Science.gov

Sample records for exploring scientific datasets

  1. The new Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Besse, Sebastien; Heather, Dave; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime; ESDC (European Space Data Centre) team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more specialised views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will be also up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's ExoMars and upcoming BepiColombo missions. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). This contribution will introduce the new PSA, its key features and access interfaces.

  2. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  3. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  4. Dataset of Scientific Inquiry Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Ho, Chiung Ching

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the dataset collected from student interactions with INQPRO, a computer-based scientific inquiry learning environment. The dataset contains records of 100 students and is divided into two portions. The first portion comprises (1) "raw log data", capturing the student's name, interfaces visited, the interface…

  5. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  6. Proceedings: Fourth Workshop on Mining Scientific Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2001-07-24

    Commercial applications of data mining in areas such as e-commerce, market-basket analysis, text-mining, and web-mining have taken on a central focus in the JCDD community. However, there is a significant amount of innovative data mining work taking place in the context of scientific and engineering applications that is not well represented in the mainstream KDD conferences. For example, scientific data mining techniques are being developed and applied to diverse fields such as remote sensing, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, structural mechanics, computational fluid dynamics etc. In these areas, data mining frequently complements and enhances existing analysis methods based on statistics, exploratory data analysis, and domain-specific approaches. On the surface, it may appear that data from one scientific field, say genomics, is very different from another field, such as physics. However, despite their diversity, there is much that is common across the mining of scientific and engineering data. For example, techniques used to identify objects in images are very similar, regardless of whether the images came from a remote sensing application, a physics experiment, an astronomy observation, or a medical study. Further, with data mining being applied to new types of data, such as mesh data from scientific simulations, there is the opportunity to apply and extend data mining to new scientific domains. This one-day workshop brings together data miners analyzing science data and scientists from diverse fields to share their experiences, learn how techniques developed in one field can be applied in another, and better understand some of the newer techniques being developed in the KDD community. This is the fourth workshop on the topic of Mining Scientific Data sets; for information on earlier workshops, see http://www.ahpcrc.org/conferences/. This workshop continues the tradition of addressing challenging problems in a field where the diversity of applications is

  7. Asteroids in the EXPLORE II Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmoll, S.; Mallen-Ornelas, G.; Holman, M.

    2005-12-01

    The inner asteroid belt holds information about the solar system's history and future. The currently accepted theory of planet formation is that smaller rocky bodies collided and formed the planets of the inner solar system, and asteroids are relics of this past. Furthermore, near Earth objects that could potentially collide with us usually originate in the main belt. Determining the size distribution of the main-belt asteroids is key to unlocking the processes of planet formation and possible problems with near Earth objects. Here the EXtra Solar PLanet Occultation(EXPLORE) II data taken with the CFH12K mosaic CCD prime focus camera on the CFHT 3.6-m telescope are used to find the size distribution of main belt asteroids. The EXPLORE Project is an extrasolar planet detection survey that focuses on one patch of the sky per observing run. The resultant data have more observations per asteroid than any preceding deep asteroid search. Here a pipeline is presented to find the asteroids in this dataset, along with the other four EXPLORE datasets. This is done by processing the data with an image subtraction package called ISIS (Alard et al. 1997) and custom masking using IRAF. Asteroids are found using SExtractor (Bertin et al. 1996) and a set of custom C programs that detects moving objects in a series of images. Then light curves are created for each asteroid found. Sizes can be estimated based on the absolute magnitudes of the asteroids. We present absolute magnitudes and preliminary size distribution for the >52 asteroids found thus far. This Research was made possible by the NSF and SAO REU Program.

  8. Using bitmap index for interactive exploration of large datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Koegler, Wendy; Chen, Jacqueline; Shoshani, Arie

    2003-04-24

    Many scientific applications generate large spatio-temporal datasets. A common way of exploring these datasets is to identify and track regions of interest. Usually these regions are defined as contiguous sets of points whose attributes satisfy some user defined conditions, e.g. high temperature regions in a combustion simulation. At each time step, the regions of interest may be identified by first searching for all points that satisfy the conditions and then grouping the points into connected regions. To speed up this process, the searching step may use a tree based indexing scheme, such as a kd-tree or an octree. However, these indices are efficient only if the searches are limited to one or a small number of selected attributes. Scientific datasets often contain hundreds of attributes and scientists frequently study these attributes incomplex combinations, e.g. finding regions of high temperature yet low shear rate and pressure. Bitmap indexing is an efficient method for searching on multiple criteria simultaneously. We apply a bitmap compression scheme to reduce the size of the indices. In addition, we show that the compressed bitmaps can be used efficiently to perform the region growing and the region tracking operations. Analyses show that our approach scales well and our tests on two datasets from simulation of the auto ignition process show impressive performance.

  9. Advanced Aerobots for Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Raymond, Carol A.; Matthews, Janet B.; Nicaise, Fabien; Jones, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    The Picosat and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Systems Engineering (PAUSE) project is developing balloon-borne instrumentation systems as aerobots for scientific exploration of remote planets and for diverse terrestrial purposes that can include scientific exploration, mapping, and military surveillance. The underlying concept of balloon-borne gondolas housing outer-space-qualified scientific instruments and associated data-processing and radio-communication equipment is not new. Instead, the novelty lies in numerous design details that, taken together, make a PAUSE aerobot smaller, less expensive, and less massive, relative to prior aerobots developed for similar purposes: Whereas the gondola (including the instrumentation system housed in it) of a typical prior aerobot has a mass of hundreds of kilograms, the mass of the gondola (with instrumentation system) of a PAUSE aerobot is a few kilograms.

  10. Automatic run-time provenance capture for scientific dataset generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, J.; Slaughter, P.

    2008-12-01

    Provenance---the directed graph of a dataset's processing history---is difficult to capture effectively. Human- generated provenance, as narrative metadata, is labor-intensive and thus often incorrect, incomplete, or simply not recorded. Workflow systems capture some provenance implicitly in workflow specifications, but these systems are not ubiquitous or standardized, and a workflow specification may not capture all of the factors involved in a dataset's production. System audit trails capture potentially all processing activities, but not the relationships between them. We describe a system that transparently (i.e., without any modification to science codes) and automatically (i.e. without any human intervention) captures the low-level interactions (files read/written, parameters accessed, etc.) between scientific processes, and then synthesizes these relationships into a provenance graph. This system---the Earth System Science Server (ES3)---is sufficiently general that it can accommodate any combination of stand-alone programs, interpreted codes (e.g. IDL), and command- language scripts. Provenance in ES3 can be published in well-defined XML formats (including formats suitable for graphical visualization), and queried to determine the ancestors or descendants of any specific data file or process invocation. We demonstrate how ES3 can be used to capture the provenance of a large operational ocean color dataset.

  11. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug–drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called ‘AnnSim’ that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1–1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  12. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets.

    PubMed

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug-drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called 'AnnSim' that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1-1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/ PMID:25725057

  13. The Role of Datasets on Scientific Influence within Conflict Research.

    PubMed

    Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffery C; Moates, Shiloh; Carley, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving "conflict" in the Web of Science (WoS) over a 66-year period (1945-2011). We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA), a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works), to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed-such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957-1971 where ideas didn't persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993). The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1) Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2) Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3) We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography). Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped shape the

  14. The Role of Datasets on Scientific Influence within Conflict Research

    PubMed Central

    Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffery C.; Moates, Shiloh; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    We inductively tested if a coherent field of inquiry in human conflict research emerged in an analysis of published research involving “conflict” in the Web of Science (WoS) over a 66-year period (1945–2011). We created a citation network that linked the 62,504 WoS records and their cited literature. We performed a critical path analysis (CPA), a specialized social network analysis on this citation network (~1.5 million works), to highlight the main contributions in conflict research and to test if research on conflict has in fact evolved to represent a coherent field of inquiry. Out of this vast dataset, 49 academic works were highlighted by the CPA suggesting a coherent field of inquiry; which means that researchers in the field acknowledge seminal contributions and share a common knowledge base. Other conflict concepts that were also analyzed—such as interpersonal conflict or conflict among pharmaceuticals, for example, did not form their own CP. A single path formed, meaning that there was a cohesive set of ideas that built upon previous research. This is in contrast to a main path analysis of conflict from 1957–1971 where ideas didn’t persist in that multiple paths existed and died or emerged reflecting lack of scientific coherence (Carley, Hummon, and Harty, 1993). The critical path consisted of a number of key features: 1) Concepts that built throughout include the notion that resource availability drives conflict, which emerged in the 1960s-1990s and continued on until 2011. More recent intrastate studies that focused on inequalities emerged from interstate studies on the democracy of peace earlier on the path. 2) Recent research on the path focused on forecasting conflict, which depends on well-developed metrics and theories to model. 3) We used keyword analysis to independently show how the CP was topically linked (i.e., through democracy, modeling, resources, and geography). Publically available conflict datasets developed early on helped

  15. Scientific exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews efforts undertaken to explore the moon and the results obtained, noting that such efforts have involved a successful interdisciplinary approach to solving a number of scientific problems. Attention is given to the interactions of astronomers, cartographers, geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, physicists, mathematicians and engineers. Earth based remote sensing and unmanned spacecraft such as the Ranger and Surveyor programs are discussed. Emphasis is given to the manned Apollo missions and the results obtained. Finally, the information gathered by these missions is reviewed with regards to how it has increased understanding of the moon, and future exploration is considered.

  16. Scientific Datasets: Discovery and Aggregation for Semantic Interpretation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, L. A.; Scott, S.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Duerr, R.

    2015-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges that interdisciplinary researchers face is finding suitable datasets in order to advance their science; this problem remains consistent across multiple disciplines. A surprising number of scientists, when asked what tool they use for data discovery, reply "Google", which is an acceptable solution in some cases but not even Google can find -or cares to compile- all the data that's relevant for science and particularly geo sciences. If a dataset is not discoverable through a well known search provider it will remain dark data to the scientific world.For the past year, BCube, an EarthCube Building Block project, has been developing, testing and deploying a technology stack capable of data discovery at web-scale using the ultimate dataset: The Internet. This stack has 2 principal components, a web-scale crawling infrastructure and a semantic aggregator. The web-crawler is a modified version of Apache Nutch (the originator of Hadoop and other big data technologies) that has been improved and tailored for data and data service discovery. The second component is semantic aggregation, carried out by a python-based workflow that extracts valuable metadata and stores it in the form of triples through the use semantic technologies.While implementing the BCube stack we have run into several challenges such as a) scaling the project to cover big portions of the Internet at a reasonable cost, b) making sense of very diverse and non-homogeneous data, and lastly, c) extracting facts about these datasets using semantic technologies in order to make them usable for the geosciences community. Despite all these challenges we have proven that we can discover and characterize data that otherwise would have remained in the dark corners of the Internet. Having all this data indexed and 'triplelized' will enable scientists to access a trove of information relevant to their work in a more natural way. An important characteristic of the BCube stack is that all

  17. Clementine: Anticipated scientific datasets from the Moon and Geographos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine spacecraft mission is designed to test the performance of new lightweight and low-power detectors developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A secondary objective of the mission is to acquire useful scientific data, principally of the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid Geographos. The spacecraft will be in an elliptical polar orbit about the Moon for about 2 months beginning in February of 1994 and it will fly by Geographos on August 31. Clementine will carry seven detectors each weighing less than about 1 kg: two Star Trackers wide-angle uv/vis wide-angle Short Wavelength IR (SWIR) Long-Wavelength IR (LWIR) and LIDAR (Laser Image Detection And Ranging) narrow-angle imaging and ranging. Additional presentations about the mission detectors and related science issues are in this volume. If fully successful Clementine will return about 3 million lunar images, a dataset with nearly as many bits of data (uncompressed) as the first cycle of Magellan and more than 5000 images of Geographos. The complete and efficient analysis of such large data sets requires systematic processing efforts. Described below are concepts for two such efforts for the Clementine mission: global multispectral imaging of the Moon and videos of the Geographos flyby. Other anticipated datasets for which systematic processing might be desirable include multispectral observations of Earth; LIDAR altimetry of the Moon with high-resolution imaging along each ground track; high-resolution LIDAR color along each lunar ground track which could be used to identify potential titanium-rich deposits at scales of a few meters; and thermal IR imaging along each lunar ground track (including nighttime observations near the poles).

  18. Nanocubes for real-time exploration of spatiotemporal datasets.

    PubMed

    Lins, Lauro; Klosowski, James T; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Consider real-time exploration of large multidimensional spatiotemporal datasets with billions of entries, each defined by a location, a time, and other attributes. Are certain attributes correlated spatially or temporally? Are there trends or outliers in the data? Answering these questions requires aggregation over arbitrary regions of the domain and attributes of the data. Many relational databases implement the well-known data cube aggregation operation, which in a sense precomputes every possible aggregate query over the database. Data cubes are sometimes assumed to take a prohibitively large amount of space, and to consequently require disk storage. In contrast, we show how to construct a data cube that fits in a modern laptop's main memory, even for billions of entries; we call this data structure a nanocube. We present algorithms to compute and query a nanocube, and show how it can be used to generate well-known visual encodings such as heatmaps, histograms, and parallel coordinate plots. When compared to exact visualizations created by scanning an entire dataset, nanocube plots have bounded screen error across a variety of scales, thanks to a hierarchical structure in space and time. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique on a variety of real-world datasets, and present memory, timing, and network bandwidth measurements. We find that the timings for the queries in our examples are dominated by network and user-interaction latencies.

  19. The Scientific Exploration of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Fredric W.

    2014-12-01

    Part I. Views of Venus, from the Beginning to the Present Day: 1. The dawn of Venus exploration; 2. Mariner and Venera; 3. Pioneer Venus and Vega: orbiters, balloons and multi-probes; 4. Images of the surface; 5. The forgotten world; 6. Earth-based astronomy delivers a breakthrough; 7. Can't stop now; 8. Europe and Japan join in: Venus Express and Akatsuki; Part II. The Motivation to Continue the Quest: 9. Origin and evolution: the solid planet; 10. Atmosphere and ocean; 11. A volcanic world; 12. The mysterious clouds; 13. Superwinds and polar vortices; 14. The climate on Venus, past, present and future; 15. Could there be life on Venus?; Part III. Plans and Visions for the Future: 16. Solar system exploration; 17. Coming soon to a planet near you: planned Venus missions; 18. Towards the horizon: advanced technology; 19. Beyond the horizon: human expeditions; Epilogue; Appendix A. Chronology of space missions to Venus; Appendix B. Data about Venus.

  20. EpiExplorer: live exploration and global analysis of large epigenomic datasets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Epigenome mapping consortia are generating resources of tremendous value for studying epigenetic regulation. To maximize their utility and impact, new tools are needed that facilitate interactive analysis of epigenome datasets. Here we describe EpiExplorer, a web tool for exploring genome and epigenome data on a genomic scale. We demonstrate EpiExplorer's utility by describing a hypothesis-generating analysis of DNA hydroxymethylation in relation to public reference maps of the human epigenome. All EpiExplorer analyses are performed dynamically within seconds, using an efficient and versatile text indexing scheme that we introduce to bioinformatics. EpiExplorer is available at http://epiexplorer.mpi-inf.mpg.de. PMID:23034089

  1. The Scientific Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Fredric W.

    2009-12-01

    Part I. Views of Mars, From the Beginning to the Present Day: 1. The dawn of Mars exploration; 2. The first space missions to Mars; 3. After Viking: the 20-year hiatus; 4. The modern era; Part II. The Big Science: Motivation to Continue the Quest: 5. The origin and evolution of planet Mars; 6. The changing climate of Mars; 7. The search for life; Part III. Plans and Visions for the Future: 8. The future of the unmanned programme; 9. Towards human expeditions; 10. The first footfall on Mars; Appendixes; Index.

  2. Smallsats, Cubesats and Scientific Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Smallsats (including Cubesats) have taken off in the aerospace research community - moving beyond simple tools for undergraduate and graduate students and into the mainstream of science research. Cubesats started the "smallsat" trend back in the late 1990's early 2000's, with the first Cubesats launching in 2003. NASA anticipates a number of future benefits from small satellite missions, including lower costs, more rapid development, higher risk tolerance, and lower barriers to entry for universities and small businesses. The Agency's Space Technology Mission Directorate is currently addressing technology gaps in small satellite platforms, while the Science Mission Directorate pursues miniaturization of science instruments. Launch opportunities are managed through the Cubesat Launch Initiative, and the Agency manages these projects as sub-orbital payloads with little program overhead. In this session we bring together scientists and technologists to discuss the current state of the smallsat field. We explore ideas for new investments, new instruments, or new applications that NASA should be investing in to expand the utility of smallsats. We discuss the status of a NASA-directed NRC study on the utility of small satellites. Looking to the future, what does NASA need to invest in now, to enable high impact ("decadal survey" level) science with smallsats? How do we push the envelope? We anticipate smallsats will contribute significantly to a more robust exploration and science program for NASA and the country.

  3. Scientific Balloons for Venus Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutts, James; Yavrouian, Andre; Nott, Julian; Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Wilson, Colin; Kerzhanovich, Viktor; Voss, Paul; Hall, Jeffery

    Almost 30 years ago, two balloons were successfully deployed into the atmosphere of Venus as an element of the VeGa - Venus Halley mission conducted by the Soviet Union. As interest in further Venus exploration grows among the established planetary exploration agencies - in Europe, Japan, Russia and the United States, use of balloons is emerging as an essential part of that investigative program. Venus balloons have been proposed in NASA’s Discovery program and ESA’s cosmic vision program and are a key element in NASA’s strategic plan for Venus exploration. At JPL, the focus for the last decade has been on the development of a 7m diameter superpressure pressure(twice that of VeGa) capable of carrying a 100 kg payload (14 times that of VeGA balloons), operating for more than 30 days (15 times the 2 day flight duration of the VeGa balloons) and transmitting up to 20 Mbit of data (300 times that of VeGa balloons). This new generation of balloons must tolerate day night transitions on Venus as well as extended exposure to the sulfuric acid environment. These constant altitude balloons operating at an altitude of about 55 km on Venus where temperatures are benign can also deploy sondes to sound the atmosphere beneath the probe and deliver deep sondes equipped to survive and operate down to the surface. The technology for these balloons is now maturing rapidly and we are now looking forward to the prospects for altitude control balloons that can cycle repeatedly through the Venus cloud region. One concept, which has been used for tropospheric profiling in Antarctica, is the pumped-helium balloon, with heritage to the anchor balloon, and would be best adapted for flight above the 55 km level. Phase change balloons, which use the atmosphere as a heat engine, can be used to investigate the lower cloud region down to 30 km. Progress in components for high temperature operation may also enable investigation of the deep atmosphere of Venus with metal-based balloons.

  4. Unified Access Architecture for Large-Scale Scientific Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Risav

    2014-05-01

    Data-intensive sciences have to deploy diverse large scale database technologies for data analytics as scientists have now been dealing with much larger volume than ever before. While array databases have bridged many gaps between the needs of data-intensive research fields and DBMS technologies (Zhang 2011), invocation of other big data tools accompanying these databases is still manual and separate the database management's interface. We identify this as an architectural challenge that will increasingly complicate the user's work flow owing to the growing number of useful but isolated and niche database tools. Such use of data analysis tools in effect leaves the burden on the user's end to synchronize the results from other data manipulation analysis tools with the database management system. To this end, we propose a unified access interface for using big data tools within large scale scientific array database using the database queries themselves to embed foreign routines belonging to the big data tools. Such an invocation of foreign data manipulation routines inside a query into a database can be made possible through a user-defined function (UDF). UDFs that allow such levels of freedom as to call modules from another language and interface back and forth between the query body and the side-loaded functions would be needed for this purpose. For the purpose of this research we attempt coupling of four widely used tools Hadoop (hadoop1), Matlab (matlab1), R (r1) and ScaLAPACK (scalapack1) with UDF feature of rasdaman (Baumann 98), an array-based data manager, for investigating this concept. The native array data model used by an array-based data manager provides compact data storage and high performance operations on ordered data such as spatial data, temporal data, and matrix-based data for linear algebra operations (scidbusr1). Performances issues arising due to coupling of tools with different paradigms, niche functionalities, separate processes and output

  5. Salt Crystals: Exploring the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John; Villanueva, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students apply the scientific method as they explore each step of crystal growing. Students select variables, record daily observations, and participate in discussions about the differences in crystal formation. Crystal recipe and procedures are provided. (DDR)

  6. Let's Find out! Preschoolers as Scientific Explorers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Scientific Explorers both tall and small, ask questions about objects, living things, and events that interest or puzzle them. They seek answers by examining the world in specific ways that allow them to understand more about it. Young children are often described as natural scientists. They earn this description because they engage in many of the…

  7. Apollo scientific exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental dichotomy of space exploration, unmanned versus manned projects, is discussed from an historical perspective. The integration of science into Apollo operations is examined with attention given to landing sites, extending the missions, and crew selection. A Science Working Group composed of scientists and Manned Spacecraft Center flight planners was formed in an attempt to produce the most scientific information possible within those operational limits that were considered absolutely inviolable.

  8. Manned flight and planetary scientific exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Human explorers had a fundamental role in the success of the APOLLO moon programme, they were at the same time the indispensable pilots, scientific operators and on the last missions lead scientists. Since, man did not either return to the moon or land on Mars but manned operation centres on the earth are now conducting extensive telescience on both celestial bodies. Manned flights to moon, Mars and asteroids are however still on the agenda and even if the main drive of these projects is outside science, it is to the planetary scientists to both prepare the data bases necessary for these flights and to ensure that the scientific advantage of conducting research in real time and in situ is exploited to the maximum. The current manned flight programme in Europe concentrates on the use of the International Space Station, the scientific activities can be roughly divided between the pressurized payloads and the external payloads. Technology developments occur also in parallel and prepare new exploration techniques. The current planning leads to exploitation up to 2020 but the space agencies study further extensions, the date of 2028 having already been considered. The relation of these programmes to future manned planetary exploration will be described both from the science and development point of view. The complementary role of astronauts and ground operation centres will be described on the basis of the current experience of operation centres managing the International Space Station. Finally, the NASA ORION project of exploration in the solar system will be described with emphasis on its current European participations. The science opportunities presented by independent ventures as Inspiration Mars or Mars One will be presented.

  9. Scientific field training for human planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Warman, G. L.; Gernhardt, M. L.; McKay, C. P.; Fong, T.; Marinova, M. M.; Davila, A. F.; Andersen, D.; Brady, A. L.; Cardman, Z.; Cowie, B.; Delaney, M. D.; Fairén, A. G.; Forrest, A. L.; Heaton, J.; Laval, B. E.; Arnold, R.; Nuytten, P.; Osinski, G.; Reay, M.; Reid, D.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Shepard, R.; Slater, G. F.; Williams, D.

    2010-05-01

    Forthcoming human planetary exploration will require increased scientific return (both in real time and post-mission), longer surface stays, greater geographical coverage, longer and more frequent EVAs, and more operational complexities than during the Apollo missions. As such, there is a need to shift the nature of astronauts' scientific capabilities to something akin to an experienced terrestrial field scientist. To achieve this aim, the authors present a case that astronaut training should include an Apollo-style curriculum based on traditional field school experiences, as well as full immersion in field science programs. Herein we propose four Learning Design Principles (LDPs) focused on optimizing astronaut learning in field science settings. The LDPs are as follows: LDP#1: Provide multiple experiences: varied field science activities will hone astronauts' abilities to adapt to novel scientific opportunities LDP#2: Focus on the learner: fostering intrinsic motivation will orient astronauts towards continuous informal learning and a quest for mastery LDP#3: Provide a relevant experience - the field site: field sites that share features with future planetary missions will increase the likelihood that astronauts will successfully transfer learning LDP#4: Provide a social learning experience - the field science team and their activities: ensuring the field team includes members of varying levels of experience engaged in opportunities for discourse and joint problem solving will facilitate astronauts' abilities to think and perform like a field scientist. The proposed training program focuses on the intellectual and technical aspects of field science, as well as the cognitive manner in which field scientists experience, observe and synthesize their environment. The goal of the latter is to help astronauts develop the thought patterns and mechanics of an effective field scientist, thereby providing a broader base of experience and expertise than could be achieved

  10. Scientific rationale for Saturn's in situ exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Fletcher, L. N.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Wurz, P.; Cavalié, T.; Coustenis, A.; Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Helled, R.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Morse, A. D.; Nettelmann, N.; Marty, B.; Rousselot, P.; Venot, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Waite, J. H.; Reh, K. R.; Simon, A. A.; Atreya, S.; André, N.; Blanc, M.; Daglis, I. A.; Fischer, G.; Geppert, W. D.; Guillot, T.; Hedman, M. M.; Hueso, R.; Lellouch, E.; Lunine, J. I.; Murray, C. D.; O`Donoghue, J.; Rengel, M.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Schmider, F.-X.; Spiga, A.; Spilker, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ali-Dib, M.; Altwegg, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Bouquet, A.; Briois, C.; Fouchet, T.; Guerlet, S.; Kostiuk, T.; Lebleu, D.; Moreno, R.; Orton, G. S.; Poncy, J.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing observations meet some limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as the determination of the noble gases' abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. This paper describes the main scientific goals to be addressed by the future in situ exploration of Saturn placing the Galileo probe exploration of Jupiter in a broader context and before the future probe exploration of the more remote ice giants. In situ exploration of Saturn's atmosphere addresses two broad themes that are discussed throughout this paper: first, the formation history of our solar system and second, the processes at play in planetary atmospheres. In this context, we detail the reasons why measurements of Saturn's bulk elemental and isotopic composition would place important constraints on the volatile reservoirs in the protosolar nebula. We also show that the in situ measurement of CO (or any other disequilibrium species that is depleted by reaction with water) in Saturn's upper troposphere may help constraining its bulk O/H ratio. We compare predictions of Jupiter and Saturn's bulk compositions from different formation scenarios, and highlight the key measurements required to distinguish competing theories to shed light on giant planet formation as a common process in planetary systems with potential applications to most extrasolar systems. In situ measurements of Saturn's stratospheric and tropospheric dynamics, chemistry and cloud-forming processes will provide access to phenomena unreachable to remote sensing studies. Different mission architectures are envisaged, which would benefit from strong international collaborations, all based on an entry probe that would descend

  11. VisIVO: A Library and Integrated Tools for Large Astrophysical Dataset Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becciani, U.; Costa, A.; Ersotelos, N.; Krokos, M.; Massimino, P.; Petta, C.; Vitello, F.

    2012-09-01

    VisIVO provides an integrated suite of tools and services that can be used in many scientific fields. VisIVO development starts in the Virtual Observatory framework. VisIVO allows users to visualize meaningfully highly-complex, large-scale datasets and create movies of these visualizations based on distributed infrastructures. VisIVO supports high-performance, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale astrophysical datasets. Users can rapidly obtain meaningful visualizations while preserving full and intuitive control of the relevant parameters. VisIVO consists of VisIVO Desktop - a stand-alone application for interactive visualization on standard PCs, VisIVO Server - a platform for high performance visualization, VisIVO Web - a custom designed web portal, VisIVOSmartphone - an application to exploit the VisIVO Server functionality and the latest VisIVO features: VisIVO Library allows a job running on a computational system (grid, HPC, etc.) to produce movies directly with the code internal data arrays without the need to produce intermediate files. This is particularly important when running on large computational facilities, where the user wants to have a look at the results during the data production phase. For example, in grid computing facilities, images can be produced directly in the grid catalogue while the user code is running in a system that cannot be directly accessed by the user (a worker node). The deployment of VisIVO on the DG and gLite is carried out with the support of EDGI and EGI-Inspire projects. Depending on the structure and size of datasets under consideration, the data exploration process could take several hours of CPU for creating customized views and the production of movies could potentially last several days. For this reason an MPI parallel version of VisIVO could play a fundamental role in increasing performance, e.g. it could be automatically deployed on nodes that are MPI aware. A central concept in our development is thus to

  12. Accelerating the scientific exploration process with scientific workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ilkay; Barney, Oscar; Cheng, Zhengang; Critchlow, Terence; Ludaescher, Bertram; Parker, Steve; Shoshani, Arie; Vouk, Mladen

    2006-09-01

    Although an increasing amount of middleware has emerged in the last few years to achieve remote data access, distributed job execution, and data management, orchestrating these technologies with minimal overhead still remains a difficult task for scientists. Scientific workflow systems improve this situation by creating interfaces to a variety of technologies and automating the execution and monitoring of the workflows. Workflow systems provide domain-independent customizable interfaces and tools that combine different tools and technologies along with efficient methods for using them. As simulations and experiments move into the petascale regime, the orchestration of long running data and compute intensive tasks is becoming a major requirement for the successful steering and completion of scientific investigations. A scientific workflow is the process of combining data and processes into a configurable, structured set of steps that implement semi-automated computational solutions of a scientific problem. Kepler is a cross-project collaboration, co-founded by the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center, whose purpose is to develop a domain-independent scientific workflow system. It provides a workflow environment in which scientists design and execute scientific workflows by specifying the desired sequence of computational actions and the appropriate data flow, including required data transformations, between these steps. Currently deployed workflows range from local analytical pipelines to distributed, high-performance and high-throughput applications, which can be both data- and compute-intensive. The scientific workflow approach offers a number of advantages over traditional scripting-based approaches, including ease of configuration, improved reusability and maintenance of workflows and components (called actors), automated provenance management, ''smart'' re-running of different versions of workflow instances, on-the-fly updateable parameters

  13. SciSpark's SRDD : A Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset for Multidimensional Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamuttam, R. S.; Wilson, B. D.; Mogrovejo, R. M.; Whitehall, K. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; McGibbney, L. J.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We have developed SciSpark, a robust Big Data framework, that extends ApacheTM Spark for scaling scientific computations. Apache Spark improves the map-reduce implementation in ApacheTM Hadoop for parallel computing on a cluster, by emphasizing in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and relying on lazy evaluation. Central to Spark is the Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD), an in-memory distributed data structure that extends the functional paradigm provided by the Scala programming language. However, RDDs are ideal for tabular or unstructured data, and not for highly dimensional data. The SciSpark project introduces the Scientific Resilient Distributed Dataset (sRDD), a distributed-computing array structure which supports iterative scientific algorithms for multidimensional data. SciSpark processes data stored in NetCDF and HDF files by partitioning them across time or space and distributing the partitions among a cluster of compute nodes. We show usability and extensibility of SciSpark by implementing distributed algorithms for geospatial operations on large collections of multi-dimensional grids. In particular we address the problem of scaling an automated method for finding Mesoscale Convective Complexes. SciSpark provides a tensor interface to support the pluggability of different matrix libraries. We evaluate performance of the various matrix libraries in distributed pipelines, such as Nd4jTM and BreezeTM. We detail the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from model grids. These

  14. Leveraging Domain Knowledge to Facilitate Visual Exploration of Large Population Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, William; Bui, Alex A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Observational patient data provides an unprecedented opportunity to gleam new insights into diseases and assess patient quality of care, but a challenge lies in matching our ability to collect data with a comparable ability to understand and apply this information. Visual analytic techniques are promising as they permit the exploration and manipulation of complex datasets through a graphical user interface. Nevertheless, current visualization tools rely on users to manually configure which aspects of the dataset are shown and how they are presented. In this paper, we describe an approach that utilizes characteristics of the data and domain knowledge to assist users with summarizing the information space of a large population. We present a representation that captures contextual information about the data and constructs that operate on this information to tailor the data’s presentation. We describe a use case of this approach in exploring a claims dataset of individuals with spinal dysraphism. PMID:24551363

  15. Ice-Penetrating Robot for Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Carsey, Frank; French, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    The cryo-hydro integrated robotic penetrator system (CHIRPS) is a partially developed instrumentation system that includes a probe designed to deeply penetrate the European ice sheet in a search for signs of life. The CHIRPS could also be used on Earth for similar exploration of the polar ice caps especially at Lake Vostok in Antarctica. The CHIRPS probe advances downward by a combination of simple melting of ice (typically for upper, non-compacted layers of an ice sheet) or by a combination of melting of ice and pumping of meltwater (typically, for deeper, compacted layers). The heat and electric power for melting, pumping, and operating all of the onboard instrumentation and electronic circuitry are supplied by radioisotope power sources (RPSs) and thermoelectric converters energized by the RPSs. The instrumentation and electronic circuitry includes miniature guidance and control sensors and an advanced autonomous control system that has fault-management capabilities. The CHIRPS probe is about 1 m long and 15 cm in diameter. The RPSs generate a total thermal power of 1.8 kW. Initially, as this power melts the surrounding ice, a meltwater jacket about 1 mm thick forms around the probe. The center of gravity of the probe is well forward (down), so that the probe is vertically stabilized like a pendulum. Heat is circulated to the nose by means of miniature pumps and heat pipes. The probe melts ice to advance in a step-wise manner: Heat is applied to the nose to open up a melt void, then heat is applied to the side to allow the probe to slip down into the melt void. The melt void behind the probe is allowed to re-freeze. Four quadrant heaters on the nose and another four quadrant heaters on the rear (upper) surface of the probe are individually controllable for steering: Turning on two adjacent nose heaters on the nose and two adjacent heaters on the opposite side at the rear causes melt voids to form on opposing sides, such that the probe descends at an angle from

  16. Sciologer: Visualizing and Exploring Scientific Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bales, Michael Eliot

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognized need to increase interdisciplinary collaboration, there are few information resources available to provide researchers with an overview of scientific communities--topics under investigation by various groups, and patterns of collaboration among groups. The tools that are available are designed for expert social network…

  17. NOAA Ocean Exploration 2003: A Scientific Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    A little over three years ago, a panel of leading ocean scientists, explorers, and educators developed a national strategy for ocean exploration. Their report, "Discovering Earth's Final Frontier: A U.S. Strategy for Ocean Exploration," opened the door to a new way of thinking about ocean exploration and inspired the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to embark on a mission to expand knowledge and appreciation of the ocean. This year, in collaboration with over 100 partners including university, international, federal, state and tribal science agencies, private research and outreach organizations, civic groups, aquariums and museums, NOAA engaged in major multidisciplinary expeditions and multiple projects around the world aimed at mapping the ocean in new ways, understanding ocean interactions, developing sensors and tools, and reaching out in new ways to stakeholders to communicate findings. Expeditions and projects undertaken this year continued to build on inaugural work in 2001 and 2002 and continue to set a precedent for high quality discovery-based ocean research and exploration. This presentation will focus on expedition highlights and future program directions.

  18. Space exploration - Scientific and technological aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's current plans for solar system exploration are summarized, focusing on the robotic missions planned for the next decade. The areas in which these mission engage the legal community as regards planetary protection, launch and use in space of nuclear materials, and possession of planetary resources by telepresence are considered.

  19. ConTour: Data-Driven Exploration of Multi-Relational Datasets for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Partl, Christian; Lex, Alexander; Streit, Marc; Strobelt, Hendrik; Wassermann, Anne-Mai; Pfister, Hanspeter; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Large scale data analysis is nowadays a crucial part of drug discovery. Biologists and chemists need to quickly explore and evaluate potentially effective yet safe compounds based on many datasets that are in relationship with each other. However, there is a lack of tools that support them in these processes. To remedy this, we developed ConTour, an interactive visual analytics technique that enables the exploration of these complex, multi-relational datasets. At its core ConTour lists all items of each dataset in a column. Relationships between the columns are revealed through interaction: selecting one or multiple items in one column highlights and re-sorts the items in other columns. Filters based on relationships enable drilling down into the large data space. To identify interesting items in the first place, ConTour employs advanced sorting strategies, including strategies based on connectivity strength and uniqueness, as well as sorting based on item attributes. ConTour also introduces interactive nesting of columns, a powerful method to show the related items of a child column for each item in the parent column. Within the columns, ConTour shows rich attribute data about the items as well as information about the connection strengths to other datasets. Finally, ConTour provides a number of detail views, which can show items from multiple datasets and their associated data at the same time. We demonstrate the utility of our system in case studies conducted with a team of chemical biologists, who investigate the effects of chemical compounds on cells and need to understand the underlying mechanisms.

  20. Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise: The Scientific Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Carl

    1973-01-01

    Presents examples which illustrate the importance of space exploration in diverse aspects of scientific knowledge. Indicates that human beings are today not wise enough to anticipate the practical benefits of planetary studies. (CC)

  1. The Role of the Spacecraft Operator in Scientific Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, S. G.

    2011-03-01

    Pilot and flight engineer crew members can improve scientific exploration missions and effectively support field work that they may not understand by contributing leadership, teamwork, communication, and operational thinking skills.

  2. Exploring Venus: Major scientific issues and directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Cravens, Thomas E.

    Venus has been a prime target of space exploration since the launch of Venera-1 in 1961. In 1962, Mariner 2 determined that the surface of Venus is hot, providing the first confirmation of its immense greenhouse effect. Venus has now been visited by numerous flybys, orbiters, atmospheric probes, landers, and balloons! Magellan's radar pierced the planet-encircling clouds to provide a global map of the Venus surface. Table 1 lists the chronology of Venus missions. Despite the numerous missions, the Venus environment provides a difficult target, and many significant questions remain unanswered. The state of current knowledge, the open questions, and ways to address them are discussed in the following chapters.

  3. Scientific objectives of human exploration of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    While human exploration of Mars is unlikely to be undertaken for science reasons alone, science will be the main beneficiary. A wide range of science problems can be addressed at Mars. The planet formed in a different part of the solar system from the Earth and retains clues concerning compositional and environmental conditions in that part of the solar system when the planets formed. Mars has had a long and complex history that has involved almost as wide a range of processes as occurred on Earth. Elucidation of this history will require a comprehensive program of field mapping, geophysical sounding, in situ analyses, and return of samples to Earth that are representative of the planet's diversity. The origin and evolution of the Mars' atmosphere are very different from the Earth's, Mars having experienced major secular and cyclical changes in climate. Clues as to precisely how the atmosphere has evolved are embedded in its present chemistry, possibly in surface sinks of former atmosphere-forming volatiles, and in the various products of interaction between the atmosphere and surface. The present atmosphere also provides a means of testing general circulation models applicable to all planets. Although life is unlikely to be still extant on Mars, life may have started early in the planet's history. A major goal of any future exploration will, therefore, be to search for evidence of indigenous life.

  4. Future scientific exploration of Taurus-Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 site was surveyed with great skill and the collected samples have been studied thoroughly (but not completely) in the 20 years since. Ironically, the success of the field and sample studies makes the site an excellent candidate for a return mission. Rather than solving all the problems, the Apollo 17 mission provided a set of sophisticated questions that can be answered only by returning to the site and exploring further. This paper addresses the major unsolved problems in lunar science and points out the units at the Apollo 17 site that are most suitable for addressing each problem. It then discusses how crucial data can be obtained by robotic rovers and human field work. I conclude that, in general, the most important information can be obtained only by human exploration. The paper ends with some guesses about what we could have learned at the Apollo 17 site from a fairly sophisticated rover capable of in situ analyses, instead of sending people.

  5. Scientific preparations for lunar exploration with the European Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Houdou, B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent Lunar missions and new scientific results in multiple disciplines have shown that working and operating in the complex lunar environment and exploiting the Moon as a platform for scientific research and further exploration poses major challenges. Underlying these challenges are fundamental scientific unknowns regarding the Moon's surface, its environment, the effects of this environment and the availability of potential resources. The European Lunar Lander is a mission proposed by the European Space Agency to prepare for future exploration. The mission provides an opportunity to address some of these key unknowns and provide information of importance for future exploration activities. Areas of particular interest for investigation on the Lunar Lander include the integrated plasma, dust, charge and radiation environment and its effects, the properties of lunar dust and its physical effects on systems and physiological effects on humans, the availability, distribution and potential application of in situ resources for future exploration. A model payload has then been derived, taking these objectives to account and considering potential payloads proposed through a request for information, and the mission's boundary conditions. While exploration preparation has driven the definition there is a significant synergy with investigations associated with fundamental scientific questions. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission, which emphasise human exploration preparatory science and introduces the model scientific payload considered as part of the on-going mission studies, in advance of a formal instrument selection.

  6. Future Visions for Scientific Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, James

    2005-01-01

    Today, humans explore deep-space locations such as Mars, asteroids, and beyond, vicariously here on Earth, with noteworthy success. However, to achieve the revolutionary breakthroughs that have punctuated the history of science since the dawn of the Space Age has always required humans as "the discoverers," as Daniel Boorstin contends in this book of the same name. During Apollo 17, human explorers on the lunar surface discovered the "genesis rock," orange glass, and humans in space revamped the optically crippled Hubble Space Telescope to enable some of the greatest astronomical discoveries of all time. Science-driven human exploration is about developing the opportunities for such events, perhaps associated with challenging problems such as whether we can identify life beyond Earth within the universe. At issue, however, is how to safely insert humans and the spaceflight systems required to allow humans to operate as they do best in the hostile environment of deep space. The first issue is minimizing the problems associated with human adaptation to the most challenging aspects of deep space space radiation and microgravity (or non-Earth gravity). One solution path is to develop technologies that allow for minimization of the exposure time of people to deep space, as was accomplished in Apollo. For a mission to the planet Mars, this might entail new technological solutions for in-space propulsion that would make possible time-minimized transfers to and from Mars. The problem of rapid, reliable in-space transportation is challenged by the celestial mechanics of moving in space and the so-called "rocket equation." To travel to Mars from Earth in less than the time fuel-minimizing trajectories allow (i.e., Hohmann transfers) requires an exponential increase in the amount of fuel. Thus, month-long transits would require a mass of fuel as large as the dry mass of the ISS, assuming the existence of continuous acceleration engines. This raises the largest technological

  7. The Nature and Assessment of Scientific Explorations in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, J. R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The development of scientific explorations in schools and a framework for their assessment within the context of Britain's Graded Assessment in Science Project (GASP) scheme is described. The criteria for assessing the planning, implementing, concluding, and evaluating of explorations are provided. (KR)

  8. PhotoCloud: Interactive remote exploration of joint 2D and 3D datasets.

    PubMed

    Brivio, Paolo; Benedetti, Luca; Tarini, Marco; Ponchio, Federico; Cignoni, Paolo; Scopigno, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    PhotoCloud is a real-time client-server system for interactive visualization and exploration of large datasets comprising thousands of calibrated 2D photographs of a scene and a complex 3D description of the scene. The system isn't tailored to any specific data acquisition process; it aims at generality and flexibility. PhotoCloud achieves scalability through a multiresolution dynamic hierarchical representation of the data, which is remotely stored and accessed by the client through an efficient cache system. The system includes a compact image browser and a multiresolution model renderer. PhotoCloud employs iconic visualization of the images in the 3D space and projects images onto the 3D scene on the fly. Users can navigate the 2D and 3D spaces with smooth, integrated, seamless transitions between them. A study with differently skilled users confirms PhotoCloud's effectiveness and communication power. The Web extras at http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLHJB2bhmgB7cmYD0ST9CEDMRv1JlX4xPH are videos demonstrating PhotoCloud, a real-time client-server system for interactive exploration of large datasets comprising 2D photos and 3D models.

  9. Evaluating Techniques for Interactive Exploration and Visualization of Large Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, T.; Pineau, F.-X.; Blegean, J.

    2015-09-01

    As large surveys of hundreds millions of objects are common, helping users locating their data subset of interest through interactive exploration and visualization is becoming a challenge of major concern. In this paper, we present two prototypes we developed to tackle this issue. Using Datavore and D3, we developed a pure-Javascript SPLOM (scatter plot matrix) visualizer taking a VOTable as an input. Linked views allow one to distinguish correlations between displayed attributes. This approach works well until 50k-100k objects, but does not scale beyond because of browsers limitations. For larger datasets, we adapted the Nanocubes datastructure initially created by AT&T Research for interactive visualization of spatial-temporal datasets. Our version, developed in Java, allows fast interactive visualization of a catalogue with hundred million rows for a few attributes. HiPS (Hierarchical Progressive Surveys) heatmaps are dynamically generated according to selected criteria and displayed in Aladin Lite. Eventually, we will discuss the benefits and limitations of these approaches, explore possible improvements and describe how these techniques might be integrated in existing CDS services.

  10. Language, Space, Time: Anthropological Tools and Scientific Exploration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the importance of social science disciplines in the scientific exploration of Mars. The importance of language, workspace, and time differences are reviewed. It would appear that the social scientist perspective in developing a completely new workspace, keeping track of new vocabulary and the different time zones (i.e., terrestrial and Martian) was useful.

  11. Internet Activities Using Scientific Data. A Self-Guided Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froseth, Stan; Poppe, Barbara

    This guide is intended for the secondary school teacher (especially math or science) or the student who wants to access and learn about scientific data on the Internet. It is organized as a self-guided exploration. Nine exercises enable the user to access and analyze on-line information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration…

  12. Interactive visual exploration of a large spatio-temporal dataset: reflections on a geovisualization mashup.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jo; Dykes, Jason; Slingsby, Aidan; Clarke, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory visual analysis is useful for the preliminary investigation of large structured, multifaceted spatio-temporaldatasets. This process requires the selection and aggregation of records by time, space and attribute, the ability to transform data and the flexibility to apply appropriate visual encodings and interactions. We propose an approach inspired by geographical 'mashups' in which freely-available functionality and data are loosely but flexibly combined using de facto exchange standards. Our case study combines MySQL, PHP and the LandSerf GIS to allow Google Earth to be used for visual synthesis and interaction with encodings described in KML. This approach is applied to the exploration of a log of 1.42 million requests made of a mobile directory service. Novel combinations of interaction and visual encoding are developed including spatial 'tag clouds', 'tag maps', 'data dials' and multi-scale density surfaces. Four aspects of the approach are informally evaluated: the visual encodings employed, their success in the visual exploration of the dataset, the specific tools used and the 'mashup' approach. Preliminary findings will be beneficial to others considering using mashups for visualization. The specific techniques developed may be more widely applied to offer insights into the structure of multifarious spatio-temporal data of the type explored here.

  13. Adventures in supercomputing: Scientific exploration in an era of change

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, E.; Helland, B.; Summers, B.

    1997-11-01

    Students deserve the opportunity to explore the world of science surrounding them. Therefore it is important that scientific exploration and investigation be a part of each student`s educational career. The Department of Energy`s Adventures in Superconducting (AiS) takes students beyond mere scientific literacy to a rich embodiment of scientific exploration. AiS provides today`s science and math students with a greater opportunity to investigate science problems, propose solutions, explore different methods of solving the problem, organize their work into a technical paper, and present their results. Students learn at different rates in different ways. Science classes with students having varying learning styles and levels of achievement have always been a challenge for teachers. The AiS {open_quotes}hands-on, minds-on{close_quotes} project-based method of teaching science meets the challenge of this diversity heads on! AiS uses the development of student chosen projects as the means of achieving a lifelong enthusiasm for scientific proficiency. One goal of AiS is to emulate the research that takes place in the everyday environment of scientists. Students work in teams and often collaborate with students nationwide. With the help of mentors from the academic and scientific community, students pose a problem in science, investigate possible solutions, design a mathematical and computational model for the problem, exercise the model to achieve results, and evaluate the implications of the results. The students then have the opportunity to present the project to their peers, teachers, and scientists. Using this inquiry-based technique, students learn more than science skills, they learn to reason and think -- going well beyond the National Science Education Standard. The teacher becomes a resource person actively working together with the students in their quest for scientific knowledge.

  14. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments: Environmental and Scientific Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. W.; Hobbie, J. E.; Baker, A.; Clarke, G.; Doran, P. T.; Karl, D.; Methe, B.; Miller, H.; Mukasa, S. B.; Race, M.; Vincent, W.; Walton, D.; Uhle, M.

    2007-12-01

    Antarctica is renowned for its extreme cold; yet surprisingly, there is liquid water at the base of the Antarctic ice sheet several kilometers beneath the surface. The exploration of these subglacial aquatic environments is in its initial stages, and many fundamental questions about these environments can only be answered by entering and sampling the water. Accordingly, the management of subglacial aquatic environments requires responsible environmental stewardship while allowing field research. As of early 2007, no one has yet drilled into a lake but entry within the next one or two years is likely. Thus, the challenge is to determine the best way of drilling into, extensively sampling, and monitoring these environments. While general guidelines for research in Antarctica are provided in the Antarctic Treaty, currently no clear protocols or standards for minimizing contamination have been established. At the request of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Research Council convened a committee to develop a set of environmental and scientific protection standards needed to responsibly explore the subglacial lake environments in Antarctica. Specifically, the committee was asked to define levels of cleanliness for equipment or devices entering subglacial aquatic environments, develop a sound scientific basis for contamination standards, and recommend the next steps needed to define an overall exploration strategy. This talk will present the findings of that committee. The committee included U.S. and international scientists, and gathered information from the global scientific community. Although a U.S. scientific advisory body produced this study, the committee hopes that its multinational makeup will be recognized and that the recommendations in this report will serve as a basis for broad international discussion about environmental stewardship for the exploration of subglacial aquatic environments.

  15. Exploring homogeneity of correlation structures of gene expression datasets within and between etiological disease categories.

    PubMed

    Jong, Victor L; Novianti, Putri W; Roes, Kit C B; Eijkemans, Marinus J C

    2014-12-01

    The literature shows that classifiers perform differently across datasets and that correlations within datasets affect the performance of classifiers. The question that arises is whether the correlation structure within datasets differ significantly across diseases. In this study, we evaluated the homogeneity of correlation structures within and between datasets of six etiological disease categories; inflammatory, immune, infectious, degenerative, hereditary and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We also assessed the effect of filtering; detection call and variance filtering on correlation structures. We downloaded microarray datasets from ArrayExpress for experiments meeting predefined criteria and ended up with 12 datasets for non-cancerous diseases and six for AML. The datasets were preprocessed by a common procedure incorporating platform-specific recommendations and the two filtering methods mentioned above. Homogeneity of correlation matrices between and within datasets of etiological diseases was assessed using the Box's M statistic on permuted samples. We found that correlation structures significantly differ between datasets of the same and/or different etiological disease categories and that variance filtering eliminates more uncorrelated probesets than detection call filtering and thus renders the data highly correlated.

