; Fortenberry, J.; Goldsworthy, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Methods Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted using NVivo. Results Most YDPs (n = 15, 71.4%) described sexuality-related programs for youth. Some YDPs provided informal information (n = 11, 52.4%) and/or referrals for youth (n = 6, 28.6%). Few YDPs (n = 8, 38.1%) were trained to address adolescent sexuality, but some (n = 10, 47.6%) sought outside resources. Conclusions YDPs have a unique opportunity to improve adolescent sexual health and sexuality. Five considerations for organizations that develop programs and training for CBOs are suggested. PMID:27790077

  17. Exploring the overlap in male juvenile sexual offending and general delinquency: trauma, alcohol use, and masculine beliefs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam; Burton, David L

    2010-07-01

    Despite Burton and Meezan's (2004) finding that sexually aggressive youth are three to four times more likely to recidivate nonsexually than sexually, there is little to no research to date that explores this overlap in criminality. With a sample of 290 male sexually violent adjudicated and incarcerated youth, this study was able to successfully predict those who are exclusively sexually violent from those who are both nonsexually and sexually violent with each of the following factors: childhood trauma, masculine beliefs, and alcohol use. While alcohol use accounted for the greatest variance between the groups, masculine beliefs offered the greatest basis for the discussion and future projects for the authors of the study. Treatment and research implications are offered.

  18. An Examination of the Validity and Reliability of a Measure of Sexual Orientation Identity Exploration, Resolution, and Affirmation.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Anhalt, Karla; Shramko, Maura

    The processes of identity exploration and resolution are salient during adolescence and young adulthood, and awareness of sexual orientation identity, in particular, is heightened in early adolescence. Much of the research on sexual orientation identity development has focused on identity milestones (e.g., age of awareness and disclosure) or internalized homonegativity, rather than the developmental processes of exploration and resolution. Psychometric properties of the Sexual Orientation Identity Development Scale, which was adapted from a developmentally-informed measure of ethnic-racial identity, were evaluated in a sample of 382 Latina/o sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Results supported the reliability and validity of the adapted measure, as well as measurement equivalence across language (Spanish and English) and development (adolescence and young adulthood).

  19. An Examination of the Validity and Reliability of a Measure of Sexual Orientation Identity Exploration, Resolution, and Affirmation

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Russell B.; Anhalt, Karla; Shramko, Maura

    2016-01-01

    The processes of identity exploration and resolution are salient during adolescence and young adulthood, and awareness of sexual orientation identity, in particular, is heightened in early adolescence. Much of the research on sexual orientation identity development has focused on identity milestones (e.g., age of awareness and disclosure) or internalized homonegativity, rather than the developmental processes of exploration and resolution. Psychometric properties of the Sexual Orientation Identity Development Scale, which was adapted from a developmentally-informed measure of ethnic-racial identity, were evaluated in a sample of 382 Latina/o sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Results supported the reliability and validity of the adapted measure, as well as measurement equivalence across language (Spanish and English) and development (adolescence and young adulthood). PMID:27398072

  20. Age at First Sexual Assault and Current Substance Use and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaukinen, Catherine; Demaris, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    This article explores how the association between sexual violence and substance use and mental health differs by race and life course stage. Analyses are based on data (n = 8,000) from the Violence and Threats of Violence against Women and Men in the United States Survey, 1994-1996 (NVAWS). Although sexual violence does not heighten the risk of…

  1. Stimulant Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors for HIV in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zule, William A.; Costenbader, Elizabeth; Coomes, Curtis M.; Meyer, William J., Jr.; Riehman, Kara; Poehlman, Jon; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: While literature exists on sexual risks for HIV among rural populations, the specific role of stimulants in increasing these risks has primarily been studied in the context of a single drug and/or racial group. Purpose: This study explores the use of multiple stimulants and sexual risk behaviors among individuals of different races and…

  2. Age at First Sexual Assault and Current Substance Use and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaukinen, Catherine; Demaris, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    This article explores how the association between sexual violence and substance use and mental health differs by race and life course stage. Analyses are based on data (n = 8,000) from the Violence and Threats of Violence against Women and Men in the United States Survey, 1994-1996 (NVAWS). Although sexual violence does not heighten the risk of…

  3. Stimulant Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors for HIV in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zule, William A.; Costenbader, Elizabeth; Coomes, Curtis M.; Meyer, William J., Jr.; Riehman, Kara; Poehlman, Jon; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: While literature exists on sexual risks for HIV among rural populations, the specific role of stimulants in increasing these risks has primarily been studied in the context of a single drug and/or racial group. Purpose: This study explores the use of multiple stimulants and sexual risk behaviors among individuals of different races and…

  4. "Becoming Bold": Alcohol use and sexual exploration among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM)

    PubMed Central

    Mutchler, Matt G.; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use is correlated with unprotected sex, which may place YMSM who use alcohol with sex at increased risk for contracting HIV. However, little is known about how this link develops. This study used qualitative interviews to explore how alcohol became associated with sex and sexual risk among YMSM. We purposively sampled 20 Black and 20 Latino YMSM (N=40), ages 21–24, who used substances (alcohol, marijuana, and crystal methamphetamine) with sex. Interviews focused on participants’ personal histories to trace how these associations developed for each individual. Drawing on sexual script, emotion regulation, and alcohol expectancy theories, analyses followed a modified grounded theory approach. Participants stated that alcohol enabled them to engage in sexual behaviors with men that they wanted to try, allowing them to be more “bold,” overcome stigma about homosexuality, and feel increased comfort with their sexual desires and identities. The use of alcohol during sex was helpful to some of the participants, but could also lead to sexual risk behaviors. Intervention programs seeking to reduce alcohol misuse and sexual risk should take into account how YMSM conceptualize associations between alcohol and sex. These programs may be more effective if they provide support for sexual identity exploration. PMID:23730733

  5. "Becoming bold": alcohol use and sexual exploration among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM).

    PubMed

    Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is correlated with unprotected sex, which may place young men who have sex with men (YMSM) who use alcohol with sex at increased risk for contracting HIV. However, little is known about how this link develops. This study used qualitative interviews to explore how alcohol became associated with sex and sexual risk among YMSM. We purposively sampled 20 Black and 20 Latino YMSM (N = 40), ages 21 to 24, who used substances (alcohol, marijuana, and crystal methamphetamine) with sex. Interviews focused on participants' personal histories to trace how these associations developed for each individual. Drawing on sexual script, emotion regulation, and alcohol expectancy theories, analyses followed a modified grounded theory approach. Participants stated that alcohol enabled them to engage in sexual behaviors with men that they wanted to try, allowing them to be more "bold," overcome stigma about homosexuality, and feel increased comfort with their sexual desires and identities. The use of alcohol during sex was helpful to some of the participants but could also lead to sexual risk behaviors. Intervention programs seeking to reduce alcohol misuse and sexual risk should take into account how YMSM conceptualize associations between alcohol and sex. These programs may be more effective if they provide support for sexual identity exploration.

  6. A mixed-method exploration of body image and sexual health among adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Deborah; Impett, Emily A; Hirschman, Celeste; Bonem, Lathem

    2008-12-01

    This study uses a mixed-method approach to examine the relationship between body image and sexual health among adolescent boys. In Study 1, eight 12th-grade boys participated in semistructured interviews focusing on dating and sexuality. Qualitative analyses revealed several differences between boys who were satisfied with their bodies and boys who were not. Specifically, boys who were satisfied with their bodies indicated that they were clear about what they wanted sexually and were comfortable communicating those wants with partners. In contrast, boys with low body satisfaction were often unclear about their sexual choices and resisted talking about sexuality with partners. Study 2 examined these same themes using quantitative data from 149 boys from the 12th grade who completed surveys assessing body image, sexual experiences, and sexual attitudes. Body satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual agency and with clarity of personal sexual values. Implications for promoting adolescent sexual health are discussed.

  7. Immigrant sexual minority Latino men in rural North Carolina: an exploration of social context, social behaviors, and sexual outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul A; Rhodes, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant sexual minority Latino men-who may or may not self-identify as gay-constitute a minority within a minority. Often labeled "hidden" and "hard-to-reach," and marginalized along multiple dimensions, it is a subgroup about whom little is known. Informed by a social ecological framework, we sought to describe key social variables for 190 such men in rural North Carolina and to test associations with three sexual outcomes: consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination. There were unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future research.

  8. Immigrant Sexual Minority Latino Men in Rural North Carolina: An Exploration of Social Context, Social Behaviors, and Sexual Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant Sexual minority Latino men—who may or may not self-identify as gay—constitute a minority within a minority. Often labeled “hidden” and “hard-to-reach,” and marginalized along multiple dimensions, it is a sub-group about whom little is known. Informed by a Social Ecological Framework, we sought to describe key social variables for 190 such men in rural North Carolina and to test associations with three sexual outcomes: consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination. There were unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future research. PMID:24344629

  9. Race and Gender Mentor-Protégé Pairings of Resident Assistants: An Exploration on Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    The leadership capacity of resident assistants can be impacted by many experiences, including involvement in mentoring relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine if and how resident assistants' leadership capacities are influenced by participating in mentoring relationships. Additionally, mentor-protégé race and gender pairings were…

  10. The Love That Takes a Toll: Exploring Race and the Pedagogy of Fear in Researching Teachers and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how what I call a "pedagogy of fear" played a role in the sociocultural context of research on teachers and teaching. Drawing from multiple literature on emotions, qualitative research, and race, I examine how a racialized field context framed my subsequent emotional responses and performance as an…

  11. Race and Gender Mentor-Protégé Pairings of Resident Assistants: An Exploration on Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    The leadership capacity of resident assistants can be impacted by many experiences, including involvement in mentoring relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine if and how resident assistants' leadership capacities are influenced by participating in mentoring relationships. Additionally, mentor-protégé race and gender pairings were…

  12. Addressing the Puzzle of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  13. Addressing the Puzzle of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  14. An Exploration of the Sexual Behaviors of Emerging Adult Men Attending a Historically Black College/University

    PubMed Central

    Younge, Sinead N.; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Geter, Angelica; Barker, Judith C.; Corneille, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide formative data on the sexual behaviors of emerging adult Black men who attended a historically Black college/university. A convenience sample of 19 participants completed a demographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. This study utilized a phenomenological qualitative approach to explore the role of the developmental stage that emerging adulthood has on sexual health. Some of the major themes that emerged included maturation, sexual decision-making, respectability, a future orientation, and masculinity. Despite sexual initiation beginning prior to entering college, participants discussed how the college environment presented them with new information, experiences, and attitudes. This study provides useful information for the future investigation of emerging adult Black men who attend HBCUs. PMID:26146649

  15. Enjoyment, Exploration and Education: Understanding the Consumption of Pornography among Young Men with Non-Exclusive Sexual Orientations

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research.

  16. Enjoyment, Exploration and Education: Understanding the Consumption of Pornography among Young Men with Non-Exclusive Sexual Orientations.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam

    2017-10-01

    This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research.

  17. Race(ing) Stories: Digital Storytelling as a Tool for Critical Race Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the use of digital storytelling as a medium for exploring the significance of race in the educational experiences of youth. A critical race theory (CRT) framework is utilized because CRT places race at the center of social analysis and values the everyday experiences of people of color. The author focuses on two US high…

  18. Race, Medical Mistrust, and Segregation in Primary Care as Usual Source of Care: Findings from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Arnett, M J; Thorpe, R J; Gaskin, D J; Bowie, J V; LaVeist, T A

    2016-06-01

    Compared to White Americans, African-Americans are less likely to use primary care (PC) as their usual source of care. This is generally attributed to race differences in socioeconomic status and in access to primary care services. Little is known about the relationship between race differences in medical mistrust and the usual source of care disparity. Using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities (EHDIC) study, we examined the role of medical mistrust in choosing usual source of care in 1408 black and white adults who were exposed to the same healthcare facilities and low-income racially integrated community. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between race, medical mistrust, and usual source of care. After adjusting for demographic and health-related factors, African-Americans were more likely than whites to use the emergency department (ED) (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.43 (95 % confidence interval (CI) [1.06-1.94])) and hospital outpatient department (RRR1.50 (95 %CI [1.10-2.05])) versus primary care as a usual source of care. When medical mistrust was added to the model, the gap between African-Americans' and whites' risk of using the ED versus primary care as a usual source of care closed (RRR = 1.29; 95 % CI [0.91-1.83]). However, race differences in the use of the hospital outpatient department remained even after accounting for medical mistrust (RRR = 1.67; 95 % CI [1.16-2.40]). Accounting for medical mistrust eliminated the ED-as-usual-source of care disparity. This study highlights the importance of medical mistrust as an intervention point for decreasing ED use as a usual source of care by low-income, urban African-Americans.

  19. Exploring Social Sexual Scripts Related to Oral Sex: A Profile of College Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson-Blake, Kylie P.; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing attention to the subject, a dearth of information exists regarding college students' perceptions and process of meaning-making related to the act of oral sex. Such perspectives and allied social sexual scripts can have considerable consequences on the sexuality and sexual health of older teens and college-aged populations. The…

  20. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…

  1. A Qualitative Exploration of Community-Based Organization Programs, Resources, and Training to Promote Adolescent Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Molly A.; Fisher, Christopher M.; Zhou, Junmin; Zhu, He; Pelster, Aja Kneip; Schober, Daniel J.; Baldwin, Kathleen; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Goldsworthy, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Youth development professionals (YDPs) working at community-based organizations (CBOs) can promote adolescent sexual health through programs. This study explored the programs and resources that youth access at CBOs and training YDPs receive. Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with YDPs. Qualitative content analyses were conducted…

  2. Exploring women's postpartum sexuality: social, psychological, relational, and birth-related contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-09-01

    Women's postpartum sexuality can be influenced by factors related to physical, personal, and relationship transitions after the newborn arrives. Despite this, many experiential and social factors remain unexplored. This study aims to (i) investigate a range of variables thought to influence postpartum sexuality; (ii) expand the focus beyond latency to penis-vagina intercourse; and (iii) assess positive aspects of postpartum sexuality. Via retrospective reporting on the first 3 months postpartum, 304 women completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were retrospective reports of sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to resumption of sexual activity, and perceptions of partner's sexual desire. Other measures were birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), breastfeeding status, perceptions of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and body image (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale). Significant differences in time to resumption were found. Women performed oral sex on their partners earlier than engaging in masturbation, which was followed by intercourse and then receiving oral sex. Post hoc analyses identified birth experience, social support, importance of partner's sexual fulfillment, and perception of partner's desire as contributors to this pattern. Women's postpartum sexual desire was influenced by their perceptions of their partner's postpartum sexuality and individual's level of fatigue. Results suggested that postpartum desire was not significantly influenced by breastfeeding status, vaginal issues, or psychosocial variables including stress, body image, or social support. Results suggest that women's perceptions of their partner's sexuality impact postpartum sexuality more than the physical factors most commonly studied (e.g., vaginal trauma and breastfeeding). These results portray postpartum sexuality as a multidimensional

  3. Imaging Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhardt, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have recently begun to use the tools of neuroscience to examine the social psychological responses associated with race. This article serves as a review of the developing literature in this area. It advances the argument that neuroscience studies of race have the potential to shape fundamental assumptions about race, and the interplay…

  4. Who is most susceptible to movie smoking effects? Exploring the impacts of race and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; Lewis, Valerie A; Tanski, Susanne; Sargent, James D

    2012-12-01

    This study assesses how race/ethnicity and socio-economic status modify the relationship between exposure to movie smoking and having tried smoking in adolescents. Data come from a cross-sectional telephone survey and were analyzed using logistic regression models. A respondent reporting ever having tried smoking was regressed on exposure to movie smoking, race, socio-economic status, the interactions of these variables and family and background characteristics. National sample of US adolescents. A total of 3653 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome was if subjects reported ever having tried smoking. Movie smoking exposure was assessed through respondents' reporting having watched a set of movie titles, which were coded for smoking instances. The proportion having tried smoking was lower for blacks (32%) compared to Hispanics (41%) and whites (38%). The relationship between movie smoking and having tried smoking varied by race/ethnicity. Among whites and Hispanics exposure to movie smoking positively predicted smoking behavior, but movie smoking had no impact on blacks. Socio-economic status further modified the relation among whites; high socio-economic status white adolescents were more susceptible to movie smoking than low socio-economic status white adolescents. Exposure to movie smoking is not experienced uniformly as a risk factor for having ever tried smoking among US adolescents. Whites and Hispanics are more likely to try smoking as a function of increased exposure to movie smoking. In addition, higher socio-economic status increases susceptibility to movie smoking among whites. Youth with fewer risk factors may be more influenced by media messages on smoking. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Exploring Emotion Regulation in Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sara; Joyal, Christian C; Cisler, Josh M; Bai, Shasha

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study compared juveniles who sexually offend to nonoffending juveniles in their capacities to behaviorally and neurologically regulate, or reappraise, negative emotions. Participants were 39 juvenile males, including 10 healthy, nonoffending control subjects and 29 juveniles who sexually offend, comprising 12 juveniles who sexually offend with history of child sexual abuse. Participants completed a clinical assessment and a reappraisal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Difficulties in Emotional Regulation Scale results showed significantly less difficulties in emotion regulation among controls compared to juveniles who sexually offend, but when self-rating reappraisal abilities during the functional magnetic resonance imaging, all groups obtained comparable results. The imaging results showed no significant differences in fronto-temporal regions between controls and juveniles who sexually offend. Differences were found in other regions indicated in cognitive control, working memory, and emotional processing between controls and juveniles who sexually offend as well as between juveniles who sexually offend and those without history of child sexual abuse. Findings suggest that juveniles who sexually offend are capable of emotion regulation.

