Science.gov

Sample records for explosively launched spores

  1. Explosively launched spores of ascomycete fungi have drag-minimizing shapes.

    PubMed

    Roper, Marcus; Pepper, Rachel E; Brenner, Michael P; Pringle, Anne

    2008-12-30

    The forcibly launched spores of ascomycete fungi must eject through several millimeters of nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies to reach dispersive air flows. Because of their microscopic size, spores experience great fluid drag, and although this drag can aid transport by slowing sedimentation out of dispersive air flows, it also causes spores to decelerate rapidly after launch. We hypothesize that spores are shaped to maximize their range in the nearly still air surrounding fruiting bodies. To test this hypothesis we numerically calculate optimal spore shapes-shapes of minimum drag for prescribed volumes-and compare these shapes with real spore shapes taken from a phylogeny of >100 species. Our analysis shows that spores are constrained to remain within 1% of the minimum possible drag for their size. From the spore shapes we predict the speed of spore launch, and confirm this prediction through high-speed imaging of ejection in Neurospora tetrasperma. By reconstructing the evolutionary history of spore shapes within a single ascomycete family we measure the relative contributions of drag minimization and other shape determinants to spore shape evolution. Our study uses biomechanical optimization as an organizing principle for explaining shape in a mega-diverse group of species and provides a framework for future measurements of the forces of selection toward physical optima.

  2. Solid Rocket Launch Vehicle Explosion Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, E. H.; Blackwood, J. M.; Hays, M. J.; Skinner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical explosion data from full scale solid rocket launch vehicle accidents and tests were collected from all available literature from the 1950s to the present. In general data included peak blast overpressure, blast impulse, fragment size, fragment speed, and fragment dispersion. Most propellants were 1.1 explosives but a few were 1.3. Oftentimes the data from a single accident was disjointed and/or missing key aspects. Despite this fact, once the data as a whole was digitized, categorized, and plotted clear trends appeared. Particular emphasis was placed on tests or accidents that would be applicable to scenarios from which a crew might need to escape. Therefore, such tests where a large quantity of high explosive was used to initiate the solid rocket explosion were differentiated. Also, high speed ground impacts or tests used to simulate such were also culled. It was found that the explosions from all accidents and applicable tests could be described using only the pressurized gas energy stored in the chamber at the time of failure. Additionally, fragmentation trends were produced. Only one accident mentioned the elusive "small" propellant fragments, but upon further analysis it was found that these were most likely produced as secondary fragments when larger primary fragments impacted the ground. Finally, a brief discussion of how this data is used in a new launch vehicle explosion model for improving crew/payload survival is presented.

  3. Bacterial Spores in Granite Survive Hypervelocity Launch by Spallation: Implications for Lithopanspermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Langenhorst, Falko; Melosh, H. Jay; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial spores are considered good candidates for endolithic life-forms that could survive interplanetary transport by natural impact processes, i. e., lithopanspermia. Organisms within rock can only embark on an interplanetary journey if they survive ejection from the surface of the donor planet and the associated extremes of compressional shock, heating, and acceleration. Previous simulation experiments have measured each of these three stresses more or less in isolation of one another, and results to date indicate that spores of the model organism Bacillus subtilis can survive each stress applied singly. Few simulations, however, have combined all three stresses simultaneously. Because considerable experimental and theoretical evidence supports a spallation mechanism for launch, we devised an experimental simulation of launch by spallation using the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). B. subtilis spores were applied to the surface of a granite target that was impacted from above by an aluminum projectile fired at 5.4 km/s. Granite spall fragments were captured in a foam recovery fixture and then recovered and assayed for shock damage by transmission electron microscopy and for spore survival by viability assays. Peak shock pressure at the impact site was calculated to be 57.1 Pa, though recovered spall fragments were only very lightly shocked at pressures of 5-7 GPa. Spore survival was calculated to be on the order of 10-5, which is in agreement with results of previous static compressional shock experiments. These results demonstrate that endolithic spores can survive launch by spallation from a hypervelocity impact, which lends further evidence in favor of lithopanspermia theory.

  4. Bacterial spores in granite survive hypervelocity launch by spallation: implications for lithopanspermia.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Langenhorst, Falko; Melosh, H Jay; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial spores are considered good candidates for endolithic life-forms that could survive interplanetary transport by natural impact processes, i.e., lithopanspermia. Organisms within rock can only embark on an interplanetary journey if they survive ejection from the surface of the donor planet and the associated extremes of compressional shock, heating, and acceleration. Previous simulation experiments have measured each of these three stresses more or less in isolation of one another, and results to date indicate that spores of the model organism Bacillus subtilis can survive each stress applied singly. Few simulations, however, have combined all three stresses simultaneously. Because considerable experimental and theoretical evidence supports a spallation mechanism for launch, we devised an experimental simulation of launch by spallation using the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). B. subtilis spores were applied to the surface of a granite target that was impacted from above by an aluminum projectile fired at 5.4 km/s. Granite spall fragments were captured in a foam recovery fixture and then recovered and assayed for shock damage by transmission electron microscopy and for spore survival by viability assays. Peak shock pressure at the impact site was calculated to be 57.1 GPa, though recovered spall fragments were only very lightly shocked at pressures of 5-7 GPa. Spore survival was calculated to be on the order of 10(-5), which is in agreement with results of previous static compressional shock experiments. These results demonstrate that endolithic spores can survive launch by spallation from a hypervelocity impact, which lends further evidence in favor of lithopanspermia theory.

  5. Bacterial spores in granite survive hypervelocity launch by spallation: implications for lithopanspermia.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Langenhorst, Falko; Melosh, H Jay; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial spores are considered good candidates for endolithic life-forms that could survive interplanetary transport by natural impact processes, i.e., lithopanspermia. Organisms within rock can only embark on an interplanetary journey if they survive ejection from the surface of the donor planet and the associated extremes of compressional shock, heating, and acceleration. Previous simulation experiments have measured each of these three stresses more or less in isolation of one another, and results to date indicate that spores of the model organism Bacillus subtilis can survive each stress applied singly. Few simulations, however, have combined all three stresses simultaneously. Because considerable experimental and theoretical evidence supports a spallation mechanism for launch, we devised an experimental simulation of launch by spallation using the Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). B. subtilis spores were applied to the surface of a granite target that was impacted from above by an aluminum projectile fired at 5.4 km/s. Granite spall fragments were captured in a foam recovery fixture and then recovered and assayed for shock damage by transmission electron microscopy and for spore survival by viability assays. Peak shock pressure at the impact site was calculated to be 57.1 GPa, though recovered spall fragments were only very lightly shocked at pressures of 5-7 GPa. Spore survival was calculated to be on the order of 10(-5), which is in agreement with results of previous static compressional shock experiments. These results demonstrate that endolithic spores can survive launch by spallation from a hypervelocity impact, which lends further evidence in favor of lithopanspermia theory. PMID:19778276

  6. Spores

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not destroy their spores. A process called sterilization destroys spores and bacteria. It is done at ... and under high pressures. In health care settings, sterilization is usually done using a device called an ...

  7. An Empirical Non-TNT Approach to Launch Vehicle Explosion Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwood, James M.; Skinner, Troy; Richardson, Erin H.; Bangham, Michal E.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase crew survivability from catastrophic explosions of Launch Vehicles (LV), a study was conducted to determine the best method for predicting LV explosion environments in the near field. After reviewing such methods as TNT equivalence, Vapor Cloud Explosion (VCE) theory, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), it was determined that the best approach for this study was to assemble all available empirical data from full scale launch vehicle explosion tests and accidents. Approximately 25 accidents or full-scale tests were found that had some amount of measured blast wave, thermal, or fragment explosion environment characteristics. Blast wave overpressure was found to be much lower in the near field than predicted by most TNT equivalence methods. Additionally, fragments tended to be larger, fewer, and slower than expected if the driving force was from a high explosive type event. In light of these discoveries, a simple model for cryogenic rocket explosions is presented. Predictions from this model encompass all known applicable full scale launch vehicle explosion data. Finally, a brief description of on-going analysis and testing to further refine the launch vehicle explosion environment is discussed.

  8. Explosion/Blast Dynamics for Constellation Launch Vehicles Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Mel; Crawford, Dave; Hickox, Charles; Kipp, Marlin; Hertel, Gene; Morgan, Hal; Ratzel, Arthur; Cragg, Clinton H.

    2009-01-01

    An assessment methodology is developed to guide quantitative predictions of adverse physical environments and the subsequent effects on the Ares-1 crew launch vehicle associated with the loss of containment of cryogenic liquid propellants from the upper stage during ascent. Development of the methodology is led by a team at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with guidance and support from a number of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel. The methodology is based on the current Ares-1 design and feasible accident scenarios. These scenarios address containment failure from debris impact or structural response to pressure or blast loading from an external source. Once containment is breached, the envisioned assessment methodology includes predictions for the sequence of physical processes stemming from cryogenic tank failure. The investigative techniques, analysis paths, and numerical simulations that comprise the proposed methodology are summarized and appropriate simulation software is identified in this report.

  9. A computational study of explosive hazard potential for reuseable launch vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Langston, Leo J.; Freitas, Christopher J.; Langley, Patrick; Palmer, Donald; Saul, W. Venner; Chocron, Sidney; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2004-09-01

    Catastrophic failure of a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) during launch poses a significant engineering problem in the context of crew escape. The explosive hazard potential of the RLV changes during the various phases of the launch. The hazard potential in the on-pad environment is characterized by release and formation of a gas phase mixture in an oxidizer rich environment, while the hazard during the in-flight phase is dominated by the boundary layer and wake flow formed around the vehicle and the interaction with the exhaust gas plume. In order to address more effectively crew escape in these explosive environments a computational analysis program was undertaken by Lockheed Martin, funded by NASA JSC, with simulations and analyses completed by Southwest Research Institute and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper presents then the details of the methodology used in this analysis, results of the study, and important conclusions that came out of the study.

  10. Apollo Spacecraft and Saturn V Launch Vehicle Pyrotechnics/Explosive Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Apollo Mission employs more than 210 pyrotechnic devices per mission.These devices are either automatic of commanded from the Apollo spacecraft systems. All devices require high reliability and safety and most are classified as either crew safety critical or mission critical. Pyrotechnic devices have a wide variety of applications including: launch escape tower separation, separation rocket ignition, parachute deployment and release and electrical circuit opening and closing. This viewgraph presentation identifies critical performance, design requirements and safety measures used to ensure quality, reliability and performance of Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive devices. The major components and functions of a typical Apollo pyrotechnic/explosive device are listed and described (initiators, cartridge assemblies, detonators, core charges). The presentation also identifies the major locations and uses for the devices on: the Command and Service Module, Lunar Module and all stages of the launch vehicle.

  11. On the hazard of hydrogen explosions at space shuttle launch pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John M.

    1988-01-01

    This report was prepared in support of efforts to assess the hazard of accidental explosions of unburned hydrogen at space shuttle launch pads. It begins with presentation of fundamental detonation theory and a review of relevent experiments. A scenario for a catastrophic explosion at a KSC launch pad and a list of necessary conditions contributing to it is proposed with a view to identifying those conditions which, if blocked, would prevent a catastrophe. The balance of the report is devoted to juxtaposition of reassuring and disquieting facts, presentation of a set of recommendations that ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures by weak ignition sources in unconfined geometries may produce a detonation, provided the effective flame area in the initial fireball is rapidly increased by turbulent mixing. Another conclusion is that detonability limits can be different from and narrower than flammability limits only if one restricts the rate of work that can be done on a flammable gas by mechanical agencies acting on its boundaries.

  12. Gun-launched impact initiation of the composite explosive PBXN-103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandusky, H. W.; Bernecker, R. R.

    1996-05-01

    A well-instrumented variation of the Susan test has been developed for simultaneously quantifying the extent and rate of deformation, the time for onset of reaction, and the magnitude of reaction occurring from the impact of energetic materials onto a flat plate. Unconfined, 40 mm diameter samples are mounted onto a 50.8 mm diameter aft body for launching from a powder gun. The mass of the aluminum aft body extends the time for sample deformation at a uniform strain rate, without crushing the sample against the target plate as can occur with the steel aft body in the Susan test. Initial experiments were conducted on the composite explosive PBXN-103, consisting of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum in an energetic binder. There was no reaction at an impact velocity of 46 m/s, mild reactions at 67 and 78 m/s, and deflagrations at ˜95 m/s. Times to reaction from 220 to 1400 μs were based on the high-speed photographs of an air blast wave, which appeared prior to luminous reaction. Reactions occurred as a result of PBXN-103 deformation, not from pinching the explosive between the projectile and target.

  13. Gun-launched impact initiation of the composite explosive PBXN-103

    SciTech Connect

    Sandusky, H.W.; Bernecker, R.R.

    1996-05-01

    A well-instrumented variation of the Susan test has been developed for simultaneously quantifying the extent and rate of deformation, the time for onset of reaction, and the magnitude of reaction occurring from the impact of energetic materials onto a flat plate. Unconfined, 40 mm diameter samples are mounted onto a 50.8 mm diameter aft body for launching from a powder gun. The mass of the aluminum aft body extends the time for sample deformation at a uniform strain rate, without crushing the sample against the target plate as can occur with the steel aft body in the Susan test. Initial experiments were conducted on the composite explosive PBXN-103, consisting of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum in an energetic binder. There was no reaction at an impact velocity of 46 m/s, mild reactions at 67 and 78 m/s, and deflagrations at {approximately}95m/s. Times to reaction from 220 to 1400 {mu}s were based on the high-speed photographs of an air blast wave, which appeared prior to luminous reaction. Reactions occurred as a result of PBXN-103 deformation, not from pinching the explosive between the projectile and target. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Analysis of a Hypergolic Propellant Explosion During Processing of Launch Vehicles in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrostowski, Jon D.; Gan Wenshui; Campbell, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing launch vehicles to support missions to Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the moon and deep space. Whether manned or unmanned, the vehicle components will likely be integrated in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and typically include a fueled spacecraft (SC) that sits on top of one or more stages. The processing of a fueled SC involves hazardous operations when it is brought into the VAB Transfer Aisle and lifted a significant height for mating with lower stages. Accidents resulting from these hazardous operations could impact unrelated personnel working in buildings adjacent to the VAB. Safe separation distances based on the DOD Explosives Standards Quantity-Distance (Q-D) approach result in large IBD arcs. This paper presents site-specific air blast and fragmentation hazard analyses for comparison with the Q-D arcs as well as consequence and risk analyses to provide added information for the decision maker. A new physics-based fragmentation model is presented that includes: a) the development of a primary fragment list (which defines the fragment characteristics) associated with a hypergolic propellant explosion, b) a description of a 3D fragment bounce model, c) the results of probabilistic Monte-Carlo simulations (that include uncertainties in the fragment characteristics) to determine: i) the hazardous fragment density distance, ii) the expected number of wall/roof impacts and penetrations to over 40 buildings adjacent to the VAB, and iii) the risk to building occupants.

  15. Paleoenvironmental changes affected on the diversity explosion and extinction events of the fossil diatom resting spore assemblage across the E/O boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suto, I.; Jordan, R. W.; Watanabe, M.

    2007-12-01

    The marine diatom genus Chaetoceros is known as a major contributor to primary production in near-shore upwelling regions and coastal areas, where it accounts for 20-25% of the total marine primary production. They produce heavily silicified resting spores which are easily preserved as fossils under nutrient-poor conditions. The diatom resting spores are therefore preserved as significant constituents in fossil marine diatom assemblages providing useful information for reconstructing paleoproductivity and paleoenvironmental changes. However, due to the importance of Chaetoceros in marine primary production, it is crucial to investigate fossil resting spores in upwelling regions. As the result of revising the taxonomy of fossil diatom Chaetoceros resting spores using DSDP 338, 436 and 438, and onland-samples (Newport Beach Section, California) from the late Eocene to the Recent, the Chaetoceros Explosion Event (when there was an increase in diversity and abundance, and a 50% reduction in valve size) across the Eocene/Oligocene (E/O) boundary was clarified. On the other hand, investigation of middle Eocene samples from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302, revealed an Extinction Event across the E/O boundary of diatom resting spores other than Chaetoceros. These two events indicate increased amounts of nutrient supply via upwelling and a change from a stable water column with a constant nutrient supply in the Eocene to an unstable one with sporadic nutrient supply due to increased vertical mixing in the Oligocene.

  16. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  17. Spore Resistance Properties.

    PubMed

    Setlow, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Spores of various Bacillus and Clostridium species are among the most resistant life forms known. Since the spores of some species are causative agents of much food spoilage, food poisoning, and human disease, and the spores of Bacillus anthracis are a major bioweapon, there is much interest in the mechanisms of spore resistance and how these spores can be killed. This article will discuss the factors involved in spore resistance to agents such as wet and dry heat, desiccation, UV and γ-radiation, enzymes that hydrolyze bacterial cell walls, and a variety of toxic chemicals, including genotoxic agents, oxidizing agents, aldehydes, acid, and alkali. These resistance factors include the outer layers of the spore, such as the thick proteinaceous coat that detoxifies reactive chemicals; the relatively impermeable inner spore membrane that restricts access of toxic chemicals to the spore core containing the spore's DNA and most enzymes; the low water content and high level of dipicolinic acid in the spore core that protect core macromolecules from the effects of heat and desiccation; the saturation of spore DNA with a novel group of proteins that protect the DNA against heat, genotoxic chemicals, and radiation; and the repair of radiation damage to DNA when spores germinate and return to life. Despite their extreme resistance, spores can be killed, including by damage to DNA, crucial spore proteins, the spore's inner membrane, and one or more components of the spore germination apparatus.

  18. Spores Disperse, Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Donna N.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests the use of spores and spore-producing structures to show adaptations facilitating spore dispersal and dispersal to favorable environments. Describes several activities using horsetails, ferns, and mosses. Lists five safety factors related to use of mold spores in the classroom. (DS)

  19. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  20. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  1. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  2. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  3. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  4. Size matters for violent discharge height and settling speed of Sphagnum spores: important attributes for dispersal potential

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Initial release height and settling speed of diaspores are biologically controlled components which are key to modelling wind dispersal. Most Sphagnum (peat moss) species have explosive spore liberation. In this study, how capsule and spore sizes affect the height to which spores are propelled were measured, and how spore size and spore number of discharged particles relate to settling speed in the aspherical Sphagnum spores. Methods Spore discharge and spore cloud development were filmed in a closed chamber (nine species). Measurements were taken from snapshots at three stages of cloud development. Settling speed of spores (14 species) and clusters were timed in a glass tube. Key Results The maximum discharge speed measured was 3·6 m s−1. Spores reached a maximum height of 20 cm (average: 15 cm) above the capsule. The cloud dimensions at all stages were related positively to capsule size (R2 = 0·58–0·65). Thus species with large shoots (because they have large capsules) have a dispersal advantage. Half of the spores were released as singles and the rest as clusters (usually two to four spores). Single spores settled at 0·84–1·86 cm s−1, about 52 % slower than expected for spherical spores with the same diameters. Settling speed displayed a positive curvilinear relationship with spore size, close to predictions by Stokes' law for spherical spores with 68 % of the actual diameters. Light-coloured spores settled slower than dark spores. Settling speed of spore clusters agrees with earlier studies. Effective spore discharge and small, slowly settling spores appear particularly important for species in forested habitats. Conclusions The spore discharge heights in Sphagnum are among the greatest for small, wind-dispersed propagules. The discharge heights and the slow settling of spores affect dispersal distances positively and may help to explain the wide distribution of most boreal Sphagnum species. PMID:20123930

  5. [Experience of medical assistance in the hosital of Plesetsk Cosmodrome under conditions of large patient load after explosion of a launch vehicle].

    PubMed

    Plekhanov, V N; Mel'nikov, O N; Shut', A D

    2013-11-01

    Military hospital of Plesetsk Cosmodrome was founded on 20 December 1958. The aims of the hospital were always connected with medical support of the cosmodrome, including emergency situations. On 18 March 1980 a Vostok-2M rocket exploded on its launch pad during a fuelling operation. Experience of medical assistance under conditions of large patient load showed the necessity of constant readiness to medical assistance to patients with combined pathology (burn injury, orthopedic trauma and thermochemical injury of the upper respiratory tract), expediency of compact patient accommodation along with the modern anaesthetic machine and readiness to frequent suction bronchoscopy.

  6. Cryopreservation of fern spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spore banks for ferns are analogous to seed banks for angiosperms and provide a promising ex situ conservation tool because large quantities of germplasm with high genetic variation can be conserved in a small space with low economic and technical costs. Ferns produce two types of spores with very ...

  7. A natural O-ring optimizes the dispersal of fungal spores.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Joerg A; Seminara, Agnese; Roper, Marcus; Pringle, Anne; Brenner, Michael P

    2013-08-01

    The forcibly ejected spores of ascomycete fungi must penetrate several millimetres of nearly still air surrounding sporocarps to reach dispersive airflows, and escape is facilitated when a spore is launched with large velocity. To launch, the spores of thousands of species are ejected through an apical ring, a small elastic pore. The startling diversity of apical ring and spore shapes and dimensions make them favoured characters for both species descriptions and the subsequent inference of relationships among species. However, the physical constraints shaping this diversity and the adaptive benefits of specific morphologies are not understood. Here, we develop an elastohydrodynamic theory of the spore's ejection through the apical ring and demonstrate that to avoid enormous energy losses during spore ejection, the four principal morphological dimensions of spore and apical ring must cluster within a nonlinear one-dimensional subspace. We test this prediction using morphological data for 45 fungal species from two different classes and 18 families. Our sampling encompasses multiple loss and gain events and potentially independent origins of this spore ejection mechanism. Although the individual dimensions of the spore and apical ring are only weakly correlated with each other, they collapse into the predicted subspace with high accuracy. The launch velocity appears to be within 2 per cent of the optimum for over 90 per cent of all forcibly ejected species. Although the morphological diversity of apical rings and spores appears startlingly diverse, a simple principle can be used to organize it. PMID:23782534

  8. Scout Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Scout Launch. James Hansen wrote: 'As this sequence of photos demonstrates, the launch of ST-5 on 30 June 1961 went well; however, a failure of the rocket's third stage doomed the payload, a scientific satellite known as S-55 designed for micrometeorite studies in orbit.'

  9. Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    PubMed Central

    Driks, Adam

    1999-01-01

    In response to starvation, bacilli and clostridia undergo a specialized program of development that results in the production of a highly resistant dormant cell type known as the spore. A proteinacious shell, called the coat, encases the spore and plays a major role in spore survival. The coat is composed of over 25 polypeptide species, organized into several morphologically distinct layers. The mechanisms that guide coat assembly have been largely unknown until recently. We now know that proper formation of the coat relies on the genetic program that guides the synthesis of spore components during development as well as on morphogenetic proteins dedicated to coat assembly. Over 20 structural and morphogenetic genes have been cloned. In this review, we consider the contributions of the known coat and morphogenetic proteins to coat function and assembly. We present a model that describes how morphogenetic proteins direct coat assembly to the specific subcellular site of the nascent spore surface and how they establish the coat layers. We also discuss the importance of posttranslational processing of coat proteins in coat morphogenesis. Finally, we review some of the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:10066829

  10. Clostridium difficile spore biology: sporulation, germination, and spore structural proteins

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Shen, Aimee; Sorg, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, spore-forming obligate anaerobe and a major nosocomial pathogen of world-wide concern. Due to its strict anaerobic requirements, the infectious and transmissible morphotype is the dormant spore. In susceptible patients, C. difficile spores germinate in the colon to form the vegetative cells that initiate Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). During CDI, C. difficile induces a sporulation pathway that produces more spores; these spores are responsible for the persistence of C. difficile in patients and horizontal transmission between hospitalized patients. While important to the C. difficile lifecycle, the C. difficile spore proteome is poorly conserved when compared to members of the Bacillus genus. Further, recent studies have revealed significant differences between C. difficile and B. subtilis at the level of sporulation, germination and spore coat and exosporium morphogenesis. In this review, the regulation of the sporulation and germination pathways and the morphogenesis of the spore coat and exosporium will be discussed. PMID:24814671

  11. NPP Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure ...

  12. 14 CFR 417.417 - Propellants and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propellants and explosives. 417.417 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.417 Propellants and explosives. (a) A launch operator must comply with the explosive safety criteria in part 420 of this chapter. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 417.417 - Propellants and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propellants and explosives. 417.417 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.417 Propellants and explosives. (a) A launch operator must comply with the explosive safety criteria in part 420 of this chapter. (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 417.417 - Propellants and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propellants and explosives. 417.417 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.417 Propellants and explosives. (a) A launch operator must comply with the explosive safety criteria in part 420 of this chapter. (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 417.417 - Propellants and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propellants and explosives. 417.417 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.417 Propellants and explosives. (a) A launch operator must comply with the explosive safety criteria in part 420 of this chapter. (b)...

  16. 14 CFR 417.417 - Propellants and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propellants and explosives. 417.417 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Ground Safety § 417.417 Propellants and explosives. (a) A launch operator must comply with the explosive safety criteria in part 420 of this chapter. (b)...

  17. Fifth international fungus spore conference

    SciTech Connect

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  18. Anthrax Spores under a microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Anthrax spores are inactive forms of Bacillus anthracis. They can survive for decades inside a spore's tough protective coating; they become active when inhaled by humans. A result of NASA- and industry-sponsored research to develop small greenhouses for space research is the unique AiroCide TiO2 system that kills anthrax spores and other pathogens.

  19. Balloon Launch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a science learning experience in which intermediate grade students launched balloons with attached postcards to study wind currents. More than 200 (of over 900 balloons) were returned, and their analysis supported the students' hypothesis about the direction of wind currents. (DB)

  20. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  1. Thermal Spore Exposure Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudet, Robert A.; Kempf, Michael; Kirschner, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thermal spore exposure vessels (TSEVs) are laboratory containers designed for use in measuring rates of death or survival of microbial spores at elevated temperatures. A major consideration in the design of a TSEV is minimizing thermal mass in order to minimize heating and cooling times. This is necessary in order to minimize the number of microbes killed before and after exposure at the test temperature, so that the results of the test accurately reflect the effect of the test temperature. A typical prototype TSEV (see figure) includes a flat-bottomed stainless-steel cylinder 4 in. (10.16 cm) long, 0.5 in. (1.27 cm) in diameter, having a wall thickness of 0.010 plus or minus 0.002 in. (0.254 plus or minus 0.051 mm). Microbial spores are deposited in the bottom of the cylinder, then the top of the cylinder is closed with a sterile rubber stopper. Hypodermic needles are used to puncture the rubber stopper to evacuate the inside of the cylinder or to purge the inside of the cylinder with a gas. In a typical application, the inside of the cylinder is purged with dry nitrogen prior to a test. During a test, the lower portion of the cylinder is immersed in a silicone-oil bath that has been preheated to and maintained at the test temperature. Test temperatures up to 220 C have been used. Because the spores are in direct contact with the thin cylinder wall, they quickly become heated to the test temperature.