  16. Computing Spatial Distance Histograms for Large Scientific Datasets On-the-Fly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Grupcev, Vladimir; Yuan, Yongke; Huang, Jin; Shen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on an important query in scientific simulation data analysis: the Spatial Distance Histogram (SDH). The computation time of an SDH query using brute force method is quadratic. Often, such queries are executed continuously over certain time periods, increasing the computation time. We propose highly efficient approximate algorithm to compute SDH over consecutive time periods with provable error bounds. The key idea of our algorithm is to derive statistical distribution of distances from the spatial and temporal characteristics of particles. Upon organizing the data into a Quad-tree based structure, the spatiotemporal characteristics of particles in each node of the tree are acquired to determine the particles’ spatial distribution as well as their temporal locality in consecutive time periods. We report our efforts in implementing and optimizing the above algorithm in Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) as means to further improve the efficiency. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed algorithm is backed by mathematical analysis and results of extensive experiments using data generated from real simulation studies. PMID:25264418

  17. Exploring Cloud Computing for Large-scale Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guang; Han, Binh; Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian

    2013-06-27

    This paper explores cloud computing for large-scale data-intensive scientific applications. Cloud computing is attractive because it provides hardware and software resources on-demand, which relieves the burden of acquiring and maintaining a huge amount of resources that may be used only once by a scientific application. However, unlike typical commercial applications that often just requires a moderate amount of ordinary resources, large-scale scientific applications often need to process enormous amount of data in the terabyte or even petabyte range and require special high performance hardware with low latency connections to complete computation in a reasonable amount of time. To address these challenges, we build an infrastructure that can dynamically select high performance computing hardware across institutions and dynamically adapt the computation to the selected resources to achieve high performance. We have also demonstrated the effectiveness of our infrastructure by building a system biology application and an uncertainty quantification application for carbon sequestration, which can efficiently utilize data and computation resources across several institutions.

  18. Earth Exploration Toolbook Workshops: Helping Teachers and Students Analyze Web-based Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, C.; Ledley, T.; Dahlman, L.; Haddad, N.

    2007-12-01

    One of the challenges faced by Earth science teachers, particularly in K-12 settings, is that of connecting scientific research to classroom experiences. Helping teachers and students analyze Web-based scientific data is one way to bring scientific research to the classroom. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) was developed as an online resource to accomplish precisely that. The EET consists of chapters containing step-by-step instructions for accessing Web-based scientific data and for using a software analysis tool to explore issues or concepts in science, technology, and mathematics. For example, in one EET chapter, users download Earthquake data from the USGS and bring it into a geographic information system (GIS), analyzing factors affecting the distribution of earthquakes. The goal of the EET Workshops project is to provide professional development that enables teachers to incorporate Web-based scientific data and analysis tools in ways that meet their curricular needs. In the EET Workshops project, Earth science teachers participate in a pair of workshops that are conducted in a combined teleconference and Web-conference format. In the first workshop, the EET Data Analysis Workshop, participants are introduced to the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). They also walk through an Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET) chapter and discuss ways to use Earth science datasets and tools with their students. In a follow-up second workshop, the EET Implementation Workshop, teachers share how they used these materials in the classroom by describing the projects and activities that they carried out with students. The EET Workshops project offers unique and effective professional development. Participants work at their own Internet-connected computers, and dial into a toll-free group teleconference for step-by-step facilitation and interaction. They also receive support via Elluminate, a Web

  19. Small Explorer for Advanced Missions - cubesat for scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-04-01

    A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  20. Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-10-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

  1. Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

  2. Scientific exploration of near-Earth objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Jones, T. D.; Adamo, D. R.; Morrison, D. D.; Lemke, L. G.; Gonzales, A. A.; Gershman, R.; Sweetser, T. H.; Johnson, L. L.; Lu, E.

    2009-01-01

    A study in late 2006 was sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA’s Constellation Program to examine the feasibility of sending the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve two or three astronauts on a 90 to 180 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body beyond the Earth- Moon system and would prove useful for testing technologies required for human missions to Mars and other solar system destinations. Piloted missions to NEOs using the CEV would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific investigations of these primitive objects. The main scientific advantage of sending piloted missions to NEOs would be the flexibility of the crew to perform tasks and to adapt to situations in real time. A crewed vehicle would be able to test several different sample collection techniques and target specific areas of interest via extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) more efficiently than robotic spacecraft. Such capabilities greatly enhance the scientific return from these missions to NEOs, destinations vital to understanding the evolution and thermal histories of primitive bodies during the formation of the early solar system. Data collected from these missions would help constrain the suite of materials possibly delivered to the early Earth, and would identify potential source regions from which NEOs originate. In addition, the resulting scientific investigations would refine designs for future extraterrestrial resource extraction and utilization, and assist in the development of hazard mitigation techniques for planetary defense.

  3. A Physics MOSAIC: Scientific Skills and Explorations for Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, S.; Clements, C.; Erickson, P. J.; Rogers, A.

    2010-12-01

    MOSAIC unit begins with a series of activities and lessons designed to take advantage of the large data sets MOSAIC is collecting all the time to teach students about measurement, uncertainty, and data analysis. The curriculum develops an intuitive approach to thinking about numbers in science, focusing on both implicit and explicit expressions of uncertainty. Our teaching unit concludes with a final research project to provide students with the opportunity to pursue an area of interest within mesospheric ozone. This project is conceived in such a way that it can be as self-directed as a teacher or student needs. Given current concern for the state of our atmosphere and ozone, MOSAIC provides a unique opportunity for student engagement in an area of scientific research that has not been extensively explored. MOSAIC data can be compared with online resources for other atmospheric, astronomical, or geophysical data, and have been analyzed for the effects of such variables as seasonal and solar flux variations, lunar phases, shuttle and rocket launches, and sudden stratospheric warming events.

  4. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We…

  5. A dataset of metaphors from the italian literature: exploring psycholinguistic variables and the role of context.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Valentina; Resta, Donatella; Grimaldi, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Defining the specific role of the factors that affect metaphor processing is a fundamental step for fully understanding figurative language comprehension, either in discourse and conversation or in reading poems and novels. This study extends the currently available materials on everyday metaphorical expressions by providing the first dataset of metaphors extracted from literary texts and scored for the major psycholinguistic variables, considering also the effect of context. A set of 115 Italian literary metaphors presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and a subset of 65 literary metaphors embedded in their original texts (Experiment 2) were rated on several dimensions (word and phrase frequency, readability, cloze probability, familiarity, concreteness, difficulty and meaningfulness). Overall, literary metaphors scored around medium-low values on all dimensions in both experiments. Collected data were subjected to correlation analysis, which showed the presence of a strong cluster of variables-mainly familiarity, difficulty, and meaningfulness-when literary metaphor were presented in isolation. A weaker cluster was observed when literary metaphors were presented in the original contexts, with familiarity no longer correlating with meaningfulness. Context manipulation influenced familiarity, concreteness and difficulty ratings, which were lower in context than out of context, while meaningfulness increased. Throughout the different dimensions, the literary context seems to promote a global interpretative activity that enhances the open-endedness of the metaphor as a semantic structure constantly open to all possible interpretations intended by the author and driven by the text. This dataset will be useful for the design of future experimental studies both on literary metaphor and on the role of context in figurative meaning, combining ecological validity and aesthetic aspects of language. PMID:25244522

  6. Using modified self-organizing maps to explore hydrochemical and biological datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, A. R.; Mouser, P. J.; Stevens, L.; Watzin, M.; Druschel, G.; Hayden, N.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present a clustering methodology that distinguishes management zones in a landfill leachate contaminated groundwater aquifer using only microbiological data for input rather than traditional physiochemical information. The self-organizing map (SOM), an artificial neural network (ANN), is commonly used as a K-means clustering method. The method outperforms many traditional clustering methods on noisy datasets (e.g. high dispersion, outliers, non-uniform cluster densities); and is appropriate when combining the multiple correlated and auto-correlated data associated with most hydrochemical research. We applied an SOM to a set of genome-based microbial community profiles created using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the 16S rRNA gene sampled from groundwater monitoring wells in an aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate. We modified the existing algorithm to allow weighting of the input variables according to their relative importance, and added a post-processing radial basis function to estimate group membership between measurement locations auto-correlated in space. We statistically tested the SOM output clusters using a nonparametric MANOVA to identify an optimal number of clusters. The SOM methodology distinguished between tiers of contamination in this multi-contaminant environment using expert knowledge to guide data preprocessing and to weight the input variables. Results showed a composite delineation representative of overall groundwater contamination at the landfill based only on microbiological information. Using a small number of clusters, the SOM distinguished between background and leachate-contaminated sampling locations, whereas with a larger number of clusters it groups across a gradient of groundwater contamination. The landfill leachate application demonstrates that microbial community data can compliment standard analytical analyses for the purpose of delineating spatial zones of groundwater contamination. The

  7. A Dataset of Metaphors from the Italian Literature: Exploring Psycholinguistic Variables and the Role of Context

    PubMed Central

    Bambini, Valentina; Resta, Donatella; Grimaldi, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Defining the specific role of the factors that affect metaphor processing is a fundamental step for fully understanding figurative language comprehension, either in discourse and conversation or in reading poems and novels. This study extends the currently available materials on everyday metaphorical expressions by providing the first dataset of metaphors extracted from literary texts and scored for the major psycholinguistic variables, considering also the effect of context. A set of 115 Italian literary metaphors presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and a subset of 65 literary metaphors embedded in their original texts (Experiment 2) were rated on several dimensions (word and phrase frequency, readability, cloze probability, familiarity, concreteness, difficulty and meaningfulness). Overall, literary metaphors scored around medium-low values on all dimensions in both experiments. Collected data were subjected to correlation analysis, which showed the presence of a strong cluster of variables—mainly familiarity, difficulty, and meaningfulness—when literary metaphor were presented in isolation. A weaker cluster was observed when literary metaphors were presented in the original contexts, with familiarity no longer correlating with meaningfulness. Context manipulation influenced familiarity, concreteness and difficulty ratings, which were lower in context than out of context, while meaningfulness increased. Throughout the different dimensions, the literary context seems to promote a global interpretative activity that enhances the open-endedness of the metaphor as a semantic structure constantly open to all possible interpretations intended by the author and driven by the text. This dataset will be useful for the design of future experimental studies both on literary metaphor and on the role of context in figurative meaning, combining ecological validity and aesthetic aspects of language. PMID:25244522

  8. A dataset of metaphors from the italian literature: exploring psycholinguistic variables and the role of context.

    PubMed

    Bambini, Valentina; Resta, Donatella; Grimaldi, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    Defining the specific role of the factors that affect metaphor processing is a fundamental step for fully understanding figurative language comprehension, either in discourse and conversation or in reading poems and novels. This study extends the currently available materials on everyday metaphorical expressions by providing the first dataset of metaphors extracted from literary texts and scored for the major psycholinguistic variables, considering also the effect of context. A set of 115 Italian literary metaphors presented in isolation (Experiment 1) and a subset of 65 literary metaphors embedded in their original texts (Experiment 2) were rated on several dimensions (word and phrase frequency, readability, cloze probability, familiarity, concreteness, difficulty and meaningfulness). Overall, literary metaphors scored around medium-low values on all dimensions in both experiments. Collected data were subjected to correlation analysis, which showed the presence of a strong cluster of variables-mainly familiarity, difficulty, and meaningfulness-when literary metaphor were presented in isolation. A weaker cluster was observed when literary metaphors were presented in the original contexts, with familiarity no longer correlating with meaningfulness. Context manipulation influenced familiarity, concreteness and difficulty ratings, which were lower in context than out of context, while meaningfulness increased. Throughout the different dimensions, the literary context seems to promote a global interpretative activity that enhances the open-endedness of the metaphor as a semantic structure constantly open to all possible interpretations intended by the author and driven by the text. This dataset will be useful for the design of future experimental studies both on literary metaphor and on the role of context in figurative meaning, combining ecological validity and aesthetic aspects of language.

  9. Exploration of Korean Students' Scientific Imagination Using the Scientific Imagination Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mun, Jiyeong; Mun, Kongju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-09-01

    This article reports on the study of the components of scientific imagination and describes the scales used to measure scientific imagination in Korean elementary and secondary students. In this study, we developed an inventory, which we call the Scientific Imagination Inventory (SII), in order to examine aspects of scientific imagination. We identified three conceptual components of scientific imagination, which were composed of (1) scientific sensitivity, (2) scientific creativity, and (3) scientific productivity. We administered SII to 662 students (4th-8th grades) and confirmed validity and reliability using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach α coefficient. The characteristics of Korean elementary and secondary students' overall scientific imagination and difference across gender and grade level are discussed in the results section.

  10. Hands-on and Online: Scientific Explorations through Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawn, Mary V.; Carrico, Pauline; Charuk, Ken; Stote, Kim S.; Lawrence, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments are often considered the defining characteristic of science courses. Such activities provide students with real-world contexts for applying scientific concepts, while also allowing them to develop scientific ways of thinking and promoting an interest in science. In recent years, an increasing number of campuses have moved…

  11. The USA National Phenology Network's National Phenology Database: a multi-taxa, continental-scale dataset for scientific inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltzin, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; www.usanpn.org) serves science and society by promoting a broad understanding of plant and animal phenology and the relationships among phenological patterns and all aspects of environmental change. The National Phenology Database, maintained by the USA-NPN, is experiencing steady growth in the number of data records it houses. As of August 2012, participants in the USA-NPN national-scale, multi-taxa phenology observation program Nature's Notebook had contributed over 1.3 million observation records (encompassing four and three years of observations for plants and for animals, respectively). Data are freely available www.usanpn.org/results/data, and include FGDC-compliant metadata, data-use and data-attribution policies, vetted and documented methodologies and protocols, and version control. Quality assurance and quality control, and metadata data associated with field observations (e.g., effort and method reporting, site and organism condition) are also documented. Data are also available for exploration, visualization and preliminary analysis at www.usanpn.org/results/visualizations. Participants in Nature's Notebook, who include both professional and volunteer scientists, follow vetted protocols that employ phenological "status" monitoring rather than "event" monitoring: when sampling, observers indicate the status of each phenophase (e.g., "breaking leaf buds" or "active individuals"). This approach has a number of advantages over event monitoring (including estimation of error, estimation of effort, "negative" or "absence" data, capture of multiple events and phenophase duration) and is especially well-suited for integrated multi-taxa monitoring. Further, protocols and a user interface to facilitate the description of development or abundance data (e.g., tree canopy development, animal abundance) create a robust ecological dataset. We demonstrate several types of questions that can be addressed with this observing

  12. Exploring predictive and reproducible modeling with the single-subject FIAC dataset.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Pereira, Francisco; Lee, Wayne; Strother, Stephen; Mitchell, Tom

    2006-05-01

    Predictive modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the potential to expand the amount of information extracted and to enhance our understanding of brain systems by predicting brain states, rather than emphasizing the standard spatial mapping. Based on the block datasets of Functional Imaging Analysis Contest (FIAC) Subject 3, we demonstrate the potential and pitfalls of predictive modeling in fMRI analysis by investigating the performance of five models (linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, linear support vector machine, Gaussian naive Bayes, and a variant) as a function of preprocessing steps and feature selection methods. We found that: (1) independent of the model, temporal detrending and feature selection assisted in building a more accurate predictive model; (2) the linear support vector machine and logistic regression often performed better than either of the Gaussian naive Bayes models in terms of the optimal prediction accuracy; and (3) the optimal prediction accuracy obtained in a feature space using principal components was typically lower than that obtained in a voxel space, given the same model and same preprocessing. We show that due to the existence of artifacts from different sources, high prediction accuracy alone does not guarantee that a classifier is learning a pattern of brain activity that might be usefully visualized, although cross-validation methods do provide fairly unbiased estimates of true prediction accuracy. The trade-off between the prediction accuracy and the reproducibility of the spatial pattern should be carefully considered in predictive modeling of fMRI. We suggest that unless the experimental goal is brain-state classification of new scans on well-defined spatial features, prediction alone should not be used as an optimization procedure in fMRI data analysis.

  13. EEGVIS: A MATLAB Toolbox for Browsing, Exploring, and Viewing Large Datasets.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Kay A

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in data monitoring and sensor technology have accelerated the acquisition of very large data sets. Streaming data sets from instrumentation such as multi-channel EEG recording usually must undergo substantial pre-processing and artifact removal. Even when using automated procedures, most scientists engage in laborious manual examination and processing to assure high quality data and to indentify interesting or problematic data segments. Researchers also do not have a convenient method of method of visually assessing the effects of applying any stage in a processing pipeline. EEGVIS is a MATLAB toolbox that allows users to quickly explore multi-channel EEG and other large array-based data sets using multi-scale drill-down techniques. Customizable summary views reveal potentially interesting sections of data, which users can explore further by clicking to examine using detailed viewing components. The viewer and a companion browser are built on our MoBBED framework, which has a library of modular viewing components that can be mixed and matched to best reveal structure. Users can easily create new viewers for their specific data without any programming during the exploration process. These viewers automatically support pan, zoom, resizing of individual components, and cursor exploration. The toolbox can be used directly in MATLAB at any stage in a processing pipeline, as a plug-in for EEGLAB, or as a standalone precompiled application without MATLAB running. EEGVIS and its supporting packages are freely available under the GNU general public license at http://visual.cs.utsa.edu/eegvis.

  14. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  15. Hot Salsa: A Laboratory Exercise Exploring the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levri, Edward P.; Levri, Maureen A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise on spicy food and body temperature that introduces the scientific method to introductory biology students. Suggests that when students perform their own experiments which they have developed, it helps with their understanding of and confidence in doing science. (Author/SOE)

  16. Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim; Spilker, Tom; Elliott, John; Balint, Tibor; Donahue, Ben; McCormick, Dave; Smith, David B.; Tandon, Sunil; Woodcock, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The following sections describe Ares V performance and its payoff to a wide array of potential solar system exploration missions. Application to potential Astrophysics missions is addressed in Reference 3.

  17. NASA's Mars Exploration Program: Scientific Strategy 1996 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvin, J. B.; McCleese, D. J.

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a roadmap to the next ~20 years of Mars exploration from the NASA viewpoint. The design of the newly restructured strategy is attentive to risks and a major attempt to instill resiliency in the program.

  18. Mars scientific investigations as a precursor for human exploration.

    PubMed

    Ahlf, P; Cantwell, E; Ostrach, L; Pline, A

    2000-01-01

    In the past two years, NASA has begun to develop and implement plans for investigations on robotic Mars missions which are focused toward returning data critical for planning human missions to Mars. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions will mark the first time that experiments dedicated to preparation for human exploration will be carried out. Investigations on these missions and future missions range from characterization of the physical and chemical environment of Mars, to predicting the response of biology to the Mars environment. Planning for such missions must take into account existing data from previous Mars missions which were not necessarily focused on human exploration preparation. At the same time, plans for near term missions by the international community must be considered to avoid duplication of effort. This paper reviews data requirements for human exploration and applicability of existing data. It will also describe current plans for investigations and place them within the context of related international activities.

  19. Scientific Assessment of NASA's Solar System Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    At its June 24-28, 1996, meeting, the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), chaired by Ronald Greeley of Arizona State University, conducted an assessment of NASA's Mission to the Solar System Roadmap report. This assessment was made at the specific request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe, NASA's science program director for solar system exploration. The assessment includes consideration of the process by which the Roadmap was developed, comparison of the goals and objectives of the Roadmap with published National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, and suggestions for improving the Roadmap.

  20. Automatic Flushing Toilets: An Entertaining Platform for Exploring Scientific Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blais, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    It is often challenging, especially at the beginning of a course, to find good examples where students can actively explore and grapple with the methods of science. We want them to learn the connection between observation, theory, prediction, evidence, and falsification, but to really accomplish this we need platforms for which the students are…

  1. Freely-Available, True-Color Volume Rendering Software and Cyro-Histology Datasets for Virtual Exploration the Temporal Bone Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Lueder Alexander; Labadie, Robert Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Background Cadaveric dissection of temporal bone anatomy is not always possible or feasible in certain educational environments. Volume rendering using CT and/or MRI helps understanding of spatial relationships, but they suffer in non-realistic depictions especially regarding color of anatomical structures. Freely-available, non-stained histological datasets and software which are able to render such datasets in realistic color could overcome this limitation and be a very effective teaching tool. Methods With recent availability of specialized public-domain software, volume rendering of true-color, histological datasets is now possible. We present both feasibility as well as step-by-step instructions to allow processing of publically-available datasets (Visible Female Human and Visible Ear) into easily navigable three-dimensional models using free software. Results Example renderings are shown to demonstrate the utility of these free methods in virtual exploration of the complex anatomy of the temporal bone. After exploring the datasets, the Visible Ear appears more natural than the Visible Human. Conclusion We provide directions for an easy-to-use, open-source software in conjunction with freely available histological datasets. This work facilitates self-education of spatial relationships of anatomic structures inside the human temporal bone as well as allows exploration of surgical approaches prior to cadaveric testing and/or clinical implementation. PMID:23689270

  2. Mars scientific investigations as a precursor for human exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahlf, P.; Cantwell, E.; Ostrach, L.; Pline, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the past two years, NASA has begun to develop and implement plans for investigations on robotic Mars missions which are focused toward returning data critical for planning human missions to Mars. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Orbiter and Lander missions will mark the first time that experiments dedicated to preparation for human exploration will be carried out. Investigations on these missions and future missions range from characterization of the physical and chemical environment of Mars, to predicting the response of biology to the Mars environment. Planning for such missions must take into account existing data from previous Mars missions which were not necessarily focused on human exploration preparation. At the same time, plans for near term missions by the international community must be considered to avoid duplication of effort. This paper reviews data requirements for human exploration and applicability of existing data. It will also describe current plans for investigations and place them within the context of related international activities. c 2000 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ares V: Application to solar system scientific exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John; Spilker, Thomas; Reh, Kim; Balint, Tibor; Smith, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2010-02-01

    The development of the Ares V launch vehicle will provide levels of performance unseen since the days of Apollo. This capability, like the Saturn V before it, is being developed primarily in support of lunar exploration missions. However, the tremendous jump in performance offered by the Ares V launch system has tremendous potential for the furtherance of robotic solar system exploration missions as well. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that Ares V could deliver 5 times the payload to Mars as compared to the most capable US expendable launch vehicle available today. Beyond Mars, the outer planets offer a number of high-priority investigations with compelling science. Presently, missions to these destinations are only achievable using indirect flights with gravity assist trajectories and, in many cases, suffer from long flight times. An Ares V with an upper stage could capture these missions using direct flights with shorter interplanetary transfer times that would enable extensive in situ investigations and possibly the return of samples to Earth. This paper lays out an estimate of Ares V performance for moderate and high C3 missions, and goes on to discuss a range of revolutionary mission concepts that could be enabled by this significant increase in launch capability.

  4. Ares V: Application to Solar System Scientific Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Spilker, Thomas; Reh, Kim; Smith, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The development of the Ares V launch vehicle will provide levels of performance unseen since the days of Apollo. This capability, like the Saturn V before it, is being developed primarily for crewed lunar missions. However, the tremendous jump in performance offered by the Ares V launch system has tremendous potential for the furtherance of robotic solar system exploration missions as well. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that Ares V could deliver 5 times the payload to Mars as compared to the most capable US expendable launch vehicle available today. Beyond Mars, the outer planets offer a number of high-priority investigations with compelling science. Presently, missions to these destinations are only achievable using indirect flights with gravity assist trajectories and, in many cases, suffer from long flight times. An Ares V with an upper stage could capture these missions using direct flights with shorter interplanetary transfer times that would enable extensive in situ investigations and possibly the return of samples to Earth. This paper lays out an estimate of Ares V performance for moderate and high C3 missions, and goes on to discuss a range of revolutionary mission concepts that could be enabled by this significant in-crease in launch capability.

  5. Towards AN Integrated Scientific and Social Case for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.

    2004-06-01

    I will argue that an ambitious programme of human space exploration, involving a return to the Moon, and eventually human missions to Mars, will add greatly to human knowledge. Gathering such knowledge is the primary aim of science, but science’s compartmentalisation into isolated academic disciplines tends to obscure the overall strength of the scientific case. Any consideration of the scientific arguments for human space exploration must therefore take a holistic view, and integrate the potential benefits over the entire spectrum of human knowledge. Moreover, science is only one thread in a much larger overall case for human space exploration. Other threads include economic, industrial, educational, geopolitical and cultural benefits. Any responsibly formulated public space policy must weigh all of these factors before deciding whether or not an investment in human space activities is scientifically and socially desirable.

  6. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-10-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them experiment, science fair, and hypothesis, is used to probe the students' knowledge structures. Students from grades four, five, and eight, as well as first-year college students were tested to reveal their knowledge structures relating to the scientific method. Younger students were found to have a naïve view of the science process with little understanding of how science relates to the real world. However, students' conceptions about the scientific process appear to be malleable, with science fairs a potentially strong influencer. The strength of associations between words is observed to change from grade to grade, with younger students placing science fair near the center of their knowledge structure regarding the scientific method, whereas older students conceptualize the scientific method around experiment.

  7. Lost in space: design of experiments and scientific exploration in a Hogarth Universe.

    PubMed

    Lendrem, Dennis W; Lendrem, B Clare; Woods, David; Rowland-Jones, Ruth; Burke, Matthew; Chatfield, Marion; Isaacs, John D; Owen, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    A Hogarth, or 'wicked', universe is an irregular environment generating data to support erroneous beliefs. Here, we argue that development scientists often work in such a universe. We demonstrate that exploring these multidimensional spaces using small experiments guided by scientific intuition alone, gives rise to an illusion of validity and a misplaced confidence in that scientific intuition. By contrast, design of experiments (DOE) permits the efficient mapping of such complex, multidimensional spaces. We describe simulation tools that enable research scientists to explore these spaces in relative safety.

  8. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo (D.); Jones (T.); Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) has been analyzed in depth in 1989 as part of the Space Exploration Initiative. Since that time two other studies have investigated the possibility of sending similar missions to NEOs. A more recent study has been sponsored by the Advanced Programs Office within NASA's Constellation Program. This study team has representatives from across NASA and is currently examining the feasibility of sending a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a near-Earth object (NEO). The ideal mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day flight, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO. One of the significant advantages of this type of mission is that it strengthens and validates the foundational infrastructure for the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) and Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) in the run up to the lunar sorties at the end of the next decade (approx.2020). Sending a human expedition to a NEO, within the context of the VSE and ESAS, demonstrates the broad utility of the Constellation Program s Orion (CEV) crew capsule and Ares (CLV) launch systems. This mission would be the first human expedition to an interplanetary body outside of the cislunar system. Also, it will help NASA regain crucial operational experience conducting human exploration missions outside of low Earth orbit, which humanity has not attempted in nearly 40 years.

  9. The Texture of Educational Inquiry: An Exploration of George Herbert Mead's Concept of the Scientific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzosa, Susan Douglas

    1984-01-01

    Explores the implications of Mead's philosophic social psychology for current disputes concerning the nature of the scientific in educational studies. Mead's contextualization of the knower and the known are found to be compatible with a contemporary critique of positivist paradigms and a critical reconceptualization of educational inquiry.…

  10. Exploring the Changes in Students' Understanding of the Scientific Method Using Word Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Sinan, Olcay; Bowman, Charles R.; Yildirim, Yetkin

    2015-01-01

    A study is presented that explores how students' knowledge structures, as related to the scientific method, compare at different student ages. A word association test comprised of ten total stimulus words, among them "experiment," "science fair," and "hypothesis," is used to probe the students' knowledge structures.…

  11. The Academy's Zeitgeist--Standards of Scientific Investigation: Exploring the Impact of Scholarly Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Fauske, Janice

    2006-01-01

    The academy's zeitgeist--standards of scientic investigation--has recently come to the fore in the national arena as the dominant moral and intellectual framework for educational research. In this article, we explore the re-emergence of standards of scientific investigation as a significant shaping force in education and the scholarly culture,…

  12. Exploring Teachers' Informal Formative Assessment Practices and Students' Understanding in the Context of Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli; Furtak, Erin Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' informal formative assessment practices in three middle school science classrooms. We present a model for examining these practices based on three components of formative assessment (eliciting, recognizing, and using information) and the three domains linked to scientific inquiry (epistemic frameworks, conceptual…

  13. Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) Experiences with Scientific Language and Inquiry within a Real Life Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algee, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on…

  14. Scientific Exploration of Near-Earth Objects via the Crew Exploration Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Korsmeyer, D. J.; Landis, R. R.; Lu, E.; Adamo, D.; Jones, T.; Lemke, L.; Gonzales, A.; Gershman, B.; Morrison, D.; Sweetser, T.; Johnson, L.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of a crewed mission to a near-Earth object (NEO) has been previously analyzed several times in the past. A more in depth feasibility study has been sponsored by the Advanced Projects Office within NASA's Constellation Program to examine the ability of a Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to support a mission to a NEO. The national mission profile would involve a crew of 2 or 3 astronauts on a 90 to 120 day mission, which would include a 7 to 14 day stay for proximity operations at the target NEO.

  15. The Need for Analogue Missions in Scientific Human and Robotic Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, K. J.; Mendell, W. W.

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing challenges of planetary missions, and especially with the prospect of human exploration of the moon and Mars, the need for earth-based mission simulations has never been greater. The current focus on science as a major driver for planetary exploration introduces new constraints in mission design, planning, operations, and technology development. Analogue missions can be designed to address critical new integration issues arising from the new science-driven exploration paradigm. This next step builds on existing field studies and technology development at analogue sites, providing engineering, programmatic, and scientific lessons-learned in relatively low-cost and low-risk environments. One of the most important outstanding questions in planetary exploration is how to optimize the human and robotic interaction to achieve maximum science return with minimum cost and risk. To answer this question, researchers are faced with the task of defining scientific return and devising ways of measuring the benefit of scientific planetary exploration to humanity. Earth-based and spacebased analogue missions are uniquely suited to answer this question. Moreover, they represent the only means for integrating science operations, mission operations, crew training, technology development, psychology and human factors, and all other mission elements prior to final mission design and launch. Eventually, success in future planetary exploration will depend on our ability to prepare adequately for missions, requiring improved quality and quantity of analogue activities. This effort demands more than simply developing new technologies needed for future missions and increasing our scientific understanding of our destinations. It requires a systematic approach to the identification and evaluation of the categories of analogue activities. This paper presents one possible approach to the classification and design of analogue missions based on their degree of fidelity in ten

  16. Lemont B. Kier: a bibliometric exploration of his scientific production and its use.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Guillermo; Llanos, Eugenio J; Silva, Adriana E

    2013-12-01

    We thought an appropriate way to celebrate the seminal contribution of Kier is to explore his influence on science, looking for the impact of his research through the citation of his scientific production. From a bibliometric approach the impact of Kier's work is addressed as an individual within a community. Reviewing data from his curriculum vitae, as well as from the ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI), his role within the scientific community is established and the way his scientific results circulate is studied. His curriculum vitae is explored emphasising the approaches he used in his research activities and the social ties with other actors of the community. The circulation of Kier's publications in the ISI is studied as a means for spreading and installing his discourse within the community. The citation patterns found not only show the usage of Kier's scientific results, but also open the possibility to identify some characteristics of this discursive community, such as a common vocabulary and common research goals. The results show an interdisciplinary research work that consolidates a scientific community on the topic of drug discovery.

  17. Scientific Goals and Objectives for the Human Exploration of Mars: 1. Biology and Atmosphere/Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Garvin, J. B.; Anbar, A. D.; Beaty, D. W.; Bell, M. S.; Clancy, R. T.; Cockell, C. S.; Connerney, J. E.; Doran, P. T.; Delory, G.; Dickson, J. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Eppler, D. B.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Head, J. W.; Helper, M.; Gruener, J. E.; Heldmann, J.; Hipkin, V.; Lane, M. D.; Levy, J.; Moersch, J.; Ori, G. G.; Peach, L.; Poulet, F.

    2008-01-01

    To prepare for the exploration of Mars by humans, as outlined in the new national vision for Space Exploration (VSE), the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG), chartered by NASA's Mars Exploration Program (MEP), formed a Human Exploration of Mars Science Analysis Group (HEM-SAG), in March 2007. HEM-SAG was chartered to develop the scientific goals and objectives for the human exploration of Mars based on the Mars Scientific Goals, Objectives, Investigations, and Priorities.1 The HEM-SAG is one of several humans to Mars scientific, engineering and mission architecture studies chartered in 2007 to support NASA s plans for the human exploration of Mars. The HEM-SAG is composed of about 30 Mars scientists representing the disciplines of Mars biology, climate/atmosphere, geology and geophysics from the U.S., Canada, England, France, Italy and Spain. MEPAG selected Drs. James B. Garvin (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) and Joel S. Levine (NASA Langley Research Center) to serve as HEMSAG co-chairs. The HEM-SAG team conducted 20 telecons and convened three face-to-face meetings from March through October 2007. The management of MEP and MEPAG were briefed on the HEM-SAG interim findings in May. The HEM-SAG final report was presented on-line to the full MEPAG membership and was presented at the MEPAG meeting on February 20-21, 2008. This presentation will outline the HEM-SAG biology and climate/atmosphere goals and objectives. A companion paper will outline the HEM-SAG geology and geophysics goals and objectives.

  18. Segmentation of Unstructured Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Smitha

    1996-01-01

    Datasets generated by computer simulations and experiments in Computational Fluid Dynamics tend to be extremely large and complex. It is difficult to visualize these datasets using standard techniques like Volume Rendering and Ray Casting. Object Segmentation provides a technique to extract and quantify regions of interest within these massive datasets. This thesis explores basic algorithms to extract coherent amorphous regions from two-dimensional and three-dimensional scalar unstructured grids. The techniques are applied to datasets from Computational Fluid Dynamics and from Finite Element Analysis.

  19. Exploring multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices in two elementary classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Elizabeth Rowland

    This study explored the voices of children in a changing world with evolving needs and new opportunities. The workplaces of rapidly moving capitalist societies value creativity, collaboration, and critical thinking skills which are of growing importance and manifesting themselves in modern K-12 science classroom cultures (Gee, 2000; New London Group, 2000). This study explored issues of multiliteracies and student voice set within the context of teaching and learning in 4th and 5th grade science classrooms. The purpose of the study was to ascertain what and how multiliteracies and scientific practices (NGSS Lead States, 2013c) are implemented, explore how multiliteracies influence students' voices, and investigate teacher and student perceptions of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices. Grounded in a constructivist framework, a multiple case study was employed in two elementary classrooms. Through observations, student focus groups and interviews, and teacher interviews, a detailed narrative was created to describe a range of multiliteracies, student voice, and scientific practices that occurred with the science classroom context. Using grounded theory analysis, data were coded and analyzed to reveal emergent themes. Data analysis revealed that these two classrooms were enriched with multiliteracies that serve metaphorically as breeding grounds for student voice. In the modern classroom, defined as a space where information is instantly accessible through the Internet, multiliteracies can be developed through inquiry-based, collaborative, and technology-rich experiences. Scientific literacy, cultivated through student communication and collaboration, is arguably a multiliteracy that has not been considered in the literature, and should be, as an integral component of overall individual literacy in the 21st century. Findings revealed four themes. Three themes suggest that teachers address several modes of multiliteracies in science, but identify

  20. PARLO: PArallel Run-Time Layout Optimization for Scientific Data Explorations with Heterogeneous Access Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Zhenhuan; Boyuka, David; Zou, X; Liu, Gary; Podhorszki, Norbert; Klasky, Scott A; Ma, Xiaosong; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2013-01-01

    Download Citation Email Print Request Permissions Save to Project The size and scope of cutting-edge scientific simulations are growing much faster than the I/O and storage capabilities of their run-time environments. The growing gap is exacerbated by exploratory, data-intensive analytics, such as querying simulation data with multivariate, spatio-temporal constraints, which induces heterogeneous access patterns that stress the performance of the underlying storage system. Previous work addresses data layout and indexing techniques to improve query performance for a single access pattern, which is not sufficient for complex analytics jobs. We present PARLO a parallel run-time layout optimization framework, to achieve multi-level data layout optimization for scientific applications at run-time before data is written to storage. The layout schemes optimize for heterogeneous access patterns with user-specified priorities. PARLO is integrated with ADIOS, a high-performance parallel I/O middleware for large-scale HPC applications, to achieve user-transparent, light-weight layout optimization for scientific datasets. It offers simple XML-based configuration for users to achieve flexible layout optimization without the need to modify or recompile application codes. Experiments show that PARLO improves performance by 2 to 26 times for queries with heterogeneous access patterns compared to state-of-the-art scientific database management systems. Compared to traditional post-processing approaches, its underlying run-time layout optimization achieves a 56% savings in processing time and a reduction in storage overhead of up to 50%. PARLO also exhibits a low run-time resource requirement, while also limiting the performance impact on running applications to a reasonable level.

  1. The ISECG Science White Paper - A Scientific Perspective on the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, David B.; Worms, Jean-Claude; Spiero, Francois; Schlutz, Juergen; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As an element of this continued road mapping effort, the ISECG agencies are therefore soliciting input and coordinated discussion with the scientific community to better articulate and promote the scientific opportunities of the proposed mission themes. An improved understanding of the scientific drivers and the requirements to address priority science questions associated with the exploration destinations (Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, Mars and its moons) as well as the preparatory activities in cis-lunar space is beneficial to optimize the partnership of robotic assets and human presence beyond low Earth orbit. The interaction has resulted in the development of a Science White Paper to: • Identify and highlight the scientific opportunities in early exploration missions as the GER reference architecture matures, • Communicate overarching science themes and their relevance in the GER destinations, • Ensure international science communities' perspectives inform the future evolution of mission concepts considered in the GER The paper aims to capture the opportunities offered by the missions in the GER for a broad range of scientific disciplines. These include planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and Earth science. The paper is structured around grand science themes that draw together and connect research in the various disciplines, and it will focus on

  2. A sophisticated lander for scientific exploration of Mars: scientific objectives and implementation of the Mars-96 Small Station.

    PubMed

    Linkin, V; Harri, A M; Lipatov, A; Belostotskaja, K; Derbunovich, B; Ekonomov, A; Khloustova, L; Kremnev, R; Makarov, V; Martinov, B; Nenarokov, D; Prostov, M; Pustovalov, A; Shustko, G; Jarvinen, I; Kivilinna, H; Korpela, S; Kumpulainen, K; Lehto, A; Pellinen, R; Pirjola, R; Riihela, P; Salminen, A; Schmidt, W; McKay, C P

    1998-01-01

    A mission to Mars including two Small Stations, two Penetrators and an Orbiter was launched at Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on 16 November 1996. This was called the Mars-96 mission. The Small Stations were expected to land in September 1997 (Ls approximately 178 degrees), nominally to Amazonis-Arcadia region on locations (33 N, 169.4 W) and (37.6 N, 161.9 W). The fourth stage of the Mars-96 launcher malfunctioned and hence the mission was lost. However, the state of the art concept of the Small Station can be applied to future Martian lander missions. Also, from the manufacturing and performance point of view, the Mars-96 Small Station could be built as such at low cost, and be fairly easily accommodated on almost any forthcoming Martian mission. This is primarily due to the very simple interface between the Small Station and the spacecraft. The Small Station is a sophisticated piece of equipment. With the total available power of approximately 400 mW the Station successfully supports an ambitious scientific program. The Station accommodates a panoramic camera, an alpha-proton-x-ray spectrometer, a seismometer, a magnetometer, an oxidant instrument, equipment for meteorological observations, and sensors for atmospheric measurement during the descent phase, including images taken by a descent phase camera. The total mass of the Small Station with payload on the Martian surface, including the airbags, is only 32 kg. Lander observations on the surface of Mars combined with data from Orbiter instruments will shed light on the contemporary Mars and its evolution. As in the Mars-96 mission, specific science goals could be exploration of the interior and surface of Mars, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere, the role of water and other materials containing volatiles and in situ studies of the atmospheric boundary layer processes. To achieve the scientific goals of the mission the lander should carry a versatile set of instruments. The Small Station

  3. Back to the Moon: The scientific rationale for resuming lunar surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.; Anand, M.; Cockell, C. S.; Falcke, H.; Green, D. A.; Jaumann, R.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar geological record has much to tell us about the earliest history of the Solar System, the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and the near-Earth cosmic environment throughout Solar System history. In addition, the lunar surface offers outstanding opportunities for research in astronomy, astrobiology, fundamental physics, life sciences and human physiology and medicine. This paper provides an interdisciplinary review of outstanding lunar science objectives in all of these different areas. It is concluded that addressing them satisfactorily will require an end to the 40-year hiatus of lunar surface exploration, and the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the surface of the Moon. Some of these objectives can be achieved robotically (e.g., through targeted sample return, the deployment of geophysical networks, and the placing of antennas on the lunar surface to form radio telescopes). However, in the longer term, most of these scientific objectives would benefit significantly from renewed human operations on the lunar surface. For these reasons it is highly desirable that current plans for renewed robotic surface exploration of the Moon are developed in the context of a future human lunar exploration programme, such as that proposed by the recently formulated Global Exploration Roadmap.

  4. iSBatch: a batch-processing platform for data analysis and exploration of live-cell single-molecule microscopy images and other hierarchical datasets.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Victor E A; Punter, Christiaan M; Ghodke, Harshad; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2015-10-01

    Recent technical advances have made it possible to visualize single molecules inside live cells. Microscopes with single-molecule sensitivity enable the imaging of low-abundance proteins, allowing for a quantitative characterization of molecular properties. Such data sets contain information on a wide spectrum of important molecular properties, with different aspects highlighted in different imaging strategies. The time-lapsed acquisition of images provides information on protein dynamics over long time scales, giving insight into expression dynamics and localization properties. Rapid burst imaging reveals properties of individual molecules in real-time, informing on their diffusion characteristics, binding dynamics and stoichiometries within complexes. This richness of information, however, adds significant complexity to analysis protocols. In general, large datasets of images must be collected and processed in order to produce statistically robust results and identify rare events. More importantly, as live-cell single-molecule measurements remain on the cutting edge of imaging, few protocols for analysis have been established and thus analysis strategies often need to be explored for each individual scenario. Existing analysis packages are geared towards either single-cell imaging data or in vitro single-molecule data and typically operate with highly specific algorithms developed for particular situations. Our tool, iSBatch, instead allows users to exploit the inherent flexibility of the popular open-source package ImageJ, providing a hierarchical framework in which existing plugins or custom macros may be executed over entire datasets or portions thereof. This strategy affords users freedom to explore new analysis protocols within large imaging datasets, while maintaining hierarchical relationships between experiments, samples, fields of view, cells, and individual molecules.

  5. Mission to the Moon: Europe's priorities for the scientific exploration and utilisation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battrick, Bruce; Barron, C.

    1992-06-01

    A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefitting from a lunar base (Moon studies, astronomy, fusion, life sciences, etc.). Scientific issues were divided into three main areas: science of the Moon, including all investigations concerning the Moon as a planetary body; science from the Moon, using the Moon as a platform and therefore including observatories in the broadest sense; science on the Moon, including not only questions relating to human activities in space, but also the development of artificial ecosystems beyond the Earth. Science of the Moon focuses on geographical, geochemical and geological observations of the Earth-Moon system. Science from the Moon takes advantage of the stable lunar ground, its atmosphere free sky and, on the far side, its radio quiet environment. The Moon provides an attractive platform for the observation and study of the Universe. Two techniques that can make unique cause of the lunar platform are ultraviolet to submillimeter interferometric imaging, and very low frequency astronomy. One of the goals of life sciences studies (Science on the Moon) is obviously to provide the prerequisite information for establishing a manned lunar base. This includes studies of human physiology under reduced gravity, radiation protection and life support systems, and feasibility studies based on existing hardware. The overall recommendations are essentially to set up specific study teams for those fields judged to be the most promising for Europe, with the aim of providing more detailed scientific and technological specifications. It is also suggested that the scope of the overall study activities be expanded in order to derive mission scenarios for a viable ESA lunar exploration program and to consider economic, legal and policy matters

  6. Virtual Exploration and Comparison of Linear Mastoid Drilling Trajectories with True-Color Volume Rendering and the Visible Ear Dataset

    PubMed Central

    KAHRS, Lueder A.; LABADIE, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides instructions for a virtual exploration and self-study of surgical approaches within the temporal bone. Linear drilling trajectories in the sense of keyhole accesses are compared with free true-color rendering techniques to introduce and evaluate new otologic approaches. On the basis of free cyro-histology image data from a temporal bone six different drill canals are presented. Such a virtual method has the potential to be a first step of investigation of new surgical approaches before moving to cadaver testing. PMID:23400159

  7. Virtual exploration and comparison of linear mastoid drilling trajectories with true-color volume rendering and the visible ear dataset.

    PubMed

    Kahrs, Lueder A; Labadie, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides instructions for a virtual exploration and self-study of surgical approaches within the temporal bone. Linear drilling trajectories in the sense of "keyhole" accesses are compared with true-color rendering techniques using freeware to introduce and evaluate new otologic approaches. On the basis of public-domain cyro-histology image data from a temporal bone six different drill trajectories are presented. This virtual method has the potential to be a first step in investigation of new surgical approaches before moving to cadaver testing.

  8. Exploring English Language Learners (ELL) experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algee, Lisa M.

    English Language Learners (ELL) are often at a distinct disadvantage from receiving authentic science learning opportunites. This study explored English Language Learners (ELL) learning experiences with scientific language and inquiry within a real life context. This research was theoretically informed by sociocultural theory and literature on student learning and science teaching for ELL. A qualitative, case study was used to explore students' learning experiences. Data from multiple sources was collected: student interviews, science letters, an assessment in another context, field-notes, student presentations, inquiry assessment, instructional group conversations, parent interviews, parent letters, parent homework, teacher-researcher evaluation, teacher-researcher reflective journal, and student ratings of learning activities. These data sources informed the following research questions: (1) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL use of scientific language? (2) Does participation in an out-of-school contextualized inquiry science project increase ELL understanding of scientific inquiry and their motivation to learn? (3) What are parents' funds of knowledge about the local ecology and does this inform students' experiences in the science project? All data sources concerning students were analyzed for similar patterns and trends and triangulation was sought through the use of these data sources. The remaining data sources concerning the teacher-researcher were used to inform and assess whether the pedagogical and research practices were in alignment with the proposed theoretical framework. Data sources concerning parental participation accessed funds of knowledge, which informed the curriculum in order to create continuity and connections between home and school. To ensure accuracy in the researchers' interpretations of student and parent responses during interviews, member checking was employed. The findings

  9. LISIRD 2: Applying Standards and Open Source Software in Exploring and Serving Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Lindholm, D. M.; Ware Dewolfe, A.; Lindholm, C.; Pankratz, C. K.; Snow, M.; Woods, T. N.

    2009-12-01

    The LASP Interactive Solar IRradiance Datacenter (LISIRD), http://lasp.colorado.edu/lisird, seeks to provide exploration of and access to solar irradiance data, models and other related data. These irradiance datasets, from the SME, UARS, TIMED, and SORCE missions, are primarily a function of time and often also wavelength. Their measurements are typically made on a scale of seconds and derived products are provided at daily cadence. The first version of the LISIRD site was built using non standard, proprietary software. The non standard application structure and tight coupling to a variety of dataset representations made changes arduous and maintenance difficult. Eventually the software vender decided to no longer support a critical software component, further decreasing the viability of the site. In LISIRD 2, through the application of the Java EE standard coupled with open source software to fetch and plot the data, the functionality of the original site is being improved while the code structure is being streamlined and simplified. With a relatively minimal effort, the new site can access and serve a greater variety of datasets in an easier fashion, and produce responsive, interactive plots of datasets overlaid and/or linked in time. And it does so using a significantly smaller code base that is, at the same time, much more flexible and extensible. In particular, LISIRD 2 heavily leverages powerful, flexible functionality provided by the Time Series Data Server (TSDS). The OPeNDAP compliant TSDS supports requests for any data that are function of time. It can support scalar, vector, and spectra data types. Through the use of the Unidata NetCDF-Java library and NcML, the TSDS supports multiple input and output formats and is easily extended to support more. It also supports a variety of filters that can be chained and applied to the data on the server before being delivered. TSDS thinning capabilities make it easy for the clients to request appropriate data

  10. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The advance of the scientific discovery process is accomplished by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. Moreover we have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In our paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  11. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-01-01

    The advance of the scientific discovery process is accomplished by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally,more » it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. Moreover we have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In our paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.« less

  12. Lunar scout missions: Galileo encounter results and application to scientific problems and exploration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Mcewen, A.; Neukum, G.; Mccord, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Missions (payload: x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, high-resolution stereocamera, neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, gravity experiment) will provide a global data set for the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, topography, and gravity of the Moon. These data will in turn provide an important baseline for the further scientific exploration of the Moon by all-purpose landers and micro-rovers, and sample return missions from sites shown to be of primary interest from the global orbital data. These data would clearly provide the basis for intelligent selection of sites for the establishment of lunar base sites for long-term scientific and resource exploration and engineering studies. The two recent Galileo encounters with the Moon (December, 1990 and December, 1992) illustrate how modern technology can be applied to significant lunar problems. We emphasize the regional results of the Galileo SSI to show the promise of geologic unit definition and characterization as an example of what can be done with the global coverage to be obtained by the Lunar Scout Missions.

