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Sample records for explosion containment vessel

  1. Proof testing of an explosion containment vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza, E.D.; Stacy, H.; Wackerle, J.

    1996-10-01

    A steel containment vessel was fabricated and proof tested for use by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at their M-9 facility. The HY-100 steel vessel was designed to provide total containment for high explosives tests up to 22 lb (10 kg) of TNT equivalent. The vessel was fabricated from an 11.5-ft diameter cylindrical shell, 1.5 in thick, and 2:1 elliptical ends, 2 in thick. Prior to delivery and acceptance, three types of tests were required for proof testing the vessel: a hydrostatic pressure test, air leak tests, and two full design charge explosion tests. The hydrostatic pressure test provided an initial static check on the capacity of the vessel and functioning of the strain instrumentation. The pneumatic air leak tests were performed before, in between, and after the explosion tests. After three smaller preliminary charge tests, the full design charge weight explosion tests demonstrated that no yielding occurred in the vessel at its rated capacity. The blast pressures generated by the explosions and the dynamic response of the vessel were measured and recorded with 33 strain channels, 4 blast pressure channels, 2 gas pressure channels, and 3 displacement channels. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a short summary of the methodology used to predict the design blast loads, a brief description of the transducer locations and measurement systems, some of the hydrostatic test strain and stress results, examples of the explosion pressure and dynamic strain data, and some comparisons of the measured data with the design loads and stresses on the vessel.

  2. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  3. Seal Monitoring System for an Explosive Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J W; Henning, C D; Switzer, V A; Grundler, W; Holloway, J R; Morrison, J J; Hafner, R S

    2004-06-28

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are developing high-performance explosive firing vessels to contain (one time) explosive detonations that contain toxic metals and hazardous gases. The filament-wound polymer composite vessels are designed to contain up to 80 lb (TNT equivalent) explosive in a 2-meter sphere without leakage. So far, two half-scale (1-meter diameter) vessels have been tested; one up to 150% of the design explosive limit. Peak dynamic pressures in excess of 280 MPa (40 Ksi) in the vessel were calculated and measured. Results indicated that there was a small amount of gas and particle leakage past the first two of the seven o-ring seals. However, the remaining five seals prevented any transient leakage of the toxic gases and particulates out of the vessel. These results were later confirmed by visual inspection and particulate analysis of swipes taken from the sealing surfaces.

  4. Uncertainty quantification of a containment vessel dynamic response subjected to high-explosive detonation impulse loading

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E. A.; Pepin, J. E.; Thacker, B. H.; Riha, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in cooperation with Southwest Research Institute, has been developing capabilities to provide reliability-based structural evaluation techniques for performing weapon component and system reliability assessments. The development and applications of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) is an important ingredient in the overall weapon reliability assessments. Focus, herein, is placed on the uncertainty quantification associated with the structural response of a containment vessel for high-explosive (HE) experiments. The probabilistic dynamic response of the vessel is evaluated through the coupling of the probabilistic code NESSUS with the non-linear structural dynamics code, DYNA-3D. The probabilistic model includes variations in geometry and mechanical properties, such as Young's Modulus, yield strength, and material flow characteristics. Finally, the probability of exceeding a specified strain limit, which is related to vessel failure, is determined.

  5. Development, testing and practical use of two special containment vessels for storage and transportation of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dikken, H. den

    1995-12-31

    The storage and transportation of high explosives gives many logistic managers a headache, especially when it comes to forwarding of small quantities. Air transport is limited to 1.4 explosives on cargo aircraft and 1.4S classified explosives on passenger aircraft, so most samples cannot be transported by air. Ocean transport is a possibility, but due to stowage and segregation regulations of the IMDG code, a very expensive one. Road transport is often the only solution, but high explosives require special trucks with licensed drivers. The solution to these logistic problems is solved by creating a 1.4S (Class C) classification for all high explosives, when packed in special containment vessels.

  6. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  7. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  8. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  9. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  10. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  11. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  12. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOEpatents

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  13. Explosive Containment Chamber Vulnerability to Chemical Munition Fragment Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Benham, R.A.; Fischer, S.H.; Kipp, M.E.; Martinez, R.R.

    1999-02-01

    Scenarios in which the explosive burster charge in a chemical munition accidentally detonates inside demilitarization containment chambers are analyzed. The vulnerability of an inner Auxiliary Pressure Vessel and the primary Explosive Containment Chamber to impact by fragments from the largest explosive charge expected to be placed in these chambers (M426, 8 inch, chemical, 7 lbs Comp B) is evaluated. Numerical (CTH) and empirical (ConWep) codes are used to characterize the munition fragments, and assess the consequences of their impact and penetration on the walls of these vessels. Both pristine and corroded configurations of the munition have been considered, with and without liquid agent fill. When the munition burster charge detonates, munition case fragments impact and perforate the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel wall, resulting in extensive breakup of this inner chamber and the formation of additional fragments. These residual munition case and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to crater the Explosive Containment Chamber inner wall layer, with accompanying localized permanent deformation (bulging) of both the inner and outer chamber walls. The integrity of the Explosive Containment Chamber was retained under all of the APV / munition configurations considered in this study, with no evidence that primary (munition) or secondary (munition and Auxiliary Pressure Vessel) fragments will perforate the inner chamber wall. Limited analyses of munition detonation without the Auxiliary Pressure Vessel present indicate that some munition span fragments could form under those conditions that have sufficient mass and velocity to perforate the inner wall of the Explosive Containment Chamber.

  14. Soft container for explosive nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, D. C.; Drummond, W. E.; Miller, G.

    1981-01-01

    Flexible fabric fits over variety of assembly shapes to contain debris produced by detonations or safety tests. Bag material is woven multifilament polyamide or aramid. Belt loops hold bag to clamp. Ring supports explosive nut structure and detonator wires, and after nut is mounted, bag and clamp are slipped over ring and fastened.

  15. Composite Vessels for Containment of Extreme Blast Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J; Henning, C; Grundler, W; Switzer, V; Hollaway, R; Morrison, J; Hagler, L; Kokko, E; Deteresa, S; Hathcoat, B; Dalder, E

    2004-07-15

    A worldwide trend for explosives testing has been to replace open-air detonations with containment vessels, especially when any hazardous materials are involved. As part of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) effort to ensure the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile, researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have been developing a high performance filament wound composite firing vessel that is nearly radiographically transparent. It was intended to contain a limited number of detonations of metal cased explosive assemblies in radiographic facilities such as the Advanced Hydrodynamic Facility (AHF) being studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory. A 2-meter diameter pressure vessel was designed to contain up to 35 kg (80 lb) of TNT equivalent explosive without leakage. Over the past 5 years a total of three half-scale (1 meter diameter) vessels have been constructed, and two of them were tested to 150% load with 8.2 kg (18-pound) spheres of C4 explosive. The low density and high specific strength advantages used in this composite vessel design may have other additional applications such as transporting sensitive explosives that could otherwise be moved only in very small quantities. Also, it could be used for highly portable, explosive containment systems for law enforcement.

  16. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  17. Explosive Vessel for Dynamic Experiments at Advanced Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Charles; Sorensen, Christian; Armstrong, Christopher; Sanchez, Nathaniel; Jensen, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There has been significant effort in coupling dynamic loading platforms to advanced light sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to take advantage of X-ray diagnostics for examining material physics at extremes. Although the focus of these efforts has been on using gun systems for dynamic compression experiments, there are many experiments that require explosive loading capabilities including studies related to detonator dynamics, small angle X-ray scattering on explosives, and ejecta formation, for example. To this end, an explosive vessel and positioning stage was designed specifically for use at a synchrotron with requirements to confine up to 15 grams of explosives, couple the vessel to the X-ray beam line, and reliably position samples in the X-ray beam remotely with micrometer spatial accuracy. In this work, a description of the system will be provided along with explosive testing results for the robust, reusable positioning system.

  18. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  19. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Scott, Donald G.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  20. Residual Stress Measurements of Explosively Clad Cylindrical Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Douglas J; Watkins, Thomas R; Hubbard, Camden R; Hill, M. R.; Meith, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Tantalum refractory liners were explosively clad into cylindrical pressure vessels, some of which had been previously autofrettaged. Using explosive cladding, the refractory liner formed a metallurgical bond with the steel of the pressure vessel at a cost of induced strain. Two techniques were employed to determine the residual stress state of the clad steel cylinders: neutron diffraction and mechanical slitting. Neutron diffraction is typically nondestructive; however, due to attenuation along the beam path, the cylinders had to be sectioned into rings that were nominally 25 mm thick. Slitting is a destructive method, requiring the sectioning of the cylindrical samples. Both techniques provided triaxial stress data and useful information on the effects of explosive cladding. The stress profiles in the hoop and radial directions were similar for an autofrettaged, nonclad vessel and a clad, nonautofrettaged vessel. The stress profiles in the axial direction appeared to be different. Further, the data suggested that residual stresses from the autofrettage and explosive cladding processes were not additive, in part due to evidence of reverse yielding. The residual stress data are presented, compared and discussed.

  1. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    SciTech Connect

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  2. Testing of a steel containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Costello, J.F.

    1997-04-01

    A mixed-scale containment vessel model, with 1:10 in containment geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness, was fabricated to represent an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment vessel. A contact structure, installed over the model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. This paper describes the pretest preparations and the conduct of the high pressure test of the model performed on December 11-12, 1996. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  3. An experimental investigation of flame behavior during cylindrical vessel explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, R.; Roth, P.

    1986-12-01

    The propagation of premixed flames centrally ignited at one of the end flanges of a closed cylindrical vessel and the flame-induced fluid flow have been investigated in the present study. Photographic records show that under specific geometrical conditions the flame exhibits a cone form with a backward directed top, called ''tulip'' -shaped. This appears after the flame has lost a main part of its area by side wall quenching. With a laser-Doppler anemometer the instantaneous flow velocity during the short explosion process was measured together with pressure records.

  4. An experimental investigation of flame behavior during cylindrical vessel explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, R.; Roth, P.

    1986-12-01

    The propagation of premixed flames centrally ignited at one of the end flanges of a closed cylindrical vessel and the flame-induced flow have been investigated. Photographic records show that under specific geometrical conditions the flame exhibits a cone form with a backward directed top, called tulip-shaped. This appears after the flame has lost a main part of its area by side wall quenching. The instantaneous flow velocity during the short explosion process was measured, together with pressure records, with an LDV. An analogy to the experiments of Markstein (1964), is shown, and the explanations of several authors for the 'tulip' formation are given.

  5. Explosion caused by flashing liquid in a process vessel.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Russell A; Megerle, Marcus V; Morrison, Delmar R; Carpenter, Andrew R

    2004-11-11

    An explosion occurred at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin manufacturing plant. The explosion originated at an atmospheric storage vessel when it received a slurry discharge from a suspension polymerization reactor. The pressure rise caused by the uncontrolled flashing of superheated liquid vinyl chloride resulted in the complete separation of the roof from the tank shell. A cloud of vinyl chloride vapor was released and ignited resulting in a vapor cloud explosion. The accident caused significant property damage but no serious injuries. An investigation was conducted to determine the causes of the accident. It was discovered that the facility had experienced numerous overpressure incidents in the atmospheric storage vessels used as slurry tanks. Many of these incidents resulted in modest structural damage to these slurry tanks. It was determined by Exponent that the rapid flashing of residual liquid monomer present in the product slurry stream caused the earlier overpressure incidents. The facility operator did not adequately investigate or document these prior overpressure events nor did it communicate their findings to the operating personnel. Thus, the hazard of flashing liquid vinyl chloride was not recognized. The overpressure protection for the slurry tanks was based on a combination of a venting system and a safety instrumentation system (SIS). The investigation determined that neither the venting system nor the SIS was adequate to protect the slurry tank from the worst credible overpressure scenario. Fundamentally, this is because the performance objectives of the venting system and SIS were not clearly defined and did not protect against the worst credible overpressure scenario. The lessons learned from this accident include: use prior incident data for recognizing process hazards; identify targets vulnerable to these hazards; explicitly define performance objectives for safeguards to protect against the worst credible overpressure scenario. The ultimate

  6. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) materials, compatibility group S. (2) Explosive articles designed for lifesaving purposes as identified in... 1 (explosive) materials in compatibility groups C, D, and E, if the total net explosive mass (weight) does not exceed 10 kg (22 pounds) per vessel. (4) Articles in compatibility group G other than...

  7. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) materials, compatibility group S. (2) Explosive articles designed for lifesaving purposes as identified in... 1 (explosive) materials in compatibility groups C, D, and E, if the total net explosive mass (weight) does not exceed 10 kg (22 pounds) per vessel. (4) Articles in compatibility group G other than...

  8. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) materials, compatibility group S. (2) Explosive articles designed for lifesaving purposes as identified in... 1 (explosive) materials in compatibility groups C, D, and E, if the total net explosive mass (weight) does not exceed 10 kg (22 pounds) per vessel. (4) Articles in compatibility group G other than...

  9. Development of the VESUVIUS model and analysis of the premixing phase of an ex-vessel steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, K.; Naitoh, Masanori; Nagano, Katsuhiro; Araki, Kazuhiro

    1996-06-01

    The VESUVIUS module, which currently models the premixing phase of a steam explosion following a hypothesized severe accident, is being developed for incorporation into the IMPACT simulation software. A unique contribution of this software is its extensions of the capabilities of the {alpha}-FLOW code, which make possible evaluation of phenomena related to steam explosions in the containment vessel by a general-purpose, thermal-hydraulic code. Modeling of the pre-mixing phase is the initial part of a software development program being conducted at the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation to analyze steam explosion scenarios in the containment vessel. These predictions will rely as much as possible on physics-based models rather than empirical data. A description of the modeling and comparisons of sample calculations to results of a severe accident code and experimental data are presented. Intended for adoption by the IMPACT project, the VESUVIUS software will be made compatible with parallel computing hardware.

  10. Welding the AT-400A Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.

    1998-11-01

    Early in 1994, the Department of Energy assigned Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility for designing and providing the welding system for the girth weld for the AT-400A containment vessel. (The AT-400A container is employed for the shipment and long-term storage of the nuclear weapon pits being returned from the nation's nuclear arsenal.) Mason Hanger Corporation's Pantex Plant was chosen to be the production facility. The project was successfully completed by providing and implementing a turnkey welding system and qualified welding procedure at the Pantex Plant. The welding system was transferred to Pantex and a pilot lot of 20 AT-400A containers with W48 pits was welded in August 1997. This document is intended to bring together the AT-400A welding system and product (girth weld) requirements and the activities conducted to meet those requirements. This document alone is not a complete compilation of the welding development activities but is meant to be a summary to be used with the applicable references.

  11. Temperature and pressure influence on explosion pressures of closed vessel propane-air deflagrations.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Brinzea, Venera; Mitu, Maria; Oancea, Dumitru

    2010-02-15

    An experimental study on pressure evolution during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures was performed, for systems with various initial concentrations and pressures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.2 bar). The explosion pressures and explosion times were measured in a spherical vessel (Phi=10 cm), at various initial temperatures (T(0)=298-423 K) and in a cylindrical vessel (Phi=10 cm; h=15 cm), at ambient initial temperature. The experimental values of explosion pressures are examined against literature values and compared to adiabatic explosion pressures, computed by assuming chemical equilibrium within the flame front. The influence of initial pressure, initial temperature and fuel concentration on explosion pressures and explosion times are discussed. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, the explosion pressures are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, both the measured and calculated (adiabatic) explosion pressures are linear functions of reciprocal value of initial temperature. Such correlations are extremely useful for predicting the explosion pressures of flammable mixtures at elevated temperatures and/or pressures, when direct measurements are not available.

  12. Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

  13. Explosion of gaseous ethylene-air mixtures in closed cylindrical vessels with central ignition.

    PubMed

    Movileanu, Codina; Gosa, Vasile; Razus, Domnina

    2012-10-15

    Explosions of gaseous ethylene-air mixtures with various concentrations between 3.0 and 14.0 vol.% and initial pressures between 0.20 and 1.10 bar were experimentally investigated at ambient initial temperature, using several elongated cylindrical vessels with length to diameter ratio between 1.0 and 2.4. The maximum explosion pressures p(max), the explosion times θ(max), the maximum rates of pressure rise, (dp/dt)(max) and the severity factors of centrally ignited explosions K(G) are examined in comparison with similar data obtained in a spherical vessel. The measured deflagration indices are strongly influenced by the length to diameter ratio of the vessels, initial pressure and composition of the flammable mixtures. Even when important heat losses are present, linear correlations p(max)=f(p(0)) and (dp/dt)(max)=f(p(0)) were found for all examined fuel-air mixtures, in all closed vessels. The heat losses appearing in the last stage of explosions occurring in asymmetrical vessels were estimated from the differences between the experimental and adiabatic maximum explosion pressures. These heat losses are higher when the asymmetry ratio L/D is higher and were found to depend linearly on the initial pressure. PMID:22858131

  14. Explosion of gaseous ethylene-air mixtures in closed cylindrical vessels with central ignition.

    PubMed

    Movileanu, Codina; Gosa, Vasile; Razus, Domnina

    2012-10-15

    Explosions of gaseous ethylene-air mixtures with various concentrations between 3.0 and 14.0 vol.% and initial pressures between 0.20 and 1.10 bar were experimentally investigated at ambient initial temperature, using several elongated cylindrical vessels with length to diameter ratio between 1.0 and 2.4. The maximum explosion pressures p(max), the explosion times θ(max), the maximum rates of pressure rise, (dp/dt)(max) and the severity factors of centrally ignited explosions K(G) are examined in comparison with similar data obtained in a spherical vessel. The measured deflagration indices are strongly influenced by the length to diameter ratio of the vessels, initial pressure and composition of the flammable mixtures. Even when important heat losses are present, linear correlations p(max)=f(p(0)) and (dp/dt)(max)=f(p(0)) were found for all examined fuel-air mixtures, in all closed vessels. The heat losses appearing in the last stage of explosions occurring in asymmetrical vessels were estimated from the differences between the experimental and adiabatic maximum explosion pressures. These heat losses are higher when the asymmetry ratio L/D is higher and were found to depend linearly on the initial pressure.

  15. Explosive containment and propagation evaluations for commonly used handling and storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of explosive tests were performed to establish containment integrity data for commonly used handling and storage containers of energetic materials at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M. The tests consisted of two phases: (1) each container was tested for explosive integrity and propagation, and (2) the data were used to evaluate a nominal donor-receptor test matrix for verifying the confinement integrity of a typical explosives service locker.

  16. A study of the behaviour of a protected vessel containing LPG during pool fire engulfment.

    PubMed

    Shebeko, Y N; Bolodian, I A; Filippov, V N; Navzenya, V Y; Kostyuhin, A K; Tokarev, P M; Zamishevski, E D

    2000-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods for protection against fires of vessels containing liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) (safety relief valves, intumescent fire retardant coatings, thermal isolation) have been carried out. A simple mathematical model has been proposed, which describes dependences of various parameters on time. These parameters are temperature, pressure and mass of LPG, temperatures of the vessel's walls and thermal protection layer. The case of total fire engulfment of the vessel with LPG was considered. Experiments have been executed, which were aimed on the investigation of the behaviour of vessels with LPG (50 l), equipped with protective devices during total fire engulfment. It was found out that the safety valve prevented an explosion of the vessels without any other protective measures. The presence of the intumescent fire retardant coating caused a significant delay in operation of the safety valve. A rather good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was obtained. It has been revealed that the considered methods for protection of LPG vessels are promising in regard to prevention of explosions in these vessels at the fire engulfment.

  17. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DoD Component controlling real property known to contain or suspected of containing explosive or... with DoD Directive 6055.9E, Explosives Safety Management and the DoD Explosives Safety Board....

  18. A design guide and specification for small explosive containment structures

    SciTech Connect

    Marchand, K.A.; Cox, P.A.; Polcyn, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The design of structural containments for testing small explosive devices requires the designer to consider the various aspects of the explosive loading, i.e., shock and gas or quasistatic pressure. Additionally, if the explosive charge has the potential of producing damaging fragments, provisions must be made to arrest the fragments. This may require that the explosive be packed in a fragment attenuating material, which also will affect the loads predicted for containment response. Material also may be added just to attenuate shock, in the absence of fragments. Three charge weights are used in the design. The actual charge is used to determine a design fragment. Blast loads are determined for a {open_quotes}design charge{close_quotes}, defined as 125% of the operational charge in the explosive device. No yielding is permitted at the design charge weight. Blast loads are also determined for an over-charge, defined as 200% of the operational charge in the explosive device. Yielding, but no failure, is permitted at this over-charge. This guide emphasizes the calculation of loads and fragments for which the containment must be designed. The designer has the option of using simplified or complex design-analysis methods. Examples in the guide use readily available single degree-of-freedom (sdof) methods, plus static methods for equivalent dynamic loads. These are the common methods for blast resistant design. Some discussion of more complex methods is included. Generally, the designer who chooses more complex methods must be fully knowledgeable in their use and limitations. Finally, newly fabricated containments initially must be proof tested to 125% of the operational load and then inspected at regular intervals. This specification provides guidance for design, proof testing, and inspection of small explosive containment structures.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  20. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  1. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James G.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  2. Explosion testing for the container venting system

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Green, G.M.; Thomas, R.A.; Demiter, J.A.

    1993-09-30

    As part of the study of the hazards of inspecting nuclear waste stored at the Hanford Site, the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Hanford Company have developed a container venting system to sample the gases that may be present in various metal drums and other containers. In support of this work, the US Bureau of Mines has studied the probability of ignition while drilling into drums and other containers that may contain flammable gas mixtures. The Westinghouse Hanford Company drilling procedure was simulated by tests conducted in the Bureau`s 8-liter chamber, using the same type of pneumatic drill that will be used at the Hanford Site. There were no ignitions of near-stoichiometric hydrogen-air or methane-air mixtures during the drilling tests. The temperatures of the drill bits and lids were measured by an infrared video camera during the drilling tests. These measured temperatures are significantly lower than the {approximately}500{degree}C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated hydrogen-air or the {approximately}600{degree}C autoignition temperature of uniformly heated methane-air. The temperatures are substantially lower than the 750{degree}C ignition temperature of hydrogen-air and 1,220{degree}C temperature of methane-air when heated by a 1-m-diameter wire.

  3. An investigation of the consequences of primary dust explosions in interconnected vessels.

    PubMed

    Kosinski, Pawel; Hoffmann, Alex C

    2006-09-21

    In this article Eulerian-Lagrangian 2D computer simulations of consequences of primary dust explosions in two vessels connected by a duct are described. After an explosion in the primary vessel a propagation of hot pressurised gases to the secondary vessel, initially uniformly filled with dust particles, is simulated. The gas phase is described by the standard equations and it is coupled with the particulate phase through the drag force and the convective heat transfer. No chemical reaction is considered in the model since the objective was to model the system up to the time of ignition. The computation was performed for different lengths and diameters (heights) of the linking duct. Having analysed the results, it was concluded that the simulations agree with experimental observations in that the probability of transmission of an explosion from the primary to the secondary vessel decreases with decreasing diameter (height) and increasing length of the connecting pipeline. Snapshots of particle positions for different times are presented. The work illustrates the behaviour of the mixture in the secondary vessel: the particles tend to concentrate in clouds, and domains with no particles are observed. This may influence the explosion characteristics of the system.

  4. Preliminary results for a Russian designed explosive resistant container

    SciTech Connect

    Carbiener, K.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Russian Federal Nuclear Center Institute of Experimental Physics has completed a contract with Sandia National Laboratories to explore conceptual development of a family of containers capable of withstanding an internal explosion. The goal was containment of both the explosive force and hazardous by-products of a generic conventional explosive device. The Institute studied two designs, one for 2 kg and one for 50 kg of explosive. The designs were based on numerical calculations to extrapolate prior Russian design and experimental work to encompass these two cases. The Institute`s analyses indicate that they achieved excellent results for both a spherical and a cylindrical container made from a stainless steel/fiberglass composite construction. Both designs incorporate unique design features for door closures, internal shrapnel resistance, and shock attenuation. The project identified testing requirements, potential design feature improvements, as well as a sensitivity to the mass of packaging material around the explosive. We are pursuing these issues in a follow-on contract that is being negotiated.

  5. Instrumentation and testing of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    Hessheimer, M.F.; Pace, D.W.; Klamerus, E.W.

    1997-04-01

    Static overpressurization tests of two scale models of nuclear containment structures - a steel containment vessel (SCV) representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for pressurized water reactors (PWR) - are being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper discusses plans for instrumentation and testing of the PCCV model. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Assessment of current criteria for dynamic stability of container vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, C.; Ancuta, C.; Acomi, N.; Andrei, C.

    2016-08-01

    Container vessels sailing through heavy weather are exposed to a significant variation of stability due to specific shape of the hull combined with the action of the waves. Even if the weather forecast is transmitted to vessels, the way of acting it is a matter of officers’ experience. The Maritime Safety Committee, under the International Maritime Organization, has approved the Guidance to the master for avoiding dangerous situations in adverse weather and sea conditions. Adverse weather conditions include wind induced waves or heavy swell. The development of dangerous phenomena such as surf-riding and broaching to, syncronious and parametric rollings is a result of a these adverse conditions which has to be encountered by the vessels. Understanding the dynamic stability of the vessel in the waves and ship's behaviour based on mathematical and physical rules is a difficult task, any effort in order to assess these components are salutary. To avoid excessive acceleration and forces which can damage the hull of the vessel, lashing and integrity of containers, course and speed may need to be changed for the vessel's motion in heavy seas. Specific software have been developed as aids for evaluating the response of the vessel in heavy seas according to parameters variations. The paper aims at assessing of current criteria for dynamic stability of a container vessel model ship in order to determine the ways for avoiding dangerous conditions. The results should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process.

  7. Slug impact loading on the vessel head during a postulated in-vessel steam explosion in pressurized water reactors -- Assessments and discussion of the investigation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, R.; Malmberg, T.; Messemer, G.; Stach, T.; Stratmanns, E.

    1995-09-01

    The most severe consequence of a pressurized water reactor in-vessel steam explosion is a molten fuel slug impact against the head of the reactor pressure vessel that could cause a failure of this head and lead to missiles endangering the reactor containment. An investigation is described that attempts to determine the maximum slug impact that a vessel head is capable of withstanding without failing and, consequently, without impairing the containment safety-related function. Preliminary theoretical assessments are presented that suggest that the head might be able to withstand rather strong impacts and that the shape of the fuel slug will have only a moderate influence on the results, provided the upper internal structures are taken into account. A low sensitivity against the slug shape is an essential prerequisite for a reliable safety proof. However, investigations primarily based on computational models are not sufficient; therefore, an investigation concept is proposed that relies on model experiments in which the geometry is scaled down by factors of 10 and 20, respectively. Theoretical and experimental investigations for liquid-structure impact problems in different scales are discussed to assess the degree of similarity that can be obtained. Finally, model experiments are described in some detail simulating the molten fuel slug impact on the vessel head.

  8. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, Richard A.; McCoig, Thomas M.; Dooley, Joseph B.; Smith, Cyrus M.

    1999-06-15

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  9. Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, Richard A.; McCoig, Thomas M.; Dooley, Joseph B.; Smith, Cyrus M.

    2001-01-16

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  10. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOEpatents

    Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    1999-06-15

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

  11. High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

    2014-08-15

    The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen.

  12. High methane natural gas/air explosion characteristics in confined vessel.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Shuang; Si, Zhanbo; Huang, Zuohua; Zhang, Kongming; Jin, Zebing

    2014-08-15

    The explosion characteristics of high methane fraction natural gas were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel at different initial conditions. Results show that with the increase of initial pressure, the peak explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise increase due to a higher amount (mass) of flammable mixture, which delivers an increased amount of heat. The increased total flame duration and flame development time result as a consequence of the higher amount of flammable mixture. With the increase of the initial temperature, the peak explosion pressures decrease, but the pressure increase during combustion is accelerated, which indicates a faster flame speed and heat release rate. The maximum value of the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the minimum total combustion duration and the minimum flame development time is observed when the equivalence ratio of the mixture is 1.1. Additionally, for higher methane fraction natural gas, the explosion pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise are slightly decreased, while the combustion duration is postponed. The combustion phasing is empirically correlated with the experimental parameters with good fitting performance. Furthermore, the addition of dilute gas significantly reduces the explosion pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise and postpones the flame development and this flame retarding effect of carbon dioxide is stronger than that of nitrogen. PMID:25010457

  13. Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Prestressing Loss

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH,JEFFREY A.