  2. New Rapid Spore Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard; Conley, Catharine

    2012-07-01

    The presentation will detail approved Planetary Protection specifications for the Rapid Spore Assay for spacecraft components and subsystems. Outlined will be the research and studies on which the specifications were based. The research, funded by ESA and NASA/JPL, was conducted over a period of two years and was followed by limited cleanroom studies to assess the feasibility of this assay during spacecraft assembly.

  3. Spore collection and elimination apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Czajkowski, Carl; Warren, Barbara Panessa

    2007-04-03

    The present invention is for a spore collection apparatus and its method of use. The portable spore collection apparatus includes a suction source, a nebulizer, an ionization chamber and a filter canister. The suction source collects the spores from a surface. The spores are activated by heating whereby spore dormancy is broken. Moisture is then applied to the spores to begin germination. The spores are then exposed to alpha particles causing extinction.

  4. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Eckels, Joel D.; Nunes, Peter J.

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  5. Clostridium difficile Spore-Macrophage Interactions: Spore Survival

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Cofre-Araneda, Glenda; Brito-Silva, Christian; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Sarker, Mahfuzur R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial infections including antibiotic associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. During the course of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), C. difficile undergoes sporulation and releases spores to the colonic environment. The elevated relapse rates of CDI suggest that C. difficile spores has a mechanism(s) to efficiently persist in the host colonic environment. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we provide evidence that C. difficile spores are well suited to survive the host’s innate immune system. Electron microscopy results show that C. difficile spores are recognized by discrete patchy regions on the surface of macrophage Raw 264.7 cells, and phagocytosis was actin polymerization dependent. Fluorescence microscopy results show that >80% of Raw 264.7 cells had at least one C. difficile spore adhered, and that ∼60% of C. difficile spores were phagocytosed by Raw 264.7 cells. Strikingly, presence of complement decreased Raw 264.7 cells’ ability to phagocytose C. difficile spores. Due to the ability of C. difficile spores to remain dormant inside Raw 264.7 cells, they were able to survive up to 72 h of macrophage infection. Interestingly, transmission electron micrographs showed interactions between the surface proteins of C. difficile spores and the phagosome membrane of Raw 264.7 cells. In addition, infection of Raw 264.7 cells with C. difficile spores for 48 h produced significant Raw 264.7 cell death as demonstrated by trypan blue assay, and nuclei staining by ethidium homodimer-1. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that despite efficient recognition and phagocytosis of C. difficile spores by Raw 264.7 cells, spores remain dormant and are able to survive and produce cytotoxic effects on Raw 264.7 cells. PMID:22952726

  6. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  7. "Spore" and the Sociocultural Moment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, W. Max

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of the game "Spore" have centered on the important issues of accuracy of evolution content and engendering interest in science. This paper suggests that examination of the degree of scaffolding necessary to use the game in pedagogy is a missing part of the discussion, and then questions the longevity of the "Spore" discussion relative to…

  8. Insensitive explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

  9. Detonation wave profiles in HMX based explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.; Alcon, R.R.

    1997-11-01

    Detonation wave profiles have been measured in several HMX based plastic bonded explosives including PBX9404, PBX9501, and EDC-37, as well as two HMX powders (coarse and fine) pressed to 65% of crystal density. The powders had 120 and 10 {micro}m average grain sizes, respectively. Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with projectiles launched in a 72-mm bore gas gun. Impactors, impact velocity, and explosive thickness were chosen so that the run distance to detonation was always less than half the explosive thickness. For the high density plastic bonded explosives, particle velocity wave profiles were measured at an explosive/window interface using two VISAR interferometers. PMMA windows with vapor deposited aluminum mirrors were used for all experiments. Wave profiles for the powdered explosives were measured using magnetic particle velocity gauges. Estimates of the reaction zone parameters were obtained from the profiles using Hugoniots of the explosive and window.

  10. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  11. Spore Coat Architecture of Clostridium novyi-NT spores

    SciTech Connect

    Plomp, M; McCafferey, J; Cheong, I; Huang, X; Bettegowda, C; Kinzler, K; Zhou, S; Vogelstein, B; Malkin, A

    2007-05-07

    Spores of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium novyi-NT are able to germinate in and destroy hypoxic regions of tumors in experimental animals. Future progress in this area will benefit from a better understanding of the germination and outgrowth processes that are essential for the tumorilytic properties of these spores. Towards this end, we have used both transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to determine the structure of dormant as well as germinating spores. We found that the spores are surrounded by an amorphous layer intertwined with honeycomb parasporal layers. Moreover, the spore coat layers had apparently self-assembled and this assembly was likely to be governed by crystal growth principles. During germination and outgrowth, the honeycomb layers as well as the underlying spore coat and undercoat layers sequentially dissolved until the vegetative cell was released. In addition to their implications for understanding the biology of C. novyi-NT, these studies document the presence of proteinaceous growth spirals in a biological organism.

  12. Solving the aerodynamics of fungal flight: how air viscosity slows spore motion.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mark W F; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L; Davis, Diana J; Cui, Yunluan; Money, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More complex, non-linear drag models have been devised for movements characterized by higher Re, but their effectiveness for modeling the launch of fast-moving fungal spores has not been tested. In this paper, we use data on spore discharge processes obtained from ultra-high-speed video recordings to evaluate the effects of air viscosity predicted by Stokes' law and a commonly used non-linear drag model. We find that discharge distances predicted from launch speeds by Stokes' model provide a much better match to measured distances than estimates from the more complex drag model. Stokes' model works better over a wide range projectile sizes, launch speeds, and discharge distances, from microscopic mushroom ballistospores discharged at <1 m s(-1) over a distance of <0.1mm (Re<1.0), to macroscopic sporangia of Pilobolus that are launched at >10 m s(-1) and travel as far as 2.5m (Re>100). PMID:21036338

  13. Solving the aerodynamics of fungal flight: how air viscosity slows spore motion.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mark W F; Stolze-Rybczynski, Jessica L; Davis, Diana J; Cui, Yunluan; Money, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    Viscous drag causes the rapid deceleration of fungal spores after high-speed launches and limits discharge distance. Stokes' law posits a linear relationship between drag force and velocity. It provides an excellent fit to experimental measurements of the terminal velocity of free-falling spores and other instances of low Reynolds number motion (Re<1). More complex, non-linear drag models have been devised for movements characterized by higher Re, but their effectiveness for modeling the launch of fast-moving fungal spores has not been tested. In this paper, we use data on spore discharge processes obtained from ultra-high-speed video recordings to evaluate the effects of air viscosity predicted by Stokes' law and a commonly used non-linear drag model. We find that discharge distances predicted from launch speeds by Stokes' model provide a much better match to measured distances than estimates from the more complex drag model. Stokes' model works better over a wide range projectile sizes, launch speeds, and discharge distances, from microscopic mushroom ballistospores discharged at <1 m s(-1) over a distance of <0.1mm (Re<1.0), to macroscopic sporangia of Pilobolus that are launched at >10 m s(-1) and travel as far as 2.5m (Re>100).

  14. NASA Facts: SporeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Tomko, David

    2013-01-01

    SporeSat is an autonomous, free-flying three-unit (3U) spacecraft that will be used to conduct scientific experiments to gain a deeper knowledge of the mechanisms of plant cell gravity sensing. SporeSat is being developed through a partnership between NASAs Ames Research Center and the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering at Purdue University. Amani Salim and Jenna L. Rickus are the Purdue University Principal Investigators. The SporeSat mission will be flown using a 3U nanosatellite weighing approximately 12 pounds and measuring 14 inches long by 4 inches wide by 4 inches tall. SporeSat will utilize flight-proven spacecraft technologies demonstrated on prior Ames nanosatellite missions such as PharmaSat and OrganismOrganic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) as well as upgrades that increase the hardware integration capabilities with SporeSat science instrumentation. In addition, the SporeSat science payload will serve as a technology platform to evaluate new microsensor technologies for enabling future fundamental biology missions.

  15. Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2009-01-01

    Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

  16. Launching jets from accretion belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-05-01

    We propose that sub-Keplerian accretion belts around stars might launch jets. The sub-Keplerian inflow does not form a rotationally supported accretion disk, but it rather reaches the accreting object from a wide solid angle. The basic ingredients of the flow are a turbulent region where the accretion belt interacts with the accreting object via a shear layer, and two avoidance regions on the poles where the accretion rate is very low. A dynamo that is developed in the shear layer amplifies magnetic fields to high values. It is likely that the amplified magnetic fields form polar outflows from the avoidance regions. Our speculative belt-launched jets model has implications on a rich variety of astrophysical objects, from the removal of common envelopes to the explosion of core collapse supernovae by jittering jets.

  17. Venture Class Launch Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Provide an introduction to the Launch Services Program, and specifically the strategic initiative that drove the Venture Class Launch Services contracts. Provide information from the VCLS request for proposals, as well as the Agency's CubeSat Launch Initiative.

  18. Launch summary for 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Sounding rocket, satellite, and space probe launchings are presented. Time, date, and location of the launches are provided. The sponsoring countries and the institutions responsible for the launch are listed.

  19. Effects of meteorological conditions on spore plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, M.; Levetin, E.

    2002-05-01

    Fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere, and have long been known to trigger asthma and hay fever symptoms in sensitive individuals. The atmosphere around Tulsa has been monitored for airborne spores and pollen with Burkard spore traps at several sampling stations. This study involved the examination of the hourly spore concentrations on days that had average daily concentrations near 50,000 spores/m3 or greater. Hourly concentrations of Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Curvularia, Pithomyces, Drechslera, smut spores, ascospores, basidiospores, other, and total spores were determined on 4 days at three sites and then correlated with hourly meteorological data including temperature, rainfall, wind speed, dew point, air pressure, and wind direction. On each of these days there was a spore plume, a phenomenon in which spore concentrations increased dramatically over a very short period of time. Spore plumes generally occurred near midday, and concentrations were seen to increase from lows around 20,000 total spores/m3 to highs over 170,000 total spores/m3 in 2 h. Multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that increases in temperature, dew point, and air pressure correlated with the increase in spore concentrations, but no single weather variable predicted the appearance of a spore plume. The proper combination of changes in these meteorological parameters that result in a spore plume may be due to the changing weather conditions associated with thunderstorms, as on 3 of the 4 days when spore plumes occurred there were thunderstorms later that evening. The occurrence of spore plumes may have clinical significance, because other studies have shown that sensitization to certain spore types can occur during exposure to high spore concentrations.

  20. Measuring Total and Germinable Spore Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noell, A.C.; Yung, P.T.; Yang, W.; Lee, C.; Ponce, A.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that bacterial endospores can be enumerated using a microscopy based assay that images the luminescent halos from terbium ions bound to dipicolinic acid, a spore specific chemical marker released upon spore germination. Further development of the instrument has simplified it towards automation while at the same time improving image quality. Enumeration of total spore populations has also been developed allowing measurement of the percentage of viable spores in any population by comparing the germinable/culturable spores to the total. Percentage viability will allow a more quantitative comparison of the ability of spores to survive across a wide range of extreme environments.

  1. Biochemical properties of Clostridium bifermentans spores.

    PubMed Central

    Hausenbauer, J M; Waites, W M; Setlow, P

    1977-01-01

    As previously found for spores of Bacillus species, dormant spores of Clostridium bifermentans contained essentially no adenosine triphosphate, a high level of adenosine monophosphate, a high level of 3-phosphoglyceric acid, and much transfer ribonucleic acid lacking a 3'-terminal adenosine monophosphate residue. As in spores of Bacillus species, germination of C. bifermentans spores was accompanied by utilization of the 3-phosphoglyceric acid, a large increase in the adenosine triphosphate level, and the disappearance of defective transfer ribonucleic acid. In contrast to spores of Bacillus species, dormant spores of C. bifermentans contained little free amino acid. PMID:402349

  2. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J. W.; Letant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-17

    We found that energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemicalcode. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. These results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide andaluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. Our results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  3. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-21

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  4. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    DOE PAGES

    Tringe, J. W.; Letant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-17

    We found that energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemicalcode. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly themore » full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. These results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide andaluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. Our results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.« less

  5. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300-2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%-1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  6. Vapor Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthoud, Georges

    A vapor explosion results from the rapid and intense heat transfer that may follow contact between a hot liquid and a cold, more volatile one. Because it can happen during severe-accident sequences of a nuclear power plan, that is, when a large part of the core is molten, vapor explosions have been widely studied. The different sequences of a vapor explosion are presented, including premixing, triggering, propagation, and expansion. Typical experimental results are also analyzed to understand the involved physics. Then the different physics involved in the sequences are addressed, as well as the present experimental program.

  7. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Poppinga, Simon; Haushahn, Tobias; Warnke, Markus; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae). Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the ‘throwing arm’ of the sporangium catapult) and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s-1, and a launch acceleration of ~6300g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal. PMID:26444002

  8. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae).

    PubMed

    Poppinga, Simon; Haushahn, Tobias; Warnke, Markus; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae). Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult) and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1), and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal.

  9. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae).

    PubMed

    Poppinga, Simon; Haushahn, Tobias; Warnke, Markus; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae). Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult) and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1), and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal. PMID:26444002

  10. Role of DNA Protection and Repair in Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spores to Ultrahigh Shock Pressures Simulating Hypervelocity Impacts▿

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Reitz, Günther; Meyer, Cornelia; Hornemann, Ulrich; Stöffler, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Impact-induced ejections of rocks from planetary surfaces are frequent events in the early history of the terrestrial planets and have been considered as a possible first step in the potential interplanetary transfer of microorganisms. Spores of Bacillus subtilis were used as a model system to study the effects of a simulated impact-caused ejection on rock-colonizing microorganisms using a high-explosive plane wave setup. Embedded in different types of rock material, spores were subjected to extremely high shock pressures (5 to 50 GPa) lasting for fractions of microseconds to seconds. Nearly exponential pressure response curves were obtained for spore survival and linear dependency for the induction of sporulation-defective mutants. Spores of strains defective in major small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) (α/β-type SASP) that largely protect the spore DNA and spores of strains deficient in nonhomologous-end-joining DNA repair were significantly more sensitive to the applied shock pressure than were wild-type spores. These results indicate that DNA may be the sensitive target of spores exposed to ultrahigh shock pressures. To assess the nature of the critical physical parameter responsible for spore inactivation by ultrahigh shock pressures, the resulting peak temperature was varied by lowering the preshock temperature, changing the rock composition and porosity, or increasing the water content of the samples. Increased peak temperatures led to increased spore inactivation and reduced mutation rates. The data suggested that besides the potential mechanical stress exerted by the shock pressure, the accompanying high peak temperatures were a critical stress parameter that spores had to cope with. PMID:18791028

  11. Fungal spores: hazardous to health?

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, W G

    1999-01-01

    Fungi have long been known to affect human well being in various ways, including disease of essential crop plants, decay of stored foods with possible concomitant production of mycotoxins, superficial and systemic infection of human tissues, and disease associated with immune stimulation such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis and toxic pneumonitis. The spores of a large number of important fungi are less than 5 microm aerodynamic diameter, and therefore are able to enter the lungs. They also may contain significant amounts of mycotoxins. Diseases associated with inhalation of fungal spores include toxic pneumonitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, tremors, chronic fatigue syndrome, kidney failure, and cancer. PMID:10423389

  12. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  13. The Gonzo Scientist. Flunking Spore.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, John

    2008-10-24

    The blockbuster video game Spore is being marketed as a science-based adventure that brings evolution, cell biology, and even astrophysics to the masses. But after grading the game's science with a team of researchers, the Gonzo Scientist has some bad news. PMID:18948523

  14. Fifth FLTSATCOM to be launched

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Launch of the FLTSATOOM-E, into an elliptical orbit by the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle is announced. The launch and relevant launch operations are described. A chart of the launch sequence for FLTSATCOM-E communication satellite is given.

  15. Small, Low Cost, Launch Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, high risk university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed.

  16. Optimizing Bacillus subtilis spore isolation and quantifying spore harvest purity.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Zoë R; Hertel, Mikaela R; Gorman-Lewis, Drew

    2011-12-01

    Investigating the biochemistry, resilience and environmental interactions of bacterial endospores often requires a pure endospore biomass free of vegetative cells. Numerous endospore isolation methods, however, neglect to quantify the purity of the final endospore biomass. To ensure low vegetative cell contamination we developed a quality control technique that enables rapid quantification of endospore harvest purity. This method quantifies spore purity using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy imaging in conjunction with automated cell counting software. We applied this method to Bacillus subtilis endospore harvests isolated using a two-phase separation method that utilizes mild chemicals. The average spore purity of twenty-two harvests was 88±11% (error is 1σ) with a median value of 93%. A spearman coefficient of 0.97 correlating automated and manual bacterial counts confirms the accuracy of software generated data. PMID:21989299

  17. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.

    1996-04-09

    A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

  18. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    1996-01-01

    A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

  19. Isolating and Purifying Clostridium difficile Spores.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adrianne N; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-01-01

    The ability for the obligate anaerobe, Clostridium difficile to form a metabolically dormant spore is critical for the survival of this organism outside of the host. This spore form is resistant to a myriad of environmental stresses, including heat, desiccation, and exposure to disinfectants and antimicrobials. These intrinsic properties of spores allow C. difficile to survive long-term in an oxygenated environment, to be easily transmitted from host-to-host, and to persist within the host following antibiotic treatment. Because of the importance of the spore form to the C. difficile life cycle and treatment and prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI), the isolation and purification of spores are necessary to study the mechanisms of sporulation and germination, investigate spore properties and resistances, and for use in animal models of CDI. Here we provide basic protocols, in vitro growth conditions, and additional considerations for purifying C. difficile spores for a variety of downstream applications. PMID:27507337

  20. Space Launch System Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is ready to move forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration be...

  1. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  2. IRIS Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

  3. Explosive laser

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Davis, W.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to a laser system wherein reaction products from the detonation of a condensed explosive expand to form a gaseous medium with low translational temperature but high vibration population. Thermal pumping of the upper laser level and de-excitation of the lower laser level occur during the expansion, resulting in a population inversion. The expansion may be free or through a nozzle as in a gas-dynamic configuration. In one preferred embodiment, the explosive is such that its reaction products are CO$sub 2$ and other species that are beneficial or at least benign to CO$sub 2$ lasing. (auth)

  4. Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackledge, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Saturn Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator (LVOS) was developed for NASA at Kennedy Space Center. LVOS simulates the Saturn launch vehicle and its ground support equipment. The simulator was intended primarily to be used as a launch crew trainer but it is also being used for test procedure and software validation. A NASA/contractor team of engineers and programmers implemented the simulator after the Apollo XI lunar landing during the low activity periods between launches.

  5. Launch Summary for 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Spacecraft launching for 1979 are identified and listed under the categories of (1) sounding rockets, and (2) artificial Earth satellites and space probes. The sounding rockets section includes a listing of the experiments, index of launch sites and tables of the meanings and codes used in the launch listing.

  6. Ultraviolet-Resistant Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Newcombe, David; LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff R.

    2007-01-01

    A document summarizes a study in which it was found that spores of the SAFR-032 strain of Bacillus pumilus can survive doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radiation, and hydrogen peroxide in proportions much greater than those of other bacteria. The study was part of a continuing effort to understand the survivability of bacteria under harsh conditions and develop means of sterilizing spacecraft to prevent biocontamination of Mars that could interfere with the search for life there.

  7. Niche explosion.

    PubMed

    Normark, Benjamin B; Johnson, Norman A

    2011-05-01

    The following syndrome of features occurs in several groups of phytophagous insects: (1) wingless females, (2) dispersal by larvae, (3) woody hosts, (4) extreme polyphagy, (5) high abundance, resulting in status as economic pests, (6) invasiveness, and (7) obligate parthenogenesis in some populations. If extreme polyphagy is defined as feeding on 20 or more families of hostplants, this syndrome is found convergently in several species of bagworm moths, tussock moths, root weevils, and 5 families of scale insects. We hypothesize that extreme polyphagy in these taxa results from "niche explosion", a positive feedback loop connecting large population size to broad host range. The niche explosion has a demographic component (sometimes called the "amplification effect" in studies of pathogens) as well as a population-genetic component, due mainly to the increased effectiveness of natural selection in larger populations. The frequent origins of parthenogenesis in extreme polyphages are, in our interpretation, a consequence of this increased effectiveness of natural selection and consequent reduced importance of sexuality. The niche explosion hypothesis makes detailed predictions about the comparative genomics and population genetics of extreme polyphages and related specialists. It has a number of potentially important implications, including an explanation for the lack of observed trade-offs between generalists and specialists, a re-interpretation of the ecological correlates of parthenogenesis, and a general expectation that Malthusian population explosions may be amplified by Darwinian effects.

  8. Explosive cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Device, jetcord, is metal-clad linear explosive of sufficient flexibility to allow forming into intricate shapes. Total effect is termed ''cutting'' with jetcord consistently ''cutting'' a target of greater thickness than can be penetrated. Applications include sheet metal working, pipe cutting and fire-fighting.

  9. Nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    A summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and its effects on human beings is presented at the level of a sophomore general physics course without calculus. It is designed to supplement a standard text for such a course and problems are included.

  10. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  11. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2009-09-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  12. Launch summary for 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Sounding rockets, artificial Earth satellites, and space probes launched betweeen January 1 and December 31, 1980 are listed. Data tabulated for the rocket launchings show launching site, instruments carried, date of launch, agency rocket identification, sponsoring country, experiment discipline, peak altitude, and the experimenter or institution responsible. Tables for satellites and space probes show COSPAR designation, spacecraft name, country, launch date, epoch date, orbit type, apoapsis, periapsis and inclination period. The functions and responsibilities of the World Data Center and the areas of scientific interest at the seven subcenters are defined. An alphabetical listing of experimenters using the sounding rockets is also provided.

  13. Internet Based Simulations of Debris Dispersion of Shuttle Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    The debris dispersion model (which dispersion model?) is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models are useful in understanding the complexity of launch and range operations. Modeling and simulation in this area mainly focuses on orbital dynamics and range safety concepts, including destruct limits, telemetry and tracking, and population risk. Particle explosion modeling is the process of simulating an explosion by breaking the rocket into many pieces. The particles are scattered throughout their motion using the laws of physics eventually coming to rest. The size of the foot print explains the type of explosion and distribution of the particles. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations of the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable modeling behaviors of Shuttle launches.

  14. The walk and jump of Equisetum spores.

    PubMed

    Marmottant, Philippe; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bienaimé, Diane

    2013-11-01

    Equisetum plants (horsetails) reproduce by producing tiny spherical spores that are typically 50 µm in diameter. The spores have four elaters, which are flexible ribbon-like appendages that are initially wrapped around the main spore body and that deploy upon drying or fold back in humid air. If elaters are believed to help dispersal, the exact mechanism for spore motion remains unclear in the literature. In this manuscript, we present observations of the 'walks' and 'jumps' of Equisetum spores, which are novel types of spore locomotion mechanisms compared to the ones of other spores. Walks are driven by humidity cycles, each cycle inducing a small step in a random direction. The dispersal range from the walk is limited, but the walk provides key steps to either exit the sporangium or to reorient and refold. Jumps occur when the spores suddenly thrust themselves after being tightly folded. They result in a very efficient dispersal: even spores jumping from the ground can catch the wind again, whereas non-jumping spores stay on the ground. The understanding of these movements, which are solely driven by humidity variations, conveys biomimetic inspiration for a new class of self-propelled objects. PMID:24026816

  15. The walk and jump of Equisetum spores

    PubMed Central

    Marmottant, Philippe; Ponomarenko, Alexandre; Bienaimé, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Equisetum plants (horsetails) reproduce by producing tiny spherical spores that are typically 50 µm in diameter. The spores have four elaters, which are flexible ribbon-like appendages that are initially wrapped around the main spore body and that deploy upon drying or fold back in humid air. If elaters are believed to help dispersal, the exact mechanism for spore motion remains unclear in the literature. In this manuscript, we present observations of the ‘walks’ and ‘jumps’ of Equisetum spores, which are novel types of spore locomotion mechanisms compared to the ones of other spores. Walks are driven by humidity cycles, each cycle inducing a small step in a random direction. The dispersal range from the walk is limited, but the walk provides key steps to either exit the sporangium or to reorient and refold. Jumps occur when the spores suddenly thrust themselves after being tightly folded. They result in a very efficient dispersal: even spores jumping from the ground can catch the wind again, whereas non-jumping spores stay on the ground. The understanding of these movements, which are solely driven by humidity variations, conveys biomimetic inspiration for a new class of self-propelled objects. PMID:24026816

  16. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  17. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  18. "Explosive" Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kienzynski, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration in which two-liter plastic bottles can be used to show how force relates to pressure and area. Identical drinking straws are launched out of similar plastic bottles with different-sized openings. This demonstration proves qualitatively that pressure is inversely proportional to the area exposed to an object when a…

  19. China's Launch Vehicle Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jingwu

    2002-01-01

    China's Launch Vehicle technologies have been started since 1950s. With the efforts made by several-generation Chinese Space people, the Long March (LM) Launch Vehicles, China's main space transportation tools, have undergone a development road from conventional propellants to cryogenic propellants, from stage-by-stage to strap-on, from dedicated-launch to multiple-launch, from satellite-launching to space capsule-launching. The LM Launch Vehicles are capable of sending various payloads to different orbits with low cost and high reliability. Till now, the LM Launch Vehicles have conducted 67 launch missions, putting 76 spacecraft into the given orbits since the successful mission made by LM-1 in 1970. Especially, they have performed 22 international commercial satellite-launching missions, sending 27 foreign satellites successfully. The footprints of LM Launch Vehicles reflect the development and progress of Chinese Space Industry. At the beginning of the 21st century, with the development of launch vehicle technology and the economic globalization, it is an inexorable trend that Chinese space industry must participate in the international cooperation and competition. Being faced with both opportunities and challenges, Chinese Space Industry should promote actively the commercial launch service market to increase service quality and improve the comprehensive competition capabilities. In order to maintain the sustaining development of China's launch vehicle technology and to meet the increasing needs in the international commercial launch service market, Chinese space industry is now doing research work on developing new-generation Chinese launchers. The new launchers will be large-scale, powerful and non-contamination. The presence of the new-generation Chinese launchers will greatly speed up the development of the whole space-related industries in China, as well as other parts of the world. In the first part, this paper gives an overview on China Aerospace Science

  20. COSMOS Launch Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  1. On the fate of ingested Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Spinosa, M R; Braccini, T; Ricca, E; De Felice, M; Morelli, L; Pozzi, G; Oggioni, M R

    2000-06-01

    Spores of various Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. clausii, are used as probiotics, although they are generally absent from the normal microflora of man. We used two nonpathogenic Bacillus species, B. subtilis and B. clausii, to follow the fate of spores inoculated intragastrically in mice. We did not find detectable amounts of vegetative cells in intestinal samples, probably because of high toxicity of the conjugated bile salt taurodeoxycholic acid against Bacillus species. Both spores and cells were detected in the lymph nodes and spleen of one mouse. Our results indicate that Bacillus is present in the intestinal tract solely as spores and that nonpathogenic Bacillus spores may germinate in lymphoid organs, a finding reminiscent of B. anthracis germination in macrophages. These results indicate that any claimed probiotic effect of B. subtilis should be due to spores or, alternatively, to vegetative growth outside the intestine. PMID:10919516

  2. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  3. 66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS IN CONSOLE LOCATED CENTRALLY IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: LAUNCH OPERATOR, LAUNCH ANALYST, AND FACILITIES PANELS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Inducing and Quantifying Clostridium difficile Spore Formation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Aimee; Fimlaid, Kelly A; Pishdadian, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive nosocomial pathogen Clostridium difficile induces sporulation during growth in the gastrointestinal tract. Sporulation is necessary for this obligate anaerobe to form metabolically dormant spores that can resist antibiotic treatment, survive exit from the mammalian host, and transmit C. difficile infections. In this chapter, we describe a method for inducing C. difficile sporulation in vitro. This method can be used to study sporulation and maximize spore purification yields for a number of C. difficile strain backgrounds. We also describe procedures for visualizing spore formation using phase-contrast microscopy and for quantifying the efficiency of sporulation using heat resistance as a measure of functional spore formation. PMID:27507338

  5. Forecasting spore concentrations: A time series approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, Elaine; Raffery, Adrian E.; Dowding, Paul

    1990-06-01

    Fungal basidiospores and Cladosporium spores are the two most numerous spore types in the air of Dublin and its surroundings. They are known to have allergenic components, and the aim of the study described here is to develop a predictive model for these spores. A very simple model, which combines an estimated diurnal rhythm with a simple, one-parameter time series model, provided golld short-term forecasts. The one-step prediction error variance was reduced by 88% for Cladosporium spores and by 98% for basidiospores.