  13. Exploring Two Approaches for an End-to-End Scientific Analysis Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodelson, Scott; Kent, Steve; Kowalkowski, Jim; Paterno, Marc; Sehrish, Saba

    2015-12-01

    The scientific discovery process can be advanced by the integration of independently-developed programs run on disparate computing facilities into coherent workflows usable by scientists who are not experts in computing. For such advancement, we need a system which scientists can use to formulate analysis workflows, to integrate new components to these workflows, and to execute different components on resources that are best suited to run those components. In addition, we need to monitor the status of the workflow as components get scheduled and executed, and to access the intermediate and final output for visual exploration and analysis. Finally, it is important for scientists to be able to share their workflows with collaborators. We have explored two approaches for such an analysis framework for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC); the first one is based on the use and extension of Galaxy, a web-based portal for biomedical research, and the second one is based on a programming language, Python. In this paper, we present a brief description of the two approaches, describe the kinds of extensions to the Galaxy system we have found necessary in order to support the wide variety of scientific analysis in the cosmology community, and discuss how similar efforts might be of benefit to the HEP community.

  14. In Situ Resource Utilization Technologies for Enhancing and Expanding Mars Scientific and Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Finn, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Mars exploration program are to collect data for planetary science in a quest to answer questions related to Origins, to search for evidence of extinct and extant life, and to expand the human presence in the solar system. The public and political engagement that is critical for support of a Mars exploration program is based on all of these objectives. In order to retain and to build public and political support, it is important for NASA to have an integrated Mars exploration plan, not separate robotic and human plans that exist in parallel or in sequence. The resolutions stemming from the current architectural review and prioritization of payloads may be pivotal in determining whether NASA will have such a unified plan and retain public support. There are several potential scientific and technological links between the robotic-only missions that have been flown and planned to date, and the combined robotic and human missions that will come in the future. Taking advantage of and leveraging those links are central to the idea of a unified Mars exploration plan. One such link is in situ resource utilization (ISRU) as an enabling technology to provide consumables such as fuels, oxygen, sweep and utility gases from the Mars atmosphere.

  15. Exploring the Use of Virtual Worlds as a Scientific Research Platform: The Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Hut, P.; McMillan, S.; Vesperini, E.; Knop, R.; Farr, W.; Graham, M. J.

    We describe the Meta-Institute for Computational Astrophysics (MICA), the first professional scientific organization based exclusively in virtual worlds (VWs). The goals of MICA are to explore the utility of the emerging VR and VWs technologies for scientific and scholarly work in general, and to facilitate and accelerate their adoption by the scientific research community. MICA itself is an experiment in academic and scientific practices enabled by the immersive VR technologies. We describe the current and planned activities and research directions of MICA, and offer some thoughts as to what the future developments in this arena may be.

  16. Combining ECS Exploration and Scientific Interest: The Case of the Demarara Plateau Offshore French Guiana (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, W. R.; Loncke, L.; Loubrieu, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French national program for the extension of the continental shelf, EXTRAPLAC, started in 2002 with funding from the French Government. It is let by Ifremer, with as principle partners the SHOM (Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Navy), IPEV (French Polar Institute) and IFP Energies Nouvelles. Its aim is to make submissions for extended continental shelf beyond 200 nm to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. Nine submissions, of which 3 are joint with neighboring states, have been made thus far, concerning areas off metropolitan France and its overseas territories. In total, over 360 days of ship time was needed to explore these vast and dispersed areas, in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. The data collected include multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection and some rock sampling. In this presentation we will describe how the EXTRAPLAC cruise offshore French Guiana (GUYAPLAC, R/V L'Atalante, 2003) let to new scientific results for this transform type margin, in particular in the area of the Demerara Plateau. These include the discovery of gigantic submarine land slides in the subsurface, and associated fluid escape features on the seafloor. A scientific collaboration between the EXTRAPLAC team and academia let to a follow-up cruise proposal to further explore this unique continental margin: The IGUANES cruise, let by the University of Perpignan, took place in April/May 2013, using a higher resolution multibeam echosounder, high resolution seismic reflection and sediment cores. In particular we were able to confirm and better map significant submarine landslide scarps, aligned pockmark fields and sediment waves that likely associated with strong bottom currents and/or the submarine landslides. We will also briefly describe some of the highlight results of other ECS related cruises to show how the EXTRAPLAC program has resulted in new knowledge in remote frontier areas that had very

  17. Using the mystery box as a means to explore the scientific method in an undergraduate lecture setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, H. M.; Cook, G. W.

    2015-12-01

    The mystery box is a well-known and well-loved teaching tool designed to encourage students to engage in making observations in order to draw conclusions. We have adapted this exercise, normally used in laboratory settings, for use in a lecture setting in introductory earth science classes. We have tied it to the scientific method such that students are engaging in mystery-box- based inquiry while exploring the steps of the scientific method. It is used in conjunction with a PowerPoint presentation that illustrates and discusses the steps and process integral to the scientific method, which is fundamental to science. Students are encouraged to explore the formal and informal use of the scientific method throughout their educational careers and in their daily lives. Furthermore, students are challenged to analyze the necessity of the scientific method as means for conducting scientific inquiry and exploring the results of such inquiry. A follow-up assignment to the activity asks students to evaluate the efficacy of the activity and associated PowerPoint and discussion. Students consistently report having enjoyed and learned from the process.

  18. Building the Next Generation of Scientific Explorers through Active Engagement with STEM Experts and International Space Station Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.; Stefanov, W. L.; Rampe, E.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity for all. These experts can share the benefits and utilization of resources from the International Space Station (ISS) while sharing and "translating" exciting science being conducted by professional scientists. Active engagement with these STEM experts involves students in the journey of science and exploration in an enthralling and understandable manner. This active engagement, connecting classrooms with scientific experts, helps inspire and build the next generation of scientific explorers in academia, private industry, and government.

  19. Exploring group dynamics for integrating scientific and experiential knowledge in Community Advisory Boards for HIV research

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Spector, Anya Y.; Valera, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate how Community Advisory Boards (CABs) can best integrate community perspectives with scientific knowledge and involve community in disseminating HIV knowledge, this paper provides a case study exploring the structure and dynamic process of a “Community Collaborative Board” (CCB). We use the term CCB to emphasize collaboration over advisement. The CCB membership, structure and dynamics are informed by theory and research. The CCB is affiliated with Columbia University School of Social Work and its original membership included 30 members. CCB was built using six systematized steps meant to engage members in procedural and substantive research roles. Steps: (1) Engaging membership, (2) Developing relationships, (3) Exchanging information, (4) Negotiation and decision-making, (5) Retaining membership, and (6) Studying dynamic process. This model requires that all meetings be audio-taped to capture CCB dynamics. Using transcribed meeting data, we have identified group dynamics that help the CCB accomplish its objectives: 1) dialectic process helps exchange of information; 2) mutual support helps members work together despite social and professional differences; and 3) problem solving helps members achieve consensus. These dynamics also help members attain knowledge about HIV treatment and prevention and disseminate HIV-related knowledge. CABs can be purposeful in their use of group dynamics, narrow the knowledge gap between researchers and community partners, prepare members for procedural and substantive research roles, and retain community partners. PMID:21390878

  20. Does Anyone Really Know Anything? An Exploration of Constructivist Meaning and Identity in the Tension between Scientific and Religious Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the tension created by religion and science in one student's understanding of knowledge and truth by exploring two questions: "How do individuals accommodate their religious beliefs with their understanding of science?" and "How does religious knowledge interact with scientific knowledge to construct meaning?" A…

  1. A Network Mission: Completing the Scientific Foundation for the Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    W. B. Banerdt

    2000-01-01

    Despite recent setbacks and vacillations in the Mars Surveyor Program, in many respects the exploration of Mars has historically followed a relatively logical path. Early fly-bys provided brief glimpses of the planet and paved the way for the initial orbital reconnaissance of Mariner 9. The Viking orbiters completed the initial survey, while the Viking landers provided our first close-up look at the surface. Essentially, Mars Pathfinder served a similar role, giving a brief look at another place on the surface. And finally, Mars Global Surveyor (and the up-coming orbital mission in 2001) are taking the next step in providing in-depth, global observations of many of the fundamental characteristics of the planet, as well as selected high-resolution views of the surface. With this last step we are well on our way to acquiring the global scientific context that is necessary both for understanding Mars in general, its origin and evolution, and for use as a basis to plan and execute the next level of focused investigations. However, even with the successful completion of these missions this context will be incomplete. Whereas we now know a great deal about the surface of Mars in a global sense, we know very little about its interior, even at depths of only a meter or so. Also, as most of this information has been acquire by remote sensing, we still lack much of the bridging knowledge between the global view and the processes and character of the surface environments themselves. Thus, in many ways we lack sufficient fundamental understanding to intelligently cast the critical investigations into important questions of the origins and evolution of Mars in general, and in particular, life. The next step in building our understanding of Mars has been identified by several previous groups who were charged with creating a strategy for Mars exploration (e.g., COMPLEX, MarSWG, Planetary Roadmap Team). This is a so-called "network" mission, which places a large number of science

  2. Cell-Phone Use and Cancer: A Case Study Exploring the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colon Parrilla, Wilma V.

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an introductory nonmajors biology course, this case study presents students with a series of short news stories describing a scientific study of cell-phone use and its health effects. Students read the news stories and then the scientific paper they are based on, comparing the information presented by the news media to the information…

  3. Exploring "The World around Us" in a Community of Scientific Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Lynda; Compton, Kirsty; Clarke, Linda; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    The primary Communities of Scientific Enquiry project is one element of the outreach work in Science in Society in Biomedical Sciences in partnership with the School of Education at the University of Ulster. The project aims to develop scientific understanding and skills at key stage 2 and is a response to several contemporary issues in primary…

  4. Exploring the Assessment of and Relationship between Elementary Students' Scientific Creativity and Science Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kuay-Keng; Lin, Shu-Fen; Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) develop and validate instruments to assess elementary students' scientific creativity and science inquiry, (b) investigate the relationship between the two competencies, and (c) compare the two competencies among different grade level students. The scientific creativity test was composed of 7 open-ended items…

  5. Exploring Turkish Upper Primary Level Science Textbooks' Coverage of Scientific Literacy Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakici, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Since the 1970s, scientific literacy has been a major goal of national educational systems throughout the world, and thus reform movements in science education call for all students to be scientifically literate. Despite some good curricular changes and developments across the globe, much remains to be achieved. Given that…

  6. Asthma in the community: Designing instruction to help students explore scientific dilemmas that impact their lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Erika Dawn

    School science instruction that connects to students' diverse home, cultural, or linguistic experiences can encourage lifelong participation in the scientific dilemmas that impact students' lives. This dissertation seeks effective ways to support high school students as they learn complex science topics and use their knowledge to transform their personal and community environments. Applying the knowledge integration perspective, I collaborated with education, science, and community partners to design a technology enhanced science module, Improving Your Community's Asthma Problem. This exemplar community science curriculum afforded students the opportunity to (a) investigate a local community health issue, (b) interact with relevant evidence related to physiology, clinical management, and environmental risks, and (c) construct an integrated understanding of the asthma problem in their community. To identify effective instructional scaffolds that engage students in the knowledge integration process and prepare them to participate in community science, I conducted 2 years of research that included 5 schools, 10 teachers, and over 500 students. This dissertation reports on four studies that analyzed student responses on pre-, post-, and embedded assessments. Researching across four design stages, the iterative design study investigated how to best embed the visualizations of the physiological processes breathing, asthma attack, and the allergic immune response in an inquiry activity and informed evidence-based revisions to the module. The evaluation study investigated the impact of this revised Asthma module across multiple classrooms and differences in students' prior knowledge. Combining evidence of student learning from the iterative and evaluation studies with classroom observations and teacher interviews, the longitudinal study explored the impact of teacher practices on student learning in years 1 and 2. In the final chapter, I studied how the Asthma module and

  7. Exploring Elongation-Inclination Relationships in Datasets from Plutons and Remagnetized Sediments: Examples from the North Cascades and the Blue Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    Tectonic applications of paleomagnetism rely upon establishment of paleohorizontal at the time of magnetization. Paleohorizontal can be established in sedimentary rocks and volcanics, but is poorly constrained in plutonic rocks and areas that have experienced regional remagnetizations. This study will explore another latitudinal-dependent property of the geomagnetic field- elongation of elliptical distributions of directional data- to evaluate whether the combination of elongation and inclination can be used to constrain effects of tilt or other paleohorizontal uncertainties in paleomagnetic datasets. This work is inspired by the application of the E-I relationship proposed by Tauxe and Kent (2004) to evaluate effects of inclination error in sedimentary rocks. The first example is from the Blue Mountains of eastern OR. Remagnetized Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks (Hillhouse et al, 1982, Harbert et al, 1995, Housen, 2007, Kalk, 2008) have magnetizations that match those of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous plutons (Wilson and Cox, 1980, Housen, 2007). Directions from 64 sites of these rocks yields a mean of D = 33°, I = 64°, k= 26, α95 = 3.7°. The E-I method can be used to determine the effects of calculated paleohorizontal errors by finding an optimal paleohorizontal error that results in the best agreement between E and I for a set of data. For the Blue Mountains rocks, the optimal E-I relationship yields a corrected inclination of I = 65° (+7°/-4°), and estimated paleolatitude of 47°N (42° to 57°). The second example is from the Cretaceous Mt Stuart batholith in the North Cascades of central WA- these 95-88 Ma plutonic rocks have well defined magnetizations (Housen et al, 2003). Directions from 89 samples have a mean of D = 350°, I=44°, k=50, α95 = 2.1°. The E-I relationship suggests a corrected mean inclination of I=46° (+12°/-3°), and estimated paleolatitude of 27°N (25° to 39°). For the Blue Mountains, this comparison indicates that the

  8. Does anyone really know anything? An exploration of constructivist meaning and identity in the tension between scientific and religious knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Lisa J.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper I discuss the tension created by religion and science in one student's understanding of knowledge and truth by exploring two questions: "How do individuals accommodate their religious beliefs with their understanding of science?" and "How does religious knowledge interact with scientific knowledge to construct meaning?" A constructivist framework sheds light on the answers to both questions in the context of process and product.

  9. Making Meaning of Scientific Practices: Exploring the Pathways and Variations of Classrooms Engaging in Science Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Mon-Lin Monica

    2013-01-01

    A focus of reforms in standards, learning environments, teacher preparation programs and professional development is to support teachers' and students' engagement with scientific practices such as argumentation, modeling and generating explanations for real-world phenomena (NRC, 2011). Engaging in these practices in authentic ways…

  10. Asthma in the Community: Designing Instruction to Help Students Explore Scientific Dilemmas that Impact Their Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Erika Dawn

    2009-01-01

    School science instruction that connects to students' diverse home, cultural, or linguistic experiences can encourage lifelong participation in the scientific dilemmas that impact students' lives. This dissertation seeks effective ways to support high school students as they learn complex science topics and use their knowledge to transform their…

  11. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  12. Exploring Student Identity in an Intercultural Web-Assisted Scientific Inquiry Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yingjie; Hannafin, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study based on Gee's (2001) identity theory examined and compared how American and Chinese middle school students develop identities towards science, culture and technology in an intercultural web-assisted scientific inquiry project. Through analysis of online discussions, videoconferences, interviews, surveys and fieldnotes, we…

  13. Computer Series, 52: Scientific Exploration with a Microcomputer: Simulations for Nonscientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two simulations, written for Apple II microcomputers, focusing on scientific methodology. The first is based on the tendency of colloidal iron in high concentrations to stick to fish gills and cause breathing difficulties. The second, modeled after the dioxin controversy, examines a hypothetical chemical thought to cause cancer. (JN)

  14. The Earth Exploration Toolbook and DLESE Data Services Workshops: Facilitating the Use of Geoscience Data to Convey Scientific Concepts to Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; Dahlman, L.; McAuliffe, C.; Domenico, B.; Taber, M. R.

    2005-12-01

    Although Earth science data and tools are officially freely available to the public, specific data are generally difficult to find, and are often provided in formats that are difficult to use. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, http://serc.carleton.edu/eet) and DLESE (Digital Library for Earth Systems Education) Data Services (http://www.dlese.org/cms/dataservices/) projects are working to facilitate the use of these data and analysis tools by teachers and students, and can serve as mechanisms, facilitated by eGY, for extending the reach of data resulting from the various I*Y scientific efforts. The EET gives educators and students an easy way to learn how to use Earth science data and data analysis tools for learning. Modules (called chapters) in the EET provide step-by-step instructions for accessing and analyzing Earth science datasets within the context of compelling case studies. Each chapter also provides pedagogical information to help the teacher use the data with their students. To introduce datasets and analysis tools to teachers, and to encourage them to use them with their students, the EET team provides telecon-online teacher professional development workshops. During these workshops teachers are guided through the use of a specific EET chapter. When a workshop is complete, participants have the software and data they have worked with installed and available on their own computers. We have run 17 of these workshops reaching over 230 teachers. New EET chapters can be developed through the use of an EET chapter template. The template provides a mechanism by which those outside the project can make their datasets and data analysis tools more accessible to teachers and students, and assures that new chapters are consistent with the EET format and that users have access to the support they need. The development of new EET chapters is facilitated through the DLESE Data Services Workshops. During these workshops data providers, tool developers, scientists

  15. Dynamics Explorer 2: Continued FPI and NACS instrument data analysis and associated scientific activity at the University of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Alan; Killeen, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    The grant entitled 'Dynamics Explorer 2 - continued FPI and NACS instrument data analysis and associated scientific activity at the University of Michigan' is a continuation of a grant that began with instrument development for the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite. Over the years, many publications and presentations at scientific meetings have occurred under the aegis of this grant. This present report details the progress that has been made in the final three years of the grant. In these last 4 years of the grant 26 papers have been published or are in press and about 10 more are in preparation or have been submitted. A large number of presentations have been made in the same time span: 36 are listed in Appendix 2. Evidence of the high educational utility of this research is indicated by the list of Ph. D. and M. S. theses that have been completed in the last 3 years that have involved work connected with NAG5-465. The structure of this report is as follows: a brief synopsis of the aims of the grant NAG5-465 is given in the next section; then there is a summary of the scientific accomplishments that have occurred over the grant period; last, we make some brief concluding remarks. Reprints of articles that have recently appeared in refereed journals are appended to the end of this document.

  16. Exploring prospective secondary science teachers' understandings of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics concepts using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, Mustafa

    The primary objective of this case study was to examine prospective secondary science teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry and Mendelian genetics. A computer simulation of basic Mendelian inheritance processes (Catlab) was used in combination with small-group discussions and other instructional scaffolds to enhance prospective science teachers' understandings. The theoretical background for this research is derived from a social constructivist perspective. Structuring scientific inquiry as investigation to develop explanations presents meaningful context for the enhancement of inquiry abilities and understanding of the science content. The context of the study was a teaching and learning course focused on inquiry and technology. Twelve prospective science teachers participated in this study. Multiple data sources included pre- and post-module questionnaires of participants' view of scientific inquiry, pre-posttests of understandings of Mendelian concepts, inquiry project reports, class presentations, process videotapes of participants interacting with the simulation, and semi-structured interviews. Seven selected prospective science teachers participated in in-depth interviews. Findings suggest that while studying important concepts in science, carefully designed inquiry experiences can help prospective science teachers to develop an understanding about the types of questions scientists in that field ask, the methodological and epistemological issues that constrain their pursuit of answers to those questions, and the ways in which they construct and share their explanations. Key findings included prospective teachers' initial limited abilities to create evidence-based arguments, their hesitancy to include inquiry in their future teaching, and the impact of collaboration on thinking. Prior to this experience the prospective teachers held uninformed views of scientific inquiry. After the module, participants demonstrated extended expertise in

  17. The NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program: Exploring challenges, creating opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepic, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program offers researchers access to the world's largest collection of aerospace information. An overview of Program activities, products and services, and new directions is presented. The R&D information cycle is outlined and specific examples of the NASA STI Program in practice are given. Domestic and international operations and technology transfer activities are reviewed and an agenda for the STI Program NASA-wide is presented. Finally, the incorporation of Total Quality Management and evaluation metrics into the STI Program is discussed.

  18. Exploring the first scientific observations of lunar eclipses made in Siam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Orchiston, Darunee Lingling; George, Martin; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2016-04-01

    The first great ruler to encourage the adoption of Western culture and technology throughout Siam (present-day Thailand) was King Narai, who also had a passion for astronomy. He showed this by encouraging French and other Jesuit missionaries, some with astronomical interests and training, to settle in Siam from the early 1660s. One of these was Father Antoine Thomas, and he was the first European known to have carried out scientific astronomical observations from Siam when he determined the latitude of Ayutthaya in 1681 and the following year observed the total lunar eclipse of 22 February. A later lunar eclipse also has an important place in the history of Thai astronomy. In 1685 a delegation of French missionary-astronomers settled in Ayutthaya, and on 10-11 December 1685 they joined King Narai and his court astrologers and observed a lunar eclipse from the King's 'country retreat' near Lop Buri. This event so impressed the King that he approved the erection of a large modern well-equipped astronomical observatory at Lop Buri. Construction of Wat San Paulo Observatory - as it was known - began in 1686 and was completed in 1687. In this paper we examine these two lunar eclipses and their association with the development of scientific astronomy in Siam.

  19. The Nature of What Teachers Know: Exploring Teacher Knowledge through Novel Scientific Metaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jill Voorhies

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores the nature of what teachers know by examining trends in teacher knowledge research, specifically the use of conventional metaphors to describe teacher knowledge. Contending that conventional metaphors fail to acknowledge the complex and multidimensional nature of teacher knowledge, the author argues that novel metaphors should…

  20. Using a Modeling Approach To Explore Scientific Epistemology with High School Biology Students. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Jennifer

    This paper describes a study of high school students' participation in the construction and revision of explanatory models as they attempted to account for a variety of inheritance phenomena observed in computer-generated "fruit flies". Throughout the course students were encouraged to explore epistemological issues related to the assessment and…

  1. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  2. International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million

  3. MiniGhost : a miniapp for exploring boundary exchange strategies using stencil computations in scientific parallel computing.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Richard Frederick; Heroux, Michael Allen; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2012-04-01

    A broad range of scientific computation involves the use of difference stencils. In a parallel computing environment, this computation is typically implemented by decomposing the spacial domain, inducing a 'halo exchange' of process-owned boundary data. This approach adheres to the Bulk Synchronous Parallel (BSP) model. Because commonly available architectures provide strong inter-node bandwidth relative to latency costs, many codes 'bulk up' these messages by aggregating data into a message as a means of reducing the number of messages. A renewed focus on non-traditional architectures and architecture features provides new opportunities for exploring alternatives to this programming approach. In this report we describe miniGhost, a 'miniapp' designed for exploration of the capabilities of current as well as emerging and future architectures within the context of these sorts of applications. MiniGhost joins the suite of miniapps developed as part of the Mantevo project.

  4. Exploring access to scientific literature using content-based image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserno, Thomas M.; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney

    2007-03-01

    The number of articles published in the scientific medical literature is continuously increasing, and Web access to the journals is becoming common. Databases such as SPIE Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, indices such as PubMed, and search engines such as Google provide the user with sophisticated full-text search capabilities. However, information in images and graphs within these articles is entirely disregarded. In this paper, we quantify the potential impact of using content-based image retrieval (CBIR) to access this non-text data. Based on the Journal Citations Report (JCR), the journal Radiology was selected for this study. In 2005, 734 articles were published electronically in this journal. This included 2,587 figures, which yields a rate of 3.52 figures per article. Furthermore, 56.4% of these figures are composed of several individual panels, i.e. the figure combines different images and/or graphs. According to the Image Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (ImageCLEF), the error rate of automatic identification of medical images is about 15%. Therefore, it is expected that, by applying ImageCLEF-like techniques, already 95.5% of articles could be retrieved by means of CBIR. The challenge for CBIR in scientific literature, however, is the use of local texture properties to analyze individual image panels in composite illustrations. Using local features for content-based image representation, 8.81 images per article are available, and the predicted correctness rate may increase to 98.3%. From this study, we conclude that CBIR may have a high impact in medical literature research and suggest that additional research in this area is warranted.

  5. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Cape Tribulation, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Crumpler, L. S.; McLennan, S. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Opportunity Rover is in its 11th year of exploration, currently exploring the Cape Tribulation rim segment of the ~22 km wide Noachian Endeavour Crater and its tilted and fractured outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is ~25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S levels relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven (gentle swale superimposed on Murray Ridge and site of Opportunity's 5th winter site) and the Hueytown fracture (running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright, wind-scoured outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August 2015. Pervasive but modest aqueous alteration of Endeavour's rim is implied by the combination of CRISM and Opportunity data, providing insight into early aqueous processes dominated in this location by relatively low water to rock ratios, and at least in part associated with enhanced fluid flow along fractures.

  6. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Astronomy Data Centre, Canadian

    2014-01-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors, and the local outlier factor. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex datasets that wishes to extract the full scientific value from its data.

  7. Scalable Machine Learning for Massive Astronomical Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Nicholas M.; Gray, A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the ability to perform data mining and machine learning operations on a catalog of half a billion astronomical objects. This is the result of the combination of robust, highly accurate machine learning algorithms with linear scalability that renders the applications of these algorithms to massive astronomical data tractable. We demonstrate the core algorithms kernel density estimation, K-means clustering, linear regression, nearest neighbors, random forest and gradient-boosted decision tree, singular value decomposition, support vector machine, and two-point correlation function. Each of these is relevant for astronomical applications such as finding novel astrophysical objects, characterizing artifacts in data, object classification (including for rare objects), object distances, finding the important features describing objects, density estimation of distributions, probabilistic quantities, and exploring the unknown structure of new data. The software, Skytree Server, runs on any UNIX-based machine, a virtual machine, or cloud-based and distributed systems including Hadoop. We have integrated it on the cloud computing system of the Canadian Astronomical Data Centre, the Canadian Advanced Network for Astronomical Research (CANFAR), creating the world's first cloud computing data mining system for astronomy. We demonstrate results showing the scaling of each of our major algorithms on large astronomical datasets, including the full 470,992,970 objects of the 2 Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) Point Source Catalog. We demonstrate the ability to find outliers in the full 2MASS dataset utilizing multiple methods, e.g., nearest neighbors. This is likely of particular interest to the radio astronomy community given, for example, that survey projects contain groups dedicated to this topic. 2MASS is used as a proof-of-concept dataset due to its convenience and availability. These results are of interest to any astronomical project with large and/or complex

  8. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K.; Mittlefehldt, D.; Crumpler, L.; McLennan, S.; Farrand, W. H.; Joliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Opportunity Rover is currently in its 11th year of operations, exploring the rim of the approximately 22 km wide Noachian-age Endeavour Crater. Opportunity spent its 5th winter season in Cook Haven, a gentle swale along Murray Ridge. Two small rocks serendipitously overturned by rover wheel motions show evidence for aqueous precipitation of sulfates, and interaction with a strong oxidant (e.g., O2) to form a thin, high valence state Mn oxide coating. After the winter, Opportunity headed south to Cape Tribulation and explored Shoemaker formation impact breccias, finding numerous Ca-sulfate veins cutting across outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is approximately 25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven and the Hueytown (fracture running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright polygonal outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August

  9. Limited By Cost: The Case Against Humans In The Scientific Exploration Of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Andrew J.

    2001-11-01

    Human space flight represents a heady mix of bravery and drama which can be inspirational to nations and to humankind but at huge economic cost. Due to the current high launch costs only a handful of people have ventured beyond low Earth orbit and walked on the Moon, propelled by aspirations related more to the Cold War than to science. Problems with reusable launch vehicle development mean that severe launch cost limitations will exist for some time. Meanwhile, cheaper robotic probes have visited all the planets except Pluto, flown by comets, landed on Mars, Venus and an asteroid, have probed Jupiter's atmosphere and studied the Universe beyond our own solar system with telescopes. Using these data we are determining mankind's place in the Universe. Public interest in the historic Eros landing eclipsed a simultaneous space walk at the fledgling International Space Station and the Mars Pathfinder landing generated hundreds of millions of website hits in a few days. Given the fact that hundreds of Mars missions could be flown for the still-escalating cost of the International Space Station, the unsuitability of human bodies for deep space exploration, and the advances in 3-d and virtual reality techniques, we discuss whether human exploration needs a place in a realistic, useful and inspirational space programme.

  10. Exploring the stability of long intergenic non-coding RNA in K562 cells by comparative studies of RNA-Seq datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The stability of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) that possess tissue/cell-specific expression, might be closely related to their physiological functions. However, the mechanism associated with stability of lincRNA remains elusive. In this study, we try to study the stability of lincRNA in K562 cells, an important model cell, through comparing two K562 transcriptomes which are obtained from ENCODE Consortium and our sequenced RNA-Seq dataset (PH) respectively. Results By lincRNAs analysis pipeline, 1804 high-confidence lincRNAs involving 1564 annotated lincRNAs and 240 putative novel lincRNAs were identified in PH, and 1587 high-confidence lincRNAs including 1429 annotated lincRNAs and 158 putative novel lincRNAs in ENCODE. There are 1009 unique lincRNAs in PH, 792 unique lincRNAs were in ENCODE, and 795 overlapping lincRNAs in both datasets. The analysis of differences in minimum free energy distribution and lincRNA half-life showed that a large proportion of overlapping lincRNAs were more stable than the unique lincRNAs. Most lincRNAs were more unstable than protein-coding RNAs through comparing their minimum free energy. Conclusions Identification of overlapping and unique lincRNAs can be helpful to classify the stability of lincRNAs. Our results suggest that overlapping lincRNAs (relatively stable linRNAs) and unique lincRNAs (relatively unstable lincRNAs) might be involved in different cellular processes. Reviewers This article has been reviewed by Prof. Oliviero Carugo, Dr. Alistair Forrest and Prof. Manju Bansal. PMID:24996425

  11. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 1995-96 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapping program in Antarctica is one of the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). This is the 46th U.S. expedition to Antarctica in which USGS scientists have participated. The financial support from the National Science Foundation, which extends back to the time of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1956-57, can be attributed to the need for accurate maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was being driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support. The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, had, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some international) programs in biology, geology, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958 and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica. The USGS mapping and science programs still play a significant role in the advancement of science in Antarctica today. Antarctica is the planet's 5th largest continent (13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)), it contains the world's largest (of two) remaining ice sheet, and it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report provides documentation of USGS scientific activities in the exploration of

  12. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 2002-03 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapping program in Antarctica is one of the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). This is the 53rd U.S. expedition to Antarctica in which USGS scientists have participated. The financial support from the National Science Foundation, which extends back to the time of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1956–57, can be attributed to the need for accurate maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was being driven by science, and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support. The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, had, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some international) programs in biology, geology, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958 and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica. The USGS mapping and science programs still play a significant role in the advancement of science in Antarctica today. Antarctica is the planet's 5th largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)], it contains the world's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets, and it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report provides documentation of USGS scientific activities in the

  13. Scientific Investigations To Prepare For The Potential Human Exploration Of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Lindsay; Beaty, David; Whitley, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    In order for human missions to the martian system to be successful and safe, we need a certain minimum set of knowledge. Comparison of what we need to know with what we already know defines what we refer to as "Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs)". The SKG list needs to be the driving force behind the robotic precursor program. The Mars SKG list was first constructed by the Precursor Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG) in 2012. It consisted of 17 SKGs that could be addressed by about 60 gap-filling activities (GFA). These GFAs were split into three groups based on where and how they could be carried out: requires a Mars flight/mission, addressed on Earth, or technology demonstration. Those GFAs that require a Mars mission were incorporated into the revision of the 2012 Goals Document of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) as "investigations" under Goal IV: Prepare for Human Exploration. In 2015, MEPAG updated the Goals Document, and comparison of the 2012 and 2015 versions shows that significant and encouraging overall progress has been made on a number of the investigations. We note three specific kinds of changes: 1) Complete retirement of several investigations, 2) Decreased investigation priority based on partial progress, and 3) Addition of a few new investigations. Some of these changes are detailed below: Retired: • Simultaneous spectra of solar energetic particles in space and ion the surface • Spectra of galactic cosmic rays on the surface • Trace gas abundances • Determine traction/cohesion in martian regolith • Determine vertical variation in regolith • High spatial resolution maps of mineral composition and abundance • High spatial resolution maps of subsurface ice depth and concentration Decreased Priority: • Making long-term measurements of winds and wind directions (improvements in EDL technologies have decreased the importance of this measurement) • Profile the near-surface winds (improvements in EDL technologies have

  14. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H.; Duffield, W.A.; Janik, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  15. Earth Camp: Exploring Earth Change through the Use of Satellite Images and Scientific Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldridge, A.; Buxner, S.; Crown, D. A.; Colodner, D.; Orchard, A.; King, B.; Schwartz, K.; Prescott, A.; Prietto, J.; Titcomb, A.

    2014-07-01

    Earth Camp is a NASA-funded program that gives students and teachers opportunities to explore local, regional, and global earth change through a combination of hands-on investigations and the use of satellite images. Each summer, 20 middle school and 20 high school students participate in a two-week leadership program investigating contemporary issues (e.g., changes in river sheds, water quality, and land use management) through hands-on investigations, analyzing remote sensing data, and working with experts. Each year, 20 teachers participate in a year-long professional development program that includes monthly workshops, field investigations on Mt. Lemmon in Tucson, Arizona, and a week-long summer design workshop. Teachers conduct investigations of authentic questions using satellite images and create posters to present results of their study of earth change. In addition, teachers design lesson plans to expand their students' ability to investigate earth change with 21st Century tools. Lessons can be used as classroom exercises or for after-school club programs. Independent evaluation has been an integral part of program development and delivery for all three audiences, enabling the program staff and participants to reflect on and continually improve their practice and learning over the three-year period.

  16. Exploring the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Relating Ontology and Epistemology to the Methodology and Methods of the Scientific, Interpretive, and Critical Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotland, James

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the philosophical underpinnings of three major educational research paradigms: scientific, interpretive, and critical. The aim was to outline and explore the interrelationships between each paradigm's ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods. This paper reveals and then discusses some of the underlying assumptions of…

  17. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices Within an E-Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting

    2015-02-01

    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n = 26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts, was compared to the other class, the comparison group (n = 25), which received only cognitive prompts in the same curriculum. Data sources included a test of inquiry practices, a questionnaire of metacognition, and worksheets. The results showed that the mixed cognitive and metacognitive prompts had significant impacts on the students' inquiry practices, especially their planning and analyzing abilities. Furthermore, the mixed prompts appeared to have a differential effect on those students with lower level metacognition, who showed significant improvement in their inquiry abilities. A combination of cognitive and metacognitive prompts during an inquiry cycle was found to promote students' inquiry practices.

  18. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,900–2,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this

  19. Consequences of the scientific discoveries of the last decade on the techniques needed for Solar System exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncy, Joel; Kamoun, Paul

    2010-05-01

    The first decade of this century has seen a considerable acceleration in our knowledge of the Solar System thanks to the remarkable findings of both spacecraft and ground-based telescopes, combined with major advances in modelling. The number of solar system bodies known to mankind has been multiplied by more than seven, with the number of bodies larger than 500km multiplied by two. The dynamic history has been retraced with scenarios such as the "Nice model" to quote only one. New classes of planetary bodies have been defined with the controversial demotion of Pluto. Many bodies thought dead have been inferred or demonstrated as active, with Enceladus geysers epitomizing this trend. The number of bodies thought to be differentiated has also rocketed thanks to probe measurements and increasingly comprehensive modelling of planetary evolution spanning over the entire age of the Solar System. Water ice has been confirmed below the dry surfaces of the Moon and Mars. Sub-surface oceans of liquid water are now more and more often considered, thus providing for a growing list of potential habitats for simple life forms "as-we-know-it". Exotic life forms could even be theorized on the newly discovered bodies of liquid hydrocarbons on Titan. Paradigm shifts are on going as consequences of these discoveries, whether on Solar System dynamics, on the population of its planetary bodies, on their activity or differentiation state or on those new potential microbial habitats. For engineers involved in the exploration of our system, the resulting scientific expectations call for a closer look at the concrete implications on our future mission and spacecraft designs whether for robotic or manned exploration. We first review in this presentation those recent discoveries and shifts for dynamics, astrogeology and astrobiology. We address their impact on each type of space exploration missions: fly-bys, orbiters, atmospheric probes, landers, sample return and ultimately manned

  20. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  1. Exploring Science in the Studio: NSF-Funded Initiatives to Increase Scientific Literacy in Undergraduate Art and Design Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The project Exploring Science in the Studio at California College of the Arts (CCA), one of the oldest and most influential art and design schools in the country, pursues ways to enable undergraduate students to become scientifically literate problem-solvers in a variety of careers and to give content and context to their creative practices. The two main branches of this National Science Foundation-funded project are a series of courses called Science in the Studio (SitS) and the design of the Mobile Units for Science Exploration (MUSE) system, which allow instructors to bring science equipment directly into the studios. Ongoing since 2010, each fall semester a series of interdisciplinary SitS courses are offered in the college's principal areas of study (architecture, design, fine arts, humanities and sciences, and diversity studies) thematically linked by Earth and environmental science topics such as water, waste, and sustainability. Each course receives funding to embed guest scientists from other colleges and universities, industry, or agriculture directly into the studio courses. These scientists worked in tandem with the studio faculty and gave lectures, led field trips, conducted studio visits, and advised the students' creative endeavors, culminating in an annual SitS exhibition of student work. The MUSE system, of fillable carts and a storage and display unit, was designed by undergraduate students in a Furniture studio who explored, experimented, and researched various ways science materials and equipment are stored, collected, and displayed, for use in the current and future science and studio curricula at CCA. Sustainable practices and "smart design" underpinned all of the work completed in the studio. The materials selected for the new Science Collection at CCA include environmental monitoring equipment and test kits, a weather station, a stream table, a rock and fossil collection, and a vertebrate skull collection. The SitS courses and MUSE system

  2. Exploring recent and projected climate change in a steep monsoonal catchment in the middle Himalaya through innovative synthesis of local observations, gridded datasets and community engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Pritchard, Davis; Tiwari, Prakash; Fowler, Hayley; Kumaun, Bhagwati

    2016-04-01

    Under the auspices of an "Innovation Partnerships" programme research exchange grant jointly funded by the India Department of Science and Technology and the British Council, Kumaun University and Newcastle University have been collaboratively exploring the recorded historical and projected future climate change implications for a case study catchment, the Ramgad river, in the Kumaon Lesser Himalaya (Uttarakhand state, India). This work weaves together diverse research strands with the aim of producing a coherent thorough characterisation of the impacts of recent/on-going and likely climate evolution on local communities. Participatory research activities in multiple villages in the case study catchment have yielded a consistent narrative of changes posed by the increasingly erratic monsoonal rainfall as well as upward displacement and replacement crops in their historical elevation ranges due to temperature change. Multi-decadal climate records from both local observations and global meteorological records reveal a more complex picture with strong seasonal asymmetry of changes in both temperature and precipitation: a) trend analysis shows mild weakening of the early phase (May, July) but strengthen in the later stages (August, September); b) temperature trends show much stronger warming in late winter and early spring (February to April) than the rest of the year with additional asymmetry in both sign and magnitude of change between individual components (Tmax, Tmin) of the diurnal temperature cycle. On-going research seeks to associate this asymmetry with causal mechanisms (cloud radiative effect, atmospheric circulation). Analysis of historical records will provide the basis for validation and assessment of individual regional climate model projections from the CORDEX South Asia domain ensemble. For the terraced agricultural communities of the Kumaon Himalaya, the most directly consequential effects of climate variability and change are impacts on crop yields

  3. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Part of an annual review of mines and mineral resources in the U.S. An overview of nonfuel-mineral exploration in 2000 is presented. Principal exploration target was gold exploration in Latin America, Australia, and the U.S. There was a decrease of 18 percent in the exploration budget for gold as compared with the budget for 1999. Statistical information on nonfuel-mineral exploration worldwide is presented, analyzed, and interpreted.

  4. What the devil is in your phytomedicine? Exploring species substitution in Harpagophytum through chemometric modeling of 1H-NMR and UHPLC-MS datasets.

    PubMed

    Mncwangi, Nontobeko P; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Zhao, Jianping; Vermaak, Ilze; Chen, Wei; Khan, Ikhlas

    2014-10-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens (Pedaliaceae) and its close taxonomical ally Harpagophytum zeyheri, indigenous to southern Africa, are being harvested for exportation to Europe where phytomedicines are developed to treat inflammation-related disorders. The phytochemical variation within and between natural populations of H. procumbens (n=241) and H. zeyheri (n=107) was explored using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis methods. The UHPLC-MS results revealed significant variation in the harpagoside content: H. procumbens (0.17-4.37%); H. zeyheri (0.00-3.07%). Only 41% of the H. procumbens samples and 17% of the H. zeyheri samples met the pharmacopoeial specification of ⩾1.2%. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) indicated separation based on species (UHPLC-MS data OPLS-DA model statistics: R(2)X=0.258, R(2)Y (cum)=0.957 and Q(2)(cum)=0.934; (1)H-NMR data OPLS-DA model statistics: R(2)X=0.830, R(2)Y=0.865 (cum) and Q(2)(cum)=0.829). It was concluded that two species are not chemically equivalent and should not be used interchangeably. PMID:25041697

  5. What the devil is in your phytomedicine? Exploring species substitution in Harpagophytum through chemometric modeling of 1H-NMR and UHPLC-MS datasets.

    PubMed

    Mncwangi, Nontobeko P; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Zhao, Jianping; Vermaak, Ilze; Chen, Wei; Khan, Ikhlas

    2014-10-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens (Pedaliaceae) and its close taxonomical ally Harpagophytum zeyheri, indigenous to southern Africa, are being harvested for exportation to Europe where phytomedicines are developed to treat inflammation-related disorders. The phytochemical variation within and between natural populations of H. procumbens (n=241) and H. zeyheri (n=107) was explored using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis methods. The UHPLC-MS results revealed significant variation in the harpagoside content: H. procumbens (0.17-4.37%); H. zeyheri (0.00-3.07%). Only 41% of the H. procumbens samples and 17% of the H. zeyheri samples met the pharmacopoeial specification of ⩾1.2%. Both principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) indicated separation based on species (UHPLC-MS data OPLS-DA model statistics: R(2)X=0.258, R(2)Y (cum)=0.957 and Q(2)(cum)=0.934; (1)H-NMR data OPLS-DA model statistics: R(2)X=0.830, R(2)Y=0.865 (cum) and Q(2)(cum)=0.829). It was concluded that two species are not chemically equivalent and should not be used interchangeably.

  6. Dataset Lifecycle Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Tauer, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on describing a new dataset lifecycle policy that the NASA Physical Oceanography DAAC (PO.DAAC) has implemented for its new and current datasets to foster improved stewardship and consistency across its archive. The overarching goal is to implement this dataset lifecycle policy for all new GHRSST GDS2 datasets and bridge the mission statements from the GHRSST Project Office and PO.DAAC to provide the best quality SST data in a cost-effective, efficient manner, preserving its integrity so that it will be available and usable to a wide audience.

  7. Exploring learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Li-Ling; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore learners' beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and how these beliefs were associating with their understanding of science texts. About 400 10th graders were involved in the development and validation of the Beliefs about Science Reading Inventory (BSRI). To find the effects of reader beliefs and epistemic beliefs, a new group of 65 10th grade students whose reader and epistemic beliefs were assessed by the newly developed BSRI and an existing SEB questionnaire were invited to take part in a science reading task. Students' text understanding in terms of concept gain and text interpretations was collected and analyzed. By the correlation analysis, it was found that when students had stronger beliefs about meaning construction based on personal goals and experiences (i.e. transaction beliefs), they produced more thematic and critical interpretations of the content of the test article. The regression analysis suggested that students SEBs could predict concept gain as a result of reading. Moreover, among all beliefs examined in the study, transaction beliefs stood out as the best predictor of overall science-text understanding.

  8. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Porter, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This summary of international nonfuel mineral exploration activities for 1998 draws on available data from literature, industry and US Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. Data on exploration budgets by region and commodity are reported, significant mineral discoveries and exploration target areas are identified and government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry are discussed. Inferences and observations on mineral industry direction are drawn from these data and discussions.

  9. Fixing Dataset Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Three current search engines are queried for ozone data at the GES DISC. The results range from sub-optimal to counter-intuitive. We propose a method to fix dataset search by implementing a robust relevancy ranking scheme. The relevancy ranking scheme is based on several heuristics culled from more than 20 years of helping users select datasets.

  10. Exploring the Impacts of Cognitive and Metacognitive Prompting on Students' Scientific Inquiry Practices within an E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wen-Xin; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Wang, Chia-Yu; Ho, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effects of metacognitive and cognitive prompting on the scientific inquiry practices of students with various levels of initial metacognition. Two junior high school classes participated in this study. One class, the experimental group (n?=?26), which received an inquiry-based curriculum with a combination of cognitive and…

  11. Exploring the Potential of Using Stories about Diverse Scientists and Reflective Activities to Enrich Primary Students' Images of Scientists and Scientific Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the potential of using stories about diverse scientists to broaden primary students' images of scientists and scientific work. Stories featuring scientists from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds (i.e., physical ability, gender, ethnicity) were presented to 11 grade one students over a 15-week…

  12. Where Do the Sand-Dust Storms Come From?: Conversations with Specialists from the Exploring Sand-Dust Storms Scientific Expedition Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shixin, Liu

    2004-01-01

    This article relates the different views from specialists of the scientific expedition team for the exploration of the origin of sand-dust storms. They observed and examined on-site the ecological environment of places of origin for sand-dust storms, and tried to find out causes of sand-dust storm and what harm it can cause in the hope of…

  13. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonferrous, nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 58 percent in 2004 from the 2003 budget, according to Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes two years after a five-year period of declining spending for mineral exploration (1998 to 2002). Figures suggest a subsequent 27 percent increase in budgeted expenditures from 2002 to 2003. For the second consecutive year, all regional exploration budget estimates were anticipated to increase.

  14. Dataset Modelability by QSAR

    PubMed Central

    Golbraikh, Alexander; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a simple MODelability Index (MODI) that estimates the feasibility of obtaining predictive QSAR models (Correct Classification Rate above 0.7) for a binary dataset of bioactive compounds. MODI is defined as an activity class-weighted ratio of the number of the nearest neighbor pairs of compounds with the same activity class versus the total number of pairs. The MODI values were calculated for more than 100 datasets and the threshold of 0.65 was found to separate non-modelable from the modelable datasets. PMID:24251851

  15. Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  16. Preparing Precipitation Data Access, Value-added Services and Scientific Exploration Tools for the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrenga, D.; Liu, Z.; Kempler, S. J.; Vollmer, B.; Teng, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Precipitation Data and Information Services Center (PDISC) (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/precipitation or google: NASA PDISC), located at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC), is home of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data archive. For over 15 years, the GES DISC has served not only TRMM, but also other space-based, airborne-based, field campaign and ground-based precipitation data products to the precipitation community and other disciplinary communities as well. The TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products are the most popular products in the TRMM product family in terms of data download and access through Mirador, the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) and other services. The next generation of TMPA, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) to be released in 2014 after the launch of GPM, will be significantly improved in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. To better serve the user community, we are preparing data services and samples are listed below. To enable scientific exploration of Earth science data products without going through complicated and often time consuming processes, such as data downloading, data processing, etc., the GES DISC has developed Giovanni in consultation with members of the user community, requesting quick search, subset, analysis and display capabilities for their specific data of interest. For example, the TRMM Online Visualization and Analysis System (TOVAS, http://disc2.nascom.nasa.gov/Giovanni/tovas/) has proven extremely popular, especially as additional datasets have been added upon request. Giovanni will continue to evolve to accommodate GPM data and the multi-sensor data inter-comparisons that will be sure to follow. Additional PDISC tool and service capabilities being adapted for GPM data include: An on-line PDISC Portal (includes user guide, etc

  17. Exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration budgets fell for a fourth successive year in 2001. These decreases reflected low mineral commodity prices, mineral-market investment reluctance, company failures and a continued trend of company mergers and takeovers.