  6. Personal discrimination and satisfaction with life: Exploring perceived functional effects of Asian American race/ethnicity as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Tran, Alisia G T T; Sangalang, Cindy C

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand the relations between experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination, perceptions of the harmful or helpful effects of one's Asian American race/ethnicity within educational and occupational contexts (perceived functional effects), and well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life). A primary focus was to evaluate whether the association between racial/ethnic discrimination and satisfaction with life varied based on the degree to which Asian Americans believe that their race or ethnicity is helpful or harmful to educational and occupational functioning. This study draws on nationally representative data from ethnically diverse Asian American adults (N = 3,335) and utilizes weighted descriptive, correlational, and logistic regression moderation analyses. Ethnic variations emerged across analyses. Logistic regression analyses revealed a significant moderation effect for Chinese and Filipino Americans. Follow-up analyses revealed a protective effect of perceiving more positive or helpful functional effects in nullifying the link between discrimination and dissatisfaction with life for Chinese Americans. By contrast, viewing more harmful functional effects had a buffering effect for Filipino Americans. Results have implications for conceptualizing the potential impact of perspectives that imply Asian American advantage or disadvantage. Opportunities to apply and extend these initial findings are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Our Worlds in Our Words: Exploring Race, Class, Gender, and Sexual Orientation in Multicultural Classrooms. Multicultural Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilg, Mary

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers help their students to meet high standards of reading and writing while also preparing them to become thoughtful and productive members of a multicultural society? And why is it important to do this? In her new book, Mary Dilg brings us into her high school English classroom, where we see students reach across the social,…

  8. Exploring the impact of prostate cancer on men's sexual well-being.

    PubMed

    Letts, Cindy; Tamlyn, Karen; Byers, E Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to better understand the impact of prostate cancer and its treatment on a broad range of aspects of men's sexual well-being. Interviews were conducted with 19 men. The men ranged in age from 49 to 74 years and were 1 to 5 years posttreatment. Our results suggest that some but not all aspects of men's sexual well-being are affected by treatment for prostate cancer. Further, the specific aspects that were affected as well as their emotional impact varied considerably from individual to individual. Most of the men reported that, prior to diagnosis and treatment, they engaged in regular sexual activity and that they had been satisfied or very satisfied with their sexual relationship. Following treatment, most (but not all) of the men reported no change in the amount and type of affection expressed, the quality of their romantic relationship, their self-concept as a man, or their sexual desire. In contrast, nearly all of the men described negative changes that were distressing to them in erections, orgasmic consistency, and sexual satisfaction. Further, most of the men believed that their sex life was over due to their erectile difficulties and so had stopped engaging in any sexual activity with their partner, although one third of them continued to masturbate. Five themes emerged with respect to factors that either contributed to or buffered the emotional impact of these changes: partner responses to changes in sexual functioning, effectiveness of medical treatments, communication with their partner about sexual functioning, acceptance of or resignation to sexual changes, and communication with physicians about sexual functioning. Finally, most participants felt that the health care system did not respond adequately to their needs. These results are discussed with respect to the importance of facilitating sexual communication between partners and between patients and health care providers.

  9. Exploring the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica: addressing the deficits.

    PubMed

    Samms, Kimika M; Cholewa, Blaire E

    2014-01-01

    Jamaican media sources have recently noted the prevalence of child sexual abuse within the country. While research has continually noted the mental health impact of child sexual abuse, there is a dearth of literature on the relationship between the two in Jamaica. The purpose of this article is to provide the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica, including the cultural considerations, current legislation, government created agencies, and modes of treatment. Moreover, recommendations are given for public health educators, school personnel, and mental health service providers in order to improve the psychological well-being of sexually abuse children.

  10. Internalised homophobia is differentially associated with sexual risk behaviour by race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus among substance-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mansergh, Gordon; Spikes, Pilgrim; Flores, Stephen A; Koblin, Beryl A; McKirnan, David; Hudson, Sharon M; Colfax, Grant N

    2015-08-01

    There is a continuing need to identify factors associated with risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), including a need for further research in the ongoing scientific debate about the association of internalised homophobia and sexual risk due partly to the lack of specificity in analysis. We assess the association of internalised homophobia by race/ethnicity within HIV serostatus for a large sample of substance-using MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition or transmission. Convenience sample of substance-using (non-injection) MSM reporting unprotected anal sex in the prior 6 months residing in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. The analytic sample included HIV-negative and HIV-positive black (n=391), Latino (n=220), and white (n=458) MSM. Internalised homophobia was assessed using a published four-item scale focusing on negative self-perceptions and feelings of their own sexual behaviour with men, or for being gay or bisexual. Analyses tested associations of internalised homophobia with recent risk behaviour, stratified by laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus within race/ethnicity, and controlling for other demographic variables. In multivariate analysis, internalised homophobia was inversely associated (p<0.05) with recent unprotected anal sex among black MSM, and not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviour among white and Latino MSM. More research is needed to further identify nuanced differences in subpopulations of MSM, but these results suggest differentially targeted intervention messages for MSM by race/ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Intergroup dialogue courses on sexual orientation: lesbian, gay and bisexual student experiences and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dessel, Adrienne B; Woodford, Michael R; Warren, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Intergroup dialogue is a method of social justice education. Most intergroup dialogue research explores race and gender identities. Sexual orientation dialogues are uncommon and not yet examined empirically. This qualitative study explores sexual orientation dialogue courses from the perspective of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) student participants. Understanding target, or marginalized, group perspective of planned intergroup experiences is important given concerns raised in the literature. We document student motivations for participating in dialogues, core outcomes, and main challenges that arose in dialogue. Core outcomes include learning about and accepting one's sexual identity and empowerment. Challenges include those stemming from invisibility of sexual orientation identity. Recommendations are made for intergroup dialogue practice and research.

  12. Putting the Pieces Together: Teaching in Tandem about Race, Class, Ethnicity, and Gender at an Appalachian Regional University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Patti Capel; Hardesty, Constance

    This paper describes an effort to coordinate teaching in two college classes--an Introduction to Sociology class and a Writing II class--to focus on issues of entitlement, such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, and sexuality. The tandem effort was designed to encourage students to explore the subjects more deeply than would have been likely in…

  13. The color of welfare sanctioning: exploring the individual and contextual roles of race on TANF case closures and benefit reductions.

    PubMed

    Monnat, Shannon M

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos.

  14. Exploring Identities to Deepen Understanding of Urban High School Students' Sexual Health Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Jennie S.; Mensah, Felicia Moore; Lesko, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual health is a controversial science topic that has received little attention in the field of science education, despite its direct relevance to students' lives and communities. Moreover, research from other fields indicates that a great deal remains to be learned about how to make school learning about sexual health influence the real-life…

  15. Exploring the Relationships of Women's Sexual Assault Disclosure, Social Reactions, and Problem Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault,…

  16. Research and Evaluation in Sexuality Education: An Allegorical Exploration of Complexities and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald W.

    2005-01-01

    Defining "success" in sexuality education solely in terms of quantitative outcome measures is woefully inadequate. All too often, such measures presuppose and perpetuate a narrow and overly instrumental view of sexuality and education. Research and evaluation favouring quantitative measures of effectiveness tend to amplify short-term results and…

  17. Research and Evaluation in Sexuality Education: An Allegorical Exploration of Complexities and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald W.

    2005-01-01

    Defining "success" in sexuality education solely in terms of quantitative outcome measures is woefully inadequate. All too often, such measures presuppose and perpetuate a narrow and overly instrumental view of sexuality and education. Research and evaluation favouring quantitative measures of effectiveness tend to amplify short-term results and…

  18. A Belief-Behavior Gap? Exploring Religiosity and Sexual Activity among High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Kathleen Cobb; Scott-Jones, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity, sexual activity, and contraception were examined via questionnaires and interviews in a diverse sample of 118 high school seniors. The majority reported religion to be important; importance and frequency ratings declined from private (e.g., prayer) to public (e.g., group activities) components of religion. Most were sexually active…

  19. A Belief-Behavior Gap? Exploring Religiosity and Sexual Activity among High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Kathleen Cobb; Scott-Jones, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity, sexual activity, and contraception were examined via questionnaires and interviews in a diverse sample of 118 high school seniors. The majority reported religion to be important; importance and frequency ratings declined from private (e.g., prayer) to public (e.g., group activities) components of religion. Most were sexually active…

  20. Exploring the Link between Caregiver Affect and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Does Neighborhood Disadvantage Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of urban youth (N = 1,070), we examined the links between primary caregiver affect (i.e., warmth and hostility) and two measures of sexual behavior in adolescence--early sexual initiation and sex with multiple partners. We also examined the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage moderated associations between caregiver affect and…

  1. Exploring Identities to Deepen Understanding of Urban High School Students' Sexual Health Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Jennie S.; Mensah, Felicia Moore; Lesko, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Sexual health is a controversial science topic that has received little attention in the field of science education, despite its direct relevance to students' lives and communities. Moreover, research from other fields indicates that a great deal remains to be learned about how to make school learning about sexual health influence the real-life…

  2. Searching for Love in all the “Write” Places: Exploring Internet Personals Use by Sexual Orientation, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Lever, Janet; Grov, Christian; Royce, Tracy; Gillespie, Brian Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Few researchers of Internet sexual exploration have systematically compared variance of use across sexual orientations, with even fewer surveying bisexual respondents. In 2004, 15,246 individuals responded to an online survey of their use of Internet personals and adult websites. Gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals (GLBs) were more likely than heterosexuals to have exchanged correspondence, met others offline, and had sex with someone they met through personal ads. Whereas gay men and lesbians of all ages were most likely to have established a long-term relationship as a result of personals, heterosexuals over age 40 were more likely to have established a long-term relationship than younger heterosexuals. Further, compared to men, women were approximately two times as likely to have established a serious relationship as a result of personals. Qualitative findings suggest that the Internet functions not only as a means of screening for desired characteristics, but also as a shield against prejudice in real life encounters. GLBs and heterosexuals alike used online venues as a means of sexual identity development, sexual exploration, and community building. PMID:20502618

  3. Shattering silence: exploring barriers to disclosure for African American sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Tillman, Shaquita; Bryant-Davis, Thema; Smith, Kimberly; Marks, Alison

    2010-04-01

    National-, community-, and college-based studies have documented the high prevalence of sexual assault among African American women. Although African American women experience sexual assault at alarming rates, they are less likely to disclose or seek help in the aftermath of sexual assault. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a critique of the current literature examining the barriers to disclosure for African American women, such as intrapsychic factors, the damaging effect of an unsupportive response to initial disclosure, stigmatization of African American female sexuality, apprehension regarding racism, and racial loyalty. The authors provide a summary of the literature, gaps in current empirical studies, and needs for future study. Culturally relevant intervention recommendations are described. Finally, implications for sexual assault policy are provided.

  4. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents.

  5. Exploring intergenerational changes in perceptions of gender roles and sexuality among Indigenous women in Oaxaca.

    PubMed

    Karver, Tahilin S; Sorhaindo, Annik; Wilson, Kate S; Contreras, Xipatl

    2016-08-01

    The south of Mexico has traditionally faced disproportionate social, health and economic disadvantage relative to the rest of the country, due in part to lower levels of economic and human development, and barriers faced by Indigenous populations. The state of Oaxaca, in particular, has one of the highest proportions of Indigenous people and consistently displays high rates of maternal mortality, sexually transmitted infections and teenage pregnancy. This study examines how social values and norms surrounding sexuality have changed between two generations of women living in Indigenous communities in Oaxaca. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 19 women from two generational cohorts in 12 communities. Comparison views of these two cohorts suggest that cultural gender norms continue to govern how women express and experience their sexuality. In particular, feelings of shame and fear permeate the expression of sexuality, virginity continues be a determinant of a woman's worth and motherhood remains the key attribute to womanhood. Evidence points to a transformation of norms, and access to information and services related to sexual health is increasing. Nonetheless, there is still a need for culturally appropriate sex education programmes focused on female empowerment, increased access to sexual health services, and a reduction in the stigma surrounding women's expressions of sexuality.

  6. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M T; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission.

  7. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Diana S.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women’s genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  8. Visualizing sexual assault: an exploration of the use of optical technologies in the medico-legal context.

    PubMed

    White, Deborah; Du Mont, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the visualization of sexual assault in the context of adult women. In investigating the production of visual evidence, we outline the evolution of the specialized knowledge of medico-legal experts and describe the optical technologies involved in medical forensic examinations. We theorize that the principles and practices characterizing medicine, science and the law are mirrored in the medico-legal response to sexual assault. More specifically, we suggest that the demand for visual proof underpins the positivist approach taken in the pursuit of legal truth and that the generation of such evidence is based on producing discrete and decontextualized empirical facts through what are perceived to be objective technologies. Drawing on interview and focus group data with 14 sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) in Ontario, Canada, we examine perceptions and experiences of the role of the visual in sexual assault. Certain of their comments appear to lend support to our theoretical assumptions, indicating a sense of the institutional overemphasis placed on physical damage to sexually assaulted women's bodies and the drive towards the increased technologization of visual evidence documentation. They also noted that physical injuries are frequently absent and that those observed through more refined tools of microvisualization such as colposcopes may be explained away as having resulted from either vigorous consensual sex or a "trivial" sexual assault. Concerns were expressed regarding the possibly problematic ways in which either the lack or particular nature of visual evidence may play out in the legal context. The process of documenting external and internal injuries created for some an uncomfortable sense of fragmenting and objectifying the bodies of those women they must simultaneously care for. We point to the need for further research to enhance our understanding of this issue.

  9. Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222

  10. Exploring the mechanical basis for acceleration: pelvic limb locomotor function during accelerations in racing greyhounds (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Williams, S B; Usherwood, J R; Jespers, K; Channon, A J; Wilson, A M

    2009-02-01

    Animals in their natural environments are confronted with a regular need to perform rapid accelerations (for example when escaping from predators or chasing prey). Such acceleration requires net positive mechanical work to be performed on the centre of mass by skeletal muscle. Here we determined how pelvic limb joints contribute to the mechanical work and power that are required for acceleration in galloping quadrupeds. In addition, we considered what, if any, biomechanical strategies exist to enable effective acceleration to be achieved. Simultaneous kinematic and kinetic data were collected for racing greyhounds undergoing a range of low to high accelerations. From these data, joint moments and joint powers were calculated for individual hindlimb joints. In addition, the mean effective mechanical advantage (EMA) of the limb and the ;gear ratio' of each joint throughout stance were calculated. Greatest increases in joint work and power with acceleration appeared at the hip and hock joints, particularly in the lead limb. Largest increases in absolute positive joint work occurred at the hip, consistent with the hypothesis that quadrupeds power locomotion by torque about the hip. In addition, hindlimb EMA decreased substantially with increased acceleration - a potential strategy to increase stance time and thus ground impulses for a given peak force. This mechanism may also increase the mechanical advantage for applying the horizontal forces necessary for acceleration.