  6. GPM: Waiting for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission's Core Observatory is poised for launch from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Tanegashima Space Center, scheduled for the afternoon of Feb. 27, ...

  7. Expedition 28 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three new Expedition 28 flight engineers -- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa -- launch from the Baikonur...

  8. Kestrel balloon launch system

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    Kestrel is a high-altitude, Helium-gas-filled-balloon system used to launch scientific payloads in winds up to 20 knots, from small platforms or ships, anywhere over land or water, with a minimal crew and be able to hold in standby conditions. Its major components consist of two balloons (a tow balloon and a main balloon), the main deployment system, helium measurement system, a parachute recovery unit, and the scientific payload package. The main scope of the launch system was to eliminate the problems of being dependent of launching on long airfield runways, low wind conditions, and long launch preparation time. These objectives were clearly met with Kestrel 3.

  9. Electron Beam Irradiation Dose Dependently Damages the Bacillus Spore Coat and Spore Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fiester, S. E.; Helfinstine, S. L.; Redfearn, J. C.; Uribe, R. M.; Woolverton, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Effective control of spore-forming bacilli begs suitable physical or chemical methods. While many spore inactivation techniques have been proven effective, electron beam (EB) irradiation has been frequently chosen to eradicate Bacillus spores. Despite its widespread use, there are limited data evaluating the effects of EB irradiation on Bacillus spores. To study this, B. atrophaeus spores were purified, suspended in sterile, distilled water, and irradiated with EB (up to 20 kGy). Irradiated spores were found (1) to contain structural damage as observed by electron microscopy, (2) to have spilled cytoplasmic contents as measured by spectroscopy, (3) to have reduced membrane integrity as determined by fluorescence cytometry, and (4) to have fragmented genomic DNA as measured by gel electrophoresis, all in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cytometry data reveal decreased spore size, increased surface alterations, and increased uptake of propidium iodide, with increasing EB dose, suggesting spore coat alterations with membrane damage, prior to loss of spore viability. The present study suggests that EB irradiation of spores in water results in substantial structural damage of the spore coat and inner membrane, and that, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent spore inactivation. PMID:22319535

  10. Anthrax Toxins in Context of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Spore Germination.

    PubMed

    Cote, Christopher K; Welkos, Susan L

    2015-08-17

    The interaction of anthrax toxin or toxin components with B. anthracis spores has been demonstrated. Germinating spores can produce significant amounts of toxin components very soon after the initiation of germination. In this review, we will summarize the work performed that has led to our understanding of toxin and spore interactions and discuss the complexities associated with these interactions.

  11. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm-1. For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification.

  12. Anthrax Toxins in Context of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Christopher K.; Welkos, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of anthrax toxin or toxin components with B. anthracis spores has been demonstrated. Germinating spores can produce significant amounts of toxin components very soon after the initiation of germination. In this review, we will summarize the work performed that has led to our understanding of toxin and spore interactions and discuss the complexities associated with these interactions. PMID:26287244

  13. Role of spore coat proteins in the resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to Caenorhabditis elegans predation.

    PubMed

    Laaberki, Maria-Halima; Dworkin, Jonathan

    2008-09-01

    Bacterial spores are resistant to a wide range of chemical and physical insults that are normally lethal for the vegetative form of the bacterium. While the integrity of the protein coat of the spore is crucial for spore survival in vitro, far less is known about how the coat provides protection in vivo against predation by ecologically relevant hosts. In particular, assays had characterized the in vitro resistance of spores to peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing enzymes like lysozyme that are also important effectors of innate immunity in a wide variety of hosts. Here, we use the bacteriovorous nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a likely predator of Bacillus spores in the wild, to characterize the role of the spore coat in an ecologically relevant spore-host interaction. We found that ingested wild-type Bacillus subtilis spores were resistant to worm digestion, whereas vegetative forms of the bacterium were efficiently digested by the nematode. Using B. subtilis strains carrying mutations in spore coat genes, we observed a correlation between the degree of alteration of the spore coat assembly and the susceptibility to the worm degradation. Surprisingly, we found that the spores that were resistant to lysozyme in vitro can be sensitive to C. elegans digestion depending on the extent of the spore coat structure modifications.

  14. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  15. Bacillus anthracis Spore Surface Protein BclA Mediates Complement Factor H Binding to Spores and Promotes Spore Persistence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanyu; Jenkins, Sarah A; Gu, Chunfang; Shree, Ankita; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Herold, Jennifer; Botto, Marina; Wetsel, Rick A; Xu, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, are known to persist in the host lungs for prolonged periods of time, however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that BclA, a major surface protein of B. anthracis spores, mediated direct binding of complement factor H (CFH) to spores. The surface bound CFH retained its regulatory cofactor activity resulting in C3 degradation and inhibition of downstream complement activation. By comparing results from wild type C57BL/6 mice and complement deficient mice, we further showed that BclA significantly contributed to spore persistence in the mouse lungs and dampened antibody responses to spores in a complement C3-dependent manner. In addition, prior exposure to BclA deletion spores (ΔbclA) provided significant protection against lethal challenges by B. anthracis, whereas the isogenic parent spores did not, indicating that BclA may also impair protective immunity. These results describe for the first time an immune inhibition mechanism of B. anthracis mediated by BclA and CFH that promotes spore persistence in vivo. The findings also suggested an important role of complement in persistent infections and thus have broad implications. PMID:27304426

  16. Bacillus anthracis Spore Surface Protein BclA Mediates Complement Factor H Binding to Spores and Promotes Spore Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunfang; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Herold, Jennifer; Botto, Marina; Wetsel, Rick A.; Xu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, are known to persist in the host lungs for prolonged periods of time, however the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that BclA, a major surface protein of B. anthracis spores, mediated direct binding of complement factor H (CFH) to spores. The surface bound CFH retained its regulatory cofactor activity resulting in C3 degradation and inhibition of downstream complement activation. By comparing results from wild type C57BL/6 mice and complement deficient mice, we further showed that BclA significantly contributed to spore persistence in the mouse lungs and dampened antibody responses to spores in a complement C3-dependent manner. In addition, prior exposure to BclA deletion spores (ΔbclA) provided significant protection against lethal challenges by B. anthracis, whereas the isogenic parent spores did not, indicating that BclA may also impair protective immunity. These results describe for the first time an immune inhibition mechanism of B. anthracis mediated by BclA and CFH that promotes spore persistence in vivo. The findings also suggested an important role of complement in persistent infections and thus have broad implications. PMID:27304426

  17. Launch Collision Probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D.

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes the probability of a launch vehicle colliding with one of the nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the Earth, given that an object on a near-collision course with the launch vehicle has been identified. Knowledge of the probability of collision throughout the launch window can be used to avoid launching at times when the probability of collision is unacceptably high. The analysis in this report assumes that the positions of the orbiting objects and the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time and therefore that any tracked object which comes close to the launch vehicle can be identified. The analysis further assumes that the position uncertainty of the launch vehicle and the approaching space object can be described with position covariance matrices. With these and some additional simplifying assumptions, a closed-form solution is developed using two approaches. The solution shows that the probability of collision is a function of position uncertainties, the size of the two potentially colliding objects, and the nominal separation distance at the point of closest approach. ne impact of the simplifying assumptions on the accuracy of the final result is assessed and the application of the results to the Cassini mission, launched in October 1997, is described. Other factors that affect the probability of collision are also discussed. Finally, the report offers alternative approaches that can be used to evaluate the probability of collision.

  18. Examination of B. subtilis var. niger Spore Killing by Dry Heat Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Michael J.; Kirschner, Larry E.

    2004-01-01

    Dry heat microbial reduction is the only NASA approved sterilization method to reduce the microbial bioburden on space-flight hardware prior to launch. Reduction of the microbial bioburden on spacecraft is necessary to meet planetary protection requirements specific for the mission. Microbial bioburden reduction also occurs if a spacecraft enters a planetary atmosphere (e.g., Mars) and is heated due to frictional forces. Temperatures reached during atmospheric entry events (>200 C) are sufficient to damage or destroy flight hardware and also kill microbial spores that reside on the in-bound spacecraft. The goal of this research is to determine the survival rates of bacterial spores when they are subjected to conditions similar to those the spacecraft would encounter (i.e., temperature, pressure, etc.). B. subtilis var. niger spore coupons were exposed to a range of temperatures from 125 C to 200 C in a vacuum oven (at <1 Torr). After the exposures, the spores were removed by sonication, dilutions were made, and the spores were plated using the pour plate method with tryptic soy agar. After 3 days incubation at 32 C, the number of colony-forming units was counted. Lethality rate constants and D-values were calculated at each temperature. The calculated D-values were: 27 minutes (at 125 C), 13 minutes (at 135 C), and <0.1 minutes (at 150 C). The 125 C and 135 C survivor curves appeared as concavedownward curves. The 150 C survivor curve appeared as a straight-line. Due to the prolonged ramp-up time to the exposure conditions, spore killing during the ramp-up resulted in insufficient data to draw curves for exposures at 160 C, 175 C, and 200 C. Exploratory experiments using novel techniques, with short ramp times, for performing high temperature exposures were also examined. Several of these techniques, such as vacuum furnaces, thermal spore exposure vessels, and laser heating of the coupons, will be discussed.

  19. 65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. NOTE 30-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANELS. PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LEFT) AND LAUNCH OPERATORS PANEL (RIGHT) IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Arianespace streamlines launch procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenorovitch, Jeffrey M.

    1992-06-01

    Ariane has entered a new operational phase in which launch procedures have been enhanced to reduce the length of launch campaigns, lower mission costs, and increase operational availability/flexibility of the three-stage vehicle. The V50 mission utilized the first vehicle from a 50-launcher production lot ordered by Arianespace, and was the initial flight with a stretched third stage that enhances Ariane's performance. New operational procedures were introduced gradually over more than a year, starting with the V42 launch in January 1991.

  1. Launch Pad Tour Stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Launch Pad tour stop at the Mississippi I-10 Welcome Center in Hancock County, Miss., is the point of origin for all tours of Stennis Space Center and StenniSphere. At the Launch Pad, visitors waiting to catch the shuttle buses are provided information and can see videos on StenniSphere exhibits and on the missions and programs of Stennis Space Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily, and buses depart from the Launch Pad to StenniSphere every 15 to 20 minutes.

  2. Constructing Fluorogenic Bacillus Spores (F-Spores) via Hydrophobic Decoration of Coat Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ferencko, Linda; Rotman, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial spores are protected by a coat consisting of about 60 different proteins assembled as a biochemically complex structure with intriguing morphological and mechanical properties. Historically, the coat has been considered a static structure providing rigidity and mainly acting as a sieve to exclude exogenous large toxic molecules, such as lytic enzymes. Over recent years, however, new information about the coat's architecture and function have emerged from experiments using innovative tools such as automated scanning microscopy, and high resolution atomic force microscopy. Principal Findings Using thin-section electron microscopy, we found that the coat of Bacillus spores has topologically specific proteins forming a layer that is identifiable because it spontaneously becomes decorated with hydrophobic fluorogenic probes from the milieu. Moreover, spores with decorated coat proteins (termed F-spores) have the unexpected attribute of responding to external germination signals by generating intense fluorescence. Fluorescence data from diverse experimental designs, including F-spores constructed from five different Bacilli species, indicated that the fluorogenic ability of F-spores is under control of a putative germination-dependent mechanism. Conclusions This work uncovers a novel attribute of spore-coat proteins that we exploited to decorate a specific layer imparting germination-dependent fluorogenicity to F-spores. We expect that F-spores will provide a model system to gain new insights into structure/function dynamics of spore-coat proteins. PMID:20174569

  3. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    PubMed

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

  4. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    PubMed

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.

  5. Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases

    PubMed Central

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

  6. Analysis of Bacillus globigii spores by CE.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Kimberly D; Silcott, David B; Colyer, Christa L

    2008-02-01

    It is imperative in today's world that harmful airborne or solution-based microbes can be detected quickly and efficiently. Bacillus globigii (Bg) spores are used as a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (Ba) due to their similar shape, size, and cellular makeup. The utility of CE to separate and detect low levels of Bg spore concentrations will be evaluated. To differentiate spores from background particulates, several dyes, including fluorescamine, C-10, NN-127, Red-1c, and indocyanine green (ICG), were utilized as noncovalent labels for proteins on the Bg spore surface, as well as for HSA and homoserine standards. On-column labeling, with dye present in the running buffer, was utilized to obtain greater sensitivity and better separation. CE with LIF detection enables interactions between the dye and spore surface proteins to be observed, with enhanced fluorescence occurring upon binding of the dye to surface protein. Resulting electropherograms showed unique fingerprints for each dye with Bg spores. Migration times were under 10 min for all dye-spore complexes, with net mobilities ranging from 3.5x10(-4) to 6.9x10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and calibration curves yielded correlation coefficients of 0.98 or better for four of the dyes studied. PMID:18203249

  7. Expedition 27 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Ron Garan and Russian cosmonauts Andrey Borisenko and Alexander Samokutyaev launch in their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on April 4, 2011 (April...

  8. NASA Now: Glory Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, Dr. Hal Maring joins us to explain why the upcoming launch of the Glory satellite is so important to further our understanding of climate change. He also will speak on ...

  9. Launch of Juno!

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Atlas V rocket lofted the Juno spacecraft toward Jupiter from Space Launch Complex-41. The 4-ton Juno spacecraft will take five years to reach Jupiter on a mission to study its structure and dec...

  10. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  11. Hi-C Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) was launched on a NASA Black Brant IX two-stage rocket from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico July 11, 2012. The experiment reached a maximum velocit...

  12. GPM Launch Coverage

    NASA Video Gallery

    A Japanese H-IIA rocket with the NASA-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory aboard, launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan o...

  13. IRVE 3 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment, or IRVE-3, launched on July 23, 2012, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. The purpose of the IRVE-3 test was to show that a space capsule can use an infl...

  14. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  15. Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) To develop a safe, reliable, inexpensive, and minimum operation launch assist system for sending payloads into orbit using ground powered, magnetic suspension and propulsion technologies; (2) Improve safety, reliability, operability for third generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV); (3) Reduce vehicle weight and increase payload capacity; and (4) Support operational testing of Rocket Based Combine Cycle (RBCC) engines.

  16. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Passing through some of the trailer clouds of an overcast sky which temporarily postponed its launch, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th Earth orbital flight. Several kilometers away, astronaut John H. Casper, Jr., who took this picture, was piloting the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) from which the launch and landing area weather was being monitored. Onboard Discovery were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Jr., Mark C. Lee, Carl J. Meade, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger.

  17. Electromagnetic Launch to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, I. R.

    Many advances in electromagnetic (EM) propulsion technology have occurred in recent years. Linear motor technology for low-velocity and high-mass applications is being developed for naval catapults. Such technology could serve as the basis for a first-stage booster launch--as suggested by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the Maglifter concept. Using railguns, laboratory experiments have demonstrated launch velocities of 2-3 km/s and muzzle energies > 8 MJ. The extension of this technology to the muzzle velocities ( 7500 m/s) and energies ( 10 GJ) needed for the direct launch of payloads into orbit is very challenging but may not be impossible. For launch to orbit, even long launchers (> 1000 m) would need to operate at accelerations > 1000 G to reach the required velocities, so it would only be possible to launch rugged payloads, such as fuel, water, and materiel. Interest is being shown in such concepts by US, European, Russian, and Chinese researchers. An intermediate step proposed in France could be to launch payloads to sounding rocket altitudes for ionospheric research.

  18. Nanomechanical analysis of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, N; Bassi, D; Cappa, F; Cocconcelli, P S; Parmigiani, F; Ferrini, G

    2010-12-01

    In this work we report on the measurement of the Young modulus of the external surface of Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores in air with an atomic force microscope. The Young modulus can be reliably measured despite the strong tip-spore adhesion forces and the need to immobilize the spores due to their slipping on most substrates. Moreover, we investigate the disturbing factors and consider some practical aspects that influence the measurements of elastic properties of biological objects with the atomic force microscopy indentation techniques.

  19. Micro-sonicator for spore lysis

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.; Belgrader, Phillip; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2000-01-01

    A micro-sonicator for spore lysis. Using micromachining technology, the micro-sonicator uses ultrasonic excitation of spores to perform spore and cell lysis. The micro-sonicator comprises a container with a cavity therein for retaining the sample in an ultrasonic transmission medium, the cavity being closed by a silicon membrane to which an electrode and piezoelectric material are attached, with the electrode and piezoelectric material being electrically connected to an AC signal generator which causes the membrane to flex and vibrate at the frequency of the applied voltage.

  20. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  1. Quantification and Single-Spore Detection of Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microscopic identification and quantification of Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores from environmental samples, spore traps, and laboratory specimens can represent a challenge. Such reports, especially from passive spore traps, commonly describe the number of “rust-like” spores; for other forensic sa...

  2. Chromospheric explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

    1986-01-01

    Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

  3. Bacterial spores survive electrospray charging and desolvation.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Sara N; Austin, Daniel E

    2014-05-01

    The survivability of Bacillus subtilis spores and vegetative Escherichia coli cells after electrospray from aqueous suspension was tested using mobility experiments at atmospheric pressure. E. coli did not survive electrospray charging and desolvation, but B. subtilis did. Experimental conditions ensured that any surviving bacteria were de-agglomerated, desolvated, and electrically charged. Based on mobility measurements, B. subtilis spores survived even with 2,000-20,000 positive charges. B. subtilis was also found to survive introduction into vacuum after either positive or negative electrospray. Attempts to measure the charge distribution of viable B. subtilis spores using electrostatic deflection in vacuum were inconclusive; however, viable spores with low charge states (less than 42 positive or less than 26 negative charges) were observed.

  4. Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William; Reid, Ray; Bhartia, Rohit; Lane, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of Raman and native fluorescence emission using ultraviolet (UV) sources (<400 nm) on targeted materials is suitable for both sensitive detection and accurate identification of explosive materials. When the UV emission data are analyzed using a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, chemicals and biological samples can be differentiated based on the geometric arrangement of molecules, the number of repeating aromatic rings, associated functional groups (nitrogen, sulfur, hydroxyl, and methyl), microbial life cycles (spores vs. vegetative cells), and the number of conjugated bonds. Explosive materials can be separated from one another as well as from a range of possible background materials, which includes microbes, car doors, motor oil, and fingerprints on car doors, etc. Many explosives are comprised of similar atomic constituents found in potential background samples such as fingerprint oils/skin, motor oil, and soil. This technique is sensitive to chemical bonds between the elements that lead to the discriminating separability between backgrounds and explosive materials.

  5. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  6. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  7. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  8. Bacterial spores in silage and raw milk.

    PubMed

    te Giffel, M C; Wagendorp, A; Herrewegh, A; Driehuis, F

    2002-08-01

    Spore-forming bacteria can survive food-processing treatments. In the dairy industry, Bacillus and Clostridium species determine the shelf-life of a variety of heat-treated milk products, mainly if the level of post-process contamination is low. In order to minimize problems caused by bacterial spores in foods and food production processes a chain management approach, from raw materials, ingredients and environmental sources to final product storage conditions, is most effective. Silage is considered to be a significant source of contamination of raw milk with spores. PCR-RAPD fingerprinting and heat resistance studies of populations of aerobic spore-formers isolated from grass and maize silage and from raw milk confirmed this assumption. Prevention of outgrowth of aerobic spores in silage will contribute to reduction of the total spore load of raw milk. Therefore, it is important that the silage fermentation process is controlled. Application of cultures of lactic acid bacteria or chemical additives can aid silage fermentation and improve aerobic stability. PMID:12448758

  9. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  10. Zvezda Launch Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Footage shows the Proton Rocket (containing the Zvezda module) ready for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Russia. The interior and exterior of Zvezda are seen during construction. Computerized simulations show the solar arrays deploying on Zvezda in space, the maneuvers of the module as it approaches and connects with the International Space Station (ISS), the installation of the Z1 truss on the ISS and its solar arrays deploying, and the installations of the Destiny Laboratory, Remote Manipulator System, and Kibo Experiment Module. Live footage then shows the successful launch of the Proton Rocket.

  11. STS-56 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The second try works like a charm as the Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B on Mission STS-56 at 1:29:00 a.m., EDT, April 8. First attempt to launch Discovery on its 16th space voyage was halted at T-11 seconds on April 6. Aboard for the second Space Shuttle mission of 1993 are a crew of five and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 2 (ATLAS 2), the second in a series of missions to study the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere chemical makeup, and how these factors affect levels of ozone.

  12. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its nineteenth Earth-orbital mission. Launch was delayed because of weather, but all systems were 'go,' and the spacecraft left the launch pad at 6:23 p.m. (EDT) on September 9, 1994. Onboard were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Carl J. Meade, Mark C. Lee, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger (051-2); Making a bright reflection in nearby marsh waters, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th mission in earth orbit (053).

  13. NASA Launch Services Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has need to procure a variety of launch vehicles and services for its unmanned spacecraft. The Launch Services Program (LSP) provides the Agency with a single focus for the acquisition and management of Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launch services. This presentation will provide an overview of the LSP and its organization, approach, and activities.

  14. Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    For the last 30 years, the United States's human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After nearly 50 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return to the home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent as to how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a

  15. Culturability of Bacillus spores on aerosol collection filters exposed to airborne combustion products of Al, Mg, and B·Ti.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Yermakov, Michael; Indugula, Reshmi; Reponen, Tiina; Driks, Adam; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2016-05-01

    Destruction of bioweapon facilities due to explosion or fire could aerosolize highly pathogenic microorganisms. The post-event air quality assessment is conducted through air sampling. A bioaerosol sample (often collected on a filter for further culture-based analysis) also contains combustion products, which may influence the microbial culturability and, thus, impact the outcome. We have examined the interaction between spores deposited on collection filters using two simulants of Bacillus anthracis [B. thuringiensis (Bt) and B. atrophaeus (referred to as BG)] and incoming combustion products of Al as well as Mg and B·Ti (common ingredient of metalized explosives). Spores extracted from Teflon, polycarbonate, mixed cellulose ester (MCE), and gelatin filters (most common filter media for bioaerosol sampling), which were exposed to combustion products during a short-term sampling, were analyzed by cultivation. Surprisingly, we observed that aluminum combustion products enhanced the culturability of Bt (but not BG) spores on Teflon filters increasing the culturable count by more than an order of magnitude. Testing polycarbonate and MCE filter materials also revealed a moderate increase of culturability although gelatin did not. No effect was observed with either of the two species interacting on either filter media with products originated by combustion of Mg and B·Ti. Sample contamination, spore agglomeration, effect of a filter material on the spore survival, changes in the spore wall ultrastructure and germination, as well as other factors were explored to interpret the findings. The study raises a question about the reliability of certain filter materials for collecting airborne bio-threat agents in combustion environments. PMID:26914458

  16. Culturability of Bacillus spores on aerosol collection filters exposed to airborne combustion products of Al, Mg, and B·Ti.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Atin; Yermakov, Michael; Indugula, Reshmi; Reponen, Tiina; Driks, Adam; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2016-05-01

    Destruction of bioweapon facilities due to explosion or fire could aerosolize highly pathogenic microorganisms. The post-event air quality assessment is conducted through air sampling. A bioaerosol sample (often collected on a filter for further culture-based analysis) also contains combustion products, which may influence the microbial culturability and, thus, impact the outcome. We have examined the interaction between spores deposited on collection filters using two simulants of Bacillus anthracis [B. thuringiensis (Bt) and B. atrophaeus (referred to as BG)] and incoming combustion products of Al as well as Mg and B·Ti (common ingredient of metalized explosives). Spores extracted from Teflon, polycarbonate, mixed cellulose ester (MCE), and gelatin filters (most common filter media for bioaerosol sampling), which were exposed to combustion products during a short-term sampling, were analyzed by cultivation. Surprisingly, we observed that aluminum combustion products enhanced the culturability of Bt (but not BG) spores on Teflon filters increasing the culturable count by more than an order of magnitude. Testing polycarbonate and MCE filter materials also revealed a moderate increase of culturability although gelatin did not. No effect was observed with either of the two species interacting on either filter media with products originated by combustion of Mg and B·Ti. Sample contamination, spore agglomeration, effect of a filter material on the spore survival, changes in the spore wall ultrastructure and germination, as well as other factors were explored to interpret the findings. The study raises a question about the reliability of certain filter materials for collecting airborne bio-threat agents in combustion environments.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. 334.1190 Section 334.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. (a) Hood... area will be used intermittently by the Navy for non-explosive torpedo ranging. Launching will...