    2001-09-01

    Reduced prestressing and degradation of prestressing tendons in concrete containment vessels were investigated using finite element analysis of a typical prestressed containment vessel. The containment was analyzed during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with varying levels of prestress loss and with reduced tendon area. It was found that when selected hoop prestressing tendons were completely removed (as if broken) or when the area of selected hoop tendons was reduced, there was a significant impact on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel. However, when selected hoop prestressing tendons remained, but with complete loss of prestressing, the predicted ultimate capacity was not significantly affected for this specific loss of coolant accident. Concrete cracking occurred at much lower levels for all cases. For cases where selected vertical tendons were analyzed with reduced prestressing or degradation of the tendons, there also was not a significant impact on the ultimate load carrying capacity for the specific accident analyzed. For other loading scenarios (such as seismic loading) the loss of hoop prestressing with the tendons remaining could be more significant on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel than found for the accident analyzed. A combination of loss of prestressing and degradation of the vertical tendons could also be more critical during other loading scenarios.

  14. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  15. The effect of external heat transfer on thermal explosion in a spherical vessel with natural convection.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A N

    2015-07-14

    When any exothermic reaction proceeds in an unstirred vessel, natural convection may develop. This flow can significantly alter the heat transfer from the reacting fluid to the environment and hence alter the balance between heat generation and heat loss, which determines whether or not the system will explode. Previous studies of the effects of natural convection on thermal explosion have considered reactors where the temperature of the wall of the reactor is held constant. This implies that there is infinitely fast heat transfer between the wall of the vessel and the surrounding environment. In reality, there will be heat transfer resistances associated with conduction through the wall of the reactor and from the wall to the environment. The existence of these additional heat transfer resistances may alter the rate of heat transfer from the hot region of the reactor to the environment and hence the stability of the reaction. This work presents an initial numerical study of thermal explosion in a spherical reactor under the influence of natural convection and external heat transfer, which neglects the effects of consumption of reactant. Simulations were performed to examine the changing behaviour of the system as the intensity of convection and the importance of external heat transfer were varied. It was shown that the temporal development of the maximum temperature in the reactor was qualitatively similar as the Rayleigh and Biot numbers were varied. Importantly, the maximum temperature in a stable system was shown to vary with Biot number. This has important consequences for the definitions used for thermal explosion in systems with significant reactant consumption. Additionally, regions of parameter space where explosions occurred were identified. It was shown that reducing the Biot number increases the likelihood of explosion and reduces the stabilising effect of natural convection. Finally, the results of the simulations were shown to compare favourably with

  16. DHCVIM: A direct heating containment vessel interactions module

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Models for prediction of direct containment heating phenomena as implemented in the DHCVIM computer module are described. The models were designed to treat thermal, chemical and hydrodynamic processes in the three regions of the Sandia National Laboratory Surtsey DCH test facility: the melt generator, cavity and vessel. The fundamental balance equations, along with constitutive relations are described. A combination of Eulerian treatment for the gas phase and Lagrangian treatment for the droplet phase is used in the modeling. Comparisons of calculations and DCH-1 test results are presented. Reasonable agreement is demonstrated for the vessel pressure rise, melt generator pressure decay and particle size distribution.

  17. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for...) Before a freight container or transport vehicle is packed with Class 1 (explosive) materials, it must...

  18. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for...) Before a freight container or transport vehicle is packed with Class 1 (explosive) materials, it must...

  19. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  20. Dynamic testing of MFTF containment-vessel structural system

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.J.; McCallen, D.B.; Eli, M.W.

    1982-04-01

    Dynamic (modal) testing was performed on the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) containment vessel. The seismic design of this vessel was heavily dependent upon the value of structural damping used in the analysis. Typically for welded steel vessels, a value of 2 to 3% of critical is used. However, due to the large mass of the vessel and magnet supported inside, we felt that the interaction between the structure and its foundation would be enhanced. This would result in a larger value of damping because vibrational energy in the structure would be transferred through the foundation into the surrounding soil. The dynamic test performed on this structure (with the magnet in place) confirmed this later theory and resulted in damping values of approximately 4 to 5% for the whole body modes. This report presents a brief description of dynamic testing emphasizing the specific test procedure used on the MFTF-A system. It also presents an interpretation of the damping mechanisms observed (material and geometric) based upon the spatial characteristics of the modal parameters (mode shapes).

  1. Jaguar Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, L. I.; Baker, E. L.; Capellos, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Jaguar product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products by analysis of Available Hugoniot and static volumetric data to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationships for the components. Experimental melting points were also utilized to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX—boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using Jaguar are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that the boron does not react near the detonation front or that boron mixtures exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior (as shown by some aluminized explosives), with higher detonation velocities at the initial points. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX—boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the detonation properties of the formulation.

  2. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Silicon Containing Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos; Poulos, William; Pincay, Jack

    2007-06-01

    Improved relationships for the thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid silicon and silicon oxide for use with JAGUAR thermo-chemical equation of state routines were developed in this study. Analyses of experimental melting temperature curves for silicon and silicon oxide indicated complex phase behavior and that improved coefficients were required for solid and liquid thermodynamic properties. Advanced optimization routines were utilized in conjunction with the experimental melting point data to establish volumetric coefficients for these substances. The new property libraries resulted in agreement with available experimental values, including Hugoniot data at elevated pressures. Detonation properties were calculated with JAGUAR using the revised property libraries for silicon containing explosives. Constants of the JWLB equation of state were established for varying extent of silicon reaction. Supporting thermal heat transfer analyses were conducted for varying silicon particle sizes to establish characteristic times for melting and silicon reaction.

  3. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S.; Costello, J.F.

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  4. Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.W.; Wilson, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Such problems include underwater blast loading of structures, bubble dynamics and jetting around structures, and hydrodynamic ram events. These problems may involve gas, fluid, and solid dynamics, nonlinear material behavior, cavitation, reaction kinetics, material failure, and nonlinearity that is due to varying geometry and contact conditions within a structure or between structures. Here, the authors model the response of a water-filled, thick-walled, spherical steel vessel to an internal explosion of 30 grams of C-4 with FSI2D--a two-dimensional coupled finite element and finite volume hydrodynamics code. The gas phase detonation products were modeled with a Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson high-explosive equation of state. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.

  5. Posttest Analyses of the Steel Containment Vessel Model

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Luk, V.K.

    1999-03-01

    A high pressure test of a scale model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) was conducted on December 11-12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA. The test model is a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of an improved Mark II boiling water reactor (BWR) containment. This testis part of a program to investigate the response of representative models of nuclear containment structures to pressure loads beyond the design basis accident. The posttest analyses of this test focused on three areas where the pretest analysis effort did not adequately predict the model behavior during the test. These areas are the onset of global yielding, the strain concentrations around the equipment hatch and the strain concentrations that led to a small tear near a weld relief opening that was not modeled in the pretest analysis.

  6. Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.L.; Lewis, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). To model such problems in two-dimensions the authors developed the FSI2D code by coupling MFICE2D, a Los Alamos finite volume computation fluid dynamics (CFD) code, with PRONTO2D, a SANDIA finite element solid dynamics code. Details on this coupling approach and current implementations are discussed in Section 3. In this report the authors use FSI2D to model the response of Jumbino, a water-filled spherical steel vessel (63.4 cm i.d., 6.1 cm wall thickness), to an internal explosion caused by detonating 30 grams of C-4 at the center of the vessel. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.

  7. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  8. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  9. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  10. 49 CFR 178.360 - Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specification 2R; inside containment vessel. 178.360 Section 178.360 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Specification 2R; inside containment vessel....

  11. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos

    2009-06-01

    The JAGUAR product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products. Relationships of the Murnaghan form for molar volumes and derived properties were implemented in JAGUAR. Available Hugoniot and static volumertic data were analyzed to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationship for solid boron, boron oxide, boron nitride, boron carbide, and boric acid. Experimental melting points were also utilized with optimization procedures to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX - boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using JAGUAR are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that boron mixtures may exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior, as observed by aluminized combined effects explosives, with higher detonation velocities than would be achieved by a classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX - boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the energy output obtained from the detonation of the formulation.

  12. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  13. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  14. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  15. 32 CFR 174.16 - Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chemical agent hazards from past DoD military munitions-related or chemical warfare-related activities... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Real property containing explosive or chemical... REALIGNMENT Environmental Matters § 174.16 Real property containing explosive or chemical agent hazards....

  16. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling equipment for freight containers...) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Except in an emergency, only cargo handling...

  17. Instrumentation of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    Hessheimer, M.F.; Rightley, M.J.; Matsumoto, T.

    1995-09-01

    A series of static overpressurization tests of scale models of nuclear containment structures is being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. At present, two tests are being planned: a test of a model of a steel containment vessel (SCV) that is representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design; and a test of a model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV). This paper discusses plans and the results of a preliminary investigation of the instrumentation of the PCCV model. The instrumentation suite for this model will consist of approximately 2000 channels of data to record displacements, strains in the reinforcing steel, prestressing tendons, concrete, steel liner and liner anchors, as well as pressure and temperature. The instrumentation is being designed to monitor the response of the model during prestressing operations, during Structural Integrity and Integrated Leak Rate testing, and during test to failure of the model. Particular emphasis has been placed on instrumentation of the prestressing system in order to understand the behavior of the prestressing strands at design and beyond design pressure levels. Current plans are to place load cells at both ends of one third of the tendons in addition to placing strain measurement devices along the length of selected tendons. Strain measurements will be made using conventional bonded foil resistance gages and a wire resistance gage, known as a {open_quotes}Tensmeg{close_quotes}{reg_sign} gage, specifically designed for use with seven-wire strand. The results of preliminary tests of both types of gages, in the laboratory and in a simulated model configuration, are reported and plans for instrumentation of the model are discussed.

  18. DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D

    2008-06-10

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

  19. Radioactive material release from a containment vessel during a fire accident

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.; Norkus, J.

    2015-02-26

    A methodology is presented to determine the source term for leaks and ruptures of pressurized vessels. The generic methodology is applied to a 9975 Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) which losses containment due to a hypothesized fire accident. The release due to a vessel rupture is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than the release due to a leak.

  20. Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein

    DOEpatents

    Radtke, Corey W.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

  1. Modeling solid thermal explosion containment on reactor HNIW and HMX.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Ping; Chang, Chang-Ping; Chou, Yu-Chuan; Chu, Yung-Chuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2010-04-15

    2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaaza-isowurtzitane (HNIW), also known as CL-20 and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), are highly energetic materials which have been popular in national defense industries for years. This study established the models of thermal decomposition and thermal explosion hazard for HNIW and HMX. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data were used for parameters determination of the thermokinetic models, and then these models were employed for simulation of thermal explosion in a 437L barrel reactor and a 24 kg cubic box package. Experimental results indicating the best storage conditions to avoid any violent runaway reaction of HNIW and HMX were also discovered. This study also developed an efficient procedure regarding creation of thermokinetics and assessment of thermal hazards of HNIW and HMX that could be applied to ensure safe storage conditions.

  2. Heat removal characteristics of a primary containment vessel external spray

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Tadashi; Murase, Michio

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the heat release characteristics of a primary containment vessel (PCV) external spray (one of the PCV cooling systems utilizing the steel PCV wall as the heat transfer medium), the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the falling liquid film on the PCV surface have been investigated experimentally. Then, the performance of the PCV external spray cooling system was evaluated using the experimental findings. The following results were obtained: (1) Heat transfer coefficients of the falling liquid film under steady-state conditions were increased as the film flow rate per unit length of the liquid film width increased, and they agreed with Wilke`s correlation within about {+-}15%. (2) The PCV surface temperature, when preheated up to 150 C, which is the supposed PCV temperature under a severe accident, decreased below 100 C within a few seconds when the PCV external spray was initiated, and boiling on the PCV surface could not be maintained. (3) Heat transfer coefficients of the falling liquid film under transient conditions were higher initially due to the boiling effect; however, they decreased rapidly and approached those under steady-state conditions. (4) The PCV external spray for the conceptually designed PCV could suppress the PCV pressure below the design goal under a severe accident.

  3. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Structural serviceability of freight containers... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1...

  4. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Structural serviceability of freight containers... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1...

  5. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Structural serviceability of freight containers... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1...

  6. Experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water (ZREX).

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, D. H.

    1998-04-10

    The results of two series of experiments on explosive interactions between zirconium-containing melt and water are described. The first series of experiments involved dropping 1-kg batches of zirconium-zirconium dioxide mixture melt into a column of water while the second series employed 1.2-kg batches of zirconium-stainless steel mixture melt. Explosions took place only in those tests which were externally triggered. While the extent of zirconium oxidation in the triggered experiments was quite large, the explosion energies estimated from the experimental measurements were found to be small compared to the combined thermal and chemical energy available.

  7. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (ΔP(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions. PMID:25528229

  8. Suppression of methane/air explosion by ultrafine water mist containing sodium chloride additive.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xingyan; Ren, Jingjie; Zhou, Yihui; Wang, Qiuju; Gao, Xuliang; Bi, Mingshu

    2015-03-21

    The suppression effect of ultrafine mists on methane/air explosions with methane concentrations of 6.5%, 8%, 9.5%, 11%, and 13.5% were experimentally studied in a closed visual vessel. Ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist as well as pure water mist was adopted and the droplet sizes of mists were measured by phase doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). A high speed camera was used to record the flame evolution processes. In contrast to pure water mist, the flame propagation speed, the maximum explosion overpressure (ΔP(max)), and the maximum pressure rising rate ((dP/dt)max) decreased significantly, with the "tulip" flame disappearing and the flame getting brighter. The results show that the suppressing effect on methane explosion by ultrafine water/NaCl solution mist is influenced by the mist amount and methane concentration. With the increase of the mist amount, the pressure, and the flame speed both descended significantly. And when the mist amount reached 74.08 g/m(3) and 37.04 g/m(3), the flames of 6.5% and 13.5% methane explosions can be absolutely suppressed, respectively. All of results indicate that addition of NaCl can improve the suppression effect of ultrafine pure water mist on the methane explosions, and the suppression effect is considered due to the combination effect of physical and chemical inhibitions.

  9. Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, V.L.

    1993-12-31

    Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (50--90mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments.

  10. Pretest Round Robin Analysis of 1:4-Scale Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model

    SciTech Connect

    HESSHEIMER,MICHAEL F.; LUK,VINCENT K.; KLAMERUS,ERIC W.; SHIBATA,S.; MITSUGI,S.; COSTELLO,J.F.

    2000-12-18

    The purpose of the program is to investigate the response of representative scale models of nuclear containment to pressure loading beyond the design basis accident and to compare analytical predictions to measured behavior. This objective is accomplished by conducting static, pneumatic overpressurization tests of scale models at ambient temperature. This research program consists of testing two scale models: a steel containment vessel (SCV) model (tested in 1996) and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model, which is the subject of this paper.

  11. USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

    2011-06-03

    Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

  12. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-07-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material.

  13. The measured contribution of whipping and springing on the fatigue and extreme loading of container vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storhaug, Gaute

    2014-12-01

    Whipping/springing research started in the 50'ies. In the 60'ies inland water vessels design rules became stricter due to whipping/springing. The research during the 70-90'ies may be regarded as academic. In 2000 a large ore carrier was strengthened due to severe cracking from North Atlantic operation, and whipping/springing contributed to half of the fatigue damage. Measurement campaigns on blunt and slender vessels were initiated. A few blunt ships were designed to account for whipping/springing. Based on the measurements, the focus shifted from fatigue to extreme loading. In 2005 model tests of a 4,400 TEU container vessel included extreme whipping scenarios. In 2007 the 4400 TEU vessel MSC Napoli broke in two under similar conditions. In 2009 model tests of an 8,600 TEU container vessel container vessel included extreme whipping scenarios. In 2013 the 8,100 TEU vessel MOL COMFORT broke in two under similar conditions. Several classification societies have published voluntary guidelines, which have been used to include whipping/springing in the design of several container vessels. This paper covers results from model tests and full scale measurements used as background for the DNV Legacy guideline. Uncertainties are discussed and recommendations are given in order to obtain useful data. Whipping/springing is no longer academic.

  14. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: the effect of explosive filler, container material and ambient temperature on device fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of different piping material under various conditions is important to predicting the behavior of pipe bombs. In this study, the effect of temperature on pipe bomb containers (i.e., PVC, black steel and galvanized steel) containing low explosive fillers (i.e., Pyrodex and double-base smokeless powder (DBSP)) was investigated. Measurements of fragment velocity and mass were compared for similar devices exploded in the spring (low/high temperature was 8°C/21°C) and winter (low/high temperature range was -9°C/-3°C). The explosions were captured using high speed filmography and fragment velocities were plotted as particle vector velocity maps (PVVM). The time that elapsed between the initiation of the winter devices containing double-base smokeless powder (DBSP) and the failure of their pipe containers ranged from 5.4 to 8.1 ms. The maximum fragment velocities for these devices ranged from 332 to 567 m/s. The steel devices ruptured and exploded more quickly than the PVC device. The steel devices also generated fragments with higher top speeds. Distributions of fragment masses were plotted as histograms and fragment weight distribution maps (FWDM). As expected, steel devices generated fewer, larger fragments than did the PVC devices. Comparison to devices exploded in the spring revealed several pieces of evidence for temperature effects on pipe bombs. For example, the mean fragment velocities for the winter devices were at or above those observed in the spring. The maximum fragment velocity was also higher for the winter steel devices. Although there were no significant differences in mean relative fragment mass, the fragment weight distribution maps (FWDMs) for two winter devices had anomalous slopes, where lower energy filler caused more severe fragmentation than higher energy filler. PMID:24378308

  15. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: the effect of explosive filler, container material and ambient temperature on device fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical properties of different piping material under various conditions is important to predicting the behavior of pipe bombs. In this study, the effect of temperature on pipe bomb containers (i.e., PVC, black steel and galvanized steel) containing low explosive fillers (i.e., Pyrodex and double-base smokeless powder (DBSP)) was investigated. Measurements of fragment velocity and mass were compared for similar devices exploded in the spring (low/high temperature was 8°C/21°C) and winter (low/high temperature range was -9°C/-3°C). The explosions were captured using high speed filmography and fragment velocities were plotted as particle vector velocity maps (PVVM). The time that elapsed between the initiation of the winter devices containing double-base smokeless powder (DBSP) and the failure of their pipe containers ranged from 5.4 to 8.1 ms. The maximum fragment velocities for these devices ranged from 332 to 567 m/s. The steel devices ruptured and exploded more quickly than the PVC device. The steel devices also generated fragments with higher top speeds. Distributions of fragment masses were plotted as histograms and fragment weight distribution maps (FWDM). As expected, steel devices generated fewer, larger fragments than did the PVC devices. Comparison to devices exploded in the spring revealed several pieces of evidence for temperature effects on pipe bombs. For example, the mean fragment velocities for the winter devices were at or above those observed in the spring. The maximum fragment velocity was also higher for the winter steel devices. Although there were no significant differences in mean relative fragment mass, the fragment weight distribution maps (FWDMs) for two winter devices had anomalous slopes, where lower energy filler caused more severe fragmentation than higher energy filler.

  16. 33 CFR 401.72 - Reporting-explosive and hazardous cargo vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fumigation shall declare to the nearest traffic control center the nature of the fumigant, its properties and... cargo vessel carrying metal turnings, shavings, cuttings or borings in bulk shall, when...

  17. Test Results Using a Bell Jar to Measure Containment Vessel Pressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.J.

    2002-05-10

    A bell jar is used to determine containment vessel pressurization due to outgassing of plutonium materials. Fifteen food cans containing plutonium bearing materials, including plutonium packaged in direct contact with plastic and plutonium contaminated enriched oxide have been tested to date.

  18. 49 CFR 176.194 - Stowage of Class 1 (explosive) materials on magazine vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessel must comply with the requirements of 46 CFR part 147. (k) Matches. Safety matches requiring a... requirements for Type A Size II or Type B Size III in 46 CFR part 95, subpart 95.50 are near and accessible to... authorized to be used in the living quarters. Any stove used for heating or cooking must be securely...

  19. 33 CFR 401.72 - Reporting-explosive and hazardous cargo vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information related to cargo as required by § 401.64(a), give the high temperature reading of each compartment at that time, together with the high temperature reading in each compartment taken on completion of... ballast side tanks. (g) If a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on a hazardous cargo that a vessel...

  20. Seismic Source Characterization of Small-Scale Contained Explosions Utilizing Near-Source Empirical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPhail, M. D.; Stump, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE) was a series of nine chemical explosions within a mine in Arizona. Its purpose was to collect seismic waveforms from these explosions for the purposes of resolving the equivalent elastic seismic source model. Ground motion data from the SPE are analyzed in this study to assess the uniqueness of the source representation of these contained explosions as well as the ability to resolve the trade-off between yield and depth when the geology or physical parameters of the source region may have a range of possible values. In this study, the p-wave velocities (Vp) are well constrained but the accompanying s-wave velocities (Vs) are less constrained. In order to assess the effects of source depth of burial (DOB) and Vs model on the seismic moment tensors, Green's functions (Gf) were computed for different DOB as well as different Vs models holding the Vpmodel constant. The Gf for the 16, near-source stations were calculated focusing on observations in the 150-680 m range. The compensated linear vector dipole and explosion components of the new Gf are compared to quantify the possible effects of DOB and Vs on the source representation. Gf with variable DOB and Vs are convolved with the Mueller-Murphy isotropic source function to produce synthetic seismograms at a range of azimuths in order to assess tradeoffs. Noise is added to the synthetics to investigate their impact on the full recovery of the seismic moment tensor. Inversions, with real and synthetic data, are conducted where covariance matrices and condition numbers are formulated to evaluate the effects of station distance and azimuthal coverage on seismic moment tensor recovery. These procedures guide additional analysis of the observational data to quantify the practical resolution of physical phenomenology accompanying these contained explosion sources.

  1. Direct-heating containment vessel interaction code (DHCVIC) and prediction of SNL SURTSEY test DCH-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.

    1986-01-01

    High-pressure melt ejection from pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessels has been identified as a severe core-accident scenario which could potentially lead to early containment failure. Melt ejection, followed by dispersal of the melt by high-velocity steam in the cavity beneath the PWR vessel could, according to this scenario, lead to rapid transfer of energy from the melt droplets to the containment atmosphere. This paper describes DHCVIC, an integrated model of the thermal, chemical, and hydrodynamic interactions which are postulated to take place during high-pressure melt ejection sequences. The model, which characterizes interactions occurring within the reactor cavity, as well as in the containment vessel (or building), is applied to prediction of the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) SURTSEY Test DCH-1 and a (post-test) prediction of that test is made.

  2. Strain analysis of pressure vessels contained pits based on digital image correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wan; Feng, Xiu; Li, Junrui; Shi, Xinfeng; Bai, Tian

    2016-01-01

    This investigation applied the digital image correlation technique (DIC) on a pressure vessel that contained several surface pit defects under high pressure. Data on the deformation of the defects and peripheral area is obtained by this method. The results show that the stress and strain increase with the depth among different pits and are the largest at the bottom of any given pit. This method has proven to be a good choice for this type of experiment, where elastic and plastic surface strains need to be measured. The DIC can satisfy the requirements of being in situ, in real time, full-field and make non-contact measurements with more accurate and obvious experimental results compared with traditional measurement methods and pressure vessel test regulations. Also, it is a new, effective way for monitoring defects in online pressure vessels as well as a reliable basis for pressure vessels' safety evaluation.

  3. The nylon scintillator containment vessels for the Borexino solar neutrino experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Pocar, A.; Shutt, T.

    2014-06-01

    The neutrino event rate in the Borexino scintillator is very low ( 0.5 events per day per ton) and concentrated in an energy region well below the 2.6 MeV threshold of natural radioactivity. The intrinsic radioactive contaminants in the photomultipliers (PMTs), in the Stainless Steel Sphere, and in other detector components, play special requirements on the system required to contain the scintillator. The liquid scintillator must be shielded from the Stainless Steel Sphere and from the PMTs by a thick barrier of buffer fluid. The fluid barrier, in addition, needs to be segmented in order to contain migration of radon and daughters emanated by the Stainless Steel Sphere and by the PMTs. These requirements were met by designing and building two spherical vessel made of thin nylon film. The inner vessel contains the scintillator, separating it from the surrounding buffer. The buffer region itself is divided into two concentric shells by the second, outer nylon vessel. In addition, the two nylon vessels must satisfy stringent requirements for radioactivity and for mechanical, optical and chemical properties. This paper describes the requirements of the the nylon vessels for the Borexino experiment and offers a brief overview of the construction methods adopted to meet those requirements.

  4. Direct heating containment vessel interactions code (DHCVIC) and prediction of SNL ''SURTSEY'' test DCH-1

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.

    1986-01-01

    High-pressure melt ejection from PWR vessels has been identified as a severe core accident scenario which could potentially lead to ''early'' containment failure. Melt ejection, followed by dispersal of the melt by high velocity steam in the cavity beneath the PWR vessel could, according to this scenario, lead to rapid transfer of energy from the melt droplets to the containment atmosphere. This paper describes DHCVIC, an integrated model of the thermal, chemical and hydrodynamic interactions which are postulated to take place during high-pressure melt ejection sequences. The model, which characterizes vessel (or building), is applied to prediction of the Sandia National Laboratory ''SURTSEY'' Test DCH-1 and a (post-test) prediction of that test is made.

  5. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered... transfer of ownership or title, in their capacity as carriers of goods or as instruments of such carriers... to sale or other transfer from ownership in the United States to ownership abroad. If a vessel,...

  6. Effects of explosively venting aerosol-sized particles through earth-containment systems on the cloud-stabilization height

    SciTech Connect

    Dyckes, G.W.

    1980-07-01

    A method of approximating the cloud stabilization height for aerosol-sized particles vented explosively through earth containment systems is presented. The calculated values for stabilization heights are in fair agreement with those obtained experimentally.

  7. Vibration and shock test report for the H1616-1 container and the Savannah River Hydride Transport Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    York, A.R. II; Joseph, B.J.

    1992-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed random vibration and shock tests on a tritium hydride transport vessel that was packaged in an H1616-1 container. The objective of the tests was to determine if the hydride transport vessel remains leaktight under vibration and shock normally incident to transport, which is a requirement that the hydride transport vessel must meet to be shipped in the H1616-1. Helium leak tests before and after the vibration and shock tests showed that the hydride transport vessel remained leaktight under the specified conditions. There were no detrimental effects on the containment vessel of the H1616-1.

  8. Investigative studies into the recovery of DNA from improvised explosive device containers.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Shane G; Stallworth, Shawn E; Foran, David R

    2012-05-01

    Apprehending those who utilize improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a national priority owing to their use both domestically and abroad. IEDs are often concealed in bags, boxes, or backpacks to prevent their detection. Given this, the goal of the research presented was to identify IED handlers through postblast DNA recovery from IED containers. Study participants were asked to use backpacks for 11 days, after which they served as containers for pipe bombs. Eleven postdeflagration backpack regions likely to be handled were swabbed and analyzed via mini-short tandem repeats (miniSTRs) and alleles were called blind. An experimental consensus method was examined in which profiles from all regions were considered, to help identify spurious drop-in/out. Results were correct for all loci, except one that remained ambiguous. The results show that recovering DNA from IED containers is a viable approach for aiding in the identification of those who may have been involved in an IED event.

  9. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Eckels, Joel D.; Nunes, Peter J.

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  10. The effect of friction on simulated containment of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.

    1990-11-01

    The strength of the residual stress field is used as an important indicator in assessing the containment of underground nuclear explosions. Containment analysis using the COTTAGE geology shows considerable cracking in the hard Paleozoic layer, just below the cavity. The coefficient of friction is the ratio of total shear stress applied to a closed fracture surface to normal applied compressive total stress. Without any friction, the Paleozoic residual stress field is weakest. As the friction coefficient is increased from 0 to 0.5, the Paleozoic residual stress field is strengthened. A further increase of the friction coefficient from 0.5 to 0.8 shows strengthened where cracks are closed and weakening where cracks remain open. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. USING A CONTAINMENT VESSEL LIFTING APPARATUS FOR REMOTE OPERATIONS OF SHIPPING PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, Bradley; Koenig, Richard

    2013-08-08

    The 9977 and the 9975 shipping packages are used in various nuclear facilities within the Department of Energy. These shipping packages are often loaded in designated areas with designs using overhead cranes or A-frames with lifting winches. However, there are cases where loading operations must be performed in remote locations where these facility infrastructures do not exist. For these locations, a lifting apparatus has been designed to lift the containment vessels partially out of the package for unloading operations to take place. Additionally, the apparatus allows for loading and closure of the containment vessel and subsequent pre-shipment testing. This paper will address the design of the apparatus and the challenges associated with the design, and it will describe the use of the apparatus.