  11. Sexual abuse, sexual orientation, and obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Helen A; Markovic, Nina; Danielson, Michelle E; Matthews, Alicia; Youk, Ada; Talbott, Evelyn O; Larkby, Cynthia; Hughes, Tonda

    2010-08-01

    Among adult women an association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and obesity has been observed. Research with lesbian women has consistently identified high rates of obesity as well as frequent reports of CSA, but associations between sexual abuse and obesity have not been fully explored. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between sexual abuse (SA) history and obesity among heterosexual (n = 392) and lesbian (n = 475) women (age 35-64) who participated in the Epidemiologic STudy of HEalth Risk in Women (ESTHER) Project in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > or =30. Covariates included self-reported SA, sexual orientation, demographic factors, and history of a depression or anxiety diagnosis. SA history was assessed by three factors: (1) SA experienced under the age of 18 by a family member or (2) by a nonfamily member and (3) forced, unwanted sexual experience(s) at age > or =18. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that obesity was associated with African American race, lesbian sexual orientation, intrafamilial CSA, and history of mental health diagnosis. Protective factors were having a household income of at least $75,000 and having a bachelor's degree or higher. Results suggest that lesbian women may be at greater risk of obesity than heterosexual women and that intrafamilial CSA--regardless of sexual orientation--may play a role in the development of obesity.

  12. Connecting developmental constructions to the internet: identity presentation and sexual exploration in online teen chat rooms.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Smahel, David; Greenfield, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the online construction of identity and sexuality in a large sample of conversations from monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms. More than half of the 583 participants (identified by a distinct screen name) communicated identity information, most frequently gender. In this way, participants compensated for the text-based chat environment by providing information about themselves that would be visible and obvious in face-to-face communication. Sexual themes constituted 5% of all utterances (1 sexual comment per minute); bad or obscene language constituted 3% of the sample (1 obscenity every 2 minutes). Participants who self-identified as female produced more implicit sexual communication, participants who self-identified as male produced more explicit sexual communication. The protected environment of monitored chat (hosts who enforce basic behavioral rules) contained an environment with less explicit sexuality and fewer obscenities than the freer environment of unmonitored chat. These differences were attributable both to the monitoring process itself and to the differing populations attracted to each type of chat room (monitored: more participants self-identified as younger and female; unmonitored: more participants self-identified as older and male).

  13. Migrant Sexual Health Help-Seeking and Experiences of Stigmatization and Discrimination in Perth, Western Australia: Exploring Barriers and Enablers.

    PubMed

    Agu, Josephine; Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Chigwada, Bethwyn

    2016-05-11

    Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations.

  14. Migrant Sexual Health Help-Seeking and Experiences of Stigmatization and Discrimination in Perth, Western Australia: Exploring Barriers and Enablers

    PubMed Central

    Agu, Josephine; Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Chigwada, Bethwyn

    2016-01-01

    Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations. PMID:27187423

  15. Course setting and selected biomechanical variables related to injury risk in alpine ski racing: an explorative case study

    PubMed Central

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Schwameder, Hermann; Schiefermüller, Christian; Müller, Erich

    2012-01-01

    Background Course setting has often been discussed as a potential preventative measure in the World Cup ski-racing community. However, there is limited understanding of how it is related to injury risk. Objective This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of increased horizontal gate distance on energy-related and injury mechanism-related variables. Methods During a video-based three-dimensional (3D)-kinematic field measurement, a top world-class racer performed giant slalom runs at two course settings with different horizontal gate distances. A full-body segment model was reconstructed in 3D and selected biomechanical parameters were calculated. Results For the analysed turn, no significant differences were found in turn speed for increased horizontal gate distance. However, a large effect size was observed for speed reduction towards the end of the turn. Turn forces were by tendency higher at the beginning and significantly higher towards the end of the turn. Additionally, significant differences were found in higher inward leaning, and large effect sizes were observed for a decreased fore/aft position after gate passage. Conclusions On the basis of the data of this study, no final conclusion can be made about whether, for a section of consecutive turns, increasing horizontal gate distance is an effective tool for speed reduction. However, this study pointed out two major drawbacks of this course setting modification: (1) it may increase fatigue as a consequence of loading forces acting over a longer duration; (2) it may increase the risk of out-of-balance situations by forcing the athlete to exhaust his backward and inward leaning spectrum. PMID:22983120

  16. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  17. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  18. Flexible Identities: Exploring Race and Gender Issues among a Group of Immigrant Pupils in an Inner-City Comprehensive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassool, Naz

    1999-01-01

    Explores, through the life histories of a group of first and second generation immigrant students in an inner-city school, the ways black identities have evolved within British society. Highlights the students' views of their status as citizens, of cultural identity, and of their desires. (CMK)

  19. Research and Teaching. The Science Identity of College Students: Exploring the Intersection of Gender, Race, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This study explores students' self-perceptions across science subjects (biology, chemistry, and physics) by gender and underrepresented minority group membership. The data are drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, which surveyed 7,505 students (enrolled in college English courses required for all majors)…

  20. Exploring the Relationship between State Financial Aid Policy and Postsecondary Enrollment Choices: A Focus on Income and Race Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jiyun

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between state financial aid policies and postsecondary enrollment for high school graduates (or equivalent diploma holders). Utilizing an event history modeling for a nationally representative sample from the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/2000) in addition to state-level policy variables, this…

  1. Research and Teaching. The Science Identity of College Students: Exploring the Intersection of Gender, Race, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Sonnert, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This study explores students' self-perceptions across science subjects (biology, chemistry, and physics) by gender and underrepresented minority group membership. The data are drawn from the Persistence Research in Science and Engineering (PRiSE) project, which surveyed 7,505 students (enrolled in college English courses required for all majors)…

  2. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A.; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a ‘bridge’ population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk reduction counselling that attend to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724

  3. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a 'bridge' population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV-prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk-reduction counselling that attends to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics.

  4. The Threat of Captivity: Hollywood and the Sexualization of Race Relations in "The Girls of the White Orchid" and "The Bitter Tea of General Yen."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Gina

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the captivity tale as an outgrowth of two fundamental contradictions within patriarchal ideology. Considers American popular thought in relation to this tale. Relates xenophobia in the 1980s to the sexual and racial politics of "The Girls of the White Orchid." Discusses the racial, sexual, and textual ambivalence in "The…

  5. The Threat of Captivity: Hollywood and the Sexualization of Race Relations in "The Girls of the White Orchid" and "The Bitter Tea of General Yen."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Gina

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the captivity tale as an outgrowth of two fundamental contradictions within patriarchal ideology. Considers American popular thought in relation to this tale. Relates xenophobia in the 1980s to the sexual and racial politics of "The Girls of the White Orchid." Discusses the racial, sexual, and textual ambivalence in "The…

  6. The Moderating Roles of Race and Gender-Role Attitudes in the Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.

    2007-01-01

    Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially…

  7. Listening for commissioning: A participatory study exploring young people's experiences, views and preferences of school-based sexual health and school nursing.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Kay; Coleman, Lester; Sherriff, Nigel S; Cocking, Chris; Zeeman, Laetitia; Cunningham, Liz

    2017-06-21

    To explore the experiences, views and preferences of young people aged 11-19 years regarding school-based sexual health and school nursing to inform commissioning and delivery for one local authority area in England during 2015. Promoting sexual health for young people remains a challenging, even controversial, but important public health issue. Concerns regarding accessibility, acceptability and efficacy in school-based sexual health and school nursing are evident in the literature. Additionally, a complex public health policy context now governs the funding, provision and delivery of sexual health and school nursing, which potentially presents further challenges. A qualitative, participatory design was used to explore sexual health and school nursing. Data were generated from 15 focus groups (n = 74), with young people aged 11-19 years, in educational-based settings in one local authority area in England. The resultant themes of visibility in relation to sexual health education and school nursing revealed both the complex tensions in designing and delivering acceptable and appropriate sexual health services for young people and the significance of participatory approaches. Our study shows the importance of participatory approaches in working with young people to clearly identify what they want and need in relation to sexual health. The findings also confirm the ways in which school-based sexual health remains challenging but requires a theoretical and conceptual shift. This we argue must be underpinned by participatory approaches. School nurses have always had a significant role to play in promoting positive sexual health for young people and they are exceptionally well placed to challenge the risk-based cultures that frequently dominate school-based sexual health. A shift of debates and practices towards the promotion of positive sexual health cultures though previously argued for now requires the active engagement and involvement of young people. © 2017

  8. Intimate partner violence among sexual minorities in Japan: exploring perceptions and experiences.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    Using qualitative interviews (n = 39) and participant observation (n = 54), this study documents perceptions and experiences of violence between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex intimate partners in Japan, thereby providing exploratory, formative data on a previously unexamined issue. Results indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) is experienced physically, sexually, and psychologically in all sexual minority groups. Participants perceived the violence to be: a) very similar to heterosexual IPV against women; b) more likely perpetrated and experienced by lesbians, bisexual women, and transgender persons compared to gay and bisexual men and intersex persons; c) the cause of several negative physical and mental health outcomes; and d) largely unrecognized in both sexual minority communities and broader Japanese society.

  9. Exploring shame, guilt, and risky substance use among sexual minority men and women

    PubMed Central

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, internalized heterosexism, and problematic substance use among 389 gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women. Problematic alcohol and drug use were positively related to shame-proneness and negatively related to guilt-proneness. Bisexuals reported riskier substance use behaviors, lower levels of guilt-proneness, and higher levels of internalized heterosexism than gay men and lesbians. Furthermore, study findings indicated that shame and internalized heterosexism are related. Additional investigations of these associations would supplement current understanding of sexual minority stress and would advance the development of substance-related intervention and prevention efforts targeting sexual minorities. PMID:23469820

  10. An Exploration of Giving among Gay Male College Alumni

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Alex; Gasman, Marybeth

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the influence of sexual orientation and race on college alumni giving. The authors use qualitative methods, interviewing alumni at one university in the Northeast. They also provide recommendations for fundraising and alumni practitioners as well as recommendations for those scholars interested in student identity, fundraising,…

  11. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  12. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  13. Exploring Childhood Memories with Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Concrete Reconstruction and Visualization Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Catherine B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes two memory-enhancing techniques, visualization and concrete reconstruction, that have been successful in counseling adult survivors of sexual abuse. Includes suggested implementations, case examples, and implications for incorporating memory techniques into counseling process. Describes various risk factors involved in using these…

  14. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  15. Exploring Childhood Memories with Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Concrete Reconstruction and Visualization Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Catherine B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes two memory-enhancing techniques, visualization and concrete reconstruction, that have been successful in counseling adult survivors of sexual abuse. Includes suggested implementations, case examples, and implications for incorporating memory techniques into counseling process. Describes various risk factors involved in using these…

  16. Connecting Developmental Constructions to the Internet: Identity Presentation and Sexual Exploration in Online Teen Chat Rooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Smahel, David; Greenfield, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the online construction of identity and sexuality in a large sample of conversations from monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms. More than half of the 583 participants (identified by a distinct screen name) communicated identity information, most frequently gender. In this way, participants compensated for the text-based…

  17. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth across High School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (M[subscript age] = 15 years,…

  18. Testing Error Management Theory: Exploring the Commitment Skepticism Bias and the Sexual Overperception Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, David Dryden; Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller

    2010-01-01

    Research on error management theory indicates that men tend to overestimate women's sexual interest and women underestimate men's interest in committed relationships (Haselton & Buss, 2000). We test the assumptions of the theory in face-to-face, stranger interactions with 111 man-woman dyads. Support for the theory emerges, but potential boundary…

  19. Strategic Embodiment in Virtual Spaces: Exploring an On-Line Discussion about Sexualities Equality in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depalma, Renee; Atkinson, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses patterns of participation on a voluntary anonymous Web-based discussion forum, open to students and faculty in one UK university, concerning sexualities equality in schools. Analysis revealed that participants often rejected the security of anonymity and strategically embodied themselves and others (as gay, straight, parents,…

  20. Exploring Taboos: Comparing Male- and Female-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…

  1. Exploring the Nature and Reasons for Sexual Violence within Marriage among Young Women in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Shah, Iqbal; Tamang, Jyotsna

    2010-01-01

    Sexual violence within marriage (SVWM) is a major public health and human right issue and yet remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. An exploratory study using free listing, in-depth case histories and causal flow analysis was conducted among two major ethnic groups in Nepal. Descriptive data collected from free listing…

  2. Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

    2013-01-01

    School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

  3. Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

    2013-01-01

    School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

  4. An Exploration of Fraternity Culture: Implications for Programs to Address Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Garner, Dallas N.; Thaxter, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Three focus group interviews with multiple men from every fraternity at a small to midsized public university were conducted to study the fraternal culture with regard to alcohol and consent in sexually intimate encounters. Specifically, fraternity men were asked to share their experiences with asking for consent after one or both parties have…

  5. "Queering" development: exploring the links between same-sex sexualities, gender, and development.

    PubMed

    Jolly, S

    2000-03-01

    This article argues that enhancement of gender and development policy and practice requires embracing of the challenges to conventional definitions of sex and gender. Information presented here was based on the insights from cultural studies and experiences of lesbian and gay activists from China. Focusing on same-sex sexuality in relation to gender and development requires the analysis of the link between the sexual behavior and economic and political freedom. Likewise, stereotyping of those opposing the gender norms exists as well as the degradation of human rights among these individuals due to the increasing threat of HIV/AIDS infection. Furthermore, reluctance to address questions of sexuality could be attributed to the following: the right to intervene in the local culture; the notion that homosexuality originated in the West; and the reluctance to bring a ¿developmental machine¿ into their intimate lives. A new approach to sexuality, ¿queer theory,¿ was found beneficial in changing the attitude of the society. Carrying out this approach would require targeting homosexual groups for support; adapting perceptions of the community, household, and family; integrating homosexuality into health, education, and youth work; and institutionalizing homosexuality. The author emphasizes that the adaptation of the ¿queer theory¿ could provide a solution for activists to engage in a process of mutual support and learning and taking on the common obstacles posed by the oppressive gender norms.

  6. Exploring the Nature and Reasons for Sexual Violence within Marriage among Young Women in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Mahesh; Shah, Iqbal; Tamang, Jyotsna

    2010-01-01

    Sexual violence within marriage (SVWM) is a major public health and human right issue and yet remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. An exploratory study using free listing, in-depth case histories and causal flow analysis was conducted among two major ethnic groups in Nepal. Descriptive data collected from free listing…

  7. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth across High School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (M[subscript age] = 15 years,…

  8. Testing Error Management Theory: Exploring the Commitment Skepticism Bias and the Sexual Overperception Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henningsen, David Dryden; Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller

    2010-01-01

    Research on error management theory indicates that men tend to overestimate women's sexual interest and women underestimate men's interest in committed relationships (Haselton & Buss, 2000). We test the assumptions of the theory in face-to-face, stranger interactions with 111 man-woman dyads. Support for the theory emerges, but potential boundary…

  9. Race and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Ernest R.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the connection between race and education policy in the United States, focusing on the interplay between the U.S. population's belief in democracy, national racist beliefs, and the inability of many white citizens to comprehend the depth of racism in the United States. (SLD)

  10. Racing into Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tina R.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which race cars are designed and constructed out of edible materials. Students explore relationships between speed, distance, and time using both math and science. Includes a chart that shows alignment with the National Science Education Standards. (DDR)

  11. Race Car Rally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Joan L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)

  12. An exploration of the psycho-sexual experiences of women who have undergone female genital cutting: a case of the Maasai in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Esho, T

    2012-01-01

    The research explored the link between type II Female Genital Cutting (FGC) and sexual functioning. This thesis summary thus draws from an exploratory ethnographic field study carried out among the Maasai people of Kenya where type II FGC is still being practiced. A purposely sample consisting of 28 women and 19 men, within the ages of 15-80 years took part in individual interviews and 5 focus group discussions. Participants responded to open-ended questions, a method deemed appropriate to elicit insider's in-depth information. The study found out that one of the desired effects of FGC ritual among the Maasai was to reduce women's sexual desire, embodied as tamed sexuality. This consequence was however not experienced as an impediment to sexual function. The research established that esteeming transformational processes linked with the FGC 'rite of passage' are crucial in shaping a woman's femininity, identity, marriageable status and legitimating sexuality. In turn, these elements are imperative in inculcating and nurturing a positive body-self image and sex appeal and consequently, positive sexual self actualization. These finding brings to question the validity of conventional sexuality theory, particularly those that subscribe to bio-physical models as universal bases for understanding the subject of female sexual functioning among women with FGC. Socio-cultural-symbolic nexus and constructions of sexuality should also be considered when investigating psychosexual consequences of FGC.