  18. Bacillus subtilis spores on artificial meteorites survive hypervelocity atmospheric entry: implications for Lithopanspermia.

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Link, Lindsey; Melosh, H Jay; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2005-12-01

    An important but untested aspect of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microbes situated on or within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through Earth's atmosphere. The use of high-altitude sounding rockets to test this notion was explored. Granite samples permeated with spores of Bacillus subtilis strain WN511 were attached to the exterior telemetry module of a sounding rocket and launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico into space, reaching maximum atmospheric entry velocity of 1.2 km/s. Maximum recorded temperature during the flight was measured at 145 degrees C. The surfaces of the post-flight granite samples were swabbed and tested for recovery and survival of WN511 spores, using genetic markers and the unique DNA fingerprint of WN511 as recovery criteria. Spore survivors were isolated at high frequency, ranging from 1.2% to 4.4% compared with ground controls, from all surfaces except the forward-facing surface. Sporulation-defective mutants were noted among the spaceflight survivors at high frequency (4%). These experiments constitute the first report of spore survival to hypervelocity atmospheric transit, and indicate that sounding rocket flights can be used to model the high-speed atmospheric entry of bacteria-laden artificial meteorites.

  19. Sensitive, Rapid Detection of Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chen, Fei; Pickett, Molly; Matsuyama, Asahi

    2009-01-01

    A method of sensitive detection of bacterial spores within delays of no more than a few hours has been developed to provide an alternative to a prior three-day NASA standard culture-based assay. A capability for relatively rapid detection of bacterial spores would be beneficial for many endeavors, a few examples being agriculture, medicine, public health, defense against biowarfare, water supply, sanitation, hygiene, and the food-packaging and medical-equipment industries. The method involves the use of a commercial rapid microbial detection system (RMDS) that utilizes a combination of membrane filtration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence chemistry, and analysis of luminescence images detected by a charge-coupled-device camera. This RMDS has been demonstrated to be highly sensitive in enumerating microbes (it can detect as little as one colony-forming unit per sample) and has been found to yield data in excellent correlation with those of culture-based methods. What makes the present method necessary is that the specific RMDS and the original protocols for its use are not designed for discriminating between bacterial spores and other microbes. In this method, a heat-shock procedure is added prior to an incubation procedure that is specified in the original RMDS protocols. In this heat-shock procedure (which was also described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article on enumerating sporeforming bacteria), a sample is exposed to a temperature of 80 C for 15 minutes. Spores can survive the heat shock, but nonspore- forming bacteria and spore-forming bacteria that are not in spore form cannot survive. Therefore, any colonies that grow during incubation after the heat shock are deemed to have originated as spores.

  20. The Personnel Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.; Talay, Theodore A.; Stone, Howard W.

    1990-01-01

    NASA has begun to study candidate vehicles for manned access to space in support of the Space Station or other future missions requiring on-demand transportation of people to and from earth orbit. One such system, which would be used to complement the present Shuttle or an upgraded version, is the Personnel Launch System (PLS), which is envisioned as a reusable priority vehicle to place people and small payloads into orbit using an experimental launch vehicle. The design of the PLS is based on a Space Station crew changeout requirement whereby eight passengers and two crew members are flown to the station and a like number are returned within a 72 hour mission duration. Experimental and computational aerothermodynamic heating studies have been conducted using a new two-color thermographic technique that involved coating the model with a phosphor that radiates at varying color intensities as a function of temperature when illuminated with UV light. A full-scale model, the HL-20, has been produced and will be used for man-machine research. Three launch vehicle concepts are being considered, a Titan IV, the Advanced Launch System, and a Shuttle equipped with liquid rocket boosters.

  1. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  2. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R.; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N.; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14N spores prepared on solid Schaeffer’s-glucose (SG) agar plates and 15N metabolically labeled spores prepared in shake flasks containing 3-(N-morpholino) propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14N:15N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the

  3. Immunoassay for B. globigii spores as a model for detecting B. anthracis spores in finished water.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Svetlana; Halsall, H Brian; Heineman, William R

    2005-04-01

    The 2001 anthrax alarm in the US raised concerns about the Nation's preparedness to the threat of bioterrorism, and the demand for early warning systems that might be used in the case of a biological attack continues to grow. Here we develop an ultra-sensitive rapid detection method for B. globigii(BG) spores, the simulant of B. anthracis(BA) spores. BG spores were detected by a bead-based sandwich immunoassay with fluorescence detection. Paramagnetic Dynal beads were used as a solid support, primary antibody was attached to the beads by streptavidin-biotin coupling and the secondary antibody had an alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme label. Enzymatic conversion of fluorescein diphosphate (FDP) to fluorescein by AP was measured in real time with lambda(ex)= 490 nm and lambda(em)= 520 nm. The assay was linear from 2.6 x 10(3)-5.6 x 10(5) BG spores mL(-1), and the detection limit was 2.6 x 10(3) spores mL(-1) or 78 spores. All reagent concentrations and incubation times were optimized. The assay time from the moment the spores were introduced to the system was 30 min, and real-time fluorescence detection was done in less than 1 min. Formation of the BG spores-capture beads complex was confirmed by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). BG spores were detected successfully when doped into Cincinnati tap water to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method to detect the spores in non-buffered media. PMID:15776158

  4. Method for collecting spores from a mold

    DOEpatents

    Au, Frederick H. F.; Beckert, Werner F.

    1977-01-01

    A technique and apparatus used therewith for determining the uptake of plutonium and other contaminants by soil microorganisms which, in turn, gives a measure of the plutonium and/or other contaminants available to the biosphere at that particular time. A measured quantity of uncontaminated spores of a selected mold is added to a moistened sample of the soil to be tested. The mixture is allowed to sit a predetermined number of days under specified temperature conditions. An agar layer is then applied to the top of the sample. After three or more days, when spores of the mold growing in the sample have formed, the spores are collected by a miniature vacuum collection apparatus operated under preselected vacuum conditions, which collect only the spores with essentially no contamination by mycelial fragments or culture medium. After collection, the fungal spores are dried and analyzed for the plutonium and/or other contaminants. The apparatus is also suitable for collection of pollen, small insects, dust and other small particles, material from thin-layer chromatography plates, etc.

  5. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  6. Heuristic approach to launch vehicle trajectory design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Kazuyuki

    A heuristic method of designing the launch trajectory is proposed. The objective of our research is 'to search for the trajectory which can insert maximum payload into the target orbit, while satisfying all the given constraints'. Difficulties in achieving this goal come from the numerous design parameters and various constraints inherent to the trajectory design problem. The employed design methodology is based on numerical integration and heuristic search. By numerical integration, any type of constraints can be taken into account, and heuristic search can reduce the search space to a manageable level, which otherwise causes combinatorial explosion. We divide the period of time in launch operations into some phases, in each of which we integrate numerically the trajectory for every combination of variables related to that phase. The heuristic rule can reduce the number of combinations to be investigated in the phase, and the constraints can reduce the space of final condition of this phase, which results in the reduction of the search space of the initial conditions of the next phase. To estimate the effect of this methodology, we applied it to an example problem of the launch trajectory design of BS-3b satellite by H-1 rocket. Some simulation results are discussed, especially in terms of search space reduction and the features of the generated trajectories.

  7. Launch Vehicle Debris Models and Crew Vehicle Ascent Abort Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Lawrence, Scott

    2013-01-01

    For manned space launch systems, a reliable abort system is required to reduce the risks associated with a launch vehicle failure during ascent. Understanding the risks associated with failure environments can be achieved through the use of physics-based models of these environments. Debris fields due to destruction of the launch vehicle is one such environment. To better analyze the risk posed by debris, a physics-based model for generating launch vehicle debris catalogs has been developed. The model predicts the mass distribution of the debris field based on formulae developed from analysis of explosions. Imparted velocity distributions are computed using a shock-physics code to model the explosions within the launch vehicle. A comparison of the debris catalog with an existing catalog for the Shuttle external tank show good comparison in the debris characteristics and the predicted debris strike probability. The model is used to analyze the effects of number of debris pieces and velocity distributions on the strike probability and risk.

  8. Totally confined explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  9. Constellation Launch Vehicles Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steve; Fragola, Joseph R.; Priskos, Alex; Davis, Danny; Kaynard, Mike; Hutt, John; Davis, Stephan; Creech, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of the launch vehicles associated with the Constellation Program. These are the Ares I and the Ares V. An overview of the Ares launch vehicles is included. The presentation stresses that the major criteria for the Ares I launcher is the safety of the crew, and the presentation reviews the various features that are designed to assure that aim. The Ares I vehicle is being built on a foundation of proven technologies, and the Ares V will give NASA unprecedented performance and payload volume that can enable a range of future missions. The CDs contain videos of scenes from various activities surrounding the design, construction and testing of the vehicles.

  10. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  11. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  12. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  13. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  14. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  15. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal. PMID:26853862

  16. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  17. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  18. Inspection tester for explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  19. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  20. 73. VIEW OF LAUNCH OPERATOR AND LAUNCH ANAYLST PANELS LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW OF LAUNCH OPERATOR AND LAUNCH ANAYLST PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SOUTH WALL OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ON WALL IN BACKGROUND: COMMUNICATIONS HEADSET AND FOOT PEDAL IN FORGROUND. ACCIDENT REPORTING EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEM TELEPHONE, ATLAS H FUEL COUNTER, AND DIGITAL COUNTDOWN CLOCK. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Photocontrol of the Germination of Onoclea Spores

    PubMed Central

    Towill, Leslie R.; Ikuma, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The changes in levels of metabolites during photoinduced germination of Onoclea sensibilis L. spores are described. Proteins and lipids, which constitute 25 and 20%, respectively, of the unimbibed spores on a dry weight basis, are hydrolyzed at the time of differentiation and elongation of the germling cells and may be utilized for these processes. Sucrose degradation, starch synthesis, and active respiration occur during dark imbibition, but these processes are accelerated by red or far red irradiation. Endogenous sucrose is the probable source of the carbon skeleton for starch synthesis. PMID:16659327

  2. Factors affecting spore germination in algae - review.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C

    2009-01-01

    This review surveys whatever little is known on the influence of different environmental factors like light, temperature, nutrients, chemicals (such as plant hormones, vitamins, etc.), pH of the medium, biotic factors (such as algal extracellular substances, algal concentration, bacterial extracellular products, animal grazing and animal extracellular products), water movement, water stress, antibiotics, UV light, X-rays, gamma-rays, and pollution on the spore germination in algae. The work done on the dormancy of algal spores and on the role of vegetative cells in tolerating environmental stress is also incorporated. PMID:19826917

  3. Bacterial spores and chemical sporicidal agents.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A D

    1990-01-01

    Bacterial spores are among the most resistant of all living cells to biocides, although the response depends on the stage of sporulation. The development of resistance to some agents such as chlorhexidine occurs much earlier in sporulation than does resistance to glutaraldehyde, which is a very late event. During germination or outgrowth or both, resistance is lost and the cells become as susceptible to biocides as nonsporulating bacteria. Mechanisms of spore resistance to, and the action of, biocides are discussed, and possible means of enhancing antispore activity are considered. The clinical and other uses of sporicidal and sporostatic chemical agents are described. Images PMID:2187595

  4. Dynamic Modeling of Ascent Abort Scenarios for Crewed Launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Boyer, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    For the last 30 years, the United States' human space program has been focused on low Earth orbit exploration and operations with the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs. After over 40 years, the U.S. is again working to return humans beyond Earth orbit. To do so, NASA is developing a new launch vehicle and spacecraft to provide this capability. The launch vehicle is referred to as the Space Launch System (SLS) and the spacecraft is called Orion. The new launch system is being developed with an abort system that will enable the crew to escape launch failures that would otherwise be catastrophic as well as probabilistic design requirements set for probability of loss of crew (LOC) and loss of mission (LOM). In order to optimize the risk associated with designing this new launch system, as well as verifying the associated requirements, NASA has developed a comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the integrated ascent phase of the mission that includes the launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground launch facilities. Given the dynamic nature of rocket launches and the potential for things to go wrong, developing a PRA to assess the risk can be a very challenging effort. Prior to launch and after the crew has boarded the spacecraft, the risk exposure time can be on the order of three hours. During this time, events may initiate from either the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, or the ground systems, thus requiring an emergency egress from the spacecraft to a safe ground location or a pad abort via the spacecraft's launch abort system. Following launch, again either the spacecraft or the launch vehicle can initiate the need for the crew to abort the mission and return home. Obviously, there are thousands of scenarios whose outcome depends on when the abort is initiated during ascent and how the abort is performed. This includes modeling the risk associated with explosions and benign system failures that require aborting a spacecraft under very

  5. The SPORES experiment of the EXPOSE-R mission: Bacillus subtilis spores in artificial meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Moeller, Ralf; Cadet, Jean; Douki, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The experiment SPORES `Spores in artificial meteorites' was part of European Space Agency's EXPOSE-R mission, which exposed chemical and biological samples for nearly 2 years (March 10, 2009 to February 21, 2011) to outer space, when attached to the outside of the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station. The overall objective of the SPORES experiment was to address the question whether the meteorite material offers enough protection against the harsh environment of space for spores to survive a long-term journey in space by experimentally mimicking the hypothetical scenario of Lithopanspermia, which assumes interplanetary transfer of life via impact-ejected rocks. For this purpose, spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 were exposed to selected parameters of outer space (solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ>110 or >200 nm, space vacuum, galactic cosmic radiation and temperature fluctuations) either as a pure spore monolayer or mixed with different concentrations of artificial meteorite powder. Total fluence of solar UV radiation (100-400 nm) during the mission was 859 MJ m-2. After retrieval the viability of the samples was analysed. A Mission Ground Reference program was performed in parallel to the flight experiment. The results of SPORES demonstrate the high inactivating potential of extraterrestrial UV radiation as one of the most harmful factors of space, especially UV at λ>110 nm. The UV-induced inactivation is mainly caused by photodamaging of the DNA, as documented by the identification of the spore photoproduct 5,6-dihydro-5(α-thyminyl)thymine. The data disclose the limits of Lithopanspermia for spores located in the upper layers of impact-ejected rocks due to access of harmful extraterrestrial solar UV radiation.

  6. High-Resolution Spore Coat Architecture and Assembly of Bacillus Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, A J; Elhadj, S; Plomp, M

    2011-03-14

    Elucidating the molecular architecture of bacterial and cellular surfaces and its structural dynamics is essential to understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis, immune response, physicochemical interactions, environmental resistance, and provide the means for identifying spore formulation and processing attributes. I will discuss the application of in vitro atomic force microscopy (AFM) for studies of high-resolution coat architecture and assembly of several Bacillus spore species. We have demonstrated that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. We have proposed that strikingly different species-dependent coat structures of bacterial spore species are a consequence of sporulation media-dependent nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the assembly of the outer spore coat. Spore coat layers were found to exhibit screw dislocations and two-dimensional nuclei typically observed on inorganic and macromolecular crystals. This presents the first case of non-mineral crystal growth patterns being revealed for a biological organism, which provides an unexpected example of nature exploiting fundamental materials science mechanisms for the morphogenetic control of biological ultrastructures. We have discovered and validated, distinctive formulation-specific high-resolution structural spore coat and dimensional signatures of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) grown in different formulation condition. We further demonstrated that measurement of the dimensional characteristics of B. anthracis spores provides formulation classification and sample matching with high sensitivity and specificity. I will present data on the development of an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures on the B. anthracis surfaces. These studies demonstrate that AFM can probe microbial surface architecture, environmental dynamics and the life cycle of bacterial and cellular systems at near

  7. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  8. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload. PMID:24432777

  9. SMAP Launch and Deployment Sequence

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video combines file footage of a Delta II rocket and computer animation to depict the launch and deployment of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite. SMAP is scheduled to launch on Nov...

  10. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  11. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  12. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  13. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  14. Nanomechanical Characterization of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burggraf, Larry W.; Xing, Yun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study of structures and properties of bacterial spores is important to understanding spore formation and biological responses to environmental stresses. While significant progress has been made over the years in elucidating the multilayer architecture of spores, the mechanical properties of the spore interior are not known. Here, we present a thermal atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the nanomechanical properties of internal structures of Bacillus anthracis spores. We developed a nanosurgical sectioning method in which a stiff diamond AFM tip was used to cut an individual spore, exposing its internal structure, and a soft AFM tip was used to image and characterize the spore interior on the nanometer scale. We observed that the elastic modulus and adhesion force, including their thermal responses at elevated temperatures, varied significantly in different regions of the spore section. Our AFM images indicated that the peptidoglycan (PG) cortex of Bacillus anthracis spores consisted of rod-like nanometer-sized structures that are oriented in the direction perpendicular to the spore surface. Our findings may shed light on the spore architecture and properties. IMPORTANCE A nanosurgical AFM method was developed that can be used to probe the structure and properties of the spore interior. The previously unknown ultrastructure of the PG cortex of Bacillus anthracis spores was observed to consist of nanometer-sized rod-like structures that are oriented in the direction perpendicular to the spore surface. The variations in the nanomechanical properties of the spore section were largely correlated with its chemical composition. Different components of the spore materials showed different thermal responses at elevated temperatures. PMID:26969703

  15. Fifth international fungus spore conference. [Abstracts]: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  16. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  17. Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

  18. [Post launch studies].

    PubMed

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Tadashi; Saijo, Nagahiro; Isonishi, Seiji; Hirao, Yoshihiko; Tsuruo, Takashi; Tsukagoshi, Shigeru; Sone, Saburo; Nakamura, Seigo; Kato, Masuhiro; Mikami, Osamu; von Euler, Mikael; Blackledge, George; Milsted, Bob; Vose, Brent

    2002-11-01

    Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is a growing concept in Japan as it is elsewhere. Central to improving the use of EBM is generation of data through well conducted controlled clinical studies. There are many problems associated with conduct of clinical studies after launch in Japan, and many initiatives are ongoing to improve the situation. Development of Clinical Research Coordinators (CRO) and central Data Management centers are key to improving the quality of clinical research in Japan. Currently Japan has an undeveloped legal system with regard to post-launch trials and off-label use of registered drugs. There is no reimbursement for off-label and various restrictions imposed on the recipients of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare's (MHLW) funds. Maybe the biggest problem is the high cost of post-marketing studies sponsored by pharmaceutical manufacturers. A high quality system to support post launch clinical studies need a solid financial base. There is a need for a suitable review system for investigator initiated multi-centre studies, as the current IRB system is not sufficient. There are also challenges regarding the differences, perceived or real, in treatment practice and available registrations in Japan and in the West, causing problems in choosing suitable comparators and study designs. At the present time it is not clear whether investigator initiated trials will be acceptable for registration purposes in Japan. The agreed first priority is to build a suitable and strong infrastructure within the academic community to support researchers to investigate important questions with or without pharmaceutical company support. Despite all these issues, several groundbreaking projects are under way throughout Japan, in many different areas and by different collaborative groups, some with government support. In fact, researcher-initiated clinical trials achieved a rapid growth in Japan in the past year.

  19. Airborne myxomycete spores: detection using molecular techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamono, Akiko; Kojima, Hisaya; Matsumoto, Jun; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fukui, Manabu

    2009-01-01

    Myxomycetes are organisms characterized by a life cycle that includes a fruiting body stage. Myxomycete fruiting bodies contain spores, and wind dispersal of the spores is considered important for this organism to colonize new areas. In this study, the presence of airborne myxomycetes and the temporal changes in the myxomycete composition of atmospheric particles (aerosols) were investigated with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for Didymiaceae and Physaraceae. Twenty-one aerosol samples were collected on the roof of a three-story building located in Sapporo, Hokkaido Island, northern Japan. PCR analysis of DNA extracts from the aerosol samples indicated the presence of airborne myxomycetes in all the samples, except for the one collected during the snowfall season. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR products showed seasonally varying banding patterns. The detected DGGE bands were subjected to sequence analyses, and four out of nine obtained sequences were identical to those of fruiting body samples collected in Hokkaido Island. It appears that the difference in the fruiting period of each species was correlated with the seasonal changes in the myxomycete composition of the aerosols. Molecular evidence shows that newly formed spores are released and dispersed in the air, suggesting that wind-driven dispersal of spores is an important process in the life history of myxomycetes. This study is the first to detect airborne myxomycetes with the use of molecular ecological analyses and to characterize their seasonal distribution.

  20. Real time viability detection of bacterial spores

    DOEpatents

    Vanderberg, Laura A.; Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Obiso, Richard J.

    2003-07-29

    This invention relates to a process for detecting the presence of viable bacterial spores in a sample and to a spore detection system, the process including placing a sample in a germination medium for a period of time sufficient for commitment of any present viable bacterial spores to occur, mixing the sample with a solution of a lanthanide capable of forming a fluorescent complex with dipicolinic acid, and, measuring the sample for the presence of dipicolinic acid, and the system including a germination chamber having inlets from a sample chamber, a germinant chamber and a bleach chamber, the germination chamber further including an outlet through a filtering means, the outlet connected to a detection chamber, the detection chamber having an inlet from a fluorescence promoting metal chamber and the detection chamber including a spectral excitation source and a means of measuring emission spectra from a sample, the detection chamber further connected to a waste chamber. A germination reaction mixture useful for promoting commitment of any viable bacterial spores in a sample including a combination of L-alanine, L-asparagine and D-glucose is also described.

  1. Launch team training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to the training, certification, recertification, and proficiency maintenance of the Shuttle launch team is proposed. Previous training approaches are first reviewed. Short term program goals include expanding current training methods, improving the existing simulation capability, and scheduling training exercises with the same priority as hardware tests. Long-term goals include developing user requirements which would take advantage of state-of-the-art tools and techniques. Training requirements for the different groups of people to be trained are identified, and future goals are outlined.

  2. STS-39 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 28, 1991 at 7:33:14 am (EDT), STS-39 was a Department of Defense (DOD) mission. The crew included seven astronauts: Michael L. Coats, commander; L. Blaine Hammond, pilot; Guion S. Buford, Jr., mission specialist 1; Gregory J. Harbaugh, mission specialist 2; Richard J. Hieb, mission specialist 3; Donald R. McMonagle, mission specialist 4; and Charles L. Veach, mission specialist 5. The primary unclassified payload included the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675), the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), and the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS II).

  3. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  4. WIND Spacecraft Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An international effort to learn more about the complex interaction between the Earth and Sun took another step forward with the launch of WIND spacecraft from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). WIND spacecraft is studded with eight scientific instruments - six US, one French, and one - the first Russian instrument to fly on a US spacecraft - that collected data about the influence of the solar wind on the Earth and its atmosphere. WIND is part of the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative, the US contribution to NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program.

  5. Classification of Streptomyces Spore Surfaces into Five Groups

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Alma; Mathews, John

    1971-01-01

    Streptomyces spores surfaces have been classified into five groups, smooth, warty, spiny, hairy, and rugose, by examination of carbon replicas of spores with the transmission electron microscope and by direct examination of spores with the scanning electron microscope. Images PMID:4928607

  6. Requirements for In Vitro Germination of Paenibacillus larvae Spores

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Israel; Phui, Andy; Elekonich, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), a disease affecting honey bee larvae. First- and second-instar larvae become infected when they ingest food contaminated with P. larvae spores. The spores then germinate into vegetative cells that proliferate in the midgut of the honey bee. Although AFB affects honey bees only in the larval stage, P. larvae spores can be distributed throughout the hive. Because spore germination is critical for AFB establishment, we analyzed the requirements for P. larvae spore germination in vitro. We found that P. larvae spores germinated only in response to l-tyrosine plus uric acid under physiologic pH and temperature conditions. This suggests that the simultaneous presence of these signals is necessary for spore germination in vivo. Furthermore, the germination profiles of environmentally derived spores were identical to those of spores from a biochemically typed strain. Because l-tyrosine and uric acid are the only required germinants in vitro, we screened amino acid and purine analogs for their ability to act as antagonists of P. larvae spore germination. Indole and phenol, the side chains of tyrosine and tryptophan, strongly inhibited P. larvae spore germination. Methylation of the N-1 (but not the C-3) position of indole eliminated its ability to inhibit germination. Identification of the activators and inhibitors of P. larvae spore germination provides a basis for developing new tools to control AFB. PMID:23264573

  7. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Judge, J.

    1997-04-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark.