  12. Analysis of the ANL Test Method for 6CVS Containment Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Trapp, D.; Crow, G.

    2011-06-06

    In the fall of 2010, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contracted with vendors to design and build 6CVS containment vessels as part of their effort to ship Fuel Derived Mixed Fission Product material. The 6CVS design is based on the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) design for 9975 and 9977 six inch diameter containment vessels. The main difference between the designs is that the 6CVS credits the inner O-ring seal as the containment boundary while the SRNL design credits the outer O-ring seal. Since the leak test must be done with the inner O-ring in place, the containment vessel does not have a pathway for getting the helium into the vessel during the leak test. The leak testing contractor was not able to get acceptable leak rates with the specified O-ring, but they were able to pass the leak test with a slightly larger O-ring. ANL asked the SRNL to duplicate the leak test vendor's method to determine the cause of the high leak rates. The SRNL testing showed that the helium leak indications were caused by residual helium left within the 6CVS Closure Assembly by the leak test technique, and by helium permeation through the Viton O-ring seals. After SRNL completed their tests, the leak testing contractor was able to measure acceptable leak rates by using the slightly larger O-ring size, by purging helium from the lid threads, and by being very quick in getting the bell jar under a full vacuum. This paper describes the leak test vendor's test technique, and other techniques that could be have been used to successfully leak test the 6CVS's.

  13. DESIGN OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR SHIPMENT OF TRITIUM GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, K; Paul Blanton, P

    2007-07-03

    This paper presents a design summary of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This new package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The new design is based on changes in the regulatory requirements. The BTSP design incorporates many improvements over its predecessor by implementing improved testing, handling, and maintenance capabilities, while improving manufacturability and incorporating new engineered materials that enhance the package's ability to withstand dynamic loading and thermal effects. This paper will specifically summarize the design philosophy and engineered features of the BTSP containment vessel closure. The closure design incorporates a concave closure lid, metallic C-Ring seals for containing tritium gas, a metal bellows valve and an elastomer O-Ring for leak testing. The efficient design minimizes the overall vessel height and protects the valve housing from damage during postulated drop and crush scenarios. Design features will be discussed.

  14. In-use gaseous and particulate matter emissions from a modern ocean going container vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Harshit; Malloy, Quentin G. J.; Welch, William A.; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    Ocean going vessels are one of the largest uncontrolled sources of pollutants and the emissions data from these sources are scarce. This paper provides the emission measurements of gases, particulate matter (PM), metals, ions, elemental and organic carbon, conducted from the main engine of an ocean going PanaMax class container vessel, at certification cycle and at vessel speed reduction mode, during actual operation at sea. The weighted emission factor (g kW -1 h -1) of PM and NO x were 1.64 and 18.2, respectively, for the main engine operating on a 2.05 wt% sulfur heavy fuel oil (HFO). The NO x emissions at the vessel speed reduction mode (8% of full load) are 30% higher than at 52% engine power, the normal cruise speed. The composition of PM, from main engine is dominated by sulfate and water bound with sulfate (about 80% of total PM) and organic carbon constitutes about 15% of the PM. Sulfur, vanadium and nickel are the significant elements in the exhaust from the engine running on the HFO. At the point of sampling 3.7-5.0% of the fuel sulfur was converted to sulfate.

  15. Experimental and numerical correlation of a scaled containment vessel subjected to an internal blast load

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, C.; Benner, J.C.; Berkbigler, L.W.

    1997-02-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently in the design phase of a large Containment System that will be used to contain hydrodynamic experiments. The system in question is being designed to elastically withstand a 50 kg internal high explosive (PBX-9501) detonation. A one-tenth scaled model of the containment system was fabricated and used to obtain experimental results of both pressure loading and strain response. The experimental data are compared with numerical predictions of pressure loading and strain response obtained from an Eulerian hydrodynamic code (MESA-2D) and an explicit, non-linear finite element code (LLNL DYNA3D). The two-dimensional pressure predictions from multiple hydrodynamic simulations are used as loading in the structural simulation. The predicted pressure histories and strain response compare well with experimental results at several locations.

  16. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties ofmore » steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.« less

  17. Spatially offset hyperspectral stand-off Raman imaging for explosive detection inside containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachhuber, Bernhard; Östmark, Henric; Carlsson, Torgny

    2014-05-01

    A stand-off Raman imaging system for the identification of explosive traces was modified for the analysis of substances in containers which are non-transparent to the human eye. This extends its application from trace detection of threat materials to the investigation of suspicious container content. Despite its limitation to containers that are opaque to the facilitated laser, the combination of Spatial Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) with stand-off Raman imaging allows to collect spectral data from a broad range of different spatial offsets simultaneously. This is a significant advantage over SORS with predefined offset, since the ideal offset is unknown prior to the measurement and depends on the container material as well as the sample content. Here the detection of sodium chlorate in a white plastic bottle is shown. A 532nm-laser (pulse length 5ns, repetition 50kHz) was focused to a diameter of 10mm at 10m. A 1500mm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope with a 152.4mm diameter collected the scattered light. An edge filter removed inelastically scattered laser light and a liquid crystal tunable filter was used to select 0.25nm broad wavelength ranges between 480 and 720nm. The sample area of 50×50mm was imaged on 1024×1024 pixels of an ICCD camera. For the conducted experiments an ICCD gate time of 5ns was selected and 70μJ-laser pulses were accumulated during 1s for each wavelength.

  18. CONTAINMENT VESSEL TEMPERATURE FOR PU-238 HEAT SOURCE CONTAINER UNDER AMBIENT, FREE CONVECTION AND LOW EMISSIVITY COOLING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.; Smith, A.

    2011-02-14

    The EP-61 primary containment vessel of the 5320 shipping package has been used for storage and transportation of Pu-238 plutonium oxide heat source material. For storage, the material in its convenience canister called EP-60 is placed in the EP-61 and sealed by two threaded caps with elastomer O-ring seals. When the package is shipped, the outer cap is seal welded to the body. While stored, the EP-61s are placed in a cooling water bath. In preparation for welding, several containers are removed from storage and staged to the welding booth. The significant heat generation of the contents, and resulting rapid rise in component temperature necessitates special handling practices. The test described here was performed to determine the temperature rise with time and peak temperature attained for an EP-61 with 203 watts of internal heat generation, upon its removal from the cooling water bath.

  19. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  20. Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D.; Rainwater, K.A.; Lightfoot, J.M.; Richardson, B.R.

    1998-09-01

    There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

  1. DHCVIM - a direct heating containment vessel interactions module: applications to Sandia National Laboratories Surtsey experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Direct containment heating is the mechanism of severe nuclear reactor accident containment loading that results from transfer of thermal and chemical energy from high-temperature, finely divided, molten core material to the containment atmosphere. The direct heating containment vessel interactions module (DHCVIM) has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory to model the mechanisms of containment loading resulting from the direct heating accident sequence. The calculational procedure is being used at present to model the Sandia National Laboratories one-tenth-scale Surtsey direct containment heating experiments. The objective of the code is to provide a test bed for detailed modeling of various aspects of the thermal, chemical, and hydrodynamic interactions that are expected to occur in three regions of a containment building: reactor cavity, intermediate subcompartments, and containment dome. Major emphasis is placed on the description of reactor cavity dynamics. This paper summarizes the modeling principles that are incorporated in DHCVIM and presents a prediction of the Surtsey Test DCH-2 that was made prior to execution of the experiment.

  2. DHCVIM: A direct heating containment vessel interactions module: Applications to Sandia National Laboratory Surtsey experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, T.; Tutu, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    Direct containment heating is the mechanism of severe nuclear reactor accident containment loading which results from transfer of thermal and chemical energy from high temperature, finely divided, molten core material to the containment atmosphere. The Direct Heating Containment Vessel Interactions Module, DHCVIM, has been developed at BNL to mechanistically model the mechanisms of containment loading resulting from the direct heating accident sequence. The calculational procedure is being used at present to model the Sandia National Laboratory 1/10th-scale Surtsey direct containment heating experiments. The objective of the code is to provide a test bed for detailed modeling of various aspects of the thermal, chemical and hydrodynamic interactions which are expected to occur in three regions of a containment building: reactor cavity, intermediate subcompartments and containment done. Major emphasis is placed, at present, on the description of reactor cavity dynamics. This paper summarizes the modeling principles which are incorporated in DHCVIM and presents a prediction of the Surtsey Test DCH-2 which was made prior to execution of the experiment.

  3. Headspace concentrations of explosive vapors in containers designed for canine testing and training: theory, experiment, and canine trials.

    PubMed

    Lotspeich, Erica; Kitts, Kelley; Goodpaster, John

    2012-07-10

    It is a common misconception that the amount of explosive is the chief contributor to the quantity of vapor that is available to trained canines. In fact, this quantity (known as odor availability) depends not only on the amount of explosive material, but also the container volume, explosive vapor pressure and temperature. In order to better understand odor availability, headspace experiments were conducted and the results were compared to theory. The vapor-phase concentrations of three liquid explosives (nitromethane, nitroethane and nitropropane) were predicted using the Ideal Gas Law for containers of various volumes that are in use for canine testing. These predictions were verified through experiments that varied the amount of sample, the container size, and the temperature. These results demonstrated that the amount of sample that is needed to saturate different sized containers is small, predictable and agrees well with theory. In general, and as expected, once the headspace of a container is saturated, any subsequent increase in sample volume will not result in the release of more vapors. The ability of canines to recognize and alert to differing amounts of nitromethane has also been studied. In particular, it was found that the response of trained canines is independent of the amount of nitromethane present, provided it is a sufficient quantity to saturate the container in which it is held. PMID:22421324

  4. Measurement of convectional heat transfer coefficients in a primary containment vessel with outer pool

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Toru; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Hatamiya, Shigeo

    1990-01-01

    New concepts with passive safety systems that use no active compounds, such as pumps, have been recently developed for next-generation nuclear power plants. In these concepts, several ideas and their combination of passive components were adopted for emergency core cooling and residual heat removal systems. For the residual heat removal system, utilization of natural circulation heat transfer in water pools was proposed as a passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which removes decay heat from the primary containment vessel (PCV) during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). This system consists of a suppression pool (S/P) and an outer pool (O/P), which are set adjacently inside and outside of the steel PCV wall. The core decay heat during LOCA is released through a break as steam and is led into the S/P. The injected steam condenses there, resulting a pool temperature rise. The adsorbed heat in the S/P is transferred to the O/P by convection in both pools and thermal conduction through the steel PCV wall. The heat transferred to the O/P is finally released to the atmosphere by vaporization of the O/P water. Estimation of the convectional heat transfer coefficients in both pools is necessary to predict the heat removal capability in this system precisely. The heat transfer coefficients measured in this study are useful for the design of the next-generation nuclear reactor as the fundamental thermal-hydraulic data in the primary containment vessel with the outer pool.

  5. Temperature and pressure influence on maximum rates of pressure rise during explosions of propane-air mixtures in a spherical vessel.

    PubMed

    Razus, D; Brinzea, V; Mitu, M; Movileanu, C; Oancea, D

    2011-06-15

    The maximum rates of pressure rise during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures are reported, for systems with various initial concentrations, pressures and temperatures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.3 bar; T(0)=298-423 K). Experiments were performed in a spherical vessel (Φ=10 cm) with central ignition. The deflagration (severity) index K(G), calculated from experimental values of maximum rates of pressure rise is examined against the adiabatic deflagration index, K(G, ad), computed from normal burning velocities and peak explosion pressures. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, both the maximum rates of pressure rise and the deflagration indices are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, the maximum rates of pressure rise and deflagration indices are slightly influenced by the initial temperature; some influence of the initial temperature on maximum rates of pressure rise is observed only for propane-air mixtures far from stoichiometric composition. The differentiated temperature influence on the normal burning velocities and the peak explosion pressures might explain this behaviour. PMID:21514044

  6. Temperature and pressure influence on maximum rates of pressure rise during explosions of propane-air mixtures in a spherical vessel.

    PubMed

    Razus, D; Brinzea, V; Mitu, M; Movileanu, C; Oancea, D

    2011-06-15

    The maximum rates of pressure rise during closed vessel explosions of propane-air mixtures are reported, for systems with various initial concentrations, pressures and temperatures ([C(3)H(8)]=2.50-6.20 vol.%, p(0)=0.3-1.3 bar; T(0)=298-423 K). Experiments were performed in a spherical vessel (Φ=10 cm) with central ignition. The deflagration (severity) index K(G), calculated from experimental values of maximum rates of pressure rise is examined against the adiabatic deflagration index, K(G, ad), computed from normal burning velocities and peak explosion pressures. At constant temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio, both the maximum rates of pressure rise and the deflagration indices are linear functions of total initial pressure, as reported for other fuel-air mixtures. At constant initial pressure and composition, the maximum rates of pressure rise and deflagration indices are slightly influenced by the initial temperature; some influence of the initial temperature on maximum rates of pressure rise is observed only for propane-air mixtures far from stoichiometric composition. The differentiated temperature influence on the normal burning velocities and the peak explosion pressures might explain this behaviour.

  7. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, J.

    1992-12-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continuous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell. 6 figs.

  8. Dye laser amplifier including a dye cell contained within a support vessel

    DOEpatents

    Davin, James

    1992-01-01

    A large (high flow rate) dye laser amplifier in which a continous replenished supply of dye is excited by a first light beam, specifically a copper vapor laser beam, in order to amplify the intensity of a second different light beam, specifically a dye beam, passing through the dye is disclosed herein. This amplifier includes a dye cell defining a dye chamber through which a continuous stream of dye is caused to pass at a flow rate of greater than 30 gallons/minute at a static pressure greater than 150 pounds/square inch and a specifically designed support vessel for containing the dye cell.

  9. EVALUATION OF TROQUE VS CLOSURE BOLT PRELOAD FOR A TYPICAL CONTAINMENT VESSEL UNDER SERVICE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.

    2010-02-16

    Radioactive material package containment vessels typically employ bolted closures of various configurations. Closure bolts must retain the lid of a package and must maintain required seal loads, while subjected to internal pressure, impact loads and vibration. The need for insuring that the specified preload is achieved in closure bolts for radioactive materials packagings has been a continual subject of concern for both designers and regulatory reviewers. The extensive literature on threaded fasteners provides sound guidance on design and torque specification for closure bolts. The literature also shows the uncertainty associated with use of torque to establish preload is typically between 10 and 35%. These studies have been performed under controlled, laboratory conditions. The ability to insure required preload in normal service is, consequently, an important question. The study described here investigated the relationship between indicated torque and resulting bolt load for a typical radioactive materials package closure using methods available under normal service conditions.

  10. Perturbation of baseline thermal stress in the Mound 9516 Shipping Package primary containment vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansalone, Keith H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Full-capacity loading of heat sources into the Mound 9516 Shipping Package primary containment vessel (PCV) results in temperature gradients which are symmetric, due to the axisymmetry of the package design. Concern over the change in thermal gradients (and therefore, stress) in the PCV due to sub-capacity loading led to the analytical examination of this phenomenon. The PCVs are cylindrical in shape and are loaded into the package such that they and all containment components are concentrically arranged along a common longitudinal axis. If the design full-capacity loading of the PCVs in this package assumes the axisymmetric (or more precisely, cyclicly symmetric) arrangement of its heat-producing contents, then sub-capacity loading implies that in many cases, the load arrangement could be asymmetric with respect to the longitudinal axis. It is then feasible that the departure from heat load axisymmetry could perturb the nominal thermal gradients so that thermally-induced stress within the PCV might increase to levels deemed unacceptable. This study applies Finite Element analysis (FEA) to the problem and demonstrates that no such unacceptable thermal stress increase occurs in the PCV material due to the asymmetric arrangement of contents.

  11. Perturbation of baseline thermal stress in the Mound 9516 Shipping Package primary containment vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Sansalone, K.H.F.

    1995-01-20

    Full-capacity loading of heat sources into the Mound 9516 Shipping Package primary containment vessel (PCV) results in temperature gradients which are symmetric, due to the axisymmetry of the package design. Concern over the change in thermal gradients (and therefore, stress) in the PCV due to sub-capacity loading led to the analytical examination of this phenomenon. The PCVs are cylindrical in shape and are loaded into the package such that they and all containment components are concentrically arranged along a common longitudinal axis. If the design full-capacity loading of the PCVs in this package assumes the axisymmetric (or more precisely, cyclicly symmetric) arrangement of its heat-producing contents, then sub-capacity loading implies that in many cases, the load arrangement could be asymmetric with respect to the longitudinal axis. It is then feasible that the departure from heat load axisymmetry could perturb the nominal thermal gradients so that thermally-induced stress within the PCV might increase to levels deemed unacceptable. This study applies Finite Element analysis (FEA) to the problem and demonstrates that no such unacceptable thermal stress increase occurs in the PCV material due to the asymmetric arrangement of contents. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  12. Lessons Learned Following the Successful Decommissioning of a Reaction Vessel Containing Lime Sludge and Technetium-99

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, P. M.; Watson, D. D.; Hylko, J. M.

    2002-02-25

    This paper documents how WESKEM, LLC utilized available source term information, integrated safety management, and associated project controls to safely decommission a reaction vessel and repackage sludge containing various Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The decommissioning activities were segmented into five separate stages, allowing the project team to control work related decisions based on their knowledge, experience, expertise, and field observations. The information and experience gained from each previous stage and rehearsals contributed to modifying subsequent entries, further emphasizing the importance of developing hold points and incorporating lessons learned. The hold points and lessons learned, such as performing detailed personal protective equipment (PPE) inspections during sizing and repackaging operations, and using foam-type piping insulation to prevent workers from cutting or puncturing their PPE on sharp edge s or small shards generated during sizing operations, minimized direct contact with the Tc-99. To prevent the spread of contamination, the decommissioning activities were performed inside a containment enclosure connected to negative air machines. After performing over 235 individual entries totaling over 285 project hours, only one first aid was recorded during this five-stage project.

  13. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOEpatents

    Tschritter, Kenneth L.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Stofleth, Jerome H.; DiBerardo, Raymond A.

    2005-04-19

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  14. A guide for the ASME code for austenitic stainless steel containment vessels for high-level radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.

    1995-06-01

    The design and fabrication criteria recommended by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for high-level radioactive materials containment vessels used in packaging is found in Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This Code provides material, design, fabrication, examination, and testing specifications for nuclear power plant components. However, many of the requirements listed in the Code are not applicable to containment vessels made from austenitic stainless steel with austenitic or ferritic steel bolting. Most packaging designers, engineers, and fabricators are intimidated by the sheer volume of requirements contained in the Code; consequently, the Code is not always followed and many requirements that do apply are often overlooked during preparation of the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that constitutes the basis to evaluate the packaging for certification.

  15. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides Part I. Relative performance and detonation of mixtures with triacetone triperoxide.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Trzciński, Waldemar A; Matyás, Robert

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E0, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m(-3). Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of "tertiary explosives" as well as samples that approach "high explosives" in their performances and detonation velocities.

  16. HALFTON: A high-explosive containment experiment in partially saturated tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    The HALFTON experiment explored the phenomena of high explosive detonations in 90% water-saturated tuff rock. The explosive source was a 453 kg TNT sphere which was grouted in a drift in G Tunnel, Nevada Test Site. Active gages measured stresses and motions in the range of 1.3 to 5.3 cavity radii and showed a peak stress decay as range raised to the {minus}2.77 power. Additional stress gages were fielded to investigate the gage inclusion problem.

  17. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL SHIPPING PACKAGINGS AND METAL TO METAL SEALS FOUND IN THE CLOSURES OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS INCORPORATING CONE SEAL CLOSURES

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G; Allen Smith, A

    2007-06-06

    The containment vessels for the Model 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging employ a cone-seal closure. The possibility of a metal-to-metal seal forming between the mating conical surfaces, independent of the elastomer seals, has been raised. It was postulated that such an occurrence would compromise the containment vessel hydrostatic and leakage tests. The possibility of formation of such a seal has been investigated by testing and by structural and statistical analyses. The results of the testing and the statistical analysis demonstrate and procedural changes ensure that hydrostatic proof and annual leakage testing can be accomplished to the appropriate standards.

  18. Composting of soils/sediments and sludges containing toxic organics including high energy explosives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, R.C.; Kitchens, J.F.

    1993-07-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale experimentation were conducted to evaluate composting as an on-site treatment technology to remediate soils contaminated with hazardous waste at DOE`s PANTEX Plant. Suspected contaminated sites within the PANTEX Plant were sampled and analyzed for explosives, other organics, and inorganic wastes. Soils in drainage ditches and playas at PANTEX Plant were found to be contaminated with low levels of explosives (including RDX, HMX, PETN and TATB). Additional sites previously used for solvent disposal were heavily contaminated with solvents and transformation products of the solvent, as well as explosives and by-products of explosives. Laboratory studies were conducted using {sup 14}C-labeled explosives and {sup 14}C-labeled diacetone alcohol contaminated soil loaded into horse manure/hay composts at three rates: 20, 30, and 40%(W/W). The composts were incubated for six weeks at approximately 60{degree}C with continuous aeration. All explosives degraded rapidly and were reduced to below detection limits within 3 weeks in the laboratory studies. {sup 14}C-degradates from {sup 14}C-RDX, {sup 14}C-HMX and {sup 14}C-TATB were largely limited to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and unextracted residue in the compost. Volatile and non-volatile {sup 14}C-degradates were found to result from {sup 14}C-PETN breakdown, but these compounds were not identified. {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol concentrations were significantly reduced during composting. However, most of the radioactivity was volatilized from the compost as non-{sup 14}CO{sub 2} degradates or as {sup 14}C-diacetone alcohol. Pilot scale composts loaded with explosives contaminated soil at 30% (W/W) with intermittent aeration were monitored over six weeks. Data from the pilot-scale study generally was in agreement with the laboratory studies. However, the {sup 14}C-labeled TATB degraded much faster than the unlabeled TATB. Some formulations of TATB may be more resistant to composting activity than others.

  19. Analytical Prediction of the Seismic Response of a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.J.; Rashid, Y.R.; Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.; Tsurumaki, S.

    1999-03-19

    Under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) is investigating the seismic behavior of a Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) through scale-model testing using the high-performance shaking table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory. A series of tests representing design-level seismic ground motions was initially conducted to gather valuable experimental measurements for use in design verification. Additional tests will be conducted with increasing amplifications of the seismic input until a structural failure of the test model occurs. In a cooperative program with NUPEC, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), through Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), is conducting analytical research on the seismic behavior of RCCV structures. As part of this program, pretest analytical predictions of the model tests are being performed. The dynamic time-history analysis utilizes a highly detailed concrete constitutive model applied to a three-dimensional finite element representation of the test structure. This paper describes the details of the analysis model and provides analysis results.

  20. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: measuring the mass and velocity distributions of container fragments.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices such as pipe bombs are prevalent due to the availability of materials and ease of construction. However, little is known about how these devices actually explode, as few attempts to characterize fragmentation patterns have been attempted. In this study, seven devices composed of various pipe materials (PVC, black steel, and galvanized steel) and two energetic fillers (Pyrodex and Alliant Red Dot) were initiated and the explosions captured using high-speed videography. The video footage was used to calculate fragment velocities, which were represented as particle velocity vector maps. In addition, the fragments were weighed. The results demonstrate a correlation between the type of energetic filler and both the size and velocity of the fragments. Larger fragments were produced by Pyrodex filler indicating a less complete fragmentation, compared with smaller fragments produced by double-base smokeless powder. Additionally, higher fragment velocities were seen with Alliant Red Dot filler.

  1. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: measuring the mass and velocity distributions of container fragments.

    PubMed

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John

    2014-01-01

    Improvised explosive devices such as pipe bombs are prevalent due to the availability of materials and ease of construction. However, little is known about how these devices actually explode, as few attempts to characterize fragmentation patterns have been attempted. In this study, seven devices composed of various pipe materials (PVC, black steel, and galvanized steel) and two energetic fillers (Pyrodex and Alliant Red Dot) were initiated and the explosions captured using high-speed videography. The video footage was used to calculate fragment velocities, which were represented as particle velocity vector maps. In addition, the fragments were weighed. The results demonstrate a correlation between the type of energetic filler and both the size and velocity of the fragments. Larger fragments were produced by Pyrodex filler indicating a less complete fragmentation, compared with smaller fragments produced by double-base smokeless powder. Additionally, higher fragment velocities were seen with Alliant Red Dot filler. PMID:24147889

  2. Predicting runaway reaction in a solid explosive containing a single crack

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G

    2009-01-01

    Mechanically damaged high explosive (HE) undergoing defiagration has recently been shown capable of generating combustion pressures and flame speeds dramatically in excess of those observed in undamaged HE. Flame penetration of HE cracks large enough to support the reaction zone serves to increase the burning surface area and the rate of gas production. Cracks confine the product gas, elevating the local pressure and reducing the reaction zone thickness such that the flame can enter smaller-width cracks. As the reaction zone decreases sufficiently to enter the smallest cracks, the flame surface area will grow appreciably, rapidly pressurizing the cracks. This runaway of pressure and burning area, termed combustion bootstrapping, can dramatically accelerate the combustion mode and in the most extreme cases may result in deflagration-to-detonation transition [3, 4]. The current study is intended to help predict the conditions required for the onset of reaction runaway in a narrow slot in HE. We review experiments [5] where flames were observed to propagate though a narrow slot (intended to simulate a well-formed crack) in high explosive at velocities up to 10 km/s, reaching pressures in excess of 1 kbar. Pressurization of the slot due to gas-dynamic choking is then used to predict the onset of runaway reaction. This model agrees with experimental pressure measurements of observed reaction runaway in slots.

  3. Dissolution of a new explosive formulation containing TNT and HMX: comparison with octol.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Deschamps, Stéphane; Ampleman, Guy; Thiboutot, Sonia; Hawari, Jalal

    2010-02-15

    GIM (Greener Insensitive Material) is a new explosive formulation made of HMX (51.5%), TNT (40.7%), and a binder, ETPE (7.8%), which is currently investigated by the Canadian Department of National Defense for a wider use by the Army. In the present study, dissolution of GIM in water was measured and compared to the dissolution of octol (HMX/TNT: 70/30). Although the presence of ETPE did not prevent completely TNT and HMX from dissolving, GIM appeared to dissolve more slowly than octol. The ETPE was shown to prevent the formulation particles from collapsing and to retard the dissolution of both TNT and HMX by limiting their exposure to water. In both octol and GIM, the dissolution rate of the particles was governed by the compound(s) that are slower to dissolve, i.e. HMX in octol, and HMX and ETPE in GIM. A model based on Fick's diffusion law allowed fitting well the dissolution data of octol but was less appropriate to fit the data of GIM likely due to a physical rearrangement of the solid upon dissolution. The present findings demonstrate that ETPE in GIM decreases the risks of explosives leakage from particles of the new formulation and should facilitate the collecting of non-exploded GIM particles in training sites.

  4. Measurement of the flow properties within a copper tube containing a deflagrating explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Larry G; Morris, John S; Jackson, Scott I

    2009-01-01

    We report on the propagation of deflagration waves in the high explosive (HE) PBX 9501 (95 wt % HMX, 5 wt% binder). Our test configuration, which we call the def1agration cylinder test (DFCT), is fashioned after the detonation cylinder test (DTCT) that is used to calibrate the JWL detonation product equation of state (EOS). In the DFCT, the HE is heated to a uniform slightly subcritical temperature, and is ignited at one end by a hot wire. For some configurations and initial conditions, we observe a quasi-steady wave that flares the tube into a funnel shape, stretching it to the point of rupture. This behavior is qualitatively like the DTCT, such that, by invoking certain additional approximations that we discuss, its behavior can be analyzed by the same methods. We employ an analysis proposed by G.I. Taylor to infer the pressure-volume curve for the burning, expanding flow. By comparing this result to the EOS of HMX product gas alone. we infer that only {approx}20 wt% of the HMX has burned at tube rupture. This result confirms pre-existing observations about the role of convective burning in HMX cookoff explosions.