  18. Scientific results and lessons learned from an integrated crewed Mars exploration simulation at the Rio Tinto Mars analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; Váczi, Tamás; Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    Between 15 and 25 April 2011 in the framework of the PolAres programme of the Austrian Space Forum, a five-day field test of the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator was conducted at the Rio Tinto Mars-analogue site in southern Spain. The field crew was supported by a full-scale Mission Control Center (MCC) in Innsbruck, Austria. The field telemetry data were relayed to the MCC, enabling a Remote Science Support (RSS) team to study field data in near-real-time and adjust the flight planning in a flexible manner. We report on the experiences in the field of robotics, geophysics (Ground Penetrating Radar) and geology as well as life sciences in a simulated spaceflight operational environment. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maps had been prepared using Google Earth and aerial images. The Rio Tinto mining area offers an excellent location for Mars analogue simulations. It is recognised as a terrestrial Mars analogue site because of the presence of jarosite and related sulphates, which have been identified by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in the El Capitan region of Meridiani Planum on Mars. The acidic, high ferric-sulphate content water of Rio Tinto is also considered as a possible analogue in astrobiology regarding the analysis of ferric sulphate related biochemical pathways and produced biomarkers. During our Mars simulation, 18 different types of soil and rock samples were collected by the spacesuit tester. The Raman results confirm the presence of minerals expected, such as jarosite, different Fe oxides and oxi-hydroxides, pyrite and complex Mg and Ca sulphates. Eight science experiments were conducted in the field. In this contribution first we list the important findings during the management and realisation of tests, and also a first summary of the scientific results. Based on these experiences suggestions for future analogue work are also summarised. We finish with recommendations for future field missions, including the preparation of the experiments

  19. Network Effects on Scientific Collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat; Rasmussen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. Methodology/Principal Findings Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality), we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count) and formation (tie strength between authors) of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of ‘steel structure’ for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s) in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s). Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. Conclusions/Significance Authors’ network positions in co-authorship networks influence

  20. The scientific basis of rasa (taste) of a substance as a tool to explore its pharmacological behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Sudipta Kumar; Panja, Asit Kumar; Nagar, Lalit; Shinde, Ashashri

    2014-01-01

    Background: A rational and well-developed pharmacological basis forms the foundation of therapeutics in Ayurveda. The principles and theories of Ayurveda need to be validated in the scientific context in order to harness the millennia old knowledge. Rasa (taste) of the substance is the foremost tool in Ayurveda to assess and determine the pharmacological properties and actions of the substance. Similarity in rasa is said to signify similar structure and consequently similar pharmacological behavior. Depending on skills developed over the course of long-term clinical experience one, can register the minute variations in rasa of substances and accordingly the possible variations in pharmacological actions. Thus, rasa can be used as a scientific tool in the drug discovery process to limit and focus the target areas. Aim: To sensitize scientific community to the utility of rasa as a tool in the process of drug discovery. Materials and Methods: All relevant ancient and contemporary literature was reviewed critically to form a scientific basis of the Ayurvedic concept of rasa as a tool to identify the pharmacological behavior of a substance. Conclusion: The review finds that rasa (taste) can be used as a guide to identify potential targets in drug discovery. PMID:25593398

  1. Student-Centered Use of Case Studies Incorporating Oral and Writing Skills to Explore Scientific Ethical Misconduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Ingrid; Padilla, Adriana; Maldonado, Atenaida; Negretti, Solymar

    2009-01-01

    For many years, ethical misconduct has been long endured and difficult to address in the scientific community. To educate students about ethical misconduct in science, case studies were used in an ethics discussion board for a class group project. The objectives aimed to (i) familiarize students with the term "ethical misconduct", particularly in…

  2. Elementary School Students' Emotions When Exploring an Authentic Socio-Scientific Issue through the Use of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Chr. Th.; Evagorou, M.; Lymbouridou, Chr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the belief that emotions are important in the learning process, research in the area of emotions and learning, especially in science, is scant. Modelling and SSI argumentation have shared with respect to the emphasis in recent science standards reports as core scientific practices that need to be part of science teaching and learning. Even…

  3. Data Integration for Heterogenous Datasets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract More and more, the needs of data analysts are requiring the use of data outside the control of their own organizations. The increasing amount of data available on the Web, the new technologies for linking data across datasets, and the increasing need to integrate structured and unstructured data are all driving this trend. In this article, we provide a technical overview of the emerging “broad data” area, in which the variety of heterogeneous data being used, rather than the scale of the data being analyzed, is the limiting factor in data analysis efforts. The article explores some of the emerging themes in data discovery, data integration, linked data, and the combination of structured and unstructured data. PMID:25553272

  4. The National Hydrography Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a newly combined dataset that provides hydrographic data for the United States. The NHD is the culmination of recent cooperative efforts of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). It combines elements of USGS digital line graph (DLG) hydrography files and the USEPA Reach File (RF3). The NHD supersedes RF3 and DLG files by incorporating them, not by replacing them. Users of RF3 or DLG files will find the same data in a new, more flexible format. They will find that the NHD is familiar but greatly expanded and refined. The DLG files contribute a national coverage of millions of features, including water bodies such as lakes and ponds, linear water features such as streams and rivers, and also point features such as springs and wells. These files provide standardized feature types, delineation, and spatial accuracy. From RF3, the NHD acquires hydrographic sequencing, upstream and downstream navigation for modeling applications, and reach codes. The reach codes provide a way to integrate data from organizations at all levels by linking the data to this nationally consistent hydrographic network. The feature names are from the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). The NHD provides comprehensive coverage of hydrographic data for the United States. Some of the anticipated end-user applications of the NHD are multiuse hydrographic modeling and water-quality studies of fish habitats. Although based on 1:100,000-scale data, the NHD is planned so that it can incorporate and encourage the development of the higher resolution data that many users require. The NHD can be used to promote the exchange of data between users at the national, State, and local levels. Many users will benefit from the NHD and will want to contribute to the dataset as well.

  5. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

    PubMed Central

    HICKMAN, CLARE

    2014-01-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces. PMID:26052165

  6. Changes in orthodontic treatment modalities in the past 20 years: exploring the link between technology and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T Gerard

    2013-01-01

    STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE: Is there a link between the many perceived advances in orthodontic techniques/therapy and science in the past 20 years? The purpose of this paper is to take five topics and match the perceptions with the scientific evidence. The variety of appliances and the swings in treatment philosophy have been dramatic, including the swing from extraction to non-extraction therapy, the introduction of space-age wires, appliances that grow mandibles, the introduction and extraordinary growth of Invisalign, and reduced friction brackets to reduce treatment time, all with claims by manufacturers of better results than ever before. The focus is on faster treatment, reduced visits/appointments and superior results. Most of these 'advancements' represent what has been the 'juggernaut of technology'. Five questions are posed, and an evidence-based approach is used to critically examine the literature in these selected topics.

  7. National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is a feature-based database that interconnects and uniquely identifies the stream segments or reaches that make up the nation's surface water drainage system. NHD data was originally developed at 1:100,000 scale and exists at that scale for the whole country. High resolution NHD adds detail to the original 1:100,000-scale NHD. (Data for Alaska, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands was developed at high-resolution, not 1:100,000 scale.) Like the 1:100,000-scale NHD, high resolution NHD contains reach codes for networked features and isolated lakes, flow direction, names, stream level, and centerline representations for areal water bodies. Reaches are also defined to represent waterbodies and the approximate shorelines of the Great Lakes, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico. The NHD also incorporates the National Spatial Data Infrastructure framework criteria set out by the Federal Geographic Data Committee.

  8. [The coast of Northeast Brazil as a Darwinian scientific object: the explorations of John Casper Branner, 1899-1911].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Almir Leal

    2014-01-01

    John Casper Branner, a US geologist, had a long history of research in Brazil. The article analyzes his exploration of the geology of the coast of Northeast Brazil during the Branner-Agassiz (1899) and Stanford (1911) expeditions. In the findings from both voyages, Branner characterized the geomorphology of sedimentary basins, sandstone reefs, and coral reefs from a Darwinian evolutionary perspective, blending natural history's model of field research with the practices of modern biology and dynamic geology. He based his interpretation of the evolution of the geological formation on physical and chemical factors. Zoological studies identified the place of evolutionary variation and adaptations of isolated marine species as an auxiliary factor in natural selection. PMID:25338034

  9. Publicly Releasing a Large Simulation Dataset with NDS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Nathan

    2016-03-01

    Optimally, all publicly funded research should be accompanied by the tools, code, and data necessary to fully reproduce the analysis performed in journal articles describing the research. This ideal can be difficult to attain, particularly when dealing with large (>10 TB) simulation datasets. In this lightning talk, we describe the process of publicly releasing a large simulation dataset to accompany the submission of a journal article. The simulation was performed using Enzo, an open source, community-developed N-body/hydrodynamics code and was analyzed using a wide range of community- developed tools in the scientific Python ecosystem. Although the simulation was performed and analyzed using an ecosystem of sustainably developed tools, we enable sustainable science using our data by making it publicly available. Combining the data release with the NDS Labs infrastructure allows a substantial amount of added value, including web-based access to analysis and visualization using the yt analysis package through an IPython notebook interface. In addition, we are able to accompany the paper submission to the arXiv preprint server with links to the raw simulation data as well as interactive real-time data visualizations that readers can explore on their own or share with colleagues during journal club discussions. It is our hope that the value added by these services will substantially increase the impact and readership of the paper.

  10. Genomics dataset of unidentified disclosed isolates.

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of DNA sequences is necessary for higher hierarchical classification of the organisms. It gives clues about the characteristics of organisms and their taxonomic position. This dataset is chosen to find complexities in the unidentified DNA in the disclosed patents. A total of 17 unidentified DNA sequences were thoroughly analyzed. The quick response codes were generated. AT/GC content of the DNA sequences analysis was carried out. The QR is helpful for quick identification of isolates. AT/GC content is helpful for studying their stability at different temperatures. Additionally, a dataset on cleavage code and enzyme code studied under the restriction digestion study, which helpful for performing studies using short DNA sequences was reported. The dataset disclosed here is the new revelatory data for exploration of unique DNA sequences for evaluation, identification, comparison and analysis.

  11. Genomics dataset of unidentified disclosed isolates.

    PubMed

    Rekadwad, Bhagwan N

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of DNA sequences is necessary for higher hierarchical classification of the organisms. It gives clues about the characteristics of organisms and their taxonomic position. This dataset is chosen to find complexities in the unidentified DNA in the disclosed patents. A total of 17 unidentified DNA sequences were thoroughly analyzed. The quick response codes were generated. AT/GC content of the DNA sequences analysis was carried out. The QR is helpful for quick identification of isolates. AT/GC content is helpful for studying their stability at different temperatures. Additionally, a dataset on cleavage code and enzyme code studied under the restriction digestion study, which helpful for performing studies using short DNA sequences was reported. The dataset disclosed here is the new revelatory data for exploration of unique DNA sequences for evaluation, identification, comparison and analysis. PMID:27408929

  12. The 3D widgets for exploratory scientific visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, Kenneth P.; Meyer, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to simulate flows of fluids like air or water around such objects as airplanes and automobiles. These techniques usually generate very large amounts of numerical data which are difficult to understand without using graphical scientific visualization techniques. There are a number of commercial scientific visualization applications available today which allow scientists to control visualization tools via textual and/or 2D user interfaces. However, these user interfaces are often difficult to use. We believe that 3D direct-manipulation techniques for interactively controlling visualization tools will provide opportunities for powerful and useful interfaces with which scientists can more effectively explore their datasets. A few systems have been developed which use these techniques. In this paper, we will present a variety of 3D interaction techniques for manipulating parameters of visualization tools used to explore CFD datasets, and discuss in detail various techniques for positioning tools in a 3D scene.

  13. Public Availability to ECS Collected Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, J. F.; Warnken, R.; McLean, S. J.; Lim, E.; Varner, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal nations have spent considerable resources exploring the limits of their extended continental shelf (ECS) beyond 200 nm. Although these studies are funded to fulfill requirements of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the investments are producing new data sets in frontier areas of Earth's oceans that will be used to understand, explore, and manage the seafloor and sub-seafloor for decades to come. Although many of these datasets are considered proprietary until a nation's potential ECS has become 'final and binding' an increasing amount of data are being released and utilized by the public. Data sets include multibeam, seismic reflection/refraction, bottom sampling, and geophysical data. The U.S. ECS Project, a multi-agency collaboration whose mission is to establish the full extent of the continental shelf of the United States consistent with international law, relies heavily on data and accurate, standard metadata. The United States has made it a priority to make available to the public all data collected with ECS-funding as quickly as possible. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) supports this objective by partnering with academia and other federal government mapping agencies to archive, inventory, and deliver marine mapping data in a coordinated, consistent manner. This includes ensuring quality, standard metadata and developing and maintaining data delivery capabilities built on modern digital data archives. Other countries, such as Ireland, have submitted their ECS data for public availability and many others have made pledges to participate in the future. The data services provided by NGDC support the U.S. ECS effort as well as many developing nation's ECS effort through the U.N. Environmental Program. Modern discovery, visualization, and delivery of scientific data and derived products that span national and international sources of data ensure the greatest re-use of data and

  14. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  15. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    PubMed Central

    Tafti, Ahmad P.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B.; Holz, Jessica D.; Owen, Heather A.; Yu, Zeyun

    2015-01-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. PMID:26779561

  16. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset.

    PubMed

    Tafti, Ahmad P; Kirkpatrick, Andrew B; Holz, Jessica D; Owen, Heather A; Yu, Zeyun

    2016-03-01

    The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples.

  17. National Elevation Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  18. Converting Static Image Datasets to Spiking Neuromorphic Datasets Using Saccades.

    PubMed

    Orchard, Garrick; Jayawant, Ajinkya; Cohen, Gregory K; Thakor, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Creating datasets for Neuromorphic Vision is a challenging task. A lack of available recordings from Neuromorphic Vision sensors means that data must typically be recorded specifically for dataset creation rather than collecting and labeling existing data. The task is further complicated by a desire to simultaneously provide traditional frame-based recordings to allow for direct comparison with traditional Computer Vision algorithms. Here we propose a method for converting existing Computer Vision static image datasets into Neuromorphic Vision datasets using an actuated pan-tilt camera platform. Moving the sensor rather than the scene or image is a more biologically realistic approach to sensing and eliminates timing artifacts introduced by monitor updates when simulating motion on a computer monitor. We present conversion of two popular image datasets (MNIST and Caltech101) which have played important roles in the development of Computer Vision, and we provide performance metrics on these datasets using spike-based recognition algorithms. This work contributes datasets for future use in the field, as well as results from spike-based algorithms against which future works can compare. Furthermore, by converting datasets already popular in Computer Vision, we enable more direct comparison with frame-based approaches.

  19. Converting Static Image Datasets to Spiking Neuromorphic Datasets Using Saccades

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Garrick; Jayawant, Ajinkya; Cohen, Gregory K.; Thakor, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Creating datasets for Neuromorphic Vision is a challenging task. A lack of available recordings from Neuromorphic Vision sensors means that data must typically be recorded specifically for dataset creation rather than collecting and labeling existing data. The task is further complicated by a desire to simultaneously provide traditional frame-based recordings to allow for direct comparison with traditional Computer Vision algorithms. Here we propose a method for converting existing Computer Vision static image datasets into Neuromorphic Vision datasets using an actuated pan-tilt camera platform. Moving the sensor rather than the scene or image is a more biologically realistic approach to sensing and eliminates timing artifacts introduced by monitor updates when simulating motion on a computer monitor. We present conversion of two popular image datasets (MNIST and Caltech101) which have played important roles in the development of Computer Vision, and we provide performance metrics on these datasets using spike-based recognition algorithms. This work contributes datasets for future use in the field, as well as results from spike-based algorithms against which future works can compare. Furthermore, by converting datasets already popular in Computer Vision, we enable more direct comparison with frame-based approaches. PMID:26635513

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    3) significant changes that have occurred in Antarctic exploration and research since World War II will be discussed at the end of this report. Subsequent Open-File Reports will provide a year-by-year documentation of USGS scientific activities and accomplishments in Antarctica beginning with the post-IGY, 1959-60 research team. One Open-File Report is planned to be written for each field-based season. For an example of the series format, see Open-File Reports 2006-1113 (Meunier, 2007a) and 2006-1114 (Meunier, 2007b). This report is a companion document to Open-File Report 2006-1116 (Meunier, 2007c). The USGS mapping and science programs in Antarctica are among the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). The 2005-06 field season is the 56th consecutive U.S. expedition in which USGS scientists have been participants, starting in 1946. USGS and the National Science Foundation (NSF) cooperation began with the establishment by NSF of the U.S. Antarctic (Research) Program [USA(R)P] in 1958-59 under Operation Deep Freeze IV (DF IV) and was given the responsibility for the principal coordination and management of all U.S. scientific activities in Antarctica in Deep Freeze 60 (DF 60) (1959-60). Financial support from NSF, mostly in the form of Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) and Cooperative Agreements, extends back to this period and can be attributed to the need for accurate geologic, geophysical, and topographic base maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support (Meunier, 1979 [2007], p. 38). The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, has, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    3) significant changes that have occurred in Antarctic exploration and research since World War II will be discussed at the end of this report. Subsequent Open-File Reports will provide a year-by-year documentation of USGS scientific activities and accomplishments in Antarctica beginning with the post-IGY, 1959-60 research team. One Open-File Report is planned to be written for each field-based season. For an example of the series format, see Open-File Reports 2006-1113 (Meunier, 2007a) and 2006-1114 (Meunier, 2007b). This report is a companion document to Open-File Report 2006-1116 (Meunier, 2007c). The USGS mapping and science programs in Antarctica are among the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). The 2005-06 field season is the 56th consecutive U.S. expedition in which USGS scientists have been participants, starting in 1946. USGS and the National Science Foundation (NSF) cooperation began with the establishment by NSF of the U.S. Antarctic (Research) Program [USA(R)P] in 1958-59 under Operation Deep Freeze IV (DF IV) and was given the responsibility for the principal coordination and management of all U.S. scientific activities in Antarctica in Deep Freeze 60 (DF 60) (1959-60). Financial support from NSF, mostly in the form of Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) and Cooperative Agreements, extends back to this period and can be attributed to the need for accurate geologic, geophysical, and topographic base maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support (Meunier, 1979 [2007], p. 38). The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, has, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some

  2. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  3. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs.

    PubMed

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  4. Magic Termites: Exploring Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Kristine; Henkel, Melissa; Lund, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the termite experiment is to walk students through the process of designing and conducting an experiment while allowing them to use inquiry-based methods to infer why, in this lab, termites follow the line of blue Bic or Paper Mate brand ballpoint pens. This experiment also reinforces the concept of observation versus inference…

  5. Chemical gas sensor array dataset.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    To address drift in chemical sensing, an extensive dataset was collected over a period of three years. An array of 16 metal-oxide gas sensors was exposed to six different volatile organic compounds at different concentration levels under tightly-controlled operating conditions. Moreover, the generated dataset is suitable to tackle a variety of challenges in chemical sensing such as sensor drift, sensor failure or system calibration. The data is related to "Chemical gas sensor drift compensation using classifier ensembles", by Vergara et al. [1], and "On the calibration of sensor arrays for pattern recognition using the minimal number of experiments", by Rodriguez-Lujan et al. [2] The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+Sensor+Array+Drift+Dataset+at+Different+Concentrations.

  6. A new look at NASA datasets with clustering redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mernard, Brice

    Observations of the extragalactic sky are inherently flux measurements as a function of 2D angular coordinates. Astrophysical exploration, however, requires the knowledge of distances or cosmological redshifts. Over the past few years, the new technique of 'clustering redshifts' has emerged. It allows one to obtain redshift information without any knowledge of the objects' spectral energy distribution. The PI has led the development of the first algorithms to successfully apply this to real data. While a number of interesting results have come out, in a number of cases the inference is not possible due to low signal-to-noise, for example for populations with low number density on the sky and/or by sampling considerations when observations in several photometric bands are available. The proposed work shows how to alleviate these limitations with new numerical techniques that can substantially increase the statistical power and cleverly sample a high-dimensional photometric space. This will lead to a new tool which will allow us to estimate clustering redshifts for a substantial fraction of sources detected in NASA datasets: WISE, GALEX, ROSAT, Fermi, etc. The corresponding redshift catalogs will be released to the community and will enable a broad range of scientific explorations. The development of the clustering redshift technique will also benefit the preparation of future missions such as Euclid and WFIRST.

  7. The plague of the Philistines and other pestilences in the Ancient World: exploring relations between the religious-literary tradition, artistic evidence and scientific proof.

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2010-09-01

    In ancient times the term pestilence referred not only to infectious disease caused by Yersinia pestis, but also to several different epidemics. We explore the relations between references in the Bible and recent scientific evidence concerning some infectious diseases, especially the so-called Plague of the Philistines and leprosy. In addition, some considerations regarding possible connections among likely infectious epidemic diseases and the Ten Plagues of Egypt are reported. Evidence suggesting the presence of the rat in the Nile Valley in the II millennium BC is shown; a possible role of the rat in the plague spreading already in this historical period should be confirmed by these data. While the biblical tale in the Book of Samuel may well report an epidemic event resembling the plague, as to date this infectious disease remains unknown, it is not conceivable to confirm the presence of leprosy in the same age, because the little palaeopathologic evidence of the latter disease, in the geographic area corresponding to Egypt and Palestine, is late, dating back only to the II century AD.

  8. Providing Geographic Datasets as Linked Data in Sdi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hietanen, E.; Lehto, L.; Latvala, P.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a prototype service to provide data from Web Feature Service (WFS) as linked data is implemented. At first, persistent and unique Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI) are created to all spatial objects in the dataset. The objects are available from those URIs in Resource Description Framework (RDF) data format. Next, a Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontology is created to describe the dataset information content using the Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) GeoSPARQL vocabulary. The existing data model is modified in order to take into account the linked data principles. The implemented service produces an HTTP response dynamically. The data for the response is first fetched from existing WFS. Then the Geographic Markup Language (GML) format output of the WFS is transformed on-the-fly to the RDF format. Content Negotiation is used to serve the data in different RDF serialization formats. This solution facilitates the use of a dataset in different applications without replicating the whole dataset. In addition, individual spatial objects in the dataset can be referred with URIs. Furthermore, the needed information content of the objects can be easily extracted from the RDF serializations available from those URIs. A solution for linking data objects to the dataset URI is also introduced by using the Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID). The dataset is divided to the subsets and each subset is given its persistent and unique URI. This enables the whole dataset to be explored with a web browser and all individual objects to be indexed by search engines.

  9. Detecting Novel Associations in Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Reshef, David N.; Reshef, Yakir A.; Finucane, Hilary K.; Grossman, Sharon R.; McVean, Gilean; Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Lander, Eric S.; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying interesting relationships between pairs of variables in large datasets is increasingly important. Here, we present a measure of dependence for two-variable relationships: the maximal information coefficient (MIC). MIC captures a wide range of associations both functional and not, and for functional relationships provides a score that roughly equals the coefficient of determination (R2) of the data relative to the regression function. MIC belongs to a larger class of maximal information-based nonparametric exploration (MINE) statistics for identifying and classifying relationships. We apply MIC and MINE to datasets in global health, gene expression, major-league baseball, and the human gut microbiota, and identify known and novel relationships. PMID:22174245

  10. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  11. Efficient genotype compression and analysis of large genetic variation datasets

    PubMed Central

    Layer, Ryan M.; Kindlon, Neil; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Quinlan, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    Genotype Query Tools (GQT) is a new indexing strategy that expedites analyses of genome variation datasets in VCF format based on sample genotypes, phenotypes and relationships. GQT’s compressed genotype index minimizes decompression for analysis, and performance relative to existing methods improves with cohort size. We show substantial (up to 443 fold) performance gains over existing methods and demonstrate GQT’s utility for exploring massive datasets involving thousands to millions of genomes. PMID:26550772

  12. Bulk Data Movement for Climate Dataset: Efficient Data Transfer Management with Dynamic Transfer Adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, Alexander; Balman, Mehmet; Williams, Dean N.; Shoshani, Arie; Natarajan, Vijaya

    2010-07-16

    Many scientific applications and experiments, such as high energy and nuclear physics, astrophysics, climate observation and modeling, combustion, nano-scale material sciences, and computational biology, generate extreme volumes of data with a large number of files. These data sources are distributed among national and international data repositories, and are shared by large numbers of geographically distributed scientists. A large portion of data is frequently accessed, and a large volume of data is moved from one place to another for analysis and storage. One challenging issue in such efforts is the limited network capacity for moving large datasets to explore and manage. The Bulk Data Mover (BDM), a data transfer management tool in the Earth System Grid (ESG) community, has been managing the massive dataset transfers efficiently with the pre-configured transfer properties in the environment where the network bandwidth is limited. Dynamic transfer adjustment was studied to enhance the BDM to handle significant end-to-end performance changes in the dynamic network environment as well as to control the data transfers for the desired transfer performance. We describe the results from the BDM transfer management for the climate datasets. We also describe the transfer estimation model and results from the dynamic transfer adjustment.

  13. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-01-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications. PMID:27676312

  14. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  15. Development of a Comprehensive Plan for Scientific Research, Exploration, and Design: Creation of an Undergroung Radioactive Waste Isloation Facility at the Nizhnekansky Rock Massif

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2005-06-15

    ISTC Partner Project No.2377, ''Development of a General Research and Survey Plan to Create an Underground RW Isolation Facility in Nizhnekansky Massif'', funded a group of key Russian experts in geologic disposal, primarily at Federal State Unitary Enterprise All-Russian Design and Research Institute of Engineering Production (VNIPIPT) and Mining Chemical Combine Krasnoyarsk-26 (MCC K-26) (Reference 1). The activities under the ISTC Partner Project were targeted to the creation of an underground research laboratory which was to justify the acceptability of the geologic conditions for ultimate isolation of high-level waste in Russia. In parallel to this project work was also under way with Minatom's financial support to characterize alternative sections of the Nizhnekansky granitoid rock massif near the MCC K-26 site to justify the possibility of creating an underground facility for long-term or ultimate isolation of radioactive waste (RW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). (Reference 2) The result was a synergistic, integrated set of activities several years that advanced the geologic repository site characterization and development of a proposed underground research laboratory better than could have been expected with only the limited funds from ISTC Partner Project No.2377 funded by the U.S. DOE-RW. There were four objectives of this ISTC Partner Project 2377 geologic disposal work: (1) Generalize and analyze all research work done previously at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif by various organizations; (2) Prepare and issue a declaration of intent (DOI) for proceeding with an underground research laboratory in a granite massif near the MCC K-26 site. (The DOI is similar to a Record of Decision in U.S. terminology). (3) Proceeding from the data obtained as a result of scientific research and exploration and design activities, prepare a justification of investment (JOI) for an underground research laboratory in as much detail as the available site characterization

  16. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  17. Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1980-01-01

    The value of communication in the preservation of scientific knowledge is described as it relates to the specialized scientific journals. The discipline of peer review is described as the major factor in keeping the scientific enterprise relatively honest. (SA)

  18. Rough Clustering for Cancer Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herawan, Tutut

    Cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among people in the whole world. It is confirmed that the early detection and accurate diagnosis of this disease can ensure a long survival of the patients. Expert systems and machine learning techniques are gaining popularity in this field because of the effective classification and high diagnostic capability. This paper presents the application of rough set theory for clustering two cancer datasets. These datasets are taken from UCI ML repository. The method is based on MDA technique proposed by [11]. To select a clustering attribute, the maximal degree of the rough attributes dependencies in categorical-valued information systems is used. Further, we use a divide-and-conquer method to partition/cluster the objects. The results show that MDA technique can be used to cluster to the data. Further, we present clusters visualization using two dimensional plot. The plot results provide user friendly navigation to understand the cluster obtained.

  19. Source Detection with Interferometric Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.; Macquart, Jean-Pierre R.; Tingay, Steven J.

    2012-04-01

    The detection of sources in interferometric radio data typically relies on extracting information from images, formed by Fourier transform of the underlying visibility dataset, and CLEANed of contaminating sidelobes through iterative deconvolution. Variable and transient radio sources span a large range of variability timescales, and their study has the potential to enhance our knowledge of the dynamic universe. Their detection and classification involve large data rates and non-stationary PSFs, commensal observing programs and ambitious science goals, and will demand a paradigm shift in the deployment of next-generation instruments. Optimal source detection and classification in real time requires efficient and automated algorithms. On short time-scales variability can be probed with an optimal matched filter detector applied directly to the visibility dataset. This paper shows the design of such a detector, and some preliminary detection performance results.

  20. Development of a SPARK Training Dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Amanda M.; Olson, Jarrod R.

    2015-03-01

    In its first five years, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) sponsored more than 400 undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral students in internships and research positions (Wyse 2012). In the past seven years, the NGSI program has, and continues to produce a large body of scientific, technical, and policy work in targeted core safeguards capabilities and human capital development activities. Not only does the NGSI program carry out activities across multiple disciplines, but also across all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/NNSA locations in the United States. However, products are not readily shared among disciplines and across locations, nor are they archived in a comprehensive library. Rather, knowledge of NGSI-produced literature is localized to the researchers, clients, and internal laboratory/facility publication systems such as the Electronic Records and Information Capture Architecture (ERICA) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). There is also no incorporated way of analyzing existing NGSI literature to determine whether the larger NGSI program is achieving its core safeguards capabilities and activities. A complete library of NGSI literature could prove beneficial to a cohesive, sustainable, and more economical NGSI program. The Safeguards Platform for Automated Retrieval of Knowledge (SPARK) has been developed to be a knowledge storage, retrieval, and analysis capability to capture safeguards knowledge to exist beyond the lifespan of NGSI. During the development process, it was necessary to build a SPARK training dataset (a corpus of documents) for initial entry into the system and for demonstration purposes. We manipulated these data to gain new information about the breadth of NGSI publications, and they evaluated the science-policy interface at PNNL as a practical demonstration of SPARK’s intended analysis capability. The analysis demonstration sought to answer the

  1. Design of FastQuery: How to Generalize Indexing and Querying System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-04-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies such as FastBit are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets. These technologies rely on adding auxiliary information to existing datasets to accelerate query processing. To use these indices, we need to match the relational data model used by the indexing systems with the array data model used by most scientific data, and to provide an efficient input and output layer for reading and writing the indices. In this work, we present a flexible design that can be easily applied to most scientific data formats. We demonstrate this flexibility by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using simulation data from the particle accelerator and climate simulation communities. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the new design, we also present a detailed performance study using both synthetic and real scientific workloads.

  2. Lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, I. A.; Joy, K. H.; Anand, M.

    The Moon has historically been at the forefront of the solar system exploration. Building on early telescopic discoveries, over the past half century lunar exploration by spacecraft has taught us much about the Moon as a planetary body, the early history of the solar system (including the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system), the geological evolution of rocky planets more generally, and the near-Earth cosmic environment throughout the solar system history. In this chapter, we review the rich history of lunar exploration and draw attention to the advances in scientific knowledge that have resulted from it. We also review the scientific arguments for continued lunar exploration and argue that these will be maximized in the context of a renewed program of human exploration of the Moon.

  3. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific…

  4. Exploring High School Students' Use of Theory and Evidence in an Everyday Context: The Role of Scientific Thinking in Environmental Science Decision-Making. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was…

  5. Exploring High School Students' Use of Theory and Evidence in an Everyday Context: The Role of Scientific Thinking in Environmental Science Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was…

  6. Exploring the Structural Relationships between High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Views and Their Utilization of Information Commitments toward Online Science Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationships between scientific epistemological views (SEVs) and information commitments (ICs) of high school students in Taiwan. Data were collected from 486 Taiwanese high school students via two self-reporting instruments: one was the SEV questionnaire, including five scales for…

  7. Using Real Datasets for Interdisciplinary Business/Economics Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Rajni; Straight, Ronald L.

    2005-01-01

    The workplace's global and dynamic nature allows and requires improved approaches for providing business and economics education. In this article, the authors explore ways of enhancing students' understanding of course material by using nontraditional, real-world datasets of particular interest to them. Teaching at a historically Black university,…

  8. Using Exoplanet Models to Explore NGSS and the Nature of Science and as a Tool for Understanding the Scientific Results from NIRCam/JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Higgins, Michelle L.; Lebofsky, Nancy R.

    2014-11-01

    Our Solar System is no longer unique. To date, about 1,800 planets are known to orbit over 1,100 other stars and nearly 50% are in multiple-planet systems. Planetary systems seem [to be] fairly common and astronomers are now finding Earth-sized planets in the Goldilocks Zone, suggesting there may be other habitable planets. To this end, characterizing the atmospheric chemistries of such planets is a major science goal of the NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope.For NIRCam's E/PO program with the Girl Scouts of the USA, we have produced scale models and associated activities to compare the size, scale, and dynamics of the Solar System with several exoplanet systems. Our models illustrate the techniques used to investigate these systems: radial velocity, transits, direct observations, and gravitational microlensing. By comparing and contrasting these models, we place our Solar System in a more cosmic context and enable discussion of current questions within the scientific community: How do planetary systems form and evolve? Is our present definition of a planet a good definition in the context of other planetary systems? Are there other planets/moons that might harbor life as we know it?These models are appropriate for use in classrooms and conform to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through the Disciplinary Core Idea: Earth's Place in the Universe and Crosscutting Concepts—Patterns Scale, Portion, and Quantity; and Systems and System Models. NGSS also states that the Nature of Science (NOS) should be an “essential part” of science education. NOS topics include, for example, understanding that scientific investigations use a variety of methods, that scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence, that scientific explanations are open to revision in light of new evidence, and an understanding the nature of scientific models.

  9. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure.

  10. Securely measuring the overlap between private datasets with cryptosets.

    PubMed

    Swamidass, S Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data--collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks--into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets--like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data--cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset's contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach "information-theoretic" security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  11. Can we really make a difference? Exploring pre-service teachers' experience with socio-scientific issues aiming for democratic participation in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kristin Leigh

    Responding to calls for an empirical glimpse into a socioscientific issues (SSI)-based curriculum that aims to promote democratic participation, enhance students' connections to science, and empower students for the betterment of society (Dos Santos, 2008; Sadler, Barab, & Scott, 2007; Tal & Kedmi, 2006; Fusco & Barton, 2001; Hodson, 2003), this critical case study of 24 pre-service teachers (PSTs) enrolled in a scientific inquiry course offers curricular suggestions to empower learners to connect with the dynamic and socially-mediated process of science. In effect, incorporating nature of science-focused and place-based inquiry into a collaboration between PSTs and scientists were essential elements in enhancing students' connections to and feelings of inclusion in SSI. Propelled beyond a deficit model of public participation in science, the PSTs did indeed experience a public debate model and in some cases a knowledge production model in their collaborative efforts with scientists (Callon, 1999; Pouliot, 2009). While all of the PSTs engaged in rich discussion of their perspectives with scientists to enhance the investigation of their inquiry, some experienced a redistribution of the roles of participation in the production of scientific knowledge that was integrated into the scientists' decision-making processes. The materialization of these models depended on the structures of the student-scientists collaboration and the ways in which these malleable structures were flexed and negotiated. In effect, this study contributes to the literature on the potentials of SSI by providing an example of an educational approach that engages learners in a community practice as active participants in decision-making processes regarding socio-scientific issues, as well as focuses on empowering learners to be involved in the generation of scientific knowledge that contributes to their community.

  12. The CMS dataset bookkeeping service

    SciTech Connect

    Afaq, Anzar,; Dolgert, Andrew; Guo, Yuyi; Jones, Chris; Kosyakov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lueking, Lee; Riley, Dan; Sekhri, Vijay; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The CMS Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) has been developed to catalog all CMS event data from Monte Carlo and Detector sources. It provides the ability to identify MC or trigger source, track data provenance, construct datasets for analysis, and discover interesting data. CMS requires processing and analysis activities at various service levels and the DBS system provides support for localized processing or private analysis, as well as global access for CMS users at large. Catalog entries can be moved among the various service levels with a simple set of migration tools, thus forming a loose federation of databases. DBS is available to CMS users via a Python API, Command Line, and a Discovery web page interfaces. The system is built as a multi-tier web application with Java servlets running under Tomcat, with connections via JDBC to Oracle or MySQL database backends. Clients connect to the service through HTTP or HTTPS with authentication provided by GRID certificates and authorization through VOMS. DBS is an integral part of the overall CMS Data Management and Workflow Management systems.

  13. Provenance Challenges for Earth Science Dataset Publication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2011-01-01

    Modern science is increasingly dependent on computational analysis of very large data sets. Organizing, referencing, publishing those data has become a complex problem. Published research that depends on such data often fails to cite the data in sufficient detail to allow an independent scientist to reproduce the original experiments and analyses. This paper explores some of the challenges related to data identification, equivalence and reproducibility in the domain of data intensive scientific processing. It will use the example of Earth Science satellite data, but the challenges also apply to other domains.

  14. Using the National Datasets for Faculty Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, John

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines 17 national datasets that are available for policy studies and research about college faculty. The datasets include 11 containing faculty information, two about student enrollment, two about degrees awarded, and two about institutional activity. Each of the following datasets is individually described: (1) National Science…

  15. Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K. Van; Clair, Michael G.; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Rebich, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Mississippi Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Agriculture-Forest Service, and the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System developed a 1:24,000-scale Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, codes, names, and areas. The Watershed Boundary Dataset for Mississippi provides a standard geographical framework for water-resources and selected land-resources planning. The original 8-digit subbasins (Hydrologic Unit Codes) were further subdivided into 10-digit watersheds (62.5 to 391 square miles (mi2)) and 12-digit subwatersheds (15.6 to 62.5 mi2) - the exceptions being the Delta part of Mississippi and the Mississippi River inside levees, which were subdivided into 10-digit watersheds only. Also, large water bodies in the Mississippi Sound along the coast were not delineated as small as a typical 12-digit subwatershed. All of the data - including watershed and subwatershed boundaries, subdivision codes and names, and drainage-area data - are stored in a Geographic Information System database, which are available at: http://ms.water.usgs.gov/. This map shows information on drainage and hydrography in the form of U.S. Geological Survey hydrologic unit boundaries for water-resource 2-digit regions, 4-digit subregions, 6-digit basins (formerly called accounting units), 8-digit subbasins (formerly called cataloging units), 10-digit watershed, and 12-digit subwatersheds in Mississippi. A description of the project study area, methods used in the development of watershed and subwatershed boundaries for Mississippi, and results are presented in Wilson and others (2008). The data presented in this map and by Wilson and others (2008) supersede the data presented for Mississippi by Seaber and others (1987) and U.S. Geological Survey (1977).

  16. Scientific Encounters of the Mysterious Sea. Reading Activities That Explore the Mysterious Creatures of the Deep Blue Sea. Grades 4-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embry, Lynn

    This activity book presents reading activities for grades 4-7 exploring the mysterious creatures of the deep sea. The creatures include: angel sharks; argonauts; barberfish; comb jelly; croakers; electric rays; flying fish; giganturid; lantern fish; narwhals; northern basket starfish; ocean sunfish; Portuguese man-of-war; sea cucumbers; sea…

  17. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring: strategy and datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzle, Martin; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Haeberli, Wilfried; Kääb, Andreas; Kargel, Jeff; Nussbaumer, Samuel; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce; Zemp, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Internationally coordinated monitoring of long-term glacier changes provide key indicator data about global climate change and began in the year 1894 as an internationally coordinated effort to establish standardized observations. Today, world-wide monitoring of glaciers and ice caps is embedded within the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as an important Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G) was established in 1999 with the task of coordinating measurements and to ensure the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. The basic monitoring principles must be relevant, feasible, comprehensive and understandable to a wider scientific community as well as to policy makers and the general public. Data access has to be free and unrestricted, the quality of the standardized and calibrated data must be high and a combination of detailed process studies at selected field sites with global coverage by satellite remote sensing is envisaged. Recently a GTN-G Steering Committee was established to guide and advise the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. Several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types having different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. For world-wide inventories, data are now available through (a) the World Glacier Inventory containing tabular information of about 130,000 glaciers covering an area of around 240,000 km2, (b) the GLIMS-database containing digital outlines of around 118,000 glaciers with different time stamps and

  18. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct. PMID:26273897

  19. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  20. Exploring high school students' use of theory and evidence in an everyday context: the role of scientific thinking in environmental science decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fang-Ying

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 10th-grade students' use of theory and evidence in evaluating a socio-scientific issue: the use of underground water, after students had received a Science, Technology and Society-oriented instruction. Forty-five male and 45 female students from two intact, single-sex, classes participated in this study. A flow-map method was used to assess the participants' conceptual knowledge. The reasoning mode was assessed using a questionnaire with open-ended questions. Results showed that, although some weak to moderate associations were found between conceptual organization in memory and reasoning modes, the students' ability to incorporate theory and evidence was in general inadequate. It was also found that students' reasoning modes were consistent with their epistemological perspectives. Moreover, male and female students appear to have different reasoning approaches.

  1. Interactive visualization and analysis of multimodal datasets for surgical applications.

    PubMed

    Kirmizibayrak, Can; Yim, Yeny; Wakid, Mike; Hahn, James

    2012-12-01

    Surgeons use information from multiple sources when making surgical decisions. These include volumetric datasets (such as CT, PET, MRI, and their variants), 2D datasets (such as endoscopic videos), and vector-valued datasets (such as computer simulations). Presenting all the information to the user in an effective manner is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a visualization approach that displays the information from various sources in a single coherent view. The system allows the user to explore and manipulate volumetric datasets, display analysis of dataset values in local regions, combine 2D and 3D imaging modalities and display results of vector-based computer simulations. Several interaction methods are discussed: in addition to traditional interfaces including mouse and trackers, gesture-based natural interaction methods are shown to control these visualizations with real-time performance. An example of a medical application (medialization laryngoplasty) is presented to demonstrate how the combination of different modalities can be used in a surgical setting with our approach.

  2. A Dataset for Breast Cancer Histopathological Image Classification.

    PubMed

    Spanhol, Fabio A; Oliveira, Luiz S; Petitjean, Caroline; Heutte, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Today, medical image analysis papers require solid experiments to prove the usefulness of proposed methods. However, experiments are often performed on data selected by the researchers, which may come from different institutions, scanners, and populations. Different evaluation measures may be used, making it difficult to compare the methods. In this paper, we introduce a dataset of 7909 breast cancer histopathology images acquired on 82 patients, which is now publicly available from http://web.inf.ufpr.br/vri/breast-cancer-database. The dataset includes both benign and malignant images. The task associated with this dataset is the automated classification of these images in two classes, which would be a valuable computer-aided diagnosis tool for the clinician. In order to assess the difficulty of this task, we show some preliminary results obtained with state-of-the-art image classification systems. The accuracy ranges from 80% to 85%, showing room for improvement is left. By providing this dataset and a standardized evaluation protocol to the scientific community, we hope to gather researchers in both the medical and the machine learning field to advance toward this clinical application.

  3. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Clare

    2014-06-01

    Le jardin comme laboratoire: le rôle des jardins domestiques comme place d’exploration scientifique au cours du XVIII(e) siècleLes jardins du XVIII(e) siècle ont traditionnellement été considérés comme des espaces conçus pour le loisir, et comme représentations du goût, du pouvoir et du statut politiques. Cet article explore au contraire le concept de jardin en tant qu’espace dynamique où peuvent s’exercer expérimentation scientifique et pratique médicale. Cet article rapporte l’étude pilote de deux exemples: les paysages conçus pour la résidence du John Hunter à Earls Court, à Londres, et le jardin de la maison de Edward Jenner à Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Les méthodologies sur l’histoire du jardin ont été mises en place afin d’évaluer à quel point ces jardins domestiques peuvent être considérés comme espaces d’expérimentation.

  4. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  5. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current debate on realism in contemporary analytic philosophy.

  6. The health care and life sciences community profile for dataset descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Vladimir; Ansell, Peter; Bader, Gary; Baran, Joachim; Bolleman, Jerven T.; Callahan, Alison; Cruz-Toledo, José; Gaudet, Pascale; Gombocz, Erich A.; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra N.; Groth, Paul; Haendel, Melissa; Ito, Maori; Jupp, Simon; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Norio; Krishnaswami, Kalpana; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas; Lin, Simon; Malone, James; Miller, Michael; Mungall, Christopher J.; Rietveld, Laurens; Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Access to consistent, high-quality metadata is critical to finding, understanding, and reusing scientific data. However, while there are many relevant vocabularies for the annotation of a dataset, none sufficiently captures all the necessary metadata. This prevents uniform indexing and querying of dataset repositories. Towards providing a practical guide for producing a high quality description of biomedical datasets, the W3C Semantic Web for Health Care and the Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG) identified Resource Description Framework (RDF) vocabularies that could be used to specify common metadata elements and their value sets. The resulting guideline covers elements of description, identification, attribution, versioning, provenance, and content summarization. This guideline reuses existing vocabularies, and is intended to meet key functional requirements including indexing, discovery, exchange, query, and retrieval of datasets, thereby enabling the publication of FAIR data. The resulting metadata profile is generic and could be used by other domains with an interest in providing machine readable descriptions of versioned datasets. PMID:27602295

  7. The health care and life sciences community profile for dataset descriptions.

    PubMed

    Dumontier, Michel; Gray, Alasdair J G; Marshall, M Scott; Alexiev, Vladimir; Ansell, Peter; Bader, Gary; Baran, Joachim; Bolleman, Jerven T; Callahan, Alison; Cruz-Toledo, José; Gaudet, Pascale; Gombocz, Erich A; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra N; Groth, Paul; Haendel, Melissa; Ito, Maori; Jupp, Simon; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Norio; Krishnaswami, Kalpana; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas; Lin, Simon; Malone, James; Miller, Michael; Mungall, Christopher J; Rietveld, Laurens; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Access to consistent, high-quality metadata is critical to finding, understanding, and reusing scientific data. However, while there are many relevant vocabularies for the annotation of a dataset, none sufficiently captures all the necessary metadata. This prevents uniform indexing and querying of dataset repositories. Towards providing a practical guide for producing a high quality description of biomedical datasets, the W3C Semantic Web for Health Care and the Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG) identified Resource Description Framework (RDF) vocabularies that could be used to specify common metadata elements and their value sets. The resulting guideline covers elements of description, identification, attribution, versioning, provenance, and content summarization. This guideline reuses existing vocabularies, and is intended to meet key functional requirements including indexing, discovery, exchange, query, and retrieval of datasets, thereby enabling the publication of FAIR data. The resulting metadata profile is generic and could be used by other domains with an interest in providing machine readable descriptions of versioned datasets.

  8. The health care and life sciences community profile for dataset descriptions.

    PubMed

    Dumontier, Michel; Gray, Alasdair J G; Marshall, M Scott; Alexiev, Vladimir; Ansell, Peter; Bader, Gary; Baran, Joachim; Bolleman, Jerven T; Callahan, Alison; Cruz-Toledo, José; Gaudet, Pascale; Gombocz, Erich A; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra N; Groth, Paul; Haendel, Melissa; Ito, Maori; Jupp, Simon; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Norio; Krishnaswami, Kalpana; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas; Lin, Simon; Malone, James; Miller, Michael; Mungall, Christopher J; Rietveld, Laurens; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Access to consistent, high-quality metadata is critical to finding, understanding, and reusing scientific data. However, while there are many relevant vocabularies for the annotation of a dataset, none sufficiently captures all the necessary metadata. This prevents uniform indexing and querying of dataset repositories. Towards providing a practical guide for producing a high quality description of biomedical datasets, the W3C Semantic Web for Health Care and the Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG) identified Resource Description Framework (RDF) vocabularies that could be used to specify common metadata elements and their value sets. The resulting guideline covers elements of description, identification, attribution, versioning, provenance, and content summarization. This guideline reuses existing vocabularies, and is intended to meet key functional requirements including indexing, discovery, exchange, query, and retrieval of datasets, thereby enabling the publication of FAIR data. The resulting metadata profile is generic and could be used by other domains with an interest in providing machine readable descriptions of versioned datasets. PMID:27602295

  9. Use of Electronic Health-Related Datasets in Nursing and Health-Related Research.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Aloush, Sami; Hewitt, Jeanne Beauchamp

    2015-07-01

    Datasets of gigabyte size are common in medical sciences. There is increasing consensus that significant untapped knowledge lies hidden in these large datasets. This review article aims to discuss Electronic Health-Related Datasets (EHRDs) in terms of types, features, advantages, limitations, and possible use in nursing and health-related research. Major scientific databases, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, were searched for studies or review articles regarding using EHRDs in research. A total number of 442 articles were located. After application of study inclusion criteria, 113 articles were included in the final review. EHRDs were categorized into Electronic Administrative Health-Related Datasets and Electronic Clinical Health-Related Datasets. Subcategories of each major category were identified. EHRDs are invaluable assets for nursing the health-related research. Advanced research skills such as using analytical softwares, advanced statistical procedures, dealing with missing data and missing variables will maximize the efficient utilization of EHRDs in research.

  10. The health care and life sciences community profile for dataset descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Vladimir; Ansell, Peter; Bader, Gary; Baran, Joachim; Bolleman, Jerven T.; Callahan, Alison; Cruz-Toledo, José; Gaudet, Pascale; Gombocz, Erich A.; Gonzalez-Beltran, Alejandra N.; Groth, Paul; Haendel, Melissa; Ito, Maori; Jupp, Simon; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Norio; Krishnaswami, Kalpana; Laibe, Camille; Le Novère, Nicolas; Lin, Simon; Malone, James; Miller, Michael; Mungall, Christopher J.; Rietveld, Laurens; Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Yamaguchi, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Access to consistent, high-quality metadata is critical to finding, understanding, and reusing scientific data. However, while there are many relevant vocabularies for the annotation of a dataset, none sufficiently captures all the necessary metadata. This prevents uniform indexing and querying of dataset repositories. Towards providing a practical guide for producing a high quality description of biomedical datasets, the W3C Semantic Web for Health Care and the Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG) identified Resource Description Framework (RDF) vocabularies that could be used to specify common metadata elements and their value sets. The resulting guideline covers elements of description, identification, attribution, versioning, provenance, and content summarization. This guideline reuses existing vocabularies, and is intended to meet key functional requirements including indexing, discovery, exchange, query, and retrieval of datasets, thereby enabling the publication of FAIR data. The resulting metadata profile is generic and could be used by other domains with an interest in providing machine readable descriptions of versioned datasets.

  11. Case study of polar scintillation modeling using DE (Dynamics Explorer) 2 irregularity measurements at 800 km. Scientific report No. 2, 5 October 1987-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Weber, E.J.; Coley, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Although a satellite-borne irregularity sensor obviously cannot measure scintillations, the question of what contribution such a sensor can make to model or predict scintillations is addressed. To pursue the problem, the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) ionospheric electron density irregularity data obtained at approximately 800-km altitude in the winter polar cap during sunspot maximum conditions were utilized. During this period an all-sky imaging photometer located at Thule, Greenland, within the polar cap, detected the presence of convecting ionization patches, and polar beacon satellite measurements detected several discrete, intense scintillation structures associated with these patches (E. J. Weber et al., 1984). The electron-density deviation (delta N) obtained by combining irregularity amplitudes (delta N/N)rms processed over 8-s intervals and the in-situ density (N) data acquired by the DE 2 satellite also showed the presence of spatially discrete structures. These irregularity structures, both in N and delta N, had spatial extents of approx. 1000 km in the N-S direction. The density associated with these structures, even at 800 km, showed a twofold to threefold to increase in comparison to the background, and irregularity amplitudes (delta N/N)rms as large as 20% were observed at the edges of the patches.