  13. An Exploration of the Psycho-Sexual Experiences of Women Who Have Undergone Female Genital Cutting: A Case of the Maasai in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Esho, T.

    2012-01-01

    The research explored the link between type II Female Genital Cutting (FGC) and sexual functioning. This thesis summary thus draws from an exploratory ethnographic field study carried out among the Maasai people of Kenya where type II FGC is still being practiced. A purposely sample consisting of 28 women and 19 men, within the ages of 15-80 years took part in individual interviews and 5 focus group discussions. Participants responded to open-ended questions, a method deemed appropriate to elicit insider’s in-depth information. The study found out that one of the desired effects of FGC ritual among the Maasai was to reduce women’s sexual desire, embodied as tamed sexuality. This consequence was however not experienced as an impediment to sexual function. The research established that esteeming transformational processes linked with the FGC ‘rite of passage’ are crucial in shaping a woman’s femininity, identity, marriageable status and legitimating sexuality. In turn, these elements are imperative in inculcating and nurturing a positive body-self image and sex appeal and consequently, positive sexual self actualization. These finding brings to question the validity of conventional sexuality theory, particularly those that subscribe to bio-physical models as universal bases for understanding the subject of female sexual functioning among women with FGC. Socio-cultural-symbolic nexus and constructions of sexuality should also be considered when investigating psychosexual consequences of FGC. PMID:24753899

  14. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  15. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  16. An initial exploration of community mental health nurses' attitudes to and experience of sexuality-related issues in their work with people experiencing mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Cort, E M; Attenborough, J; Watson, J P

    2001-12-01

    Human sexuality is a complex dynamic concept that escapes simple definition. Within nursing there seems to be a preference for broad holistic definitions that emphasize sexuality as an aspect of the unique human character. Whilst the nursing literature mostly portrays sexuality as wholesome and good, it also notes that sexuality can be a vehicle for the expression of power, hostility or hatred. In this study, the authors did not prescribe or limit the definition of 'sexuality'. Rather the term 'sexuality' was used in a broad sense in order to embrace the range of variables within the concept and allow respondents to consider the issues according to their own perspective. Despite broad acceptance of sexuality as a legitimate focus of health care, clinicians remain ambivalent about actively broaching sexual issues and there is a potential for clients' needs to go unmet. A number of intertwining variables can influence sexuality-related nursing practice. Nurses' attitudes are regarded as major barriers that prevent open discussion on the topic. This study aims to explore a sample of community mental health nurses' views on the topic of sexuality in relation to their work with clients. The authors adapted a sexual ideology scale previously used for the purposes of teaching students and promoting discussion. The questionnaire was distributed to nurse delegates at an annual CPNA conference. Two of the authors were available throughout the conference to discuss the study. Delegates were asked to recruit CMHN colleagues following the conference in order to increase the sample. The data are described and analysed using SPSS for Windows. Respondent characteristics have been cross-tabulated with item responses and analysed using chi-square and other statistical tests of association. The respondents (n = 122) confirmed sexuality as a relevant clinical issue and there was an overwhelming affirmation of people with mental health problems as sexual beings. Sixty-three per cent (n

  17. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth Across High School Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (mean age =15 years, n=2,533). Same-sex attracted youth were socially marginalized in a smaller predominantly White school but not in a larger, more racially diverse school. For both schools, homophily was a critical network feature, and could represent social support for and social segregation of such youth. These findings emphasize school context in studying the social lives of sexual minority youth and suggest that youth may be better off socially in larger and more diverse schools. PMID:25689110

  18. Exploring the social integration of sexual minority youth across high school contexts.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Mage  = 15 years, N = 2,533). Same-sex attracted youth were socially marginalized in a smaller predominantly White school but not in a larger, more racially diverse school. For both schools, homophily was a critical network feature, and could represent social support for and social segregation of such youth. These findings emphasize the school context in studying the social lives of sexual minority youth and suggest that youth may be better off socially in larger and more diverse schools.

  19. Exploring the Relationships of Women’s Sexual Assault Disclosure, Social Reactions, and Problem Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Starzynski, Laura L.; Long, Susan M.; Mason, Gillian E.; Long, LaDonna M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to examine correlates of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions in female victims with and without drinking problems. An ethnically diverse sample of sexual assault survivors was recruited from college, community, and mental health agencies. Ethnic minority women were less likely to disclose assault, and women with a greater number of traumatic life events disclosed assault more often. Although there were no differences in disclosure likelihood by drinking status; of those disclosing, problem drinkers told more support sources and received more negative and positive social reactions than nonproblem drinkers. Correlates of receiving negative social reactions were similar for normal and problem drinkers; however, negative social reactions to assault disclosure were related to more problem drinking for women with less frequent social interaction. Implications for future research and possible support interventions with problem-drinking victims are provided. PMID:18309039

  20. Exploring knowledge, belief and experiences in sexual and reproductive health in immigrant Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ≥18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health.

  1. Exploring the Sensitivity of Education Costs to Racial Composition of Schools and Race-Neutral Alternative Measures: A Cost Function Application to Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    This article applies the education cost function methodology in order to estimate additional costs associated with black student concentration and with alternative, race-neutral measures of urban poverty. Recent research highlights the continued importance of the role of race in educational outcomes, and how the intersection of peer group effects…

  2. Exploring the Sensitivity of Education Costs to Racial Composition of Schools and Race-Neutral Alternative Measures: A Cost Function Application to Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    This article applies the education cost function methodology in order to estimate additional costs associated with black student concentration and with alternative, race-neutral measures of urban poverty. Recent research highlights the continued importance of the role of race in educational outcomes, and how the intersection of peer group effects…

  3. Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Experiences Among Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Implications for Sex Education.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jessica Penwell; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2015-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of autism since the 1990s has led to growing demand for sex education that meets the needs of persons on the autism spectrum. Yet there is a dearth of research documenting the firsthand experiences and perspectives of autistic individuals. A thematic analysis was conducted of in-depth, Internet-facilitated interviews with 24 adults on the autism spectrum who were recruited from Internet community spaces between November 2012 and May 2013. Inclusion criteria were self-identification as a person on the autism spectrum, being a U.S. resident, being aged 18 or older, and having the ability to communicate orally or through writing. Participants were aged 18-61 and were living in the community at the time of interview, most with limited extrafamilial support. They were less likely than the general population to be heterosexual or gender-conforming and were more likely to have experienced romantic or sexual debut after age 18. Participants' most common concerns were courtship difficulties and sensory dysregulation in the context of partnered sexuality. These concerns were exacerbated by inadequate and inappropriate sex education experiences. Participants addressed challenges by using sensory barriers (e.g., latex gloves); planning when and how to have sex; negotiating alternatives to sexual scripts predicated on nondisabled experience; and practicing explicit and intentional communication. Individuals on the autism spectrum would benefit from sex education that normalizes differences (e.g., in identities and experiences of sexuality), is offered throughout young adulthood, addresses disability-relevant sensory and communication needs, and includes practicing neurotypical sociosexual norms. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  4. Is committed desire intentional? A qualitative exploration of sexual desire and differentiation of self in couples.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luana Cunha; Fraenkel, Peter; Narciso, Isabel; Novo, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    The question of what heightens or diminishes sexual desire has long been a passionate theme across cultures in literature, arts, media, and medicine. Yet, little research has been conducted to determine what affects level of desire within couples. The degree of differentiation of self has been suggested as an important variable in shaping partners' level of desire. Through a qualitative analysis of dyadic couple interviews, this study provides an account of characteristics, processes, and trajectories of sexual desire and differentiation in 33 heterosexual couples of varying ages and relationship duration. Factors associated with high desire were change and autonomy, whereas conflict and children were reported to be desire-diminishing factors. Innovation, sharing, autonomy, and effort emerged as desire-promoting strategies, while fostering personal interests, investing in a positive connection, and enhancing personal integrity were identified as couples' strategies to promote and preserve differentiation of self. The results also shed light on couples' perceptions of whether and how sexual desire changes over the course of the relationship and challenge common cultural assumptions about desire in committed relationships-namely the myth that the only authentic expression of desire is that which occurs spontaneously and without intention and planning. Implications for couple therapy are discussed.

  5. A Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Assault Patients' Barriers to Accessing and Completing HIV Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Djelaj, Valentina; Patterson, Debra; Romero, Christina M

    Sexual assault patients may encounter barriers when accessing, accepting, and completing nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP), such as lacking insurance or an understanding of nPEP. However, less is known about how sexual assault forensic examiner (SAFE) programs' protocols, approaches to discussing nPEP, and community resources may influence nPEP completion. Utilizing a qualitative case study framework, we conducted semistructured interviews with 10 SAFEs from an urban SAFE program in which emergency department physicians write prescriptions for nPEP before sending patients to the SAFE program. The participants identified barriers encountered by their patients, ranging from emergency department providers inconsistently offering prescriptions for the correct medication, to difficulty locating a local pharmacy stocking nPEP. The SAFEs also expressed concern that uninsured patients had to complete additional steps to access nPEP, while feeling overwhelmed by the immediacy of their assaults. Several participants raised concern that patients' emotional distress and fear of acquiring HIV may impede their ability to comprehend information and access nPEP. Participants also noted that the 28-day nPEP regimen might be a daily reminder for patients of the sexual assault. The SAFEs identified multiple strategies for discussing HIV and nPEP with these patients. Implications of the SAFE's role in reducing barriers are discussed.

  6. Behind closed doors: an exploration of kinky sexual behaviors in urban lesbian and bisexual women.

    PubMed

    Tomassilli, Julia C; Golub, Sarit A; Bimbi, David S; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2009-01-01

    This study of 347 urban, self-identified lesbian (n = 289) and bisexual (n = 58) women examined women's engaging in 4 kinky sexual behaviors: bondage/domination, sadomasochism, photo/video exhibitionism, and asphyxiation/breath play. A cross-sectional, brief-intercept survey was administered at 2 New York City gay, lesbian, and bisexual community events. Over 40% reported engaging in at least 1 of these behaviors, and 25% reported engaging in multiple behaviors. Bisexual women were more likely to have engaged in any kinky sexual behavior and photo/video exhibitionism. White women were more likely than women of color to have engaged in bondage/domination. Compared to older women, younger women were more likely to have engaged in photo/video exhibitionism and asphyxiation/breath play. Participants who were younger when they came out to others, and younger at their same-sex sexual debut, were more likely to have engaged in any and each of the behaviors compared to women who were older at those developmental events.

  7. The role of mass media in adolescents' sexual behaviors: exploring the explanatory value of the three-step self-objectification process.

    PubMed

    Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study (N = 730) explored whether the three-step process of self-objectification (internalization of appearance ideals, valuing appearance over competence, and body surveillance) could explain the influence of sexual media messages on adolescents' sexual behaviors. A structural equation model showed that reading sexualizing magazines (Time 1) was related to the internalization of appearance ideals and valuing appearance over competence (Time 2). In turn, the internalization of appearance ideals was positively associated with body surveillance and valuing appearance over competence (all at Time 2). Valuing appearance over competence was also positively associated with body surveillance (all at Time 2). Lastly, body surveillance (Time 2) positively related to the initiation of French kissing (Time 3) whereas valuing appearance over competence (Time 2) positively related to the initiation of sexual intercourse (Time 3). No significant relationship was observed for intimate touching. The discussion focused on the explanatory role of self-objectification in media effects on adolescents' sexual behaviors.

  8. The time course of pupil dilation evoked by visual sexual stimuli: Exploring the underlying ANS mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Finke, Johannes B; Deuter, Christian E; Hengesch, Xenia; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2017-10-01

    The early processing of visual sexual stimuli shows signs of automaticity. Moreover, there is evidence for sex-specific patterns in cognitive and physiological responding to erotica. However, little is known about the time course of rapid pupillary responses to sexual stimuli and their correspondence with other measures of autonomic activity in women and men. To study pupil dilation as an implicit measure of sexual arousal at various stages of picture processing, we presented 35 heterosexual participants with pictures showing either erotic couples or single (male/female) erotic nudes, contrasted with people involved in everyday situations. Brightness-adjusted grayscale pictures were shown for a duration of 2,500 ms within the central visual field, alternating with perceptually matched patches. Left pupil diameter was recorded at 500 Hz using a video-based eye tracker. Skin conductance and heart rate were coregistered and correlated with latent components of pupil dilation (dissociated by temporal PCA). Whereas stimulus-evoked changes in pupil size indicated virtually no initial constriction, a rapid effect of appetence emerged (dilation to erotica within 500 ms). Responses at early stages of processing were remarkably consistent across both sexes. In contrast, later phases of pupil dilation, subjective ratings, and skin conductance responses showed a sex-specific pattern. Moreover, evidence for an association of early-onset pupil dilation and heart rate acceleration was found, suggestive of parasympathetic inhibition, whereas the late component was mainly related to sympathetically mediated skin conductance. Taken together, our results indicate that different temporal components of pupil responses to erotic stimuli may reflect divergent underlying neural mechanisms. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Exploring young adult sexual minority women’s perspectives on LGBTQ smoking

    PubMed Central

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed. PMID:26508993

  10. Sexual history disclosure polygraph examinations with cybercrime offences: a first Dutch explorative study.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Jos; Bogaerts, Stefan; Foulger, Sarah; Wilcox, Daniel; Sosnowski, Daniel; Cushman, Barry

    2010-06-01

    This article presents the first study on post-conviction polygraphy in the Netherlands. Importantly, it exclusively focuses on cybercrime offenders. The study is designed to systematically address the different child sexual behaviours exhibited by 25 participants who are in treatment for possessing child abuse images. The results indicate that post-conviction polygraphy can provide additional data to inform the development of theory in this area and contribute to the treatment, supervision, and more effective containment of offending behaviour and the reduction of future victimization.

  11. Does Daddy Know Best? Exploring the Relationship between Paternal Sexual Communication and Safe Sex Practices among African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Rosnick, Christopher B.; Webb-Bradley, Traice; Kirner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Parental sexual risk communication may influence women's sexual decision-making and safe sexual behaviours. While many studies have focused specifically on the influence of communication from mothers, some authors have argued for the importance of examining father-daughter sexual risk communication as well. However, few studies have empirically…

  12. Does Daddy Know Best? Exploring the Relationship between Paternal Sexual Communication and Safe Sex Practices among African-American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danice L.; Rosnick, Christopher B.; Webb-Bradley, Traice; Kirner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Parental sexual risk communication may influence women's sexual decision-making and safe sexual behaviours. While many studies have focused specifically on the influence of communication from mothers, some authors have argued for the importance of examining father-daughter sexual risk communication as well. However, few studies have empirically…

  13. School-Based HIV/AIDS Education Is Associated with Reduced Risky Sexual Behaviors and Better Grades with Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…

  14. School-Based HIV/AIDS Education Is Associated with Reduced Risky Sexual Behaviors and Better Grades with Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…

  15. "First, I… then, we…": exploring the sequence of sexual acts and safety strategies reported during a sexual encounter using a modified timeline followback method.

    PubMed

    Schick, Vanessa R; Baldwin, Aleta; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y; Dodge, Brian; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Assessments of sexual safety often rely on questions about the occurrence of condom use within a designated timeline, assuming that penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) occurred once at the conclusion of the event. An investigation of all sexual acts and safety strategies that occur during a single event may present a more nuanced picture of sexual risk. Behaviourally, bisexual women (N=45) were recruited due to the potential diversity of their sexual behaviour and safety strategies. A modified timeline follow-back method, the SEQUENCE Calendar, was designed to capture information about the participants' most recent sexual event with a male partner, including the order of each sexual act during the sexual event. Interviews took between 1 and 3 h. These acts were compiled into narratives and the behavioural sequences were reviewed and coded. Participants reported an average of 7.9 (SD=4.3) sexual acts. Over a third (35.9%, N=14) of the participants who reported PVI indicated engaging in genital contact after PVI and over 15% (N=6) of these participants reporting PVI at two different time points, separated by sexual behaviour. Additional potential for infection outside of condom use and PVI was also identified. Sexual interactions are comprised of multiple acts that occur in a variety of permutations. Understanding the complexity of people's sexual encounters has potential to inform the ways we measure condom use and consider sexual safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Jenee

    2009-01-01

    In many classrooms across America, race and ethnicity are very much on the table. Teachers dream of seeing their students discuss difference in a constructive way. Some educators actively encourage their classes to get outside their comfort zones and confront the country's racial history, but in many faculty rooms, there's little to no talk about…

  17. Racing Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-09-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of the project.