  8. Genome Diversity of Spore-Forming Firmicutes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Formation of heat-resistant endospores is a specific property of the members of the phylum Firmicutes (low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria). It is found in representatives of four different classes of Firmicutes: Bacilli, Clostridia, Erysipelotrichia, and Negativicutes, which all encode similar sets of core sporulation proteins. Each of these classes also includes non-spore-forming organisms that sometimes belong to the same genus or even species as their spore-forming relatives. This chapter reviews the diversity of the members of phylum Firmicutes, its current taxonomy, and the status of genome sequencing projects for various subgroups within the phylum. It also discusses the evolution of the Firmicutes from their apparently spore-forming common ancestor and the independent loss of sporulation genes in several different lineages (staphylococci, streptococci, listeria, lactobacilli, ruminococci) in the course of their adaptation to the saprophytic lifestyle in nutrient-rich environment. It argues that systematics of Firmicutes is a rapidly developing area of research that benefits from the evolutionary approaches to the ever-increasing amount of genomic and phenotypic data and allows arranging these data into a common framework. Later the Bacillus filaments begin to prepare for spore formation. In their homogenous contents strongly refracting bodies appear. From each of these bodies develops an oblong or shortly cylindrical, strongly refracting, dark-rimmed spore. Ferdinand Cohn. 1876. Untersuchungen über Bacterien. IV. Beiträge zur Biologie der Bacillen. Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen, vol. 2, pp. 249–276. (Studies on the biology of the bacilli. In: Milestones in Microbiology: 1546 to 1940. Translated and edited by Thomas D. Brock. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1961, pp. 49–56). PMID:26184964

  9. An Overview of the Launch Vehicle Blast Environments Development Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Erin; Bangham, Mike; Blackwood, James; Skinner, Troy; Hays, Michael; Jackson, Austin; Richman, Ben

    2014-01-01

    NASA has been funding an ongoing development program to characterize the explosive environments produced during a catastrophic launch vehicle accident. These studies and small-scale tests are focused on the near field environments that threaten the crew. The results indicate that these environments are unlikely to result in immediate destruction of the crew modules. The effort began as an independent assessment by NASA safety organizations, followed by the Ares program and NASA Engineering and Safety Center and now as a Space Launch Systems (SLS) focused effort. The development effort is using the test and accident data available from public or NASA sources as well as focused scaled tests that are examining the fundamental aspects of uncontained explosions of Hydrogen and air and Hydrogen and Oxygen. The primary risk to the crew appears to be the high-energy fragments and these are being characterized for the SLS. The development efforts will characterize the thermal environment of the explosions as well to ensure that the risk is well understood and to document the overall energy balance of an explosion. The effort is multi-path in that analytical, computational and focused testing is being used to develop the knowledge to understand potential SLS explosions. This is an ongoing program with plans that expand the development from fundamental testing at small-scale levels to large-scale tests that can be used to validate models for commercial programs. The ultimate goal is to develop a knowledge base that can be used by vehicle designers to maximize crew survival in an explosion.

  10. Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    With the ever-increasing cost of getting to space and the need for safe, reliable, and inexpensive ways to access space, NASA is taking a look at technologies that will get us there. One of these technologies is Magnetic Launch Assist (MagLev). This is the concept of using both magnetic levitation and magnetic propulsion to provide an initial velocity by using electrical power from ground sources. The use of ground based power can significantly reduce operational costs over the consumables necessary to attain the same velocity. The technologies to accomplish this are both old and new. The concept of MagLev has been around for a long time and several MagLev Trains have already been made. Where NASA's MagLev diverges from the traditional train is in the immense power required to propel this vehicle to 600 feet per second in less than 10 seconds. New technologies or the upgrade of existing technologies will need to be investigated in areas of energy storage and power switching. Plus the separation of a very large mass (the space vehicle) and the aerodynamics of that vehicle while on the carrier are also of great concern and require considerable study and testing. NASA's plan is to mature these technologies in the next 10 years to achieve our goal of launching a full sized space vehicle off a MagLev rail.

  11. STS-86 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis blazes through the night sky to begin the STS-86 mission, slated to be the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Liftoff on Sept. 25 from Launch Pad 39A was at 10:34:19 p.m. EDT, within seconds of the preferred time, during a six-minute, 45- second launch window. The 10-day flight will include the transfer of the sixth U.S. astronaut to live and work aboard the Mir. After the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. Foale has been on the Russian Space Station since mid-May. Wolf is scheduled to remain there about four months. Besides Wolf (embarking to Mir) and Foale (returning), the STS-86 crew includes Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Other primary objectives of the mission are a spacewalk by Parazynski and Titov, and the exchange of about three-and-a-half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between Atlantis and the Mir.

  12. STS-86 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis blazes through the night sky to begin the STS-86 mission, slated to be the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Liftoff on September 25 from Launch Pad 39A was at 10:34 p.m. EDT, within seconds of the preferred time, during a six minute, 45 second launch window. The 10 day flight will include the transfer of the sixth U.S. astronaut to live and work aboard the Mir. After the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. Foale has been on the Russian Space Station since mid May. Wolf is scheduled to remain there about four months. Besides Wolf (embarking to Mir) and Foale (returning), the STS-86 crew includes Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Other primary objectives of the mission are a spacewalk by Parazynski and Titov, and the exchange of about 3.5 tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between Atlantis and the Mir.

  13. New Product Launching Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiruthika, E.

    2012-09-01

    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  14. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  15. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  16. Cytological and Proteomic Analyses of Osmunda cinnamomea Germinating Spores Reveal Characteristics of Fern Spore Germination and Rhizoid Tip Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Jinwei; Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Zhengxiu; Chen, Sixue; Cao, Jian'guo; Liu, Guanjun; Wei, Xing; Wang, Tai; Yang, Chuanping; Dai, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Fern spore is a good single-cell model for studying the sophisticated molecular networks in asymmetric cell division, differentiation, and polar growth. Osmunda cinnamomea L. var. asiatica is one of the oldest fern species with typical separate-growing trophophyll and sporophyll. The chlorophyllous spores generated from sporophyll can germinate without dormancy. In this study, the spore ultrastructure, antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as protein and gene expression patterns were analyzed in the course of spore germination at five typical stages (i.e. mature spores, rehydrated spores, double-celled spores, germinated spores, and spores with protonemal cells). Proteomic analysis revealed 113 differentially expressed proteins, which were mainly involved in photosynthesis, reserve mobilization, energy supplying, protein synthesis and turnover, reactive oxygen species scavenging, signaling, and cell structure modulation. The presence of multiple proteoforms of 25 differentially expressed proteins implies that post-translational modification may play important roles in spore germination. The dynamic patterns of proteins and their encoding genes exhibited specific characteristics in the processes of cell division and rhizoid tip growth, which include heterotrophic and autotrophic metabolisms, de novo protein synthesis and active protein turnover, reactive oxygen species and hormone (brassinosteroid and ethylene) signaling, and vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton dynamic. In addition, the function skew of proteins in fern spores highlights the unique and common mechanisms when compared with evolutionarily divergent spermatophyte pollen. These findings provide an improved understanding of the typical single-celled asymmetric division and polar growth during fern spore germination. PMID:26091698

  17. Protective role of spore structural components in determining Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to simulated mars surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Schuerger, Andrew C; Reitz, Günther; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2012-12-01

    Spores of wild-type and mutant Bacillus subtilis strains lacking various structural components were exposed to simulated Martian atmospheric and UV irradiation conditions. Spore survival and mutagenesis were strongly dependent on the functionality of all of the structural components, with small acid-soluble spore proteins, coat layers, and dipicolinic acid as key protectants.

  18. Protective Role of Spore Structural Components in Determining Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance to Simulated Mars Surface Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Reitz, Günther; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2012-01-01

    Spores of wild-type and mutant Bacillus subtilis strains lacking various structural components were exposed to simulated Martian atmospheric and UV irradiation conditions. Spore survival and mutagenesis were strongly dependent on the functionality of all of the structural components, with small acid-soluble spore proteins, coat layers, and dipicolinic acid as key protectants. PMID:23064347

  19. Protective role of spore structural components in determining Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to simulated mars surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Schuerger, Andrew C; Reitz, Günther; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2012-12-01

    Spores of wild-type and mutant Bacillus subtilis strains lacking various structural components were exposed to simulated Martian atmospheric and UV irradiation conditions. Spore survival and mutagenesis were strongly dependent on the functionality of all of the structural components, with small acid-soluble spore proteins, coat layers, and dipicolinic acid as key protectants. PMID:23064347

  20. Apparatus and method for automated monitoring of airborne bacterial spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponce, Adrian (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus and method for automated monitoring of airborne bacterial spores. The apparatus is provided with an air sampler, a surface for capturing airborne spores, a thermal lysis unit to release DPA from bacterial spores, a source of lanthanide ions, and a spectrometer for excitation and detection of the characteristic fluorescence of the aromatic molecules in bacterial spores complexed with lanthanide ions. In accordance with the method: computer-programmed steps allow for automation of the apparatus for the monitoring of airborne bacterial spores.

  1. Airborne mesophilic fungal spores in various residential environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanen, A.-L.

    In the present work viable fungal spore counts and flora of indoor air were compared in various residences. Total viable spore counts were lowest in the urban/suburban residences and highest in the rural residences. Moisture problems in the urban environment did not increase total viable spore count, but affected composition of fungal flora. In the rural environment, spore counts were much higher in the old houses than in the new ones. Penicillium was the most prevalent fungus in the air of all the residences studied. Airborne Aspergillus, Cladosporium spores and yeast cells were more common in the damp residences and the old rural houses than in the other residences.

  2. Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.

  3. Launch vehicle selection model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, Alex J.

    1990-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, humans will be heading for the Moon and Mars to build scientific bases to gain further knowledge about the universe and to develop rewarding space activities. These large scale projects will last many years and will require large amounts of mass to be delivered to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It will take a great deal of planning to complete these missions in an efficient manner. The planning of a future Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) will significantly impact the overall multi-year launching cost for the vehicle fleet depending upon when the HLLV will be ready for use. It is desirable to develop a model in which many trade studies can be performed. In one sample multi-year space program analysis, the total launch vehicle cost of implementing the program reduced from 50 percent to 25 percent. This indicates how critical it is to reduce space logistics costs. A linear programming model has been developed to answer such questions. The model is now in its second phase of development, and this paper will address the capabilities of the model and its intended uses. The main emphasis over the past year was to make the model user friendly and to incorporate additional realistic constraints that are difficult to represent mathematically. We have developed a methodology in which the user has to be knowledgeable about the mission model and the requirements of the payloads. We have found a representation that will cut down the solution space of the problem by inserting some preliminary tests to eliminate some infeasible vehicle solutions. The paper will address the handling of these additional constraints and the methodology for incorporating new costing information utilizing learning curve theory. The paper will review several test cases that will explore the preferred vehicle characteristics and the preferred period of construction, i.e., within the next decade, or in the first decade of the next century. Finally, the paper will explore the interaction

  4. eLaunch Hypersonics: An Advanced Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new space launch system that NASA can and should develop. This approach can significantly reduce ground processing and launch costs, improve reliability, and broaden the scope of what we do in near earth orbit. The concept (not new) is to launch a re-usable air-breathing hypersonic vehicle from a ground based electric track. This vehicle launches a final rocket stage at high altitude/velocity for the final leg to orbit. The proposal here differs from past studies in that we will launch above Mach 1.5 (above transonic pinch point) which further improves the efficiency of air breathing, horizontal take-off launch systems. The approach described here significantly reduces cost per kilogram to orbit, increases safety and reliability of the boost systems, and reduces ground costs due to horizontal-processing. Finally, this approach provides significant technology transfer benefits for our national infrastructure.

  5. Source strength of fungal spore aerosolization from moldy building material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górny, Rafał L.; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus

    The release of Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium melinii spores from agar and ceiling tile surfaces was tested under different controlled environmental conditions using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. This study revealed that all the investigated parameters, such as fungal species, air velocity above the surface, texture of the surface, and vibration of contaminated material, affected the fungal spore release. It was found that typical indoor air currents can release up to 200 spores cm -2 from surfaces with fungal spores during 30-min experiments. The release of fungal spores from smooth agar surfaces was found to be inadequate for accurately predicting the emission from rough ceiling tile surfaces because the air turbulence increases the spore release from a rough surface. A vibration at a frequency of 1 Hz at a power level of 14 W resulted in a significant increase in the spore release rate. The release appears to depend on the morphology of the fungal colonies grown on ceiling tile surfaces including the thickness of conidiophores, the length of spore chains, and the shape of spores. The spores were found to be released continuously during each 30-min experiment. However, the release rate was usually highest during the first few minutes of exposure to air currents and mechanical vibration. About 71-88% of the spores released during a 30-min interval became airborne during the first 10 min.

  6. STS-87 Columbia Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Like a rising sun lighting up the afternoon sky, the Space Shuttle Columbia soars from Launch Pad 39B at 2:46:00 p.m. EST, November 19, on the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201 satellite. The crew members include Mission Commander Kevin Kregel.; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., Winston Scott, and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 16-day STS-87 mission, the crew will oversee experiments in microgravity; deploy and retrieve a solar satellite; and test a new experimental camera, the AERCam Sprint. Dr. Doi and Scott also will perform a spacewalk to practice International Space Station maneuvers.

  7. STS-92 Discovery Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Viewed from across the waters of Banana Creek, clouds of smoke and steam are illuminated by the flames from Space Shuttle Discovery'''s perfect on-time launch at 7:17 p.m. EDT. Discovery carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery'''s landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  8. LAUNCH_BLTMS.DLL

    2005-12-14

    Postprocessor for the integration of the BLT-MS (Breach Leach Transport-Multi Species) code with GoldSim{trademark}. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim{trademark}. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim{trademark} model file. The code executes BTLMS.EXE using a standard BLT-MS input file and allocated parameters to memory for subsequent input of BLTMS.EXE output dat to a GoldSim{trademark} model file. This DLL is used for performing Monte Carlomore » analyses. The software is used as part of a modeling package that consists of BLTMS.EXE, GoldSim{trademark}, Read_BLT.DLL and Launch_BLTMS.DLL. The modeling package is used to run Monte Crlo analyses for performance assessment of Low level Radioactive Waste Repositories.« less

  9. The Launch of an Atlas/Centaur Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch of an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle is shown in this photograph. The Atlas/Centaur, launched on November 13, 1978, carried the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 into the required orbit. The second observatory, the HEAO-2 (nicknamed the Einstein Observatory in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein) carried the first telescope capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects.

  10. Revival of biocide-treated spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Williams, N D; Russell, A D

    1993-07-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236 were treated with biocides and then subjected to various revival procedures. Sodium hydroxide (optimum concentration 25 mmol l-1) revived a small portion of glutaraldehyde-treated spores but not of spores exposed to formaldehyde, polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine (PVP-I), Lugol's iodine, sodium hypochlorite or sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). Post-treatment heat shock (at 70 degrees or 80 degrees C) increased the numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) of formaldehyde-injured spores. Coat-extraction procedures had the greatest effect on iodine-pretreated spores. The uptake of iodine and chlorine was more rapid and occurred to a greater extent with outgrowing, germinating and especially coat-deficient spores than with mature, resting spores. PMID:7690020

  11. Mushrooms use convectively created airflows to disperse their spores

    PubMed Central

    Dressaire, Emilie; Yamada, Lisa; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of basidiomycete fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable winds for dispersal—that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only 1 cm high and lift spores 10 cm or more into the air. This work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding and explains their high water needs. PMID:26929324

  12. KSC Vertical Launch Site Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Lynne V.

    2007-01-01

    RS&H was tasked to evaluate the potential available launch sites for a combined two user launch pad. The Launch sites were to be contained entirely within current Kennedy Space Center property lines. The user launch vehicles to be used for evaluation are in the one million pounds of first stage thrust range. Additionally a second evaluation criterion was added early on in the study. A single user launch site was to be evaluated for a two million pound first stage thrust vehicle. Both scenarios were to be included in the report. To provide fidelity to the study criteria, a specific launch vehicle in the one million pound thrust range was chosen as a guide post or straw-man launch vehicle. The RpK K-1 vehicle is a current Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS), contract awardee along with the SpaceX Falcon 9 vehicle. SpaceX, at the time of writing, is planning to launch COTS and possibly other payloads from Cx-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station property. RpK has yet to declare a specific launch site as their east coast US launch location. As such it was deemed appropriate that RpK's vehicle requirements be used as conceptual criteria. For the purposes of this study those criteria were marginally generalized to make them less specifiC.

  13. Free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  14. Explosives tester with heater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  15. Fern spore longevity in saline water: can sea bottom sediments maintain a viable spore bank?

    PubMed

    de Groot, G Arjen; During, Heinjo

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation's diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and--in sea bottoms--salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding) emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal.

  16. Fern Spore Longevity in Saline Water: Can Sea Bottom Sediments Maintain a Viable Spore Bank?

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, G. Arjen; During, Heinjo

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation’s diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and - in sea bottoms - salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding) emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal. PMID:24223951

  17. Launch vehicle performance using metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Powell, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Metallized propellant propulsion systems are considered as replacements for the solid rocket boosters and liquid sustainer stages on the current launch vehicles: both the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Titan 4. Liquid rocket boosters for the STS were analyzed as replacements for current solid rocket boosters. These boosters can provide a liquid propulsion system within the volume constraints of a solid rocket booster. A replacement for the Space Shuttle Main Engines using metallized O2/H2/Al was studied. The liquid stages of the Titan 4 were also investigated; the Aerozine-50 (A-50) fuel was replaced with metallized storable A-50/Al. A metallized propellant is similar to a traditional liquid propellant. However, it has metal particles, such as aluminum, that are suspended in a gelled fuel, such as hydrogen, RP-1, A-50 or monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The fuels then undergo combustion with liquid oxygen or nitrogen tetroxide (NTO). These propellants provide options for increasing the performance of existing launch vehicle chemical propulsion systems by increasing fuel density or specific impulse or both. These increases in density and specific impulse can significantly reduce the propulsion system liftoff weight and allow a liquid rocket booster to fit into the same volume as an existing solid rocket booster. Also, because gelled fuels are akin to liquid propellants, metallized systems can provide enhanced controllability over solid propulsion systems. Gelling of the propellant also reduces the sensitivity to impacts and consequently reduces the propellant explosion hazard.

  18. Launch vehicle performance using metallized propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Powell, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Metallized propellant propulsion systems are considered as replacements for the solid rocket boosters and liquid sustainer stages on the current launch vehicles: both the Space Transportation System (STS) and the Titan 4. Liquid rocket boosters for the STS were analyzed as replacements for current solid rocket boosters. These boosters can provide a liquid propulsion system within the volume constraints of a solid rocket booster. A replacement for the Space Shuttle Main Engines using metallized 02/H2/A1 was studied. The liquid stages of the Titan 4 were also investigated; the Aerozine-50 (A-50) fuel was replaced with metallized storable A-50/A1. A metallized propellant is similar to a traditional liquid propellant. However, it has metal particles, such as aluminum, that are suspended in a gelled fuel, such as hydrogen, RP-1, A-50 or monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The fuels then undergo combustion with liquid oxygen or nitrogen tetroxide (NTO). These propellants provide options for increasing the performance of existing launch vehicle chemical propulsion systems by increasing fuel density or specific impulse or both. These increases in density and specific impulse can significantly reduce the propulsion system liftoff weight and allow a liquid rocket booster to fit into the same volume as an existing solid rocket booster. Also, because gelled fuels are akin to liquid propellants, metallized systems can provide enhanced controllability over solid propulsion systems. Gelling of the propellant also reduces the sensitivity to impacts and consequently reduces the propellant explosion hazard.

  19. CLOSTRIDIUM SPORE ATTACHMENT TO HUMAN CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.; WARREN,J.

    1997-08-10

    This paper uses high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with a LaB6 gun and the newest commercial field emission guns, to obtain high magnification images of intact clostridial spores throughout the activation/germination/outgrowth process. By high resolution SEM, the clostridial exosporial membrane can be seen to produce numerous delicate projections (following activation), that extend from the exosporial surface to a nutritive substrate (agar), or cell surface when anaerobically incubated in the presence of human cells (embryonic fibroblasts and colon carcinoma cells). Magnifications of 20,000 to 200,000Xs at accelerating voltages low enough to minimize or eliminate specimen damage (1--5 kV) have permitted the entire surface of C.sporogenes and C.difficile endospores to be examined during all stages of germination. The relationships between the spore and the agar or human cell surface were also clearly visible.

  20. Technology development for launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Michael J.; Leonard, Bruce G.

    1990-10-01

    A program to develop technology for launch vehicles is now under way in the U.S. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) program was initiated by NASA and the USAF to develop a highly reliable heavy lift launch system that would deliver payloads to orbit at a cost of $300 per lb, as mandated by the U.S. Congress. The system development is proceeding in concert wth a technology development program, now called the Advanced Launch Development Program, described in this paper. A secondary objective of ALS is to transfer the technologies to other launch vehicles. Projects are under way in the following areas: propulsion, avionics, structures/materials/manufacturing, aerothermodynamics, recovery, operations, and subsystems. Brief overviews of each area are presented. In addition, a more detailed discussion of one of the projects, regarding expendable composite launch vehicle structures, is presented as an example.

  1. Advanced small launch vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reins, G. E.; Alvis, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to determine the most economical (lowest cost/launch) approach for the development of an advanced small launch vehicle (ASLV) for use over the next decade. The ASLV design objective was to place a 340 kg (750 lb) payload into a 556 km (300 n.mi.) circular orbit when launched due east from Wallops Island, Virginia. The investigation encompassed improvements to the current Scout launch vehicle; use of existing military and NASA launch vehicle stages; and new, optionally staged vehicles. Staging analyses included use of liquid, solid, and hybrid propellants. Improvements in guidance, controls, interstages, telemetry, and payload shroud were also considered. It was concluded that the most economical approach is to progressively improve the Scout launch vehicle in three phased steps which are discussed.

  2. Los Alamos explosives performance data

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.; Crane, S.L.; Johnson, J.N.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides explosives performances, as measured by plate acceleration data, aquarium data, and detonation velocity data. It includes some 800 pages of data and is for explosives scientists more than engineers. (This is a companion volume to the 1980 ''LASL Explosive Property Data'' which covered only pure explosives and well-characterized explosive formulations).

  3. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  4. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 35mm camera was used to expose this image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches. The launch pad and orbiter can be seen reflected in the water directly in front of it.

  5. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This wide lux image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station shows the base of the launch pad as well as the orbiter just clearing the gantry. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches.

  6. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 70mm camera was used to expose this image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches. The launch pad and orbiter can be seen reflected in the water directly in front of it.

  7. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures. PMID:26502561

  8. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  9. Association of Fidaxomicin with C. difficile Spores: Effects of Persistence on Subsequent Spore Recovery, Outgrowth and Toxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Grace S.; Ashwin, Helen; Longshaw, Chris M.; Wilcox, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that fidaxomicin instillation prevents spore recovery in an in-vitro gut model, whereas vancomycin does not. The reasons for this are unclear. Here, we have investigated persistence of fidaxomicin and vancomycin on C. difficile spores, and examined post-antibiotic exposure spore recovery, outgrowth and toxin production. Methods Prevalent UK C. difficile ribotypes (n = 10) were incubated with 200mg/L fidaxomicin, vancomycin or a non-antimicrobial containing control for 1 h in faecal filtrate or Phosphate Buffered Saline. Spores were washed three times with faecal filtrate or phosphate buffered saline, and residual spore-associated antimicrobial activity was determined by bioassay. For three ribotypes (027, 078, 015), antimicrobial-exposed, faecal filtrate-washed spores and controls were inoculated into broth. Viable vegetative and spore counts were enumerated on CCEYL agar. Percentage phase bright spores, phase dark spores and vegetative cells were enumerated by phase contrast microscopy at 0, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h post-inoculation. Toxin levels (24 and 48h) were determined by cell cytotoxicity assay. Results Fidaxomicin, but not vancomycin persisted on spores of all ribotypes following washing in saline (mean = 10.1mg/L; range = 4.0-14mg/L) and faecal filtrate (mean = 17.4mg/L; 8.4–22.1mg/L). Outgrowth and proliferation rates of vancomycin-exposed spores were similar to controls, whereas fidaxomicin-exposed spores showed no vegetative cell growth after 24 and 48 h. At 48h, toxin levels averaged 3.7 and 3.3 relative units (RU) in control and vancomycin-exposed samples, respectively, but were undetectable in fidaxomicin-exposed samples. Conclusion Fidaxomicin persists on C. difficile spores, whereas vancomycin does not. This persistence prevents subsequent growth and toxin production in vitro. This may have implications on spore viability, thereby impacting CDI recurrence and transmission rates. PMID:27556739

  10. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  11. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  12. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  13. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  14. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  18. 7. OVERALL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD, SHOWING HELIPAD AT LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OVERALL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD, SHOWING HELIPAD AT LAUNCH AREA, WHEN VIEWED WITH NEGATIVE NO. CA-57-8(BELOW), LOOKING NORTH. BASKETBALL COURT IN BACKGROUND Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Maria; Rojas-Flores, Teresa I

    2015-01-01

    The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 - October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores) and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 - 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores) and the lowest in December (7,314 spores). Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores) was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores).

  20. Efficient binding of nickel ions to recombinant Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Hinc, Krzysztof; Ghandili, Soheila; Karbalaee, Gholamreza; Shali, Abbas; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari; Ricca, Ezio; Ahmadian, Gholamreza

    2010-11-01

    We report the use of recombinant spores of Bacillus subtilis as a potential bioremediation tool for adsorption of nickel ions. The spore surface protein CotB, previously used for the display of heterologous antigens, was engineered to express eighteen histidine residues within the spore coat. Wild type and recombinant spores were then analyzed to assess their efficiency in adsorbing nickel ions, and the latter proved to be significantly more efficient than wild type spores in metal-binding. The quantities of spores used in the adsorption reaction significantly affected nickel binding, while other factors such as pH and temperature did not show relevant effects. In addition, simple washing procedures were used to partially release spore-bound nickel ions by wild type and recombinant spores. The efficiency of nickel binding, together with the simple purification procedure, the high robustness and safety of B. subtilis spores and the possibility of recovering bound nickel, makes the recombinant spore a new and potentially powerful tool for the treatment of contaminated ecosystems.

  1. History society launches journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A fledgling international organization plans to launch, in the next few months, a journal devoted to the study of the history of the earth sciences. The journal, to be published by the History of Earth Sciences Society (HESS), will be edited by Gerald M. Friedman ot the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.HESS will promote interest and scholarship in the history of the earth sciences by publishing the semiannual journal, by organizing meetings about the history of earth sciences, and by supporting the efforts of other associations displaying similar interests, according to the society's draft constitution. An organizational meeting to ratify the constitution and to elect officers will be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October. The interim officers and the proposed slate for 1983 include David B. Kitts (University of Oklahoma, Norman), president; Albert V. Carrozi (University of Illinois, Urbana), president-elect; and Ellis L. Yochelson (U.S. Geological Survey, National Museum of Natural History), secretary.