  12. What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2012-12-01

    Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

  13. Exploring interoperability: The advancements and challenges of improving data discovery, access, and visualization of scientific data through the NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS). (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Lynge, J.; Hackathorn, E.; MacDermaid, C.; Pierce, R.; Smith, J.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability is a complex subject and often leads to different definitions in different environments. An interoperable framework of web services can improve the user experience by providing an interface for interaction with data regardless of it's format or physical location. This in itself improves accessibility to data, fosters data exploration and use, and provides a framework for new tools and applications. With an interoperable system you have: -- Data ready for action. Services model facilitates agile response to events. Services can be combined or reused quickly, upgraded or modified independently. -- Any data available through an interoperable framework can be operated on or combined with other data. Integrating standardized formats and access. -- New and existing systems have access to wide variety of data. Any new data added is easily incorporated with minimal changes required. The possibilities are limitless. The NOAA Earth Information System (NEIS) at the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) is continuing research into an interoperable framework of layered services designed to facilitate the discovery, access, integration, visualization, and understanding of all NOAA (past, present, and future) data. An underlying philosophy of NEIS is to take advantage of existing off-the-shelf technologies and standards to minimize development of custom code allowing everyone to take advantage of the framework to meet these goals above. This framework, while built by NOAA are not limited to NOAA data or applications. Any other data available through similar services or applications that understand these standards can work interchangeably. Two major challenges are under active research at ESRL are data discoverability and fast access to big data. This presentation will provide an update on development of NEIS, including these challenges, the findings, and recommendations on what is needed for an interoperable system, as well as ongoing research activities

  14. Explore with Us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Lester

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this vision is to advance U.S. scientific, security and economic interest through a robust space exploration program. Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond. Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations. Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration. Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests.

  15. Securely Measuring the Overlap between Private Datasets with Cryptosets

    PubMed Central

    Swamidass, S. Joshua; Matlock, Matthew; Rozenblit, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Many scientific questions are best approached by sharing data—collected by different groups or across large collaborative networks—into a combined analysis. Unfortunately, some of the most interesting and powerful datasets—like health records, genetic data, and drug discovery data—cannot be freely shared because they contain sensitive information. In many situations, knowing if private datasets overlap determines if it is worthwhile to navigate the institutional, ethical, and legal barriers that govern access to sensitive, private data. We report the first method of publicly measuring the overlap between private datasets that is secure under a malicious model without relying on private protocols or message passing. This method uses a publicly shareable summary of a dataset’s contents, its cryptoset, to estimate its overlap with other datasets. Cryptosets approach “information-theoretic” security, the strongest type of security possible in cryptography, which is not even crackable with infinite computing power. We empirically and theoretically assess both the accuracy of these estimates and the security of the approach, demonstrating that cryptosets are informative, with a stable accuracy, and secure. PMID:25714898

  16. PEViD: privacy evaluation video dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-09-01

    Visual privacy protection, i.e., obfuscation of personal visual information in video surveillance is an important and increasingly popular research topic. However, while many datasets are available for testing performance of various video analytics, little to nothing exists for evaluation of visual privacy tools. Since surveillance and privacy protection have contradictory objectives, the design principles of corresponding evaluation datasets should differ too. In this paper, we outline principles that need to be considered when building a dataset for privacy evaluation. Following these principles, we present new, and the first to our knowledge, Privacy Evaluation Video Dataset (PEViD). With the dataset, we provide XML-based annotations of various privacy regions, including face, accessories, skin regions, hair, body silhouette, and other personal information, and their descriptions. Via preliminary subjective tests, we demonstrate the flexibility and suitability of the dataset for privacy evaluations. The evaluation results also show the importance of secondary privacy regions that contain non-facial personal information for privacy- intelligibility tradeoff. We believe that PEViD dataset is equally suitable for evaluations of privacy protection tools using objective metrics and subjective assessments.

  17. Recording Scientific Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Bowker, Geof

    2006-01-09

    The way we record knowledge, and the web of technical, formal, and social practices that surrounds it, inevitably affects the knowledge that we record. The ways we hold knowledge about the past - in handwritten manuscripts, in printed books, in file folders, in databases - shape the kind of stories we tell about that past. In this talk, I look at how over the past two hundred years, information technology has affected the nature and production of scientific knowledge. Further, I explore ways in which the emergent new cyberinfrastructure is changing our relationship to scientific practice.

  18. Multivariate Data EXplorer (MDX)

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, Chad Allen

    2012-08-01

    The MDX toolkit facilitates exploratory data analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets. MDX provides and interactive graphical user interface to load, explore, and modify multivariate datasets stored in tabular forms. MDX uses an extended version of the parallel coordinates plot and scatterplots to represent the data. The user can perform rapid visual queries using mouse gestures in the visualization panels to select rows or columns of interest. The visualization panel provides coordinated multiple views whereby selections made in one plot are propagated to the other plots. Users can also export selected data or reconfigure the visualization panel to explore relationships between columns and rows in the data.

  19. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-12-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper.

  20. DEX: Increasing the Capability of Scientific Data Analysis Pipelines by Using Efficient Bitmap Indices to Accelerate Scientific Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Shalf, John; Bethel, Wes; Wu, Kesheng

    2005-02-04

    We describe a new approach to scalable data analysis that enables scientists to manage the explosion in size and complexity of scientific data produced by experiments and simulations. Our approach uses a novel combination of efficient query technology and visualization infrastructure. The combination of bit map indexing, which is a data management technology that accelerates queries on large scientific datasets, with a visualization pipeline for generating images of abstract data results in a tool suitable for use by scientists in fields where data size and complexity poses a barrier to efficient analysis. Our architecture and implementation, which we call DEX (short for dexterous data explorer), directly addresses the problem of ''too much data'' by focusing analysis on data deemed to be ''scientifically interesting'' via a user-specified selection criteria. The architectural concepts and implementation are applicable to wide variety of scientific data analysis and visualization applications. This paper presents an architectural overview of the system along with an analysis showing substantial performance over traditional visualization pipelines. While performance gains are a significant result, even more important is the new functionality not present in any visualization analysis software--namely the ability to perform interactive, multi-dimensional queries to refine regions of interest that are later used as input to analysis or visualization.

  1. The Role of Scientific Collections in Scientific Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Building on the findings and recommendations of the Interagency Working Group on Scientific Collections, Scientific Collections International (SciColl) aims to improve the rapid access to science collections across disciplines within the federal government and globally, between government agencies and private research institutions. SciColl offered a novel opportunity for the US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, to explore the value of scientific research collections under the science preparedness initiative and integrate it as a research resource at each stage in the emergence of the infectious diseases cycle. Under the leadership of SciColl’s executive secretariat at the Smithsonian Institution, and with multiple federal and international partners, a workshop during October 2014 fully explored the intersections of the infectious disease cycle and the role scientific collections could play as an evidentiary scientific resource to mitigate risks associated with emerging infectious diseases. PMID:26380390

  2. Simulation of Smart Home Activity Datasets.

    PubMed

    Synnott, Jonathan; Nugent, Chris; Jeffers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A globally ageing population is resulting in an increased prevalence of chronic conditions which affect older adults. Such conditions require long-term care and management to maximize quality of life, placing an increasing strain on healthcare resources. Intelligent environments such as smart homes facilitate long-term monitoring of activities in the home through the use of sensor technology. Access to sensor datasets is necessary for the development of novel activity monitoring and recognition approaches. Access to such datasets is limited due to issues such as sensor cost, availability and deployment time. The use of simulated environments and sensors may address these issues and facilitate the generation of comprehensive datasets. This paper provides a review of existing approaches for the generation of simulated smart home activity datasets, including model-based approaches and interactive approaches which implement virtual sensors, environments and avatars. The paper also provides recommendation for future work in intelligent environment simulation.

  3. Simulation of Smart Home Activity Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Synnott, Jonathan; Nugent, Chris; Jeffers, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A globally ageing population is resulting in an increased prevalence of chronic conditions which affect older adults. Such conditions require long-term care and management to maximize quality of life, placing an increasing strain on healthcare resources. Intelligent environments such as smart homes facilitate long-term monitoring of activities in the home through the use of sensor technology. Access to sensor datasets is necessary for the development of novel activity monitoring and recognition approaches. Access to such datasets is limited due to issues such as sensor cost, availability and deployment time. The use of simulated environments and sensors may address these issues and facilitate the generation of comprehensive datasets. This paper provides a review of existing approaches for the generation of simulated smart home activity datasets, including model-based approaches and interactive approaches which implement virtual sensors, environments and avatars. The paper also provides recommendation for future work in intelligent environment simulation. PMID:26087371

  4. Managing large SNP datasets with SNPpy.

    PubMed

    Mitha, Faheem

    2013-01-01

    Using relational databases to manage SNP datasets is a very useful technique that has significant advantages over alternative methods, including the ability to leverage the power of relational databases to perform data validation, and the use of the powerful SQL query language to export data. SNPpy is a Python program which uses the PostgreSQL database and the SQLAlchemy Python library to automate SNP data management. This chapter shows how to use SNPpy to store and manage large datasets.

  5. Virtual Observatories: A Peer-to-Peer Semantic Approach for Efficient Sharing of Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, A.; Papitashvili, V.

    2003-12-01

    A recent initative on the electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) calls for the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being ``deployed'' in cyberspace. The eGY concept creates the means for a free and transparent data access to remote, worldwide distributed databases through the Internet and World Wide Web. However, current forms of sharing scientific data are either highly centralized or require intensive personal communication. Centralized distribution schemes need continuing maintenance and support that somewhat counteracts the rationale of a free access to such data repositories. Here we argue for the development of a peer-to-peer semantic approach focused towards efficient sharing of scientific data via the Internet. Our proposed data distribution model aims to simplify the process of data acquisition and storage by tapping the vast potential of end user machines. At the same time, the data integrity and publisher accountability should be an integral design goal of any platform that aims to provide distributed, yet reliable, means of sharing such high-implication data amongst a rapidly increasing and widespread scientific community. Current design philosophies of the file-sharing networks model the data files as ``once injected, never modified'' objects, which are shared through a set of pre-specified interfaces. On the contrary, scientific data sets are often multidimensional and the same object can be published through multiple dynamically changing interfaces. Furthermore, from time to time the user-specific analyses of these data often generate additional summaries and even new datasets. Publishing these derived datasets may introduce more complexity and challenges, but the appropriate authentication and signing of the ``original'' and ``modified'' datasets can resolve the problem. We explore the possibility of the semantic-oriented information modeling of the scientific data objects for enhancing real-time, machine-to-machine search

  6. Speaking Scientific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter

    1971-01-01

    Suggests changes for science curricula which will improve the understanding...of the scientific language in which the ideas of science and technology are expressed," including increasing the students' facility with numbers, and in the future, an interdisciplinary course demonstrating the approach of physical, biological and behavioral scientists,…

  7. Making Sense of Scientific Biographies: Scientific Achievement, Nature of Science, and Storylines in College Students' Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the educative value of scientific biographies will be explored, especially for non-science major college students. During the "Scientist's life and thought" course, 66 college students read nine scientific biographies including five biologists, covering the canonical scientific achievements in Western scientific history.…

  8. Toddlers' Scientific Explorations: Encounters with Insects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Lauren Foster; Hall, Ellen; Lynch, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This article features Boulder Journey School, located in Boulder, Colorado, a full-day, year-round school that welcomes over 200 young children, ages 6 weeks to 6 years, and their families. The school community is committed to a culture based on children as curious and competent individuals capable of coconstructing knowledge. In Boulder Journey…

  9. Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer: Scientific Rationale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara; Ninkov, Zoran; Robberto, Massimo; Hull, Tony; Purves, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    GESE is a mission concept consisting of a 1.5-m space telescope and UV multi-object slit spectrograph designed to help understand galaxy evolution in a critical era in the history of the universe, where the rate of star-formation stopped increasing and started to decline. To isolate and identify the various processes driving the evolution of these galaxies, GESE will obtain rest-frame far-UV spectra of 100,000 galaxies at redshifts, z approximately 1-2. To obtain such a large number of spectra, multiplexing over a wide field is an absolute necessity. A slit device such as a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) or a micro-shutter array (MSA) enables spectroscopy of a hundred or more sources in a single exposure while eliminating overlapping spectra of other sources and blocking unwanted background like zodiacal light. We find that a 1.5-m space telescope with a MSA slit device combined with a custom orbit enabling long, uninterrupted exposures (approximately 10 hr) are optimal for this spectroscopic survey. GESE will not be operating alone in this endeavor. Together with x-ray telescopes and optical/near-IR telescopes like Subaru/Prime Focus Spectrograph, GESE will detect "feedback" from young massive stars and massive black holes (AGN's), and other drivers of galaxy evolution.

  10. The GRENE-TEA Model Intercomparison Project (GTMIP) stage 1 forcing dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueyoshi, T.; Saito, K.; Miyazaki, S.; Mori, J.; Ise, T.; Arakida, H.; Suzuki, R.; Sato, A.; Iijima, Y.; Yabuki, H.; Ikawa, H.; Ohta, T.; Kotani, A.; Hajima, T.; Sato, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Sugimoto, A.

    2015-08-01

    Here, the authors describe the construction of a forcing dataset for Land Surface Models (including both physical and biogeochemical models; LSMs) with eight meteorological variables for the 35 year period from 1979 to 2013. The dataset is intended for use in a model intercomparison (MIP) study, called GTMIP, which is a part of the Japanese-funded Arctic Climate Change research project. In order to prepare a set of site-fitted forcing data for LSMs with realistic yet continuous entries (i.e. without missing data), four observational sites across the pan-Arctic region (Fairbanks, Tiksi, Yakutsk, and Kevo) were selected to construct a blended dataset using both global reanalysis and observational data. Marked improvements were found in the diurnal cycles of surface air temperature and humidity, wind speed, and precipitation. The datasets and participation in GTMIP are open to the scientific community (https://ads.nipr.ac.jp/gtmip/gtmip.html).

  11. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  12. Web-based 2-d Visualization with Large Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldina, T.; Roby, W.; Wu, X.; Ly, L.

    2015-09-01

    Modern astronomical surveys produce large catalogs. Modern archives are web-based. As the science becomes more and more data driven, the pressure on visualization tools to support large datasets increases. While tables can render one page at a time, image overlays showing the returned catalog entries or XY plots showing the relationship between table columns must cover all of the rows to be meaningful. The large data set could easily overwhelm the browsers capabilities. Therefore the amount of data to be transported or rendered must be reduced. IRSA's catalog visualization is based on Firefly package, developed in IPAC (Roby 2013). Firefly is used by multiple web-based tools and archives, maintained by IRSA: Catalog Search, Spitzer, WISE, Plank, etc. Its distinctive feature is the tri-view: table, image overlay, and XY plot. All three highly interactive components are integrated together. The tri-view presentation allows an astronomer to dissect a dataset in various ways and to detect underlying structure and anomalies in the data, which makes it a handy tool for data exploration. Many challenges are encountered when only a subset of data is used in place of the full data set. Preserving coherence and maintaining the ability to select and filter data become issues. This talk addresses how we have solved problems in large dataset visualization.

  13. Interoperability of Multiple Datasets with JMARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. E.; Christensen, P. R.; Noss, D.; Anwar, S.; Dickenshied, S.

    2012-12-01

    Planetary Science includes all celestial bodies including Earth. However, when investigating Geographic Information System (GIS) applications, Earth and planetary bodies have the tendency to be separated. One reason is because we have been learning and investigating Earth's properties much longer than we have been studying the other planetary bodies, therefore, the archive of GCS and projections is much larger. The first latitude and longitude system of Earth was invented between 276 BC and 194 BC by Eratosthenes who was also the first to calculate the circumference of the Earth. As time went on, scientists continued to re-measure the Earth on both local and global scales which has created a large collection of projections and geographic coordinate systems (GCS) to choose from. The variety of options can create a time consuming task to determine which GCS or projection gets applied to each dataset and how to convert to the correct GCS or projection. Another issue is presented when determining if the dataset should be applied to a geocentric sphere or a geodetic spheroid. Both of which are measured and determine latitude values differently. This can lead to inconsistent results and frustration for the user. This is not the case with other planetary bodies. Although the existence of other planets have been known since the early Babylon times, the accuracy of the planets rotation, size and geologic properties weren't known for several hundreds of years later. Therefore, the options for projections or GCS's are much smaller than the options one has for Earth's data. Even then, the projection and GCS options for other celestial bodies are informal. So it can be hard for the user to determine which projection or GCS to apply to the other planets. JMARS (Java Mission Analysis for Remote Sensing) is an open source suite that was developed by Arizona State University's Mars Space Flight Facility. The beauty of JMARS is that the tool transforms all datasets behind the scenes

  14. Visualizing large geospatial datasets with KML Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyushchenko, S.; Wheeler, D.; Ummel, K.; Hammer, D.; Kraft, R.

    2008-12-01

    Regions are a powerful KML feature that helps viewing very large datasets in Google Earth without sacrificing performance. Data is loaded and drawn only when it falls within the user's view and occupies a certain portion of the screen. Using Regions, it is possible to supply separate levels of detail for the data, so that fine details are loaded only when the data fills a portion of the screen that is large enough for the details to be visible. It becomes easy to create compelling interactive presentations of geospatial datasets that are meaningful at both large and small scale. We present two example datasets: worldwide past, present and future carbon dioxide emissions by power plants provided by Carbon Monitoring for Action, Center for Global Development (http://carma.org), as well as 2007 US bridge safety ratings from Federal Highway Administration (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/BRIDGE/nbi/ascii.cfm).

  15. Quality Visualization of Microarray Datasets Using Circos

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Martin; Wiese, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Quality control and normalization is considered the most important step in the analysis of microarray data. At present there are various methods available for quality assessments of microarray datasets. However there seems to be no standard visualization routine, which also depicts individual microarray quality. Here we present a convenient method for visualizing the results of standard quality control tests using Circos plots. In these plots various quality measurements are drawn in a circular fashion, thus allowing for visualization of the quality and all outliers of each distinct array within a microarray dataset. The proposed method is intended for use with the Affymetrix Human Genome platform (i.e., GPL 96, GPL570 and GPL571). Circos quality measurement plots are a convenient way for the initial quality estimate of Affymetrix datasets that are stored in publicly available databases.

  16. Maximising the value of hospital administrative datasets.

    PubMed

    Nadathur, Shyamala G

    2010-05-01

    Mandatory and standardised administrative data collections are prevalent in the largely public-funded acute sector. In these systems the data collections are used for financial, performance monitoring and reporting purposes. This paper comments on the infrastructure and standards that have been established to support data collection activities, audit and feedback. The routine, local and research uses of these datasets are described using examples from Australian and international literature. The advantages of hospital administrative datasets and opportunities for improvement are discussed under the following headings: accessibility, standardisation, coverage, completeness, cost of obtaining clinical data, recorded Diagnostic Related Groups and International Classification of Diseases codes, linkage and connectivity. In an era of diminishing resources better utilisation of these datasets should be encouraged. Increased study and scrutiny will enhance transparency and help identify issues in the collections. As electronic information systems are increasingly embraced, administrative data collections need to be managed as valuable assets and powerful operational and patient management tools.

  17. Development of a video tampering dataset for forensic investigation.

    PubMed

    Ismael Al-Sanjary, Omar; Ahmed, Ahmed Abdullah; Sulong, Ghazali

    2016-09-01

    Forgery is an act of modifying a document, product, image or video, among other media. Video tampering detection research requires an inclusive database of video modification. This paper aims to discuss a comprehensive proposal to create a dataset composed of modified videos for forensic investigation, in order to standardize existing techniques for detecting video tampering. The primary purpose of developing and designing this new video library is for usage in video forensics, which can be consciously associated with reliable verification using dynamic and static camera recognition. To the best of the author's knowledge, there exists no similar library among the research community. Videos were sourced from YouTube and by exploring social networking sites extensively by observing posted videos and rating their feedback. The video tampering dataset (VTD) comprises a total of 33 videos, divided among three categories in video tampering: (1) copy-move, (2) splicing, and (3) swapping-frames. Compared to existing datasets, this is a higher number of tampered videos, and with longer durations. The duration of every video is 16s, with a 1280×720 resolution, and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. Moreover, all videos possess the same formatting quality (720p(HD).avi). Both temporal and spatial video features were considered carefully during selection of the videos, and there exists complete information related to the doctored regions in every modified video in the VTD dataset. This database has been made publically available for research on splicing, Swapping frames, and copy-move tampering, and, as such, various video tampering detection issues with ground truth. The database has been utilised by many international researchers and groups of researchers.

  18. Development of a video tampering dataset for forensic investigation.

    PubMed

    Ismael Al-Sanjary, Omar; Ahmed, Ahmed Abdullah; Sulong, Ghazali

    2016-09-01

    Forgery is an act of modifying a document, product, image or video, among other media. Video tampering detection research requires an inclusive database of video modification. This paper aims to discuss a comprehensive proposal to create a dataset composed of modified videos for forensic investigation, in order to standardize existing techniques for detecting video tampering. The primary purpose of developing and designing this new video library is for usage in video forensics, which can be consciously associated with reliable verification using dynamic and static camera recognition. To the best of the author's knowledge, there exists no similar library among the research community. Videos were sourced from YouTube and by exploring social networking sites extensively by observing posted videos and rating their feedback. The video tampering dataset (VTD) comprises a total of 33 videos, divided among three categories in video tampering: (1) copy-move, (2) splicing, and (3) swapping-frames. Compared to existing datasets, this is a higher number of tampered videos, and with longer durations. The duration of every video is 16s, with a 1280×720 resolution, and a frame rate of 30 frames per second. Moreover, all videos possess the same formatting quality (720p(HD).avi). Both temporal and spatial video features were considered carefully during selection of the videos, and there exists complete information related to the doctored regions in every modified video in the VTD dataset. This database has been made publically available for research on splicing, Swapping frames, and copy-move tampering, and, as such, various video tampering detection issues with ground truth. The database has been utilised by many international researchers and groups of researchers. PMID:27574113

  19. 77 FR 15052 - Dataset Workshop-U.S. Billion Dollar Disasters Dataset (1980-2011): Assessing Dataset Strengths...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... restrictions preclude attendance for those who do not RSVP by the deadline. Space is also limited to the first... individual basis once participation has been confirmed through RSVP. Workshop Date and Time: The workshop... will be placed on dataset accuracy and time-dependent biases. Pathways to overcome accuracy and...

  20. A call for virtual experiments: accelerating the scientific process.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan; Vik, Jon Olav; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Experimentation is fundamental to the scientific method, whether for exploration, description or explanation. We argue that promoting the reuse of virtual experiments (the in silico analogues of wet-lab or field experiments) would vastly improve the usefulness and relevance of computational models, encouraging critical scrutiny of models and serving as a common language between modellers and experimentalists. We review the benefits of reusable virtual experiments: in specifying, assaying, and comparing the behavioural repertoires of models; as prerequisites for reproducible research; to guide model reuse and composition; and for quality assurance in the translational application of models. A key step towards achieving this is that models and experimental protocols should be represented separately, but annotated so as to facilitate the linking of models to experiments and data. Lastly, we outline how the rigorous, streamlined confrontation between experimental datasets and candidate models would enable a "continuous integration" of biological knowledge, transforming our approach to systems biology.

  1. Comparison of recent SnIa datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, J.C. Bueno; Perivolaropoulos, L.; Nesseris, S. E-mail: nesseris@nbi.ku.dk

    2009-11-01

    We rank the six latest Type Ia supernova (SnIa) datasets (Constitution (C), Union (U), ESSENCE (Davis) (E), Gold06 (G), SNLS 1yr (S) and SDSS-II (D)) in the context of the Chevalier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization w(a) = w{sub 0}+w{sub 1}(1−a), according to their Figure of Merit (FoM), their consistency with the cosmological constant (ΛCDM), their consistency with standard rulers (Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO)) and their mutual consistency. We find a significant improvement of the FoM (defined as the inverse area of the 95.4% parameter contour) with the number of SnIa of these datasets ((C) highest FoM, (U), (G), (D), (E), (S) lowest FoM). Standard rulers (CMB+BAO) have a better FoM by about a factor of 3, compared to the highest FoM SnIa dataset (C). We also find that the ranking sequence based on consistency with ΛCDM is identical with the corresponding ranking based on consistency with standard rulers ((S) most consistent, (D), (C), (E), (U), (G) least consistent). The ranking sequence of the datasets however changes when we consider the consistency with an expansion history corresponding to evolving dark energy (w{sub 0},w{sub 1}) = (−1.4,2) crossing the phantom divide line w = −1 (it is practically reversed to (G), (U), (E), (S), (D), (C)). The SALT2 and MLCS2k2 fitters are also compared and some peculiar features of the SDSS-II dataset when standardized with the MLCS2k2 fitter are pointed out. Finally, we construct a statistic to estimate the internal consistency of a collection of SnIa datasets. We find that even though there is good consistency among most samples taken from the above datasets, this consistency decreases significantly when the Gold06 (G) dataset is included in the sample.

  2. Ontology for Transforming Geo-Spatial Data for Discovery and Integration of Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Minnis, P.

    2013-12-01

    Discovery and access to geo-spatial scientific data across heterogeneous repositories and multi-discipline datasets can present challenges for scientist. We propose to build a workflow for transforming geo-spatial datasets into semantic environment by using relationships to describe the resource using OWL Web Ontology, RDF, and a proposed geo-spatial vocabulary. We will present methods for transforming traditional scientific dataset, use of a semantic repository, and querying using SPARQL to integrate and access datasets. This unique repository will enable discovery of scientific data by geospatial bound or other criteria.

  3. The Interplay between Scientific Overlap and Cooperation and the Resulting Gain in Co-Authorship Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mayrose, Itay; Freilich, Shiri

    2015-01-01

    Considering the importance of scientific interactions, understanding the principles that govern fruitful scientific research is crucial to policy makers and scientists alike. The outcome of an interaction is to a large extent dependent on the balancing of contradicting motivations accompanying the establishment of collaborations. Here, we assembled a dataset of nearly 20,000 publications authored by researchers affiliated with ten top universities. Based on this data collection, we estimated the extent of different interaction types between pairwise combinations of researchers. We explored the interplay between the overlap in scientific interests and the tendency to collaborate, and associated these estimates with measures of scientific quality and social accessibility aiming at studying the typical resulting gain of different interaction patterns. Our results show that scientists tend to collaborate more often with colleagues with whom they share moderate to high levels of mutual interests and knowledge while cooperative tendency declines at higher levels of research-interest overlap, suggesting fierce competition, and at the lower levels, suggesting communication gaps. Whereas the relative number of alliances dramatically differs across a gradient of research overlap, the scientific impact of the resulting articles remains similar. When considering social accessibility, we find that though collaborations between remote researchers are relatively rare, their quality is significantly higher than studies produced by close-circle scientists. Since current collaboration patterns do not necessarily overlap with gaining optimal scientific quality, these findings should encourage scientists to reconsider current collaboration strategies. PMID:26372643

  4. Parallel acoustic wave propagation and generation of a seismic dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, R.; Dyke, J.V.; Semeraro, B.D.

    1995-12-01

    The ultimate goal of this work is to construct a large seismic dataset that will be used to calibrate industrial seismic analysis codes. Seismic analysis is used in oil and gas exploration to deduce subterranean geological formations based on the reflection of acoustic waves from a source to an array of receivers placed on or near the surface. This work deals with the generation of a test set of acoustic data based on a known representative geological formation. Industrial users of the data will calibrate their codes by comparing their predicted geology to the know geology used to generate the test data. This is a cooperative effort involving Los Alamos, Sandia, Oak Ridge and Lawrence Livermore national labs as well as Institut Francais du Petrole and the Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Exploitation of a large COSMO-SkyMed interferometric dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutricato, Raffaele; Nitti, Davide O.; Bovenga, Fabio; Refice, Alberto; Chiaradia, Maria T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we explored a dataset made by more than 100 images acquired by COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation over the Port-au-Prince (Haiti) metropolitan and surrounding areas that were severely hit by the January 12th, 2010 earthquake. The images were acquired along ascending pass by all the four sensors of the constellation with a mean rate of 1 acquisition/week. This consistent CSK dataset was fully exploited by using the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry algorithm SPINUA with the aim of: i) providing a displacement map of the area; ii) assessing the use of CSK and PSI for ground elevation measurements; iii) exploring the CSK satellite orbital tube in terms of both precision and size. In particular, significant subsidence phenomena were detected affecting river deltas and coastal areas of the Port-au-Prince and Carrefour region, as well as very slow slope movements and local ground instabilities. Ground elevation was also measured on PS targets with resolution of 3m. The density of these measurable targets depends on the ground coverage, and reaches values higher than 4000 PS/km2 over urban areas, while it drops over vegetated areas or along slopes affected by layover and shadow. Heights values were compared with LIDAR data at 1m of resolution collected soon after the 2010 earthquake. Furthermore, by using geocoding procedures and the precise LIDAR data as reference, the orbital errors affecting CSK records were investigated. The results are in line with other recent studies.

  6. Future weather dataset for fourteen UK sites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunde

    2016-09-01

    This Future weather dataset is used for assessing the risk of overheating and thermal discomfort or heat stress in the free running buildings. The weather files are in the format of .epw which can be used in the building simulation packages such as EnergyPlus, DesignBuilder, IES, etc. PMID:27570809

  7. Bacterial clinical infectious diseases ontology (BCIDO) dataset.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Claire L; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the Bacterial Infectious Diseases Ontology (BCIDO) dataset related to research published in http:dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.jbi.2015.07.014 [1], and contains the Protégé OWL files required to run BCIDO in the Protégé environment. BCIDO contains 1719 classes and 39 object properties. PMID:27508237

  8. Thesaurus Dataset of Educational Technology in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Linjing; Liu, Qingtang; Zhao, Gang; Huang, Huan; Huang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The thesaurus dataset of educational technology is a knowledge description of educational technology in Chinese. The aims of this thesaurus were to collect the subject terms in the domain of educational technology, facilitate the standardization of terminology and promote the communication between Chinese researchers and scholars from various…

  9. Efficiently Finding Individuals from Video Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Pengyi; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    We are interested in retrieving video shots or videos containing particular people from a video dataset. Owing to the large variations in pose, illumination conditions, occlusions, hairstyles and facial expressions, face tracks have recently been researched in the fields of face recognition, face retrieval and name labeling from videos. However, when the number of face tracks is very large, conventional methods, which match all or some pairs of faces in face tracks, will not be effective. Therefore, in this paper, an efficient method for finding a given person from a video dataset is presented. In our study, in according to performing research on face tracks in a single video, we also consider how to organize all the faces in videos in a dataset and how to improve the search quality in the query process. Different videos may include the same person; thus, the management of individuals in different videos will be useful for their retrieval. The proposed method includes the following three points. (i) Face tracks of the same person appearing for a period in each video are first connected on the basis of scene information with a time constriction, then all the people in one video are organized by a proposed hierarchical clustering method. (ii) After obtaining the organizational structure of all the people in one video, the people are organized into an upper layer by affinity propagation. (iii) Finally, in the process of querying, a remeasuring method based on the index structure of videos is performed to improve the retrieval accuracy. We also build a video dataset that contains six types of videos: films, TV shows, educational videos, interviews, press conferences and domestic activities. The formation of face tracks in the six types of videos is first researched, then experiments are performed on this video dataset containing more than 1 million faces and 218,786 face tracks. The results show that the proposed approach has high search quality and a short search time.

  10. Exploring Relationships in Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Crichton, D. J.; Cinquini, L.; Kelly, S.; Colbert, M. A.; Kincaid, H.

    2015-12-01

    Big Data are characterized by several different 'V's. Volume, Veracity, Volatility, Value and so on. For many datasets inflated Volumes through redundant features often make the data more noisy and difficult to extract Value out of. This is especially true if one is comparing/combining different datasets, and the metadata are diverse. We have been exploring ways to exploit such datasets through a variety of statistical machinery, and visualization. We show how we have applied it to time-series from large astronomical sky-surveys. This was done in the Virtual Observatory framework. More recently we have been doing similar work for a completely different domain viz. biology/cancer. The methodology reuse involves application to diverse datasets gathered through the various centers associated with the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) for cancer, an initiative of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Application to Geo datasets is a natural extension.

  11. Agile data management for curation of genomes to watershed datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadharajan, C.; Agarwal, D.; Faybishenko, B.; Versteeg, R.

    2015-12-01

    A software platform is being developed for data management and assimilation [DMA] as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Genomes to Watershed Sustainable Systems Science Focus Area 2.0. The DMA components and capabilities are driven by the project science priorities and the development is based on agile development techniques. The goal of the DMA software platform is to enable users to integrate and synthesize diverse and disparate field, laboratory, and simulation datasets, including geological, geochemical, geophysical, microbiological, hydrological, and meteorological data across a range of spatial and temporal scales. The DMA objectives are (a) developing an integrated interface to the datasets, (b) storing field monitoring data, laboratory analytical results of water and sediments samples collected into a database, (c) providing automated QA/QC analysis of data and (d) working with data providers to modify high-priority field and laboratory data collection and reporting procedures as needed. The first three objectives are driven by user needs, while the last objective is driven by data management needs. The project needs and priorities are reassessed regularly with the users. After each user session we identify development priorities to match the identified user priorities. For instance, data QA/QC and collection activities have focused on the data and products needed for on-going scientific analyses (e.g. water level and geochemistry). We have also developed, tested and released a broker and portal that integrates diverse datasets from two different databases used for curation of project data. The development of the user interface was based on a user-centered design process involving several user interviews and constant interaction with data providers. The initial version focuses on the most requested feature - i.e. finding the data needed for analyses through an intuitive interface. Once the data is found, the user can immediately plot and download data

  12. Method of generating features optimal to a dataset and classifier

    DOEpatents

    Bruillard, Paul J.; Gosink, Luke J.; Jarman, Kenneth D.

    2016-10-18

    A method of generating features optimal to a particular dataset and classifier is disclosed. A dataset of messages is inputted and a classifier is selected. An algebra of features is encoded. Computable features that are capable of describing the dataset from the algebra of features are selected. Irredundant features that are optimal for the classifier and the dataset are selected.

  13. Provenance of Earth Science Datasets - How Deep Should One Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramapriyan, H.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Aulenbach, S.; Duggan, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hua, H.; Tan, D.; Tilmes, C.; Wilson, B. D.; Wolfe, R.; Zednik, S.

    2015-12-01

    For credibility of scientific research, transparency and reproducibility are essential. This fundamental tenet has been emphasized for centuries, and has been receiving increased attention in recent years. The Office of Management and Budget (2002) addressed reproducibility and other aspects of quality and utility of information from federal agencies. Specific guidelines from NASA (2002) are derived from the above. According to these guidelines, "NASA requires a higher standard of quality for information that is considered influential. Influential scientific, financial, or statistical information is defined as NASA information that, when disseminated, will have or does have clear and substantial impact on important public policies or important private sector decisions." For information to be compliant, "the information must be transparent and reproducible to the greatest possible extent." We present how the principles of transparency and reproducibility have been applied to NASA data supporting the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3). The depth of trace needed of provenance of data used to derive conclusions in NCA3 depends on how the data were used (e.g., qualitatively or quantitatively). Given that the information is diligently maintained in the agency archives, it is possible to trace from a figure in the publication through the datasets, specific files, algorithm versions, instruments used for data collection, and satellites, as well as the individuals and organizations involved in each step. Such trace back permits transparency and reproducibility.

  14. Scientific Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Interactive Data Language (IDL), developed by Research Systems, Inc., is a tool for scientists to investigate their data without having to write a custom program for each study. IDL is based on the Mariners Mars spectral Editor (MMED) developed for studies from NASA's Mars spacecraft flights. The company has also developed Environment for Visualizing Images (ENVI), an image processing system for easily analyzing remotely sensed data written in IDL. The Visible Human CD, another Research Systems product, is the first complete digital reference of photographic images for exploring human anatomy.

  15. Global Precipitation Measurement: Methods, Datasets and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco; Turk, Francis J.; Petersen, Walt; Hou, Arthur Y.; Garcia-Ortega, Eduardo; Machado, Luiz, A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Salio, Paola; Kidd, Chris; Huffman, George J.; De Castro, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the many aspects of precipitation measurement that are relevant to providing an accurate global assessment of this important environmental parameter. Methods discussed include ground data, satellite estimates and numerical models. First, the methods for measuring, estimating, and modeling precipitation are discussed. Then, the most relevant datasets gathering precipitation information from those three sources are presented. The third part of the paper illustrates a number of the many applications of those measurements and databases. The aim of the paper is to organize the many links and feedbacks between precipitation measurement, estimation and modeling, indicating the uncertainties and limitations of each technique in order to identify areas requiring further attention, and to show the limits within which datasets can be used.

  16. Data Assimilation and Model Evaluation Experiment Datasets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chung-Chieng A.; Qian, Wen; Glenn, Scott M.

    1994-05-01

    The Institute for Naval Oceanography, in cooperation with Naval Research Laboratories and universities, executed the Data Assimilation and Model Evaluation Experiment (DAMÉE) for the Gulf Stream region during fiscal years 1991-1993. Enormous effort has gone into the preparation of several high-quality and consistent datasets for model initialization and verification. This paper describes the preparation process, the temporal and spatial scopes, the contents, the structure, etc., of these datasets.The goal of DAMEE and the need of data for the four phases of experiment are briefly stated. The preparation of DAMEE datasets consisted of a series of processes: 1)collection of observational data; 2) analysis and interpretation; 3) interpolation using the Optimum Thermal Interpolation System package; 4) quality control and re-analysis; and 5) data archiving and software documentation.The data products from these processes included a time series of 3D fields of temperature and salinity, 2D fields of surface dynamic height and mixed-layer depth, analysis of the Gulf Stream and rings system, and bathythermograph profiles. To date, these are the most detailed and high-quality data for mesoscale ocean modeling, data assimilation, and forecasting research. Feedback from ocean modeling groups who tested this data was incorporated into its refinement.Suggestions for DAMEE data usages include 1) ocean modeling and data assimilation studies, 2) diagnosis and theorectical studies, and 3) comparisons with locally detailed observations.

  17. Projecting global datasets to achieve equal areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E.L.; Finn, M.P.; Cox, J.D.; Beard, T.; Ruhl, S.; Bearden, M.

    2003-01-01

    Scientists routinely accomplish global modeling in the raster domain, but recent research has indicated that the transformation of large areas through map projection equations leads to errors. This research attempts to gauge the extent of map projection and resampling effects on the tabulation of categorical areas by comparing the results of three datasets for seven common projections. The datasets, Global Land Cover, Holdridge Life Zones, and Global Vegetation, were compiled at resolutions of 30 arc-second, 1/2 degree, and 1 degree, respectively. These datasets were projected globally from spherical coordinates to plane representations. Results indicate significant problems in the implementation of global projection transformations in commercial software, as well as differences in areal accuracy across projections. The level of raster resolution directly affects the accuracy of areal tabulations, with higher resolution yielding higher accuracy. If the raster resolution is high enough for individual pixels to approximate points, the areal error tends to zero. The 30-arc-second cells appear to approximate this condition.

  18. Spatially-based quality control for daily precipitation datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; de Luis, Martín; Beguería, Santiago; Ángel Saz, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    There are many reasons why wrong data can appear in original precipitation datasets but their common characteristic is that all of them do not correspond to the natural variability of the climate variable. For this reason, is necessary a comprehensive analysis of the data of each station in each day, to be certain that the final dataset will be consistent and reliable. Most of quality control techniques applied over daily precipitation are based on the comparison of each observed value with the rest of values in same series or in reference series built from its nearest stations. These methods are inherited from monthly precipitation studies, but in daily scale the variability is bigger and the methods have to be different. A common character shared by all of these approaches is that they made reconstructions based on the best-correlated reference series, which could be a biased decision because, for example, a extreme precipitation occurred in one day in more than one station could be flagged as erroneous. We propose a method based on the specific conditions of the day and location to determine the reliability of each observation. This method keeps the local variance of the variable and the time-structure independence. To do that, individually for each daily value, we first compute the probability of precipitation occurrence through a multivariate logistic regression using the 10 nearest observations in a binomial mode (0=dry; 1=wet), this produces a binomial prediction (PB) between 0 and 1. Then, we compute a prediction of precipitation magnitude (PM) with the raw data of the same 10 nearest observations. Through these predictions we explore the original data in each day and location by five criteria: 1) Suspect data; 2) Suspect zero; 3) Suspect outlier; 4) Suspect wet and 5) Suspect dry. Tests over different datasets addressed that flagged data depend mainly on the number of available data and the homogeneous distribution of them.

  19. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1]. PMID:27508236

  20. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1].

  1. Quantifying uncertainty in observational rainfall datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennard, Chris; Dosio, Alessandro; Nikulin, Grigory; Pinto, Izidine; Seid, Hussen

    2015-04-01

    The CO-ordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has to date seen the publication of at least ten journal papers that examine the African domain during 2012 and 2013. Five of these papers consider Africa generally (Nikulin et al. 2012, Kim et al. 2013, Hernandes-Dias et al. 2013, Laprise et al. 2013, Panitz et al. 2013) and five have regional foci: Tramblay et al. (2013) on Northern Africa, Mariotti et al. (2014) and Gbobaniyi el al. (2013) on West Africa, Endris et al. (2013) on East Africa and Kalagnoumou et al. (2013) on southern Africa. There also are a further three papers that the authors know about under review. These papers all use an observed rainfall and/or temperature data to evaluate/validate the regional model output and often proceed to assess projected changes in these variables due to climate change in the context of these observations. The most popular reference rainfall data used are the CRU, GPCP, GPCC, TRMM and UDEL datasets. However, as Kalagnoumou et al. (2013) point out there are many other rainfall datasets available for consideration, for example, CMORPH, FEWS, TAMSAT & RIANNAA, TAMORA and the WATCH & WATCH-DEI data. They, with others (Nikulin et al. 2012, Sylla et al. 2012) show that the observed datasets can have a very wide spread at a particular space-time coordinate. As more ground, space and reanalysis-based rainfall products become available, all which use different methods to produce precipitation data, the selection of reference data is becoming an important factor in model evaluation. A number of factors can contribute to a uncertainty in terms of the reliability and validity of the datasets such as radiance conversion algorithims, the quantity and quality of available station data, interpolation techniques and blending methods used to combine satellite and guage based products. However, to date no comprehensive study has been performed to evaluate the uncertainty in these observational datasets. We assess 18 gridded

  2. Multiresolution comparison of precipitation datasets for large-scale models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, K. P.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Davison, B.; DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded precipitation datasets are crucial for driving large-scale models which are related to weather forecast and climate research. However, the quality of precipitation products is usually validated individually. Comparisons between gridded precipitation products along with ground observations provide another avenue for investigating how the precipitation uncertainty would affect the performance of large-scale models. In this study, using data from a set of precipitation gauges over British Columbia and Alberta, we evaluate several widely used North America gridded products including the Canadian Gridded Precipitation Anomalies (CANGRD), the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the Water and Global Change (WATCH) project, the thin plate spline smoothing algorithms (ANUSPLIN) and Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). Based on verification criteria for various temporal and spatial scales, results provide an assessment of possible applications for various precipitation datasets. For long-term climate variation studies (~100 years), CANGRD, NCEP, WATCH and ANUSPLIN have different comparative advantages in terms of their resolution and accuracy. For synoptic and mesoscale precipitation patterns, CaPA provides appealing performance of spatial coherence. In addition to the products comparison, various downscaling methods are also surveyed to explore new verification and bias-reduction methods for improving gridded precipitation outputs for large-scale models.

  3. Collaboration tools and techniques for large model datasets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, R.P.; Carniel, S.; Chiggiato, J.; Janekovic, I.; Pullen, J.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    In MREA and many other marine applications, it is common to have multiple models running with different grids, run by different institutions. Techniques and tools are described for low-bandwidth delivery of data from large multidimensional datasets, such as those from meteorological and oceanographic models, directly into generic analysis and visualization tools. Output is stored using the NetCDF CF Metadata Conventions, and then delivered to collaborators over the web via OPeNDAP. OPeNDAP datasets served by different institutions are then organized via THREDDS catalogs. Tools and procedures are then used which enable scientists to explore data on the original model grids using tools they are familiar with. It is also low-bandwidth, enabling users to extract just the data they require, an important feature for access from ship or remote areas. The entire implementation is simple enough to be handled by modelers working with their webmasters - no advanced programming support is necessary. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing methods of analysing datasets with small clusters: case studies using four paediatric datasets.

    PubMed

    Marston, Louise; Peacock, Janet L; Yu, Keming; Brocklehurst, Peter; Calvert, Sandra A; Greenough, Anne; Marlow, Neil

    2009-07-01

    Studies of prematurely born infants contain a relatively large percentage of multiple births, so the resulting data have a hierarchical structure with small clusters of size 1, 2 or 3. Ignoring the clustering may lead to incorrect inferences. The aim of this study was to compare statistical methods which can be used to analyse such data: generalised estimating equations, multilevel models, multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Four datasets which differed in total size and in percentage of multiple births (n = 254, multiple 18%; n = 176, multiple 9%; n = 10 098, multiple 3%; n = 1585, multiple 8%) were analysed. With the continuous outcome, two-level models produced similar results in the larger dataset, while generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) produced divergent estimates using the smaller dataset. For the dichotomous outcome, most methods, except generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GH 'xtlogit' in Stata) gave similar odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals within datasets. For the continuous outcome, our results suggest using multilevel modelling. We conclude that generalised least squares multilevel modelling (ML GLS 'xtreg' in Stata) and maximum likelihood multilevel modelling (ML MLE 'xtmixed' in Stata) should be used with caution when the dataset is small. Where the outcome is dichotomous and there is a relatively large percentage of non-independent data, it is recommended that these are accounted for in analyses using logistic regression with adjusted standard errors or multilevel modelling. If, however, the dataset has a small percentage of clusters greater than size 1 (e.g. a population dataset of children where there are few multiples) there appears to be less need to adjust for clustering.

  5. Recovering complete and draft population genomes from metagenome datasets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sangwan, Naseer; Xia, Fangfang; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2016-03-08

    Assembly of metagenomic sequence data into microbial genomes is of fundamental value to improving our understanding of microbial ecology and metabolism by elucidating the functional potential of hard-to-culture microorganisms. Here, we provide a synthesis of available methods to bin metagenomic contigs into species-level groups and highlight how genetic diversity, sequencing depth, and coverage influence binning success. Despite the computational cost on application to deeply sequenced complex metagenomes (e.g., soil), covarying patterns of contig coverage across multiple datasets significantly improves the binning process. We also discuss and compare current genome validation methods and reveal how these methods tackle the problem ofmore » chimeric genome bins i.e., sequences from multiple species. Finally, we explore how population genome assembly can be used to uncover biogeographic trends and to characterize the effect of in situ functional constraints on the genome-wide evolution.« less

  6. Computational models in the age of large datasets.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Timothy; Sutton, Alexander C; Marder, Eve

    2015-06-01

    Technological advances in experimental neuroscience are generating vast quantities of data, from the dynamics of single molecules to the structure and activity patterns of large networks of neurons. How do we make sense of these voluminous, complex, disparate and often incomplete data? How do we find general principles in the morass of detail? Computational models are invaluable and necessary in this task and yield insights that cannot otherwise be obtained. However, building and interpreting good computational models is a substantial challenge, especially so in the era of large datasets. Fitting detailed models to experimental data is difficult and often requires onerous assumptions, while more loosely constrained conceptual models that explore broad hypotheses and principles can yield more useful insights.

  7. Recovering complete and draft population genomes from metagenome datasets.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Naseer; Xia, Fangfang; Gilbert, Jack A

    2016-03-08

    Assembly of metagenomic sequence data into microbial genomes is of fundamental value to improving our understanding of microbial ecology and metabolism by elucidating the functional potential of hard-to-culture microorganisms. Here, we provide a synthesis of available methods to bin metagenomic contigs into species-level groups and highlight how genetic diversity, sequencing depth, and coverage influence binning success. Despite the computational cost on application to deeply sequenced complex metagenomes (e.g., soil), covarying patterns of contig coverage across multiple datasets significantly improves the binning process. We also discuss and compare current genome validation methods and reveal how these methods tackle the problem of chimeric genome bins i.e., sequences from multiple species. Finally, we explore how population genome assembly can be used to uncover biogeographic trends and to characterize the effect of in situ functional constraints on the genome-wide evolution.

  8. Accuracy assessment of the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset, and comparison with other large-area elevation datasets: SRTM and ASTER

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.; Oimoen, Michael J.; Evans, Gayla A.

    2014-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is the primary elevation data product produced and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The NED provides seamless raster elevation data of the conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, U.S. island territories, Mexico, and Canada. The NED is derived from diverse source datasets that are processed to a specification with consistent resolutions, coordinate system, elevation units, and horizontal and vertical datums. The NED serves as the elevation layer of The National Map, and it provides basic elevation information for earth science studies and mapping applications in the United States and most of North America. An important part of supporting scientific and operational use of the NED is provision of thorough dataset documentation including data quality and accuracy metrics. The focus of this report is on the vertical accuracy of the NED and on comparison of the NED with other similar large-area elevation datasets, namely data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER).

  9. National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; O'Connor, Patrick

    2016-09-30

    The 2016 National Hydropower Plant Dataset, Version 1, includes geospatial point-level locations and key characteristics of online existing hydropower plants in the United States that are currently licensed, exempt, or awaiting relicensing. These data are a subset extracted from NHAAP’s Existing Hydropower Assets (EHA) internal database, which is a cornerstone of NHAAP’s EHA effort that has supported multiple U.S. hydropower R&D research initiatives related to market acceleration, environmental impact reduction, technology-to-market activities, and climate change impact assessment. For more information on NHAAP’s EHA effort, please visit the project web page at: http://nhaap.ornl.gov/existing-hydropower.