  5. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE STABILITY OF VESSEL-SPANNING BUBBLES IN CYLINDRICAL & ANNULAR & OBROUND & AND CONICAL CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    DHALIWAL TK

    2010-01-28

    This report provides a summary of experiments that were performed by Fauske & Associates on the stability of vessel-spanning bubbles. The report by Fauske & Associates, An Experimental Study of the Stability of Vessel-Spanning Bubbles in Cylindrical, Annular, Obround and Conical Containers, is included in Appendix A. Results from the experiments confirm that the gravity yield parameter, Y{sub G}, correctly includes container size and can be applied to full-scale containers to predict the possibility of the formation of a stable vessel spanning bubble. The results also indicate that a vessel spanning bubble will likely form inside the STSC for KE, KW, and Settler sludges if the shear strengths of these sludges exceed 1820, 2080, and 2120 Pa, respectively. A passive mechanism installed in the STSC is effective at disrupting a rising sludge plug and preventing the sludge from plugging the vent filter or being forced out of the container. The Sludge Treatment Project for Engineered Container and Settler Sludge (EC/ST) Disposition Subproject is being conducted in two phases. Phase 1 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the radioactive sludge currently stored in the K West (KW) Basin into Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) and transport the STSCs to T-Plant for interim storage. Phase 2 of the EC/ST Disposition Subproject will retrieve the sludge from interim storage, treat and package sludge for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The STSC is a cylindrical container; similar to previously used large diameter containers. A STSC (Figure 1) with a diameter of 58 inches will be used to transport KE and KW originating sludge (located in Engineered Containers 210, 220, 240, 250, and 260) to T-Plant. A STSC with an annulus (Figure 2) will be used to transport Settler Tank sludge, located in Engineered Container 230. An obround small canister design was previously considered to retrieve sludge from the basin. The obround design was selected in

  6. A flag-based algorithm and associated neutron interrogation system for the detection of explosives in sea-land cargo containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, A. L.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    Recent efforts in the simulation of sea-land cargo containers in active neutron interrogation scenarios resulted in the identification of several flags indicating the presence of conventional explosives. These flags, defined by specific mathematical manipulations of the neutron and photon spectra, have been combined into a detection algorithm for screening cargo containers at international borders and seaports. The detection algorithm's steps include classifying the cargo type, identifying containers filled with explosives, triggering in the presence of concealed explosives, and minimizing the number of false positives due to cargo heterogeneity. The algorithm has been implemented in a system that includes both neutron and photon detectors. This system will take about 10 min to scan a container and cost approximately 1M to construct. Dose calculations resulted in estimates of less than 0.5 mSv for a person hidden in the container, and an operator annual dose of less than 0.9 mSv.

  7. Proceedings of the seventh symposium on containment of underground nuclear explosions. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-12-31

    This is Volume 1 of two unclassified volumes of a meeting of workers at all levels in the science and technology of containment. Papers on containment and related geological, geophysical, engineering, chemical, and computational topics were included. Particular topics included in this volume are: General containment,tunnel and LOS topics, cavity conditions, and LYNER and chemical kiloton. Individual papers are indexed separately on the data base.

  8. Chemical and explosives point detection through opaque containers using spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffen, Paul W.; Maskall, Guy; Bonthron, Stuart; Bloomfield, Matthew; Tombling, Craig; Matousek, Pavel

    2011-05-01

    Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a novel technique used to identify the chemical Raman signature of threat materials within a few seconds through common non-metallic containers, including those containers which may not yield to inspection by conventional backscatter Raman. In particular, some opaque plastic containers and coloured glass bottles can be difficult to analyze using conventional backscatter Raman because the signal from the contents is often overwhelmed by the much stronger Raman signal and/or fluorescence originating from the container itself. SORS overcomes these difficulties and generates clean Raman spectra from both the container and the contents with no prior knowledge of either. This is achieved by making two, or more, Raman measurements at various offsets between the collection and illumination areas, each containing different proportions of the fingerprint signals from the container and content materials. Using scaled subtraction, or multivariate statistical methods, the two orthogonal signals can be separated numerically, thereby providing a clean Raman spectrum of the contents without contamination from the container. Consequently, SORS promises to significantly improve threat detection capability and decrease the falsealarm rate compared with conventional Raman spectroscopy making it considerably more suitable as an alarm resolution methodology (e.g. at airports). In this paper, the technique and method are described and a study of offset value optimization is described illustrating the difference between one and two fixed spatial offsets. It is concluded that two fixed offsets yield an improvement in the SORS measurement which will help maximize the threat detection capability.

  9. Macrokinetics of the Energy Release in High Explosives Containing Nano-Size Boron Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, Alexander; Kanel, Gennady; Bogach, Andrey; Razorenov, Sergey

    1999-06-01

    The detonation of high explosives with the metal additives is accompanied with several exothermic and endothermic processes of the energy release and the mechanical and thermal relaxation. In the paper, results of measurements of the pressure and the particle velocity profiles in shock and detonation waves are presented for a pure coarse-grain and a fine-grain HMX and for the fine-grain HMX + 16.4% boron mixture. For these measurements, the manganin pressure gauges and the laser Doppler velocimeter VISAR were applied. Using computer simulations of the phenomena, the equation of state and macrokinetics of the HE decomposition in the shock and detonation waves have been evaluated. Effects of boron in the energy release process were observed both in the detonation and the shock-wave initiation regimes. In general, the boron gives a negative effect on the detonation parameters. It seems, the initial decomposition rate and the detonation parameters in the mixture are controlled by a heat exchange rather than by a chemical interaction between the HE decomposition products and the boron particles. The additional energy of the boron burn in the detonation products is released at later times ranging from 0.1-0.2 mks to 1-2 mks.

  10. Proceedings of the seventh symposium on containment of underground nuclear explosions. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1993-12-31

    This is Volume 2 of two unclassified volumes of a meeting of workers at all levels in the science and technology of containment. Papers on containment and related geological, geophysical, engineering, chemical, and computational topics were included. Particular topics in this volume include: Low-yield test beds, modeling and residual stress, material properties, collapse phenomena and shock diagnostics, stemming practices and performance, geophysics, and geosciences and weapons destruction. Individual papers are indexed separately on the data base.

  11. Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuyan, G.S.; Sperling, E.J.; Shen, G.; Yin, H.; Rana, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach; The welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

  12. Prediction of failure behavior of a welded pressure vessel containing flaws during a hydrogen-charged burst test

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuyan, G.S.; Sperling, E.J.; Shen, G.; Yin, H.; Rana, M.D.

    1999-08-01

    An industry-government collaborative program was carried out with an aim to promoting the acceptance of fracture mechanics-based fitness-for-service assessment methodology for a service-damaged pressure vessel. A collaborative round robin exercise was carried out to predict the fracture behavior of a vessel containing hydrogen damage, fabrication-related lack-of-fusion defects, an artificially induced fatigue crack, and a localized thinned area. The fracture assessment procedures used include the US ASME Material Property Council`s PREFIS Program based on the British Standard (BS) Published Document (PD) 6493, ASME Section XI and The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) R6 approach, The Welding Institute (TWI) CRACKWISE program (based on BS PD6493 Level 2 approach), a variant of the R6 approach, J-tearing instability approaches, various J-estimation schemes, LEFM approach, and simplified stress analysis. Assessments were compared with the results obtained from a hydrogen-charged burst test of the vessel. Predictions, based on the J-tearing approach, compared well with the actual burst test results. Actual burst pressure was about five times the operating pressure.

  13. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  14. 15 CFR 30.26 - Reporting of vessels, aircraft, cargo vans, and other carriers and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar shipping containers are not considered..., aircraft, rail cars, trucks, other vehicles, trailers, pallets, cargo vans, lift vans, or similar...

  15. Determining explosivity part II: comparison of small-scale cartridge tests to actual pipe bombs.

    PubMed

    Oxley, J C; Smith, J L; Resende, E

    2001-09-01

    The small-scale explosivity device (SSED) has been used to assess the explosive power of a number of low explosives-smokeless powders (WC-870, Red Dot, Bullseye, Winchester Action Pistol, and IMR-PB), Pyrodex, black powder, and an improvised explosive (TATP). The device requires 2 g of energetic material, a heavy-walled containment vessel, and a standard blast shield to permit use in most laboratories. The data from the SSED are compared with the fragmentation of pipe bombs which contained 300 to 700 g of powder. The SSED provided the same relative ordering of explosivity as suggested by the fragmentation of the real devices. In addition, the SSED was used to evaluate the chemical residue remaining after an explosion. Issues in using the device such as optimal detonators and restricted reaction volume were probed using three high explosives--TNT, Tetryl, and RDX. PMID:11569544

  16. The influence of selected containment structures on debris dispersal and transport following high pressure melt ejection from the reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1988-09-01

    High pressure expulsion of molten core debris from the reactor pressure vessel may result in dispersal of the debris from the reactor cavity. In most plants, the cavity exits into the containment such that the debris impinges on structures. Retention of the debris on the structures may affect the further transport of the debris throughout the containment. Two tests were done with scaled structural shapes placed at the exit of 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion cavity. The results show that the debris does not adhere significantly to structures. The lack of retention is attributed to splashing from the surface and reentrainment in the gas flowing over the surface. These processes are shown to be applicable to reactor scale. A third experiment was done to simulate the annular gap between the reactor vessel and cavity wall. Debris collection showed that the fraction of debris exiting through the gap was greater than the gap-to-total flow area ratio. Film records indicate that dispersal was primarily by entrainment of the molten debris in the cavity. 29 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Ginsberg, T.

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

  18. Temperature measurements on a HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Lohsen, R.A.

    1998-05-07

    Temperature measurements have been made on HSLA-100 steel confinement vessel number 6-2-3-1. These measurements are intended to give a view of the vessel temperature response under conditions similar to operational conditions, starting from worst case. The vessel`s temperature must be above the minimum operating temperature when used to contain an explosive event to ensure that the vessel material has the desired crack arrest properties. Several series of temperature measurements have been conducted over 24 and 48 hour periods during February 1998. These tests were intended to demonstrate that after running the heaters in the environmental shelter for some time, (1) the vessel warms up to temperatures well above the minimum operating temperature, (2) that through-thickness temperature gradients are negligible, and (3) that the temperature differences from one part of the vessel to another are small.

  19. Test results on direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The TDS test series

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Blanchat, T.K.; Pilch, M.M.

    1994-08-01

    The Technology Development and Scoping (TDS) test series was conducted to test and develop instrumentation and procedures for performing steam-driven, high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) experiments at the Surtsey Test Facility to investigate direct containment heating (DCH). Seven experiments, designated TDS-1 through TDS-7, were performed in this test series. These experiments were conducted using similar initial conditions; the primary variable was the initial pressure in the Surtsey vessel. All experiments in this test series were performed with a steam driving gas pressure of {approx_equal} 4 MPa, 80 kg of lumina/iron/chromium thermite melt simulant, an initial hole diameter of 4.8 cm (which ablated to a final hole diameter of {approx_equal} 6 cm), and a 1/10th linear scale model of the Surry reactor cavity. The Surtsey vessel was purged with argon (<0.25 mol% O{sub 2}) to limit the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen, and gas grab samples were taken to measure the amount of hydrogen produced.

  20. Shrapnel impact probability and diagnostic port failure analysis for LLNL`s explosives testing contained firing facility (CFF)

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D. E., LLNL

    1998-05-22

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory` s (LLNL) Contained Firing Facility (CFF) is a facility to be constructed for explosives testing of up to 60 kg of explosives at LLNL` s Site 300 Explosives Test Site. The CFF will be a large, rectangular, reinforced concrete firing chamber, lined with steel for shrapnel protection. The CFF will contain several glass ports for cameras, lasers, and other diagnostic equipment to be used for data collection during planned explosives detonations. Glass is used due to the need for the greatest possible optical clarity. This study was performed during the CFF final design stage to determine probabilities and consequences (bounding and best estimate) of impact of shrapnel, due to concerns about the possible effects of rebounding shrapnel on these glass diagnostic ports. We developed a customized version of the Persistence of Vision{trademark} Ray-Tracer (POV-Ray{trademark}) version 3.02 code for the Macintosh TM Operating System (MacOS{trademark}). POV-Ray creates three- dimensional, very high quality (photo-realistic) images with realistic reflections, shading, textures, perspective, and other effects using a rendering technique called ray-tracing. It reads a text file that describes the objects and lighting in a scene and generates an image of that scene from the viewpoint of a camera, also described in the text file. The customized code (POV-Ray Shrapnel Tracker, V3.02 - Custom Build) generates fragment trajectory paths at user designated angle intervals in three dimensions, tracks these trajectory paths through any complex three-dimensional space, and outputs detailed data for each ray as requested by the user, including trajectory source location, initial direction of each trajectory, vector data for each surface/trajectory interaction, and any impacts with designated model target surfaces during any trajectory segment (direct path or reflected paths). This allows determination of the three-dimensional trajectory of each

  1. Inspection tester for explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  2. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  3. OVERVIEW OF PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL DETONATION (BLAST) LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. DUFFEY; E. A. RODRIGUEZ

    2001-05-01

    Spherical and cylindrical pressure vessels are often used to completely contain the effects of high explosions. These vessels generally fall into two categories. The first includes vessels designed for multiple use ([1]-[6]). Applications of such multiple-use vessels include testing of explosive components and bomb disposal. Because of the multiple-use requirement, response of the vessel is restricted to the elastic range. The second category consists of vessels designed for one-time use only ([7]-[9]). Vessels in this category are typically used to contain accidental explosions and are designed to efficiently utilize the significant plastic energy absorption capacity of ductile materials. Because these vessels may undergo large permanent plastic deformations, they may not be reusable. Ideally one would design a Containment Vessel according to some National or International Consensus Standard, such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Unfortunately, however, a number of issues preclude direct use of the ASME Code in its present form to the design of Containment Vessels. These issues are described in Section 2, along with a request for guidance from the PVRC as to a suitable path forward for developing appropriate ASME B&PV design guidance for Containment Vessels. Next, a discussion of the nature of impulsive loading as a result of an internal detonation of the high explosive within a Containment Vessel is described in Section 3. Ductile failure criteria utilized for LANL Containment Vessels are described in Section 4. Finally, brittle fracture criteria currently utilized by LANL are presented in Section 5. This memo is concluded with a brief summary of results and an appeal to PVRC to recommend and develop an appropriate path forward (Section 6). This path forward could be of a short-term specialized nature (e.g., Code Case) for specific guidance regarding design of the LANL Containment Vessels; a long-term development of a general design approach

  4. Experimental results of direct containment heating by high-pressure melt ejection into the Surtsey vessel: The DCH-3 and DCH-4 tests

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.D.; Pilch, M.; Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W. ); Nichols, R.T. ); Sweet, D.W. )

    1991-08-01

    Two experiments, DCH-3 and DCH-4, were performed at the Surtsey test facility to investigate phenomena associated with a high-pressure melt ejection (HPME) reactor accident sequence resulting in direct containment heating (DCH). These experiments were performed using the same experimental apparatus with identical initial conditions, except that the Surtsey test vessel contained air in DCH-3 and argon in DCH-4. Inerting the vessel with argon eliminated chemical reactions between metallic debris and oxygen. Thus, a comparison of the pressure response in DCH-3 and DCH-4 gave an indication of the DCH contribution due to metal/oxygen reactions. 44 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  5. OBOE containment prospectus

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N R

    1999-11-19

    The OBOE series of experiments presents a new fielding concept for LLNL subcritical experiments. An experimental alcove will be reused for many different experiments. Each individual experiment will be conducted within a steel experimental vessel. After each experiment, the vessel will be moved to the back of the alcove and entombed in grout. The alcove is designed with sufficient space to entomb 12 experiment vessels. Each experiment in the OBOE series of experiments is composed of one experimental package. Each experimental package will have high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. Each experimental package will be placed in a steel experimental vessel within the OBOE zero-room. Each experiment will be detonated inside its experimental vessel in the OBOE zero-room that is formed by a steel and concrete barrier at the entrance to the U1a.102C drift. The containment plan for the OBOE series of experiments utilizes a two containment vessel concept. The first containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102C drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U1a.100 drift. While it is likely that the experiment vessel will contain the SNM from an experiment, the containment plan for the OBOE series only assumes that the steel experiment vessel provides shock mitigation and is a heat sink for the heat produced by the detonation of the HE. It is possible that one or more of the experimental vessels may seep SNM in the zero-room from a failure of a seal on the vessel. We are presenting a containment plan for the entire series of OBOE experiments. At this time, we do not know exactly how many experiments will actually be conducted in the OBOE series. However, we do know that the maximum number of experiments in the OBOE series is 12. After the final experiment in the OBOE series, a larger experiment will be conducted in the U1a.102C alcove. This

  6. Functional and structural failure mode overpressurization tests of 1:4-scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model.

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, James F. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Shibata, Satoru (Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation, Tokyo, Japan); Hessheimer, Michael F.

    2003-02-01

    A 1:4-scale model of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV), representative of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Japan, was constructed by NUPEC at Sandia National Laboratories from January 1997 through June, 2000. Concurrently, Sandia instrumented the model with nearly 1500 transducers to measure strain, displacement and forces in the model from prestressing through the pressure testing. The limit state test of the PCCV model, culminating in functional failure (i.e. leakage by cracking and liner tearing) was conducted in September, 2000 at Sandia National Laboratories. After inspecting the model and the data after the limit state test, it became clear that, other than liner tearing and leakage, structural damage was limited to concrete cracking and the overall structural response (displacements, rebar and tendon strains, etc.) was only slightly beyond yield. (Global hoop strains at the mid-height of the cylinder only reached 0.4%, approximately twice the yield strain in steel.) In order to provide additional structural response data, for comparison with inelastic response conditions, the PCCV model filled nearly full with water and pressurized to 3.6 times the design pressure, when a catastrophic rupture occurred preceded only briefly by successive tensile failure of several hoop tendons. This paper summarizes the results of these tests.

  7. Explosives tester with heater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  8. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  9. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  10. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522)....

  11. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522)....

  12. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  13. THE IMPACT OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul; Johnson, Tom; Frawely, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    The Savannah River Site, in conjunction with AREVA Federal services, has designed a process to treat dissolved radioactive waste solids with ozone. It is known that in this radioactive waste process, radionuclides radiolytically break down water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen, which presents a well defined flammability hazard. Flammability limits have been established for both ozone and hydrogen separately; however, there is little information on mixtures of hydrogen and ozone. Therefore, testing was designed to provide critical flammability information necessary to support safety related considerations for the development of ozone treatment and potential scale-up to the commercial level. Since information was lacking on flammability issues at low levels of hydrogen and ozone, a testing program was developed to focus on filling this portion of the information gap. A 2-L vessel was used to conduct flammability tests at atmospheric pressure and temperature using a fuse wire ignition source at 1 percent ozone intervals spanning from no ozone to the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) of ozone in the vessel, determined as 8.4%(v/v) ozone. An ozone generator and ozone detector were used to generate and measure the ozone concentration within the vessel in situ, since ozone decomposes rapidly on standing. The lower flammability limit of hydrogen in an ozone-oxygen mixture was found to decrease from the LFL of hydrogen in air, determined as 4.2 % (v/v) in this vessel. From the results of this testing, Savannah River was able to develop safety procedures and operating parameters to effectively minimize the formation of a flammable atmosphere.

  14. Confinement Vessel Dynamic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. Robert Stevens; Stephen P. Rojas

    1999-08-01

    A series of hydrodynamic and structural analyses of a spherical confinement vessel has been performed. The analyses used a hydrodynamic code to estimate the dynamic blast pressures at the vessel's internal surfaces caused by the detonation of a mass of high explosive, then used those blast pressures as applied loads in an explicit finite element model to simulate the vessel's structural response. Numerous load cases were considered. Particular attention was paid to the bolted port connections and the O-ring pressure seals. The analysis methods and results are discussed, and comparisons to experimental results are made.

  15. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives permission letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives permission letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives permission letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  16. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  17. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  18. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  19. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  20. An unsteady model for the simulation of the rapid depressurization of vessels containing two-phase mixtures in non-equilibrium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, R.; D'Alessandro, V.; Montelpare, S.; Binci, L.; Zoppi, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a simulation tool for the rapid depressurization (blowdown) of vessels containing two-pliase mixtures in non equilibrium conditions. The model adopts the cubic equations of state for fluids mixtures with non ideal behavior for booth the phases, i.e. vapor and liquid, and it is based on a split two fluids model considering internal heat and mass transfer processes, as well as heat transfer with the vessel wall and the external environment. In order to account the mass and energy exchanged between the gas and the liquid phase, in conditions away from the thermodynamic equilibrium, a partial phase equilibrium (PPE) type approach has been introduced. In this paper the validation of the proposed model with two different literature test cases is addressed and the role of the Peneloux correction for the employed equation of state is also investigated.

  1. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  2. Insensitive explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

  3. Time-sequenced X-ray Observation of a Thermal Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J W; Molitoris, J D; Smilowitz, L; Kercher, J R; Springer, H K; Henson, B F; Glascoe, E A; Greenwood, D W; Garza, R G; Wong, B M; Batteux, J D; Maienschein, J L

    2009-08-03

    The evolution of a thermally-initiated explosion is studied using a multiple-image x-ray system. HMX-based PBX 9501 is used in this work, enabling direct comparison to recently-published data obtained with proton radiography [1]. Multiple x-ray images of the explosion are obtained with image spacing of ten microseconds or more. The explosion is simultaneously characterized with a high-speed camera using an interframe spacing of 11 {micro}s. X-ray and camera images were both initiated passively by signals from an embedded thermocouple array, as opposed to being actively triggered by a laser pulse or other external source. X-ray images show an accelerating reacting front within the explosive, and also show unreacted explosive at the time the containment vessel bursts. High-speed camera images show debris ejected from the vessel expanding at 800-2100 m/s in the first tens of {micro}s after the container wall failure. The effective center of the initiation volume is about 6 mm from the geometric center of the explosive.

  4. TIME-SEQUENCED X-RAY OBSERVATION OF A THERMAL EXPLOSION

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J. W.; Molitoris, J. D.; Kercher, J. R.; Springer, H. K.; Glascoe, E. A.; Greenwood, D. W.; Garza, R. G.; Wong, B. M.; Batteux, J. D.; Maienschein, J. L.; Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.

    2009-12-28

    The evolution of a thermally-initiated explosion is studied using a multiple-image x-ray system. HMX-based PBX 9501 is used in this work, enabling direct comparison to recently-published data obtained with proton radiography [1]. Multiple x-ray images of the explosion are obtained with image spacing of ten microseconds or more. The explosion is simultaneously characterized with a high-speed camera using an interframe spacing of 11 mus. X-ray and camera images were both initiated passively by signals from an embedded thermocouple array, as opposed to being actively triggered by a laser pulse or other external source. X-ray images show an accelerating reacting front within the explosive, and also show unreacted explosive at the time the containment vessel bursts. High-speed camera images show debris ejected from the vessel expanding at 800-2100 m/s in the first tens of mus after the container wall failure. The effective center of the initiation volume is about 6 mm from the geometric center of the explosive.

  5. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  6. Biophysical effects of pulsed lasers in the retina and other tissues containing strongly absorbing particles: shockwave and explosive bubble generation.

    PubMed

    Faraggi, Eshel; Gerstman, Bernard S; Sun, Jinming

    2005-01-01

    Damage by pulsed lasers to the retina or other tissues containing strongly absorbing particles may occur through biophysical mechanisms other than simple heating. Shockwaves and bubbles have been observed experimentally, and depending on pulse duration, may be the cause of retinal damage at threshold fluence levels. We perform detailed calculations on the shockwave and bubble generation expected from pulsed lasers. For a variety of different laser pulse durations and fluences, we tabulate the expected strength of the shockwave and size of the bubble that will be generated. We also explain how these results will change for absorbing particles with different physical properties such as absorption coefficient, bulk modulus, or thermal expansion coefficient. This enables the assessment of biological danger, and possible medical benefits, for lasers of a wide range of pulse durations and energies, incident on tissues with absorbing particles with a variety of thermomechanical characteristics.

  7. Liquid explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.

    1994-03-01

    A Liquid Explosives Screening System capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives has been developed. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly, or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to interrogate the liquid. NMR produces an extremely rich data set and many parameters of the NMR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple NMR signatures may be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat.

  8. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  9. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Germer, John H.

    1987-01-01

    In a modular liquid-metal pool breeder reactor, a radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system is disclosed for removing the residual heat resulting from the shutdown of a reactor by a completely passive heat transfer system. A shell surrounds the reactor and containment vessel, separated from the containment vessel by an air passage. Natural circulation of air is provided by air vents at the lower and upper ends of the shell. Longitudinal, radial and inwardly extending fins extend from the shell into the air passage. The fins are heated by radiation from the containment vessel and convect the heat to the circulating air. Residual heat from the primary reactor vessel is transmitted from the reactor vessel through an inert gas plenum to a guard or containment vessel designed to contain any leaking coolant. The containment vessel is conventional and is surrounded by the shell.

  10. Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Sonder, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions can result from the interaction of ascending magma with groundwater. Experiments over a wide range of energies show that for a given energy there is a depth below which an explosion will be contained within the subsurface (not erupt), and there is a corresponding shallower depth that will optimize ejecta dispersal. We combine these relationships with constraints on the energies of phreatomagmatic explosions at maar-diatreme volcanoes and show that most eruptions are likely sourced by explosions in the uppermost ~200 m, and even shallower ones (<100 m) are likely to dominate deposition onto tephra rings. Most explosions below ~200 m will not erupt but contribute to formation of, and to the vertical mixing of materials within, a diatreme (vent structure), with only rare very high energy explosions between ~200 and 500 m erupting. Similar constraints likely apply at other volcanoes that experience phreatomagmatic explosions.

  11. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E. A.; Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  12. Containment Prospectus for the PIANO Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N R

    2001-03-23

    PIANO is a dynamic, subcritical, zero-yield experiment intended for execution in the U1a.102C drift of the U1a complex at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1). The data from the PIANO experiment will be used in the Stockpile Stewardship Program to assess the aging of nuclear weapon components and to better model the long-term performance of the weapons in the enduring stockpile. The PIANO experiment is composed of one experimental package. The experimental package will have high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. The containment plan for the PIANO series of experiments utilizes a two-containment-vessel concept. The first Containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102C drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U100 drift. The PIANO experiment is the final experiment to be conducted in the U1a.102C alcove. It will be an ''open'' experiment--meaning that PIANO will not utilize a confinement vessel as the previous OBOE experiments in this alcove did. We expect that the SNM from the PIANO experiment will be fully contained within the first containment vessel.

  13. Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Eckels, Joel Del; Nunes; Peter J.; Alcaraz, Armando; Whipple, Richard E.

    2011-05-10

    A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

  14. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  15. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  16. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  17. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  18. 46 CFR 35.30-25 - Explosives-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives-TB/ALL. 35.30-25 Section 35.30-25 Shipping... Explosives—TB/ALL. Fulminates or other detonating compounds in bulk in dry condition; explosive compositions... other like explosives shall not be accepted, stored, stowed or transported on board tank vessels....

  19. Reactor vessel support system

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Martin P.; Holley, John C.

    1982-01-01

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  20. REUSABLE REACTION VESSEL

    DOEpatents

    Soine, T.S.

    1963-02-26

    This patent shows a reusable reaction vessel for such high temperature reactions as the reduction of actinide metal chlorides by calcium metal. The vessel consists of an outer metal shell, an inner container of refractory material such as sintered magnesia, and between these, a bed of loose refractory material impregnated with thermally conductive inorganic salts. (AEC)

  1. Vapor Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthoud, Georges

    A vapor explosion results from the rapid and intense heat transfer that may follow contact between a hot liquid and a cold, more volatile one. Because it can happen during severe-accident sequences of a nuclear power plan, that is, when a large part of the core is molten, vapor explosions have been widely studied. The different sequences of a vapor explosion are presented, including premixing, triggering, propagation, and expansion. Typical experimental results are also analyzed to understand the involved physics. Then the different physics involved in the sequences are addressed, as well as the present experimental program.

  2. Novel high explosive compositions

    DOEpatents

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  3. Destruction of peroxide explosives.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Huang, Jiaorong; Luo, Wei

    2009-09-01

    Chemicals containing multiple peroxide functionalities, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), or hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), can be explosive. They are impractical and are not used by legitimate military groups because they are shock and heat sensitive compared to military explosives. They are attractive to terrorists because synthesis is straightforward, requiring only a few easily obtained ingredients. Physical removal of these synthesis products is highly hazardous. This paper discusses methods to degrade peroxide explosives chemically, at room temperature. A number of mixtures containing metals (e.g., zinc, copper) and metal salts (e.g., zinc sulfate, copper chloride) were found effective, some capable of destroying TATP solutions in a few hours. Strong acids proved useful against solid peroxide materials; however, on a 1 g scale, addition of concentrated sulfuric acid caused TATP to detonate. Thus, this technique should only be used to destroy small-laboratory quantities. PMID:19737243

  4. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergei M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), trotyl-hexogen (Comp B), octogen (HMX), and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  5. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  6. Investigation of radial shear in the wall-base juncture of a 1:4 scale prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.; Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.