  18. Talking Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Jenee

    2009-01-01

    In many classrooms across America, race and ethnicity are very much on the table. Teachers dream of seeing their students discuss difference in a constructive way. Some educators actively encourage their classes to get outside their comfort zones and confront the country's racial history, but in many faculty rooms, there's little to no talk about…

  19. Racing Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of…

  20. Illness perceptions in IBD influence psychological status, sexual health and satisfaction, body image and relational functioning: A preliminary exploration using Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S R; Gass, C; Macrae, F

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize the relationships between illness perceptions, body image and self-consciousness, sexual health (sexual problems and sexual satisfaction), anxiety and depression, and marital and family functioning in patients with IBD. Seventy-four IBD patients (44 CD, 13 males, 61 females, mean age 38 years) completed an online questionnaire. Illness perceptions explored with the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, and anxiety and depression measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Sexual Problems Scale, Sexual Satisfaction Scale, Marital Functioning Scale, Family Functioning Scale, and Body Image and Self-Consciousness During Intimacy Scale. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) provided a final model with an excellent fit (χ(2) (25)=27.84, p=.32, χ(2)/N=1.11, CFI>0.99, RMSEA<0.04, SRMR<0.07, GFI>0.93). Illness perceptions had a significant direct influence on depression (β=0.49, p<0.001), anxiety (β=0.55, p<0.001), and family functioning (β=-0.17, p<0.001). Several mediating pathways were also found involving sexual problems, sexual satisfaction, and body image and self-consciousness during intimacy. Being female was associated with increased sexual problems but increased sexual satisfaction. The findings provide further evidence for the adverse impact of patient IBD-related illness perceptions on anxiety and depression. The findings also provide the preliminary evidence for the impact of illness perceptions and psychological comorbidity in relation to sexual health and relationship and family functioning. These aspects of psychological processing provide a framework and direction for further research into the nature of IBD and its influence on the patient and their family. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sexual health discussions with older adult patients during periodic health exams.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Syme, Maggie L; Perera, Robert A; Lafata, Jennifer Elston

    2014-04-01

    Sexual health is an integral part of overall health across the lifespan. In order to address sexual health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexual functioning, the sexual history of adult patients should be incorporated as a routine part of the medical history throughout life. Physicians and health-care professionals cite many barriers to attending to and assessing the sexual health needs of older adult patients, underscoring the importance of additional research to improve sexual history taking among older patients. The purpose of this article is to explore the content and context of physician-patient sexual health discussions during periodic health exams (PHEs) with adults aged 50-80 years. Patients completed a pre-visit telephone survey and attended a scheduled PHE with their permission to audio-record the exam. Transcribed audio recordings of 483 PHEs were analyzed according to the principles of qualitative content analysis. Frequency of sexual history taking components as observed in transcripts of PHEs. Physician characteristics were obtained from health system records and patient characteristics were obtained from the pre-visit survey. Analyses revealed that approximately one-half of the PHEs included some discussion about sexual health, with the majority of those conversations initiated by physicians. A two-level logistic regression model revealed that patient-physician gender concordance, race discordance, and increasing physician age were significantly associated with sexual health discussions. Interventions should focus on increasing physician self-efficacy for assessing sexual health in gender discordant and race/ethnicity concordant patient interactions. Interventions for older adults should increase education about sexual health and sexual risk behaviors, as well as empower individuals to seek information from their health-care providers. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Elevating the Role of Race in Ethnographic Research: Navigating Race Relations in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.

    2011-01-01

    Little work in the social sciences or in the field of education has fully explored the methodological issues related to the study of race and racism, yet qualitative researchers acknowledge that race plays (and should play) a role in the research process. Indeed, race frames and informs the context, practices and perspectives of everyday lived…

  3. Perceived, anticipated and experienced stigma: exploring manifestations and implications for young people's sexual and reproductive health and access to care in North-Western Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nyblade, Laura; Stockton, Melissa; Nyato, Daniel; Wamoyi, Joyce

    2017-02-22

    Young people - particularly girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa - face significant challenges accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. These challenges are shaped in part by sociocultural factors, including stigma. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that explored the micro-level social process of stigma surrounding young people's sexual and reproductive health in two communities in Tanzania. Respondents described an environment of pervasive stigma surrounding the sexual and reproductive health of unmarried young people. Stigma manifested itself in multiple forms, ranging from verbal harassment and social isolation to physical punishment by families, community members, peers and healthcare providers. Respondents perceived that stigma was a barrier to young people accessing sexual and reproductive health services and identified excessive questioning, scolding and requirements to bring sexual partners or parents to receive services at health facilities as obstacles to accessing care. The pervasiveness and complexities of stigma surrounding young people's sexual and reproductive health in the two study communities and its potential consequences for health suggest both a need for care in using the term stigma as well as further studies on the feasibility of incorporating stigma-reduction strategies into young people's sexual and reproductive health programmes.

  4. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  5. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  6. Marriage and the homosexual body: it's about race.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    Any analogy between race and homosexuality cannot erase the fact that skin color has marked and continues to mark bodies for special punishment and necessary protection. Yet, the analogy has also been forged in the struggles against sexual discrimination and in the courts to recognize same-sex marriage as a basic civil right. My purposes here are, first, to review the role the race-sexual orientation analogy has played in same-sex marriage debates, second to examine the analogy within the context of race and queer theories and, finally, to suggest a racial dimension to sexuality that marks the homosexual body.

  7. “That Pregnancy Can Bring Noise into the Family”: Exploring Intimate Partner Sexual Violence during Pregnancy in the Context of HIV in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Shefer, Tamara; Zarowsky, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. Methods This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 64 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted. Results While women reported some positive experiences of sex in pregnancy, most participants commonly experienced coercive sexual practices. They reported that men failed to understand, or refused to accept, pregnancy and its associated emotional changes, and often forced painful and degrading sexual acts on them, usually while the men were under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs. Men often refused or delayed HIV testing, and participants reported accounts of HIV-positive men not disclosing their status to their partners and deliberately infecting or attempting to infect them. Women's passive acceptance of sexual violence was influenced by advice they received from other females to subordinate to their partners and to not deprive men of their conjugal sexual rights. Conclusions Cultural and societal factors, unequal gender norms and practices, women's economic vulnerability, and men's failure to understand pregnancy and emotional changes, influence men to perpetrate IPSV, leading to high risk of HIV infection. PMID:22937018

  8. "That pregnancy can bring noise into the family": exploring intimate partner sexual violence during pregnancy in the context of HIV in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Shefer, Tamara; Zarowsky, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 64 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted. While women reported some positive experiences of sex in pregnancy, most participants commonly experienced coercive sexual practices. They reported that men failed to understand, or refused to accept, pregnancy and its associated emotional changes, and often forced painful and degrading sexual acts on them, usually while the men were under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs. Men often refused or delayed HIV testing, and participants reported accounts of HIV-positive men not disclosing their status to their partners and deliberately infecting or attempting to infect them. Women's passive acceptance of sexual violence was influenced by advice they received from other females to subordinate to their partners and to not deprive men of their conjugal sexual rights. Cultural and societal factors, unequal gender norms and practices, women's economic vulnerability, and men's failure to understand pregnancy and emotional changes, influence men to perpetrate IPSV, leading to high risk of HIV infection.

  9. Exploration of Male Attitudes on Partnerships and Sexuality with Female BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Caitlin; Spencer, Sara; Dungan, Jeffery; Hurley, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Women with BRCA mutations are inundated with decisions about managing cancer risks and childbearing considerations. Decisions become more complicated when women face disclosing their mutation and risk-reduction options to a romantic partner. This study identifies the concerns and perspectives of male romantic partners regarding these unique decisions. Twenty-five male participants completed an online survey posted to cancer support group message boards. Participants reported relationship changes regarding intimacy levels (n = 9), attraction (n = 2), and communication (n = 22) after mutation disclosure. Participants whose partners had not undergone prophylactic mastectomy (n = 14) reported concerns regarding sexual relations (n = 5), post-surgical appearance (n = 2), post-surgical attraction (n = 5), and health/lifespan (n = 9). Participants did not express attitude changes toward childbearing. While mutation disclosure conversations and surgical options are concerns for many BRCA mutation carriers in relationships, male partners share these concerns. Aspects of the relationship may change, but male study participants continued to support their partners. This information can benefit female BRCA mutation carriers, their current or future partners, and genetic counselors working with this particular population.

  10. "I Don't Want to Catch It". Boys, Girls and Sexualities in an HIV/AIDS Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Epstein, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines young South African school children's understanding of HIV/AIDS. Based on ethnographic work in two schools in Greater Durban, it explores the impact of HIV/AIDS on the ways in which gender and sexuality are articulated against the backdrop of race and class specific contexts. The first part of the paper examines the children's…

  11. "I Don't Want to Catch It". Boys, Girls and Sexualities in an HIV/AIDS Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Epstein, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines young South African school children's understanding of HIV/AIDS. Based on ethnographic work in two schools in Greater Durban, it explores the impact of HIV/AIDS on the ways in which gender and sexuality are articulated against the backdrop of race and class specific contexts. The first part of the paper examines the children's…

  12. Visual search for faces by race: a cross-race study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gang; Song, Luping; Bentin, Shlomo; Yang, Yanjie; Zhao, Lun

    2013-08-30

    Using a single averaged face of each race previous study indicated that the detection of one other-race face among own-race faces background was faster than vice versa (Levin, 1996, 2000). However, employing a variable mapping of face pictures one recent report found preferential detection of own-race faces vs. other-race faces (Lipp et al., 2009). Using the well-controlled design and a heterogeneous set of real face images, in the present study we explored the visual search for own and other race faces in Chinese and Caucasian participants. Across both groups, the search for a face of one race among other-race faces was serial and self-terminating. In Chinese participants, the search consistently faster for other-race than own-race faces, irrespective of upright or upside-down condition; however, this search asymmetry was not evident in Caucasian participants. These characteristics suggested that the race of a face is not a visual basic feature, and in Chinese participants the faster search for other-race than own-race faces also reflects perceptual factors. The possible mechanism underlying other-race search effects was discussed.

  13. An Exploration of Policies Governing Faculty-to-Student Consensual Sexual Relationships on University Campuses: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tara N.; Crittenden, Courtney; Garland, Tammy S.; McGuffee, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Consensual sexual relationships between students and faculty have traditionally been viewed as private matters and have been ignored by university administrators except in cases that resulted in sexual harassment claims. Due to increasing sexual harassment litigation and the liabilities associated with such relationships, universities have…

  14. An Exploration of Policies Governing Faculty-to-Student Consensual Sexual Relationships on University Campuses: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tara N.; Crittenden, Courtney; Garland, Tammy S.; McGuffee, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Consensual sexual relationships between students and faculty have traditionally been viewed as private matters and have been ignored by university administrators except in cases that resulted in sexual harassment claims. Due to increasing sexual harassment litigation and the liabilities associated with such relationships, universities have…

  15. Social and Psychological Well-being in Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals: The Effects of Race, Gender, Age, and Sexual Identity

    PubMed Central

    Kertzner, Robert M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Frost, David M.; Stirratt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Using social stress perspective, we studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African-American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual versus gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, we examined if LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. We found different patterns when looking at social vs. psychological well-being and positive vs. negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Though no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. We conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model. PMID:20099941

  16. Social and psychological well-being in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals: the effects of race, gender, age, and sexual identity.

    PubMed

    Kertzner, Robert M; Meyer, Ilan H; Frost, David M; Stirratt, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Using a social stress perspective, the authors studied the mental health effects of added burden related to socially disadvantaged status (being African American or Latino, female, young, and identifying as bisexual vs. gay or lesbian) in a community sample of 396 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Mental health outcomes were social and psychological well-being contrasted with depressive symptoms. When mental health deficiencies by disadvantaged social status were detected, the authors examined whether LGB community connectedness and positive sexual identity valence played a mediating role, reducing the social status disparity in outcome. The authors found different patterns when looking at social versus psychological well-being and positive versus negative mental health outcomes. Bisexuality and young age, but not gender and racial/ethnic minority status, were associated with decreased social well-being. In bisexuals, this relationship was mediated by community connectedness and sexual identity valence. Although no differences in social or psychological well-being were found by gender, female gender was associated with depressed mood. The authors conclude that there is limited support for an additive stress model.

  17. Darwin on race, gender, and culture.

    PubMed

    Shields, Stephanie A; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and explained by Darwin and the ways in which his observations and opinions on gender and race were taken up by others and, more often than not, misapplied. Whereas the challenge of race (for Darwin) was to demonstrate the fundamental similarity and, hence, the common origin, of human races, the challenge of gender (for Darwin) was to identify a mechanism that could account for differences between women and men that, to him, were obvious, fundamental, and significant. The article concludes by considering the implications of Darwin's views for contemporary scientific psychology. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Using Latina/o Critical Race Theory (LatCrit) and Racist Nativism to Explore Intersectionality in the Educational Experiences of Undocumented Chicana College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Huber, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    One of the most powerful elements of Critical Race Theory (CRT) in Education is that it provides critical researchers with a lens not offered by many other theoretical frameworks--that is, the ability to examine how multiple forms of oppression can intersect within the lives of People of Color and how those intersections manifest in researchers'…

  19. The relationship between use of sexually explicit media and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men: exploring the mediating effects of sexual self-esteem and condom use self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B R Simon

    2014-02-25

    This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts.

  20. The relationship between use of sexually explicit media and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men: exploring the mediating effects of sexual self-esteem and condom use self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W.; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men’s sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts. PMID:24904709

  1. Making sense of sexual orientation measures: findings from a cognitive processing study with adolescents on health survey questions.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn; Conron, Kerith; Patel, Aarti; Freedner, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    To carry out a study using cognitive processing interview methods to explore ways in which adolescents understand sexual orientation questions currently used on epidemiologic surveys. In-depth, individual interviews were conducted to probe cognitive processes involved in answering four self-report survey questions assessing sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sex of sexual partners.A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore variation in question interpretation, information retrieval patterns and problems, item clarity, valence of reactions to items (positive, negative, neutral), respondent burden, and perceived threat associated with the measures. Thirty adolescents aged 15 to 21 of diverse sexual orientations and race/ethnicities participated in the study, including female, male, and transgender youth. A question on sexual attraction was the most consistently understood and thus was easy for nearly all youth to answer. In contrast, a measure of sexual identity with options heterosexual, bisexual, gay/lesbian, and unsure was the most difficult to answer. Most preferred a sexual identity item that also provided the intermediate options mostly heterosexual and mostly homosexual, which many said reflected their experience of feeling between categories. Participants had varying and inconsistent interpretations of sexual behavior terms, such as sex and sexual intercourse, used in assessing the sex of sexual partners. Differences in understanding could affect interpretation of survey data in important ways. Development of valid measures of sexual orientation will be essential to better monitor health disparities.

  2. Socioeconomic gradients in sexually transmitted diseases: a geographic information system-based analysis of poverty, race/ethnicity, and gonorrhea rates in California, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Springer, Yuri P; Samuel, Michael C; Bolan, Gail

    2010-06-01

    We quantified the relationship between gonorrheal infection rates in California and a measure of poverty status and investigated how this relationship and the spatial dispersion of cases varied among the 4 dominant racial/ethnic groups in the state. We geocoded gonorrhea cases reported in California between 2004 and 2006, and estimated the poverty status of each case by using the percentage of residents living below poverty in the census tract of residence. We calculated infection rates for African American, Asian, Hispanic, and White cases in each of 4 poverty strata. We mapped cases to visualize the patterns of spatial dispersion associated with each race/ethnicity-poverty combination. There was a strong positive relationship between poverty and infection, but racial/ethnic disparities in infection, driven by a disproportionate level of gonorrhea among African Americans, eclipsed this differential. The degree of spatial aggregation varied substantially among groups and was especially pronounced for African Americans with gonorrhea in the highest poverty category. Prevention efforts should target low-income neighborhood "hot spots" to reach the largest numbers of cases, particularly among African Americans.