  10. Multivariate Data EXplorer (MDX)

    2012-08-01

    The MDX toolkit facilitates exploratory data analysis and visualization of multivariate datasets. MDX provides and interactive graphical user interface to load, explore, and modify multivariate datasets stored in tabular forms. MDX uses an extended version of the parallel coordinates plot and scatterplots to represent the data. The user can perform rapid visual queries using mouse gestures in the visualization panels to select rows or columns of interest. The visualization panel provides coordinated multiple views wherebymore » selections made in one plot are propagated to the other plots. Users can also export selected data or reconfigure the visualization panel to explore relationships between columns and rows in the data.« less

  11. Efficiently Exploring Multilevel Data with Recursive Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Daniel P.; von Oertzen, Timo; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing number of datasets with many participants, variables, or both, in education and other fields that often deal with large, multilevel data structures. Once initial confirmatory hypotheses are exhausted, it can be difficult to determine how best to explore the dataset to discover hidden relationships that could help to inform…

  12. Revisiting the concept of a symmetric index of agreement for continuous datasets

    PubMed Central

    Duveiller, Gregory; Fasbender, Dominique; Meroni, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying how close two datasets are to each other is a common and necessary undertaking in scientific research. The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient r is a widely used measure of the degree of linear dependence between two data series, but it gives no indication of how similar the values of these series are in magnitude. Although a number of indexes have been proposed to compare a dataset with a reference, only few are available to compare two datasets of equivalent (or unknown) reliability. After a brief review and numerical tests of the metrics designed to accomplish this task, this paper shows how an index proposed by Mielke can, with a minor modification, satisfy a series of desired properties, namely to be adimensional, bounded, symmetric, easy to compute and directly interpretable with respect to r. We thus show that this index can be considered as a natural extension to r that downregulates the value of r according to the bias between analysed datasets. The paper also proposes an effective way to disentangle the systematic and the unsystematic contribution to this agreement based on eigen decompositions. The use and value of the index is also illustrated on synthetic and real datasets. PMID:26762810

  13. CROSS DRIVE: A Collaborative and Distributed Virtual Environment for Exploitation of Atmospherical and Geological Datasets of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencetti, Michele

    2016-07-01

    European space exploration missions have produced huge data sets of potentially immense value for research as well as for planning and operating future missions. For instance, Mars Exploration programs comprise a series of missions with launches ranging from the past to beyond present, which are anticipated to produce exceptional volumes of data which provide prospects for research breakthroughs and advancing further activities in space. These collected data include a variety of information, such as imagery, topography, atmospheric, geochemical datasets and more, which has resulted in and still demands, databases, versatile visualisation tools and data reduction methods. Such rate of valuable data acquisition requires the scientists, researchers and computer scientists to coordinate their storage, processing and relevant tools to enable efficient data analysis. However, the current position is that expert teams from various disciplines, the databases and tools are fragmented, leaving little scope for unlocking its value through collaborative activities. The benefits of collaborative virtual environments have been implemented in various industrial fields allowing real-time multi-user collaborative work among people from different disciplines. Exploiting the benefits of advanced immersive virtual environments (IVE) has been recognized as an important interaction paradigm to facilitate future space exploration. The current work is mainly aimed towards the presentation of the preliminary results coming from the CROSS DRIVE project. This research received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 607177 and is mainly aimed towards the implementation of a distributed virtual workspace for collaborative scientific discovery, mission planning and operations. The purpose of the CROSS DRIVE project is to lay foundations of collaborative European workspaces for space science. It will demonstrate the feasibility and

  14. Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations. PMID:23579825

  15. Lifting Object Detection Datasets into 3D.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Joao; Vicente, Sara; Agapito, Lourdes; Batista, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    While data has certainly taken the center stage in computer vision in recent years, it can still be difficult to obtain in certain scenarios. In particular, acquiring ground truth 3D shapes of objects pictured in 2D images remains a challenging feat and this has hampered progress in recognition-based object reconstruction from a single image. Here we propose to bypass previous solutions such as 3D scanning or manual design, that scale poorly, and instead populate object category detection datasets semi-automatically with dense, per-object 3D reconstructions, bootstrapped from:(i) class labels, (ii) ground truth figure-ground segmentations and (iii) a small set of keypoint annotations. Our proposed algorithm first estimates camera viewpoint using rigid structure-from-motion and then reconstructs object shapes by optimizing over visual hull proposals guided by loose within-class shape similarity assumptions. The visual hull sampling process attempts to intersect an object's projection cone with the cones of minimal subsets of other similar objects among those pictured from certain vantage points. We show that our method is able to produce convincing per-object 3D reconstructions and to accurately estimate cameras viewpoints on one of the most challenging existing object-category detection datasets, PASCAL VOC. We hope that our results will re-stimulate interest on joint object recognition and 3D reconstruction from a single image. PMID:27295458

  16. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  17. Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations.

  18. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  19. Toyz: A framework for scientific analysis of large datasets and astronomical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolekamp, F.; Mamajek, E.

    2015-11-01

    As the size of images and data products derived from astronomical data continues to increase, new tools are needed to visualize and interact with that data in a meaningful way. Motivated by our own astronomical images taken with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) we present Toyz, an open source Python package for viewing and analyzing images and data stored on a remote server or cluster. Users connect to the Toyz web application via a web browser, making it ​a convenient tool for students to visualize and interact with astronomical data without having to install any software on their local machines. In addition it provides researchers with an easy-to-use tool that allows them to browse the files on a server and quickly view very large images (>2 Gb) taken with DECam and other cameras with a large FOV and create their own visualization tools that can be added on as extensions to the default Toyz framework.

  20. SAGE Research Methods Datasets: A Data Analysis Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Research Methods Datasets (SRMD) is an educational tool designed to offer users the opportunity to obtain hands-on experience with data analysis. Users can search for and browse authentic datasets by method, discipline, and data type. Each of the datasets are supplemented with educational material on the research method and clear guidelines for how to approach data analysis. PMID:27391182

  1. SAGE Research Methods Datasets: A Data Analysis Educational Tool.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Research Methods Datasets (SRMD) is an educational tool designed to offer users the opportunity to obtain hands-on experience with data analysis. Users can search for and browse authentic datasets by method, discipline, and data type. Each of the datasets are supplemented with educational material on the research method and clear guidelines for how to approach data analysis.

  2. Dataset-Driven Research to Support Learning and Knowledge Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbert, Katrien; Manouselis, Nikos; Drachsler, Hendrik; Duval, Erik

    2012-01-01

    In various research areas, the availability of open datasets is considered as key for research and application purposes. These datasets are used as benchmarks to develop new algorithms and to compare them to other algorithms in given settings. Finding such available datasets for experimentation can be a challenging task in technology enhanced…

  3. Scientific Inquiry: A Model for Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.

    1984-01-01

    Explores scientific inquiry as philosophical and behavioral model for online search specialist and information retrieval process. Nature of scientific research is described and online analogs to research concepts of variable, hypothesis formulation and testing, operational definition, validity, reliability, assumption, and cyclical nature of…

  4. National hydrography dataset--linear referencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simley, Jeffrey; Doumbouya, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Geospatial data normally have a certain set of standard attributes, such as an identification number, the type of feature, and name of the feature. These standard attributes are typically embedded into the default attribute table, which is directly linked to the geospatial features. However, it is impractical to embed too much information because it can create a complex, inflexible, and hard to maintain geospatial dataset. Many scientists prefer to create a modular, or relational, data design where the information about the features is stored and maintained separately, then linked to the geospatial data. For example, information about the water chemistry of a lake can be maintained in a separate file and linked to the lake. A Geographic Information System (GIS) can then relate the water chemistry to the lake and analyze it as one piece of information. For example, the GIS can select all lakes more than 50 acres, with turbidity greater than 1.5 milligrams per liter.

  5. AMADA-Analysis of multidimensional astronomical datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.; Ciardi, B.

    2015-09-01

    We present AMADA, an interactive web application to analyze multidimensional datasets. The user uploads a simple ASCII file and AMADA performs a number of exploratory analysis together with contemporary visualizations diagnostics. The package performs a hierarchical clustering in the parameter space, and the user can choose among linear, monotonic or non-linear correlation analysis. AMADA provides a number of clustering visualization diagnostics such as heatmaps, dendrograms, chord diagrams, and graphs. In addition, AMADA has the option to run a standard or robust principal components analysis, displaying the results as polar bar plots. The code is written in R and the web interface was created using the SHINY framework. AMADA source-code is freely available at https://goo.gl/KeSPue, and the shiny-app at http://goo.gl/UTnU7I.

  6. VAST Contest Dataset Use in Education

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, Mark A.; North, Chris; Endert, Alexander; Scholtz, Jean; Haack, Jereme N.; Varley, Caroline F.; Thomas, James J.

    2009-12-13

    The IEEE Visual Analytics Science and Technology (VAST) Symposium has held a contest each year since its inception in 2006. These events are designed to provide visual analytics researchers and developers with analytic challenges similar to those encountered by professional information analysts. The VAST contest has had an extended life outside of the symposium, however, as materials are being used in universities and other educational settings, either to help teachers of visual analytics-related classes or for student projects. We describe how we develop VAST contest datasets that results in products that can be used in different settings and review some specific examples of the adoption of the VAST contest materials in the classroom. The examples are drawn from graduate and undergraduate courses at Virginia Tech and from the Visual Analytics "Summer Camp" run by the National Visualization and Analytics Center in 2008. We finish with a brief discussion on evaluation metrics for education

  7. LIMS Version 6 Level 3 Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lingenfelser, Gretchen

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) Version 6 (V6) Level 3 data products and the assumptions used for their generation. A sequential estimation algorithm was used to obtain daily, zonal Fourier coefficients of the several parameters of the LIMS dataset for 216 days of 1978-79. The coefficients are available at up to 28 pressure levels and at every two degrees of latitude from 64 S to 84 N and at the synoptic time of 12 UT. Example plots were prepared and archived from the data at 10 hPa of January 1, 1979, to illustrate the overall coherence of the features obtained with the LIMS-retrieved parameters.

  8. Visualization of cosmological particle-based datasets.

    PubMed

    Navratil, Paul; Johnson, Jarrett; Bromm, Volker

    2007-01-01

    We describe our visualization process for a particle-based simulation of the formation of the first stars and their impact on cosmic history. The dataset consists of several hundred time-steps of point simulation data, with each time-step containing approximately two million point particles. For each time-step, we interpolate the point data onto a regular grid using a method taken from the radiance estimate of photon mapping. We import the resulting regular grid representation into ParaView, with which we extract isosurfaces across multiple variables. Our images provide insights into the evolution of the early universe, tracing the cosmic transition from an initially homogeneous state to one of increasing complexity. Specifically, our visualizations capture the build-up of regions of ionized gas around the first stars, their evolution, and their complex interactions with the surrounding matter. These observations will guide the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, the key astronomy mission of the next decade.

  9. Chemical datuments as scientific enablers.

    PubMed

    Rzepa, Henry S

    2013-01-01

    This article is an attempt to construct a chemical datument as a means of presenting insights into chemical phenomena in a scientific journal. An exploration of the interactions present in a small fragment of duplex Z-DNA and the nature of the catalytic centre of a carbon-dioxide/alkene epoxide alternating co-polymerisation is presented in this datument, with examples of the use of three software tools, one based on Java, the other two using Javascript and HTML5 technologies. The implications for the evolution of scientific journals are discussed. PMID:23343381

  10. The Effective Use of Scientific and Technical Information in Industrial and Non-Profit Settings: Explorations through Experimental Interventions in On-Going R & D Activities. Progress Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapero, Albert

    This is a second report of a study of the use of scientific and technical information in industrial and nonprofit settings. It focuses on mapping the information-communication behavior of the engineering division of the Southwest Research Institute. Data include questionnaires, library records, travel records, telephone records, and contractual…

  11. Creating a global sub-daily precipitation dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley

    2016-04-01

    Extremes of precipitation can cause flooding and droughts which can lead to substantial damages to infrastructure and ecosystems and can result in loss of life. It is still uncertain how hydrological extremes will change with global warming as we do not fully understand the processes that cause extreme precipitation under current climate variability. The INTENSE project is using a novel and fully-integrated data-modelling approach to provide a step-change in our understanding of the nature and drivers of global precipitation extremes and change on societally relevant timescales, leading to improved high-resolution climate model representation of extreme rainfall processes. The INTENSE project is in conjunction with the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)'s Grand Challenge on 'Understanding and Predicting Weather and Climate Extremes' and the Global Water and Energy Exchanges Project (GEWEX) Science questions. The first step towards achieving this is to construct a new global sub-daily precipitation dataset. Data collection is ongoing and already covers North America, Europe, Asia and Australasia. Comprehensive, open source quality control software is being developed to set a new standard for verifying sub-daily precipitation data and a set of global hydroclimatic indices will be produced based upon stakeholder recommendations. This will provide a unique global data resource on sub-daily precipitation whose derived indices, e.g. monthly/annual maxima, will be freely available to the wider scientific community.

  12. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded 'Centennial Trends' precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data.

  13. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded ‘Centennial Trends’ precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data. PMID:26451250

  14. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded 'Centennial Trends' precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data. PMID:26451250

  15. Privacy-preserving GWAS analysis on federated genomic datasets

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The biomedical community benefits from the increasing availability of genomic data to support meaningful scientific research, e.g., Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). However, high quality GWAS usually requires a large amount of samples, which can grow beyond the capability of a single institution. Federated genomic data analysis holds the promise of enabling cross-institution collaboration for effective GWAS, but it raises concerns about patient privacy and medical information confidentiality (as data are being exchanged across institutional boundaries), which becomes an inhibiting factor for the practical use. Methods We present a privacy-preserving GWAS framework on federated genomic datasets. Our method is to layer the GWAS computations on top of secure multi-party computation (MPC) systems. This approach allows two parties in a distributed system to mutually perform secure GWAS computations, but without exposing their private data outside. Results We demonstrate our technique by implementing a framework for minor allele frequency counting and χ2 statistics calculation, one of typical computations used in GWAS. For efficient prototyping, we use a state-of-the-art MPC framework, i.e., Portable Circuit Format (PCF) [1]. Our experimental results show promise in realizing both efficient and secure cross-institution GWAS computations. PMID:26733045

  16. Feature Selection in Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu-Paz, E; Newsam, S; Kamath, C

    2004-02-27

    Numerous applications of data mining to scientific data involve the induction of a classification model. In many cases, the collection of data is not performed with this task in mind, and therefore, the data might contain irrelevant or redundant features that affect negatively the accuracy of the induction algorithms. The size and dimensionality of typical scientific data make it difficult to use any available domain information to identify features that discriminate between the classes of interest. Similarly, exploratory data analysis techniques have limitations on the amount and dimensionality of the data that can be effectively processed. In this paper, we describe applications of efficient feature selection methods to data sets from astronomy, plasma physics, and remote sensing. We use variations of recently proposed filter methods as well as traditional wrapper approaches where practical. We discuss the importance of these applications, the general challenges of feature selection in scientific datasets, the strategies for success that were common among our diverse applications, and the lessons learned in solving these problems.

  17. Dishonesty in scientific research.

    PubMed

    Mazar, Nina; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Fraudulent business practices, such as those leading to the Enron scandal and the conviction of Bernard Madoff, evoke a strong sense of public outrage. But fraudulent or dishonest actions are not exclusive to the realm of big corporations or to evil individuals without consciences. Dishonest actions are all too prevalent in everyone's daily lives, because people are constantly encountering situations in which they can gain advantages by cutting corners. Whether it's adding a few dollars in value to the stolen items reported on an insurance claim form or dropping outlier data points from a figure to make a paper sound more interesting, dishonesty is part of the human condition. Here, we explore how people rationalize dishonesty, the implications for scientific research, and what can be done to foster a culture of research integrity. PMID:26524587

  18. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    The LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) is a self-governing collaboration seeking to detect gravitational waves, use them to explore the fundamental physics of gravity, and develop gravitational wave observations as a tool of astronomical discovery. The LSC works toward this goal through research on, and development of techniques for, gravitational wave detection; and the development, commissioning and exploitation of gravitational wave detectors. The LSC, funded in 1997, has now many hundreds of scientists in 16 countries, with a diverse range of skills and background. The LSC is preparing for a discovery era with Advanced LIGO detectors starting in the next few years; we will describe the features and challenges of the LSC organization in such an exciting time.

  19. Dissecting the Space-Time Structure of Tree-Ring Datasets Using the Partial Triadic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Nardin, Maxime; Godefroid, Martin; Ruiz-Diaz, Manuela; Sergent, Anne-Sophie; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Pâques, Luc; Rozenberg, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Tree-ring datasets are used in a variety of circumstances, including archeology, climatology, forest ecology, and wood technology. These data are based on microdensity profiles and consist of a set of tree-ring descriptors, such as ring width or early/latewood density, measured for a set of individual trees. Because successive rings correspond to successive years, the resulting dataset is a ring variables × trees × time datacube. Multivariate statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis, have been widely used for extracting worthwhile information from ring datasets, but they typically address two-way matrices, such as ring variables × trees or ring variables × time. Here, we explore the potential of the partial triadic analysis (PTA), a multivariate method dedicated to the analysis of three-way datasets, to apprehend the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets. We analyzed a set of 11 tree-ring descriptors measured in 149 georeferenced individuals of European larch (Larix decidua Miller) during the period of 1967–2007. The processing of densitometry profiles led to a set of ring descriptors for each tree and for each year from 1967–2007. The resulting three-way data table was subjected to two distinct analyses in order to explore i) the temporal evolution of spatial structures and ii) the spatial structure of temporal dynamics. We report the presence of a spatial structure common to the different years, highlighting the inter-individual variability of the ring descriptors at the stand scale. We found a temporal trajectory common to the trees that could be separated into a high and low frequency signal, corresponding to inter-annual variations possibly related to defoliation events and a long-term trend possibly related to climate change. We conclude that PTA is a powerful tool to unravel and hierarchize the different sources of variation within tree-ring datasets. PMID:25247299

  20. Dissecting the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets using the partial triadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Nardin, Maxime; Godefroid, Martin; Ruiz-Diaz, Manuela; Sergent, Anne-Sophie; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Pâques, Luc; Rozenberg, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Tree-ring datasets are used in a variety of circumstances, including archeology, climatology, forest ecology, and wood technology. These data are based on microdensity profiles and consist of a set of tree-ring descriptors, such as ring width or early/latewood density, measured for a set of individual trees. Because successive rings correspond to successive years, the resulting dataset is a ring variables × trees × time datacube. Multivariate statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis, have been widely used for extracting worthwhile information from ring datasets, but they typically address two-way matrices, such as ring variables × trees or ring variables × time. Here, we explore the potential of the partial triadic analysis (PTA), a multivariate method dedicated to the analysis of three-way datasets, to apprehend the space-time structure of tree-ring datasets. We analyzed a set of 11 tree-ring descriptors measured in 149 georeferenced individuals of European larch (Larix decidua Miller) during the period of 1967-2007. The processing of densitometry profiles led to a set of ring descriptors for each tree and for each year from 1967-2007. The resulting three-way data table was subjected to two distinct analyses in order to explore i) the temporal evolution of spatial structures and ii) the spatial structure of temporal dynamics. We report the presence of a spatial structure common to the different years, highlighting the inter-individual variability of the ring descriptors at the stand scale. We found a temporal trajectory common to the trees that could be separated into a high and low frequency signal, corresponding to inter-annual variations possibly related to defoliation events and a long-term trend possibly related to climate change. We conclude that PTA is a powerful tool to unravel and hierarchize the different sources of variation within tree-ring datasets.

  1. Resolving evolutionary relationships in lichen-forming fungi using diverse phylogenomic datasets and analytical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Steven D.; Grewe, Felix; Widhelm, Todd; Muggia, Lucia; Wray, Brian; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary histories are now being inferred from unprecedented, genome-scale datasets for a broad range of organismal groups. While phylogenomic data has helped in resolving a number of difficult, long-standing questions, constructing appropriate datasets from genomes is not straightforward, particularly in non-model groups. Here we explore the utility of phylogenomic data to infer robust phylogenies for a lineage of closely related lichen-forming fungal species. We assembled multiple, distinct nuclear phylogenomic datasets, ranging from ca. 25 Kb to 16.8 Mb and inferred topologies using both concatenated gene tree approaches and species tree methods based on the multispecies coalescent model. In spite of evidence for rampant incongruence among individual loci, these genome-scale datasets provide a consistent, well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis using both concatenation and multispecies coalescent approaches (ASTRAL-II and SVDquartets). However, the popular full hierarchical coalescent approach implemented in *BEAST provided inconsistent inferences, both in terms of nodal support and topology, with smaller subsets of the phylogenomic data. While comparable, well-supported topologies can be accurately inferred with only a small fraction of the overall genome, consistent results across a variety of datasets and methodological approaches provide reassurance that phylogenomic data can effectively be used to provide robust phylogenies for closely related lichen-forming fungal lineages. PMID:26915968

  2. Seasonal evaluation of evapotranspiration fluxes from MODIS satellite and mesoscale model downscaled global reanalysis datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Prashant K.; Han, Dawei; Islam, Tanvir; Petropoulos, George P.; Gupta, Manika; Dai, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is an important variable in hydrological modeling, which is not always available, especially for ungauged catchments. Satellite data, such as those available from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and global datasets via the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA) interim and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis are important sources of information for ETo. This study explored the seasonal performances of MODIS (MOD16) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model downscaled global reanalysis datasets, such as ERA interim and NCEP-derived ETo, against ground-based datasets. Overall, on the basis of the statistical metrics computed, ETo derived from ERA interim and MODIS were more accurate in comparison to the estimates from NCEP for all the seasons. The pooled datasets also revealed a similar performance to the seasonal assessment with higher agreement for the ERA interim (r = 0.96, RMSE = 2.76 mm/8 days; bias = 0.24 mm/8 days), followed by MODIS (r = 0.95, RMSE = 7.66 mm/8 days; bias = -7.17 mm/8 days) and NCEP (r = 0.76, RMSE = 11.81 mm/8 days; bias = -10.20 mm/8 days). The only limitation with downscaling ERA interim reanalysis datasets using WRF is that it is time-consuming in contrast to the readily available MODIS operational product for use in mesoscale studies and practical applications.

  3. Resolving evolutionary relationships in lichen-forming fungi using diverse phylogenomic datasets and analytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Steven D; Grewe, Felix; Widhelm, Todd; Muggia, Lucia; Wray, Brian; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary histories are now being inferred from unprecedented, genome-scale datasets for a broad range of organismal groups. While phylogenomic data has helped in resolving a number of difficult, long-standing questions, constructing appropriate datasets from genomes is not straightforward, particularly in non-model groups. Here we explore the utility of phylogenomic data to infer robust phylogenies for a lineage of closely related lichen-forming fungal species. We assembled multiple, distinct nuclear phylogenomic datasets, ranging from ca. 25 Kb to 16.8 Mb and inferred topologies using both concatenated gene tree approaches and species tree methods based on the multispecies coalescent model. In spite of evidence for rampant incongruence among individual loci, these genome-scale datasets provide a consistent, well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis using both concatenation and multispecies coalescent approaches (ASTRAL-II and SVDquartets). However, the popular full hierarchical coalescent approach implemented in *BEAST provided inconsistent inferences, both in terms of nodal support and topology, with smaller subsets of the phylogenomic data. While comparable, well-supported topologies can be accurately inferred with only a small fraction of the overall genome, consistent results across a variety of datasets and methodological approaches provide reassurance that phylogenomic data can effectively be used to provide robust phylogenies for closely related lichen-forming fungal lineages. PMID:26915968

  4. Multi-Resolution Modeling of Large Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2002-02-25

    Data produced by large scale scientific simulations, experiments, and observations can easily reach tera-bytes in size. The ability to examine data-sets of this magnitude, even in moderate detail, is problematic at best. Generally this scientific data consists of multivariate field quantities with complex inter-variable correlations and spatial-temporal structure. To provide scientists and engineers with the ability to explore and analyze such data sets we are using a twofold approach. First, we model the data with the objective of creating a compressed yet manageable representation. Second, with that compressed representation, we provide the user with the ability to query the resulting approximation to obtain approximate yet sufficient answers; a process called adhoc querying. This paper is concerned with a wavelet modeling technique that seeks to capture the important physical characteristics of the target scientific data. Our approach is driven by the compression, which is necessary for viable throughput, along with the end user requirements from the discovery process. Our work contrasts existing research which applies wavelets to range querying, change detection, and clustering problems by working directly with a decomposition of the data. The difference in this procedures is due primarily to the nature of the data and the requirements of the scientists and engineers. Our approach directly uses the wavelet coefficients of the data to compress as well as query. We will provide some background on the problem, describe how the wavelet decomposition is used to facilitate data compression and how queries are posed on the resulting compressed model. Results of this process will be shown for several problems of interest and we will end with some observations and conclusions about this research.

  5. Reconstructing thawing quintessence with multiple datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Nelson A.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Sahlén, Martin; Parkinson, David

    2016-03-01

    In this work we model the quintessence potential in a Taylor series expansion, up to second order, around the present-day value of the scalar field. The field is evolved in a thawing regime assuming zero initial velocity. We use the latest data from the Planck satellite, baryonic acoustic oscillations observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and supernova luminosity distance information from Union2.1 to constrain our models parameters, and also include perturbation growth data from the WiggleZ, BOSS, and 6dF surveys. The supernova data provide the strongest individual constraint on the potential parameters. We show that the growth data performance is competitive with the other datasets in constraining the dark energy parameters we introduce. We also conclude that the combined constraints we obtain for our model parameters, when compared to previous works of nearly a decade ago, have shown only modest improvement, even with new growth of structure data added to previously existent types of data.

  6. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  7. Classification of antimicrobial peptides with imbalanced datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Francy L.; Torres, Rodrigo; Ramos Pollán, Raúl

    2015-12-01

    In the last years, pattern recognition has been applied to several fields for solving multiple problems in science and technology as for example in protein prediction. This methodology can be useful for prediction of activity of biological molecules, e.g. for determination of antimicrobial activity of synthetic and natural peptides. In this work, we evaluate the performance of different physico-chemical properties of peptides (descriptors groups) in the presence of imbalanced data sets, when facing the task of detecting whether a peptide has antimicrobial activity. We evaluate undersampling and class weighting techniques to deal with the class imbalance with different classification methods and descriptor groups. Our classification model showed an estimated precision of 96% showing that descriptors used to codify the amino acid sequences contain enough information to correlate the peptides sequences with their antimicrobial activity by means of learning machines. Moreover, we show how certain descriptor groups (pseudoaminoacid composition type I) work better with imbalanced datasets while others (dipeptide composition) work better with balanced ones.

  8. NASA: Innovate, Explore, Discover, Inspire

    NASA Video Gallery

    The President's Fiscal Year 2014 budget ensures the United States will remain the world's leader in space exploration and scientific discovery for years to come, while making critical advances in a...

  9. Trajectory-Based Flow Feature Tracking in Joint Particle/Volume Datasets.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Franz; Yu, Hongfeng; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2014-12-01

    Studying the dynamic evolution of time-varying volumetric data is essential in countless scientific endeavors. The ability to isolate and track features of interest allows domain scientists to better manage large complex datasets both in terms of visual understanding and computational efficiency. This work presents a new trajectory-based feature tracking technique for use in joint particle/volume datasets. While traditional feature tracking approaches generally require a high temporal resolution, this method utilizes the indexed trajectories of corresponding Lagrangian particle data to efficiently track features over large jumps in time. Such a technique is especially useful for situations where the volume dataset is either temporally sparse or too large to efficiently track a feature through all intermediate timesteps. In addition, this paper presents a few other applications of this approach, such as the ability to efficiently track the internal properties of volumetric features using variables from the particle data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique using real world combustion and atmospheric datasets and compare it to existing tracking methods to justify its advantages and accuracy. PMID:26356970

  10. A digital archiving system and distributed server-side processing of large datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomier, Julien; Aylward, Stephen R.; Marion, Charles; Lee, Joowhi; Styner, Martin

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present MIDAS, a web-based digital archiving system that processes large collections of data. Medical imaging research often involves interdisciplinary teams, each performing a separate task, from acquiring datasets to analyzing the processing results. Moreover, the number and size of the datasets continue to increase every year due to recent advancements in acquisition technology. As a result, many research laboratories centralize their data and rely on distributed computing power. We created a web-based digital archiving repository based on openstandards. The MIDAS repository is specifically tuned for medical and scientific datasets and provides a flexible data management facility, a search engine, and an online image viewer. MIDAS enables users to run a set of extensible image processing algorithms from the web to the selected datasets and to add new algorithms to the MIDAS system, facilitating the dissemination of users' work to different research partners. The MIDAS system is currently running in several research laboratories and has demonstrated its ability to streamline the full image processing workflow from data acquisition to image analysis and reports.

  11. Exploring Ensemble Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Madhura N.; Pinto, Lifford; Alabi, Femi; Harter, Jonathan; Taylor, Russell M.; Wu, Xunlei; Petersen, Hannah; Bass, Steffen A.; Healey, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    An ensemble is a collection of related datasets. Each dataset, or member, of an ensemble is normally large, multidimensional, and spatio-temporal. Ensembles are used extensively by scientists and mathematicians, for example, by executing a simulation repeatedly with slightly different input parameters and saving the results in an ensemble to see how parameter choices affect the simulation. To draw inferences from an ensemble, scientists need to compare data both within and between ensemble members. We propose two techniques to support ensemble exploration and comparison: a pairwise sequential animation method that visualizes locally neighboring members simultaneously, and a screen door tinting method that visualizes subsets of members using screen space subdivision. We demonstrate the capabilities of both techniques, first using synthetic data, then with simulation data of heavy ion collisions in high-energy physics. Results show that both techniques are capable of supporting meaningful comparisons of ensemble data. PMID:22347540

  12. Explorers of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, Marino C.; Busby, Michael R.; Sotoohi, Goli; Rodriguez, William J.; Hennig, Lee Ann; Berenty, Jerry; King, Terry; Grener, Doreen; Kruzan, John

    1998-01-01

    The Explorers of the Universe is a multifaceted scientific/literacy project that involves teachers and their students with problem oriented situations using authentic materials. This paper presents examples of self-directed cases researched by high school students and the met acognitive tools they use in the planning, carrying out, and finalizing their reports.

  13. Far Travelers: The Exploring Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicks, Oran W.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program of lunar and planetary exploration produced a flood of scientific information about the moon, planets and the environment of interplanetary space. This book is an account of the people, machines, and the events of this scientific enterprise. It is a story of organizations,…

  14. Exploring Venus: the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo, A.; Atreya, S.; Thompson, T.; Luhmann, J.; Mackwell, S.; Baines, K.; Cutts, J.; Robinson, J.; Saunders, S.

    In July 2005 NASA s Planetary Division established the Venus Exploration Analysis Group VEXAG http www lpi usra edu vexag in order to engage the scientific community at large in identifying scientific priorities and strategies for the exploration of Venus VEXAG is a community-based forum open to all interested in the exploration of Venus VEXAG was designed to provide scientific input and technology development plans for planning and prioritizing the study of Venus over the next several decades including a Venus surface sample return VEXAG regularly evaluates NASA s Venus exploration goals scientific objectives investigations and critical measurement requirements including the recommendations in the National Research Council Decadal Survey and NASA s Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap VEXAG will take into consideration the latest scientific results from ESA s Venus Express mission and the MESSENGER flybys as well as the results anticipated from JAXA s Venus Climate Orbiter together with science community inputs from venues such as the February 13-16 2006 AGU Chapman Conference to identify the scientific priorities and strategies for future NASA Venus exploration VEXAG is composed of two co-chairs Sushil Atreya University of Michigan Ann Arbor and Janet Luhmann University of California Berkeley VEXAG has formed three focus groups in the areas of 1 Planetary Formation and Evolution Surface and Interior Volcanism Geodynamics etc Focus Group Lead Steve Mackwell LPI 2 Atmospheric Evolution Dynamics Meteorology

  15. Lunar Daylight Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Brand Norman

    2010-01-01

    With 1 rover, 2 astronauts and 3 days, the Apollo 17 Mission covered over 30 km, setup 10 scientific experiments and returned 110 kg of samples. This is a lot of science in a short time and the inspiration for a barebones, return-to-the-Moon strategy called Daylight Exploration. The Daylight Exploration approach poses an answer to the question, What could the Apollo crew have done with more time and today s robotics? In contrast to more ambitious and expensive strategies that create outposts then rely on pressurized rovers to drive to the science sites, Daylight Exploration is a low-overhead approach conceived to land near the scientific site, conduct Apollo-like exploration then leave before the sun goes down. A key motivation behind Daylight Exploration is cost reduction, but it does not come at the expense of scientific exploration. As a goal, Daylight Exploration provides access to the top 10 science sites by using the best capabilities of human and robotic exploration. Most science sites are within an equatorial band of 26 degrees latitude and on the Moon, at the equator, the day is 14 Earth days long; even more important, the lunar night is 14 days long. Human missions are constrained to 12 days because the energy storage systems required to operate during the lunar night adds mass, complexity and cost. In addition, short missions are beneficial because they require fewer consumables, do not require an airlock, reduce radiation exposure, minimize the dwell-time for the ascent and orbiting propulsion systems and allow a low-mass, campout accommodations. Key to Daylight Exploration is the use of piloted rovers used as tele-operated science platforms. Rovers are launched before or with the crew, and continue to operate between crew visits analyzing and collecting samples during the lunar daylight

  16. Mars exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Seiji

    1991-07-01

    Mars exploration scenarios are reviewed. An emphasis is placed on scientific exploration. The review and evaluation results are reported for the following items: (1) orbit plans for Mars surface exploration missions that begin in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); (2) powered and aerodynamic capturing payloads from the transfer orbit to a Mars revolving orbit; and (3) a penetrator system as a Mars landing vehicle. Proposed Mars transfer orbits have the following advantages over Hohmann orbits: (1) transfer time and angle are less; (2) the inclination between the orbital planes of Earth and Mars is considered; and (3) velocity variations are not required to change orbit plane.

  17. Synthesizing plant phenological indicators from multispecies datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutishauser, This; Peñuelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda; Gehrig, Regula; Scherrer, Simon C.; Röthlisberger, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Changes in the seasonality of life cycles of plants from phenological observations are traditionally analysed at the species level. Trends and correlations with main environmental driving variables show a coherent picture across the globe. The question arises whether there is an integrated phenological signal across species that describes common interannual variability. Is there a way to express synthetic phenological indicators from multispecies datasets that serve decision makers as usefull tools? Can these indicators be derived in such a robust way that systematic updates yield necessary information for adaptation measures? We address these questions by analysing multi-species phenological data sets with leaf-unfolding and flowering observations from 30 sites across Europe between 40° and 63°N including data from PEP725, the Swiss Plant Phenological Observation Network and one legacy data set. Starting in 1951 the data sets were synthesized by multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis). The representativeness of the site specific indicator was tested against subsets including only leaf-unfolding or flowering phases, and by a comparison with a 50% random sample of the available phenophases for 500 time steps. Results show that a synthetic indicators explains up to 79% of the variance at each site - usually 40-50% or more. Robust linear trends over the common period 1971-2000 indicate an overall change of the indicator of -0.32 days/year with lower uncertainty than previous studies. Advances were more pronounced in southern and northern Europe. The indicator-based analysis provides a promising tool for synthesizing site-based plant phenological records and is a companion to, and validating data for, an increasing number of phenological measurements derived from phenological models and satellite sensors.

  18. A reference GNSS tropospheric dataset over Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacione, Rosa; Di Tomaso, Simona

    2016-04-01

    The present availability of 18 years of GNSS data belonging to the European Permanent Network (EPN, http://www.epncb.oma.be/) is a valuable database for the development of a climate data record of GNSS tropospheric products over Europe. This dataset has high potential for monitoring trend and variability in atmospheric water vapour, improving the knowledge of climatic trends of atmospheric water vapour and being useful for global and regional NWP reanalyses as well as climate model simulations. In the framework of the EPN-Repro2, a second reprocessing campaign of the EPN, five Analysis Centres have homogenously reprocessed the EPN network for the 1996-2013. Three Analysis Centres are providing homogenously reprocessed solutions for the entire network, which are analyzed by the three different software packages: Bernese, GAMIT and GIPSY-OASIS. Smaller subnetworks based on Bernese 5.2 are also provided. A huge effort is made for providing solutions that are the basis for deriving new coordinates, velocities and troposphere parameters, Zenith Tropospheric Delays and Horizontal Gradients, for the entire EPN. These individual contributions are combined in order to provide the official EPN reprocessed products. A preliminary tropospheric combined solution for the period 1996-2013 has been carried out. It is based on all the available homogenously reprocessed solutions and it offers the possibility to assess each of them prior to the ongoing final combination. We will present the results of the EPN Repro2 tropospheric combined products and how the climate community will benefit from them. Aknowledgment.The EPN Repro2 working group is acknowledged for providing the EPN solutions used in this work. E-GEOS activity is carried out in the framework of ASI contract 2015-050-R.0.

  19. Integrating diverse datasets improves developmental enhancer prediction.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Genevieve D; Oksenberg, Nir; Truty, Rebecca M; Kostka, Dennis; Murphy, Karl K; Ahituv, Nadav; Pollard, Katherine S; Capra, John A

    2014-06-01

    Gene-regulatory enhancers have been identified using various approaches, including evolutionary conservation, regulatory protein binding, chromatin modifications, and DNA sequence motifs. To integrate these different approaches, we developed EnhancerFinder, a two-step method for distinguishing developmental enhancers from the genomic background and then predicting their tissue specificity. EnhancerFinder uses a multiple kernel learning approach to integrate DNA sequence motifs, evolutionary patterns, and diverse functional genomics datasets from a variety of cell types. In contrast with prediction approaches that define enhancers based on histone marks or p300 sites from a single cell line, we trained EnhancerFinder on hundreds of experimentally verified human developmental enhancers from the VISTA Enhancer Browser. We comprehensively evaluated EnhancerFinder using cross validation and found that our integrative method improves the identification of enhancers over approaches that consider a single type of data, such as sequence motifs, evolutionary conservation, or the binding of enhancer-associated proteins. We find that VISTA enhancers active in embryonic heart are easier to identify than enhancers active in several other embryonic tissues, likely due to their uniquely high GC content. We applied EnhancerFinder to the entire human genome and predicted 84,301 developmental enhancers and their tissue specificity. These predictions provide specific functional annotations for large amounts of human non-coding DNA, and are significantly enriched near genes with annotated roles in their predicted tissues and lead SNPs from genome-wide association studies. We demonstrate the utility of EnhancerFinder predictions through in vivo validation of novel embryonic gene regulatory enhancers from three developmental transcription factor loci. Our genome-wide developmental enhancer predictions are freely available as a UCSC Genome Browser track, which we hope will enable

  20. The need for a national LIDAR dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoker, Jason M.; Harding, David; Parrish, Jay

    2008-01-01

    On May 21st and 22nd 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG) hosted the Second National Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) Initiative Strategy Meeting at USGS Headquarters in Reston, Virginia. The USGS is taking the lead in cooperation with many partners to design and implement a future high-resolution National Lidar Dataset. Initial work is focused on determining viability, developing requirements and specifi cations, establishing what types of information contained in a lidar signal are most important, and identifying key stakeholders and their respective roles. In February 2007, USGS hosted the fi rst National Lidar Initiative Strategy Meeting at USGS Headquarters in Virginia. The presentations and a published summary report from the fi rst meeting can be found on the Center for Lidar Information Coordination and Knowledge (CLICK) Website: http://lidar.cr.usgs.gov. The fi rst meeting demonstrated the public need for consistent lidar data at the national scale. The goals of the second meeting were to further expand on the ideas and information developed in the fi rst meeting, to bring more stakeholders together, to both refi ne and expand on the requirements and capabilities needed, and to discuss an organizational and funding approach for an initiative of this magnitude. The approximately 200 participants represented Federal, State, local, commercial and academic interests. The second meeting included a public solicitation for presentations and posters to better democratize the workshop. All of the oral presentation abstracts that were submitted were accepted, and the 25 poster submissions augmented and expanded upon the oral presentations. The presentations from this second meeting, including audio, can be found on CLICK at http://lidar.cr.usgs.gov/national_lidar_2008.php. Based on the presentations and the discussion sessions, the following

  1. Feature isolation and quantification of evolving datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Identifying and isolating features is an important part of visualization and a crucial step for the analysis and understanding of large time-dependent data sets (either from observation or simulation). In this proposal, we address these concerns, namely the investigation and implementation of basic 2D and 3D feature based methods to enhance current visualization techniques and provide the building blocks for automatic feature recognition, tracking, and correlation. These methods incorporate ideas from scientific visualization, computer vision, image processing, and mathematical morphology. Our focus is in the area of fluid dynamics, and we show the applicability of these methods to the quantification and tracking of three-dimensional vortex and turbulence bursts.

  2. Publishing datasets with eSciDoc and panMetaDocs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently serveral research institutions worldwide undertake considerable efforts to have their scientific datasets published and to syndicate them to data portals as extensively described objects identified by a persistent identifier. This is done to foster the reuse of data, to make scientific work more transparent, and to create a citable entity that can be referenced unambigously in written publications. GFZ Potsdam established a publishing workflow for file based research datasets. Key software components are an eSciDoc infrastructure [1] and multiple instances of the data curation tool panMetaDocs [2]. The eSciDoc repository holds data objects and their associated metadata in container objects, called eSciDoc items. A key metadata element in this context is the publication status of the referenced data set. PanMetaDocs, which is based on PanMetaWorks [3], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based metadata schema. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. Access rights can be applied to set visibility of datasets to other project members and allow collaboration on and notifying about datasets (RSS) and interaction with the internal messaging system, that was inherited from panMetaWorks. When a dataset is to be published, panMetaDocs allows to change the publication status of the eSciDoc item from status "private" to "submitted" and prepare the dataset for verification by an external reviewer. After quality checks, the item publication status can be changed to "published". This makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. PanMetaDocs is developed as an eSciDoc application. It is an easy to use graphical user interface to eSciDoc items, their data and metadata. It is also an application supporting a DOI publication agent during the process of

  3. Application of Huang-Hilbert Transforms to Geophysical Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Dean G.

    2003-01-01

    The Huang-Hilbert transform is a promising new method for analyzing nonstationary and nonlinear datasets. In this talk I will apply this technique to several important geophysical datasets. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of this method, multi- year, hourly datasets of the sea level heights and solar radiation will be analyzed. Then we will apply this transform to the analysis of gravity waves observed in a mesoscale observational net.

  4. Five year global dataset: NMC operational analyses (1978 to 1982)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straus, David; Ardizzone, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    This document describes procedures used in assembling a five year dataset (1978 to 1982) using NMC Operational Analysis data. These procedures entailed replacing missing and unacceptable data in order to arrive at a complete dataset that is continuous in time. In addition, a subjective assessment on the integrity of all data (both preliminary and final) is presented. Documentation on tapes comprising the Five Year Global Dataset is also included.

  5. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  6. Harnessing Connectivity in a Large-Scale Small-Molecule Sensitivity Dataset | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Identifying genetic alterations that prime a cancer cell to respond to a particular therapeutic agent can facilitate the development of precision cancer medicines. Cancer cell-line (CCL) profiling of small-molecule sensitivity has emerged as an unbiased method to assess the relationships between genetic or cellular features of CCLs and small-molecule response. Here, we developed annotated cluster multidimensional enrichment analysis to explore the associations between groups of small molecules and groups of CCLs in a new, quantitative sensitivity dataset.

  7. Framework for Interactive Parallel Dataset Analysis on the Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, David A.; Ananthan, Balamurali; Johnson, Tony; Serbo, Victor; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    We present a framework for use at a typical Grid site to facilitate custom interactive parallel dataset analysis targeting terabyte-scale datasets of the type typically produced by large multi-institutional science experiments. We summarize the needs for interactive analysis and show a prototype solution that satisfies those needs. The solution consists of desktop client tool and a set of Web Services that allow scientists to sign onto a Grid site, compose analysis script code to carry out physics analysis on datasets, distribute the code and datasets to worker nodes, collect the results back to the client, and to construct professional-quality visualizations of the results.

  8. Pgu-Face: A dataset of partially covered facial images.

    PubMed

    Salari, Seyed Reza; Rostami, Habib

    2016-12-01

    In this article we introduce a human face image dataset. Images were taken in close to real-world conditions using several cameras, often mobile phone׳s cameras. The dataset contains 224 subjects imaged under four different figures (a nearly clean-shaven countenance, a nearly clean-shaven countenance with sunglasses, an unshaven or stubble face countenance, an unshaven or stubble face countenance with sunglasses) in up to two recording sessions. Existence of partially covered face images in this dataset could reveal the robustness and efficiency of several facial image processing algorithms. In this work we present the dataset and explain the recording method. PMID:27668275

  9. Pgu-Face: A dataset of partially covered facial images.

    PubMed

    Salari, Seyed Reza; Rostami, Habib

    2016-12-01

    In this article we introduce a human face image dataset. Images were taken in close to real-world conditions using several cameras, often mobile phone׳s cameras. The dataset contains 224 subjects imaged under four different figures (a nearly clean-shaven countenance, a nearly clean-shaven countenance with sunglasses, an unshaven or stubble face countenance, an unshaven or stubble face countenance with sunglasses) in up to two recording sessions. Existence of partially covered face images in this dataset could reveal the robustness and efficiency of several facial image processing algorithms. In this work we present the dataset and explain the recording method.

  10. A test-retest dataset for assessing long-term reliability of brain morphology and resting-state brain activity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lijie; Huang, Taicheng; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    We present a test-retest dataset for evaluation of long-term reliability of measures from structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and rfMRI) scans. The repeated scan dataset was collected from 61 healthy adults in two sessions using highly similar imaging parameters at an interval of 103–189 days. However, as the imaging parameters were not completely identical, the reliability estimated from this dataset shall reflect the lower bounds of the true reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures. Furthermore, in conjunction with other test-retest datasets, our dataset may help explore the impact of different imaging parameters on reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures, which is especially critical for assessing datasets collected from multiple centers. In addition, intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured for each participant using Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. The data can thus be used for purposes other than assessing reliability of sMRI/rfMRI alone. For example, data from each single session could be used to associate structural and functional measures of the brain with the IQ metrics to explore brain-IQ association. PMID:26978040

  11. A test-retest dataset for assessing long-term reliability of brain morphology and resting-state brain activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lijie; Huang, Taicheng; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-03-15

    We present a test-retest dataset for evaluation of long-term reliability of measures from structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and rfMRI) scans. The repeated scan dataset was collected from 61 healthy adults in two sessions using highly similar imaging parameters at an interval of 103-189 days. However, as the imaging parameters were not completely identical, the reliability estimated from this dataset shall reflect the lower bounds of the true reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures. Furthermore, in conjunction with other test-retest datasets, our dataset may help explore the impact of different imaging parameters on reliability of sMRI/rfMRI measures, which is especially critical for assessing datasets collected from multiple centers. In addition, intelligence quotient (IQ) was measured for each participant using Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices. The data can thus be used for purposes other than assessing reliability of sMRI/rfMRI alone. For example, data from each single session could be used to associate structural and functional measures of the brain with the IQ metrics to explore brain-IQ association.

  12. Strategy for outer planets exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    NASA's Planetary Programs Office formed a number of scientific working groups to study in depth the potential scientific return from the various candidate missions to the outer solar system. The results of these working group studies were brought together in a series of symposia to evaluate the potential outer planet missions and to discuss strategies for exploration of the outer solar system that were consistent with fiscal constraints and with anticipated spacecraft and launch vehicle capabilities. A logical, scientifically sound, and cost effective approach to exploration of the outer solar system is presented.

  13. Investigating gait recognition in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectrum: dataset and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCann, Brian; Ross, Arun; Dawson, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    In the biometrics community, challenge datasets are often released to determine the robustness of state-of-the- art algorithms to conditions that can confound recognition accuracy. In the context of automated human gait recognition, evaluation has predominantly been conducted on video data acquired in the active visible spectral band, although recent literature has explored recognition in the passive thermal band. The advent of sophisticated sensors has piqued interest in performing gait recognition in other spectral bands such as short-wave infrared (SWIR), due to their use in military-based tactical applications and the possibility of operating in nighttime environments. Further, in many operational scenarios, the environmental variables are not controlled, thereby posing several challenges to traditional recognition schemes. In this work, we discuss the possibility of performing gait recognition in the SWIR spectrum by first assembling a dataset, referred to as the WVU Outdoor SWIR Gait (WOSG) Dataset, and then evaluate the performance of three gait recognition algorithms on the dataset. The dataset consists of 155 subjects and represents gait information acquired under multiple walking paths in an uncontrolled, outdoor environment. Detailed experimental analysis suggests the benefits of distributing this new challenging dataset to the broader research community. In particular, the following observations were made: (a) the importance of SWIR imagery in acquiring data covertly for surveillance applications; (b) the difficulty in extracting human silhouettes in low-contrast SWIR imagery; (c) the impact of silhouette quality on overall recognition accuracy; (d) the possibility of matching gait sequences pertaining to different walking trajectories; and (e) the need for developing sophisticated gait recognition algorithms to handle data acquired in unconstrained environments.

  14. The Evolution of Information Management in Oceanographic Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reser, B.; Mesick, S.; Lobecker, E.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging technologies in data collection, processing, and telecommunication have made data management a vital and ever evolving component of scientific research and exploration. Automation and streamlining of these technologies have enabled a paradigm shift in the approach to ocean research aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer. Telepresence technologies allow the real time collaboration of at sea technicians and scientists with shore side scientists as well as near real time access to the datasets being collected. This approach has allowed for a large team of shore side experts in various fields to drive at-sea collection and exploration efforts, enabling the analysis and evaluation of as high quality data as possible. Automated and standardized data management efforts that have been integrated into this model allow for the rapid and efficient collection, processing, and archival of the information in national public archives. As new sampling and survey technologies are developed they have been, and will continue to be, adapted into the existing end-to-end information management model. Most recently this was accomplished in a collaborative effort between NOAA, NSF, WHOI, Duke, URI, and the USGS in a cruise along the Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs. This cruise successfully integrated shipboard data collection with the Sentry AUV in the search for, and exploration of, cold seep communities along the US Atlantic Margin.