  2. Launch Support Video Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to create a website that displays video, countdown clock, and event times to customers during launches, without needing to be connected to the internal operations network. The requirements of this project are to also minimize the delay in the clock and events to be less than two seconds. The two parts of this are the webpage, which will display the data and videos to the user, and a server to send clock and event data to the webpage. The webpage is written in HTML with CSS and JavaScript. The JavaScript is responsible for connecting to the server, receiving new clock data, and updating the webpage. JavaScript is used for this because it can send custom HTTP requests from the webpage, and provides the ability to update parts of the webpage without having to refresh the entire page. The server application will act as a relay between the operations network, and the open internet. On the operations network side, the application receives multicast packets that contain countdown clock and events data. It will then parse the data into current countdown times and events, and create a packet with that information that can be sent to webpages. The other part will accept HTTP requests from the webpage, and respond to them with current data. The server is written in C# with some C++ files used to define the structure of data packets. The videos for the webpage will be shown in an embedded player from UStream.

  3. Urban poor program launched.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  4. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  5. Explosives simulants: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, G.L.; Pruneda, C.O.; Simpson, R.L.

    1992-03-04

    Two TNT high explosives simulants have been developed. Small scale testing has shown them to be insensitive to: impact, spark, friction, temperature, and shock. The materials have been scaled to 0.5 kg quantities and samples given to the Protective Services Department for field evaluation using explosives detecting canines.

  6. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  7. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  8. Explosive acceleration of plates using nonconventional explosives heavily loaded with inert and reactive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Petel, Oren; Huneault, Justin; Serge, Matthew; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    The detonation behavior of high explosives containing dispersed quantities or packed beds of dense additives has been previously investigated with the observation that such systems depart from the ``gamma law'' behavior typical of homogeneous explosives due to momentum transfer and thermalization between particles and detonation products. However, the influence of this non-ideal detonation behavior on the divergence speed of plates has been far less rigorously studied and existing literature suggests that the effect of dense additives cannot be explained solely through the straightforward application of the Gurney method with energy and density averaging of the explosive. In the current study, the acceleration history and terminal velocity of aluminum flyers launched by packed beds of granular material saturated by amine-sensitized nitromethane is reported. Two experimental configurations are used to study acceleration either by a purely grazing detonation in a finite thickness slab of explosive or by a normal detonation from an effectively infinite thickness of explosive. Flyer acceleration and velocity is measured via Photonic Doppler Velocimetry. Packed beds of plastic, aluminum, glass, iron, and bismuth are considered and the data is compared to Gurney velocity predictions.

  9. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  10. Launch systems operations cost modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Mark K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the launch systems operations modeling portion of a larger model development effort, NASA's Space Operations Cost Model (SOCM), led by NASA HQ. The SOCM study team, which includes cost and technical experts from each NASA Field Center and various contractors, has been tasked to model operations costs for all future NASA mission concepts including planetary and Earth orbiting science missions, space facilities, and launch systems. The launch systems operations modeling effort has near term significance for assessing affordability of our next generation launch vehicles and directing technology investments, although it provides only a part of the necessary inputs to assess life cycle costs for all elements that determine affordability for a launch system. Presented here is a methodology to estimate requirements associated with a launch facility infrastructure, or Spaceport, from start-up/initialization into steady-state operation. Included are descriptions of the reference data used, the unique estimating methodology that combines cost lookup tables, parametric relationships, and constructively-developed correlations of cost driver input values to collected reference data, and the output categories that can be used by economic and market models. Also, future plans to improve integration of launch vehicle development cost models, reliability and maintainability models, economic and market models, and this operations model to facilitate overall launch system life cycle performance simulations will be presented.

  11. Delta launch vehicle accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    The text of the testimony given by several witnesses during the House hearings on the Delta launch vehicle accident of May 3, 1986 is given. Pre-launch procedures, failure analysis, the possibility of sabotage, and design and testing are among the topics discussed.

  12. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  13. Soviet launch vehicles - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. S.

    1982-02-01

    The different families of Soviet launch vehicles are described, along with a history of applications. The Sapwood family, which was used to launch the Moniya spacecraft, is the most often-used launch vehicle in the world. Like the Sapwood, the Sandal, Skean, and Scarp vehicles are all modifications of military rockets. Specific impulses, launch records, payloads, fuels, mass, length, and diameters are provided for launches in the period 1975-1981. The Proton series is the largest currently operational vehicle in the Soviet space program, although exact dimensions are not available. Manned space missions, space stations, and heavy satellites have been delegated to the Proton booster, which has also been used for the Luna 24 and Veneras 11 and 12 probes.

  14. No Launch Before Its Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Aura is an Earth-observing satellite developed to help us study the quality of the air we breathe. It will look at the state of the ozone and the atmospheric composition in regards to the Earth's changing climate. I headed to California on July 5, 2004. The plan was that the satellite would launch on the tenth, but we had a few problems getting it off. This was the fifty-ninth launch of my career, and it was also a little different than most of my previous launches. Most of the time it's weather that postpones a launch; there aren't usually that many technical issues this late in the game. This time. however, we had several problems, equally split between the launch vehicle and the spacecraft. I remember a member of the crew asking me, 'Is this normal?' And in my experience, it wasn't.

  15. Pioneer Launch on Delta Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    NASA launches the last in the series of interplanetary Pioneer spacecraft, Pioneer 10 from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The long-tank Delta launch vehicle placed the spacecraft in a solar orbit along the path of Earth's orbit. The spacecraft then passed inside and outside Earth's orbit, alternately speeding up and slowing down relative to Earth. The Delta launch vehicle family started development in 1959. The Delta was composed of parts from the Thor, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, as its first stage, and the Vanguard as its second. The first Delta was launched from Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960 and was powerful enough to deliver a 100-pound spacecraft into geostationary transfer orbit. Delta has been used to launch civil, commercial, and military satellites into orbit. For more information about Delta, please see Chapter 3 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  16. An explosively driven, fast shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.H.; Marsh, S.

    1992-03-01

    A simple, cylindrically configured fast shock tube (FST) has been employed as a tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of plate drive under a very high impulse-loading condition. The shock tube has a high-explosive outer shell and a low-density foam core. The implosion produces a well-defined Mach disk that is then subsequently used to drive a metallic plate. A thin stainless steel (SS) plate has been successfully launched to 9 km/s with this device. The experimental results from the study of material flow will be presented and compared with numerical calculation. Various interesting measurement techniques will also be discussed.

  17. An explosively driven, fast shock tube

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.H.; Marsh, S.

    1992-01-01

    A simple, cylindrically configured fast shock tube (FST) has been employed as a tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of plate drive under a very high impulse-loading condition. The shock tube has a high-explosive outer shell and a low-density foam core. The implosion produces a well-defined Mach disk that is then subsequently used to drive a metallic plate. A thin stainless steel (SS) plate has been successfully launched to 9 km/s with this device. The experimental results from the study of material flow will be presented and compared with numerical calculation. Various interesting measurement techniques will also be discussed.

  18. Effect of Lysozyme on Resting Spores of Bacillus Megaterium

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yahiko; Rode, L. J.

    1969-01-01

    Resting spores of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 9885 were found to be markedly affected by lysozyme. Exposure to as little as 1.5 μg of lysozyme per ml caused the spores to lose refractility, the darkened spores to shed their coat structures, and the spore central bodies to lyse. The spores of seven other strains of B. megaterium and seven other Bacillus species were not similarly affected by lysozyme. Proteolytic enzymes such as pronase, trypsin, pepsin, and subtilisin did not induce the change. The action of lysozyme differed in certain important respects from that of common “physiological” germinants. Its action was considered to be direct via its enzymatic attack on exposed sites directly accessible in the resting spores of B. megaterium ATCC 9885. Images PMID:4977688

  19. Assay for Spore Wall Integrity Using a Yeast Predator.

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroki; Neiman, Aaron M; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    During the budding yeast life cycle, a starved diploid cell undergoes meiosis followed by production of four haploid spores, each surrounded by a spore wall. The wall allows the spores to survive in harsh environments until conditions improve. Spores are also more resistant than vegetative cells to treatments such as ether vapor, glucanases, heat shock, high salt concentrations, and exposure to high or low pH, but the relevance of these treatments to natural environmental stresses remains unclear. This protocol describes a method for assaying the yeast spore wall under natural environmental conditions by quantifying the survival of yeast spores that have passed through the digestive system of a yeast predator, the fruit fly. PMID:27480715

  20. A study of Ganoderma lucidum spores by FTIR microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Xianliang; Qi, Zeming; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Shengyi

    2012-06-01

    In order to obtain unique information of Ganoderma lucidum spores, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to study G. lucidum spores from Anhui Province (A), Liaoning Province (B) and Shangdong Province (C) of China. IR micro-spectra were acquired with high-resolution and well-reproducibility. The IR spectra of G. lucidum spores from different areas were similar and mainly made up of the absorption bands of polysaccharide, sterols, proteins, fatty acids, etc. The results of curve fitting indicated the protein secondary structures were dissimilar among the above G. lucidum spores. To identify G. lucidum spores from different areas, the H1078/H1640 value might be a potentially useful factor, furthermore FTIR microspectroscopy could realize this identification efficiently with the help of hierarchical cluster analysis. The result indicates FTIR microspectroscopy is an efficient tool for identification of G. lucidum spores from different areas. The result also suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is a potentially useful tool for the study of TCM.

  1. STS-51 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off from Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to begin Mission STS-51 on 12 September 1993. The 57th shuttle mission began at 7:45 a.m. EDT, and lasted 9 days, 20 hours, 11 minutes, 11 seconds, while traveling a total distance of 4,106,411 miles. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was one of the projects deployed. This satellite serves as a test bed for advanced experimental communications satellite concepts and technology. Another payload on this mission was the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) telescope mounted on the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) payload carrier. ORFEUS was designed to investigate very hot and very cold matter in the universe. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into

  2. Gunshot and Explosion Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

    2004-01-01

    Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7

  3. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  4. STS-29: Pre-Launch Preparations/Launch and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-29, Commander Michael L. Coats, Pilot John E. Blaha, and Mission Specialists James P. Bagian, James F. Buchli, and Robert C. Springer, seated in the White Room with the traditional cake. The crew is seen performing various pre-launch activities including suit-up, and walk out to the Astro-van. This early morning launch shows countdown, main engine start, liftoff, booster separation, and various isolated footage of the launch from different cameras. Also presented are footage of the approach, gear touchdown, rollout at Edwards Air Force Base, and various isolated views of the landing.

  5. Optically measured explosive impulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew M.; McNesby, Kevin L.

    2014-06-01

    An experimental technique is investigated to optically measure the explosive impulse produced by laboratory-scale spherical charges detonated in air. Explosive impulse has historically been calculated from temporal pressure measurements obtained via piezoelectric transducers. The presented technique instead combines schlieren flow visualization and high-speed digital imaging to optically measure explosive impulse. Prior to an explosive event, schlieren system calibration is performed using known light-ray refractions and resulting digital image intensities. Explosive charges are detonated in the test section of a schlieren system and imaged by a high-speed digital camera in pseudo-streak mode. Spatiotemporal schlieren intensity maps are converted using an Abel deconvolution, Rankine-Hugoniot jump equations, ideal gas law, triangular temperature decay profile, and Schardin's standard photometric technique to yield spatiotemporal pressure maps. Temporal integration of individual pixel pressure profiles over the positive pressure duration of the shock wave yields the explosive impulse generated for a given radial standoff. Calculated explosive impulses are shown to exhibit good agreement between optically derived values and pencil gage pressure transducers.

  6. Physiological responses of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores to high pressure.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Juhee; Balasubramaniam, V M

    2007-03-01

    Pressure inactivation behavior of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores was investigated in deionized water. The spores of B. amyloliquefaciens were subjected to 105 degrees C and 700 MPa. The magnitude of the decrease in viability after pressure treatment was similar to that after pressure treatment followed by heat shock. The increase of dipicolinic acid (DPA) release was correlated with the spore inactivation, and the hydrophobicity did not significantly change during the pressure-assisted thermal processing (PATP). Lag phase duration increased with increasing pressure process time. The mechanisms of spore germination and inactivation during the PATP were related to a complex physiological process.

  7. Heat killing of bacterial spores analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed Central

    Belliveau, B H; Beaman, T C; Pankratz, H S; Gerhardt, P

    1992-01-01

    Thermograms of the exosporium-lacking dormant spores of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 33729, obtained by differential scanning calorimetry, showed three major irreversible endothermic transitions with peaks at 56, 100, and 114 degrees C and a major irreversible exothermic transition with a peak at 119 degrees C. The 114 degrees C transition was identified with coat proteins, and the 56 degrees C transition was identified with heat inactivation. Thermograms of the germinated spores and vegetative cells were much alike, including an endothermic transition attributable to DNA. The ascending part of the main endothermic 100 degrees C transition in the dormant-spore thermograms corresponded to a first-order reaction and was correlated with spore death; i.e., greater than 99.9% of the spores were killed when the transition peak was reached. The maximum death rate of the dormant spores during calorimetry, calculated from separately measured D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the 73 degrees C onset of thermal denaturation and was equivalent to the maximum inactivation rate calculated for the critical target. Most of the spore killing occurred before the release of most of the dipicolinic acid and other intraprotoplast materials. The exothermic 119 degrees C transition was a consequence of the endothermic 100 degrees C transition and probably represented the aggregation of intraprotoplast spore components. Taken together with prior evidence, the results suggest that a crucial protein is the rate-limiting primary target in the heat killing of dormant bacterial spores. Images PMID:1624439

  8. Application of gaseous ozone for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Ahmet; Gurol, Mirat D

    2006-02-01

    The effectiveness of gaseous ozone (O3) as a disinfectant was tested on Bacillus subtilis spores, which share the same physiological characteristics as Bacillus anthracis spores that cause the anthrax disease. Spores dried on surfaces of different carrier material were exposed to O3 gas in the range of 500-5000 ppm and at relative humidity (RH) of 70-95%. Gaseous O3 was found to be very effective against the B. subtilis spores, and at O3 concentrations as low as 3 mg/L (1500 ppm), approximately 3-log inactivation was obtained within 4 hr of exposure. The inactivation curves consisted of a short lag phase followed by an exponential decrease in the number of surviving spores. Prehydration of the bacterial spores has eliminated the initial lag phase. The inactivation rate increased with increasing O3 concentration but not >3 mg/L. The inactivation rate also increased with increase in RH. Different survival curves were obtained for various surfaces used to carry spores. Inactivation rates of spores on glass, a vinyl floor tile, and office paper were nearly the same. Whereas cut pile carpet and hardwood flooring surfaces resulted in much lower inactivation rates, another type of carpet (loop pile) showed significant enhancement in the inactivation of the spores. PMID:16568801

  9. Applied usage of yeast spores as chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haini; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we present a nonhazardous biological method of producing chitosan beads using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells cultured under conditions of nutritional starvation cease vegetative growth and instead form spores. The spore wall has a multilaminar structure with the chitosan layer as the second outermost layer. Thus, removal of the outermost dityrosine layer by disruption of the DIT1 gene, which is required for dityrosine synthesis, leads to exposure of the chitosan layer at the spore surface. In this way, spores can be made to resemble chitosan beads. Chitosan has adsorptive features and can be used to remove heavy metals and negatively charged molecules from solution. Consistent with this practical application, we find that spores are capable of adsorbing heavy metals such as Cu(2+), Cr(3+), and Cd(2+), and removal of the dityrosine layer further improves the adsorption. Removal of the chitosan layer decreases the adsorption, indicating that chitosan works as an adsorbent in the spores. Besides heavy metals, spores can also adsorb a negatively charged cholesterol derivative, taurocholic acid. Furthermore, chitosan is amenable to chemical modifications, and, consistent with this property, dit1Δ spores can serve as a carrier for immobilization of enzymes. Given that yeast spores are a natural product, our results demonstrate that they, and especially dit1Δ mutants, can be used as chitosan beads and used for multiple purposes. PMID:24907339

  10. Bacterial Spores in Food: Survival, Emergence, and Outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Eijlander, Robyn T; den Besten, Heidy M W; Berendsen, Erwin M; Warda, Alicja K; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Xiao, Yinghua; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are ubiquitous in nature. The resistance properties of bacterial spores lie at the heart of their widespread occurrence in food ingredients and foods. The efficacy of inactivation by food-processing conditions is largely determined by the characteristics of the different types of spores, whereas food composition and storage conditions determine the eventual germination and outgrowth of surviving spores. Here, we review the current knowledge on variation in spore resistance, in germination, and in the outgrowth capacity of spores relevant to foods. This includes novel findings on key parameters in spore survival and outgrowth obtained by gene-trait matching approaches using genome-sequenced Bacillus spp. food isolates, which represent notorious food spoilage and pathogenic species. Additionally, the impact of strain diversity on heat inactivation of spores and the variability therein is discussed. Knowledge and quantification of factors that influence variability can be applied to improve predictive models, ultimately supporting effective control of spore-forming bacteria in foods. PMID:26934174

  11. Development of a fungal spore aerosol generator: test with Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium citrinum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Uk; Kim, Young Joong; Lee, Chang Ho; Yun, Sun Hwa; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Ji, Jun-Ho

    2008-04-01

    As the first step to develop efficient means to control fungal spore bioaerosols, we designed, manufactured, and evaluated a fungal spore aerosol generator. We studied the physical and biological properties of the fungal spore bioaerosols on two common fungal species. The results demonstrated that the fungal spore bioaerosol generator effectively produces fungal spore bioaerosols.

  12. Launch Order, Launch Separation, and Loiter in the Constellation 1 1/2-Launch Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant; Cirillo, William

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program (CxP) is developing a two-element Earth-to-Orbit launch system to enable human exploration of the Moon. The first element, Ares I, is a human-rated system that consists of a first stage based on the Space Shuttle Program's solid rocket booster (SRB) and an upper stage that consists of a four-crew Orion capsule, a service module, and a Launch Escape System. The second element, Ares V, is a Saturn V-plus category launch system that consists of the core stage with a cluster of six RS-68B engines and augmented with two 5.5-segment SRBs, a Saturn-derived J-2X engine powering an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and the lunar-lander vehicle payload, Altair. Initial plans called for the Ares V to be launched first, followed the next day by the Ares I. After the EDS performs the final portion of ascent and subsequent orbit circularization, the Orion spacecraft then performs a rendezvous and docks with the EDS and its Altair payload. Following checkout, the integrated stack loiters in low Earth orbit (LEO) until the appropriate Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) window opportunity opens, at which time the EDS propels the integrated Orion Altair to the Moon. Successful completion of this 1 1/2-launch solution carries risks related to both the orbital lifetime of the assets and the probability of achieving the launch of the second vehicle within the orbital lifetime of the first. These risks, which are significant in terms of overall system design choices and probability of mission success, dictated a thorough reevaluation of the launch strategy, including the order of vehicle launch and the planned time period between launches. The goal of the effort described in this paper was to select a launch strategy that would result in the greatest possible expected system performance, while accounting for launch risks and the cost of increased orbital lifetime. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model of the launch strategies was created to determine the probability

  13. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  14. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  15. Liquid explosives detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lowell J.

    1994-03-01

    A Liquid Explosives Screening System capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives has been developed. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly, or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is used to interrogate the liquid. NMR produces an extremely rich data set and many parameters of the NMR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple NMR signatures may be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat.

  16. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  17. STS Derived Exploration Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Joel; Sorge, L.; Siders, J.; Sias, Dave

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the new space exploration programs will be the approach to optimize launch operations. A STS Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Program can provide a cost effective, low risk, and logical step to launch all of the elements of the exploration program. Many benefits can be gained by utilizing the synergy of a common launch site as an exploration spaceport as well as evolving the resources of the current Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to meet the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. In particular, the launch operation resources of the SSP can be transitioned to the exploration program and combined with the operations efficiencies of unmanned EELVs to obtain the best of both worlds, resulting in lean launch operations for crew and cargo missions of the exploration program. The SDLV Program would then not only capture the extensive human space flight launch operations knowledge, but also provide for the safe fly-out of the SSP through continuity of system critical skills, manufacturing infrastructure, and ability to maintain and attract critical skill personnel. Thus, a SDLV Program can smoothly transition resources from the SSP and meet the transportation needs to continue the voyage of discovery of the space exploration program.

  18. Summary of miscellaneous hazard environments for hypothetical Space Shuttle and Titan IV launch abort accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    1989-01-01

    The various analyses described here were aimed at obtaining a more comprehensive understanding and definition of the environments in the vicinity of the Radioisotope Thermal Generator (RTG) during certain Space Transportation System (STS) and Titan IV launch abort accidents. Addressed here are a number of issues covering explosion environments and General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) responses to those environments.

  19. Launch vehicles for communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahon, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    After giving brief development histories of the Delta and the Atlas Centaur launch vehicles, attention is given to the operational characteristics of the ascent, parking orbit, transfer orbit, and orbital insertion phases of the delivery of a communications satellite to a geostationary orbit by means of a Delta launch vehicle. NASA plans to employ Delta vehicles for as long as they are needed during the transition period to the Space Shuttle. NASA planning for Atlas Centaur includes launches through 1985 for INTELSAT-VA, and through 1986 for FLTSATCOM satellites.

  20. Japan's launch vehicle program update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadakawa, Tsuguo

    1987-06-01

    NASDA is actively engaged in the development of H-I and H-II launch vehicle performance capabilities in anticipation of future mission requirements. The H-I has both two-stage and three-stage versions for medium-altitude and geosynchronous orbits, respectively; the restart capability of the second stage affords considerable mission planning flexibility. The H-II vehicle is a two-stage liquid rocket primary propulsion design employing two solid rocket boosters for secondary power; it is capable of launching two-ton satellites into geosynchronous orbit, and reduces manufacture and launch costs by extensively employing off-the-shelf technology.

  1. Mars Pathfinder Status at Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, A. J.; Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Flight System is in final test, assembly and launch preparations at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Launch is scheduled for 2 Dec. 1996. The Flight System development, in particular the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system, was a major team effort involving JPL, other NASA centers and industry. This paper provides a summary Mars Pathfinder description and status at launch. In addition, a section by NASA's Langley Research Center, a key EDL contributor, is provided on their support to Mars Pathfinder. This section is included as an example of the work performed by Pathfinder team members outside JPL.

  2. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  3. Disorder induces explosive synchronization.

    PubMed

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2014-06-01

    We study explosive synchronization, a phenomenon characterized by first-order phase transitions between incoherent and synchronized states in networks of coupled oscillators. While explosive synchronization has been the subject of many recent studies, in each case strong conditions on the heterogeneity of the network, its link weights, or its initial construction are imposed to engineer a first-order phase transition. This raises the question of how robust explosive synchronization is in view of more realistic structural and dynamical properties. Here we show that explosive synchronization can be induced in mildly heterogeneous networks by the addition of quenched disorder to the oscillators' frequencies, demonstrating that it is not only robust to, but moreover promoted by, this natural mechanism. We support these findings with numerical and analytical results, presenting simulations of a real neural network as well as a self-consistency theory used to study synthetic networks.

  4. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  5. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  6. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  7. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  8. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  9. Polymeric binder for explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissell, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical reaction for producing a polymer which can be mixed with explosives to produce a rigid material is discussed. Physical and chemical properties of polymers are described and chemical structure of the polymer is illustrated.

  10. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  11. Airborne fungal spores of Alternaria, meteorological parameters and predicting variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filali Ben Sidel, Farah; Bouziane, Hassan; del Mar Trigo, Maria; El Haskouri, Fatima; Bardei, Fadoua; Redouane, Abdelbari; Kadiri, Mohamed; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria is frequently found as airborne fungal spores and is recognized as an important cause of respiratory allergies. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed using a Burkard volumetric spore traps. To establish predicting variables for daily and weakly spore counts, a stepwise multiple regression between spore concentrations and independent variables (meteorological parameters and lagged values from the series of spore concentrations: previous day or week concentration (Alt t - 1) and mean concentration of the same day or week in other years ( C mean)) was made with data obtained during 2009-2011. Alternaria conidia are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tetouan, although they show important seasonal fluctuations. The highest levels of Alternaria spores were recorded during the spring and summer or autumn. Alternaria showed maximum daily values in April, May or October depending on year. When the spore variables of Alternaria, namely C mean and Alt t - 1, and meteorological parameters were included in the equation, the resulting R 2 satisfactorily predict future concentrations for 55.5 to 81.6 % during the main spore season and the pre-peak 2. In the predictive model using weekly values, the adjusted R 2 varied from 0.655 to 0.676. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results from the expected values and the pre-peak spore data or weekly values for 2012, indicating that there were no significant differences between series compared. This test showed the C mean, Alt t - 1, frequency of the wind third quadrant, maximum wind speed and minimum relative humidity as the most efficient independent variables to forecast the overall trend of this spore in the air.

  12. Contamination of healthcare workers' hands with bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Ae, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Michiyo; Kimura, Yumiko; Yonekawa, Chikara; Hayashi, Shunji; Morisawa, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium species and Bacillus spp. are spore-forming bacteria that cause hospital infections. The spores from these bacteria are transmitted from patient to patient via healthcare workers' hands. Although alcohol-based hand rubbing is an important hand hygiene practice, it is ineffective against bacterial spores. Therefore, healthcare workers should wash their hands with soap when they are contaminated with spores. However, the extent of health care worker hand contamination remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the level of bacterial spore contamination on healthcare workers' hands. The hands of 71 healthcare workers were evaluated for bacterial spore contamination. Spores attached to subject's hands were quantitatively examined after 9 working hours. The relationship between bacterial spore contamination and hand hygiene behaviors was also analyzed. Bacterial spores were detected on the hands of 54 subjects (76.1%). The mean number of spores detected was 468.3 CFU/hand (maximum: 3300 CFU/hand). Thirty-seven (52.1%) and 36 (50.7%) subjects were contaminated with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Nineteen subjects (26.8%) were contaminated with both Bacillus species. Clostridium difficile was detected on only one subject's hands. There was a significant negative correlation between the hand contamination level and the frequency of handwashing (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation between the hand contamination level and the elapsed time since last handwashing (r = 0.34, P < 0.01). Healthcare workers' hands may be frequently contaminated with bacterial spores due to insufficient handwashing during daily patient care.