  3. Socioeconomic Gradients in Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Geographic Information System–Based Analysis of Poverty, Race/Ethnicity, and Gonorrhea Rates in California, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Yuri P.; Bolan, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified the relationship between gonorrheal infection rates in California and a measure of poverty status and investigated how this relationship and the spatial dispersion of cases varied among the 4 dominant racial/ethnic groups in the state. Methods. We geocoded gonorrhea cases reported in California between 2004 and 2006, and estimated the poverty status of each case by using the percentage of residents living below poverty in the census tract of residence. We calculated infection rates for African American, Asian, Hispanic, and White cases in each of 4 poverty strata. We mapped cases to visualize the patterns of spatial dispersion associated with each race/ethnicity–poverty combination. Results. There was a strong positive relationship between poverty and infection, but racial/ethnic disparities in infection, driven by a disproportionate level of gonorrhea among African Americans, eclipsed this differential. The degree of spatial aggregation varied substantially among groups and was especially pronounced for African Americans with gonorrhea in the highest poverty category. Conclusions. Prevention efforts should target low-income neighborhood “hot spots” to reach the largest numbers of cases, particularly among African Americans. PMID:20395580

  4. The impact of sexuality and race/ethnicity on HIV/AIDS risk among Asian and Pacific Island American (A/PIA) gay and bisexual men in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kanuha, V K

    2000-12-01

    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Asian and Pacific Island Americans (A/PIAs) has been relatively low in proportion to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, HIV infection among A/PIA gay and bisexual men, and men who have sex with men has steadily increased in urban and other geographic areas with large Asian and Pacific Island populations. In this study of race/ethnicity and HIV risk among A/PIA gay and bisexual men in Hawai'i, respondents reported significant conflicts between loyalty to one's A/PIA family of origin and the enactment of individual sexual identity. Idealization of love and intimacy, intentional decisions to suspend safer sex practices, and Pacific Island cultural expressions of giving to others are all factors that may compromise HIV risk reduction in this population. Implications for HIV/AIDS prevention focus on integrating A/PIA, gay/bisexual, and "local" (born and raised in Hawai'i) identities in the development of multilevel interventions.

  5. Exploring the distribution of park availability, features, and quality across Kansas City, Missouri by income and race/ethnicity: an environmental justice investigation.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Katherine B; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Besenyi, Gina M; Bergstrom, Ryan; Heinrich, Katie M

    2013-02-01

    Parks are key community assets for physical activity, but some evidence suggests these resources are not equitably distributed. This study examined disparities by income and race/ethnicity in the availability, features, and quality of parks across Kansas City, Missouri. All parks and census tracts (CTs) were mapped using geographical information systems, and park features and quality were determined via audits. Multivariate analyses of covariance analyzed differences in park availability, features, and quality across low-, medium-, and high-income and race/ethnicity CT tertiles. Low-income CTs contained significantly more parks, but also had fewer parks with playgrounds and more quality concerns per park. High minority CTs had more parks with basketball courts, but fewer parks with trails. Medium-income CTs contained more aesthetic features per park. Future research should examine policies that contribute to and that might rectify disparities in park features and quality, especially in low-income and high minority areas.

  6. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1996 uses available data from literature, industry, and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on minerals industry direction are drawn from these data.

  7. Developmental changes in sexual prejudice from early to late adolescence: the effects of gender, race, and ideology on different patterns of change.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Anderson, Carolyn J

    2012-09-01

    This study documented significant changes in prejudice toward gay and lesbian individuals among adolescents from the ages of 12 to 18 years. Moreover, in line with developmental theories of prejudice, there was substantial variability in these patterns, partially predicted by the gender and ideological beliefs (reflected by social dominance orientation [SDO]) of individuals. Boys reported higher prejudice at age 12 than girls. SDO also accounted for initial differences in levels of prejudice. Further, although prejudice toward gay men did decrease among girls over time, it did not decrease among boys. Prejudice toward lesbians decreased at similar rates for boys and girls. These different trajectories are explained within the context of gender socialization processes during adolescence. In addition, fluctuations in adolescents' own SDO corresponded with fluctuations in their level of prejudice, over and above those tied to age-related changes. This association was even stronger among those with overall higher SDO tendencies than others. However, SDO, when treated as a stable invariant factor, did not predict different patterns of progressive age-related change in prejudice. These results extend the research on sexual prejudice by examining it within a broader and more dynamic developmental framework, in greater alignment with developmental theories of prejudice.

  8. Preparing the sexual health workforce to deliver integrated services: is education the answer? A qualitative study exploring the impact of sexual health education on developing integrated policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judy; Salmon, Debra; Knight, Rachael-Anne

    2017-05-01

    Aim This study aimed to explore the ability of sexual health nurses working in the South West of England, to implement new learning within existing sexual health service delivery models. Drawing on Lipsky's account of street-level bureaucracy to conceptualise policy implementation, the impact of workforce learning on the development of integrated services across this region of the United Kingdom was assessed. In order to achieve the United Nations' goal of universal access to sexual health, it is essential for reproductive and sexual health, including HIV provision, to integrate into a single service. This integration requires a commitment to collaboration by service commissioners and an alignment of principles and values across sexual health and contraceptive services. UK health policy has embraced this holistic agenda but moves towards integrating historically separate clinical services, has presented significant workforce development challenges and influenced policy success. Employing a qualitative approach, the study included data from semi-structured telephone interviews and focus groups, and longitudinal data from pre- and post-intervention surveys, collected between September 2013 and September 2015. Data were collected from 88 nurses undertaking a workforce development programme and six of their service managers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis to identify consistent themes. Findings Nurses confirmed the role of new learning in enabling them to negotiate the political landscape but expressed frustration at their lack of agency in the integration agenda, exposing a clear dichotomy between the intentions of policy and the reality of practice. Nevertheless, using high levels of professional judgement and discretion practitioners managed the incongruence between policy and practice in order to deliver integrated services in the interests of patients. Workforce education, while essential for the transition to the delivery of integrated services, was

  9. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  10. Male sexuality.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  12. BrdsNBz: A Mixed Methods Study Exploring Adolescents' Use of a Sexual Health Text Message Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health text message services are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about who uses such services and why. This project details the implementation of a campaign promoting a state-wide sexual health text message service that allows teens to text directly with a health educator and uses a mixed method design to assess who uses…

  13. An Exploration in Health Education of an Integrated Theoretical Basis for Sexuality Education Pedagogies for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In Health Education, much sexuality education appears to have little evidence of an acknowledged theoretical basis for its knowledge and skills' teaching and learning. The Health Education teacher can frequently be at a loss to decipher what theoretical principles could or should permeate sexuality education curricula, which may be both detracting…

  14. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  15. BrdsNBz: A Mixed Methods Study Exploring Adolescents' Use of a Sexual Health Text Message Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2013-01-01

    Sexual health text message services are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about who uses such services and why. This project details the implementation of a campaign promoting a state-wide sexual health text message service that allows teens to text directly with a health educator and uses a mixed method design to assess who uses…

  16. An Exploration in Health Education of an Integrated Theoretical Basis for Sexuality Education Pedagogies for Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2011-01-01

    In Health Education, much sexuality education appears to have little evidence of an acknowledged theoretical basis for its knowledge and skills' teaching and learning. The Health Education teacher can frequently be at a loss to decipher what theoretical principles could or should permeate sexuality education curricula, which may be both detracting…

  17. Is There a Difference? The Impact of Campus Climate on Sexual Minority and Gender Minority Students' Levels of Outness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Bartolo, Adriana N.

    2013-01-01

    Key scholars have studied campus climate, and often these climate studies are done through the lens of race and racial issues on campus. A few studies have explored the interaction between campus climate and sexual and gender minority students. However, those studies, like the climate studies through a racial lens, found that lesbian, gay,…

  18. Is There a Difference? The Impact of Campus Climate on Sexual Minority and Gender Minority Students' Levels of Outness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Bartolo, Adriana N.

    2013-01-01

    Key scholars have studied campus climate, and often these climate studies are done through the lens of race and racial issues on campus. A few studies have explored the interaction between campus climate and sexual and gender minority students. However, those studies, like the climate studies through a racial lens, found that lesbian, gay,…

  19. The Complexities of Conducting Ethnographic Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaas, Jongi

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas of conducting ethnographic race research in the context of the South African situation, forming part of my ethnographic race research PhD project, conducted in two historically white, single-sex schools in South Africa. First, it critically examines the theoretical dilemmas on crucial issues of…

  20. How do sexual harassment policies shape gender beliefs? An exploration of the moderating effects of norm adherence and gender.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Justine E

    2013-09-01

    Sexual harassment laws have led to important organizational changes in the workplace yet research continues to document resistance to their implementation and backlash against the people who mobilize such laws. Employing experimental research methods, this study proposes and tests a theory specifying the mechanisms through which sexual harassment policies affect gender beliefs. The findings show evidence that sexual harassment policies strengthen unequal gender beliefs among men and women most committed to traditional gender interaction norms. I also find that men and women's different structural locations in the status hierarchy lead to different, but related sets of concerns about the status threats posed by sexual harassment policies. By specifying the social psychological processes through which sexual harassment law affects beliefs about men and women, this study sets the stage for investigating ways to make laws designed to reduce inequality between social groups more effective.

  1. Genes, Race, and Culture in Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Linda M.; Truesdell, Nicole D.; Kreiner, Meta J.

    2015-01-01

    Race, although an unscientific concept, remains prominent in health research and clinical guidelines, and is routinely invoked in clinical practice. In interviews with 58 primary care clinicians we explored how they understand and apply concepts of racial difference. We found wide agreement that race is important to consider in clinical care. They explained the effect of race on health, drawing on common assumptions about the biological, class, and cultural characteristics of racial minorities. They identified specific race-based clinical strategies for only a handful of conditions and were inconsistent in the details of what they said should be done for minority patients. We conclude that using race in clinical medicine promotes and maintains the illusion of inherent racial differences and may result in minority patients receiving care aimed at presumed racial group characteristics, rather than care selected as specifically appropriate for them as individuals. [race and genetics, primary care, health disparities, racial profiling] PMID:23804331

  2. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1999 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The report documents data on exploration budgets by region and commodity and identifies significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas. It also discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry. And it presents inferences and observations on mineral industry direction based on these data and discussions.

  3. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1997 draws upon available data from literature, industry and US Geological Sulvey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  4. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  5. The role of sexual behavior in head and neck cancer: implications for prevention and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rettig, Eleni; Kiess, Ana Ponce; Fakhry, Carole

    2015-01-01

    HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-OSCC) is associated with oral sexual behaviors. The sharp rise in incidence of HPV-OSCC in the USA has been attributed to changes in sexual norms over the past five decades, with lower age at sexual debut and higher numbers of sexual partners per individual. In addition, variations in HPV-OSCC prevalence by race, age cohort and gender may be attributable to differences in oral sexual behaviors among these groups. Oral HPV infection is the putative precursor to HPV-OSCC. Risk factors for oral HPV incidence, prevalence, clearance and persistence are crucial to understanding how, and in whom, oral HPV infection progresses to malignancy. Future investigation should focus on elucidating the natural history of oral HPV infection persistence and malignant transformation, developing effective screening tools and exploring opportunities for prevention such as vaccination and public health education. PMID:25193346

  6. The role of sexual behavior in head and neck cancer: implications for prevention and therapy.

    PubMed

    Rettig, Eleni; Kiess, Ana Ponce; Fakhry, Carole

    2015-01-01

    HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV-OSCC) is associated with oral sexual behaviors. The sharp rise in incidence of HPV-OSCC in the USA has been attributed to changes in sexual norms over the past five decades, with lower age at sexual debut and higher numbers of sexual partners per individual. In addition, variations in HPV-OSCC prevalence by race, age cohort and gender may be attributable to differences in oral sexual behaviors among these groups. Oral HPV infection is the putative precursor to HPV-OSCC. Risk factors for oral HPV incidence, prevalence, clearance and persistence are crucial to understanding how, and in whom, oral HPV infection progresses to malignancy. Future investigation should focus on elucidating the natural history of oral HPV infection persistence and malignant transformation, developing effective screening tools and exploring opportunities for prevention such as vaccination and public health education.

  7. Exploring linkages between research, policy and practice in the Netherlands: perspectives on sexual and reproductive health and rights knowledge flows.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Billie; van der Kwaak, Anke

    2017-05-12

    The attention to and demand for stronger linkages between research, policy and practice are increasing, especially in fields concerned with sensitive and challenging issues such as sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The study described in this article was conducted in the Netherlands among actors working in international development, especially the domain of SRHR. It explores the perceived flow of knowledge between research, policy and practice, the perceived impeding factors, and suggested strategies for improvement. A narrative literature review was performed and 28 key informants were interviewed between May and August 2015. Most interviewees were either active or passive members of Share-Net Netherlands, an SRHR knowledge platform. All interviews, which lasted 70 minutes on average, were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded in MAXQDA. Linkages between research, policy and practice are many and diffuse. The demands for and supplies of knowledge within and across the fields vary and do not always match, which is shown by participants' research purposes and approaches. Participants identified various barriers to strengthening knowledge flows, including a lack of familiarity with practices in other fields, power relations and the undervaluation of tacit knowledge. They suggested a more visible and concrete demand for and supply of knowledge, the development of a joint knowledge agenda, more opportunities for the interdisciplinary creation of knowledge, and the development of a system for learning and sharing knowledge. This study shows the willingness to undertake, and the perceived advantages of, interdisciplinary dialogues and joint creation of knowledge to advance SRHR research, policies and practices. Whereas barriers to the flow of knowledge may maintain present understandings of knowledge and of whose knowledge is valid, enabling factors, such as interactions between research, policy and practice in knowledge-sharing activities, may

  8. From 'sugar daddies' to 'sugar babies': exploring a pathway among age-disparate sexual relationships, condom use and adolescent pregnancy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark; Pantelic, Marija; Kuo, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes. Most studies proposing risk pathways for adolescent pregnancy in South Africa are qualitative, hypothesising links among age-disparate relationships, reduced condom use and higher pregnancy rates. No known South African studies have quantitatively explored pathways to adolescent pregnancy. This study aimed to: (i) identify the factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and (ii) explore a pathway of risk by assessing whether condom use mediated the relationship between age-disparate sexual relationships and adolescent pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey of 447 sexually active girls aged 10-19 years was undertaken in six health districts of South Africa. Multivariate logistic regressions controlled for confounders. Mediation tests used bootstrapping. Consistent condom use (β=-2.148, odds ratio (OR)=8.566, P≤0.001) and school enrolment (β=-1.600, OR=0.202, P≤0.001) were associated with lower pregnancy rates. Age-disparate sex (β=1.093, OR=2.982, P≤0.001) and long-term school absences (β=1.402, OR=4.061, P≤0.001) were associated with higher pregnancy rates. The indirect effect of age-disparate sex on adolescent pregnancy through condom use was significant, irrespective of age, age at sexual initiation, poverty and residential environment (B=0.4466, s.d.=0.1303, confidence interval: 0.2323-0.7428). This survey supports hypotheses that inability to negotiate condom use in age-disparate sexual relationships may drive adolescent pregnancy. Interventions addressing these relationships, facilitating condom use and increasing access to sexual health services among adolescents might avert unwanted pregnancies.

  9. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  10. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  11. Exploring associations in developmental trends of adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior in a high-risk population.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S C; Strycker, L A; Duncan, T E

    1999-02-01

    This study examined associations between the development of adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use and risky sexual behavior, over time, using latent growth modeling methodology. Gender differences in the development and relationships between use of substances and risky sexual behavior were also examined. Participants were 257 adolescents (mean age = 15.96 years) assessed at three time points over an 18-month period. The intercepts of marijuana with cigarettes and alcohol, and all three substances with risky sexual behavior were significantly related. Development of the three substances showed similar patterns and development of cigarette use covaried with development of risky sexual behavior. There were no significant differences for boys and girls in these relationships. Results are discussed in relation to the need for greater understanding of nonsexual and sex-related problem behaviors and for analyses examining development and change in these behaviors during adolescence.