  15. Ontology-Driven Discovery of Scientific Computational Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazier, Pearl W.

    2010-01-01

    Many geoscientists use modern computational resources, such as software applications, Web services, scientific workflows and datasets that are readily available on the Internet, to support their research and many common tasks. These resources are often shared via human contact and sometimes stored in data portals; however, they are not necessarily…

  16. Systematic Processing of Clementine Data for Scientific Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    If fully successful, the Clementine mission will return about 3,000,000 lunar images and more than 5000 images of Geographos. Effective scientific analyses of such large datasets require systematic processing efforts. Concepts for two such efforts are described: glogal multispectral imaging of the moon; and videos of Geographos.

  17. Development of a global historic monthly mean precipitation dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Su; Xu, Wenhui; Xu, Yan; Li, Qingxiang

    2016-04-01

    Global historic precipitation dataset is the base for climate and water cycle research. There have been several global historic land surface precipitation datasets developed by international data centers such as the US National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), European Climate Assessment & Dataset project team, Met Office, etc., but so far there are no such datasets developed by any research institute in China. In addition, each dataset has its own focus of study region, and the existing global precipitation datasets only contain sparse observational stations over China, which may result in uncertainties in East Asian precipitation studies. In order to take into account comprehensive historic information, users might need to employ two or more datasets. However, the non-uniform data formats, data units, station IDs, and so on add extra difficulties for users to exploit these datasets. For this reason, a complete historic precipitation dataset that takes advantages of various datasets has been developed and produced in the National Meteorological Information Center of China. Precipitation observations from 12 sources are aggregated, and the data formats, data units, and station IDs are unified. Duplicated stations with the same ID are identified, with duplicated observations removed. Consistency test, correlation coefficient test, significance t-test at the 95% confidence level, and significance F-test at the 95% confidence level are conducted first to ensure the data reliability. Only those datasets that satisfy all the above four criteria are integrated to produce the China Meteorological Administration global precipitation (CGP) historic precipitation dataset version 1.0. It contains observations at 31 thousand stations with 1.87 × 107 data records, among which 4152 time series of precipitation are longer than 100 yr. This dataset plays a critical role in climate research due to its advantages in large data volume and high density of station network, compared to

  18. Accuracy assessment of gridded precipitation datasets in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate precipitation data are vital for hydro-climatic modelling and water resources assessments. Based on mass balance calculations and Turc-Budyko analysis, this study investigates the accuracy of twelve widely used precipitation gridded datasets for sub-basins in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) in the Himalayas-Karakoram-Hindukush (HKH) region. These datasets are: 1) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), 2) Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), 3) NCEP / NCAR, 4) Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), 5) Climatic Research Unit (CRU), 6) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), 7) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), 8) European Reanalysis (ERA) interim data, 9) PRINCETON, 10) European Reanalysis-40 (ERA-40), 11) Willmott and Matsuura, and 12) WATCH Forcing Data based on ERA interim (WFDEI). Precipitation accuracy and consistency was assessed by physical mass balance involving sum of annual measured flow, estimated actual evapotranspiration (average of 4 datasets), estimated glacier mass balance melt contribution (average of 4 datasets), and ground water recharge (average of 3 datasets), during 1999-2010. Mass balance assessment was complemented by Turc-Budyko non-dimensional analysis, where annual precipitation, measured flow and potential evapotranspiration (average of 5 datasets) data were used for the same period. Both analyses suggest that all tested precipitation datasets significantly underestimate precipitation in the Karakoram sub-basins. For the Hindukush and Himalayan sub-basins most datasets underestimate precipitation, except ERA-interim and ERA-40. The analysis indicates that for this large region with complicated terrain features and stark spatial precipitation gradients the reanalysis datasets have better consistency with flow measurements than datasets derived from records of only sparsely distributed climatic

  19. Inquiring with Geoscience Datasets: Instruction and Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, D.; Quellmalz, E.; Gobert, J.

    2005-12-01

    This session will describe a new NSF-funded project in Geoscience education, Inquiring with Geoscience Data Sets. The goals of the project are to (1) Study the impacts on student learning of Web-based supplementary curriculum modules that engage secondary-level students in inquiry projects addressing important geoscience problems using an Earth System Science approach. Students will use technologies to access real data sets in the geosciences and to interpret, analyze, and communicate findings based on the data sets. The standards addressed will include geoscience concepts, inquiry abilities in NSES and Benchmarks for Science Literacy, data literacy, NCTM standards, and 21st-century skills and technology proficiencies (NETTS/ISTE). (2) Develop design principles, specification templates, and prototype exemplars for technology-based performance assessments that provide evidence of students' geoscientific knowledge and inquiry skills (including data literacy skills) and students' ability to access, use, analyze, and interpret technology-based geoscience data sets. (3) Develop scenarios based on the specification templates that describe curriculum modules and performance assessments that could be developed for other Earth Science standards and curriculum programs. Also to be described in the session are the project's efforts to differentiate among the dimensions of data literacy and scientific inquiry that are relevant for the geoscience discplines, and how recognition and awareness of the differences can be effectively channelled for the betterment of geoscience education.

  20. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  1. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1]. PMID:27508219

  2. Global Drought Assessment using a Multi-Model Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLanen, H.; Huijgevoort, M. V.; Corzo Perez, G.; Wanders, N.; Hazenberg, P.; Loon, A. V.; Estifanos, S.; Melsen, L.

    2011-12-01

    Large-scale models are often applied to study past drought (forced with global reanalysis datasets) and to assess future drought (using downscaled, bias-corrected forcing from climate models). The EU project WATer and global CHange (WATCH) provides a 0.5o degree global dataset of meteorological forcing (i.e. WATCH Forcing Data, WFD), which was used as input for a suite of global hydrological models (GHMs) and land surface models (LSMs). Ten GHMs and LSMs have been run for the second half of the 20th C and seven for the whole century. Spatio-temporal drought characteristics were derived from gridded time series of daily and monthly aggregated runoff using the threshold level, and non-contiguous and contiguous approaches. GHMs and LSMs were intercompared and to some extent also tested against observations to explore to what level these models capture past drought events. This paper will present an overview of results. Global maps showing drought summary statistics (e.g. average duration) and distribution of drought clusters across the globe for major documented drought events will be presented. In addition, area in drought and the occurrence of the maximum drought cluster will be discussed. The main results from a number of studies are: (i) drought characteristics across the globe vary dependent on the selected window of years, (ii) GHMs and LSMs broadly identified major drought events in a number of large river basins around the world, (iii) drought events obtained with individual GHMs an LSMs may substantially deviate from those derived with a catchment scale hydrological model (selected EU WATCH river basins), but the multi-model ensemble mean agrees rather well, (iv) use of different calculation methods for reference evapotranspiration has little to substantial influence on drought characteristics dependent on the climate region (Köppen-Geiger), (v) groundwater systems are as important as climate for the development of drought in runoff. Understanding of past

  3. Science in Writing: Learning Scientific Argument in Principle and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Bagley, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the processes of writing in science and in particular the "complex performance" of writing a scientific argument. The article explores in general terms the nature of scientific argumentation in which the author-scientist makes claims, provides evidence to support these claims, and develops chains of scientific…

  4. Really big data: Processing and analysis of large datasets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern animal breeding datasets are large and getting larger, due in part to the recent availability of DNA data for many animals. Computational methods for efficiently storing and analyzing those data are under development. The amount of storage space required for such datasets is increasing rapidl...

  5. Primary Datasets for Case Studies of River-Water Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Level 6 (final-year BSc) students undertook case studies on between-site and temporal variation in river-water quality. They used professionally-collected datasets supplied by the Environment Agency. The exercise gave students the experience of working with large, real-world datasets and led to their understanding how the quality of river water is…

  6. Interface between astrophysical datasets and distributed database management systems (DAVID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyengar, S. S.

    1988-01-01

    This is a status report on the progress of the DAVID (Distributed Access View Integrated Database Management System) project being carried out at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The objective is to implement an interface between Astrophysical datasets and DAVID. Discussed are design details and implementation specifics between DAVID and astrophysical datasets.

  7. Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Large Sensor Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Spatial or temporal data mining tasks are performed in the context of the relevant space, defined by a spatial neighborhood, and the relevant time period, defined by a specific time interval. Furthermore, when mining large spatio-temporal datasets, interesting patterns typically emerge where the dataset is most dynamic. This dissertation is…

  8. Querying Patterns in High-Dimensional Heterogenous Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Vishwakarma

    2012-01-01

    The recent technological advancements have led to the availability of a plethora of heterogenous datasets, e.g., images tagged with geo-location and descriptive keywords. An object in these datasets is described by a set of high-dimensional feature vectors. For example, a keyword-tagged image is represented by a color-histogram and a…

  9. Mars exploration: follow the water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young Ho

    2004-01-01

    Over the centuries, the red planet Mars has been a subject of imagination as well as intense scientific interest. As the overwhelming success of two Mars Exploration Rovers unfolds before us, this article provides an overview of and rationale for NASA's Mars exploration program.

  10. Harmonized dataset of ozone profiles from satellite limb and occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofieva, V. F.; Rahpoe, N.; Tamminen, J.; Kyrölä, E.; Kalakoski, N.; Weber, M.; Rozanov, A.; von Savigny, C.; Laeng, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Lossow, S.; Degenstein, D.; Bourassa, A.; Adams, C.; Roth, C.; Lloyd, N.; Bernath, P.; Hargreaves, R. J.; Urban, J.; Murtagh, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Dalaudier, F.; van Roozendael, M.; Kalb, N.; Zehner, C.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a HARMonized dataset of OZone profiles (HARMOZ) based on limb and occultation measurements from Envisat (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY), Odin (OSIRIS, SMR) and SCISAT (ACE-FTS) satellite instruments. These measurements provide high-vertical-resolution ozone profiles covering the altitude range from the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere in years 2001-2012. HARMOZ has been created in the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative project. The harmonized dataset consists of original retrieved ozone profiles from each instrument, which are screened for invalid data by the instrument teams. While the original ozone profiles are presented in different units and on different vertical grids, the harmonized dataset is given on a common pressure grid in netCDF (network common data form)-4 format. The pressure grid corresponds to vertical sampling of ~ 1 km below 20 km and 2-3 km above 20 km. The vertical range of the ozone profiles is specific for each instrument, thus all information contained in the original data is preserved. Provided altitude and temperature profiles allow the representation of ozone profiles in number density or mixing ratio on a pressure or altitude vertical grid. Geolocation, uncertainty estimates and vertical resolution are provided for each profile. For each instrument, optional parameters, which are related to the data quality, are also included. For convenience of users, tables of biases between each pair of instruments for each month, as well as bias uncertainties, are provided. These tables characterize the data consistency and can be used in various bias and drift analyses, which are needed, for instance, for combining several datasets to obtain a long-term climate dataset. This user-friendly dataset can be interesting and useful for various analyses and applications, such as data merging, data validation, assimilation and scientific research. The dataset is available at

  11. Managing Large Datasets for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Gao

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, airborne and ground measurements have been widely used to provide comprehensive characterization of atmospheric composition and processes. Field campaigns have generated a wealth of insitu data and have grown considerably over the years in terms of both the number of measured parameters and the data volume. This can largely be attributed to the rapid advances in instrument development and computing power. The users of field data may face a number of challenges spanning data access, understanding, and proper use in scientific analysis. This tutorial is designed to provide an introduction to using data sets, with a focus on airborne measurements, for atmospheric research. The first part of the tutorial provides an overview of airborne measurements and data discovery. This will be followed by a discussion on the understanding of airborne data files. An actual data file will be used to illustrate how data are reported, including the use of data flags to indicate missing data and limits of detection. Retrieving information from the file header will be discussed, which is essential to properly interpreting the data. Field measurements are typically reported as a function of sampling time, but different instruments often have different sampling intervals. To create a combined data set, the data merge process (interpolation of all data to a common time base) will be discussed in terms of the algorithm, data merge products available from airborne studies, and their application in research. Statistical treatment of missing data and data flagged for limit of detection will also be covered in this section. These basic data processing techniques are applicable to both airborne and ground-based observational data sets. Finally, the recently developed Toolsets for Airborne Data (TAD) will be introduced. TAD (tad.larc.nasa.gov) is an airborne data portal offering tools to create user defined merged data products with the capability to provide descriptive

  12. WWW: The Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  13. Redefining the "Scientific Method".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiece, Kelly R.; Colosi, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Surveys 15 introductory biology textbooks for their presentation of the scientific method. Teaching the scientific method involves more than simplified steps and subjectivity--human politics, cultural influences, and chance are all a part of science. Presents an activity for students to experience the scientific method. (Contains 34 references.)…

  14. A joint dataset of fair-weather atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammet, H.

    2009-02-01

    A new open access dataset ATMEL2007A ( http://ael.physic.ut.ee/tammet/dd/) takes advantage of the diary-type data structure. The dataset comprises the measurements of atmospheric electric field, positive and negative conductivities, air ion concentrations and accompanying meteorological measurements at 13 stations, including 7 stations of the former World Data Centre network. The dataset incorporates more than half a million diurnal series of hourly averages and it can easily be expanded with additional data. The dataset is designed for importing into a personal computer, which makes possible the appending of private data and safely protecting it from public access. Available free software allows extracting data excerpts in the form of traditional data tables or spreadsheets. Examples show how the dataset can be used in the research of the correlations and trends in atmospheric electricity and air pollution.

  15. New model for datasets citation and extraction reproducibility in VAMDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwölf, Carlo Maria; Moreau, Nicolas; Dubernet, Marie-Lise

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present a new paradigm for the identification of datasets extracted from the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) e-science infrastructure. Such identification includes information on the origin and version of the datasets, references associated to individual data in the datasets, as well as timestamps linked to the extraction procedure. This paradigm is described through the modifications of the language used to exchange data within the VAMDC and through the services that will implement those modifications. This new paradigm should enforce traceability of datasets, favor reproducibility of datasets extraction, and facilitate the systematic citation of the authors having originally measured and/or calculated the extracted atomic and molecular data.

  16. Partition dataset according to amino acid type improves the prediction of deleterious non-synonymous SNPs

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yi-Xue; Ye, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper dataset partition can improve the prediction of deleterious nsSNPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partition according to original residue type at nsSNP is a good criterion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar strategy is supposed promising in other machine learning problems. -- Abstract: Many non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) are associated with diseases, and numerous machine learning methods have been applied to train classifiers for sorting disease-associated nsSNPs from neutral ones. The continuously accumulated nsSNP data allows us to further explore better prediction approaches. In this work, we partitioned the training data into 20 subsets according to either original or substituted amino acid type at the nsSNP site. Using support vector machine (SVM), training classification models on each subset resulted in an overall accuracy of 76.3% or 74.9% depending on the two different partition criteria, while training on the whole dataset obtained an accuracy of only 72.6%. Moreover, the dataset was also randomly divided into 20 subsets, but the corresponding accuracy was only 73.2%. Our results demonstrated that partitioning the whole training dataset into subsets properly, i.e., according to the residue type at the nsSNP site, will improve the performance of the trained classifiers significantly, which should be valuable in developing better tools for predicting the disease-association of nsSNPs.

  17. Scientific Assistant Virtual Laboratory (SAVL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaghband, Gita; Fardi, Hamid; Gnabasik, David

    2007-03-01

    The Scientific Assistant Virtual Laboratory (SAVL) is a scientific discovery environment, an interactive simulated virtual laboratory, for learning physics and mathematics. The purpose of this computer-assisted intervention is to improve middle and high school student interest, insight and scores in physics and mathematics. SAVL develops scientific and mathematical imagination in a visual, symbolic, and experimental simulation environment. It directly addresses the issues of scientific and technological competency by providing critical thinking training through integrated modules. This on-going research provides a virtual laboratory environment in which the student directs the building of the experiment rather than observing a packaged simulation. SAVL: * Engages the persistent interest of young minds in physics and math by visually linking simulation objects and events with mathematical relations. * Teaches integrated concepts by the hands-on exploration and focused visualization of classic physics experiments within software. * Systematically and uniformly assesses and scores students by their ability to answer their own questions within the context of a Master Question Network. We will demonstrate how the Master Question Network uses polymorphic interfaces and C# lambda expressions to manage simulation objects.

  18. Constructing Scientific Applications from Heterogeneous Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schichting, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A new model for high-performance scientific applications in which such applications are implemented as heterogeneous distributed programs or, equivalently, meta-computations, is investigated. The specific focus of this grant was a collaborative effort with researchers at NASA and the University of Toledo to test and improve Schooner, a software interconnection system, and to explore the benefits of increased user interaction with existing scientific applications.

  19. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Vasil, R.L.; Nolting, A.

    2011-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2010 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry.

  20. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Bourget, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2009 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on industry exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  1. Biomorphic Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, the first NASA/JPL workshop on Biomorphic Explorers for future missions. The topics include: 1) Biomorphic Explorers: Classification (Based on Mobility and Ambient Environment); 2) Biomorphic Flight Systems: Vision; 3) Biomorphic Explorer: Conceptual Design; 4) Biomorphic Gliders; 5) Summary and Roadmap; 6) Coordinated/Cooperative Exploration Scenario; and 7) Applications. This paper also presents illustrations of the various biomorphic explorers.

  2. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2008 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry, and presents analyses of exploration activities by the mineral industry based upon these data.

  3. Web-based visualization of very large scientific astronomy imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertin, E.; Pillay, R.; Marmo, C.

    2015-04-01

    Visualizing and navigating through large astronomy images from a remote location with current astronomy display tools can be a frustrating experience in terms of speed and ergonomics, especially on mobile devices. In this paper, we present a high performance, versatile and robust client-server system for remote visualization and analysis of extremely large scientific images. Applications of this work include survey image quality control, interactive data query and exploration, citizen science, as well as public outreach. The proposed software is entirely open source and is designed to be generic and applicable to a variety of datasets. It provides access to floating point data at terabyte scales, with the ability to precisely adjust image settings in real-time. The proposed clients are light-weight, platform-independent web applications built on standard HTML5 web technologies and compatible with both touch and mouse-based devices. We put the system to the test and assess the performance of the system and show that a single server can comfortably handle more than a hundred simultaneous users accessing full precision 32 bit astronomy data.

  4. Atmosphere Explorer set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer-D (Explorer-54) is described which will explore in detail an area of the earth's outer atmosphere where important energy transfer, atomic and molecular processes, and chemical reactions occur that are critical to the heat balance of the atmosphere. Data are presented on the mission facts, launch vehicle operations, AE-D/Delta flight events, spacecraft description, scientific instruments, tracking, and data acquisition.

  5. Promoting Science Learning and Scientific Identification through Contemporary Scientific Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Horne, Katie

    This dissertation investigates the implementation issues and the educational opportunities associated with "taking the practice turn" in science education. This pedagogical shift focuses instructional experiences on engaging students in the epistemic practices of science both to learn the core ideas of the disciplines, as well as to gain an understanding of and personal connection to the scientific enterprise. In Chapter 2, I examine the teacher-researcher co-design collaboration that supported the classroom implementation of a year-long, project-based biology curriculum that was under development. This study explores the dilemmas that arose when teachers implemented a new intervention and how the dilemmas arose and were managed throughout the collaboration of researchers and teachers and between the teachers. In the design-based research of Chapter 3, I demonstrate how students' engagement in epistemic practices in contemporary science investigations supported their conceptual development about genetics. The analysis shows how this involved a complex interaction between the scientific, school and community practices in students' lives and how through varied participation in the practices students come to write about and recognize how contemporary investigations can give them leverage for science-based action outside of the school setting. Finally, Chapter 4 explores the characteristics of learning environments for supporting the development of scientific practice-linked identities. Specific features of the learning environment---access to the intellectual work of the domain, authentic roles and accountability, space to make meaningful contributions in relation to personal interests, and practice-linked identity resources that arose from interactions in the learning setting---supported learners in stabilizing practice-linked science identities through their engagement in contemporary scientific practices. This set of studies shows that providing students with the

  6. An Introduction to Scientific Masculinities.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine; Nye, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    This volume seeks to integrate gender analysis into the global history of science and medicine from the late Middle Ages to the present by focusing on masculinity, the part of the gender equation that has received the least attention from scholars. The premise of the volume is that social constructions of masculinity function simultaneously as foils for femininity and as methods of differentiating between "kinds" of men. In exploring scientific masculinities without taking the dominance of men and masculinity in the sciences for granted, we ask, What is masculinity and how does it operate in science? Our answers remind us that gender is at once an analytical category and a historical object. The essays are divided into three sections that in turn emphasize the importance of gender to the professionalization of scientific, technological, and medical practices, the spaces in which such labor is performed, and the ways that sex, gender, and sexual orientation are measured and serve as metaphors in society and culture.

  7. Virtual Environments in Scientific Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Cooper, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a new way of approaching the interface between computers and humans. Emphasizing display and user control that conforms to the user's natural ways of perceiving and thinking about space, virtual environment technologies enhance the ability to perceive and interact with computer generated graphic information. This enhancement potentially has a major effect on the field of scientific visualization. Current examples of this technology include the Virtual Windtunnel being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. Other major institutions such as the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and SRI International are also exploring this technology. This talk will be describe several implementations of virtual environments for use in scientific visualization. Examples include the visualization of unsteady fluid flows (the virtual windtunnel), the visualization of geodesics in curved spacetime, surface manipulation, and examples developed at various laboratories.

  8. Urban land cover thematic disaggregation, employing datasets from multiple sources and RandomForests modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounaridis, Dimitrios; Koukoulas, Sotirios

    2016-09-01

    Urban land cover mapping has lately attracted a vast amount of attention as it closely relates to a broad scope of scientific and management applications. Late methodological and technological advancements facilitate the development of datasets with improved accuracy. However, thematic resolution of urban land cover has received much less attention so far, a fact that hampers the produced datasets utility. This paper seeks to provide insights towards the improvement of thematic resolution of urban land cover classification. We integrate existing, readily available and with acceptable accuracies datasets from multiple sources, with remote sensing techniques. The study site is Greece and the urban land cover is classified nationwide into five classes, using the RandomForests algorithm. Results allowed us to quantify, for the first time with a good accuracy, the proportion that is occupied by each different urban land cover class. The total area covered by urban land cover is 2280 km2 (1.76% of total terrestrial area), the dominant class is discontinuous dense urban fabric (50.71% of urban land cover) and the least occurring class is discontinuous very low density urban fabric (2.06% of urban land cover).

  9. [The scientific entertainer in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Santos, José Manuel; Lapetra, José

    2012-09-01

    The scientific method is capable of being applied in primary care. In this article we defend the role of the "scientific entertainer "as strategic and necessary in achieving this goal. The task has to include playful and light-hearted content. We explore some words in English that may help us to understand the concept of "scientific entertainer" from a semantic point of view (showman, master of ceremonies, entrepreneur, go-between) also in Spanish language (counsellor, mediator, methodologist) and finally in Latin and Greek (tripalium, negotium, chronos, kairos). We define the clinical, manager or research health-worker who is skilled in primary care as a "primarylogist". PMID:22018794

  10. [The scientific entertainer in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Santos, José Manuel; Lapetra, José

    2012-09-01

    The scientific method is capable of being applied in primary care. In this article we defend the role of the "scientific entertainer "as strategic and necessary in achieving this goal. The task has to include playful and light-hearted content. We explore some words in English that may help us to understand the concept of "scientific entertainer" from a semantic point of view (showman, master of ceremonies, entrepreneur, go-between) also in Spanish language (counsellor, mediator, methodologist) and finally in Latin and Greek (tripalium, negotium, chronos, kairos). We define the clinical, manager or research health-worker who is skilled in primary care as a "primarylogist".

  11. Identification of rogue datasets in serial crystallography1

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Greta; Brehm, Wolfgang; Diederichs, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Advances in beamline optics, detectors and X-ray sources allow new techniques of crystallographic data collection. In serial crystallography, a large number of partial datasets from crystals of small volume are measured. Merging of datasets from different crystals in order to enhance data completeness and accuracy is only valid if the crystals are isomorphous, i.e. sufficiently similar in cell parameters, unit-cell contents and molecular structure. Identification and exclusion of non-isomorphous datasets is therefore indispensable and must be done by means of suitable indicators. To identify rogue datasets, the influence of each dataset on CC1/2 [Karplus & Diederichs (2012 ▸). Science, 336, 1030–1033], the correlation coefficient between pairs of intensities averaged in two randomly assigned subsets of observations, is evaluated. The presented method employs a precise calculation of CC1/2 that avoids the random assignment, and instead of using an overall CC1/2, an average over resolution shells is employed to obtain sensible results. The selection procedure was verified by measuring the correlation of observed (merged) intensities and intensities calculated from a model. It is found that inclusion and merging of non-isomorphous datasets may bias the refined model towards those datasets, and measures to reduce this effect are suggested. PMID:27275144

  12. Solar system exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Ramlose, Terri (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The goal of planetary exploration is to understand the nature and development of the planets, as illustrated by pictures from the first two decades of spacecraft missions and by the imaginations of space artists. Planets, comets, asteroids, and moons are studied to discover the reasons for their similarities and differences and to find clues that contain information about the primordial process of planet origins. The scientific goals established by the National Academy of Sciences as the foundation of NASA's Solar System Exploration Program are covered: to determine the nature of the planetary system, to understand its origin and evolution, the development of life on Earth, and the principles that shape present day Earth.

  13. An Asteroseismology Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. M.; Cox, A. N.

    In response to a NASA opportunity, a proposal has been made to study the concept of an Asteroseismology Explorer (ASE). The goal of the ASE would be to measure solar-like oscillations on many (perhaps hundreds) of stars during a 1-year mission, including many members of open clusters. The authors describe this proposal's observational goals, a strawman technical approach, and likely scientific rewards.

  14. Map_plot and bgg_plot: software for integration of geoscience datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillot, Philippe; Punongbayan, Jane T.; Rea, Brice

    2004-02-01

    Since 1985, the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has been supporting multidisciplinary research in exploring the structure and history of Earth beneath the oceans. After more than 200 Legs, complementary datasets covering different geological environments, periods and space scales have been obtained and distributed world-wide using the ODP-Janus and Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory-Borehole Research Group (LDEO-BRG) database servers. In Earth Sciences, more than in any other science, the ensemble of these data is characterized by heterogeneous formats and graphical representation modes. In order to fully and quickly assess this information, a set of Unix/Linux and Generic Mapping Tool-based C programs has been designed to convert and integrate datasets acquired during the present ODP and the future Integrated ODP (IODP) Legs. Using ODP Leg 199 datasets, we show examples of the capabilities of the proposed programs. The program map_plot is used to easily display datasets onto 2-D maps. The program bgg_plot (borehole geology and geophysics plot) displays data with respect to depth and/or time. The latter program includes depth shifting, filtering and plotting of core summary information, continuous and discrete-sample core measurements (e.g. physical properties, geochemistry, etc.), in situ continuous logs, magneto- and bio-stratigraphies, specific sedimentological analyses (lithology, grain size, texture, porosity, etc.), as well as core and borehole wall images. Outputs from both programs are initially produced in PostScript format that can be easily converted to Portable Document Format (PDF) or standard image formats (GIF, JPEG, etc.) using widely distributed conversion programs. Based on command line operations and customization of parameter files, these programs can be included in other shell- or database-scripts, automating plotting procedures of data requests. As an open source software, these programs can be customized and interfaced to fulfill any specific

  15. Multi-facetted Metadata - Describing datasets with different metadata schemas at the same time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, Damian; Klump, Jens; Bertelmann, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Inspired by the wish to re-use research data a lot of work is done to bring data systems of the earth sciences together. Discovery metadata is disseminated to data portals to allow building of customized indexes of catalogued dataset items. Data that were once acquired in the context of a scientific project are open for reappraisal and can now be used by scientists that were not part of the original research team. To make data re-use easier, measurement methods and measurement parameters must be documented in an application metadata schema and described in a written publication. Linking datasets to publications - as DataCite [1] does - requires again a specific metadata schema and every new use context of the measured data may require yet another metadata schema sharing only a subset of information with the meta information already present. To cope with the problem of metadata schema diversity in our common data repository at GFZ Potsdam we established a solution to store file-based research data and describe these with an arbitrary number of metadata schemas. Core component of the data repository is an eSciDoc infrastructure that provides versioned container objects, called eSciDoc [2] "items". The eSciDoc content model allows assigning files to "items" and adding any number of metadata records to these "items". The eSciDoc items can be submitted, revised, and finally published, which makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. GFZ Potsdam uses eSciDoc to support its scientific publishing workflow, including mechanisms for data review in peer review processes by providing temporary web links for external reviewers that do not have credentials to access the data. Based on the eSciDoc API, panMetaDocs [3] provides a web portal for data management in research projects. PanMetaDocs, which is based on panMetaWorks [4], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based schema. It uses the eSciDoc infrastructures

  16. Analysis and compression of six-dimensional gyrokinetic datasets using higher order singular value decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, David R.; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B; Terry, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Higher order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) is explored as a tool for analyzing and compressing gyrokinetic data. An efficient numerical implementation of an HOSVD algorithm is described. HOSVD is used to analyze the full six-dimensional (three spatial, two velocity space, and time dimensions) gyrocenter distribution function from gyrokinetic simulations of ion temperature gradient, electron temperature gradient, and trapped electron mode driven turbulence. The HOSVD eigenvalues for the velocity space coordinates decay very rapidly, indicating that only a few structures in velocity space can capture the most important dynamics. In almost all of the cases studied, HOSVD extracts parallel velocity space structures which are very similar to orthogonal polynomials. HOSVD is also used to compress gyrokinetic datasets, an application in which it is shown to significantly outperform the more commonly used singular value decomposition. It is shown that the effectiveness of the HOSVD compression improves as the dimensionality of the dataset increases. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital Rocks Portal: a sustainable platform for imaged dataset sharing, translation and automated analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodanovic, M.; Esteva, M.; Hanlon, M.; Nanda, G.; Agarwal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in imaging have provided a wealth of 3D datasets that reveal pore space microstructure (nm to cm length scale) and allow investigation of nonlinear flow and mechanical phenomena from first principles using numerical approaches. This framework has popularly been called "digital rock physics". Researchers, however, have trouble storing and sharing the datasets both due to their size and the lack of standardized image types and associated metadata for volumetric datasets. This impedes scientific cross-validation of the numerical approaches that characterize large scale porous media properties, as well as development of multiscale approaches required for correct upscaling. A single research group typically specializes in an imaging modality and/or related modeling on a single length scale, and lack of data-sharing infrastructure makes it difficult to integrate different length scales. We developed a sustainable, open and easy-to-use repository called the Digital Rocks Portal, that (1) organizes images and related experimental measurements of different porous materials, (2) improves access to them for a wider community of geosciences or engineering researchers not necessarily trained in computer science or data analysis. Once widely accepter, the repository will jumpstart productivity and enable scientific inquiry and engineering decisions founded on a data-driven basis. This is the first repository of its kind. We show initial results on incorporating essential software tools and pipelines that make it easier for researchers to store and reuse data, and for educators to quickly visualize and illustrate concepts to a wide audience. For data sustainability and continuous access, the portal is implemented within the reliable, 24/7 maintained High Performance Computing Infrastructure supported by the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at the University of Texas at Austin. Long-term storage is provided through the University of Texas System Research

  18. Scalable and portable visualization of large atomistic datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashish; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2004-10-01

    A scalable and portable code named Atomsviewer has been developed to interactively visualize a large atomistic dataset consisting of up to a billion atoms. The code uses a hierarchical view frustum-culling algorithm based on the octree data structure to efficiently remove atoms outside of the user's field-of-view. Probabilistic and depth-based occlusion-culling algorithms then select atoms, which have a high probability of being visible. Finally a multiresolution algorithm is used to render the selected subset of visible atoms at varying levels of detail. Atomsviewer is written in C++ and OpenGL, and it has been tested on a number of architectures including Windows, Macintosh, and SGI. Atomsviewer has been used to visualize tens of millions of atoms on a standard desktop computer and, in its parallel version, up to a billion atoms. Program summaryTitle of program: Atomsviewer Catalogue identifier: ADUM Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUM Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: 2.4 GHz Pentium 4/Xeon processor, professional graphics card; Apple G4 (867 MHz)/G5, professional graphics card Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Windows 2000/XP, Mac OS 10.2/10.3, SGI IRIX 6.5 Programming languages used: C++, C and OpenGL Memory required to execute with typical data: 1 gigabyte of RAM High speed storage required: 60 gigabytes No. of lines in the distributed program including test data, etc.: 550 241 No. of bytes in the distributed program including test data, etc.: 6 258 245 Number of bits in a word: Arbitrary Number of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized: No Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of physical problem: Scientific visualization of atomic systems Method of solution: Rendering of atoms using computer graphic techniques, culling algorithms for data

  19. Scientific Report (2002-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Bedros Afeyan

    2004-05-11

    OAK-B135 An overview of our work as well as two recent publications are contained in this scientific report. The work reported here revolves around the discovery of new coherent nonlinear kinetic waves in laser produced plasmas, we call KEEN waves (kinetic, electrostatic electron nonlinear waves), and optical mixing experiments on the Imega laser system at LLE with blue-green light for the exploration of ways to suppress parametric instabilities in long scale length, long pulsewidth laser-plasmas such as those which will be found on NIF or LMJ.

  20. Background qualitative analysis of the European reference life cycle database (ELCD) energy datasets - part II: electricity datasets.

    PubMed

    Garraín, Daniel; Fazio, Simone; de la Rúa, Cristina; Recchioni, Marco; Lechón, Yolanda; Mathieux, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify areas of potential improvement of the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD) electricity datasets. The revision is based on the data quality indicators described by the International Life Cycle Data system (ILCD) Handbook, applied on sectorial basis. These indicators evaluate the technological, geographical and time-related representativeness of the dataset and the appropriateness in terms of completeness, precision and methodology. Results show that ELCD electricity datasets have a very good quality in general terms, nevertheless some findings and recommendations in order to improve the quality of Life-Cycle Inventories have been derived. Moreover, these results ensure the quality of the electricity-related datasets to any LCA practitioner, and provide insights related to the limitations and assumptions underlying in the datasets modelling. Giving this information, the LCA practitioner will be able to decide whether the use of the ELCD electricity datasets is appropriate based on the goal and scope of the analysis to be conducted. The methodological approach would be also useful for dataset developers and reviewers, in order to improve the overall Data Quality Requirements of databases.

  1. Scientific integrity memorandum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-03-01

    U.S. President Barack Obama signed a presidential memorandum on 9 March to help restore scientific integrity in government decision making. The memorandum directs the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to develop a strategy within 120 days that ensures that "the selection of scientists and technology professionals for science and technology positions in the executive branch is based on those individuals' scientific and technological knowledge, credentials, and experience; agencies make available to the public the scientific or technological findings or conclusions considered or relied upon in policy decisions; agencies use scientific and technological information that has been subject to well-established scientific processes such as peer review; and agencies have appropriate rules and procedures to ensure the integrity of the scientific process within the agency, including whistleblower protection."

  2. Precipitation Datasets for the GPM Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Witold; Seo, Bong Chul; Goska, Radoslaw; Demir, Ibrahim; Elsaadani, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    In the spring of 2013 NASA will launch a field experiment called Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) as a part of the Ground Validation (GV) program for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. The purpose of IFloodS is to enhance the understanding of flood-related precipitation processes in events worldwide. While a number of scientific instruments such as ground-based radars, rain gauges, and disdrometers will be deployed to monitor upcoming rainfall events in Iowa, various precipitation datasets from weather radars, satellites, and rain gauges have been collected over past several years (up to eleven years) and processed to support validation and flood-related rainfall-runoff modeling studies. These historical datasets include TMPA (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis), PERSIANN (Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Network), and CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center morphing method) products for satellite estimates; Stage IV, Hydro-NEXRAD, NMQ (National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor QPE), and IFC (Iowa Flood Center) products for radar estimates; ASOS (Automated Surface Observing System), NWS COOP (Cooperative Observer Program), and IFC research network for rain gauge data. These datasets have all different temporal and spatial resolutions as well as uncertainty characteristics, and this provides benefits for product validation using multi-scale data as well as hydrologic modeling where different models require different scale of rainfall inputs. The datasets are organized in a database and available via a web browser-based interface, allowing the users to specify time and space domain of interest. The database connects users' requests with data storage and information and also assists them in finding significant rainfall events with ease and speed by showing basic rainfall statistics for the domain defined by users.

  3. Analysis of Precipitation Pattern from two Long-Term Hourly Dataset in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozzini, B.; Bartolini, G.; Torrigiani, T.; Grifoni, D.

    2010-09-01

    In the last decades worldwide many studies revealed modifications in precipitation regime and a general increase in frequency and/or severity of extreme rainfall events that can have large impacts on society and environment. In central-northern Europe many evidences showed a tendency to increase in mean annual rainfall and in the occurrences of extreme daily precipitation events during the last five decades. Concerning Mediterranean area, despite a decrease in mean annual rainfall, an increase in the fraction of heavy events was also highlighted, in particular over Italy. In the last decades much effort has been expended by different research groups to provide regional to global datasets. Recently, an European high-quality daily rainfall dataset (ECA dataset), from a dense network of meteorological stations, have been made available to the public and the scientific community. Many studies used this dataset to document the long-term trends of climatic and extreme climatic indices. However very few researches investigated precipitation patterns by making use of long-term hourly dataset because of the difficulty to find data with a sufficiently long measuring periods, few missing or non reliable data and, especially, in a digital form. Investigating extreme events of precipitation at hourly rather than daily time scale is much more important in terms of social, agriculture and hydrological impacts. Long-term hourly rainfall dataset were derived from two stations located in Tuscany, central Italy, Viareggio (1948-2009) and Vallombrosa (1930-2009), respectively on coastal and mountainous area. The data were digitalized and then used to investigate trends in annual, seasonal precipitation regime and extreme event occurrences. A detailed analysis of consistency and quality control has been performed, time series were subjected to logical filters, checked for internal consistency and spatial coherency among suitable neighbouring stations. In order to analyze patterns of

  4. Participatory Exploration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kathy Nado delivers a presentation on Participatory Exploration on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to present NASA'...

  5. Exploration Review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  6. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  7. Artificial intelligence support for scientific model-building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Richard M.

    1992-01-01

    Scientific model-building can be a time-intensive and painstaking process, often involving the development of large and complex computer programs. Despite the effort involved, scientific models cannot easily be distributed and shared with other scientists. In general, implemented scientific models are complex, idiosyncratic, and difficult for anyone but the original scientific development team to understand. We believe that artificial intelligence techniques can facilitate both the model-building and model-sharing process. In this paper, we overview our effort to build a scientific modeling software tool that aids the scientist in developing and using models. This tool includes an interactive intelligent graphical interface, a high-level domain specific modeling language, a library of physics equations and experimental datasets, and a suite of data display facilities.

  8. Hadley cell dynamics in Japanese Reanalysis-55 dataset: evaluation using other reanalysis datasets and global radiosonde network observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Sneha Susan; Kumar, Karanam Kishore; Subrahmanyam, Kandula Venkata

    2016-02-01

    Hadley circulation (HC) is a planetary scale circulation spanning one-third of the globe from tropics to the sub-tropics. Recent changes in HC width and its temporal variability is a topic of paramount interest because of the climate implications it carry alongside. The present study attempts to bring out the subtropical climate change indications in the comparatively new Japanese Re-analysis (JRA55) dataset by means of the mean meridional stream function (MSF). The observed features of HC in JRA55 are found to be reproduced in NCEP, MERRA and ECMWF datasets, with notable differences in the magnitudes of MSF. The calculated annual cycle of HC edges, center and total width from this dataset closely resembles the annual cycle of the respective parameters derived from the rest of the datasets, with very less inter-annual variability. For the first time, MSF estimated using four reanalysis datasets (JRA55, NCEP, MERRA and ECMWF datasets) are verified with observations from integrated global radiosonde archive datasets, using the process of subsampling. The features so estimated show a high degree of similarity amongst each other as well as with observations. The monthly trend in the total width of the HC is quantified to show a maximum of expansion during the month of July, which is significant at the 95 % confidence interval for all datasets. The present paper also discusses the presence of a `minor circulation' feature in the northern hemisphere which is centered on 34°N during the June and July months, but not in all years. The significance of the present study lies in evaluating the relatively new JRA55 datasets with widely used reanalysis data sets and radiosonde observations and revelation of a minor circulation not discussed hitherto in the context of HC dynamics.

  9. A New Combinatorial Optimization Approach for Integrated Feature Selection Using Different Datasets: A Prostate Cancer Transcriptomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Puthiyedth, Nisha; Riveros, Carlos; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background The joint study of multiple datasets has become a common technique for increasing statistical power in detecting biomarkers obtained from smaller studies. The approach generally followed is based on the fact that as the total number of samples increases, we expect to have greater power to detect associations of interest. This methodology has been applied to genome-wide association and transcriptomic studies due to the availability of datasets in the public domain. While this approach is well established in biostatistics, the introduction of new combinatorial optimization models to address this issue has not been explored in depth. In this study, we introduce a new model for the integration of multiple datasets and we show its application in transcriptomics. Methods We propose a new combinatorial optimization problem that addresses the core issue of biomarker detection in integrated datasets. Optimal solutions for this model deliver a feature selection from a panel of prospective biomarkers. The model we propose is a generalised version of the (α,β)-k-Feature Set problem. We illustrate the performance of this new methodology via a challenging meta-analysis task involving six prostate cancer microarray datasets. The results are then compared to the popular RankProd meta-analysis tool and to what can be obtained by analysing the individual datasets by statistical and combinatorial methods alone. Results Application of the integrated method resulted in a more informative signature than the rank-based meta-analysis or individual dataset results, and overcomes problems arising from real world datasets. The set of genes identified is highly significant in the context of prostate cancer. The method used does not rely on homogenisation or transformation of values to a common scale, and at the same time is able to capture markers associated with subgroups of the disease. PMID:26106884

  10. Exploring Scale Effect Using Geographically Weighted Regression on Mass Dataset of Urban Robbery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ö.; Tecim, V.

    2013-05-01

    Urban geographers have been studying to explain factors influencing crime on cases limited by their study areas. Researchers have a common opinion that explanatory variables modelling crime on those cases might be irrelevant for another one. None of the researchers tested significance of these variables with changing scales of the study area. Because their data did not allow them to study with different scales. This research examines the scale effect with various data from a wide range of data sources. Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) method is used to explain that effect, after organizing data by Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies. Explanatory variables deduced for district scale are different from those for grid scale. Hence, the explanatory variables may change not only for different geographical areas but also for different scales of the same area.

  11. Exploring the new long-term (150 years) precipitation dataset in Azores archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Kutiel, Haim; Valente, Maria A.; Sigró, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Within the scope of the two major international projects of long-term reanalysis for the 20th century coordinated by NOAA (Compo et al. 2011) and ECMWF (Hersbach et al. 2013) the IDL Institute from the University of Lisbon has digitized a large number of long-term stations records from Portugal and former Portuguese Colonies (Stickler et al. 2014). Recently we have finished the digitization of all precipitation values from Ponta Delgada (capital of the Azores archipelago) obtaining an uninterrupted precipitation monthly time series since 1864 and additionally an almost complete corresponding daily precipitation series, with the exception of some years (1864/1872; 1878/1879; 1888/1905; 1931; 1936 and 1938) for which only monthly values are available. Here, we present an annually, seasonally and daily resolution study of the rainfall regime in Ponta Delgada for the last 150 years and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influence over this precipitation regime. The distribution of precipitation presents an evident seasonal pattern, with a strong difference between the 'rainy season' (November/March) and the 'dry season' (June/August) with very little rainfall. April/May and September/October correspond to the transitional seasons. The mean annual rainfall in Ponta Delgada is approximately 910 mm and is accumulated (on average) in about 120 rainy days. The precipitation regime in Azores archipelago reveals large inter-annual and intra-annual variability and both have increased considerably in the last decades. The entire studied period (1865-2012) shows an increase in the rainfall conditions between a drier earlier period (1865-1938) and a wetter recent period (1939-2012). At daily resolution, we have used an approach based on different characteristics of rain spells (consecutive days with rainfall accumulation) that has been proved to be satisfactory for the analysis of the different parameters related to the rainfall regime (Kutiel and Trigo, 2014). This approach shows that the increase in precipitation is mainly due to more intense events which are reflected by higher rain spell yields (amount of precipitation) and rain spell intensity (amount of precipitation by day) values in the last decades. On the other hand, despite the fact that one of the most widely used NAO definitions includes sea level pressure from the Ponta Delgada station, its long-term impact on the Azores archipelago climate is not well established yet. Here, we assessed the NAO influence over the precipitation regime according to Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results show that the inter-annual variability of precipitation is largely modulated by the NAO mode. Correlation values of r=-0.90, r=-0.79 and r=-0.63 were obtained for years with positive (>1) or negative (

  12. Exploring Gigabyte Datasets in Real Time: Architectures, Interfaces and Time-Critical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Architectures and Interfaces: The implications of real-time interaction on software architecture design: decoupling of interaction/graphics and computation into asynchronous processes. The performance requirements of graphics and computation for interaction. Time management in such an architecture. Examples of how visualization algorithms must be modified for high performance. Brief survey of interaction techniques and design, including direct manipulation and manipulation via widgets. talk discusses how human factors considerations drove the design and implementation of the virtual wind tunnel. Time-Critical Design: A survey of time-critical techniques for both computation and rendering. Emphasis on the assignment of a time budget to both the overall visualization environment and to each individual visualization technique in the environment. The estimation of the benefit and cost of an individual technique. Examples of the modification of visualization algorithms to allow time-critical control.

  13. Characteristics of "Controversial" Children: An Exploration of Teacher and Parent Social Behavior Rating Scale Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Diane K.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2004-01-01

    The term "controversial" has been used in the professional literature to describe children and adolescents who have the seemingly paradoxical quality of being both socially skilled and antisocial. Although there have been some widely influential studies regarding controversial children and youth, there has been relatively little research in this…

  14. Characterizing scientific production and consumption in Physics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; Ciulla, Fabio; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the entire publication database of the American Physical Society generating longitudinal (50 years) citation networks geolocalized at the level of single urban areas. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy, and scientific production ranking algorithms to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of Physics knowledge worldwide. By using the knowledge diffusion proxy we identify the key cities in the production and consumption of knowledge in Physics as a function of time. The results from the scientific production ranking algorithm allow us to characterize the top cities for scholarly research in Physics. Although we focus on a single dataset concerning a specific field, the methodology presented here opens the path to comparative studies of the dynamics of knowledge across disciplines and research areas. PMID:23571320

  15. Scientific Journalism in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, the problems of scientific journalism and activities of Armenian science journalists are presented. Scientific journalism in the world, forms of its activities, Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) press-releases and their subjects, ArAS website "Mass Media News" section, annual and monthly calendars of astronomical events, and "Astghagitak" online journal are described. Most interesting astronomical subjects involved in scientific journalism, reasons for non-satisfactory science outreach and possible solutions are discussed.

  16. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.; Rapstine, T.D.; Lee, E.C.

    2012-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for the year 2011 draws upon available information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. This summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents surveys returned by companies primarily focused on precious (gold, platinum-group metals and silver) and base (copper, lead, nickel and zinc) metals.

  17. A polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Doan; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2016-01-01

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. Generally, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the materials design. Herein, we develop a dataset of 1,073 polymers and related materials and make it available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. It will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided. PMID:26927478

  18. Constructing Phylogenetic Networks Based on the Isomorphism of Datasets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Zhang, Zhibin; Li, Yanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Constructing rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted phylogenetic trees has become an important problem in molecular evolution. So far, many methods have been presented in this area, in which most efficient methods are based on the incompatible graph, such as the CASS, the LNETWORK, and the BIMLR. This paper will research the commonness of the methods based on the incompatible graph, the relationship between incompatible graph and the phylogenetic network, and the topologies of incompatible graphs. We can find out all the simplest datasets for a topology G and construct a network for every dataset. For any one dataset , we can compute a network from the network representing the simplest dataset which is isomorphic to . This process will save more time for the algorithms when constructing networks. PMID:27547759

  19. BMDExpress Data Viewer: A Visualization Tool to Analyze BMDExpress Datasets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulatory agencies increasingly apply benchmark dose (BMD) modeling to determine points of departure in human risk assessments. BMDExpress applies BMD modeling to transcriptomics datasets and groups genes to biological processes and pathways for rapid assessment of doses at whic...

  20. Comparison of Eight Different Precipitation Datasets for South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, L. C.; Costa, M. H.; Diniz, L. F.

    2007-05-01

    Long and continuous meteorological data series for large areas are hard to obtain, so several groups have developed climate datasets generated through the combination of models and observed and remote sensing data, including reanalysis products. This study compares eight different precipitation datasets for South America (NCEP/NCAR-2, ERA-40, CMAP, GPCP, CRU, CPTEC, TRMM, Legates and Willmott, Leemans and Cramer). For each dataset, we analyze the four moments of the data distribution (mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis), for latitudinal variation, for the major river basins and for the major vegetation types in the continent, allowing to identify the geographical variations in each dataset. We verified that significant differences exist among the precipitation products.

  1. A polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design.

    PubMed

    Huan, Tran Doan; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2016-03-01

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. Generally, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the materials design. Herein, we develop a dataset of 1,073 polymers and related materials and make it available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. It will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided.

  2. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993-2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System.