  13. Model simulations of fungal spore distribution over the Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Tabish U.; Valsan, Aswathy E.; Ojha, N.; Ravikrishna, R.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-12-01

    Fungal spores play important role in the health of humans, animals, and plants by constituting a class of the primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs). Additionally, these could mediate the hydrological cycle by acting as nuclei for ice and cloud formation (IN and CCN respectively). Various processes in the biosphere and the variations in the meteorological conditions control the releasing mechanism of spores through active wet and dry discharge. In the present paper, we simulate the concentration of fungal spores over the Indian region during three distinct meteorological seasons by combining a numerical model (WRF-Chem) with the fungal spore emissions based on land-use type. Maiden high-resolution regional simulations revealed large spatial gradient and strong seasonal dependence in the concentration of fungal spores over the Indian region. The fungal spore concentrations are found to be the highest during winter (0-70 μg m-3 in December), moderately higher during summer (0-35 μg m-3 in May) and lowest during the monsoon (0-25 μg m-3 in July). The elevated concentrations during winter are attributed to the shallower boundary layer trapping the emitted fungal spores in smaller volume. In contrast, the deeper boundary layer mixing in May and stronger monsoonal-convection in July distribute the fungal spores throughout the lower troposphere (∼5 km). We suggest that the higher fungal spore concentrations during winter could have potential health impacts. While, stronger vertical mixing could enable fungal spores to influence the cloud formation during summer and monsoon. Our study provides the first information about the distribution and seasonal variation of fungal spores over the densely populated and observationally sparse Indian region.

  14. Airborne fungal spores of Alternaria, meteorological parameters and predicting variables.

    PubMed

    Filali Ben Sidel, Farah; Bouziane, Hassan; Del Mar Trigo, Maria; El Haskouri, Fatima; Bardei, Fadoua; Redouane, Abdelbari; Kadiri, Mohamed; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria is frequently found as airborne fungal spores and is recognized as an important cause of respiratory allergies. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed using a Burkard volumetric spore traps. To establish predicting variables for daily and weakly spore counts, a stepwise multiple regression between spore concentrations and independent variables (meteorological parameters and lagged values from the series of spore concentrations: previous day or week concentration (Alt t - 1) and mean concentration of the same day or week in other years (C mean)) was made with data obtained during 2009-2011. Alternaria conidia are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tetouan, although they show important seasonal fluctuations. The highest levels of Alternaria spores were recorded during the spring and summer or autumn. Alternaria showed maximum daily values in April, May or October depending on year. When the spore variables of Alternaria, namely C mean and Alt t - 1, and meteorological parameters were included in the equation, the resulting R (2) satisfactorily predict future concentrations for 55.5 to 81.6 % during the main spore season and the pre-peak 2. In the predictive model using weekly values, the adjusted R (2) varied from 0.655 to 0.676. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results from the expected values and the pre-peak spore data or weekly values for 2012, indicating that there were no significant differences between series compared. This test showed the C mean, Alt t - 1, frequency of the wind third quadrant, maximum wind speed and minimum relative humidity as the most efficient independent variables to forecast the overall trend of this spore in the air.

  15. Contamination of healthcare workers' hands with bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Ae, Ryusuke; Watanabe, Michiyo; Kimura, Yumiko; Yonekawa, Chikara; Hayashi, Shunji; Morisawa, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium species and Bacillus spp. are spore-forming bacteria that cause hospital infections. The spores from these bacteria are transmitted from patient to patient via healthcare workers' hands. Although alcohol-based hand rubbing is an important hand hygiene practice, it is ineffective against bacterial spores. Therefore, healthcare workers should wash their hands with soap when they are contaminated with spores. However, the extent of health care worker hand contamination remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the level of bacterial spore contamination on healthcare workers' hands. The hands of 71 healthcare workers were evaluated for bacterial spore contamination. Spores attached to subject's hands were quantitatively examined after 9 working hours. The relationship between bacterial spore contamination and hand hygiene behaviors was also analyzed. Bacterial spores were detected on the hands of 54 subjects (76.1%). The mean number of spores detected was 468.3 CFU/hand (maximum: 3300 CFU/hand). Thirty-seven (52.1%) and 36 (50.7%) subjects were contaminated with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, respectively. Nineteen subjects (26.8%) were contaminated with both Bacillus species. Clostridium difficile was detected on only one subject's hands. There was a significant negative correlation between the hand contamination level and the frequency of handwashing (r = -0.44, P < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation between the hand contamination level and the elapsed time since last handwashing (r = 0.34, P < 0.01). Healthcare workers' hands may be frequently contaminated with bacterial spores due to insufficient handwashing during daily patient care. PMID:27236515

  16. Improving airport explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, C.

    1990-01-01

    ORNL has developed the technology to detect hidden explosives in luggage using X ray and neutron detection devices. The Federal Aviation Administration has ordered the airlines to buy and install Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) units. The combined pulsed-neutron and X-ray interrogation inspection (CPNX) system developed at ORNL uses less radioactive materials as well as being more sensitive to weapons, electronic devices and plastic explosives.

  17. Modeling of interior explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Y. V.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of an interior explosion are presented. The main purpose of the work is an investigation of shock-wave structure caused by explosion and estimation of pressure level on building walls. The numerical simulation was carried out by means of ANSYS AUTODYN software at normal atmospheric conditions with different mass of charge and internal geometry of room. The effect of mass charge and presence of vent area were shown. The calculation results are compared with published experimental data.

  18. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control.

  19. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  20. STS-135 Fused Launch Video

    NASA Video Gallery

    Imaging experts funded by the Space Shuttle Program and located at NASA's Ames Research Center prepared this video of the STS-135 launch by merging images taken by a set of six cameras capturing fi...

  1. Lighting the Sky: ATREX Launches

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA successfully launched five suborbital sounding rockets early March 27, 2012 from its Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia as part of a study of the upper level jet stream. The first rocket was ...

  2. Re-entry Experiment Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 10, 2009, NASA successfully launched the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) and proved that spacecraft can use inflatable heat shields to reduce speed and provide protection du...

  3. The Advanced Launch System (ALS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is an unmanned vehicle that will achieve low hardware cost by using a reusable booster stage which flies back to the launch site, and a core stage in which the rocket engines and redundant avionics are in a module that is returned to earth and recovered for reuse. The booster's utilization of liquid propellant instead of solid propellant will help lower the consumable costs. The ALS also includes launch processing and flight control facilities, necessary support equipment, and ground- and flight-operations infrastructure. The ALS program studies show that, through the ALS, the United States can launch a major Mars initiative economically and with confidence. It is estimated that the objective ALS can be operational in the late 1990s.

  4. Genomic Data Commons launches - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  5. Closed end launch tube (CELT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.

    2001-02-01

    As an alternative to magnetic propulsion for launch assist, the authors propose a pneumatic launch assist system. Using off-the-shelf components, coupled with familiar steel and concrete construction, a launch assist system can be brought from the initial feasibility stage, through a flight capable 5000 kg demonstrator to a deployed full size launch assist system in 10 years. The final system would be capable of accelerating a 450,000 kg vehicle to 270 ms-1. The CELT system uses commercially available compressors and valves to build a fail-safe system in less than half the time of a full Mag-Lev (magnetic levitation) system, and at a small fraction of the development cost. The resulting system could be ready in time to support some Gen 2 (Generation 2) vehicles, as well as the proposed Gen 3 vehicle. .

  6. Closed End Launch Tube (CELT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As an alternative to magnetic propulsion for launch assist, the authors propose a pneumatic launch assist system. Using off the shelf components, coupled with familiar steel and concrete construction, a launch assist system can be brought from the initial feasibility stage, through a flight capable 5000 kg. demonstrator to a deployed full size launch assist system in 10 years. The final system would be capable of accelerating a 450,000 kg. vehicle to 270 meters per second. The CELT system uses commercially available compressors and valves to build a fail-safe system in less than half the time of a full Mag-Lev (magnetic levitation) system, and at a small fraction of the development cost. The resulting system could be ready in time to support some Gen 2 (generation 2) vehicles, as well as the proposed Gen 3 vehicle.

  7. BARREL Team Launching 20 Balloons

    NASA Video Gallery

    A movie made by the NASA-Funded Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, or BARREL, team on their work launching 20 balloons in Antarctica during the Dec. 2013/Jan. 2014 campa...

  8. Robonaut 2 Readied for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 is being prepared for its history making launch to the International Space Station on STS-133. The robot, known as R2, will be the first humanoid machine to work in orbit. With a upper t...

  9. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  10. Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Bruce D.; Hines, John W.; Agasid, Elwood F.; Buckley, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of small spacecraft based on the University cubesat standard is becoming evident as more and more agencies and organizations are launching or planning to include nanosatellites in their mission portfolios. Cubesats are typically launched as secondary spacecraft in enclosed, containerized deployers such as the CalPoly Poly Picosat Orbital Deployer (P-POD) system. The P-POD allows for ease of integration and significantly reduces the risk exposure to the primary spacecraft and mission. NASA/ARC and the Operationally Responsive Space office are collaborating to develop a Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS), which can accommodate multiple cubesat or cubesat-derived spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. NLAS is composed of the adapter structure, P-POD or similar spacecraft dispensers, and a sequencer/deployer system. This paper describes the NLAS system and it s future capabilities, and also provides status on the system s development and potential first use in space.

  11. Environmentally-Preferable Launch Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of environmentally friendly corrosion protecting coatings for launch facilities and ground support equipment (GSE). The focus of the project is corrosion resistance and survivability with the goal to reduce the amount of maintenance required to preserve the performance of launch facilities while reducing mission risk. The project compares coating performance of the selected alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  12. Space Launch System: Future Frontier

    NASA Video Gallery

    Featuring NASA Marshall’s Foundations of Influence, Relationships, Success & Teamwork (FIRST) employees and student interns, "Future Frontier" discusses the new Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-li...

  13. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  14. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  15. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  16. STS-53 Launch and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Footage of various stages of the STS-53 Discovery launch is shown, including shots of the crew at breakfast, getting suited up, and departing to board the Orbiter. The launch is seen from many vantage points, as is the landing. On-orbit activities show the crew performing several medical experiments, such as taking a picture of the retina and measuring the pressure on the eyeball. One crewmember demonstrates how to use the rowing machine in an antigravity environment.

  17. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 35mm camera was used to expose this close-up image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches.

  18. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  19. A damper for ground wind-induced launch vehicle oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodle, J. G.; Hackley, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    Prelaunch oscillatory bending deflections of the Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle are restrained by a damper mechanism mounted on the end of a horizontal boom supported from the umbilical tower. A single vertical pin on the vehicle engages the mechanism, and the damper is connected to the vehicle until liftoff. As the attach pin rises with the vehicle, a retractable arm mechanism provides initial clearance. An explosive release mechanism allows the boom to swing clear of the vehicle like a pendulum, while a snubber mechanism decelerates the free swinging boom and damper mechanism to a safe stop.

  20. SLI Artist `s Launch Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), NASA's priority developmental program focused on empowering America's leadership in space. SLI includes commercial, higher education and defense partnerships and contracts to offer widespread participation in both the risk and success of developing our nation's next-generation reusable launch vehicle. This photo depicts an artist's concept of a future second-generation launch vehicle during launch. For SLI, architecture definition includes all components of the next-generation reusable launch system: Earth-to-orbit vehicles (the Space Shuttle is the first generation earth-to-orbit vehicle), crew transfer vehicles, transfer stages, ground processing systems, flight operations systems, and development of business case strategies. Three contractor teams have each been funded to develop potential second generation reusable launch system architectures: The Boeing Company of Seal Beach, California; Lockheed Martin Corporation of Denver, Colorado along with a team including Northrop Grumman of El Segundo, California; and Orbital Sciences Corporation of Dulles, Virginia.

  1. Mercury-Atlas Test Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    A NASA Project Mercury spacecraft was test launched at 11:15 AM EST on April 25, 1961 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, in a test designed to qualify the Mercury Spacecraft and all systems, which must function during orbit and reentry from orbit. The Mercury-Atlas vehicle was destroyed by Range Safety Officer about 40 seconds after liftoff. The spacecraft was recovered and appeared to be in good condition. Atlas was designed to launch payloads into low Earth orbit, geosynchronous transfer orbit or geosynchronous orbit. NASA first launched Atlas as a space launch vehicle in 1958. Project SCORE, the first communications satellite that transmitted President Eisenhower's pre-recorded Christmas speech around the world, was launched on an Atlas. For all three robotic lunar exploration programs, Atlas was used. Atlas/ Centaur vehicles launched both Mariner and Pioneer planetary probes. The current operational Atlas II family has a 100% mission success rating. For more information about Atlas, please see Chapter 2 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  2. Reusable launch vehicle technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  3. Safety and arming system for tube launched projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Steven N.

    1992-07-01

    An inertia element within a projectile is displaced to a retracted position by acceleration of the projectile during launch to unblock displacement of a slider to an armed position in response to subsequent pressurization of a projectile flight motor. Safe separation timers are thereby enabled in response to proper launch to delay pressurization of the flight motor and powering of an explosive firing circuit through switches actuated by said displacement of the slider from a safe position to the armed position. The slider is held in its safe position by an electrically grounded shear wire that is ruptured in response to slider displacement thereby removing a power disabling shunt connection to the firing circuit.

  4. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Maribeth O; Fischer, Mark W F; Money, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation. PMID:26509436

  5. Enumerating Spore-Forming Bacteria Airborne with Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory method has been conceived to enable the enumeration of (1) Cultivable bacteria and bacterial spores that are, variously, airborne by themselves or carried by, parts of, or otherwise associated with, other airborne particles; and (2) Spore-forming bacteria among all of the aforementioned cultivable microbes.

  6. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops.

    PubMed

    Hassett, Maribeth O; Fischer, Mark W F; Money, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation.

  7. Binding Affinity of Glycoconjugates to BACILLUS Spores and Toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasol, Aveen; Eassa, Souzan; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Early recognition of Bacillus cereus group species is important since they can cause food-borne illnesses and deadly diseases in humans. Glycoconjugates (GCs) are carbohydrates covalently linked to non-sugar moieties including lipids, proteins or other entities. GCs are involved in recognition and signaling processes intrinsic to biochemical functions in cells. They also stimulate cell-cell adhesion and subsequent recognition and activation of receptors. We have demonstrated that GCs are involved in Bacillus cereus spore recognition. In the present study, we have investigated whether GCs possess the ability to bind and recognize B. cereus spores and Bacillus anthracis recombinant single toxins (sTX) and complex toxins (cTX). The affinity of GCs to spores + sTX and spores + cTX toxins was studied in the binding essay. Our results demonstrated that GC9 and GC10 were able to selectively bind to B. cereus spores and B. anthracis toxins. Different binding affinities for GCs were found toward Bacillus cereus spores + sTX and spores + cTX. Dilution of GCs does not impede the recognition and binding. Developed method provides a tool for simultaneous recognition and targeting of spores, bacteria toxins, and/or other entities.

  8. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation. PMID:26509436

  9. PROCEDURE FOR CLEANING OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM SPORES1

    PubMed Central

    Grecz, N.; Anellis, A.; Schneider, M. D.

    1962-01-01

    Grecz, N. (Quartermaster Food and Container Institute, Chicago, Ill.), A. Anellis, and M. D. Schneider. Procedure for cleaning of Clostridium botulinum spores. J. Bacteriol. 84:552–558. 1962.—Liberation of clean spores from vegetative sporangia of Clostridium botulinum strains was accomplished by the use of lytic enzymes and sonic oscillation. Suspensions of crude spores in phosphate buffer (pH 7) were digested with lysozyme (200 μg/ml) and trypsin (100 μg/ml). Rapid lysis of sporangia was induced by ultrasonic oscillation of the reacting mixture at 10 kc for 5 min at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hr of incubation at 45 C. Intermittent washing of the reacting spore suspension with a solution of lysozyme and trypsin hastened purification of the spore crop. The cleaning procedure was completed by repeated washing of the spores with distilled water. The spores produced by this procedure were clean, as judged by their microscopic appearance, refractility to staining, loss of heat-sensitive toxin, and partition behavior in a two-phase system composed of polyethylene glycol and 3 m potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.1). The cleaning procedure appeared not to affect the viability, resistance to heat and gamma radiation, or the toxic nature of C. botulinum spores. Images PMID:13950051

  10. The Role of the Electrostatic Force in Spore Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Eunhyea; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Lee, Ida; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic force is investigated as one of the components of the adhesion force between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores and planar surfaces. The surface potentials of a Bt spore and a mica surface are experimentally obtained using a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)-scanning surface potential microscopy technique. On the basis of experimental information, the surface charge density of the spores is estimated at 0.03 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} at 20% relative humidity and decreases with increasing humidity. The Coulombic force is introduced for the spore-mica system (both charged, nonconductive surfaces), and an electrostatic image force is introduced to the spore-gold system because gold is electrically conductive. The Coulombic force for spore-mica is repulsive because the components are similarly charged, while the image force for the spore-gold system is attractive. The magnitude of both forces decreases with increasing humidity. The electrostatic forces are added to other force components, e.g., van der Waals and capillary forces, to obtain the adhesion force for each system. The adhesion forces measured by AFM are compared to the estimated values. It is shown that the electrostatic (Coulombic and image) forces play a significant role in the adhesion force between spores and planar surfaces.

  11. Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis Spore Outgrowth by Nisin▿

    PubMed Central

    Gut, Ian M.; Prouty, Angela M.; Ballard, Jimmy D.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Blanke, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    The lantibiotic nisin has previously been reported to inhibit the outgrowth of spores from several Bacillus species. However, the mode of action of nisin responsible for outgrowth inhibition is poorly understood. By using B. anthracis Sterne 7702 as a model, nisin acted against spores with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and an IC90 of 0.57 μM and 0.90 μM, respectively. Viable B. anthracis organisms were not recoverable from cultures containing concentrations of nisin greater than the IC90. These studies demonstrated that spores lose heat resistance and become hydrated in the presence of nisin, thereby ruling out a possible mechanism of inhibition in which nisin acts to block germination initiation. Rather, germination initiation is requisite for the action of nisin. This study also revealed that nisin rapidly and irreversibly inhibits growth by preventing the establishment of oxidative metabolism and the membrane potential in germinating spores. On the other hand, nisin had no detectable effects on the typical changes associated with the dissolution of the outer spore structures (e.g., the spore coats, cortex, and exosporium). Thus, the action of nisin results in the uncoupling of two critical sequences of events necessary for the outgrowth of spores: the establishment of metabolism and the shedding of the external spore structures. PMID:18809941

  12. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective. PMID:25252644

  13. Elastic and inelastic light scattering from single bacterial spores in an optical trap allows the monitoring of spore germination dynamics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lixin; Chen, De; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2009-05-15

    Raman scattering spectroscopy and elastic light scattering intensity (ESLI) were used to simultaneously measure levels of Ca-dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) and changes in spore morphology and refractive index during germination of individual Bacillus subtilis spores with and without the two redundant enzymes (CLEs), CwlJ and SleB, that degrade spores' peptidoglycan cortexes. Conclusions from these measurements include (1) CaDPA release from individual wild-type germinating spores was biphasic; in a first heterogeneous slow phase, T(lag), CaDPA levels decreased approximately 15%, and in the second phase ending at T(release), remaining CaDPA was released rapidly; (2) in L-alanine germination of wild-type spores and spores lacking SleB (a) the ESLI rose approximately 2-fold shortly before T(lag) at T(1), (b) following T(lag), the ESLI again rose approximately 2-fold at T(2) when CaDPA levels had decreased approximately 50%, and (c) the ESLI reached its maximum value at approximately T(release) and then decreased; (3) in CaDPA germination of wild-type spores, (a) T(lag) increased and the first increase in ESLI occurred well before T(lag), consistent with different pathways for CaDPA and L-alanine germination, (b) at T(release), the ESLI again reached its maximum value; (4) in L-alanine germination of spores lacking both CLEs and unable to degrade their cortex, the time DeltaT(release) (T(release) - T(lag)) for excretion of > or = 75% of CaDPA was approximately 15-fold higher than that for wild-type or sleB spores; and (5) spores lacking only CwlJ exhibited a similar but not identical ESLI pattern during L-alanine germination to that seen with cwlJ sleB spores and the high value for DeltaT(release).

  14. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Towards First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd; Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum programmatically and technically toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. Its first mission will be the launch of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back. SLS will also launch the first Orion crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a 130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. At KDP-C, the Agency Planning Management Council determines the readiness of a program to go to the next life-cycle phase and makes technical, cost, and schedule commitments to its external stakeholders. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015, and a launch readiness date of November 2018. Every SLS element is currently in testing or test preparations. The Program shipped its first flight hardware in 2014 in preparation for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December, a significant first step toward human journeys into deep space. Accomplishments during 2014 included manufacture of Core Stage test articles and preparations for qualification testing the Solid Rocket Boosters and the RS-25 Core Stage engines. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment

  15. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  16. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  17. Quantification of Spore-forming Bacteria Carried by Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ying; Cholakian, Tanya; Gao, Wenming; Osman, Shariff; Barengoltz, Jack

    2006-01-01

    In order to establish a biological contamination transport model for predicting the cross contamination risk during spacecraft assembly and upon landing on Mars, it is important to understand the relationship between spore-forming bacteria and their carrier particles. We conducted air and surface sampling in indoor, outdoor, and cleanroom environments to determine the ratio of spore forming bacteria to their dust particle carriers of different sizes. The number of spore forming bacteria was determined from various size groups of particles in a given environment. Our data also confirms the existence of multiple spores on a single particle and spore clumps. This study will help in developing a better bio-contamination transport model, which in turn will help in determining forward contamination risks for future missions.

  18. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-11-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides {sup 85}strontium and {sup 197}cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Bacillus atrophaeus Outer Spore Coat Assembly and Ultrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Pitesky, M E; Malkin, A J

    2005-11-21

    Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of {approx}11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of {approx}8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer, planar and point defects, as well as domain boundaries, similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals, were identified. For several Bacillus species, rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the outer spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the outer spore coat surface.

  20. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  1. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  2. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  3. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  4. Seasonal Trends in Airborne Fungal Spores in Coastal California Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfin, J.; Crandall, S. G.; Gilbert, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne fungal spores cause disease in plants and animals and may trigger respiratory illnesses in humans. In terrestrial systems, fungal sporulation, germination, and persistence are strongly regulated by local meteorological conditions. However, few studies investigate how microclimate affects the spatio-temporal dynamics of airborne spores. We measured fungal aerospora abundance and microclimate at varying spatial and time scales in coastal California in three habitat-types: coast redwood forest, mixed-evergreen forest, and maritime chaparral. We asked: 1) is there a difference in total airborne spore concentration between habitats, 2) when do we see peak spore counts, and 3) do spore densities correlate with microclimate conditions? Fungal spores were caught from the air with a volumetric vacuum air spore trap during the wet season (January - March) in 2013 and 2014, as well as monthly in 2014. Initial results suggest that mixed-evergreen forests exhibit the highest amounts of spore abundance in both years compared to the other habitats. This may be due to either a higher diversity of host plants in mixed-evergreen forests or a rich leaf litter layer that may harbor a greater abundance of saprotrophic fungi. Based on pilot data, we predict that temperature and to a lesser degree, relative humidity, will be important microclimate predictors for high spore densities. These data are important for understanding when and under what weather conditions we can expect to see high levels of fungal spores in the air; this can be useful information for managers who are interested in treating diseased plants with fungicides.

  5. Characterizing Aeroallergens by Infrared Spectroscopy of Fungal Spores and Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Boris; Tkalčec, Zdenko; Mešić, Armin; Kohler, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Background Fungal spores and plant pollen cause respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aeroallergen monitoring networks are an important part of treatment strategies, but unfortunately traditional analysis is time consuming and expensive. We have explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen and spores for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of aeroallergens. Methodology The study is based on measurement of spore and pollen samples by single reflectance attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-ATR FTIR). The experimental set includes 71 spore (Basidiomycota) and 121 pollen (Pinales, Fagales and Poales) samples. Along with fresh basidiospores, the study has been conducted on the archived samples collected within the last 50 years. Results The spectroscopic-based methodology enables clear spectral differentiation between pollen and spores, as well as the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. In addition, the analysis of the scattering signals inherent in the infrared spectra indicates that the FTIR methodology offers indirect estimation of morphology of pollen and spores. The analysis of fresh and archived spores shows that chemical composition of spores is well preserved even after decades of storage, including the characteristic taxonomy-related signals. Therefore, biochemical analysis of fungal spores by FTIR could provide economical, reliable and timely methodologies for improving fungal taxonomy, as well as for fungal identification and monitoring. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using FTIR as a rapid tool in aeroallergen studies. In addition, the presented method is ready to be immediately implemented in biological and ecological studies for direct measurement of pollen and spores from flowers and sporocarps. PMID:25867755

  6. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  7. Launch site integration for mixed fleet operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Launch site impacts and integration planning issues are presented to support launch operations for a mixed vehicle fleet (manned and cargo). Proposed ground systems and launch site configurations are described. Prelaunch processing scenarios and schedules are developed for candidate launch vehicles. Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle architectures are presented to meet future launch requirements, including the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. The significance of operational designs for future launch vehicles is shown to be a critical factor in planning for mixed fleet launch site operations.

  8. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  9. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

    1997-01-10

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

  10. TWA Flight 800, explosion airblast unexplained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Jack W.

    2003-10-01

    TWA Flight 800 disintegrated off Long Island, NY, on 16 July 1996. Immediate reports from other flyers described what appeared as attacking missiles. Search for terrorists began quickly, with over 1000 FBI agents to collect debris, interview eyewitnesses, and analyze sightings to give a missile launch point. They found no evidence of criminal attack, and turned investigations over to the NTSB to find some accidental cause. The ``empty'' central fuel tank was determined to be the likely explosion source. On the other hand, early witnesses reported a ``loud'' bang after seeing a great fireball fall from the sky, but at 15 km or greater range, they saw and heard two different events. This acoustic discrepancy has not been adequately investigated. When finally released, FBI reports from more than 200 ``ear-witnesses'' give similar observations. Their loudness reports confirm that at least a ton of TNT equivalent explosion had occurred. NASA acousticians engaged by NTSB, however, through spectral analysis techniques for sonic booms, concluded that a 10-kg TNT explosion, from detonating fuel tank vapors, could be heard on Long Island. Evidence for a much larger yield is presented here, but its form remains a mystery.