    1998-04-01

    Construction of a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model is underway as part of a cooperative containment research program at Sandia National Laboratories. The work is co-sponsored by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Preliminary analyses of the Sandia 1:4 Scale PCCV Model have determined axisymmetric global behavior and have estimated the potential for failure in several areas, including the wall-base juncture and near penetrations. Though the liner tearing failure mode has been emphasized, the assumption of a liner tearing failure mode is largely based on experience with reinforced concrete containments. For the PCCV, the potential for shear failure at or near the liner tearing pressure may be considerable and requires detailed investigation. This paper examines the behavior of the PCCV in the region most susceptible to a radial shear failure, the wall-basemat juncture region. Prediction of shear failure in concrete structures is a difficult goal, both experimentally and analytically. As a structure begins to deform under an applied system of forces that produce shear, other deformation modes such as bending and tension/compression begin to influence the response. Analytically, difficulties lie in characterizing the decrease in shear stiffness and shear stress and in predicting the associated transfer of stress to reinforcement as cracks become wider and more extensive. This paper examines existing methods for representing concrete shear response and existing criteria for predicting shear failure, and it discusses application of these methods and criteria to the study of the 1:4 scale PCCV.

  7. Supplement Analysis to the 1999 Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operation of Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Proposed Disposition of Certain Large Containment Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-02-12

    This Supplement Analysis (SA) has been prepared to determine if the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for Continued Operations of Los Alamos National Laboratory (SWEIS) (DOE/EIS-0238) (DOE 1999a) adequately addresses the environmental effects of introducing a proposed project for the clean-out and decontamination (DECON) of certain large containment vessels into the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Building located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area (TA) 3, or if the SWEIS needs to be supplemented. After undergoing the clean-out and DECON steps, the subject containment vessels would be disposed of at LANL's TA-54 low-level waste (LLW) disposal site or, as appropriate, at a DOE or commercial offsite permitted LLW-regulated landfill; after actinides were recovered from the DECON solution within the CMR Building, they would be moved to LANL's TA-55 Plutonium Facility and undergo subsequent processing at that facility for reuse. Council on Environmental Quality regulations at Title 40, Section 1502.9(c) of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 1502.9[c]) require federal agencies to prepare a supplement to an environmental impact statement (EIS) when an agency makes substantial changes in the proposed action that are relevant to environmental concerns, or there are changed circumstances or new or changed information relevant to concerns and bearing on the proposed action or its impacts. This SA is prepared in accordance with Section 10 CFR 10211.314(c) of the DOE's regulations for National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) implementation that states: ''When it is unclear whether or not an EIS supplement is required, DOE shall prepare a Supplement Analysis''. This SA specifically compares key impact assessment parameters of the proposed project action with the LANL operations capabilities evaluated in the 1999 SWEIS in support DOE's long-term hydrodynamic testing program at LANL, as well as the waste disposal capabilities evaluated in

  8. Radiant vessel auxiliary cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Germer, J.H.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an improved radiant vessel passive cooling system for liquid-metal poor-type modular nuclear reactors having a reactor vessel and a surrounding containment vessel spaced apart from the reactor vessel to form a first interstitial region containing an inert gas, the improvement comprising: a shell spaced apart from and surrounding the containment vessel to form a second interstitial region comprising a circulatory air passage. The circulatory air passage has an air inlet at a first position and an air outlet at a second position which is vertically higher than the first position. The second interstitial region lies between the shell and the containment vessel; and surface area extension means in the shell is longitudinally disposed from the shell into the second interstitial region towards the containment vessel to receive thermal radiation from the containment vessel. The surface area extension means is spaced apart from the external surface of the containment vessel where heat radiated form the containment vessel is received at the surface extension means for convection, conduction and radiation to air in the circulatory passage.

  9. 40 CFR 63.484 - Storage vessel provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-butadiene latex; (2) Storage vessels containing latex products other than styrene-butadiene latex, located downstream of the stripping operations; (3) Storage vessels containing high conversion latex products;...

  10. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  11. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.

    1996-04-09

    A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

  12. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    1996-01-01

    A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

  13. Detection of Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogler, William

    2008-03-01

    High explosives present a challenge for detection methods because of their range of physical properties, which range from volatile liquids to nonvolatile solids. They share the common feature of possessing both oxidizing and reducing chemical properties within a single molecule or an intimate chemical mixture. Our research group has been focused on the synthesis of new luminescent polymers, which undergo electron transfer quenching by a variety of organic high explosives, such as TNT, RDX, and PETN. The application to imaging trace explosive particle residues will be described. Density functional calculations show an excellent correlation between the sensor response and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the explosive analyte. For volatile high explosives, such as organic peroxides (e.g. TATP), vapor sensors based on chemically sensitive transistors containing different metal phthalocyanines have been explored. The mechanism of current response in these films has been shown to be a result of surface Lewis acid-base chemistry or redox catalysis at the metal centers. The link between surface chemistry and electronic resonse has led to a simple peroxide specific vapor sensor array.

  14. Explosive laser

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Davis, W.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to a laser system wherein reaction products from the detonation of a condensed explosive expand to form a gaseous medium with low translational temperature but high vibration population. Thermal pumping of the upper laser level and de-excitation of the lower laser level occur during the expansion, resulting in a population inversion. The expansion may be free or through a nozzle as in a gas-dynamic configuration. In one preferred embodiment, the explosive is such that its reaction products are CO$sub 2$ and other species that are beneficial or at least benign to CO$sub 2$ lasing. (auth)

  15. Fuel fire test results for RX-08-FK in a toroidal composite vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Black, W.; Bretl, D.; von Holtz, E.; Didlake, J.; Ferrario, M.; Spingarn, J.; Schwegel, J.

    1993-07-01

    A fuel first test was conducted on October 15, 1992, during which a toroidal composite vessel containing 6.5 kg of RX-08-FK Paste Extrudable Explosive was subjected to a dynamic (transient) thermal environment. The vessel was mounted inside a closed, but vented, thin-walled steel cylinder, and the entire assembly was then engulfed in a fuel fire. Approximately 5 minutes into the test, the PEX began to burn. At the time reaction of PEX occurred, temperatures of the inside wall of the steel cylinder were 815C and temperatures on outside wall of the composite vessel ranged from 163--454C. Subsequently, temperatures in excess of 950C were reached inside the cylinder for tens of minutes. Based on criteria set forth in MIL-STD-1648A(AS), the RX-08-FK-loaded vessel passed the fuel fire test, because no violent reaction beyond burning was observed.

  16. Niche explosion.

    PubMed

    Normark, Benjamin B; Johnson, Norman A

    2011-05-01

    The following syndrome of features occurs in several groups of phytophagous insects: (1) wingless females, (2) dispersal by larvae, (3) woody hosts, (4) extreme polyphagy, (5) high abundance, resulting in status as economic pests, (6) invasiveness, and (7) obligate parthenogenesis in some populations. If extreme polyphagy is defined as feeding on 20 or more families of hostplants, this syndrome is found convergently in several species of bagworm moths, tussock moths, root weevils, and 5 families of scale insects. We hypothesize that extreme polyphagy in these taxa results from "niche explosion", a positive feedback loop connecting large population size to broad host range. The niche explosion has a demographic component (sometimes called the "amplification effect" in studies of pathogens) as well as a population-genetic component, due mainly to the increased effectiveness of natural selection in larger populations. The frequent origins of parthenogenesis in extreme polyphages are, in our interpretation, a consequence of this increased effectiveness of natural selection and consequent reduced importance of sexuality. The niche explosion hypothesis makes detailed predictions about the comparative genomics and population genetics of extreme polyphages and related specialists. It has a number of potentially important implications, including an explanation for the lack of observed trade-offs between generalists and specialists, a re-interpretation of the ecological correlates of parthenogenesis, and a general expectation that Malthusian population explosions may be amplified by Darwinian effects.

  17. Explosive cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Device, jetcord, is metal-clad linear explosive of sufficient flexibility to allow forming into intricate shapes. Total effect is termed ''cutting'' with jetcord consistently ''cutting'' a target of greater thickness than can be penetrated. Applications include sheet metal working, pipe cutting and fire-fighting.

  18. Nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    A summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and its effects on human beings is presented at the level of a sophomore general physics course without calculus. It is designed to supplement a standard text for such a course and problems are included.

  19. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  20. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2009-09-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  1. Explosion characteristics of methane for CFD modeling and simulation of turbulent gas flow behavior during explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skřínský, Jan; Vereš, Ján; Peer, Václav; Friedel, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The effect of initial concentration on the explosion behavior of a stoichiometric CH4/O2/N2 mixture under air-combustion conditions was studied. Two mathematical models were used with the aim at simulating the gas explosion in the middle scale explosion vessel, and the associated effects of the temperature for different gas/air concentrations. Peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and laminar burning velocity were measured from pressure time records of explosions occurring in a 1 m3 closed cylindrical vessel. The results of the models were validated considering a set of data (pressure time histories and root mean square velocity). The obtained results are relevant to the practice of gas explosion testing and the interpretation of test results and, they should be taken as the input data for CFD simulation to improve the conditions for standard tests.

  2. Workbook for predicting pressure wave and fragment effects of exploding propellant tanks and gas storage vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, J. J.; Ricker, R. E.; Bessey, R. L.; Westine, P. S.; Parr, V. B.; Oldham, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Technology needed to predict damage and hazards from explosions of propellant tanks and bursts of pressure vessels, both near and far from these explosions is introduced. Data are summarized in graphs, tables, and nomographs.

  3. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  4. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commerce in explosives....

  5. 49 CFR 174.101 - Loading Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loading Class 1 (explosive) materials. 174.101... RAIL Class I (Explosive) Materials § 174.101 Loading Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Boxes containing Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive) materials must be loaded so that the ends of wooden boxes will...

  6. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commerce in explosives....

  7. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Commerce in explosives....

  8. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 55 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commerce in explosives....

  9. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the regulations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commerce in explosives....

  10. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  11. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  12. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  13. High explosive compound

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Theodore C.

    1976-01-01

    1. A low detonation velocity explosive consisting essentially of a particulate mixture of ortho-boric acid and trinitrotoluene, said mixture containing from about 25 percent to about 65 percent by weight of ortho-boric acid, said ortho-boric acid comprised of from 60 percent to 90 percent of spherical particles having a mean particle size of about 275 microns and 10 percent to 40 percent of spherical particles having a particle size less than about 44 microns.

  14. 46 CFR 169.249 - Pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 169.249 Section 169.249 Shipping COAST... and Certification Inspections § 169.249 Pressure vessels. Pressure vessels must meet the requirements of part 54 of this chapter. The inspection procedures for pressure vessels are contained in...

  15. 46 CFR 169.249 - Pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 169.249 Section 169.249 Shipping COAST... and Certification Inspections § 169.249 Pressure vessels. Pressure vessels must meet the requirements of part 54 of this chapter. The inspection procedures for pressure vessels are contained in...

  16. 46 CFR 169.249 - Pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 169.249 Section 169.249 Shipping COAST... and Certification Inspections § 169.249 Pressure vessels. Pressure vessels must meet the requirements of part 54 of this chapter. The inspection procedures for pressure vessels are contained in...

  17. 46 CFR 169.249 - Pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 169.249 Section 169.249 Shipping COAST... and Certification Inspections § 169.249 Pressure vessels. Pressure vessels must meet the requirements of part 54 of this chapter. The inspection procedures for pressure vessels are contained in...

  18. 46 CFR 169.249 - Pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels. 169.249 Section 169.249 Shipping COAST... and Certification Inspections § 169.249 Pressure vessels. Pressure vessels must meet the requirements of part 54 of this chapter. The inspection procedures for pressure vessels are contained in...

  19. The Effect of the Presence of Ozone on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of Hydrogen in Vessels Containing Savannah River Site High Level Waste - 12387

    SciTech Connect

    Sherburne, Carol; Osterberg, Paul

    2012-07-01

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a

  20. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  1. Pressure vessel flex joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An airtight, flexible joint is disclosed for the interfacing of two pressure vessels such as between the Space Station docking tunnel and the Space Shuttle Orbiter bulkhead adapter. The joint provides for flexibility while still retaining a structural link between the two vessels required due to the loading created by the internal/external pressure differential. The joint design provides for limiting the axial load carried across the joint to a specific value, a function returned in the Orbiter/Station tunnel interface. The flex joint comprises a floating structural segment which is permanently attached to one of the pressure vessels through the use of an inflatable seal. The geometric configuration of the joint causes the tension between the vessels created by the internal gas pressure to compress the inflatable seal. The inflation pressure of the seal is kept at a value above the internal/external pressure differential of the vessels in order to maintain a controlled distance between the floating segment and pressure vessel. The inflatable seal consists of either a hollow torus-shaped flexible bladder or two rolling convoluted diaphragm seals which may be reinforced by a system of straps or fabric anchored to the hard structures. The joint acts as a flexible link to allow both angular motion and lateral displacement while it still contains the internal pressure and holds the axial tension between the vessels.

  2. Tenderizing Meat with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavson, Paul K.; Lee, Richard J.; Chambers, George P.; Solomon, Morse B.; Berry, Brad W.

    2001-06-01

    Investigators at the Food Technology and Safety Laboratory have had success tenderizing meat by explosively shock loading samples submerged in water. This technique, referred to as the Hydrodynamic Pressure (HDP) Process, is being developed to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of the beef tenderization processing over conventional aging techniques. Once optimized, the process should overcome variability in tenderization currently plaguing the beef industry. Additional benefits include marketing lower quality grades of meat, which have not been commercially viable due to a low propensity to tenderization. The simplest and most successful arrangement of these tests has meat samples (50 to 75 mm thick) placed on a steel plate at the bottom of a plastic water vessel. Reported here are tests which were instrumented by Indian Head investigators. Carbon-composite resistor-gauges were used to quantify the shock profile delivered to the surface of the meat. PVDF and resistor gauges (used later in lieu of PVDF) provided data on the pressure-time history at the meat/steel interface. Resulting changes in tenderization were correlated with increasing shock duration, which were provided by various explosives.

  3. 46 CFR 189.20-25 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.20-25 Section 189.20-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 189.20-25 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a) If...

  4. 46 CFR 189.20-25 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.20-25 Section 189.20-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 189.20-25 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a) If...

  5. 46 CFR 189.25-47 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.25-47 Section 189.25-47 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-47 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a)...

  6. 46 CFR 189.20-25 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.20-25 Section 189.20-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 189.20-25 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a) If...

  7. 46 CFR 189.25-47 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.25-47 Section 189.25-47 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-47 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 189.25-47 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.25-47 Section 189.25-47 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-47 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a)...

  9. 46 CFR 189.20-25 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.20-25 Section 189.20-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 189.20-25 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a) If...

  10. 46 CFR 189.20-25 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.20-25 Section 189.20-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 189.20-25 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a) If...

  11. Simulating Thermal Explosion of Octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based explosives: Model Comparison with Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Nichols, A L; Tarver, C M

    2006-02-07

    The authors compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two octahydrotetranitrotetrazine (HMX)-based explosives, LX-04 and LX-10, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The present HMX modeling work shows very first violence calculations with thermal predictions associated with a confined thermal explosion test. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in larger scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 1 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase.

  12. Simulating thermal explosion of octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoh, Jack J.; McClelland, Matthew A.; Maienschein, Jon L.; Nichols, Albert L.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2006-10-01

    A model comparison with measurements for the thermal, chemical, and mechanical behaviors in a thermal explosion experiment is presented. Confined high explosives (HEs) are heated at a rate of 1°C/h until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE3D) code that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a hydrodynamic time scale. During the preignition phase, quasistatic mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydrodynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two octahydrotetranitrotetrazine (HMX)-based explosives, LX-04 and LX-10, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small-scale thermal explosion measurements. The present HMX modeling work shows the violence calculations with thermal predictions associated with a confined thermal explosion test. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in larger scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HEs are predicted to within 1°C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase.

  13. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  14. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, Martin G.

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  15. Blast deflector traps smoke and debris from explosive trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkowski, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Blast deflector protects interior areas and personnel from the smoke and debris of explosive trains. It contains open-cell foam to absorb the pressure loads generated by explosive charges and control the smoke and debris.

  16. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  17. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  18. Technical Review Report for the Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessel (PCV)

    SciTech Connect

    West, M; Hafner, R

    2008-05-05

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Waiver for the Use of Modified Primary Containment Vessels (PCV). The waiver is to be used to support a limited number of shipments of fuel for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) Project in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Under the waiver, an inventory of existing national security PCVs will be converted to standard PCVs. Both types of PCVs are currently approved for use by the Office of Nuclear Energy. LLNL has previously reviewed the national security PCVs under Mound 1KW Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Addendum No. 1, Revision c, dated June 2007 (Addendum 1). The safety analysis of the package is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) for the Mound 1KW Package (i.e., the Mound 1KW SARP, or the SARP) where the standard PCVs have been reviewed by LLNL. The Mound 1KW Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) number USA/9516/B(U)F-85 for the transportation of Type B quantities of plutonium heat source material. The waiver requests an exemption, claiming safety equivalent to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71.12, Specific Exemptions, and will lead to a letter amendment to the CoC. Under the waiver, the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems, NE-34, is seeking an exemption from 10 CFR 71.19(d)(1), Previously Approved Package,[5] which states: '(d) NRC will approve modifications to the design and authorized contents of a Type B package, or a fissile material package, previously approved by NRC, provided--(1) The modifications of a Type B package are not significant with respect to the design, operating characteristics, or safe performance of the containment system, when the package is subjected to the tests specified in

  19. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    DOEpatents

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  20. Reactor vessel annealing system

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Phillip E.; Katz, Leonoard R.; Nath, Raymond J.; Blaushild, Ronald M.; Tatch, Michael D.; Kordalski, Frank J.; Wykstra, Donald T.; Kavalkovich, William M.

    1991-01-01

    A system for annealing a vessel (14) in situ by heating the vessel (14) to a defined temperature, composed of: an electrically operated heater assembly (10) insertable into the vessel (14) for heating the vessel (14) to the defined temperature; temperature monitoring components positioned relative to the heater assembly (10) for monitoring the temperature of the vessel (14); a controllable electric power supply unit (32-60) for supplying electric power required by the heater assembly (10); a control unit (80-86) for controlling the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60); a first vehicle (2) containing the power supply unit (32-60); a second vehicle (4) containing the control unit (80-86); power conductors (18,22) connectable between the power supply unit (32-60) and the heater unit (10) for delivering the power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10); signal conductors (20,24) connectable between the temperature monitoring components and the control unit (80-86) for delivering temperature indicating signals from the temperature monitoring components to the control unit (80-86); and control conductors (8) connectable between the control unit (80-86) and the power supply unit (32-60) for delivering to the power supply unit (32-60) control signals for controlling the level of power supplied by the power supply unit (32-60) to the heater assembly (10).

  1. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  2. Analysis of the xplAB-Containing Gene Cluster Involved in the Bacterial Degradation of the Explosive Hexahydro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chun Shiong; Sabir, Dana Khdr; Lorenz, Astrid; Bontemps, Cyril; Andeer, Peter; Stahl, David A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Rylott, Elizabeth L.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated use of the explosive compound hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) on military land has resulted in significant soil and groundwater pollution. Rates of degradation of RDX in the environment are low, and accumulated RDX, which the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has determined is a possible human carcinogen, is now threatening drinking water supplies. RDX-degrading microorganisms have been isolated from RDX-contaminated land; however, despite the presence of these species in contaminated soils, RDX pollution persists. To further understand this problem, we studied RDX-degrading species belonging to four different genera (Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Gordonia, and Williamsia) isolated from geographically distinct locations and established that the xplA and xplB (xplAB) genes, which encode a cytochrome P450 and a flavodoxin redox partner, respectively, are nearly identical in all these species. Together, the xplAB system catalyzes the reductive denitration of RDX and subsequent ring cleavage under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In addition to xplAB, the Rhodococcus species studied here share a 14-kb region flanking xplAB; thus, it appears likely that the RDX-metabolizing ability was transferred as a genomic island within a transposable element. The conservation and transfer of xplAB-flanking genes suggest a role in RDX metabolism. We therefore independently knocked out genes within this cluster in the RDX-degrading species Rhodococcus rhodochrous 11Y. Analysis of the resulting mutants revealed that XplA is essential for RDX degradation and that XplB is not the sole contributor of reducing equivalents to XplA. While XplA expression is induced under nitrogen-limiting conditions and further enhanced by the presence of RDX, MarR is not regulated by RDX. PMID:25128343

  3. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    DOEpatents

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  4. Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M

    2004-10-11

    We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

  5. Simulating thermal explosion of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoh, Jack J.; McClelland, Matthew A.; Maienschein, Jon L.; Wardell, Jeffrey F.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2005-04-01

    We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives (HEs) are heated at a rate of 1°C/h until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydrotime scale. During the preignition phase, quasistatic mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydrodynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in larger scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HEs are predicted to within 5°C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

  6. The relation of batteries to explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, C.

    1980-09-01

    All batteries contain chemical materials which can be made to explode under certain conditions. This report defines applicable explosives terminology and discusses these definitions in terms of explosives, thermal runaway and fires associated with aqueous (Le Clanche, mercury, lead acid, nickel cadmium) and non-aqueous (lithium anode systems) batteries.

  7. Chromospheric explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

    1986-01-01

    Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

  8. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  9. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  10. Containment Prospectus for the TRUMPET Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2004-02-05

    TRUMPET is a series of dynamic subcritical experiments planned for execution in the U1a.102D alcove of the U1a Complex at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The location of LLNL drifts at the U1a Complex is shown in Figure 1. The data from the TRUMPET experiments will be used in the Stockpile Stewardship Program to assess the aging of nuclear weapons components and to better model the long-term performance of weapons in the enduring stockpile. The TRUMPET series of experiments will be conducted in an almost identical way as the OBOE series of experiments. Individual TRUMPET experiments will be housed in an experiment vessel, as was done for OBOE. These vessels are the same as those utilized for OBOE. All TRUMPET experiments will occur in the zero room in the U1a.102D alcove, which is on the opposite side of the U1a.102 drift from U1a.102C, which housed the OBOE experiments. The centerlines of these two alcoves are separated by only 10 feet. As with OBOE experiments, expended TRUMPET experiment vessels will be moved to the back of the alcove and entombed in grout. After the TRUMPET series of experiments is completed, another experiment will be sited in the U1a.102D alcove and it will be the final experiment in the zero room, as was similarly done for the OBOE series of experiments followed by the execution of the PIANO experiment. Each experimental package for TRUMPET will be composed of high explosive (HE) and special nuclear material (SNM) in a subcritical assembly. Each experimental package will be placed in an experimental vessel within the TRUMPET zero room in the U1a.102D alcove. The containment plan for the TRUMPET experiments utilizes a two-nested containment vessel concept, similar to OBOE and other subcritical experiments in the U1a Complex. The first containment vessel is formed by the primary containment barrier that seals the U1a.102D drift. The second containment vessel is formed by the secondary containment barrier in the U1a.100 drift. While it is likely

  11. A compatibility study of containment materials in FEFO, bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl) formal

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, T.J.; Goods, S.H.; Moddeman, W.E.; Foster, P.

    1995-02-01

    We report on a program to evaluate the compatibility of energetic fluids with candidate containment materials. The energetic fluids are constituents of various extrudable explosives developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These paste-like explosives consist of explosive particulates (HMX, TATB for example) suspended in mixtures of energetic liquids and are designed to remain extrudable over a wide temperature range for many years. It is important to preclude or minimize interactions between the constituents of the paste and the containment materials since such interactions could result in decreased reliability or failure of the containment vessel as well as intrinsic changes in the flow or explosive characteristics of the paste. In this report we focus on one specific paste formulation: RX-52-AE (Transferable Insensitive Explosive, TIE), composed principally of the solid explosive TATB and the energetic liquid, FEFO. Compatibility between a number of organic and metallic materials with neat FEFO has been evaluated. The 300 series stainless steels, Al 6061-T6, and Monel 400 showed evidence of surface attack (oxidation or pitting). Polished gold coupons became discolored and XPS analysis revealed the formation gold cyanide. Platinum, iridium, titanium, tantalum and Ta-10% W showed little evidence of reaction. Among the organic materials, the per-fluorinated materials showed only slight interaction with the FEFO while the polyethylene, polyester and Aclar{reg_sign} materials were attacked by the liquid. These interactions were manifested in changes in color, net weight gain and mechanical properties. The changes were exaggerated by higher temperatures.

  12. Fast neutron sensor for detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Matika, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water has been confirmed it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive or chemical warfare charge. We propose that this be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system can inspect the object for the presence of the threat materials by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. PMID:19833524

  13. 30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6205 - Conveying explosives by hand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveying explosives by hand. 56.6205 Section... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation § 56.6205 Conveying explosives by hand. Closed, nonconductive containers shall be used to...

  18. Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Nunes, Peter J.; Del Eckels, Joel; Reynolds, John G.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Simpson, Randall L.

    2011-09-27

    A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

  19. Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, Peter J.; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Simpson, Randall L.

    2014-07-01

    A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

  20. Practical small-scale explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Joining principles and variables, types of joints, capabilities, and current and potential applications are described for an explosive seam welding process developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Variable small quantities of RDX explosive in a ribbon configuration are used to create narrow (less than 0.5 inch), long length, uniform, hermetrically sealed joints that exhibit parent metal properties in a wide variety of metals, alloys, and combinations. The first major all application of the process is the repair of four nuclear reactors in Canada. Potential applications include pipelines, sealing of vessels, and assembly of large space structures.

  1. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Greenfield, Margo T; Scharff, R J; Rabitz, Herschel A; Roslund, J

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  2. Projectile-generating explosive access tool

    SciTech Connect

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G; Todd, Steven N

    2013-06-11

    A method for generating a projectile using an explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

  3. Projectile-generating explosive access tool

    DOEpatents

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Todd, Steven N.

    2011-10-18

    An explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

  4. The rate of pressure rise of gaseous propylene-air explosions in spherical and cylindrical enclosures.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Movileanua, Codina; Oancea, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The maximum rates of pressure rise of propylene-air explosions at various initial pressures and various fuel/oxygen ratios in three closed vessels (a spherical vessel with central ignition and two cylindrical vessels with central or with top ignition) are reported. It was found that in explosions of quiescent mixtures the maximum rates of pressure rise are linear functions on total initial pressure, at constant initial temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio. The slope and intercept of found correlations are greatly influenced by vessel's volume and shape and by the position of the ignition source--factors which determine the amount of heat losses from the burned gas in a closed vessel explosion. Similar data on propylene-air inert mixtures are discussed in comparison with those referring to propylene-air, revealing the influence of nature and amount of inert additive. The deflagration index KG of centrally ignited explosions was also calculated from maximum rates of pressure rise. PMID:16876946

  5. The rate of pressure rise of gaseous propylene-air explosions in spherical and cylindrical enclosures.

    PubMed

    Razus, Domnina; Movileanua, Codina; Oancea, Dumitru

    2007-01-01

    The maximum rates of pressure rise of propylene-air explosions at various initial pressures and various fuel/oxygen ratios in three closed vessels (a spherical vessel with central ignition and two cylindrical vessels with central or with top ignition) are reported. It was found that in explosions of quiescent mixtures the maximum rates of pressure rise are linear functions on total initial pressure, at constant initial temperature and fuel/oxygen ratio. The slope and intercept of found correlations are greatly influenced by vessel's volume and shape and by the position of the ignition source--factors which determine the amount of heat losses from the burned gas in a closed vessel explosion. Similar data on propylene-air inert mixtures are discussed in comparison with those referring to propylene-air, revealing the influence of nature and amount of inert additive. The deflagration index KG of centrally ignited explosions was also calculated from maximum rates of pressure rise.

  6. Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Daniel Joseph

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels

  7. Explosion Welding for Hermetic Containerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin; Sanok, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A container designed for storing samples of hazardous material features a double wall, part of which is sacrificed during an explosion-welding process in which the container is sealed and transferred to a clean environment. The major advantage of this container sealing process is that once the samples have been sealed inside, the outer wall of what remains of the container is a clean surface that has not come into contact with the environment from which the samples were taken. Thus, there is no need to devise a decontamination process capable of mitigating all hazards that might be posed by unanticipated radioactive, chemical, and/or biological contamination of the outside of the container. The container sealing method was originally intended to be used to return samples from Mars to Earth, but it could also be used to store samples of hazardous materials, without the need to decontaminate its outer surface. The process stages are shown. In its initial double-wall form, the volume between the walls is isolated from the environment; in other words, the outer wall (which is later sacrificed) initially serves to protect the inner container from contamination. The sample is placed inside the container through an opening at one end, then the container is placed into a transfer dock/lid. The surfaces that will be welded together under the explosive have been coated with a soft metallic sacrificial layer. During the explosion, the sacrificial layer is ejected, and the container walls are welded together, creating a strong metallic seal. The inner container is released during the same event and enters the clean environment.