  12. Bouncing Balls and Hot Rod Races.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibbs, Peggy; Sherrill, Donna

    This paper presents the Bouncing Ball Experiment which models quadratic and exponential functions, and the Hot Rod Races activity that explores velocity and acceleration. Activities include directions for the use of TI-82 and TI-83 calculators. (YDS)

  13. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  14. Exploring the role of gender norms in nutrition and sexual health promotion in a piloted school-based intervention: The Philadelphia Ujima™ experience.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Ana; Robertson-James, Candace; Reels, Serita; Jeter, Janay; Rivera, Hilda; Yusuf, Zena; Liu

    2015-08-01

    Perceptions of masculinity and femininity influence behaviors and can be identified in young children and adolescents (Brannon, 2004). Thus, adolescents' engagement in health risk or promoting behaviors is influenced by perceptions of masculinity and femininity and the differences in expectations, norms and responsibilities for girls and boys (WHO, 2007). Girls and boys have different needs, and gender-based interventions that consider similarities as well as differences are needed. A gender-based nutrition and sexual health promotion program was developed and piloted by the Philadelphia Ujima Coalition in a high school setting. To explore the gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of the influence of gender norms on weight, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual health and the implication of these differences in future gender-integrated health promotion programming for youth, a content analysis of student and facilitator debriefing forms were implemented for the participating schools. The content analysis was used to identify central themes, concepts gained, and overall impact of the intervention sessions. Overall, gender norms influence healthy eating practices and activity through influencing perceptions of body type in adolescents. Gender norms also influence sexual activity and decision making through influencing perceptions of beauty, masculinity, femininity, pressures and popular concepts related to sexual activity. Thus, interventions that address gender may more effectively promote health and wellness in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consequences of Beauty: Effects of Rater Sex and Sexual Orientation on the Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Attractiveness in Real World Scenes.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Tinio, Pablo P L; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    One of the key behavioral effects of attractiveness is increased visual attention to attractive people. This effect is often explained in terms of evolutionary adaptations, such as attractiveness being an indicator of good health. Other factors could influence this effect. In the present study, we explored the modulating role of sexual orientation on the effects of attractiveness on exploratory visual behavior. Heterosexual and homosexual men and women viewed natural-looking scenes that depicted either two women or two men who varied systematically in levels of attractiveness (based on a pre-study). Participants' eye movements and attractiveness ratings toward the faces of the depicted people were recorded. The results showed that although attractiveness had the largest influence on participants' behaviors, participants' sexual orientations strongly modulated the effects. With the exception of homosexual women, all participant groups looked longer and more often at attractive faces that corresponded with their sexual orientations. Interestingly, heterosexual and homosexual men and homosexual women looked longer and more often at the less attractive face of their non-preferred sex than the less attractive face of their preferred sex, evidence that less attractive faces of the preferred sex might have an aversive character. These findings provide evidence for the important role that sexual orientation plays in guiding visual exploratory behavior and evaluations of the attractiveness of others.

  16. Consequences of Beauty: Effects of Rater Sex and Sexual Orientation on the Visual Exploration and Evaluation of Attractiveness in Real World Scenes

    PubMed Central

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    One of the key behavioral effects of attractiveness is increased visual attention to attractive people. This effect is often explained in terms of evolutionary adaptations, such as attractiveness being an indicator of good health. Other factors could influence this effect. In the present study, we explored the modulating role of sexual orientation on the effects of attractiveness on exploratory visual behavior. Heterosexual and homosexual men and women viewed natural-looking scenes that depicted either two women or two men who varied systematically in levels of attractiveness (based on a pre-study). Participants’ eye movements and attractiveness ratings toward the faces of the depicted people were recorded. The results showed that although attractiveness had the largest influence on participants’ behaviors, participants’ sexual orientations strongly modulated the effects. With the exception of homosexual women, all participant groups looked longer and more often at attractive faces that corresponded with their sexual orientations. Interestingly, heterosexual and homosexual men and homosexual women looked longer and more often at the less attractive face of their non-preferred sex than the less attractive face of their preferred sex, evidence that less attractive faces of the preferred sex might have an aversive character. These findings provide evidence for the important role that sexual orientation plays in guiding visual exploratory behavior and evaluations of the attractiveness of others. PMID:27047365

  17. Yaitya tirka madlanna warratinna: exploring what sexual health nurses need to know and do in order to meet the sexual health needs of young Aboriginal women in Adelaide.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Janet; Luxford, Yoni

    2007-07-01

    Young Aboriginal women are consistently identified as having poorer health outcomes and access to sexual health services than non-Indigenous Australians. Yet the literature is particularly silent on what sexual health nurses need to know and do in order to work well with young urban Aboriginal women. This paper reports on a qualitative pilot study undertaken by a non-Indigenous nurse in Adelaide. The participatory action research methods used in this study were sensitive to the history of problems associated with research in Aboriginal communities. A reference group of Elder Aboriginal women and Aboriginal health workers guided all aspects of the study. A partnership approach between the researcher and the Reference Group ensured that the methods, analysis, and final report were culturally safe. Three groups participated in this study: Elders and Aboriginal health workers; young Aboriginal women, and sexual health nurses. All participants acknowledged the importance of nurses being clinically competent. However, the overarching finding was a lack of a clear model of cultural care to guide health service delivery. Three interrelated themes emerged from the data to support this contention. These were: the structural and personal importance of establishing and maintaining trustworthy relationships between nurses, Aboriginal health workers and Elders; the recognition that Aboriginal culture does exist, and is important in urban areas; and the importance of gender considerations to understanding urban women's health business. A partnership approach was recommended as a way to use these findings to develop a transparent cultural model of care. Further research is currently being undertaken to progress this agenda.

  18. Multidimensional sexual perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N; Almeida, Isabel; Lyons, Emma

    2013-11-01

    Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality characteristic that can affect all areas of life. This article presents the first systematic investigation of multidimensional perfectionism in the domain of sexuality exploring the unique relationships that different forms of sexual perfectionism show with positive and negative aspects of sexuality. A sample of 272 university students (52 male, 220 female) completed measures of four forms of sexual perfectionism: self-oriented, partner-oriented, partner-prescribed, and socially prescribed. In addition, they completed measures of sexual esteem, sexual self-efficacy, sexual optimism, sex life satisfaction (capturing positive aspects of sexuality) and sexual problem self-blame, sexual anxiety, sexual depression, and negative sexual perfectionism cognitions during sex (capturing negative aspects). Results showed unique patterns of relationships for the four forms of sexual perfectionism, suggesting that partner-prescribed and socially prescribed sexual perfectionism are maladaptive forms of sexual perfectionism associated with negative aspects of sexuality whereas self-oriented and partner-oriented sexual perfectionism emerged as ambivalent forms associated with positive and negative aspects.

  19. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-11-01

    HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination

  20. BrdsNBz: A mixed methods study exploring adolescents' use of a sexual health text message service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    Sexual health text message services are becoming increasingly popular, but little is known about who uses such services and why. This project details the implementation of a campaign promoting a state-wide sexual health text message service that allows teens to text directly with a health educator and uses a mixed method design to assess who uses the service, what motivates use, and potential barriers to using the service. A theory of information seeking through text messaging is posited based on previous information seeking and communication theory and tested with adolescents. A social marketing campaign was created promoting a North Carolina sexual health text message service and conducted in six middle and high schools in the North Carolina Piedmont region in Fall 2012. More than 2000 students in four schools completed online questionnaires that assessed awareness of the service, perceptions, and use. Focus groups and in depth interviews were then conducted with middle and high school students. Results indicate teens who are sexually active and in relationships are more likely to use the service. A teens' level of uncertainty about sexual health influences affect, which in turn leads adolescents to assess various information options. Positive attitudes toward the service and credibility perceptions are direct predictors of intentions to use. Efficacy was found to be an indirect predictor, working through credibility perceptions to influence intentions to use. Although teens may have an interest in using the service, there are barriers associated with use. Survey findings and qualitative results indicate that teens are interested in using a sexual health text message service, but perceived costs, fear of parents finding out about service use, and a lack of understanding of how to use the service were barriers for some teens. This study has implications for sexual health text message services, especially those that allow teens to connect directly with a health

  1. HIV, Gender, Race, Sexual Orientation, and Sex Work: A Qualitative Study of Intersectional Stigma Experienced by HIV-Positive Women in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; James, LLana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. Methods and Findings We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). Conclusions HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being—as well as opportunities for coping—in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the

  2. Exploring the intention-behavior relationship in the prediction of sexual risk behaviors: can it be strengthened?

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Gidycz, Christine A

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical models examining health risk behaviors, such as sexual risk taking, assume intentions directly predict behavior, and intentions are sometimes measured as a proxy for behavior. Given that there is often a discrepancy between intentions and behaviors (e.g., Sheeran, 2002 ), this study addressed factors that predict intention-behavior congruence. Specifically, utilizing a prospective design, the goal of the study was to determine if characteristics of university students' last sexual encounter predicted whether those students who intended to use condoms, contraception, or dual methods did so in their last sexual encounter with both relationship and casual partners. The seven tested variables were condom planning and preparatory behaviors, mood, sexual arousal, substance use, perceived partner attractiveness, intention certainty, and intention stability. Data were collected from 520 American undergraduate students at a medium-sized university. The six discriminant function analyses examining the intention-behavior relationship were able to correctly classify between 74% and 92% of the participants concerning whether intenders engaged in safe sex behaviors. The variables that best discriminated between behavior engagement over the six analyses were intention stability, intention certainty, and engagement in condom preparatory behaviors. The implications of these results for sexual risk prevention and intervention research are discussed.

  3. Exploring the desires and sexual culture of men who have sex with male-to-female transgender women.

    PubMed

    Mauk, Daniel; Perry, Ashley; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2013-07-01

    Men who have sex with transgender women (MSTW) currently constitute a gap in the research community's understanding of male sexuality and sexual desire. In an effort to address this lack of knowledge, an ethnographic study of MSTW in New York City was conducted between December 2005 and May 2007, including in-depth interviews with MSTW (n = 15), key informant interviews (n = 13), and ethnographic observation of semi-private "tranny" parties held at various venues throughout New York City. The specific objectives were to: (1) describe the sex marketplaces and the sexual experiences of an ethnographic sample of MSTW in New York City and (2) describe the ways MSTW construct their sexual partnering practices and the meanings attributed to those practices in relation to varying social contexts (in and outside the sex marketplace). In this analysis, we described the MSTW sex market landscape in New York and identified three major recurrent themes in the ways that MSTW organized their sexual desire for TW transitioning from sex marketplaces to social spaces in their lives: (1) phallus-centric trade sex market focus; (2) relational-companionship market focus; and (3) specialized market focus. Although the findings from the study are not representative of the broader MSTW population, they represent an important step in amassing a body of knowledge about an understudied and underserved sex market upon which future research is needed.

  4. The influence of biological factors on students' sexual behaviour at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutinta, Given; Govender, Kaymarlin; George, Gavin; Gow, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Studies in South African universities reveal that the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour is very high, putting many students at high risk of HIV infection. This study explored the biological influences on students' sexual taking behaviour at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A qualitative approach was used, comprising a total of 80 in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions. These were conducted between late 2008 and early 2010. The research had equal representation of male and female students, different races, two campuses and different levels of study. Factors associated with students' sexual behaviour were identified. The data were analysed using thematic analysis, and the themes identified form the basis for discussion in this paper. Students' sexual behaviour was positively associated with the influence of a range of biological factors. Factors such as age, judgement of the health of the partner by looking at appearances, pursuit of physical beauty, sexual debut, sexual fit, and search for sexual pleasure encouraged students to engage in sexual behaviour. Most students are young and lack experience in assessing the influence of biological factors on their sexual behaviours, and need education on biological factors. This poses a big challenge to controlling students' sexual behaviour, especially if HIV and sexually transmitted diseases prevention interventions are to be successful.

  5. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  6. From “sugar daddies” to “sugar babies”: exploring a pathway between age-disparate sexual relationships, condom use, and adolescent pregnancy in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Toska, Elona; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark; Pantelic, Marija; Kuo, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancy has been linked to adverse outcomes for mothers and children. Most studies proposing potential risk pathways for adolescent pregnancy in South Africa are qualitative, hypothesizing links among age-disparate relationships, reduced condom use and higher pregnancy rates. No known South African studies have quantitatively explored pathways to adolescent pregnancy. Objectives This study aimed to: (i) identify which literature-hypothesized factors were associated with adolescent pregnancy and (ii) explore a hypothesized pathway of risk by assessing whether condom use mediated the relationship between age-disparate sexual relationships (defined as having ever had a sexual partner more than 5 years older than participants) and adolescent pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional survey in six urban and rural health districts of three South African provinces. 447 sexually-active girls aged 10–19 were interviewed. Analyses used multivariate logistic regressions controlling for confounders. Mediation tests were conducted using Hayes’ bootstrapping methodology. Results Consistent condom use (B=−2.148, OR=8.566, p ≤ 0.001) and school enrolment (B=−1.600, OR=0.202, p ≤ 0.001) were associated with lower rates of adolescent pregnancy. Engaging in age-disparate sex (B=1.093, OR=2.982, p ≤ 0.001) and long-term school absences (B=1.402, OR=4.061, p ≤ 0.001) were associated with higher rates of adolescent pregnancy. The indirect effect of engaging in age-disparate sex on adolescent pregnancy through condom use was significant, irrespective of age, age at sexual initiation, poverty and residential environment (B=0.4466, SE=0.1303, CI 0.2323–0.7428). Conclusion This multi-site cross-sectional survey supports qualitative hypotheses that girls’ inability to negotiate their partners’ condom use in age-disparate sexual relationships may drive adolescent pregnancy. Interventions addressing these relationships, facilitating condom use and

  7. Norming Suburban: How Teachers Talk about Race without Using Race Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about urban students and urban teaching. The author discusses some cultural aspects of these teachers' definitions of urban and points out their highlighting of race as an essential component of urban teaching. Even though race is rarely named, it is often at play in the teachers' descriptions of urban…

  8. Norming Suburban: How Teachers Talk about Race without Using Race Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dyan

    2012-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs about urban students and urban teaching. The author discusses some cultural aspects of these teachers' definitions of urban and points out their highlighting of race as an essential component of urban teaching. Even though race is rarely named, it is often at play in the teachers' descriptions of urban…

  9. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  10. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  11. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Tampons, Pads, ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Testicular Exams ...

  12. Exploring Predictors of Professional School Counselors' Ability to Accurately Recognize and Likelihood to Appropriately Report Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behun, Richard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors related to personal characteristics (i.e., level of moral reasoning and personal attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse) and professional characteristics (i.e., experience, and training) of the professional school counselor influencing ability to accurately recognize and likelihood to…

  13. Moral Judgments on Short-Term Sexual Behaviors among Chinese College Students: Exploring the Roles of Gender and Physical Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qianguo; Li, Aijuan; Zhu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study primarily investigated the effects of gender and physical attractiveness on moral judgments on three typical kinds of short-term sexual behaviors (short-term fling, one-night stand, and hookup) in the Chinese culture context. A total of 120 university student subjects were presented with a series of stereotypically physically attractive (versus physically unattractive) photos before they rated the extent to which each of the three short-term sexual behaviors are morally acceptable. The results showed that male students judged all three behaviors to be more morally acceptable than female students did. Further analyses showed that this gender difference was moderated by the level of physical attractiveness. Under the high attractiveness condition, short-term flings and hookups were judged more morally acceptable by male students than by female students, but this gender difference was not significant under the low attractiveness condition. However, with regard to one-night stands, the data showed that male students judged this type of behavior to be more morally acceptable than did female students under the low attractiveness condition, while this gender difference was not significant under the high attractiveness condition. Thus, these findings further our understanding of how Chinese young people view different types of short-term sexual behaviors, and provide novel evidence regarding how physical attractiveness influences people’s moral judgments on short-term sexual behaviors. PMID:28243218

  14. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  15. Through the Looking Glass: Exploring How College Students' Perceptions of the Police Influence Sexual Assault Victimization Reporting.