  3. Constructing Phylogenetic Networks Based on the Isomorphism of Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhibin; Li, Yanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Constructing rooted phylogenetic networks from rooted phylogenetic trees has become an important problem in molecular evolution. So far, many methods have been presented in this area, in which most efficient methods are based on the incompatible graph, such as the CASS, the LNETWORK, and the BIMLR. This paper will research the commonness of the methods based on the incompatible graph, the relationship between incompatible graph and the phylogenetic network, and the topologies of incompatible graphs. We can find out all the simplest datasets for a topology G and construct a network for every dataset. For any one dataset 𝒞, we can compute a network from the network representing the simplest dataset which is isomorphic to 𝒞. This process will save more time for the algorithms when constructing networks. PMID:27547759

  4. A polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Tran Doan; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Pilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2016-01-01

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. Generally, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the materials design. Herein, we develop a dataset of 1,073 polymers and related materials and make it available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. It will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided. PMID:26927478

  5. International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the final report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE Observatory Operations contract. The fundamental operational objective of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) program is to translate competitively selected observing programs into IUE observations, to reduce these observations into meaningful scientific data, and then to present these data to the Guest Observer in a form amenable to the pursuit of scientific research. The IUE Observatory is the key to this objective since it is the central control and support facility for all science operations functions within the IUE Project. In carrying out the operation of this facility, a number of complex functions were provided beginning with telescope scheduling and operation, proceeding to data processing, and ending with data distribution and scientific data analysis. In support of these critical-path functions, a number of other significant activities were also provided, including scientific instrument calibration, systems analysis, and software support. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible.

  6. ISRUC-Sleep: A comprehensive public dataset for sleep researchers.

    PubMed

    Khalighi, Sirvan; Sousa, Teresa; Santos, José Moutinho; Nunes, Urbano

    2016-02-01

    To facilitate the performance comparison of new methods for sleep patterns analysis, datasets with quality content, publicly-available, are very important and useful. We introduce an open-access comprehensive sleep dataset, called ISRUC-Sleep. The data were obtained from human adults, including healthy subjects, subjects with sleep disorders, and subjects under the effect of sleep medication. Each recording was randomly selected between PSG recordings that were acquired by the Sleep Medicine Centre of the Hospital of Coimbra University (CHUC). The dataset comprises three groups of data: (1) data concerning 100 subjects, with one recording session per subject; (2) data gathered from 8 subjects; two recording sessions were performed per subject, and (3) data collected from one recording session related to 10 healthy subjects. The polysomnography (PSG) recordings, associated with each subject, were visually scored by two human experts. Comparing the existing sleep-related public datasets, ISRUC-Sleep provides data of a reasonable number of subjects with different characteristics such as: data useful for studies involving changes in the PSG signals over time; and data of healthy subjects useful for studies involving comparison of healthy subjects with the patients, suffering from sleep disorders. This dataset was created aiming to complement existing datasets by providing easy-to-apply data collection with some characteristics not covered yet. ISRUC-Sleep can be useful for analysis of new contributions: (i) in biomedical signal processing; (ii) in development of ASSC methods; and (iii) on sleep physiology studies. To evaluate and compare new contributions, which use this dataset as a benchmark, results of applying a subject-independent automatic sleep stage classification (ASSC) method on ISRUC-Sleep dataset are presented.

  7. Sampling Within k-Means Algorithm to Cluster Large Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, Jeremy; Bose, Koushiki; Brannan, Tyler; Thomas, Anita; Adragni, Kofi; Neerchal, Nagaraj; Ostrouchov, George

    2011-08-01

    Due to current data collection technology, our ability to gather data has surpassed our ability to analyze it. In particular, k-means, one of the simplest and fastest clustering algorithms, is ill-equipped to handle extremely large datasets on even the most powerful machines. Our new algorithm uses a sample from a dataset to decrease runtime by reducing the amount of data analyzed. We perform a simulation study to compare our sampling based k-means to the standard k-means algorithm by analyzing both the speed and accuracy of the two methods. Results show that our algorithm is significantly more efficient than the existing algorithm with comparable accuracy. Further work on this project might include a more comprehensive study both on more varied test datasets as well as on real weather datasets. This is especially important considering that this preliminary study was performed on rather tame datasets. Also, these datasets should analyze the performance of the algorithm on varied values of k. Lastly, this paper showed that the algorithm was accurate for relatively low sample sizes. We would like to analyze this further to see how accurate the algorithm is for even lower sample sizes. We could find the lowest sample sizes, by manipulating width and confidence level, for which the algorithm would be acceptably accurate. In order for our algorithm to be a success, it needs to meet two benchmarks: match the accuracy of the standard k-means algorithm and significantly reduce runtime. Both goals are accomplished for all six datasets analyzed. However, on datasets of three and four dimension, as the data becomes more difficult to cluster, both algorithms fail to obtain the correct classifications on some trials. Nevertheless, our algorithm consistently matches the performance of the standard algorithm while becoming remarkably more efficient with time. Therefore, we conclude that analysts can use our algorithm, expecting accurate results in considerably less time.

  8. Toward computational cumulative biology by combining models of biological datasets.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Ali; Peltonen, Jaakko; Georgii, Elisabeth; Rung, Johan; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    A main challenge of data-driven sciences is how to make maximal use of the progressively expanding databases of experimental datasets in order to keep research cumulative. We introduce the idea of a modeling-based dataset retrieval engine designed for relating a researcher's experimental dataset to earlier work in the field. The search is (i) data-driven to enable new findings, going beyond the state of the art of keyword searches in annotations, (ii) modeling-driven, to include both biological knowledge and insights learned from data, and (iii) scalable, as it is accomplished without building one unified grand model of all data. Assuming each dataset has been modeled beforehand, by the researchers or automatically by database managers, we apply a rapidly computable and optimizable combination model to decompose a new dataset into contributions from earlier relevant models. By using the data-driven decomposition, we identify a network of interrelated datasets from a large annotated human gene expression atlas. While tissue type and disease were major driving forces for determining relevant datasets, the found relationships were richer, and the model-based search was more accurate than the keyword search; moreover, it recovered biologically meaningful relationships that are not straightforwardly visible from annotations-for instance, between cells in different developmental stages such as thymocytes and T-cells. Data-driven links and citations matched to a large extent; the data-driven links even uncovered corrections to the publication data, as two of the most linked datasets were not highly cited and turned out to have wrong publication entries in the database.

  9. Toward Computational Cumulative Biology by Combining Models of Biological Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Ali; Peltonen, Jaakko; Georgii, Elisabeth; Rung, Johan; Kaski, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    A main challenge of data-driven sciences is how to make maximal use of the progressively expanding databases of experimental datasets in order to keep research cumulative. We introduce the idea of a modeling-based dataset retrieval engine designed for relating a researcher's experimental dataset to earlier work in the field. The search is (i) data-driven to enable new findings, going beyond the state of the art of keyword searches in annotations, (ii) modeling-driven, to include both biological knowledge and insights learned from data, and (iii) scalable, as it is accomplished without building one unified grand model of all data. Assuming each dataset has been modeled beforehand, by the researchers or automatically by database managers, we apply a rapidly computable and optimizable combination model to decompose a new dataset into contributions from earlier relevant models. By using the data-driven decomposition, we identify a network of interrelated datasets from a large annotated human gene expression atlas. While tissue type and disease were major driving forces for determining relevant datasets, the found relationships were richer, and the model-based search was more accurate than the keyword search; moreover, it recovered biologically meaningful relationships that are not straightforwardly visible from annotations—for instance, between cells in different developmental stages such as thymocytes and T-cells. Data-driven links and citations matched to a large extent; the data-driven links even uncovered corrections to the publication data, as two of the most linked datasets were not highly cited and turned out to have wrong publication entries in the database. PMID:25427176

  10. Measuring the effectiveness of scientific gatekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Siler, Kyle; Lee, Kirby; Bero, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is the main institution responsible for the evaluation and gestation of scientific research. Although peer review is widely seen as vital to scientific evaluation, anecdotal evidence abounds of gatekeeping mistakes in leading journals, such as rejecting seminal contributions or accepting mediocre submissions. Systematic evidence regarding the effectiveness—or lack thereof—of scientific gatekeeping is scant, largely because access to rejected manuscripts from journals is rarely available. Using a dataset of 1,008 manuscripts submitted to three elite medical journals, we show differences in citation outcomes for articles that received different appraisals from editors and peer reviewers. Among rejected articles, desk-rejected manuscripts, deemed as unworthy of peer review by editors, received fewer citations than those sent for peer review. Among both rejected and accepted articles, manuscripts with lower scores from peer reviewers received relatively fewer citations when they were eventually published. However, hindsight reveals numerous questionable gatekeeping decisions. Of the 808 eventually published articles in our dataset, our three focal journals rejected many highly cited manuscripts, including the 14 most popular; roughly the top 2 percent. Of those 14 articles, 12 were desk-rejected. This finding raises concerns regarding whether peer review is ill-suited to recognize and gestate the most impactful ideas and research. Despite this finding, results show that in our case studies, on the whole, there was value added in peer review. Editors and peer reviewers generally—but not always—made good decisions regarding the identification and promotion of quality in scientific manuscripts. PMID:25535380

  11. A comprehensive polymer dataset for accelerated property prediction and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Huan; Kumar Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Kim, Chiho; Sharma, Vinit; Oilania, Ghanshyam; Ramprasad, Rampi

    Emerging computation- and data-driven approaches are particularly useful for rationally designing materials with targeted properties. In principle, these approaches rely on identifying structure-property relationships by learning from a dataset of sufficiently large number of relevant materials. The learned information can then be used to rapidly predict the properties of materials not already in the dataset, thus accelerating the design of materials with preferable properties. Here, we report the development of a dataset of 1,065 polymers and related materials, which is available at http://khazana.uconn.edu/. This dataset is uniformly prepared using first-principles calculations with structures obtained either from other sources or by using structure search methods. Because the immediate target of this work is to assist the design of high dielectric constant polymers, it is initially designed to include the optimized structures, atomization energies, band gaps, and dielectric constants. The dataset will be progressively expanded by accumulating new materials and including additional properties calculated for the optimized structures provided. We discuss some information ``learned`` from the dataset and suggest that it may be used as the playground for further data-mining work.

  12. Assessing global land cover reference datasets for different user communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsendbazar, N. E.; de Bruin, S.; Herold, M.

    2015-05-01

    Global land cover (GLC) maps and assessments of their accuracy provide important information for different user communities. To date, there are several GLC reference datasets which are used for assessing the accuracy of specific maps. Despite significant efforts put into generating them, their availability and role in applications outside their intended use have been very limited. This study analyses metadata information from 12 existing and forthcoming GLC reference datasets and assesses their characteristics and potential uses in the context of 4 GLC user groups, i.e., climate modellers requiring data on Essential Climate Variables (ECV), global forest change analysts, the GEO Community of Practice for Global Agricultural Monitoring and GLC map producers. We assessed user requirements with respect to the sampling scheme, thematic coverage, spatial and temporal detail and quality control of the GLC reference datasets. Suitability of the datasets is highly dependent upon specific applications by the user communities considered. The LC-CCI, GOFC-GOLD, FAO-FRA and Geo-Wiki datasets had the broadest applicability for multiple uses. The re-usability of the GLC reference datasets would be greatly enhanced by making them publicly available in an expert framework that guides users on how to use them for specific applications.

  13. Identification of sample annotation errors in gene expression datasets.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Miriam; Hellwig, Birte; Edlund, Karolina; Mattsson, Johanna S M; Botling, Johan; Schmidt, Marcus; Hengstler, Jan G; Micke, Patrick; Rahnenführer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of clinically annotated human tissue has found widespread use in oncology, cell biology, immunology, and toxicology. In cancer research, microarray-based gene expression profiling has successfully been applied to subclassify disease entities, predict therapy response, and identify cellular mechanisms. Public accessibility of raw data, together with corresponding information on clinicopathological parameters, offers the opportunity to reuse previously analyzed data and to gain statistical power by combining multiple datasets. However, results and conclusions obviously depend on the reliability of the available information. Here, we propose gene expression-based methods for identifying sample misannotations in public transcriptomic datasets. Sample mix-up can be detected by a classifier that differentiates between samples from male and female patients. Correlation analysis identifies multiple measurements of material from the same sample. The analysis of 45 datasets (including 4913 patients) revealed that erroneous sample annotation, affecting 40 % of the analyzed datasets, may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously thought. Removal of erroneously labelled samples may influence the results of the statistical evaluation in some datasets. Our methods may help to identify individual datasets that contain numerous discrepancies and could be routinely included into the statistical analysis of clinical gene expression data.

  14. An Integrated Exploration Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conley, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Many new scientific findings in planetary science (potential life in a Mars meteorite, possible frozen water at the Lunar Poles, permanently lit region at the lunar south pole, recent water flow on Mars) provide a compelling case for humans to once again leave low earth orbit and explore. Robotic missions are capable of conducting science, but only humans can explore and discover. The challenge is to build an affordable exploration program. This can be done by aggressively evolving our current systems, developing high payoff technologies, leveraging off commercial and other agencies' programs, and developing a set of core capabilities to be used to explore a variety of destinations. NASA has a Strategic Roadmap based on detailed mission studies to develop these core technologies and capabilities to allow human space exploration. Advances in human support, launch vehicle. improvements, development of in-space transportation systems, efficient power generation and distribution, and In-Situ Resource Utilization are all required to meet the exploration challenge. The groundwork today will provide the technology and tools needed to conduct safe, affordable, and efficient exploration to the moon, asteroids, deep space observatories and Mars.

  15. Planetary Exploration Panel PEX: Support for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2010-05-01

    The new era of space exploration will be international, human-centric, transdisciplinary and participatory. It will also provide an opportunity to inspire, motivate, and involve an ever increasing number of countries. The objective of the COSPAR Panel on Space Exploration (PEX) is to provide the best, independent, input to support the development of worldwide space exploration programs and to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system objects. The input will be drawn from expertise provided via the contacts maintained by COSPAR's various Associates within the international community and scientific entities. For lunar exploration, the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) and the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), as well as other committees, represent important foci for an even broader base of expertise. Seven NASA Lunar Science Institute nodes are actively supporting space exploration in the US. In addition, the International Space Exploration Coordination group ISECG was established to implement the Global Exploration Strategy GES, contained in a document that was elaborated by representatives of 14 space agencies. PEX provides synergies of existing documents and roadmaps of each of these bodies to support existing space exploration groups, foster transnational alliances and support joint research and education.

  16. Designing Tools for Ocean Exploration. Galapagos Rifts Expedition--Grades 9-12. Overview: Ocean Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity teaches about the complexity of ocean exploration, the technological applications and capabilities required for ocean exploration, the importance of teamwork in scientific research projects, and developing abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry. The activity provides learning objectives, a list of needed materials, key…

  17. FastQuery: A Parallel Indexing System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,

    2011-07-29

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the- art index and query technologies such as FastBit can significantly improve accesses to these datasets by augmenting the user data with indexes and other secondary information. However, a challenge is that the indexes assume the relational data model but the scientific data generally follows the array data model. To match the two data models, we design a generic mapping mechanism and implement an efficient input and output interface for reading and writing the data and their corresponding indexes. To take advantage of the emerging many-core architectures, we also develop a parallel strategy for indexing using threading technology. This approach complements our on-going MPI-based parallelization efforts. We demonstrate the flexibility of our software by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using data from a particle accelerator model and a global climate model. We also conducted a detailed performance study using these scientific datasets. The results show that FastQuery speeds up the query time by a factor of 2.5x to 50x, and it reduces the indexing time by a factor of 16 on 24 cores.

  18. Scientific and non-scientific challenges for Operational Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tracking the time evolution of seismic hazard in time windows shorter than the usual 50-years of long-term hazard models may offer additional opportunities to reduce the seismic risk. This is the target of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF). During the OEF development in Italy we identify several challenges that range from pure science to the more practical interface of science with society. From a scientific point of view, although earthquake clustering is the clearest empirical evidence about earthquake occurrence, and OEF clustering models are the most (successfully) tested hazard models in seismology, we note that some seismologists are still reluctant to accept their scientific reliability. After exploring the motivations of these scientific doubts, we also look into an issue that is often overlooked in this discussion, i.e., in any kind of hazard analysis, we do not use a model because it is the true one, but because it is the better than anything else we can think of. The non-scientific aspects are mostly related to the fact that OEF usually provides weekly probabilities of large eartquakes smaller than 1%. These probabilities are considered by some seismologists too small to be of interest or useful. However, in a recent collaboration with engineers we show that such earthquake probabilities may lead to intolerable individual risk of death. Interestingly, this debate calls for a better definition of the still fuzzy boundaries among the different expertise required for the whole risk mitigation process. The last and probably more pressing challenge is related to the communication to the public. In fact, a wrong message could be useless or even counterproductive. Here we show some progresses that we have made in this field working with communication experts in Italy.

  19. Scientifically Based Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ron

    2003-01-01

    Most principals are aware that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 makes it mandatory for school leaders who depend on federal funding to select and implement programs that are based on scientific research. This publication reviews five documents that offer insights into what is meant by scientifically based research and help school leaders…

  20. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    PubMed

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly.

  1. 3 CFR - Scientific Integrity

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Departments and Agencies Science and the scientific process must inform and guide decisions of my..., and protection of national security. The public must be able to trust the science and scientific..., and integrity. By this memorandum, I assign to the Director of the Office of Science and...

  2. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  3. Rekindling Scientific Curiosity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coble, Charles R.; Rice, Dale R.

    1983-01-01

    Active involvement in society-related issues can elevate junior high school students' interest not only in the problem being solved but also in related scientific concepts. Examples of how scientific concepts and society-related issues can be taught in the same class are presented, focusing on genetic engineering, water shortage, and others.…

  4. Encouraging Balanced Scientific Research through Formal Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurgelun, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The new Connecticut science standards include a "Science, Technology, and Society" (STS) standard for each grade level. This standard encourages students to explore how scientific knowledge affects the quality of their lives. By relating science concepts to real-world decision making, STS investigations give students a framework through which they…

  5. Lighting the Way through Scientific Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Li-hsuan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law.…

  6. Promoting Scientific and Technological Literacy: Teaching Biodiesel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilks, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on biodiesel from a socio-critical chemistry teaching approach aimed at improving student participation and decision making. Explores the use of biodiesel (chemically changed vegetable oils), especially in Europe. The unit proved to be successful as students participated enthusiastically and social and scientific goals were…

  7. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  8. Classroom Critters and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneidel, Sally

    This resource book presents 37 behavioral experiments that can be performed with commonly-found classroom animals including hamsters, gerbils, mice, goldfish, guppies, anolis lizards, kittens, and puppies. Each experiment explores the five steps of the scientific method: (1) Question; (2) Hypothesis; (3) Methods; (4) Result; and (5) Conclusion.…

  9. Chaos Theory, Philosophically Old, Scientifically New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    Chaos theory has recently become a central area of scientific interest in psychology. This article explores the psychological meaning and deeper philosophical issues and cultural roots surrounding various views of chaos and provides a multicultural perspective of origins and development of the idea of chaos and its relationship to chaos theory.…

  10. Asteroid exploration and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar

    1992-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  11. Politics and the Erosion of Federal Scientific Capacity: Restoring Scientific Integrity to Public Health Science

    PubMed Central

    Rest, Kathleen M.; Halpern, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Our nation’s health and prosperity are based on a foundation of independent scientific discovery. Yet in recent years, political interference in federal government science has become widespread, threatening this legacy. We explore the ways science has been misused, the attempts to measure the pervasiveness of this problem, and the effects on our long-term capacity to meet today’s most complex public health challenges. Good government and a functioning democracy require public policy decisions to be informed by independent science. The scientific and public health communities must speak out to defend taxpayer-funded science from political interference. Encouragingly, both the scientific community and Congress are exploring ways to restore scientific integrity to federal policymaking. PMID:17901422

  12. Politics and the erosion of federal scientific capacity: restoring scientific integrity to public health science.

    PubMed

    Rest, Kathleen M; Halpern, Michael H

    2007-11-01

    Our nation's health and prosperity are based on a foundation of independent scientific discovery. Yet in recent years, political interference in federal government science has become widespread, threatening this legacy. We explore the ways science has been misused, the attempts to measure the pervasiveness of this problem, and the effects on our long-term capacity to meet today's most complex public health challenges. Good government and a functioning democracy require public policy decisions to be informed by independent science. The scientific and public health communities must speak out to defend taxpayer-funded science from political interference. Encouragingly, both the scientific community and Congress are exploring ways to restore scientific integrity to federal policymaking.

  13. Mining the wealth of Phobos multispectral data contained in MEX-OMEGA and MRO-CRISM datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, Maurizio; Roush, Ted

    2016-04-01

    The origin of Phobos is still strongly debated between in situ versus asteroid capture formation scenarios. Growing interest in Phobos as a scientific destination is demonstrated by the multiple NASA-Discovery missions presented in 2015, the proposed ESA-M class mission PhoDEx, and JAXA's Mars Moon's sample return mission (MMX, Mars Moons eXploration). This large number of Phobos dedicated missions and JAXA's planned mission clearly illustrate the scientific interest in Phobos as a destination. We believe that there is still a wealth of data that can be mined in order to constrain Phobos' surface properties and possibly its origin. There are several multispectral Phobos datasets available on the NASA-Planetary Data System. In this work we focus on the first steps aimed to perform a new spectral analysis on the Mars satellite Phobos. We made use of the available Mars Express (MEX) OMEGA spectral cubes, obtained throughout the MEX mission, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) CRISM hyperspectral data obtained during early MRO orbits around Mars. Previous analyses (Fraeman et al. 2012, 2014) mainly focus on three specific Regions of Interest, ROIs, located inside the so-called blue and red regions of Phobos, i.e. inside or close to Stickney crater (the biggest crater on Phobos, 8-km in diameter) and its eastern ejecta blanket. We extended this analysis by considering multiple ROIs located both in the leading and the trailing hemispheres of the satellite, taking advantage of the broader coverage of the OMEGA and CRISM data. This provides the possibility to detect spectral properties of intermediate areas located in the transition region between the blue and the red spectral unit. The analyses can enable i) documentation of how the spectral slope changes between these two units, ii) their boundaries and surface extent, and iii) identify additional surface materials, if present. This work paves the way to a more thorough analysis, foreseen in the near future, where the

  14. Teaching Scientific Reasoning to Liberal Arts Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubbo, Louis

    2014-03-01

    University courses in conceptual physics and astronomy typically serve as the terminal science experience for the liberal arts student. Within this population significant content knowledge gains can be achieved by utilizing research verified pedagogical methods. However, from the standpoint of the Univeristy, students are expected to complete these courses not necessarily for the content knowledge but instead for the development of scientific reasoning skills. Results from physics education studies indicate that unless scientific reasoning instruction is made explicit students do not progress in their reasoning abilities. How do we complement the successful content based pedagogical methods with instruction that explicitly focuses on the development of scientific reasoning skills? This talk will explore methodologies that actively engages the non-science students with the explicit intent of fostering their scientific reasoning abilities.

  15. Informing the ‘early years’ agenda in Scotland: understanding infant feeding patterns using linked datasets

    PubMed Central

    Ajetunmobi, Omotomilola; Whyte, Bruce; Chalmers, James; Fleming, Michael; Stockton, Diane; Wood, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing infants with the ‘best possible start in life’ is a priority for the Scottish Government. This is reflected in policy and health promotion strategies to increase breast feeding, which gives the best source of nutrients for healthy infant growth and development. However, the rate of breast feeding in Scotland remains one of the lowest in Europe. Information is needed to provide a better understanding of infant feeding and its impact on child health. This paper describes the development of a unique population-wide resource created to explore infant feeding and child health in Scotland. Methods Descriptive and multivariate analyses of linked routine/administrative maternal and infant health records for 731 595 infants born in Scotland between 1997 and 2009. Results A linked dataset was created containing a wide range of background, parental, maternal, birth and health service characteristics for a representative sample of infants born in Scotland over the study period. There was high coverage and completeness of infant feeding and other demographic, maternal and infant records. The results confirmed the importance of an enabling environment—cultural, family, health service and other maternal and infant health-related factors—in increasing the likelihood to breast feed. Conclusions Using the linked dataset, it was possible to investigate the determinants of breast feeding for a representative sample of Scottish infants born between 1997 and 2009. The linked dataset is an important resource that has potential uses in research, policy design and targeting intervention programmes. PMID:24129609

  16. Geocoding large population-level administrative datasets at highly resolved spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Sharon E.; Strauss, Benjamin; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Using geographic information systems to link administrative databases with demographic, social, and environmental data allows researchers to use spatial approaches to explore relationships between exposures and health. Traditionally, spatial analysis in public health has focused on the county, zip code, or tract level because of limitations to geocoding at highly resolved scales. Using 2005 birth and death data from North Carolina, we examine our ability to geocode population-level datasets at three spatial resolutions – zip code, street, and parcel. We achieve high geocoding rates at all three resolutions, with statewide street geocoding rates of 88.0% for births and 93.2% for deaths. We observe differences in geocoding rates across demographics and health outcomes, with lower geocoding rates in disadvantaged populations and the most dramatic differences occurring across the urban-rural spectrum. Our results suggest highly resolved spatial data architectures for population-level datasets are viable through geocoding individual street addresses. We recommend routinely geocoding administrative datasets to the highest spatial resolution feasible, allowing public health researchers to choose the spatial resolution used in analysis based on an understanding of the spatial dimensions of the health outcomes and exposures being investigated. Such research, however, must acknowledge how disparate geocoding success across subpopulations may affect findings. PMID:25383017

  17. Nine martian years of dust optical depth observations: A reference dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montabone, Luca; Forget, Francois; Kleinboehl, Armin; Kass, David; Wilson, R. John; Millour, Ehouarn; Smith, Michael; Lewis, Stephen; Cantor, Bruce; Lemmon, Mark; Wolff, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-annual reference dataset of the horizontal distribution of airborne dust from martian year 24 to 32 using observations of the martian atmosphere from April 1999 to June 2015 made by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard Mars Global Surveyor, the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) aboard Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) aboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Our methodology to build the dataset works by gridding the available retrievals of column dust optical depth (CDOD) from TES and THEMIS nadir observations, as well as the estimates of this quantity from MCS limb observations. The resulting (irregularly) gridded maps (one per sol) were validated with independent observations of CDOD by PanCam cameras and Mini-TES spectrometers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity", by the Surface Stereo Imager aboard the Phoenix lander, and by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars aboard MRO. Finally, regular maps of CDOD are produced by spatially interpolating the irregularly gridded maps using a kriging method. These latter maps are used as dust scenarios in the Mars Climate Database (MCD) version 5, and are useful in many modelling applications. The two datasets (daily irregularly gridded maps and regularly kriged maps) for the nine available martian years are publicly available as NetCDF files and can be downloaded from the MCD website at the URL: http://www-mars.lmd.jussieu.fr/mars/dust_climatology/index.html

  18. Experimental Investigation of Three Machine Learning Algorithms for ITS Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearwood, J. L.; Kang, B. H.; Kelarev, A. V.

    The present article is devoted to experimental investigation of the performance of three machine learning algorithms for ITS dataset in their ability to achieve agreement with classes published in the biologi cal literature before. The ITS dataset consists of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences, where rather sophisticated alignment scores have to be used as a measure of distance. These scores do not form a Minkowski metric and the sequences cannot be regarded as points in a finite dimensional space. This is why it is necessary to develop novel machine learning ap proaches to the analysis of datasets of this sort. This paper introduces a k-committees classifier and compares it with the discrete k-means and Nearest Neighbour classifiers. It turns out that all three machine learning algorithms are efficient and can be used to automate future biologically significant classifications for datasets of this kind. A simplified version of a synthetic dataset, where the k-committees classifier outperforms k-means and Nearest Neighbour classifiers, is also presented.

  19. Realistic computer network simulation for network intrusion detection dataset generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payer, Garrett

    2015-05-01

    The KDD-99 Cup dataset is dead. While it can continue to be used as a toy example, the age of this dataset makes it all but useless for intrusion detection research and data mining. Many of the attacks used within the dataset are obsolete and do not reflect the features important for intrusion detection in today's networks. Creating a new dataset encompassing a large cross section of the attacks found on the Internet today could be useful, but would eventually fall to the same problem as the KDD-99 Cup; its usefulness would diminish after a period of time. To continue research into intrusion detection, the generation of new datasets needs to be as dynamic and as quick as the attacker. Simply examining existing network traffic and using domain experts such as intrusion analysts to label traffic is inefficient, expensive, and not scalable. The only viable methodology is simulation using technologies including virtualization, attack-toolsets such as Metasploit and Armitage, and sophisticated emulation of threat and user behavior. Simulating actual user behavior and network intrusion events dynamically not only allows researchers to vary scenarios quickly, but enables online testing of intrusion detection mechanisms by interacting with data as it is generated. As new threat behaviors are identified, they can be added to the simulation to make quicker determinations as to the effectiveness of existing and ongoing network intrusion technology, methodology and models.

  20. The LANDFIRE Refresh strategy: updating the national dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Kurtis J.; Connot, Joel A.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Martin, Charley

    2013-01-01

    The LANDFIRE Program provides comprehensive vegetation and fuel datasets for the entire United States. As with many large-scale ecological datasets, vegetation and landscape conditions must be updated periodically to account for disturbances, growth, and natural succession. The LANDFIRE Refresh effort was the first attempt to consistently update these products nationwide. It incorporated a combination of specific systematic improvements to the original LANDFIRE National data, remote sensing based disturbance detection methods, field collected disturbance information, vegetation growth and succession modeling, and vegetation transition processes. This resulted in the creation of two complete datasets for all 50 states: LANDFIRE Refresh 2001, which includes the systematic improvements, and LANDFIRE Refresh 2008, which includes the disturbance and succession updates to the vegetation and fuel data. The new datasets are comparable for studying landscape changes in vegetation type and structure over a decadal period, and provide the most recent characterization of fuel conditions across the country. The applicability of the new layers is discussed and the effects of using the new fuel datasets are demonstrated through a fire behavior modeling exercise using the 2011 Wallow Fire in eastern Arizona as an example.

  1. Dataset from chemical gas sensor array in turbulent wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Fonollosa, Jordi; Rodríguez-Luján, Irene; Trincavelli, Marco; Huerta, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    The dataset includes the acquired time series of a chemical detection platform exposed to different gas conditions in a turbulent wind tunnel. The chemo-sensory elements were sampling directly the environment. In contrast to traditional approaches that include measurement chambers, open sampling systems are sensitive to dispersion mechanisms of gaseous chemical analytes, namely diffusion, turbulence, and advection, making the identification and monitoring of chemical substances more challenging. The sensing platform included 72 metal-oxide gas sensors that were positioned at 6 different locations of the wind tunnel. At each location, 10 distinct chemical gases were released in the wind tunnel, the sensors were evaluated at 5 different operating temperatures, and 3 different wind speeds were generated in the wind tunnel to induce different levels of turbulence. Moreover, each configuration was repeated 20 times, yielding a dataset of 18,000 measurements. The dataset was collected over a period of 16 months. The data is related to "On the performance of gas sensor arrays in open sampling systems using Inhibitory Support Vector Machines", by Vergara et al.[1]. The dataset can be accessed publicly at the UCI repository upon citation of [1]: http://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Gas+sensor+arrays+in+open+sampling+settings.

  2. Internal Consistency of the NVAP Water Vapor Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Ronnie J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NVAP (NASA Water Vapor Project) dataset is a global dataset at 1 x 1 degree spatial resolution consisting of daily, pentad, and monthly atmospheric precipitable water (PW) products. The analysis blends measurements from the Television and Infrared Operational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), and radiosonde observations into a daily collage of PW. The original dataset consisted of five years of data from 1988 to 1992. Recent updates have added three additional years (1993-1995) and incorporated procedural and algorithm changes from the original methodology. Since each of the PW sources (TOVS, SSM/I, and radiosonde) do not provide global coverage, each of these sources compliment one another by providing spatial coverage over regions and during times where the other is not available. For this type of spatial and temporal blending to be successful, each of the source components should have similar or compatible accuracies. If this is not the case, regional and time varying biases may be manifested in the NVAP dataset. This study examines the consistency of the NVAP source data by comparing daily collocated TOVS and SSM/I PW retrievals with collocated radiosonde PW observations. The daily PW intercomparisons are performed over the time period of the dataset and for various regions.

  3. The role of dataset selection in cloud microphysics parameterization development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogan, Y. L.

    2009-12-01

    A number of cloud microphysical parameterizations have been developed during the last decade using various datasets of cloud drop spectra. These datasets can be obtained either from observations, artificially produced by some drop size spectra generator (e.g. by solving the coagulation equation under different input conditions), or obtained as output of LES model which can predict cloud drop spectra explicitly. Each of the methods has its deficiencies, for example in-situ aircraft observations being constrained to the flight path and the dependence of coagulation equation solutions on input conditions. The ultimate aim is to create a cloud drop spectra dataset that mimics realistically drop parameters in real clouds. These parameters are closely related to the distribution of thermodynamical conditions, which are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain a priori. Using LES model with explicit microphysics (SAMEX) we have demonstrated high sensitivity of cloud parameterizations to the choice of a dataset. We emphasize that the development of accurate parameterizations should require the use of a dynamically balanced cloud drop spectra dataset. The accuracy of conversion rates can be increased by scaling them with precipitation intensity. We also demonstrate that the accuracy of the saturation adjustment scheme employed in calculations of latent heat release can be increased by accounting for the aerosol load. Finally we show how to formulate the new saturation adjustment in the framework of a two-moment cloud physics parameterization.

  4. NSB endorses Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The National Science Board (NSB) recently voted to endorse a program of scientific ocean drilling that would replace the 14-yearold Glomar Challenger with the Glomar Explorer as the pillar of scientific drilling. This vote by the policymaking arm of the National Science Foundation (NSF) gives another boost to the proposed drilling plan. The plan also has the blessings of the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) and of the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on Ocean Drilling.NSF now will approach the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to request that $9 million of NSF funds be transferred to the Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD) program in fiscal 1983 for the next design stages for the Explorer (Eos, March 2, 1982, p. 179). With the support of NSB, COSOD, and the NAS committee, the request goes to OSTP and OMB with strong backing. If OSTP and OMB give the transfer the green light, Congress will review the request.

  5. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is the world's most ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the A-Train platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the cloud scenes from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time matchups between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, and assemble merged datasets for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the VizFlow GUI, or uses a

  6. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2009-04-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time "matchups" between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, assemble merged datasets, and compute fused products for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the Viz

  7. Charactering the Surface Radiation Budget over the Tibetan Plateau Using Ground Observations, Reanalysis, and Satellite Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Q.; Liang, S.

    2013-12-01

    The importance of the surface radiation budget (SRB) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) to impact not only the local climate but also the remote area (i.e., the drought and flood in China) attracts increasing attentions in the scientific communities. Observed evidences support a continuous dimming trend with predominant warming, wind stilling, and moistening trends since 1980s. Cautions, however, need to be exercised when using ground observations or satellite retrievals alone, which are limited with large errors and sparse distributions, respectively. This study aims to characterize the monthly SRB at 0.5° over the TP extending two decades by incorporating multiple datasets, including ground-measured datasets, reanalysis datasets, and satellite datasets. The fused SRB was first generated using a multiple linear regression method to synthesize reanalysis and satellite datasets with ground observations from 1984 to 2007, and was then applied not only to analyze the characteristics (spatial distribution, temporal variation, and trend) of the SRB but also to compare with selected atmospheric (cloud cover, precipitation, and water vapor) and surface (temperature, snow cover, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) anomalies over the TP. The cross validation results suggested that the fused data lowered the root mean square errors (RMSEs) at the monthly scale (<19 W/m2) by constraining uncertainties from multiple sources (i.e., inputs, preprocessing, and data fusion). The major finding is that the interaction of solar dimming with changes of surface albedo has dominated the marked decrease of all-wave net radiation since the mid-1980s regardless of the increase of downward longwave radiation (that counteracts the increase of upward longwave radiation). Furthermore, the weakening and strengthening of the relationships between the components of SRB and the correlated variables of atmospheric or surface conditions exhibit a seasonal dependency over the TP, where

  8. Hydrodynamic modelling and global datasets: Flow connectivity and SRTM data, a Bangkok case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigg, M. A.; Bates, P. B.; Michaelides, K.

    2012-04-01

    The rise in the global interconnected manufacturing supply chains requires an understanding and consistent quantification of flood risk at a global scale. Flood risk is often better quantified (or at least more precisely defined) in regions where there has been an investment in comprehensive topographical data collection such as LiDAR coupled with detailed hydrodynamic modelling. Yet in regions where these data and modelling are unavailable, the implications of flooding and the knock on effects for global industries can be dramatic, as evidenced by the recent floods in Bangkok, Thailand. There is a growing momentum in terms of global modelling initiatives to address this lack of a consistent understanding of flood risk and they will rely heavily on the application of available global datasets relevant to hydrodynamic modelling, such as Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and its derivatives. These global datasets bring opportunities to apply consistent methodologies on an automated basis in all regions, while the use of coarser scale datasets also brings many challenges such as sub-grid process representation and downscaled hydrology data from global climate models. There are significant opportunities for hydrological science in helping define new, realistic and physically based methodologies that can be applied globally as well as the possibility of gaining new insights into flood risk through analysis of the many large datasets that will be derived from this work. We use Bangkok as a case study to explore some of the issues related to using these available global datasets for hydrodynamic modelling, with particular focus on using SRTM data to represent topography. Research has shown that flow connectivity on the floodplain is an important component in the dynamics of flood flows on to and off the floodplain, and indeed within different areas of the floodplain. A lack of representation of flow connectivity, often due to data resolution limitations, means

  9. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and

  10. Statistical Exploration of Electronic Structure of Molecules from Quantum Monte-Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhat, Mr; Zubarev, Dmitry; Lester, Jr., William A.

    2010-12-22

    In this report, we present results from analysis of Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation data with the goal of determining internal structure of a 3N-dimensional phase space of an N-electron molecule. We are interested in mining the simulation data for patterns that might be indicative of the bond rearrangement as molecules change electronic states. We examined simulation output that tracks the positions of two coupled electrons in the singlet and triplet states of an H2 molecule. The electrons trace out a trajectory, which was analyzed with a number of statistical techniques. This project was intended to address the following scientific questions: (1) Do high-dimensional phase spaces characterizing electronic structure of molecules tend to cluster in any natural way? Do we see a change in clustering patterns as we explore different electronic states of the same molecule? (2) Since it is hard to understand the high-dimensional space of trajectories, can we project these trajectories to a lower dimensional subspace to gain a better understanding of patterns? (3) Do trajectories inherently lie in a lower-dimensional manifold? Can we recover that manifold? After extensive statistical analysis, we are now in a better position to respond to these questions. (1) We definitely see clustering patterns, and differences between the H2 and H2tri datasets. These are revealed by the pamk method in a fairly reliable manner and can potentially be used to distinguish bonded and non-bonded systems and get insight into the nature of bonding. (2) Projecting to a lower dimensional subspace ({approx}4-5) using PCA or Kernel PCA reveals interesting patterns in the distribution of scalar values, which can be related to the existing descriptors of electronic structure of molecules. Also, these results can be immediately used to develop robust tools for analysis of noisy data obtained during QMC simulations (3) All dimensionality reduction and estimation techniques that we tried seem to

  11. Exploration review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide budget for nonfuel mineral exploration was expected to increase by 27 percent in 2003 from the 2002 budget, according to the Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia. The increase comes after five years of declining spending for mineral exploration.

  12. Exploration Geochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closs, L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    Contributions in mineral-deposit model formulation, geochemical exploration in glaciated and arid environments, analytical and sampling problems, and bibliographic research were made in symposia held and proceedings volumes published during 1982. Highlights of these symposia and proceedings and comments on trends in exploration geochemistry are…

  13. obs4MIPS: Satellite Datasets for Model Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, R.; Waliser, D. E.; Gleckler, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    This poster will review the current status of the obs4MIPs project, whose purpose is to provide a limited collection of well-established and documented datasets for comparison with Earth system models. These datasets have been reformatted to correspond with the CMIP5 model output requirements, and include technical documentation specifically targeted for their use in model output evaluation. There are currently over 50 datasets containing observations that directly correspond to CMIP5 model output variables. We will review the rational and requirements for obs4MIPs contributions, and provide summary information of the current obs4MIPs holdings on the Earth System Grid Federation. We will also provide some usage statistics, an update on governance for the obs4MIPs project, and plans for supporting CMIP6.

  14. A high-resolution European dataset for hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Salamon, Peter; Gomes, Goncalo; Sint, Hadewij; Lorini, Valerio; Thielen, Jutta

    2013-04-01

    There is an increasing demand for large scale hydrological models not only in the field of modeling the impact of climate change on water resources but also for disaster risk assessments and flood or drought early warning systems. These large scale models need to be calibrated and verified against large amounts of observations in order to judge their capabilities to predict the future. However, the creation of large scale datasets is challenging for it requires collection, harmonization, and quality checking of large amounts of observations. For this reason, only a limited number of such datasets exist. In this work, we present a pan European, high-resolution gridded dataset of meteorological observations (EFAS-Meteo) which was designed with the aim to drive a large scale hydrological model. Similar European and global gridded datasets already exist, such as the HadGHCND (Caesar et al., 2006), the JRC MARS-STAT database (van der Goot and Orlandi, 2003) and the E-OBS gridded dataset (Haylock et al., 2008). However, none of those provide similarly high spatial resolution and/or a complete set of variables to force a hydrologic model. EFAS-Meteo contains daily maps of precipitation, surface temperature (mean, minimum and maximum), wind speed and vapour pressure at a spatial grid resolution of 5 x 5 km for the time period 1 January 1990 - 31 December 2011. It furthermore contains calculated radiation, which is calculated by using a staggered approach depending on the availability of sunshine duration, cloud cover and minimum and maximum temperature, and evapotranspiration (potential evapotranspiration, bare soil and open water evapotranspiration). The potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation with the above-mentioned meteorological variables. The dataset was created as part of the development of the European Flood Awareness System (EFAS) and has been continuously updated throughout the last years. The dataset variables are used as

  15. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Combined Precipitation Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Arkin, Philip; Chang, Alfred; Ferraro, Ralph; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John; McNab, Alan; Rudolf, Bruno; Schneider, Udo

    1997-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) has released the GPCP Version 1 Combined Precipitation Data Set, a global, monthly precipitation dataset covering the period July 1987 through December 1995. The primary product in the dataset is a merged analysis incorporating precipitation estimates from low-orbit-satellite microwave data, geosynchronous-orbit -satellite infrared data, and rain gauge observations. The dataset also contains the individual input fields, a combination of the microwave and infrared satellite estimates, and error estimates for each field. The data are provided on 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude global grids. Preliminary analyses show general agreement with prior studies of global precipitation and extends prior studies of El Nino-Southern Oscillation precipitation patterns. At the regional scale there are systematic differences with standard climatologies.

  16. Identifying Differentially Abundant Metabolic Pathways in Metagenomic Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Pop, Mihai

    Enabled by rapid advances in sequencing technology, metagenomic studies aim to characterize entire communities of microbes bypassing the need for culturing individual bacterial members. One major goal of such studies is to identify specific functional adaptations of microbial communities to their habitats. Here we describe a powerful analytical method (MetaPath) that can identify differentially abundant pathways in metagenomic data-sets, relying on a combination of metagenomic sequence data and prior metabolic pathway knowledge. We show that MetaPath outperforms other common approaches when evaluated on simulated datasets. We also demonstrate the power of our methods in analyzing two, publicly available, metagenomic datasets: a comparison of the gut microbiome of obese and lean twins; and a comparison of the gut microbiome of infant and adult subjects. We demonstrate that the subpathways identified by our method provide valuable insights into the biological activities of the microbiome.

  17. BMDExpress Data Viewer ‐ a visualization tool to analyze BMDExpress datasets

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Byron; Francina Webster, A.; Thomas, Russell S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regulatory agencies increasingly apply benchmark dose (BMD) modeling to determine points of departure for risk assessment. BMDExpress applies BMD modeling to transcriptomic datasets to identify transcriptional BMDs. However, graphing and analytical capabilities within BMDExpress are limited, and the analysis of output files is challenging. We developed a web‐based application, BMDExpress Data Viewer (http://apps.sciome.com:8082/BMDX_Viewer/), for visualizing and graphing BMDExpress output files. The application consists of “Summary Visualization” and “Dataset Exploratory” tools. Through analysis of transcriptomic datasets of the toxicants furan and 4,4′‐methylenebis(N,N‐dimethyl)benzenamine, we demonstrate that the “Summary Visualization Tools” can be used to examine distributions of gene and pathway BMD values, and to derive a potential point of departure value based on summary statistics. By applying filters on enrichment P‐values and minimum number of significant genes, the “Functional Enrichment Analysis” tool enables the user to select biological processes or pathways that are selectively perturbed by chemical exposure and identify the related BMD. The “Multiple Dataset Comparison” tool enables comparison of gene and pathway BMD values across multiple experiments (e.g., across timepoints or tissues). The “BMDL‐BMD Range Plotter” tool facilitates the observation of BMD trends across biological processes or pathways. Through our case studies, we demonstrate that BMDExpress Data Viewer is a useful tool to visualize, explore and analyze BMDExpress output files. Visualizing the data in this manner enables rapid assessment of data quality, model fit, doses of peak activity, most sensitive pathway perturbations and other metrics that will be useful in applying toxicogenomics in risk assessment. © 2015 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26671443

  18. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Detection: CNN Architectures, Dataset Characteristics and Transfer Learning.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hoo-Chang; Roth, Holger R; Gao, Mingchen; Lu, Le; Xu, Ziyue; Nogues, Isabella; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel; Summers, Ronald M

    2016-05-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in image recognition, primarily due to the availability of large-scale annotated datasets and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). CNNs enable learning data-driven, highly representative, hierarchical image features from sufficient training data. However, obtaining datasets as comprehensively annotated as ImageNet in the medical imaging domain remains a challenge. There are currently three major techniques that successfully employ CNNs to medical image classification: training the CNN from scratch, using off-the-shelf pre-trained CNN features, and conducting unsupervised CNN pre-training with supervised fine-tuning. Another effective method is transfer learning, i.e., fine-tuning CNN models pre-trained from natural image dataset to medical image tasks. In this paper, we exploit three important, but previously understudied factors of employing deep convolutional neural networks to computer-aided detection problems. We first explore and evaluate different CNN architectures. The studied models contain 5 thousand to 160 million parameters, and vary in numbers of layers. We then evaluate the influence of dataset scale and spatial image context on performance. Finally, we examine when and why transfer learning from pre-trained ImageNet (via fine-tuning) can be useful. We study two specific computer-aided detection (CADe) problems, namely thoraco-abdominal lymph node (LN) detection and interstitial lung disease (ILD) classification. We achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the mediastinal LN detection, and report the first five-fold cross-validation classification results on predicting axial CT slices with ILD categories. Our extensive empirical evaluation, CNN model analysis and valuable insights can be extended to the design of high performance CAD systems for other medical imaging tasks. PMID:26886976

  19. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Computer-Aided Detection: CNN Architectures, Dataset Characteristics and Transfer Learning.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hoo-Chang; Roth, Holger R; Gao, Mingchen; Lu, Le; Xu, Ziyue; Nogues, Isabella; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel; Summers, Ronald M

    2016-05-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in image recognition, primarily due to the availability of large-scale annotated datasets and deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). CNNs enable learning data-driven, highly representative, hierarchical image features from sufficient training data. However, obtaining datasets as comprehensively annotated as ImageNet in the medical imaging domain remains a challenge. There are currently three major techniques that successfully employ CNNs to medical image classification: training the CNN from scratch, using off-the-shelf pre-trained CNN features, and conducting unsupervised CNN pre-training with supervised fine-tuning. Another effective method is transfer learning, i.e., fine-tuning CNN models pre-trained from natural image dataset to medical image tasks. In this paper, we exploit three important, but previously understudied factors of employing deep convolutional neural networks to computer-aided detection problems. We first explore and evaluate different CNN architectures. The studied models contain 5 thousand to 160 million parameters, and vary in numbers of layers. We then evaluate the influence of dataset scale and spatial image context on performance. Finally, we examine when and why transfer learning from pre-trained ImageNet (via fine-tuning) can be useful. We study two specific computer-aided detection (CADe) problems, namely thoraco-abdominal lymph node (LN) detection and interstitial lung disease (ILD) classification. We achieve the state-of-the-art performance on the mediastinal LN detection, and report the first five-fold cross-validation classification results on predicting axial CT slices with ILD categories. Our extensive empirical evaluation, CNN model analysis and valuable insights can be extended to the design of high performance CAD systems for other medical imaging tasks.

  20. Benchmark three-dimensional eye-tracking dataset for visual saliency prediction on stereoscopic three-dimensional video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Amin; Nasiopoulos, Eleni; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos

    2016-01-01

    Visual attention models (VAMs) predict the location of image or video regions that are most likely to attract human attention. Although saliency detection is well explored for two-dimensional (2-D) image and video content, there have been only a few attempts made to design three-dimensional (3-D) saliency prediction models. Newly proposed 3-D VAMs have to be validated over large-scale video saliency prediction datasets, which also contain results of eye-tracking information. There are several publicly available eye-tracking datasets for 2-D image and video content. In the case of 3-D, however, there is still a need for large-scale video saliency datasets for the research community for validating different 3-D VAMs. We introduce a large-scale dataset containing eye-tracking data collected from 61 stereoscopic 3-D videos (and also 2-D versions of those), and 24 subjects participated in a free-viewing test. We evaluate the performance of the existing saliency detection methods over the proposed dataset. In addition, we created an online benchmark for validating the performance of the existing 2-D and 3-D VAMs and facilitating the addition of new VAMs to the benchmark. Our benchmark currently contains 50 different VAMs.