  8. Totally confined explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  9. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  10. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  11. Chemical-decomposition models for the thermal explosion of confined HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT explosives

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Tarver, C.M.

    1981-03-26

    Chemical decomposition models have been deduced from the available chemical kinetic data on the thermal decomposition of HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT. A thermal conduction model is used in which the thermal conductivity of the reacting explosive decreases linearly with the mass fraction reacted to that of the gaseous products. These reactive heat flow models are used to predict the time to explosion versus reciprocal temperature curves from several heavily confined explosive tests. Good agreement is obtained between experimental and calculated explosion times for the pure explosives HMX, TATB, RDX, and TNT, mixtures such as RX-26-AF (HMX/TATB), Octol (HMX/TNT), and Comp B (RDX/TNT), and for PBX 9404, an HMX-based explosive containing an energetic nitrocellulose binder.

  12. Large panel design for containment air baffle

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel.

  13. Large panel design for containment air baffle

    DOEpatents

    Orr, R.S.

    1992-12-08

    The movable air baffle shield means in accordance with the present invention provides an efficient method of cooling the space surrounding the containment vessel while also providing the capability of being moved away from the containment vessel during inspection. The containment apparatus comprises a generally cylindrical sealed containment vessel for containing at least a portion of a nuclear power generation plant, a disparate shield building surrounding and housing the containment vessel therein and spaced outwardly thereof so as to form an air annulus in the space between the shield building and the containment vessel, a shield baffle means positioned in the air annulus around at least a portion of the sides of the containment vessel providing a coolant path between the baffle means and the containment vessel to permit cooling of the containment vessel by air, the shield baffle means being movable to afford access to the containment vessel. 9 figs.

  14. Independence day explosion on lovers key.

    PubMed

    Harding, Brett A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2007-09-01

    The display of fireworks is a popular holiday celebration in the United States. Because injuries due to recreational fireworks-related explosions among private consumers are relatively common, the sale of fireworks is regulated by the federal government and is also limited by state and local laws. In contrast, because fireworks display companies are under tight safety regulations, explosions in the professional pyrotechnics industry are uncommon occurrences, and the literature contains rare reports of injuries and fatalities resulting from such explosions. We report the 2003 Fourth of July commercial fireworks explosion on Lovers Key in southwest Florida that resulted in five fatalities. Events occurring during the investigation of the scene of this explosion illustrate the unique considerations and hazards for medicolegal death investigators, law enforcement and other investigative agencies. Additionally, this case demonstrates unusual aspects of the postmortem examinations performed on victims of fireworks-related incidents.

  15. Inverse problem in explosion and combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Oppenheim, A K; Sum, T-H; Kuhl, A L

    2001-02-05

    The principal task of our studies is to provide a rational interpretation of the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic events taking place in a closed vessel upon detonation of an explosive charge and subsequent turbulent combustion of its products, acting as fuel for an exothermic reaction with air. Under such circumstances, the latter has been compressed by a reverberating shock front of the blast wave generated by the explosion. The paper presents the chemical and thermodynamic background and its numerical results, deduced for this purpose from mass spectroscopic data and pressure records, acquired upon explosion of a 0.8 kg charge of TNT in a 17 m{sup 3} chamber filled with air--a diagnostic analysis identified by the title. The evolution of the flow field and its structure are presented in a companion paper.

  16. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  17. Explosion proof battery

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A. S.

    1985-07-16

    Apparatus for eliminating the possibility of propagation of gas ignition from the outside to the interior of wet cell batteries such as those used in autos, boats, tractors and the like. The invention in its simplest form is characterized by a set of chambers attached to or incorporated with the structure of a wet cell battery to form a single compact explosion proof battery assembly. The chambers contain non flammable liquid through which gases traveling to and from the interior of the battery pass and thereby create a barrier to the propagation of ignition from the outside of the battery to the interior of the battery. Supporting inventive means are provided to make the apparatus fully functional and practical. Such supporting means include an injection fill means, a liquid level indicator and a pressure release tube for conducting gases safely away from the apparatus.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.904 - Storage of explosives and blasting agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms regulations contained in 27 CFR part 55, Commerce in Explosives. (b) Blasting caps... feet of explosives and detonator storage magazine. (d) No explosives or blasting agents shall be... magazines containing detonators shall not be located closer than 50 feet to any magazine containing...

  19. Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

  20. Linked data bases contain parts explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Carkeet, J.; Jones, D.

    1985-09-01

    A data base has been developed to provide an automated audit of all components, modules, and subsystems for a Global Positioning System that consists of a constellation of 18 satellites. The data base includes detailed fabrication, test, and operational performance data. The objective is to mitigate the effects of an avalanche of paper audits from a production program involving a proliferation of subcomponents and to facilitate quality control of an extremely complex system. Four separate SYSTEM 2000 data bases that use redundant pointers are linked to provide many-to-many relationships and to minimize mainframe resource requirements. Updates of the four data bases are facilitated by a color-form entry capability on the IBM PC. Retrievals are simplified by a menu-driven query capability.

  1. Collapsing Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  2. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Townsend, Harold E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto.

  3. Pressure suppression containment system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Townsend, H.E.

    1994-03-15

    A pressure suppression containment system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel. The wetwell pool includes a plenum for receiving the non-condensable gas carried with steam from the drywell following a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA). The wetwell plenum is vented to a plenum above the GDCS pool following the LOCA for suppressing pressure rise within the containment vessel. A method of operation includes channeling steam released into the drywell following the LOCA into the wetwell pool for cooling along with the non-condensable gas carried therewith. The GDCS pool is then drained by gravity, and the wetwell plenum is vented into the GDCS plenum for channeling the non-condensable gas thereto. 6 figures.

  4. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, Paul F.; Cooke, Franklin E.; Fitch, James R.

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA.

  5. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Billig, P.F.; Cooke, F.E.; Fitch, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    A passive containment cooling system includes a containment vessel surrounding a reactor pressure vessel and defining a drywell therein containing a non-condensable gas. An enclosed wetwell pool is disposed inside the containment vessel, and a gravity driven cooling system (GDCS) pool is disposed above the wetwell pool in the containment vessel and is vented to the drywell. An isolation pool is disposed above the GDCS pool and includes an isolation condenser therein. The condenser has an inlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for receiving the non-condensable gas along with any steam released therein following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The condenser also has an outlet line disposed in flow communication with the drywell for returning to the drywell both liquid condensate produced upon cooling of the steam and the non-condensable gas for reducing pressure within the containment vessel following the LOCA. 1 figure.

  6. THE EFFECT OF THE PRESENCE OF OZONE ON THE LOWER FLAMMABILITY LIMIT OF HYDROGEN IN VESSELS CONTAINING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Sherburne, C.

    2012-01-12

    The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process uses ozone to effect the oxidation of metal oxalates produced during the dissolution of sludge in the Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tanks. The ozone reacts with the metal oxalates to form metal oxide and hydroxide precipitants, and the CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and any unreacted O{sub 3} gases are discharged into the vapor space. In addition to the non-radioactive metals in the waste, however, the SRS radioactive waste also contains a variety of radionuclides, hence, hydrogen gas is also present in the vapor space of the ECC system. Because hydrogen is flammable, the impact of this resultant gas stream on the Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) of hydrogen must be understood for all possible operating scenarios of both normal and off-normal situations, with particular emphasis at the elevated temperatures and pressures of the typical ECC operating conditions. Oxygen is a known accelerant in combustion reactions, but while there are data associated with the behavior of hydrogen/oxygen environments, recent, relevant studies addressing the effect of ozone on the flammability limit of hydrogen proved scarce. Further, discussions with industry experts verified the absence of data in this area and indicated that laboratory testing, specific to defined operating parameters, was needed to comprehensively address the issue. Testing was thus designed and commissioned to provide the data necessary to support safety related considerations for the ECC process. A test matrix was developed to envelope the bounding conditions considered credible during ECC processing. Each test consists of combining a gas stream of high purity hydrogen with a gas stream comprised of a specified mixture of ozone and oxygen in a temperature and pressure regulated chamber such that the relative compositions of the two streams are controlled. The gases are then stirred to obtain a homogeneous mixture and ignition attempted by applying 10J of energy to a

  7. Direct imaging of explosives.

    PubMed

    Knapp, E A; Moler, R B; Saunders, A W; Trower, W P

    2000-01-01

    Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, approximately 200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field.

  8. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  9. Report on task assignment No. 3 for the Waste Package Project; Parts A & B, ASME pressure vessel codes review for waste package application; Part C, Library search for reliability/failure rates data on low temperature low pressure piping, containers, and casks with long design lives

    SciTech Connect

    Trabia, M.B.; Kiley, M.; Cardle, J.; Joseph, M.

    1991-07-01

    The Waste Package Project Research Team, at UNLV, has four general required tasks. Task one is the management, quality assurance, and overview of the research that is performed under the cooperative agreement. Task two is the structural analysis of spent fuel and high level waste. Task three is an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Vessel Code review for waste package application. Finally, task four is waste package labeling. This report includes preliminary information about task three (ASME Pressure Vessel Code review for Waste package Application). The first objective is to compile a list of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code that can be applied to waste package containers design and manufacturing processes. The second objective is to explore the use of these applicable codes to the preliminary waste package container designs. The final objective is to perform a library search for reliability and/or failure rates data on low pressure, low temperature, containers and casks with long design lives.

  10. Free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  11. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: COMPOSITING EXPLOSIVES/ORGANICS CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory scale and pilot scale studies were conducted to evaluate composting to treat sediments and soils containing explosive and organic compounds. Sediment and soil from lagoons at Army ammunition plants, located in Louisiana, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania contained high...

  12. Los Alamos explosives performance data

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.; Crane, S.L.; Johnson, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides explosives performances, as measured by plate acceleration data, aquarium data, and detonation velocity data. It includes some 800 pages of data and is for explosives scientists more than engineers. (This is a companion volume to the 1980 ''LASL Explosive Property Data'' which covered only pure explosives and well-characterized explosive formulations).

  13. Small-scale explosive seam welding. [using ribbon explosive encased in lead sheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A unique small scale explosive seam welding technique is reported that has successfully joined a variety of aluminum alloys and alloy combinations in thicknesses to 0.125 inch, as well as titanium in thicknesses to 0.056 inch. The explosively welded joints are less than one-half inch in width and apparently have no long length limitation. The ribbon explosive developed in this study contains very small quantities of explosive encased in a flexible thin lead sheath. The evaluation and demonstration of this welding technique was accomplished in three phases: evaluation and optimization of ten major explosive welding variables, the development of four weld joints, and an applicational analysis which included photomicrographs, pressure integrity tests, vacuum effects, and fabrication of some potentially useful structures in aluminum and titanium.

  14. Determination of Explosive Blast Loading Equivalencies with AN Explosively Driven Shock Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott I.; Morris, John S.; Hill, Larry G.

    2009-12-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values were measured for C4, ANFO, and two perchlorate explosives. Explosive equivalencies from these values were found to agree with prior theory and experiment.

  15. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  16. The Role of Binder in Deflagrating HMX-based Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Levie, H. W.; Glascoe, E. A.; Greenwood, D. W.; de Haven, M. R.; Molitoris, J. D.; Springer, H. K.

    2011-06-01

    Deflagration rates are known to be a strong function of temperature and pressure, but chemical reactions facilitated by the explosive's binder can also play an important role. Here we report a study of two HMX-based formulations, PBX-9501 (HMX 95%, estane 2.5%, bdnpa 1.25%, and bdnpf 1.25%) and LX-10 (HMX 95%, Viton-A 5%), which we use to investigate the origins of violence in thermal explosions. We employ flash x-ray radiography to directly image the rates at which reaction fronts proceed in a confined vessel. Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) characterizes the vessel wall motion as a function of time. Our results show that thermal explosions of PBX-9501, with its more reactive binder, are more violent than explosions of LX-10. In LX-10, we observe quenched deflagration and limited violence. In PBX-9501, however, a higher deflagration rate is developed and sustained even after vessel rupture. Thermal explosions of initially-confined PBX-9501 therefore are more complete and significantly more violent. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr.; Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  18. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  19. Explosives simulants: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, G.L.; Pruneda, C.O.; Simpson, R.L.

    1992-03-04

    Two TNT high explosives simulants have been developed. Small scale testing has shown them to be insensitive to: impact, spark, friction, temperature, and shock. The materials have been scaled to 0.5 kg quantities and samples given to the Protective Services Department for field evaluation using explosives detecting canines.

  20. 46 CFR 189.25-47 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.25-47 Section 189.25-47 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS... marine inspector shall inspect every chemistry laboratory, scientific laboratory, and chemical...

  1. 46 CFR 189.25-47 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.25-47 Section 189.25-47 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS... marine inspector shall inspect every chemistry laboratory, scientific laboratory, and chemical...

  2. Quadractic Model of Thermodynamic States in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04

    We study the thermodynamic states encountered during Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. Such explosions contain up to six components: three fuels (PETN, TNT and Aluminum) and their products corresponding to stoichiometric combustion with air. We establish the loci in thermodynamic state space that correctly describes the behavior of the components. Results are fit with quadratic functions that serve as fast equations of state suitable for 3D numerical simulations of SDF explosions.

  3. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  4. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  5. Filament-wound composite vessel materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Review of recent developments in advanced filament-wound fiber/resin composite vessel technology for cryogen and high-pressure gas containment applications. Design and fabrication procedures have been developed for small-diameter closed-end vessels equipped with thin elastomeric or thin metallic liners. Specific results are discussed.

  6. Tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    A tritium transport vessel using depleted uranium was tested in the laboratory using deuterium and protium. The vessel contains 0.5 kg of depleted uranium and can hold up to 18 grams of tritium. The conditions for activation, tritium loading and tritium unloading were defined. The safety aspects that included air-ingress, tritium diffusion, temperature and pressure potentials were evaluated.

  7. Gunshot and Explosion Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

    2004-01-01

    Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7

  8. Methodology for Assessing a Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) Blast Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keddy, Chris P.

    2012-01-01

    Composite Vessels are now used to store a variety of fluids or gases including cryogenic fluids under pressure. Sudden failure of these vessels under certain conditions can lead to a potentially catastrophic vapor expansion if thermal control is not maintained prior to failure. This can lead to a "Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion" or BLEVE.

  9. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  10. Optically measured explosive impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

  11. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  12. Filament-wound composite vessels material technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    Programs are reviewed that were conducted to establish a technology base for applying advanced fibers or resins to high performance filament-wound pressure vessels for containment of cryogens and high pressure gases. Materials evaluated included boron, graphite, PRD 49-1 and 3/epoxy and S-glass/polyimide composites. Closed-end cylindrical, and oblate spheroid-shaped vessels were fabricated in 4- and 8-inch diameter sizes. Vessels were subjected to single-cycle burst, low-cycle fatigue, and sustained loading tests over a -423 F to room temperature range for epoxy composites and a -423 to 500 F temperature range for the polyimide composites. Vessels tested at cryogenic and/or 500 F had thin (3 to 20 mils) metallic liners whereas vessels tested at room temperature had elastomeric liners. Correlations between acoustic emissions and burst and cyclic properties of PRD 49-1 filament-wound vessels are discussed.

  13. Final report for confinement vessel analysis. Task 2, Safety vessel impact analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Y.D.

    1994-01-26

    This report describes two sets of finite element analyses performed under Task 2 of the Confinement Vessel Analysis Program. In each set of analyses, a charge is assumed to have detonated inside the confinement vessel, causing the confinement vessel to fail in either of two ways; locally around the weld line of a nozzle, or catastrophically into two hemispheres. High pressure gases from the internal detonation pressurize the inside of the safety vessel and accelerate the fractured nozzle or hemisphere into the safety vessel. The first set of analyses examines the structural integrity of the safety vessel when impacted by the fractured nozzle. The objective of these calculations is to determine if the high strength bolt heads attached to the nozzle penetrate or fracture the lower strength safety vessel, thus allowing gaseous detonation products to escape to the atmosphere. The two dimensional analyses predict partial penetration of the safety vessel beneath the tip of the penetrator. The analyses also predict maximum principal strains in the safety vessel which exceed the measured ultimate strain of steel. The second set of analyses examines the containment capability of the safety vessel closure when impacted by half a confinement vessel (hemisphere). The predicted response is the formation of a 0.6-inch gap, caused by relative sliding and separation between the two halves of the safety vessel. Additional analyses with closure designs that prevent the gap formation are recommended.

  14. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  15. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  16. Screening sealed bottles for liquid explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Kim, Y.-W.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Ficke, L.; Chhoa, T. K.; Moeller, C. R.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Burnett, Lowell J.; Czipott, Peter V.; Pence, J. S.; Skvoretz, David C.

    1997-01-01

    A particularly disturbing development affecting transportation safety and security is the increasing use of terrorist devices which avoid detection by conventional means through the use of liquid explosives and flammables. The hazardous materials are generally hidden in wine or liquor bottles that cannot be opened routinely for inspection. This problem was highlighted by the liquid explosives threat which disrupted air traffic between the US an the Far East for an extended period in 1995. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening systems capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system, magnetic resonance (MR) is used to interrogate the liquid. MR produces an extremely rich data set and many characteristics of the MR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple MR signatures can be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat. The Quantum Magnetics Liquid Explosives Screening System is currently operational. Following extensive laboratory testing, a field trial of the system was carried out at the Los Angeles International Airport.

  17. Characterization of detonation products of RSI-007 explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Breaux, Bradley; Vineski, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Lambert, David; Chhabildas, Lalit

    2012-03-01

    PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a high-purity CL-20 based explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The back surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for interferometry measurements. Detailed reverberations corresponding to shock arrival and release are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further refine the release states.

  18. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration for trace explosives detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin Lane

    2004-05-01

    A trace explosives detection system typically contains three subsystems: sample collection, preconcentration, and detection. Sample collection of trace explosives (vapor and particulate) through large volumes of airflow helps reduce sampling time while increasing the amount of dilute sample collected. Preconcentration of the collected sample before introduction into the detector improves the sensitivity of the detector because of the increase in sample concentration. By combining large-volume sample collection and preconcentration, an improvement in the detection of explosives is possible. Large-volume sampling and preconcentration is presented using a systems level approach. In addition, the engineering of large-volume sampling and preconcentration for the trace detection of explosives is explained.

  19. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  20. Disorder induces explosive synchronization.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2014-06-01

    We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

  1. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  2. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  3. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  4. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  5. Polymeric binder for explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissell, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical reaction for producing a polymer which can be mixed with explosives to produce a rigid material is discussed. Physical and chemical properties of polymers are described and chemical structure of the polymer is illustrated.

  6. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  7. Improving airport explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1990-01-01

    ORNL has developed the technology to detect hidden explosives in luggage using X ray and neutron detection devices. The Federal Aviation Administration has ordered the airlines to buy and install Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) units. The combined pulsed-neutron and X-ray interrogation inspection (CPNX) system developed at ORNL uses less radioactive materials as well as being more sensitive to weapons, electronic devices and plastic explosives.

  8. Modeling of interior explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Y. V.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of an interior explosion are presented. The main purpose of the work is an investigation of shock-wave structure caused by explosion and estimation of pressure level on building walls. The numerical simulation was carried out by means of ANSYS AUTODYN software at normal atmospheric conditions with different mass of charge and internal geometry of room. The effect of mass charge and presence of vent area were shown. The calculation results are compared with published experimental data.

  9. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  10. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  11. 21 CFR 868.1575 - Gas collection vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas collection vessel. 868.1575 Section 868.1575...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1575 Gas collection vessel. (a) Identification. A gas collection vessel is a container-like device intended to collect a patient's exhaled...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1575 - Gas collection vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas collection vessel. 868.1575 Section 868.1575...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1575 Gas collection vessel. (a) Identification. A gas collection vessel is a container-like device intended to collect a patient's exhaled...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1575 - Gas collection vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas collection vessel. 868.1575 Section 868.1575...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1575 Gas collection vessel. (a) Identification. A gas collection vessel is a container-like device intended to collect a patient's exhaled...

  14. 21 CFR 868.1575 - Gas collection vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas collection vessel. 868.1575 Section 868.1575...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1575 Gas collection vessel. (a) Identification. A gas collection vessel is a container-like device intended to collect a patient's exhaled...

  15. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Harrier, Danielle

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  16. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G; Morris, John S

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  17. Energetic nanocomposites for detonation initiation in high explosives without primary explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comet, Marc; Martin, Cédric; Klaumünzer, Martin; Schnell, Fabien; Spitzer, Denis

    2015-12-01

    The mixing of aluminum nanoparticles with a metal containing oxidizer (here, WO3 or Bi2(SO4)3) gives reactive materials called nanothermites. In this research, nanothermites were combined with high explosive nanoparticles (RDX) to prepare energetic nanocomposites. These smart nanomaterials have higher performances and are much less hazardous than primary explosives. Their flame propagation velocity can be tuned from 0.2 to 3.5 km/s, through their explosive content. They were used to initiate the detonation of a high explosive, the pentaerythritol tetranitrate. The pyrotechnic transduction of combustion into detonation was achieved with short length systems (<2 cm) and small amounts of energetic nanocomposites (˜100 mg) in semi-confined systems.

  18. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  19. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  20. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  1. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  2. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  3. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  4. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOEpatents

    Stroud, John R.; Ornellas, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  5. 48 CFR 252.223-7002 - Safety precautions for ammunition and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (a) Definition. Ammunition and explosives, as used in this clause— (1) Means liquid and solid propellants and explosives, pyrotechnics, incendiaries and smokes in the following forms: (i) Bulk, (ii... components containing no explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnics; (ii) Flammable liquids; (iii) Acids;...

  6. Equation of state of insensitive high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ree, F H; Van Thiel, M; Viecelli, J A

    1998-08-12

    Detonation of an insensitive high explosive formulated with a fluorine containing binder produces a large amount of condensed carbon and gaseous HF product, which transforms into CF{sub 4} as the pressure is increased. The former (carbon condensation) is characterized by slow energy release, while the latter (HF) has no shockwave data. We have identified that these two items are the key factors, which make reliable prediction of the performance of an insensitive high explosive very difficult. This paper describes physical models to address these issues and apply the models to analyze experimental data of LX-17.

  7. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1987-07-14

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed. 7 figs.

  8. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1986-05-02

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

  9. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOEpatents

    Skogmo, Phillip J.; Tucker, Tillman J.

    1987-01-01

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

  10. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  11. Insensitive explosive composition of halogenated copolymer and triaminotrinitrobenzene

    DOEpatents

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1976-01-01

    A highly insensitive and heat resistant plastic-bonded explosive containing 90 wt % triaminotrinitrobenzene and 10 wt % of a fully saturated copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride is readily manufactured by the slurry process.

  12. Explosively separable casing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.K.; Kychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    1985-02-19

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  13. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, A.K.; Rychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a picket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  14. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Albin K.; Rychnovsky, Raymond E.; Visbeck, Cornelius N.

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  15. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  16. 49 CFR 176.100 - Permit for Divisions 1.1 and 1.2 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carrier must obtain a permit from the COTP in accordance with the procedures in 33 CFR 126.19. Exceptions... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permit for Divisions 1.1 and 1.2 (explosive... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials § 176.100 Permit for Divisions...

  17. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-06-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig.

  18. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  19. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  20. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  1. Degassing explosions at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Lees, Jonathan M.; Gordeev, Evgenii I.

    During the summer of 1997, Karymsky Volcano produced summit explosions about six times each hour. Typical explosive episodes lasted between 30 seconds and three minutes, produced gas and ash columns several hundred meters high, and ejected some incandescent material. To better understand the physical source mechanisms responsible, we recorded hundreds of explosions with a three component broad-band seismometer and microphone located 1650 meters from the active vent. Nearly every explosion is recorded as an emergent yet identical seismic wavelet which is followed 4.15 s later by an impulsive acoustic arrival. We interpret the signals as a near-surface gas volume burst which fractures the vent ‘plug,’ lowers the lithostatic pressure within the magma column, and often induces further degassing. When degassing continues, it is generally manifested as either a series of regular one second ‘chugging’ explosions, steady higher frequency ‘jetting’, or a hybrid combination. We believe that the seismic signature for ‘chugs,’ short duration harmonic tremor with integer overtones, is the result of repeated gas volume bursts at the vent. In contrast, seismograms for jetting are non-harmonic and contain higher frequencies. We believe that the competing degassing behaviors are influenced by the gas flux as well as the plug/conduit characteristics. We propose that a plug exists due to a viscosity gradient caused by volatile depletion in the upper conduit.

  2. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  3. Impact sensitivity test of liquid explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiutiaev, Andrei; Trebunskih, Valeri; Dolzhikov, Andrei; Zvereva, Irina

    2015-06-01

    The sensitivity of liquid explosive in the presence of gas bubbles increases many times as compared with the liquid without gas bubbles. If we consider that in the liquid as a result of convection, wave motion, shock, etc. gas bubbles are easily generated, the need to develop a method for determining sensitivity of liquid explosives to impact and a detailed study of the ignition explosives with bubbles is obvious. On a mathematical model of a single steam bubbles in the fluid theoretically considered the process of initiating explosive liquid systems to impact. For the experimental investigation, the well-known K-44 -II and the so-called appliance No. 1 were used. Instead of the metal cap in the standard method in this paper there was polyurethane foam cylindrical container with LHE, which is easily deforms by impact. A large number of tests with different liquid explosives were made. It was found that the test LHE to impact in appliance No. 1 with polyurethane foam to a large extent reflect the real mechanical sensitivity due to the small loss of impact energy on the deformation of the metal cap, as well as the best differentiation LHE sensitivity due to the higher resolution method .

  4. New impact sensitivity test of liquid explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiutiaev, Andrei; Trebunskih, Valeri

    The sensitivity of liquid explosive in the presence of gas bubbles increases many times as compared with the liquid without gas bubbles. Local hot spot in this case formed as a result of compression and heating of the gas inside the bubbles. If we consider that in the liquid as a result of convection, wave motion, shock, etc. gas bubbles are easily generated, the need to develop a method for determining sensitivity of liquid explosives to impact and a detailed study of the ignition explosives with bubbles is obvious. On a mathematical model of a single steam bubbles in the fluid theoretically considered the process of initiating explosive liquid systems to impact. For the experimental investigation, the well-known K-44 -II with the metal cap were used. Instead of the metal cap in the standard method in this paper there was polyurethane foam cylindrical container with LHE, which is easily deforms by impact. A large number of tests with different liquid explosives were made. It was found that the test LHE to impact with polyurethane foam to a large extent reflect the real mechanical sensitivity due to the small loss of impact energy on the deformation of the metal cap, as well as the best differentiation LHE sensitivity due to the higher resolution method . Results obtained in the samara state technical university.

  5. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices.

  6. Brontides: natural explosive noises.

    PubMed

    Gold, T; Soter, S

    1979-04-27

    Episodes of explosive noises of natural origin, or brontides, have been well documented, often in association with seismic activity and in a few cases as precursors to major earthquakes. Ground-to-air acoustic transmission from shallow earthquakes can account for many of these episodes, but not for all, and other causes, such as the sudden eruption of gas from high-pressure sources in the ground may at times have been responsible. Confusion with distant thunder or artillery at times of anomalous sound propagation complicates the analysis, and more recently the greatly increased frequency of artificial explosive noises and sonic booms has tended to mask the recognition of natural brontides. PMID:17757998

  7. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  8. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  9. Measurement of Afterburning Effect of Underoxidized Explosives by Underwater Explosion Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wei; He, Zhongqi; Chen, Wanghua

    2015-04-01

    The afterburning effect of TNT and a desensitized hexogen RDX-Al explosive was studied in a defined gas volume under water. A double-layer container (DLC) filled with different gases (air, oxygen, and nitrogen) was used to control and distinguish the afterburning effect of explosives. After the charges in the DLC were initiated under water, the shock wave signals were collected and analyzed. It is shown that shock wave peak pressures are duly in compliance with explosion similarity law, pressure, and impulse histories for explosions in oxygen and air are greater than those recorded for explosions in nitrogen due to the afterburing reaction. Moreover, the afterburning energy was calculated. Results show that even though there is excess oxygen in the gas volume, the afterburning energy may not reach the theoretically maximum value. This result is different from that in confined explosion, where the presence of excess oxygen in the compressed gas filling a bomb leads to complete combustion of the detonation products.