    PubMed

    James, Veronyka J; Lee, Daniel R

    2015-09-01

    Despite increased attention, education, and prevention programs, sexual assault of college students and underreporting of this victimization remain a pervasive problem. Previous research has examined factors influencing the reporting of crimes by the public to the police, the extent of sexual victimization on college campuses, sexual assault victimization reporting and/or disclosure (for both university victims and non-university victims), and perceptions of police by university students. However, there remains a dearth of research examining whether students' perceptions of police influence their decision to report victimization, in particular sexual assault victimization. The present study examined whether students' perceptions of police influence their decision to report victimization. Using data obtained from a survey of students attending a public university in Southwestern Pennsylvania, the current study examines factors that impact victimization reporting and whether perceptions of police influence victims' decision to report or not. The results of the analyses indicated that victimization reporting and satisfaction with the police were impacted by gender, and support was found for the proposition that perceptions of the police influence the likelihood to report victimization.

  16. Exploring Predictors of Professional School Counselors' Ability to Accurately Recognize and Likelihood to Appropriately Report Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behun, Richard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors related to personal characteristics (i.e., level of moral reasoning and personal attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse) and professional characteristics (i.e., experience, and training) of the professional school counselor influencing ability to accurately recognize and likelihood to…

  17. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  18. An Exploration of Therapists' Reactions to Working with Children Displaying Sexually Problematic Behaviour: A Thematic Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevade, Devayani; Norris, Emma; Swann, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Nine therapists were interviewed regarding their reactions to children displaying sexually problematic behaviour and how they managed these reactions. The framework of countertransference was used to understand therapists' reactions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The participants reported a wide range of powerful and…

  19. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…

  20. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…

  1. Moral Judgments on Short-Term Sexual Behaviors among Chinese College Students: Exploring the Roles of Gender and Physical Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qianguo; Li, Aijuan; Zhu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study primarily investigated the effects of gender and physical attractiveness on moral judgments on three typical kinds of short-term sexual behaviors (short-term fling, one-night stand, and hookup) in the Chinese culture context. A total of 120 university student subjects were presented with a series of stereotypically physically attractive (versus physically unattractive) photos before they rated the extent to which each of the three short-term sexual behaviors are morally acceptable. The results showed that male students judged all three behaviors to be more morally acceptable than female students did. Further analyses showed that this gender difference was moderated by the level of physical attractiveness. Under the high attractiveness condition, short-term flings and hookups were judged more morally acceptable by male students than by female students, but this gender difference was not significant under the low attractiveness condition. However, with regard to one-night stands, the data showed that male students judged this type of behavior to be more morally acceptable than did female students under the low attractiveness condition, while this gender difference was not significant under the high attractiveness condition. Thus, these findings further our understanding of how Chinese young people view different types of short-term sexual behaviors, and provide novel evidence regarding how physical attractiveness influences people's moral judgments on short-term sexual behaviors.

  2. An Exploration of Therapists' Reactions to Working with Children Displaying Sexually Problematic Behaviour: A Thematic Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shevade, Devayani; Norris, Emma; Swann, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Nine therapists were interviewed regarding their reactions to children displaying sexually problematic behaviour and how they managed these reactions. The framework of countertransference was used to understand therapists' reactions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The participants reported a wide range of powerful and…

  3. Black, queer, and looking for a job: an exploratory study of career decision making among self-identified sexual minorities at an urban historically black college/university.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latashia N

    2014-01-01

    This thematically analyzed study seeks to explore the career decision perceptions of sexual minority college students at an urban historically black college/university (HBCU). This qualitative focus group study delved into how sexual minorities feel their visible variables of race, gender expression, and degree of disclosure influence their career thought process. Theories relative to the study included Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision-making, gender role theory, racial socialization, Cass's homosexual identity model, and impression management. Though participants initially proclaimed they did not allow their sexual minority identity to affect their career decisions, their overall responses indicated otherwise.

  4. Yacht Race Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  5. 'Women are supposed to be the leaders': intersections of gender, race and colonisation in HIV prevention with Indigenous young people.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Vanessa; Flicker, Sarah; Danforth, Jessica; Konsmo, Erin; Wilson, Ciann; Jackson, Randy; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Prentice, Tracey; Larkin, June; Mitchell, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on gender, race and colonialism, this paper foregrounds the voices of Indigenous young people, their histories of oppression, their legacies of resistance and the continuing strengths rooted in Indigenous peoples, their cultures and their communities. Exploring the relationship between gender and colonialism, the paper speaks to the lived realities of young people from Indigenous communities across Canada. Over 85 young people participated in six different Indigenous community workshops to create artistic pieces that explored the connections between HIV, individual risk and structural inequalities. In the course of the research, Indigenous young people, and young Indigenous women in particular, talked about how gender intersects with race and colonisation to create experiences that are, at times, especially difficult for them. In this paper, young people discuss the ways in which colonialism has demeaned women's roles and degraded women's sexuality, and how continuing cultural erasure and assimilationist policies impact on their lives and on their bodies.

  6. Harassment Due to Gender Nonconformity Mediates the Association Between Sexual Minority Identity and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities.

  7. Trends in sexual orientation missing data over a decade of the California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Jans, Matt; Viana, Joseph; Grant, David; Cochran, Susan D; Lee, Annie C; Ponce, Ninez A

    2015-05-01

    We explored changes in sexual orientation question item completion in a large statewide health survey. We used 2003 to 2011 California Health Interview Survey data to investigate sexual orientation item nonresponse and sexual minority self-identification trends in a cross-sectional sample representing the noninstitutionalized California household population aged 18 to 70 years (n = 182 812 adults). Asians, Hispanics, limited-English-proficient respondents, and those interviewed in non-English languages showed the greatest declines in sexual orientation item nonresponse. Asian women, regardless of English-proficiency status, had the highest odds of item nonresponse. Spanish interviews produced more nonresponse than English interviews and Asian-language interviews produced less nonresponse when we controlled for demographic factors and survey cycle. Sexual minority self-identification increased in concert with the item nonresponse decline. Sexual orientation nonresponse declines and the increase in sexual minority identification suggest greater acceptability of sexual orientation assessment in surveys. Item nonresponse rate convergence among races/ethnicities, language proficiency groups, and interview languages shows that sexual orientation can be measured in surveys of diverse populations.

  8. "Did you come?" A qualitative exploration of gender differences in beliefs, experiences, and concerns regarding female orgasm occurrence during heterosexual sexual interactions.

    PubMed

    Salisbury, Claire M A; Fisher, William A

    2014-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in young adult heterosexual men's and women's experiences, beliefs, and concerns regarding the occurrence or nonoccurrence of orgasm during sexual interactions, with emphasis on the absence of female orgasm during intercourse. Qualitative reports were obtained from five female focus groups (N = 24, M age = 19.08) and five male focus groups (N = 21, M age = 19.29), involving three to five participants per group. Transcripts of the discussions were analyzed for emerging themes across focus group discussions. Results indicated that, for both male and female participants, the most common concern regarding lack of female orgasm in a partnered context focused on the negative impact this might have on the male partner's ego. Male and female participants also agreed that men have the physical responsibility to stimulate their female partner to orgasm, while women have the psychological responsibility of being mentally prepared to experience the orgasm. Men and women tended to maintain different beliefs, however, regarding clitoral stimulation during intercourse, as well as the importance of female orgasm for a woman's sexual satisfaction in a partnered context. Findings suggest foci for sexual education.

  9. Factors associated with access to sexual health services among teens in toronto: does immigration matter?

    PubMed

    Salehi, Roxana; Hynie, Michaela; Flicker, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    This manuscript explores predictors of access to sexual health services among urban immigrant adolescents who live in Toronto, Canada. Surveys (n = 1216) were collected from pre-existing youth groups in community settings. A binary logistic multivariate model was developed to examine associations between access to sexual health services and a series of individual, interpersonal, and structural variables. Sexual activity, age, race, and social resources each had significant partial impact on access to sexual health services. Among young women, those with more social resources had significantly accessed services more often than those with fewer resources, but among men there was no difference as a function of social resources. Although immigration predicted access to sexual health services on its own, it was not statistically significant in this model when other variables were included. Immigration status, in and of itself, was not a predictor of youth's access to sexual health services. The impact of immigration status appears to occur because of its association with other variables, such as race. Implications for practice are discussed.

  10. Vaginal Microbiome and Its Relationship to Behavior, Sexual Health, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Felicia M T; Bernstein, Kyle T; Aral, Sevgi O

    2017-04-01

    The vaginal microbiota has great significance in maintaining vaginal health and protecting the host from disease. Recent advances in molecular techniques and informatics allow researchers to explore microbial composition in detail and to compare the structure of vaginal microbial communities with behavior and health outcomes, particularly acquisition and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and poor birth outcomes. Vaginal flora have been found to cluster into a limited number of communities, although community structure is dynamic. Certain community types are more associated with poor reproductive outcomes and STDs; communities dominated by Lactobacillus species, particularly Lactobacillus crispatus, are most associated with vaginal health. Modifiable and nonmodifiable factors are strongly associated with community composition, including behavior, race or ethnicity, and hygiene. In this review, we describe the state of the science on the vaginal microbiome and its relationship to behavior, sexual health, and STDs, including determinants of the microbiome that go beyond an individual level.

  11. Becoming Sexual: Differences between Child and Adult Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothbaum, Fred; Grauer, Avery; Rubin, David J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores sexually oriented behaviors of children ages 3 to 5 to ascertain the range of children's sexually oriented behaviors, and reviews related studies to help parents and teachers address them. Finds that children's normal sexual behaviors comprise a broad spectrum. Provides a model for viewing children's sexuality and recommendations for…

  12. Identity Formation, Outness and Sexual Risk among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    White, Darcy; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Research on HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has focused on individual behavioral and biomedical factors driving transmission risks, but these cannot be fully understood without also understanding the social context within which sexual minorities live. Using data from 703 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, this study explores the factors associated with homosexual identity formation and disclosure (“outness”) and examines how these constructs are associated with sexual risk taking. In multivariable regression models, sexual identity and outness were associated with age, race, education, employment, and experience of discrimination. Independent of these factors, having a more established and open homosexual identity was associated with lower sexual risk behaviors. These results highlight the need to address discriminatory policies and values in society and call for programs to provide support and promote healthy identity development among vulnerable groups. PMID:23690365

  13. Identity formation, outness, and sexual risk among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    White, Darcy; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-03-01

    Research on HIV among men who have sex with men has focused on individual behavioral and biomedical factors driving transmission risks, but these cannot be fully understood without also understanding the social context within which sexual minorities live. Using data from 703 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, this study explores the factors associated with homosexual identity formation and disclosure ("outness") and examines how these constructs are associated with sexual risk taking. In multivariable regression models, sexual identity and outness were associated with age, race, education, employment, and experience of discrimination. Independent of these factors, having a more established and open homosexual identity was associated with lower sexual risk behaviors. These results highlight the need to address discriminatory policies and values in society and call for programs to provide support and promote healthy identity development among vulnerable groups.

  14. Increased substance use and risky sexual behavior among migratory homeless youth: exploring the role of social network composition.

    PubMed

    Martino, Steven C; Tucker, Joan S; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-12-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches.

  15. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches. PMID:21400037

  16. A qualitative analysis of partner selection, HIV serostatus disclosure, and sexual behaviors among HIV-positive urban men.

    PubMed

    Relf, Michael V; Bishop, Tammi L; Lachat, Maryanne F; Schiavone, Deborah B; Pawlowski, Lora; Bialko, Matthew F; Boozer, Diedre L; Dekker, Debra

    2009-06-01

    Using grounded theory, 18 interviews with HIV-positive urban men were conducted to understand their sexual relationships. Analysis of the verbatim transcripts revealed that regardless of age, sexual orientation or race/ethnicity, the participants were "making choices" related to their sexual relationships. Some men were "avoiding sex" whereas others were engaging in "just sex" or having sex in a relationship that was "going somewhere." However, dependent upon the type of sexual relationship, these HIV-positive urban men struggled with issues associated with "disclosure" of serostatus, the sexual "behaviors" in which they engaged, and selecting sexual "partners." Health care providers can facilitate sexual health and well-being among HIV-positive urban men by recognizing that men may be seeking sexual intimacy for different purposes, in different types of relationships, or avoiding it entirely. By exploring these decision-making processes, it is possible to facilitate sexual relationships that prevent new infections as well as manage the dissonance associated with this decision-making associated with disclosure, behaviors and their sexual partners.

  17. Sexual dysfunction among youth: an overlooked sexual health concern.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Caroline; Kågesten, Anna E; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-11-18

    There is growing recognition that youth sexual health entails a broad range of physical, emotional and psychosocial responses to sexual interactions, yet little is known about sexual dysfunctions and well being in youth populations. This study explored sexual dysfunctions among youth and its associations with other domains of sexual health. Sexual dysfunctions were defined as: problems related to orgasm, pain during intercourse, lack of sexual desire or sexual pleasure. Data were drawn from the 2010 French national sexual and reproductive health survey comprising a random sample of 2309 respondents aged 15-24 years. The current analysis included 842 females and 642 males who had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months. Chi square tests were used to test for differences in sexual dysfunctions by sex and explore associations with other domains of sexual health. Half of females (48%) reported at least one sexual dysfunction versus 23% of males. However, over half (57%) of youth reporting at least one dysfunction did not consider this to hinder their sexuality. Altogether, 31% of females cited at least one sexual dysfunction hindering their sexuality-more than three times the 9% of males. Sexual dysfunction was strongly and inversely related to sexual satisfaction for both males and females and additionally to a recent diagnosis of STI or unintended pregnancy for females. Sexual dysfunctions hindering sexuality were also correlated with a history of unintended pregnancy among males. While most youth in France enjoy a satisfying sexual life, sexual dysfunction is common, especially among females. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.

  18. Sexual dysfunction with antihypertensive drugs.

    PubMed

    Prisant, L M; Carr, A A; Bottini, P B; Solursh, D S; Solursh, L P

    1994-04-11

    The relationship of antihypertensive drugs have a long history of association with sexual dysfunction; however, this relationship is poorly documented. There appears to be a higher rate of sexual dysfunction in untreated hypertensive men compared with normotensive men. Sexual dysfunction increases with age and is associated with physical and emotional symptoms. There are few studies assessing sexual dysfunction with female and African-American hypertensive patients. Sexual dysfunction is associated with impairment of quality of life and noncompliance. Since group data may hide individual drug effects, baseline data should be collected on all patients before initiating therapy with any antihypertensive agent. Although questionnaires may not provide objective information on sexual dysfunction, the response rate to direct questioning may be less than the response rate on a questionnaire and may be affected by the gender or race of the interviewer. Research protocols using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design should assess sexual dysfunction in men and women in a standardized fashion.

  19. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  20. A Qualitative Exploration of Sexual Risk and HIV Testing Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beirut, Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Glenn J.; Aunon, Frances M.; Kaplan, Rachel L.; Rana, Yashodhara; Khouri, Danielle; Tohme, Johnny; Mokhbat, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) may account for most new HIV infections in Lebanon, yet little is known about the factors that influence sexual risk behavior and HIV testing in this population. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 MSM living in Beirut, and content analysis was used to identify emergent themes. Mean age of the participants was 28.4 years, and all identified as either gay (77%) or bisexual (23%). Half reported not using condoms consistently and one quarter had not been HIV-tested. Many described not using condoms with a regular partner in the context of a meaningful relationship, mutual HIV testing, and a desire to not use condoms, suggesting that trust, commitment and intimacy play a role in condom use decisions. Condoms were more likely to be used with casual partners, partners believed to be HIV-positive, and with partners met online where men found it easier to candidly discuss HIV risk. Fear of infection motivated many to get HIV tested and use condoms, but such affect also led some to avoid HIV testing in fear of disease and social stigma if found to be infected. Respondents who were very comfortable with their sexual orientation and who had disclosed their sexuality to family and parents tended to be more likely to use condoms consistently and be tested for HIV. These findings indicate that similar factors influence the condom use and HIV testing of MSM in Beirut as those observed in studies elsewhere of MSM; hence, prevention efforts in Lebanon can likely benefit from lessons learned and interventions developed in other regions, particularly for younger, gay-identified men. Further research is needed to determine how prevention efforts may need to be tailored to address the needs of men who are less integrated into or do not identify with the gay community. PMID:23029103