  10. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... supersedes the List of Explosives Materials dated September 20, 2012 (Docket No. ATF 47N, 77 FR 58410... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver....

  11. Bioengineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guoguang; Sapoznik, Etai; Soker, Shay

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) affecting blood vessel function is a leading cause of death around the world. A common treatment option to replace the diseased blood vessels is vascular grafting using the patient's own blood vessels. However, patients with CVD are usually lacking vessels for grafting. Recent advances in tissue engineering are now providing alternatives to autologous vascular grafts in the form of tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). In this review, we will describe the use of different scaffolding systems, cell sources and conditioning approaches for creating fully functional blood vessels. Additionally, we will present the methods used for assessing TEBV functions and describe preclinical and clinical trials for TEBV. Although the early results were encouraging, current designs of TEBV still fall short as a viable clinical option. Implementing the current knowledge in vascular development can lead to improved fabrication and function of TEBV and hasten clinical translation.

  12. Pressure sensor for sealed containers

    DOEpatents

    Hodges, Franklin R.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic pressure sensor for sensing a pressure change inside a sealed container. The sensor includes a sealed deformable vessel having a first end attachable to an interior surface of the sealed container, and a second end. A magnet mounted to the vessel second end defining a distance away from the container surface provides an externally detectable magnetic field. A pressure change inside the sealed container causes deformation of the vessel changing the distance of the magnet away from the container surface, and thus the detectable intensity of the magnetic field.

  13. Confined explosive joining of tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Technique uses explosive ribbon to join and seal tubes hermetically while totally confining explosive products, such as smoke, light, and sound. Only click is audible. Process yields joints of the same strengths as parent metal.

  14. Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Dahlgren; Art Brooks; Paul Goranson; Mike Cole; Peter Titus

    2004-09-28

    The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellarator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 degrees centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

  15. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02μ, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  16. The combustion of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S. F.

    2001-01-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

  17. The First Nova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Gil-Pons, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Classical novae are stellar explosions with an energy release that is only overcome by supernovae and γ-ray bursts. Theoretical and observational evidence suggests that these cataclysmic events are major sources of the Galactic 15N, 17O, and 13C, and contribute to the abundances of 7Li, and 26Al, with a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Ca. However, there are reasons to believe that these nuclear signatures have changed during the overall Galactic history. In this Letter, the first that addresses the nature of nova explosions in the most primitive, low-metallicity binaries, we show that primordial novae eject more massive envelopes and display a larger nuclear activity than classical novae, leading to a new type of explosion, halfway between a supernova and a nova. The ejected shells from the most violent, massive primordial novae yield large excesses of Ti and a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Cu-Zn, signatures never before associated with a nova-like explosion. We conclude that the chemical abundance pattern of the nova ejecta is strongly modified at low metallicities and suggest that primordial novae are a possible birthplace of a rare variety of presolar grains whose origin remains uncertain.

  18. The Combustion of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S. F.

    2002-07-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The search also continues for improved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Currently, the most significant uncertainties are in the processes immediately following ignition. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions. This paper presents a view of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed. Novel materials may yield insight into the mechanisms involved with rapid deflagration processes.

  19. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109 (36 FR 10553-10562). OSHA based the... revisions to the standard (37 FR 6577, 57 FR 6356, and 63 FR 33450). On July 29, 2002, the Institute of... revision (72 FR 18792). On July 17, 2007, however, OSHA closed the comment period, stating that it...

  20. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  1. Managing the data explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    1993-01-01

    The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

  2. Modeling the Effects of Confinement during Cookoff of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, Michael

    2013-06-01

    In practical scenarios, cookoff of explosives is a three-dimensional transient phenomenon where the rate limiting reactions may occur either in the condensed or gas phase. The effects of confinement are more dramatic when the rate-limiting reactions occur in the gas phase. Explosives can be self-confined, where the decomposing gases are contained within non-permeable regions of the explosive, or confined by a metal or composite container. Self-confinement is prevalent in plastic bonded explosives at full density. The time-to-ignition can be delayed by orders of magnitude if the reactive gases leave the confining apparatus. Delays in ignition can also occur when the confining apparatus has excess gas volume or ullage. Explosives with low melting points, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) or cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) are complex since melting and flow need to be considered when simulating cookoff. Cookoff of composite explosives such as Comp-B (mixture of TNT and RDX) are even more complex since dissolution of one component increases the reactivity of the other component. Understanding the effects of confinement is required to accurately model cookoff at various scales ranging from small laboratory experiments to large real systems that contain explosives. Sandia National Laboratories is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  4. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  5. New explosive seam welding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  6. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  7. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  8. Flash Ignition and Initiation of Explosives-Nanotubes Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Manaa, M R; Mitchell, A R; Garza, R G; Pagoria, P F; Watkins, B E

    2005-05-25

    The recent astounding discoveries of ignition in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) after exposure to an ordinary photographic flash, (1) other formulations of carbons containing noble metals, (2) and polyaniline nanofibers (3) prompted us to explore a possible further instigation of explosive materials. Here, we report that an ignition and initiation process, further leading to actual detonation, does occur for explosives in lax contact with carbon nanotubes that are prone to opto-thermal activity via a conventional flashbulb. Optical ignition and initiation of explosives could thus far only be accomplished through lasers, (4) with specific characteristic of high power, pulse length, wavelength, and a small target area that greatly inhibit their applications. Our results have the implication that explosives with opto-thermally active SWNTs formulations are new ideal candidates for remote optical triggering of safety apparatus such as the firing of bolts on space shuttles rockets and aircraft exit doors, and for controlled burning of explosives as actuators.

  9. Experimental investigation of external explosion in the venting process*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhi-min; Jin, Xin-qiao; Cui, Dong-ming; Ye, Jing-fang

    2005-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted on the process of combustion and explosion vent in a 200 mm (diameter)×400 mm (length) vertical cylindrical vessel. When CH4-air mixture gases were used and the vent diameter was 55 mm, conditions of Φ (equivalent ratio)=0.8, Φ=1.0 and Φ=1.3 and two ignition positions (at the cylinder center and bottom) were selected. The venting processes and the correlated factors are discussed in this paper. PMID:15822147

  10. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  11. Probabilistic modeling of propagating explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, L.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.

    1996-03-01

    Weapons containing significant quantities of high explosives (HE) are sometimes located in close proximity to one another. If an explosion occurs in a weapon, the possibility of propagation to one or more additional weapons may exist, with severe consequences possibly resulting. In the general case, a system of concern consists of multiple weapons and various other objects in a complex, three-dimensional geometry. In each weapon, HE is enclosed by (casing) materials that function as protection in the event of a neighbor detonation but become a source of fragments if the HE is initiated. The protection afforded by the casing means that only high-momentum fragments, which occur rarely, are of concern. These fragments, generated in an initial donor weapon are transported to other weapons either directly or by ricochet. Interaction of a fragment with an acceptor weapon can produce a reaction in the acceptor HE and result in a second detonation. In this paper we describe a comprehensive methodology to estimate the probability of various consequences for fragment-induced propagating detonations in arrays of weapons containing HE. Analysis of this problem requires an approach that can both define the circumstances under which rare events can occur and calculate the probability of such occurrences. Our approach is based on combining process tree methodology with Monte Carlo transport simulation. Our Monte Carlo technique very effectively captures important features of these differences. Process tree methodology is described and its use is discussed for a simplified problem and to illustrate the power of Monte Carlo simulation in estimating fragment-induced detonation of an acceptor weapon.

  12. Effect of Velocity of Detonation of Explosives on Seismic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Leidig, M.; Bonner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    We studied seismic body wave generation from four fully contained explosions of approximately the same yields (68 kg of TNT equivalent) conducted in anisotropic granite in Barre, VT. The explosions were detonated using three types of explosives with different velocities of detonation (VOD): Black Powder (BP), Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil/Emulsion (ANFO), and Composition B (COMP B). The main objective of the experiment was to study differences in seismic wave generation among different types of explosives, and to determine the mechanism responsible for these differences. The explosives with slow burn rate (BP) produced lower P-wave amplitude and lower corner frequency, which resulted in lower seismic efficiency (0.35%) in comparison with high burn rate explosives (2.2% for ANFO and 3% for COMP B). The seismic efficiency estimates for ANFO and COMP B agree with previous studies for nuclear explosions in granite. The body wave radiation pattern is consistent with an isotropic explosion with an added azimuthal component caused by vertical tensile fractures oriented along pre-existing micro-fracturing in the granite, although the complexities in the P- and S-wave radiation patterns suggest that more than one fracture orientation could be responsible for their generation. High S/P amplitude ratios and low P-wave amplitudes suggest that a significant fraction of the BP source mechanism can be explained by opening of the tensile fractures as a result of the slow energy release.

  13. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  14. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  15. Advancing Explosion Source Theory through Experimentation: Results from Seismic Experiments Since the Moratorium on Nuclear Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonner, J. L.; Stump, B. W.

    2011-12-01

    On 23 September 1992, the United States conducted the nuclear explosion DIVIDER at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It would become the last US nuclear test when a moratorium ended testing the following month. Many of the theoretical explosion seismic models used today were developed from observations of hundreds of nuclear tests at NTS and around the world. Since the moratorium, researchers have turned to chemical explosions as a possible surrogate for continued nuclear explosion research. This talk reviews experiments since the moratorium that have used chemical explosions to advance explosion source models. The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment examined single-point, fully contained chemical-nuclear equivalence by detonating over a kiloton of chemical explosive at NTS in close proximity to previous nuclear explosion tests. When compared with data from these nearby nuclear explosions, the regional and near-source seismic data were found to be essentially identical after accounting for different yield scaling factors for chemical and nuclear explosions. The relationship between contained chemical explosions and large production mining shots was studied at the Black Thunder coal mine in Wyoming in 1995. The research led to an improved source model for delay-fired mining explosions and a better understanding of mining explosion detection by the International Monitoring System (IMS). The effect of depth was examined in a 1997 Kazakhstan Depth of Burial experiment. Researchers used local and regional seismic observations to conclude that the dominant mechanism for enhanced regional shear waves was local Rg scattering. Travel-time calibration for the IMS was the focus of the 1999 Dead Sea Experiment where a 10-ton shot was recorded as far away as 5000 km. The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments provided a comparison of fully- and partially-contained chemical shots with mining explosions, thus quantifying the reduction in seismic amplitudes associated with partial

  16. Multilayer Composite Pressure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2005-01-01

    A method has been devised to enable the fabrication of lightweight pressure vessels from multilayer composite materials. This method is related to, but not the same as, the method described in gMaking a Metal- Lined Composite-Overwrapped Pressure Vessel h (MFS-31814), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 3 (March 2005), page 59. The method is flexible in that it poses no major impediment to changes in tank design and is applicable to a wide range of tank sizes. The figure depicts a finished tank fabricated by this method, showing layers added at various stages of the fabrication process. In the first step of the process, a mandrel that defines the size and shape of the interior of the tank is machined from a polyurethane foam or other suitable lightweight tooling material. The mandrel is outfitted with metallic end fittings on a shaft. Each end fitting includes an outer flange that has a small step to accommodate a thin layer of graphite/epoxy or other suitable composite material. The outer surface of the mandrel (but not the fittings) is covered with a suitable release material. The composite material is filament- wound so as to cover the entire surface of the mandrel from the step on one end fitting to the step on the other end fitting. The composite material is then cured in place. The entire workpiece is cut in half in a plane perpendicular to the axis of symmetry at its mid-length point, yielding two composite-material half shells, each containing half of the foam mandrel. The halves of the mandrel are removed from within the composite shells, then the shells are reassembled and bonded together with a belly band of cured composite material. The resulting composite shell becomes a mandrel for the subsequent steps of the fabrication process and remains inside the final tank. The outer surface of the composite shell is covered with a layer of material designed to be impermeable by the pressurized fluid to be contained in the tank. A second step on the outer flange of

  17. Flexible Composite-Material Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Glen; Haggard, Roy; Harris, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed lightweight pressure vessel would be made of a composite of high-tenacity continuous fibers and a flexible matrix material. The flexibility of this pressure vessel would render it (1) compactly stowable for transport and (2) more able to withstand impacts, relative to lightweight pressure vessels made of rigid composite materials. The vessel would be designed as a structural shell wherein the fibers would be predominantly bias-oriented, the orientations being optimized to make the fibers bear the tensile loads in the structure. Such efficient use of tension-bearing fibers would minimize or eliminate the need for stitching and fill (weft) fibers for strength. The vessel could be fabricated by techniques adapted from filament winding of prior composite-material vessels, perhaps in conjunction with the use of dry film adhesives. In addition to the high-bias main-body substructure described above, the vessel would include a low-bias end substructure to complete coverage and react peak loads. Axial elements would be overlaid to contain damage and to control fiber orientation around side openings. Fiber ring structures would be used as interfaces for connection to ancillary hardware.

  18. A new seismic discriminant for earthquakes and explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Bradley B.; Helmberger, Donald V.

    With the spread of nuclear weapons technology, more regions of the world need to be monitored in order to verify nuclear nonproliferation and limited test-ban treaties. Seismic monitoring is the primary means to remotely sense contained underground explosions “Bolt, 1976; Dahlman and Israelson, 1977”. Both underground explosions and earthquakes generate seismic energy, which propagates through the Earth as elastic waves. The crux of the verification problem is to differentiate between the seismic signatures of explosions and earthquakes. Such identification is most difficult in countries with seismically active areas, where bombs might be detonated to blend in with the region's natural seismicity.

  19. Recent methods for the determination of peroxide-based explosives.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Rasmus; Vogel, Martin; Karst, Uwe

    2006-10-01

    In the last few years, the need to determine peroxide-based explosives in solid samples and air samples has resulted in the development of a series of new analytical methods for triacetonetriperoxide (TATP, acetone peroxide) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD). In this review, after a short introduction describing the state of the art in the field, these new analytical methods are critically discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on spectroscopic and mass spectrometric methods as well as on chromatographic techniques with selective detection schemes. The potential of these methods to analyse unknown solid samples that might contain one or more of the explosives and to analyse peroxide-based explosives in air is evaluated.

  20. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  1. Explosives signatures and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

    2008-04-01

    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  2. Atmospheric Effects on the Combustion of Detonating Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Joel

    2005-07-01

    The detonation and subsequent combustion of aluminized explosive formulations depend heavily on the reactions of aluminum and oxygen. Fuel-rich formulations require oxygen from an external source (nominally an oxygen-containing atmosphere) to burn the fuel to completion. Dynamic spectroscopic measurements were made for two different aluminized explosives (PBXIH-135 and PBXN-111) to investigate the effect of changing atmospheres on the combustion properties of aluminum. Both explosive formulations were tested under normal atmospheric conditions and in an atmosphere of nitrogen. Light emission (from 350-550 nm) from the explosive events was collected in a spectrometer and dispersed temporally in a streak camera. New, nitrogen-containing species (near 387 and 416 nm) arise in the nitrogen atmosphere experiments for both formulations that seem to replace aluminum monoxide as a primary intermediate product for the fuel. The peak assignments and global kinetics of each species will be presented and the implications of these results on atmospheric effects will be discussed.

  3. Designing for explosive safety'': The Explosive Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, W.A.

    1990-12-01

    The Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is to be a new major facility in the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Weapons Program. The ECF is a self-contained, secure site on SNL property and is surrounded by Kirtland Air Force Base which is located 6-1/2 miles east of downtown Albuquerque, New Mexico. The ECF will be dedicated to research, development, and testing of detonators, neutron generators, batteries, explosives, and other weapon components. It will have capabilities for conducting explosive test fires, gas gun testing, physical analyses, chemical analyses, electrical testing and ancillary explosive storage in magazines. The ECF complex is composed of a building covering an area of approximately 91,000 square feet, six exterior explosive service magazines and a remote test cell. Approximately 50% of the building space will be devoted to highly specialized laboratory and test areas, the other 50% of the building is considered nonhazardous. Critical to the laboratory and test areas are the blast-structural design consideration and operational considerations, particularly those concerning personnel access control, safety and environmental protection. This area will be decoupled from the rest of the building to the extent that routine tests will not be heard or felt in the administrative area of the building. While the ECF is designed in accordance with the DOE Explosives Safety Manual to mitigate any off-site blast effects, potential injuries or death to the ECF staff may result from an accidental detonation of explosive material within the facility. Therefore, reducing the risk of exposing operation personnel to hazardous and energetic material is paramount in the design of the ECF.

  4. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  5. How vessels narrow.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S M

    1995-01-01

    Vascular narrowing, the clinical dilatation of narrowed vessels, and the restenosis of those vessels are central topics in modern cardiology. This review discusses the cellular basis both for the spontaneous narrowing of vessels and for the restenotic process that occurs after angioplasty. The central issue, as discussed in this review, is likely to be remodeling of the vessel wall rather than simple accretion of lipid mass in atherosclerosis or simple physical dilatation following angioplasty. While it is true that the atherosclerotic lesion grows by accretion of lipid mass, this by itself does not narrow vessels. As we will discuss, the vessel has a phenomenal ability to accommodate changes of this sort. Narrowing must occur, at least in part, because of a failure of this normal ability to accommodate. In a similar manner, one might expect the restonotic vessel to simply remodel itself down to its preangioplasty size. The issue for cell and molecular biologists is what "remodeling" means. Until recently, the assertion has been that remodeling occurred as the result of the formation of new intimal mass; that is, the atherosclerotic vessel was seen as returning to its original dimensions following angioplasty as a result of forming a new intimal mass that filled in the dilated space. Recent studies using cell kinetic methods as well as intravascular ultrasound, however, have cast doubt upon this hypothesis. It now appears that the loss of gain following angioplasty is likely to be due to the formation of new tissues which remodel the vessel wall without necessarily adding mass to it. This is the same sort of process that is well described in wound healing. The nature of this new tissue is of great interest. Studies in this laboratory and others have identified genes which may be unique to this tissue and explain the remodeling response. PMID:8585265

  6. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  7. Fate dynamics of environmentally exposed explosive traces.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Roderick R; Gregory, Kerin E; Aernecke, Matthew J; Clark, Michelle L; Ostrinskaya, Alla; Fountain, Augustus W

    2012-04-12

    The chemical and physical fates of trace amounts (<50 μg) of explosives containing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were determined for the purpose of informing the capabilities of tactical trace explosive detection systems. From these measurements, it was found that the mass decreases and the chemical composition changes on a time scale of hours, with the loss mechanism due to a combination of sublimation and photodegradation. The rates for these processes were dependent on the explosive composition, as well as on both the ambient temperature and the size distribution of the explosive particulates. From these results, a persistence model was developed and applied to model the time dependence of both the mass and areal coverage of the fingerprints, resulting in a predictive capability for determining fingerprint fate. Chemical analysis confirmed that sublimation rates for TNT were depressed by UV (330-400 nm) exposure due to photochemically driven increases in the molecular weight, whereas the opposite was observed for RDX. No changes were observed for PETN upon exposure to UV radiation, and this was attributed to its low UV absorbance. PMID:22424334

  8. Identification of explosives and explosive formulations using laser electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brady, John J; Judge, Elizabeth J; Levis, Robert J

    2010-06-15

    Mass analysis is demonstrated for the detection of sub-microgram quantities of explosive samples on a metallic surface at atmospheric pressure using laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS). A non-resonant femtosecond duration laser pulse vaporizes native samples for subsequent electrospray ionization and transfer into a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. LEMS was used to detect 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB), 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 3,4,8,9,12,13-hexaoxa-1,6-diazabicyclo[4.4.4]tetradecane (HMTD), and 3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexaoxacyclononane (TATP) deposited on a steel surface. LEMS was also used to directly analyze composite propellant materials containing an explosive to determine the molecular composition of the explosive pellets at atmospheric pressure. PMID:20486263

  9. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  10. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  11. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOEpatents

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  12. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    DOE PAGES

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Kaschube, Danielle R.

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity andmore » Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.« less

  13. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Kaschube, Danielle R.

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.

  14. Explosive acceleration of plates using nonconventional explosives heavily loaded with inert and reactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Petel, Oren; Huneault, Justin; Serge, Matthew; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    The detonation behavior of high explosives containing dispersed quantities or packed beds of dense additives has been previously investigated with the observation that such systems depart from the ``gamma law'' behavior typical of homogeneous explosives due to momentum transfer and thermalization between particles and detonation products. However, the influence of this non-ideal detonation behavior on the divergence speed of plates has been far less rigorously studied and existing literature suggests that the effect of dense additives cannot be explained solely through the straightforward application of the Gurney method with energy and density averaging of the explosive. In the current study, the acceleration history and terminal velocity of aluminum flyers launched by packed beds of granular material saturated by amine-sensitized nitromethane is reported. Two experimental configurations are used to study acceleration either by a purely grazing detonation in a finite thickness slab of explosive or by a normal detonation from an effectively infinite thickness of explosive. Flyer acceleration and velocity is measured via Photonic Doppler Velocimetry. Packed beds of plastic, aluminum, glass, iron, and bismuth are considered and the data is compared to Gurney velocity predictions.

  15. Temperature Controlled Vessel for Equation of State Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Ted D.; Gehr, Russell J.; Stahl, David B.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Robbins, David L.

    2002-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a vessel capable of heating and cooling hazardous samples used in the laser-driven miniflyer experiments. For cooling, either liquid or gaseous nitrogen may be used. For heating, an electric element is used. The accessible temperature range is -100 degC to 300 degC. O-ring containment seals in the inner containment vessel establish temperature limits. The outer level of containment uses copper gaskets and commercial vacuum components. The vessel may be operated with a gas atmosphere or a vacuum. Temperature is monitored using two thermocouples, one on the heater and one on the inner containment vessel. A controller module monitors one thermocouple to reach and maintain the desired temperature. Using this vessel we can perform equation of state or spall strength measurements on hazardous materials in different phases or near solid-solid or solid-liquid phase transitions. Initial data taken with this system will be presented.

  16. Powdery Emulsion Explosive: A New Excellent Industrial Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ouqi; Zhang, Kaiming; Yu, Zhengquan; Tang, Shujuan

    2012-07-01

    Powdery emulsion explosive (PEE), a new powdery industrial explosive with perfect properties, has been made using an emulsification-spray drying technique. PEE is composed of 91-92.5 wt% ammonium nitrate (AN), 4.5-6 wt% organic fuels, and 1.5-1.8 wt% water. Due to its microstructure as a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion and low water content, it has excellent detonation performance, outstanding water resistance, reliable safety, and good application compared with other industrial explosives, such as ammonite, emulsion explosives, and ANFO.

  17. Explosion Heat and Metal Acceleration Ability of High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhov, M. N.

    2004-07-01

    Investigations of explosion heats of TNT and HMX show that in tests of unconfined charges the explosion products undergo intense secondary heating when approaching the wall of calorimetric bomb cavity. This secondary heating causes "re-freezing" the explosion products in conditions of low pressure. An inert metal casing whose mass is more than four times greater than that of explosive charge prevents the secondary heating of products to the "re-freezing" temperature and rules out a change in their composition. Filling of calorimetric bomb cavity before explosion with an inert gas produces an effect similar to that of charge casing. The value of explosion heat, measured under conditions that preclude "re-freezing" of explosion products can serve as a measure of the energy content of high explosive. With the use of this parameter a simple method for predicting explosive performance in Cylinder Test has been developed. The method is based on the assumption that the coefficient of conversion of the chemical energy to the kinetic energy depends on the volumetric mole number of gaseous products.

  18. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  19. AE measurements for evaluation of defects in FRP pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Masanori; Takatsu, Takashi

    1995-11-01

    AE (acoustic emission) measurement was conducted in a series of pressuring tests of FRP pressure vessels in order to examine its applicability to the safety evaluation of vessels. Tested vessels were commercial FRP pressure vessels fabricated by filament winding of high strength glass fibers, impregnated epoxy resin, on a Al alloy liner. At the final stage of fabrication, they were subjected to autofrettage, an overpressuring treatment to produce compressive residual stresses in metal liner. AE measurement results showed a strong Kaiser`s effect and high felicity ratios. In a virgin vessel, very few AE signals were detected below the autofrettage pressure. Vessels containing artificial defects showed distinct increase in AE signals at the level of test pressure. AE origin map were obtained by triangular-zone calculation. Discussions are directed, in particular, to the selection of threshold and to the applicability of AE measurement to the in-service inspection of FRP pressure vessel.

  20. A multiphase transitioning peptide hydrogel for suturing ultrasmall vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Daniel J.; Brat, Gabriel A.; Medina, Scott H.; Tong, Dedi; Huang, Yong; Grahammer, Johanna; Furtmüller, Georg J.; Oh, Byoung Chol; Nagy-Smith, Katelyn J.; Walczak, Piotr; Brandacher, Gerald; Schneider, Joel P.

    2016-01-01

    Many surgeries are complicated by the need to anastomose, or reconnect, micrometre-scale vessels. Although suturing remains the gold standard for anastomosing vessels, it is difficult to place sutures correctly through collapsed lumen, making the procedure prone to failure. Here, we report a multiphase transitioning peptide hydrogel that can be injected into the lumen of vessels to facilitate suturing. The peptide, which contains a photocaged glutamic acid, forms a solid-like gel in a syringe and can be shear-thin delivered to the lumen of collapsed vessels (where it distends the vessel) and the space between two vessels (where it is used to approximate the vessel ends). Suturing is performed directly through the gel. Light is used to initiate the final gel-sol phase transition that disrupts the hydrogel network, allowing the gel to be removed and blood flow to resume. This gel adds a new tool to the armamentarium for micro- and supermicrosurgical procedures.

  1. A multiphase transitioning peptide hydrogel for suturing ultrasmall vessels.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel J; Brat, Gabriel A; Medina, Scott H; Tong, Dedi; Huang, Yong; Grahammer, Johanna; Furtmüller, Georg J; Oh, Byoung Chol; Nagy-Smith, Katelyn J; Walczak, Piotr; Brandacher, Gerald; Schneider, Joel P

    2016-01-01

    Many surgeries are complicated by the need to anastomose, or reconnect, micrometre-scale vessels. Although suturing remains the gold standard for anastomosing vessels, it is difficult to place sutures correctly through collapsed lumen, making the procedure prone to failure. Here, we report a multiphase transitioning peptide hydrogel that can be injected into the lumen of vessels to facilitate suturing. The peptide, which contains a photocaged glutamic acid, forms a solid-like gel in a syringe and can be shear-thin delivered to the lumen of collapsed vessels (where it distends the vessel) and the space between two vessels (where it is used to approximate the vessel ends). Suturing is performed directly through the gel. Light is used to initiate the final gel-sol phase transition that disrupts the hydrogel network, allowing the gel to be removed and blood flow to resume. This gel adds a new tool to the armamentarium for micro- and supermicrosurgical procedures. PMID:26524396

  2. Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.; Kempf, Michael; Kirschner, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature. A typical prototype TSEV (see figure) includes a flat-bottomed stainless-steel cylinder 4 in. (10.16 cm) long, 0.5 in. (1.27 cm) in diameter, having a wall thickness of 0.010 plus or minus 0.002 in. (0.254 plus or minus 0.051 mm). Microbial spores are deposited in the bottom of the cylinder, then the top of the cylinder is closed with a sterile rubber stopper. Hypodermic needles are used to puncture the rubber stopper to evacuate the inside of the cylinder or to purge the inside of the cylinder with a gas. In a typical application, the inside of the cylinder is purged with dry nitrogen prior to a test. During a test, the lower portion of the cylinder is immersed in a silicone-oil bath that has been preheated to and maintained at the test temperature. Test temperatures up to 220 C have been used. Because the spores are in direct contact with the thin cylinder wall, they quickly become heated to the test temperature.

  3. Infrared spectrometry and radiometry of high-explosive detonations: the Los Alamos experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E H; Williams, R L; Frazier, E N; Stone, D K; Herr, K C; Young, R M; Robbins, R G

    1982-11-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether the infrared spectra of high-explosive detonations can be used to infer the type of explosive material and/or the containment material employed. Infrared spectra and radiometric traces were measured during a test series of twenty-three detonations; some were contained and some uncontained. A variety of high-explosive materials and containment materials were included. The explosive charge was typically about 175 g. Infrared spectra were taken at the rate of 250 spectra/sec. This rate was too slow to characterize the very early gas expansion or burn pase of these explosions. The infrared spectra of the delayed or afterburn phase of these explosions often displayed molecular emission and absorption features. Absorption by NH/sub 3/ was observed when C-4 was the high-explosive material, and not observed for any other material. Emissions from H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ were observed part of the time. Their occurence does not seem to be correlated with the type of containment or type of high-explosive material, or peak temperature reached in the afterburn. From the radiometric traces, one concludes that the relative peak radiance from the burn and afterburn phases depend strongly on the type of high-explosive material. For similar devices the burn phase is consistent from shot to shot, whereas the afterburn is very inconsistent. The answer to the question whether infrared spectra of high-explosive detonations can be used to infer the type of explosive material and/or the containment material must await spectral observations of the burn phase. We now believe that spectra of the burn phase are likely to be the ones most useful in identifying the high-explosive or containment material.

  4. Open-pit explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Dannenberg, J.

    1982-07-01

    This paper explains how mine operators are taking a closer look at the power of explosives and how primary breakage affects other open-pit mining costs. Slurries have overcome most of the disadvantages attributed to them in their early years and may replace Anfo. Effective blasting is the key to an efficient, low-cost mining operation. Reviews are presented on research in crater studies, computer-aided design, the expanding gas theory, and high-speed motion picture cameras that show the importance of shock energy in fracturing the rock interfaces throughout the burden. The paper concludes with MSHA-approved courses in blasting offered throughout the US.

  5. Near-Source Scattering of Explosion-Generated Rg: Insight From Difference Spectrograms of NTS Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, I.; Chan, W.; Wagner, R.

    2005-12-01

    Several recent studies of the generation of low-frequency Lg from explosions indicate that the Lg wavetrain from explosions contains significant contributions from (1) the scattering of explosion-generated Rg into S and (2) direct S waves from the non-spherical spall source associated with a buried explosion. The pronounced spectral nulls observed in Lg spectra of Yucca Flats (NTS) and Semipalatinsk explosions (Patton and Taylor, 1995; Gupta et al., 1997) are related to Rg excitation caused by spall-related block motions in a conical volume over the shot point, which may be approximately represented by a compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) source (Patton et al., 2005). Frequency-dependent excitation of Rg waves should be imprinted on all scattered P, S and Lg waves. A spectrogram may be considered as a three-dimensional matrix of numbers providing amplitude and frequency information for each point in the time series. We found difference spectrograms, derived from a normal explosion and a closely located over-buried shot recorded at the same common station, to be remarkably useful for an understanding of the origin and spectral contents of various regional phases. This technique allows isolation of source characteristics, essentially free from path and recording site effects, since the overburied shot acts as the empirical Green's function. Application of this methodology to several pairs of closely located explosions shows that the scattering of explosion-generated Rg makes significant contribution to not only Lg and its coda but also to the two other regional phases Pg (presumably by the scattering of Rg into P) and Sn. The scattered energy, identified by the presence of a spectral null at the appropriate frequency, generally appears to be more prominent in the somewhat later-arriving sections of Pg, Sn, and Lg than in the initial part. Difference spectrograms appear to provide a powerful new technique for understanding the mechanism of near-source scattering

  6. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  7. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  8. 49 CFR 176.174 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in shipborne barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Fixed magazines may be built within a shipboard barge. Freight containers may be used as magazines... containers. (2) Class 1 (explosive) materials in compatibility group K or L must be stowed in steel...

  9. 49 CFR 176.174 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in shipborne barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Fixed magazines may be built within a shipboard barge. Freight containers may be used as magazines... containers. (2) Class 1 (explosive) materials in compatibility group K or L must be stowed in steel...

  10. 49 CFR 176.174 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in shipborne barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Fixed magazines may be built within a shipboard barge. Freight containers may be used as magazines... containers. (2) Class 1 (explosive) materials in compatibility group K or L must be stowed in steel...

  11. 49 CFR 176.174 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in shipborne barges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Fixed magazines may be built within a shipboard barge. Freight containers may be used as magazines... containers. (2) Class 1 (explosive) materials in compatibility group K or L must be stowed in steel...

  12. Optical measurements of flyer plate acceleration by emulsion explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shiro; Shimada, Hideki; Matsui, Kikuo; Ogata, Yuji; Seto, Masahiro; Masui, Akira; Wada, Yuji; Liu, Zhi-Yue; Itoh, Shigeru

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the study on the application of explosive welding technique to the field of the urgent repair of the gas and water pipe networks. The essential parameters related to the explosive welding are scrutinized from the point of view of the minimizing the damage to the steel pipe after welded explosively with a flyer plate. The emulsion explosive is contained in a rectangular hard-paper box whose bottom is the flyer plate with 100 mm length, 25 mm width and 1.5 mm thickness. The flyer motions of the flyer plates accelerated by emulsion explosive are observed by high-speed photography from the side and front view of the flyer plate. The damage to the pipe by the flyer plate is discussed with the results of the observation of flyer motion and explosive welding test under various experimental conditions. Moreover, one way to control the motion of the flyer plate is proposed. We put a PMMA buffer block into the explosive. The flying process of flyer plate is calculated by the finite different scheme based on the ALE method. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the experimental and numerical studies.

  13. Towards an Empirically Based Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R; Ruppert, S; Matzel, E; Hauk, T; Gok, R

    2009-08-31

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before been tested. The focus of our work is on the local and regional distances (< 2000 km) and phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg) necessary to see small explosions. We are developing a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum that is compatible with the earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation models developed using the Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction (MDAC) techniques (Walter and Taylor, 2002). The explosion parametric model will be particularly important in regions without any prior explosion data for calibration. The model is being developed using the available body of seismic data at local and regional distances for past nuclear explosions at foreign and domestic test sites. Parametric modeling is a simple and practical approach for widespread monitoring applications, prior to the capability to carry out fully deterministic modeling. The achievable goal of our parametric model development is to be able to predict observed local and regional distance seismic amplitudes for event identification and yield determination in regions with incomplete or no prior history of underground nuclear testing. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  14. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow

  15. High-speed imaging, acoustic features, and aeroacoustic computations of jet noise from Strombolian (and Vulcanian) explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, J.; Sesterhenn, J.; Scarlato, P.; Stampka, K.; Del Bello, E.; Pena Fernandez, J. J.; Gaudin, D.

    2014-05-01

    High-speed imaging of explosive eruptions at Stromboli (Italy), Fuego (Guatemala), and Yasur (Vanuatu) volcanoes allowed visualization of pressure waves from seconds-long explosions. From the explosion jets, waves radiate with variable geometry, timing, and apparent direction and velocity. Both the explosion jets and their wave fields are replicated well by numerical simulations of supersonic jets impulsively released from a pressurized vessel. The scaled acoustic signal from one explosion at Stromboli displays a frequency pattern with an excellent match to those from the simulated jets. We conclude that both the observed waves and the audible sound from the explosions are jet noise, i.e., the typical acoustic field radiating from high-velocity jets. Volcanic jet noise was previously quantified only in the infrasonic emissions from large, sub-Plinian to Plinian eruptions. Our combined approach allows us to define the spatial and temporal evolution of audible jet noise from supersonic jets in small-scale volcanic eruptions.

  16. Explosive blast neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris; Armonda, Rocco; Grant, Gerald; Ecklund, James

    2009-06-01

    Explosive blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the more serious wounds suffered by United States service members injured in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Some military medical treatments for blast TBI that have been introduced successfully in the war theater include decompressive craniectomy, cerebral angiography, transcranial Doppler, hypertonic resuscitation fluids, among others. Stateside neurosurgery, neuro-critical care, and rehabilitation for these patients have similarly progressed. With experience, military physicians have been able to clinically describe blast TBI across the entire severity spectrum. One important clinical finding is that a significant number of severe blast TBI victims develop pseudoaneurysms and vasospasm, which can lead to delayed decompensation. Another is that mild blast TBI shares clinical features with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Observations suggest that the mechanism by which explosive blast injures the central nervous system may be more complex than initially assumed. Rigorous study at the basic science and clinical levels, including detailed biomechanical analysis, is needed to improve understanding of this disease. A comprehensive epidemiological study is also warranted to determine the prevalence of this disease and the factors that contribute most to the risk of developing it. Sadly, this military-specific disease has significant potential to become a civilian one as well.

  17. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  18. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.173 - Drums and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... vessels, drums and containers containing toxic or flammable liquids or gases shall not be stored or used... pressure vessels, drums and containers of 30 gallon capacity or over containing flammable or toxic liquids...) Containers of 55 gallons or more capacity containing flammable or toxic liquid shall be surrounded by...

  2. Biodegradation of the nitramine explosive CL-20.

    PubMed

    Trott, Sandra; Nishino, Shirley F; Hawari, Jalal; Spain, Jim C

    2003-03-01

    The cyclic nitramine explosive CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) was examined in soil microcosms to determine whether it is biodegradable. CL-20 was incubated with a variety of soils. The explosive disappeared in all microcosms except the controls in which microbial activity had been inhibited. CL-20 was degraded most rapidly in garden soil. After 2 days of incubation, about 80% of the initial CL-20 had disappeared. A CL-20-degrading bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71, was isolated from enrichment cultures containing garden soil as an inoculum, succinate as a carbon source, and CL-20 as a nitrogen source. Growth experiments revealed that strain JS71 used 3 mol of nitrogen per mol of CL-20. PMID:12620886

  3. Internal Detonation Velocity Measurements Inside High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Benterou, J; Bennett, C V; Cole, G; Hare, D E; May, C; Udd, E

    2009-01-16

    In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation models and detonation models of high explosives, the ability to continuously measure the detonation velocity within an explosive is required. Progress on an embedded velocity diagnostic using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber containing a chirped fiber Bragg grating is reported. As the chirped fiber Bragg grating is consumed by the moving detonation wave, the physical length of the unconsumed Bragg grating is monitored with a fast InGaAs photodiode. Experimental details of the associated equipment and data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within PBX-9502 are presented. This small diameter fiber sensor has the potential to measure internal detonation velocities on the order of 10 mm/{micro}sec along path lengths tens of millimeters long.

  4. Biodegradation of the Nitramine Explosive CL-20

    PubMed Central

    Trott, Sandra; Nishino, Shirley F.; Hawari, Jalal; Spain, Jim C.

    2003-01-01

    The cyclic nitramine explosive CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) was examined in soil microcosms to determine whether it is biodegradable. CL-20 was incubated with a variety of soils. The explosive disappeared in all microcosms except the controls in which microbial activity had been inhibited. CL-20 was degraded most rapidly in garden soil. After 2 days of incubation, about 80% of the initial CL-20 had disappeared. A CL-20-degrading bacterial strain, Agrobacterium sp. strain JS71, was isolated from enrichment cultures containing garden soil as an inoculum, succinate as a carbon source, and CL-20 as a nitrogen source. Growth experiments revealed that strain JS71 used 3 mol of nitrogen per mol of CL-20. PMID:12620886

  5. Effects of explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment on sludge dewaterability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dayong; Yang, Jun

    2012-09-01

    The potential benefits and mechanism of explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment on sludge dewatering treatments were investigated in this study. Water content of sludge cake after centrifugation was used to evaluate sludge dewaterability. Particle size, viscosity, turbidity, and micrograph were determined to explain the observed changes in the pretreatment process. The results indicated that the optimal pretreatment condition, generating the lowest water content of sludge cake, was 25 g explosive and 96.7% original sludge water content. This condition resulted in the reduced particle size and viscosity as well as increased turbidity. Particle size and viscosity significantly contributed to enhance sludge dewaterability. Micrograph investigation indicated that explosive explosion shockwave pretreatment could rupture sludge flocs, release physically bound water, and extracellular substances into the solution, consequently enhancing sludge dewaterability.

  6. 50 CFR 600.501 - Vessel permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are contained in 50 CFR part 229 of this title. (b) Responsibility of owners and operators. The owners... additional permit restrictions on the permit under 15 CFR part 904, if the vessel is involved in the... authorize FFV's or persons to harass, capture, or kill marine mammals. No marine mammals may be taken in...

  7. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  8. Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect

    Dattelbaum, Dana

    2014-11-03

    As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

  9. Physical structure changes of solid medium by steam explosion sterilization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Chen, Hong-Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Physical structure changes of solid medium were investigated to reveal effects of steam explosion sterilization on solid-state fermentation (SSF). Results indicated that steam explosion changed the structure of solid medium at both molecular and three-dimensional structural levels, which exposed hydrophilic groups and enlarged pores and cavities. It was interesting to find that pores where capillary water located were the active sites for SSF, due to the close relationship among capillary water relaxation time, specific surface area and fermentation performance. Therefore, steam explosion sterilization increased the effective contact area for microbial cells on solid medium, which contributed to improving SSF performance. Combined with the previous research, mechanisms of SSF improvement by steam explosion sterilization contained both chemical and physical effects. PMID:26724552

  10. Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship

    ScienceCinema

    Dattelbaum, Dana

    2016-07-12

    As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

  11. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  12. On-site Analysis of Explosives in Various Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J G; Nunes, P; Whipple, R E; Alcaraz, A

    2006-01-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed several different strategies and technologies for the on-site detection of explosives. These on-site detection techniques include a colorimetric test, thin layer chromatography (TLC) kit and portable gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The screening of suspicious containers on-site and the search for trace explosive residue in a post-blast forensic investigation are of great importance. For these reasons, LLNL's Forensic Science Center has developed a variety of fieldable detection technologies to screen for a wide range of explosives in various matrices and scenarios. Ideally, what is needed is a fast, accurate, easy-to-use, pocket-size and inexpensive field screening test for explosives.

  13. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Explosive Materials dated November 17, 2010 (Docket No. ATF 42N, 75 FR 70291). Notice of List of Explosive.... Picrate of potassium explosive mixtures. Picratol. Picric acid (manufactured as an explosive). Picryl... gels. Potassium chlorate and lead sulfocyanate explosive. Potassium nitrate explosive...

  14. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary.

  15. Containment system for supercritical water oxidation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-07-05

    A system is described for containment of a supercritical water oxidation reactor in the event of a rupture of the reactor. The system includes a containment for housing the reaction vessel and a communicating chamber for holding a volume of coolant, such as water. The coolant is recirculated and sprayed to entrain and cool any reactants that might have escaped from the reaction vessel. Baffles at the entrance to the chamber prevent the sprayed coolant from contacting the reaction vessel. An impact-absorbing layer is positioned between the vessel and the containment to at least partially absorb momentum of any fragments propelled by the rupturing vessel. Remote, quick-disconnecting fittings exterior to the containment, in cooperation with shut-off valves, enable the vessel to be isolated and the system safely taken off-line. Normally-closed orifices throughout the containment and chamber enable decontamination of interior surfaces when necessary. 2 figures.

  16. Comparing algorithms for automated vessel segmentation in computed tomography scans of the lung: the VESSEL12 study.

    PubMed

    Rudyanto, Rina D; Kerkstra, Sjoerd; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Fetita, Catalin; Brillet, Pierre-Yves; Lefevre, Christophe; Xue, Wenzhe; Zhu, Xiangjun; Liang, Jianming; Öksüz, Ilkay; Ünay, Devrim; Kadipaşaoğlu, Kamuran; Estépar, Raúl San José; Ross, James C; Washko, George R; Prieto, Juan-Carlos; Hoyos, Marcela Hernández; Orkisz, Maciej; Meine, Hans; Hüllebrand, Markus; Stöcker, Christina; Mir, Fernando Lopez; Naranjo, Valery; Villanueva, Eliseo; Staring, Marius; Xiao, Changyan; Stoel, Berend C; Fabijanska, Anna; Smistad, Erik; Elster, Anne C; Lindseth, Frank; Foruzan, Amir Hossein; Kiros, Ryan; Popuri, Karteek; Cobzas, Dana; Jimenez-Carretero, Daniel; Santos, Andres; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J; Helmberger, Michael; Urschler, Martin; Pienn, Michael; Bosboom, Dennis G H; Campo, Arantza; Prokop, Mathias; de Jong, Pim A; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; van Ginneken, Bram

    2014-10-01

    The VESSEL12 (VESsel SEgmentation in the Lung) challenge objectively compares the performance of different algorithms to identify vessels in thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. Vessel segmentation is fundamental in computer aided processing of data generated by 3D imaging modalities. As manual vessel segmentation is prohibitively time consuming, any real world application requires some form of automation. Several approaches exist for automated vessel segmentation, but judging their relative merits is difficult due to a lack of standardized evaluation. We present an annotated reference dataset containing 20 CT scans and propose nine categories to perform a comprehensive evaluation of vessel segmentation algorithms from both academia and industry. Twenty algorithms participated in the VESSEL12 challenge, held at International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2012. All results have been published at the VESSEL12 website http://vessel12.grand-challenge.org. The challenge remains ongoing and open to new participants. Our three contributions are: (1) an annotated reference dataset available online for evaluation of new algorithms; (2) a quantitative scoring system for objective comparison of algorithms; and (3) performance analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the various vessel segmentation methods in the presence of various lung diseases.

  17. Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet

    DOEpatents

    Green, Sheryll C.; Linse, Vonne D.

    1978-10-03

    A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tubular shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

  18. Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

    1998-04-23

    The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

  19. Green primary explosives: 5-Nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, My Hang V.; Coburn, Michael D.; Meyer, Thomas J.; Wetzler, Modi

    2006-01-01

    The sensitive explosives used in initiating devices like primers and detonators are called primary explosives. Successful detonations of secondary explosives are accomplished by suitable sources of initiation energy that is transmitted directly from the primaries or through secondary explosive boosters. Reliable initiating mechanisms are available in numerous forms of primers and detonators depending upon the nature of the secondary explosives. The technology of initiation devices used for military and civilian purposes continues to expand owing to variations in initiating method, chemical composition, quantity, sensitivity, explosive performance, and other necessary built-in mechanisms. Although the most widely used primaries contain toxic lead azide and lead styphnate, mixtures of thermally unstable primaries, like diazodinitrophenol and tetracene, or poisonous agents, like antimony sulfide and barium nitrate, are also used. Novel environmentally friendly primary explosives are expanded here to include cat[FeII(NT)3(H2O)3], cat2[FeII(NT)4(H2O)2], cat3[FeII(NT)5(H2O)], and cat4[FeII(NT)6] with cat = cation and NT− = 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2. With available alkaline, alkaline earth, and organic cations as partners, four series of 5-nitrotetrazolato-N2-ferrate hierarchies have been prepared that provide a plethora of green primaries with diverse initiating sensitivity and explosive performance. They hold great promise for replacing not only toxic lead primaries but also thermally unstable primaries and poisonous agents. Strategies are also described for the systematic preparation of coordination complex green primaries based on appropriate selection of ligands, metals, and synthetic procedures. These strategies allow for maximum versatility in initiating sensitivity and explosive performance while retaining properties required for green primaries. PMID:16803957

  20. Evaluation of embedded FBGs in composite overwrapped pressure vessels for strain based structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena, Francisco; Strutner, Scott M.; Richards, W. Lance; Piazza, Anthony; Parker, Allen R.

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) in space and commercial applications, and the explosive nature of pressure vessel ruptures, make it crucial to develop techniques for early condition based damage detection. The need for a robust health monitoring system for COPVs is a high priority since the mechanisms of stress rupture are not fully understood. Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been proposed as a potential solution that may be utilized to anticipate and potentially avoid catastrophic failures. The small size and light weight of optical fibers enable manufactures to integrate FBGs directly into composite structures for the purpose of structural health monitoring. A challenging aspect of embedding FBGs within composite structures is the risk of potentially impinging the optical fiber while the structure is under load, thus distorting the optical information to be transferred. As the COPV is pressurized, an embedded optical sensor is compressed between the expansion of the inner bottle, and the outer overwrap layer of composite. In this study, FBGs are installed on the outer surface of a COPV bottle as well as embedded underneath a composite overwrap layer for comparison of strain measurements. Experimental data is collected from optical fibers containing multiple FBGs during incremental pressurization cycles, ranging from 0 to 10,000 psi. The graphical representations of high density strain maps provide a more efficient process of monitoring structural integrity. Preliminary results capture the complex distribution of strain, while furthering the understanding of the failure mechanisms of COPVs.

  1. Nonterrorist suicidal deaths involving explosives.

    PubMed

    Shields, Lisa B E; Hunsaker, Donna M; Hunsaker, John C; Humbert, Karl A

    2003-06-01

    Suicidal deaths involving explosives unconnected to terrorism are rare. The investigation of deaths from explosive devices requires a multidisciplinary collaborative effort, as demonstrated in this study. Reported are 2 cases of nonterrorist suicidal explosive-related deaths with massive craniocerebral destruction. The first case involves a 20-year-old man who was discovered in the basement apartment of his father's home seconds after an explosion. At the scene investigators recovered illegal improvised power-technique explosive devices, specifically M-100s, together with the victim's handwritten suicide note. The victim exhibited extensive craniofacial injuries, which medicolegal officials attributed to the decedent's intentionally placing one of these devices in his mouth. The second case involves a 46-year-old man who was found by his wife at his home. In the victim's facial wound, investigators recovered portions of a detonator blasting cap attached to electrical lead wires extending to his right hand. A suicide note was discovered at the scene. The appropriate collection of physical evidence at the scene of the explosion and a detailed examination of the victim's history is as important as documentation of injury patterns and recovery of trace evidence at autopsy. A basic understanding of the variety of explosive devices is also necessary. This investigatory approach greatly enhances the medicolegal death investigator's ability to reconstruct the fatal event as a means of separating accidental and homicidal explosive-related deaths from this uncommon form of suicide.

  2. The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-05

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  3. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  4. Accurate vessel segmentation with constrained B-snake.

    PubMed

    Yuanzhi Cheng; Xin Hu; Ji Wang; Yadong Wang; Tamura, Shinichi

    2015-08-01

    We describe an active contour framework with accurate shape and size constraints on the vessel cross-sectional planes to produce the vessel segmentation. It starts with a multiscale vessel axis tracing in a 3D computed tomography (CT) data, followed by vessel boundary delineation on the cross-sectional planes derived from the extracted axis. The vessel boundary surface is deformed under constrained movements on the cross sections and is voxelized to produce the final vascular segmentation. The novelty of this paper lies in the accurate contour point detection of thin vessels based on the CT scanning model, in the efficient implementation of missing contour points in the problematic regions and in the active contour model with accurate shape and size constraints. The main advantage of our framework is that it avoids disconnected and incomplete segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions that contain touching vessels (vessels in close proximity to each other), diseased portions (pathologic structure attached to a vessel), and thin vessels. It is particularly suitable for accurate segmentation of thin and low contrast vessels. Our method is evaluated and demonstrated on CT data sets from our partner site, and its results are compared with three related methods. Our method is also tested on two publicly available databases and its results are compared with the recently published method. The applicability of the proposed method to some challenging clinical problems, the segmentation of the vessels in the problematic regions, is demonstrated with good results on both quantitative and qualitative experimentations; our segmentation algorithm can delineate vessel boundaries that have level of variability similar to those obtained manually.

  5. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  6. Watersheds and Explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

    The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

  7. Assessing nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    The all-Union session on the Geophysical and Geochemical Consequences of Nuclear Explosions at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting attracted a large audience, and many were unable to find a seat or standing room. The speakers and questioners emphasized the complexity of the processes and the need to extend the computer models. In particular, the global-circulation models presented byscientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that smoke/dust clouds should cause major changes in the weather systems with great contrast between the temperature perturbations over oceanic, coastal, and continental regions. Important developments in the models and conclusions can be expected over the next few years as AGU members from many disciplines contribute their skills.

  8. Thermal destruction of vessels with liquid upon heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, V. G.; Goldin, V. D.; Svetashkov, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    A new engineering technique of calculating the heating and thermal destruction of vessels containing liquid under extreme thermal loading conditions is offered. The heating of the shell and the internal vessel volume is described on the basis of the thermodynamic approach. The pressure growth in a vessel is a result of gas heating and liquid evaporation. Stresses within the shell and its destruction conditions are determined, which allows predicting the critical time of destruction upon heating. The calculation and experimental data for pressure growth inside the vessel are in good agreement.

  9. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    DOEpatents

    Sharbaugh, John E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. The reactor vessel has an open top end, a closed flat bottom end wall and a continuous cylindrical closed side wall interconnecting the top end and bottom end wall. The reactor also has a generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and being formed by a cylindrical side wall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and a flat base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall. A central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and extends upwardly therefrom to the reactor vessel and upwardly therefrom to the reactor core so as to support the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and the lower end of the reactor core in spaced apart relationship above the containment structure base mat. Also, an annular reinforced support structure is disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall thereof and extends about the lower end of the core so as to support the periphery thereof. In addition, an annular support ring having a plurality of inward radially extending linear members is disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and is connected to and supports the reactor vessel at its bottom end on the containment structure base mat so as to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event. The reactor construction also includes a bed of insulating material in sand-like granular form, preferably being high density magnesium oxide particles, disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment

  10. 14 CFR 437.57 - Operating area containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... containment. (a) During each permitted flight, a permittee must contain its reusable suborbital rocket's..., railway traffic, or waterborne vessel traffic. (c) The FAA may prohibit a reusable suborbital...

  11. 14 CFR 437.57 - Operating area containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... containment. (a) During each permitted flight, a permittee must contain its reusable suborbital rocket's..., railway traffic, or waterborne vessel traffic. (c) The FAA may prohibit a reusable suborbital...

  12. 14 CFR 437.57 - Operating area containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... containment. (a) During each permitted flight, a permittee must contain its reusable suborbital rocket's..., railway traffic, or waterborne vessel traffic. (c) The FAA may prohibit a reusable suborbital...

  13. 14 CFR 437.57 - Operating area containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... containment. (a) During each permitted flight, a permittee must contain its reusable suborbital rocket's..., railway traffic, or waterborne vessel traffic. (c) The FAA may prohibit a reusable suborbital...

  14. 14 CFR 437.57 - Operating area containment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... containment. (a) During each permitted flight, a permittee must contain its reusable suborbital rocket's..., railway traffic, or waterborne vessel traffic. (c) The FAA may prohibit a reusable suborbital...

  15. Enhancing commerical aircraft explosion survivability via active venting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldman, Roger Lee

    2001-10-01

    A new technique for enhancing aircraft safety in the event of an on-board explosion was studied. The method under study employs deployable vent panels located on the fuselage which are activated by an array of pressure sensors in the aircraft interior. In the event that an explosion is detected, appropriate vent panels are rapidly released from the aircraft. This approach seeks to provide timely relief of explosive pressures within an aircraft to prevent catastrophic structural failure. In this study, the approximate time scale of an explosive detonation and the subsequent sensing and electronic processing was determined. Then, the actuation response times of several vent panel systems were determined through analytical modeling and scale-model experimental testing with good correlation achieved. A scale-model experimental analysis was also conducted to determine the decompression venting time of an aircraft fuselage under a variety of conditions. Two different sized pressure vessels were used in the experimental work and the results correlated quite favorably with an analytical model for decompression times. Finally, a dynamic finite element analysis was conducted to determine the response of a portion of a typical commercial aircraft fuselage subjected to explosive pressure loading. It was determined from this analysis that the pre-stressing of the fuselage from cabin pressurization increases the damage vulnerability of a commercial aircraft fuselage to internal explosions. It was also learned from the structural analysis that the peak fuselage strains due to blast loading occur quickly (within approximately 2 milliseconds) while it was conservatively estimated that approximately 5 to 7 milliseconds would be required to sense the explosion, to actuate selected vent panels, and to initiate the release of cabin pressure from the aircraft. Additionally, since it was determined that predicted fuselage strains for both pressurized and unpressurized load cases remained

  16. On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1997-07-01

    Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

  17. Neutrino mechanism of supernova explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechetkin, V. M.

    In the last decades, scientifics have tried to understand the explosion mechanism of stars that is responsible for the simultaneous formation of neutron star and supernova outburst.The main problem is the determination of a source of energy in the ejection of a supernova envelope. The gravitation energy as a source of energy in supernova is placed first. However, subsequent studies led to certain problems in using gravitation energy if the assumption of neutrino difussion was adopted. Situation is changed if one take into consideration large scale convective instability owing to the neutronization of matter in a protoneutron star during the collapse of star with low initial entropy. The three-dimensional hydrodinamic calculation for 75*75*75 grid with step 0.015R(R = 2*10^7 cm) shows that large-scale bubbles with 10^6 cm emerge. When the bubble reaches low density, the neutrinos contained in matter freely escape from it in the regime of volume radiation. The characteristic time of this process is equaled 0.02 s. The shock from the initial bounce when the collapse in the stellar core stops will then be supported by the neutrino emission, resulting in the ejection of an envelope.

  18. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  19. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  20. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)