  11. Methods for neutralizing anthrax or anthrax spores

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Mark A; Vivekandanda, Jeevalatha; Holwitt, Eric A; Kiel, Johnathan L

    2013-02-26

    The present invention concerns methods, compositions and apparatus for neutralizing bioagents, wherein bioagents comprise biowarfare agents, biohazardous agents, biological agents and/or infectious agents. The methods comprise exposing the bioagent to an organic semiconductor and exposing the bioagent and organic semiconductor to a source of energy. Although any source of energy is contemplated, in some embodiments the energy comprises visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, laser radiation, pulsed corona discharge or electron beam radiation. Exemplary organic semiconductors include DAT and DALM. In certain embodiments, the organic semiconductor may be attached to one or more binding moieties, such as an antibody, antibody fragment, or nucleic acid ligand. Preferably, the binding moiety has a binding affinity for one or more bioagents to be neutralized. Other embodiments concern an apparatus comprising an organic semiconductor and an energy source. In preferred embodiments, the methods, compositions and apparatus are used for neutralizing anthrax spores.

  12. Explosively separable casing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, A.K.; Kychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    1985-02-19

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  13. Detection of Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogler, William

    2008-03-01

    High explosives present a challenge for detection methods because of their range of physical properties, which range from volatile liquids to nonvolatile solids. They share the common feature of possessing both oxidizing and reducing chemical properties within a single molecule or an intimate chemical mixture. Our research group has been focused on the synthesis of new luminescent polymers, which undergo electron transfer quenching by a variety of organic high explosives, such as TNT, RDX, and PETN. The application to imaging trace explosive particle residues will be described. Density functional calculations show an excellent correlation between the sensor response and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the explosive analyte. For volatile high explosives, such as organic peroxides (e.g. TATP), vapor sensors based on chemically sensitive transistors containing different metal phthalocyanines have been explored. The mechanism of current response in these films has been shown to be a result of surface Lewis acid-base chemistry or redox catalysis at the metal centers. The link between surface chemistry and electronic resonse has led to a simple peroxide specific vapor sensor array.

  14. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, A.K.; Rychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a picket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  15. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Albin K.; Rychnovsky, Raymond E.; Visbeck, Cornelius N.

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  16. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  17. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  18. The commercial Aquila Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flittie, Kirk J.; McFarlane, Scott

    1991-06-01

    The American Rocket Company's (AMROC) Aquila Launch Vehicle is a ground-launched, four-stage, all-hybrid propulsion, inertially-guided commercial space booster designed to deliver 2000 pound payloads into low earth orbit. By using AMROC's low-cost hybrid propulsion, the Aquila launch service will provide quick, on-demand, routine access to space; high accuracy orbital placement; and an unprecedented degree of production, ground and flight safety. The first launch of the Aquila will be in early 1995. Aquila utilizes AMROc's unique hybrid propulsion systems consisting of an inert solid polybutadiene fuel and either liquid oxygen or nitrous oxide as oxidizer. A hybrid propulsion system is distinct from all other rocket propulsion systems in that hybrids cannot explode; hybrids offer safe handling, operation and launch pad abort; and hybrids offer start/stop and full throttling capability for trajectory optimization and precise payload placement on orbit. In addition, the exhaust products do not contain hydrogen chlorides which are environmentally degrading.

  19. Standardization of Spore Inactivation Method for PMA-PhyloChip Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In compliance with the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) planetary protection policy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) monitors the total microbial burden of spacecraft as a means for minimizing the inadvertent transfer of viable contaminant microorganisms to extraterrestrial environments (forward contamination). NASA standard assay-based counts are used both as a proxy for relative surface cleanliness and to estimate overall microbial burden as well as to assess whether forward planetary protection risk criteria are met for a given mission, which vary by the planetary body to be explored and whether or not life detection missions are present. Despite efforts to reduce presence of microorganisms from spacecraft prior to launch, microbes have been isolated from spacecraft and associated surfaces within the extreme conditions of clean room facilities using state of the art molecular technologies. Development of a more sensitive method that will better enumerate all viable microorganisms from spacecraft and associated surfaces could support future life detection missions. Current culture-based (NASA standard spore assay) and nucleic-acid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods have significant shortcomings in this type of analysis. The overall goal of this project is to evaluate and validate a new molecular method based on the use of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) intercalating agent propidium monoazide (PMA). This is used in combination with DNA microarray (PhyloChip) which has been shown to identify very low levels of organisms on spacecraft associated surfaces. PMA can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. Once penetrated, it intercalates the DNA and, upon photolysis using visible light it produces stable DNA monoadducts. This allows DNA to be unavailable for further PCR analysis. The specific aim of this study is to standardize the spore inactivation method for PMA-PhyloChip analysis. We have used the bacterial spores Bacillus

  20. Launch Excitement with Water Rockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Juan Carlos; Penick, John

    2007-01-01

    Explosions and fires--these are what many students are waiting for in science classes. And when they do occur, students pay attention. While we can't entertain our students with continual mayhem, we can catch their attention and cater to their desires for excitement by saying, "Let's make rockets." In this activity, students make simple, reusable…

  1. Novel high explosive compositions

    DOEpatents

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  2. Destruction of peroxide explosives.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Huang, Jiaorong; Luo, Wei

    2009-09-01

    Chemicals containing multiple peroxide functionalities, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), diacetone diperoxide (DADP), or hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), can be explosive. They are impractical and are not used by legitimate military groups because they are shock and heat sensitive compared to military explosives. They are attractive to terrorists because synthesis is straightforward, requiring only a few easily obtained ingredients. Physical removal of these synthesis products is highly hazardous. This paper discusses methods to degrade peroxide explosives chemically, at room temperature. A number of mixtures containing metals (e.g., zinc, copper) and metal salts (e.g., zinc sulfate, copper chloride) were found effective, some capable of destroying TATP solutions in a few hours. Strong acids proved useful against solid peroxide materials; however, on a 1 g scale, addition of concentrated sulfuric acid caused TATP to detonate. Thus, this technique should only be used to destroy small-laboratory quantities. PMID:19737243

  3. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  4. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Tamasy, G. J.; Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Sampson, J. W.; Lane, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  5. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices.

  6. Dynamic phase microscopy, a new method to detect viable and killed spores and to estimate the heterogeneity of spore populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Lisovskii, Vitalii V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Kretushev, Aleksander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatyana V.; Suzina, Nataliya E.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El-Registan, Galina I.

    One of the challenging tasks in monitoring studies is to estimate heterogeneity of microbial populations by the physiological state and potential viability of individual cells, especially with regard of their ability to withstand various environmental assaults. Previously, we described some approaches based on electron microscopy methods to discriminate vegetative, dormant, and dead cells in both aged microbial cultures and environmental samples, including permafrost. We propose to extend the arsenal of microscopy methods for monitoring studies by a new non-invasive and informative method - dynamic phase microscopy (DPM). The substantial advantage of DPM is that it gives quantitative (digitized) data of undestroyed (living) microscopic objects, exemplified in our work by Bacillus licheniformis spores. Using DPM made it possible to record interference images of objects (spores) and to produce picture of their "phase thickness" (PT) that is the optical path difference in nm. Thus, it was demonstrated the remarkable difference in the PT of spores at different physiological states: dormant, germinating, and heat-killed spores had PT values of 80, 40-50, and 20 nm, respectively. The other found criterion to distinguish between spores was the PT fluctuations. In contrast to dormant and killed spores, the PT of germinating spores oscillated with amplitude of up to 7 nm, with typical frequencies of 1.3 and 3.4 Hz. A combination of the recorded PT values and PT fluctuations gave a key to detect viable and dead cells. Under the conditions that did not support germination (the lack of nutrients), we were able to follow the response of a single dormant spore and a spore population to heating from 25 °C to 70 °C. Thus, a very small temperature change (from 40 °C to 42 °C) under conditions non-favorable for germination, caused a drastic decrease in the spores' PT; the second drop in the PT values was observed during heating from 60 °C to 70 °C. These changes were

  7. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Clostridium difficile spore proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Chandrabali; Eugenis, Ioannis; Edwards, Adrianne N; Sun, Xingmin; McBride, Shonna M; Ho, David D

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming, anaerobic, Gram-positive organism that is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea, commonly known as C. difficile infection (CDI). C. difficile spores play an important role in the pathogenesis of CDI. Spore proteins, especially those that are surface-bound may play an essential role in the germination, colonization and persistence of C. difficile in the human gut. In our current study, we report the identification of two surface-bound spore proteins, CdeC and CdeM that may be utilized as immunization candidates against C. difficile. These spore proteins are immunogenic in mice and are able to protect mice against challenge with C. difficile UK1, a clinically-relevant 027/B1/NAP1 strain. These spore proteins are also able to afford high levels of protection against challenge with C. difficile 630Δerm in golden Syrian hamsters. This unprecedented study shows the vaccination potential of C. difficile spore exosporium proteins. PMID:26688279

  8. Water Behavior in Bacterial Spores by Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Dormant bacterial spores are able to survive long periods of time without nutrients, withstand harsh environmental conditions, and germinate into metabolically active bacteria when conditions are favorable. Numerous factors influence this hardiness, including the spore structure and the presence of compounds to protect DNA from damage. It is known that the water content of the spore core plays a role in resistance to degradation, but the exact state of water inside the core is a subject of discussion. Two main theories present themselves: either the water in the spore core is mostly immobile and the core and its components are in a glassy state, or the core is a gel with mobile water around components which themselves have limited mobility. Using deuterium solid-state NMR experiments, we examine the nature of the water in the spore core. Our data show the presence of unbound water, bound water, and deuterated biomolecules that also contain labile deuterons. Deuterium–hydrogen exchange experiments show that most of these deuterons are inaccessible by external water. We believe that these unreachable deuterons are in a chemical bonding state that prevents exchange. Variable-temperature NMR results suggest that the spore core is more rigid than would be expected for a gel-like state. However, our rigid core interpretation may only apply to dried spores whereas a gel core may exist in aqueous suspension. Nonetheless, the gel core, if present, is inaccessible to external water. PMID:24950158

  9. [Should the microsporidian spores be treated as dormant stages?].

    PubMed

    Issi, I V; Dolgikh, V V; Tokarev, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Spores of bacteria, fungi, microsporidia and other protists are traditionally treated as dormant stages, intended to the long-term survival in the environment and to activation of parasitic forms during the infestation of a new host. However, in the process of examination of insect microsporidia at the molecular cellular levels and also at the level of organisms and populations, we came to a conclusion that spores are very active developmental stages with the entire potential directed to the rapid and successful infestation of new hosts during contact with the later. The work summarizes the original data demonstrating (1) the necessity of the rapid activation of microsporidian spores during host contact, (2) hopelessness of the long retaining of viability by spores of many microsporidia in the environment after leaving host organism; and (3) specific accumulation of metabolic ferments in "dormant" spores, but not in actively proliferating prespore developmental stages. On the basis of these data we conclude that microsporidian spores tend to shorten the period when they stay outside host organism to the maximal degree. The probability of host infestation within the limited time period increases due to diverse modes of transmission of pathogens, accumulation of maximally possible volume of infective spores, and the rapid mobilization of the extrusion apparatus.

  10. Activity of essential oils against Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Hayley A; Palombo, Enzo A

    2009-12-01

    Alternative methods for controlling bacterial endospore contamination are desired in a range of industries and applications. Attention has recently turned to natural products, such as essential oils, which have sporicidal activity. In this study, a selection of essential oils was investigated to identify those with activity against Bacillus subtilis spores. Spores were exposed to thirteen essential oils, and surviving spores were enumerated. Cardamom, tea tree, and juniper leaf oils were the most effective, reducing the number of viable spores by 3 logs at concentrations above 1%. Sporicidal activity was enhanced at high temperatures (60 degrees C) or longer exposure times (up to one week). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified the components of the active essential oils. However, none of the major oil components exhibited equivalent activity to the whole oils. The fact that oil components, either alone or in combination, did not show the same level of sporicidal activity as the complete oils suggested that minor components may be involved, or that these act synergistically with major components. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine spores after exposure to essential oils and suggested that leakage of spore contents was the likely mode of sporicidal action. Our data have shown that essential oils exert sporicidal activity and may be useful in applications where bacterial spore reduction is desired.

  11. Bacillus subtilis spores as adjuvants for DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aps, Luana R M M; Diniz, Mariana O; Porchia, Bruna F M M; Sales, Natiely S; Moreno, Ana Carolina R; Ferreira, Luís C S

    2015-05-11

    Recently, Bacillus subtilis spores were shown to be endowed with strong adjuvant capacity when co-administered with purified antigenic proteins. In the present study we assessed whether spores possess adjuvant properties when combined with DNA vaccines. We showed that B. subtilis spores promoted the activation of dendritic cells in vitro and induced migration of pro-inflammatory cells after parenteral administration to mice. Likewise, co-administration of spores with a DNA vaccine encoding the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 protein enhanced the activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in vivo. Mice immunized with the DNA vaccine admixed with spores presented a protective immunity increase to previously implanted tumor cells, capable of expressing HPV-16 oncoproteins. Finally, we observed that the adjuvant effect can vary accordingly to the number of co-administered spores which may be ascribed with the ability to induce. Collectively, the present results demonstrate for the first time that B. subtilis spores can also confer adjuvant effects to DNA vaccines.

  12. Water behavior in bacterial spores by deuterium NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Anthony W; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Johnson, Karen; Thomas, Kieth J; Middaugh, Amy N; Garimella, Ravindranath; Powell, Douglas R; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rice, Charles V

    2014-07-31

    Dormant bacterial spores are able to survive long periods of time without nutrients, withstand harsh environmental conditions, and germinate into metabolically active bacteria when conditions are favorable. Numerous factors influence this hardiness, including the spore structure and the presence of compounds to protect DNA from damage. It is known that the water content of the spore core plays a role in resistance to degradation, but the exact state of water inside the core is a subject of discussion. Two main theories present themselves: either the water in the spore core is mostly immobile and the core and its components are in a glassy state, or the core is a gel with mobile water around components which themselves have limited mobility. Using deuterium solid-state NMR experiments, we examine the nature of the water in the spore core. Our data show the presence of unbound water, bound water, and deuterated biomolecules that also contain labile deuterons. Deuterium-hydrogen exchange experiments show that most of these deuterons are inaccessible by external water. We believe that these unreachable deuterons are in a chemical bonding state that prevents exchange. Variable-temperature NMR results suggest that the spore core is more rigid than would be expected for a gel-like state. However, our rigid core interpretation may only apply to dried spores whereas a gel core may exist in aqueous suspension. Nonetheless, the gel core, if present, is inaccessible to external water.

  13. Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

  14. Brontides: natural explosive noises.

    PubMed

    Gold, T; Soter, S

    1979-04-27

    Episodes of explosive noises of natural origin, or brontides, have been well documented, often in association with seismic activity and in a few cases as precursors to major earthquakes. Ground-to-air acoustic transmission from shallow earthquakes can account for many of these episodes, but not for all, and other causes, such as the sudden eruption of gas from high-pressure sources in the ground may at times have been responsible. Confusion with distant thunder or artillery at times of anomalous sound propagation complicates the analysis, and more recently the greatly increased frequency of artificial explosive noises and sonic booms has tended to mask the recognition of natural brontides. PMID:17757998

  15. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  16. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  17. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  18. Personnel Launch System (PLS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Carl F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is currently studying a personnel launch system (PLS) approach to help satisfy the crew rotation requirements for the Space Station Freedom. Several concepts from low L/D capsules to lifting body vehicles are being examined in a series of studies as a potential augmentation to the Space Shuttle launch system. Rockwell International Corporation, under contract to NASA, analyzed a lifting body concept to determine whether the lifting body class of vehicles is appropriate for the PLS function. The results of the study are given.

  19. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    PubMed

    Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more

  20. The ecology of anthrax spores: tough but not invincible.

    PubMed Central

    Dragon, D C; Rennie, R P

    1995-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a serious and often fatal disease of wild and domestic animals. Central to the persistence of anthrax in an area is the ability of B. anthracis to form long-lasting, highly resistant spores. Understanding the ecology of anthrax spores is essential if one hopes to control epidemics. Studies on the ecology of anthrax have found a correlation between the disease and specific soil factors, such as alkaline pH, high moisture, and high organic content. Researchers initially suggested that these factors influenced vegetative anthrax bacilli. However, subsequent research has shown that vegetative cells of B. anthracis have very specific nutrient and physiological requirements and are unlikely to survive outside a host. Review of the properties of spores of B. anthracis and other Bacillus species suggests that the specific soil factors linked to epidemic areas reflect important environmental conditions that aid the anthrax spores in causing epidemics. Specifically, high levels of calcium in the soil may help to maintain spore vitality for prolonged periods, thereby increasing the chance of spores encountering and infecting a new host. Cycles of runoff and evaporation may collect spores dispersed from previous epidemics into storage areas, thereby concentrating them. Uptake of large doses of viable spores from storage areas by susceptible animals, via altered feeding or breeding behavior, may then allow the bacterium to establish infection and cause a new epidemic. Literature search for this review was done by scanning the Life Sciences Collection 1982-1994 using the keywords "anthrax" and "calcium and spore." Images Figure 1. PMID:7773917

  1. Mapping Interactions between Germinants and Clostridium difficile Spores

    PubMed Central

    Howerton, Amber; Ramirez, Norma; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Germination of Clostridium difficile spores is the first required step in establishing C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). Taurocholate (a bile salt) and glycine (an amino acid) have been shown to be important germinants of C. difficile spores. In the present study, we tested a series of glycine and taurocholate analogs for the ability to induce or inhibit C. difficile spore germination. Testing of glycine analogs revealed that both the carboxy and amino groups are important epitopes for recognition and that the glycine binding site can accommodate compounds with more widely separated termini. The C. difficile germination machinery also recognizes other hydrophobic amino acids. In general, linear alkyl side chains are better activators of spore germination than their branched analogs. However, l-phenylalanine and l-arginine are also good germinants and are probably recognized by distinct binding sites. Testing of taurocholate analogs revealed that the 12-hydroxyl group of taurocholate is necessary, but not sufficient, to activate spore germination. In contrast, the 6- and 7-hydroxyl groups are required for inhibition of C. difficile spore germination. Similarly, C. difficile spores are able to detect taurocholate analogs with shorter, but not longer, alkyl amino sulfonic acid side chains. Furthermore, the sulfonic acid group can be partially substituted with other acidic groups. Finally, a taurocholate analog with an m-aminobenzenesulfonic acid side chain is a strong inhibitor of C. difficile spore germination. In conclusion, C. difficile spores recognize both amino acids and taurocholate through multiple interactions that are required to bind the germinants and/or activate the germination machinery. PMID:20971909

  2. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more

  3. Immunomagnetic capture of Bacillus anthracis spores from food.

    PubMed

    Shields, Michael J; Hahn, Kristen R; Janzen, Timothy W; Goji, Noriko; Thomas, Matthew C; Kingombe, Cesar Bin I; Paquet, Chantal; Kell, Arnold J; Amoako, Kingsley K

    2012-07-01

    Food is a vulnerable target for potential bioterrorist attacks; therefore, a critical mitigation strategy is needed for the rapid concentration and detection of biothreat agents from food matrices. Magnetic beads offer a unique advantage in that they have a large surface area for efficient capture of bacteria. We have demonstrated the efficient capture and concentration of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) spores using immunomagnetic beads for a potential food application. Magnetic beads from three different sources, with varying sizes and surface chemistries, were functionalized with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antibodies from commercial sources and used to capture and concentrate anthrax spores from spiked food matrices, including milk, apple juice, bagged salad, processed meat, and bottled water. The results indicated that the Pathatrix beads were more effective in the binding and capture of anthrax spores than the other two bead types investigated. Furthermore, it was observed that the use of polyclonal antibodies resulted in a more efficient recovery of anthrax spores than the use of monoclonal antibodies. Three different magnetic capture methods, inversion, the Pathatrix Auto system, and the new i CropTheBug system, were investigated. The i CropTheBug system yielded a much higher recovery of spores than the Pathatrix Auto system. Spore recoveries ranged from 80 to 100% for the i CropTheBug system when using pure spore preparations, whereas the Pathatrix Auto system had recoveries from 20 to 30%. Spore capture from food samples inoculated at a level of 1 CFU/ml resulted in 80 to 100% capture for milk, bottled water, and juice samples and 60 to 80% for processed meat and bagged salad when using the i CropTheBug system. This efficient capture of anthrax spores at very low concentrations without enrichment has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of downstream detection technologies and will be a useful method in a foodborne bioterrorism response. PMID

  4. Sterilization Resistance of Bacterial Spores Explained with Water Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Anthony W; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Middaugh, Amy N; Garimella, Ravindranath; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rice, Charles V

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial spores can survive for long periods without nutrients and in harsh environmental conditions. This survival is influenced by the structure of the spore, the presence of protective compounds, and water retention. These compounds, and the physical state of water in particular, allow some species of bacterial spores to survive sterilization schemes with hydrogen peroxide and UV light. The chemical nature of the spore core and its water has been a subject of some contention and the chemical environment of the water impacts resistance paradigms. Either the spore has a glassy core, where water is immobilized along with other core components, or the core is gel-like with mobile water diffusion. These properties affect the movement of peroxide and radical species, and hence resistance. Deuterium solid-state NMR experiments are useful for examining the nature of the water inside the spore. Previous work in our lab with spores of Bacillus subtilis indicate that, for spores, the core water is in a more immobilized state than expected for the gel-like core theory, suggesting a glassy core environment. Here, we report deuterium solid-state NMR observations of the water within UV- and peroxide-resistant spores from Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. Variable-temperature NMR experiments indicate no change in the line shape after heating to 50 °C, but an overall decrease in signal after heating to 100 °C. These results show glass-like core dynamics within B. pumilus SAFR-032 that may be the potential source of its known UV-resistance properties. The observed NMR traits can be attributed to the presence of an exosporium containing additional labile deuterons that can aid in the deactivation of sterilizing agents.

  5. Spore formation and toxin production in Clostridium difficile biofilms.

    PubMed

    Semenyuk, Ekaterina G; Laning, Michelle L; Foley, Jennifer; Johnston, Pehga F; Knight, Katherine L; Gerding, Dale N; Driks, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to grow as a biofilm can facilitate survival of bacteria in the environment and promote infection. To better characterize biofilm formation in the pathogen Clostridium difficile, we established a colony biofilm culture method for this organism on a polycarbonate filter, and analyzed the matrix and the cells in biofilms from a variety of clinical isolates over several days of biofilm culture. We found that biofilms readily formed in all strains analyzed, and that spores were abundant within about 6 days. We also found that extracellular DNA (eDNA), polysaccharide and protein was readily detected in the matrix of all strains, including the major toxins A and/or B, in toxigenic strains. All the strains we analyzed formed spores. Apart from strains 630 and VPI10463, which sporulated in the biofilm at relatively low frequencies, the frequencies of biofilm sporulation varied between 46 and 65%, suggesting that variations in sporulation levels among strains is unlikely to be a major factor in variation in the severity of disease. Spores in biofilms also had reduced germination efficiency compared to spores obtained by a conventional sporulation protocol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that in 3 day-old biofilms, the outermost structure of the spore is a lightly staining coat. However, after 6 days, material that resembles cell debris in the matrix surrounds the spore, and darkly staining granules are closely associated with the spores surface. In 14 day-old biofilms, relatively few spores are surrounded by the apparent cell debris, and the surface-associated granules are present at higher density at the coat surface. Finally, we showed that biofilm cells possess 100-fold greater resistance to the antibiotic metronidazole then do cells cultured in liquid media. Taken together, our data suggest that C. difficile cells and spores in biofilms have specialized properties that may facilitate infection.

  6. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Launch tradeoff study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A goal of the Phase B study is to define the launch system interfaces for the reusable reentry satellite (RRS) program. The focus of the launch tradeoff study, documented in this report, is to determine which expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) are best suited for the RRS application by understanding the impact of all viable launch systems on RRS design and operation.

  7. Intelsat communications satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    To be placed into a highly elliptical transfer orbit by the Atlas Centaur (AC-61) launch vehicle, the INTELSAT V-F satellite has 12,000 voice circuits and 2 color television channels and incorporates a maritime communication system for ship to shore communications. The stages of the launch vehicle and the launch operations are described. A table shows the launch sequence.

  8. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... supersedes the List of Explosives Materials dated September 20, 2012 (Docket No. ATF 47N, 77 FR 58410... hydrocarbons. Explosive organic nitrate mixtures. Explosive powders. F Flash powder. ] Fulminate of mercury. Fulminate of silver. Fulminating gold. Fulminating mercury. Fulminating platinum. Fulminating silver....

  9. [Sporogenesis, sporoderm and mature spore ornamentation in Lycopodiaceae].

    PubMed

    Rincon Baron, Edgar Javier; Rolleri, Cristina Hilda; Passarelli, Lilian M; Espinosa Matías, Silvia; Torres, Alba Marina

    2014-09-01

    Studies on reproductive aspects, spore morphology and ultrastructure of Lycopodiaceae are not very common in the scientific literature, and constitute essential information to support taxonomic and systematic relationships among the group. In order to complete existing information, adding new and broader contributions on these topics, a comparative analysis of the sporogenesis ultrastructure, with emphasis on cytological aspects of the sporocyte coat development, tapetum, monoplastidic and polyplastidic meiosis, sporoderm ontogeny and ornamentation of the mature spores, was carried out in 43 taxa of eight genera of the Lycopodiaceae: Austrolycopodium, Diphasium, Diphasiastrum, Huperzia (including Phlegmariurus), Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea and Pseudolycopodiella growing in the Andes of Colombia and the Neotropics. For this study, the transmission elec- tron microscopy (TEM) samples were collected in Cauca and Valle del Cauca Departments, while most of the spores for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were obtained from herbarium samples. We followed standard preparation procedures for spore observation by TEM and SEM. Results showed that the sporocyte coat is largely composed by primary wall components; the sporocyte develop much of their metabolic activity in the production of their coat, which is retained until the spores release; protective functions for the diploid cells undergoing meiosis is postulated here for this layer. The abundance of dictyosomes in the sporocyte cytoplasm was related to the formation and development of the sporocyte coat. Besides microtubule activity, the membrane of sporocyte folds, associated with electrodense material, and would early determine the final patterns of spore ornamentation. Monoplastidic condition is common in Lycopodium s.l., whereas polyplastidic condition was observed in species of Huperzia and Lycopodiella s. l. In monoplastidic species, the tapetum presents abun- dant multivesicular bodies, while in

  10. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122°C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80°C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa with 37

  11. Micromotors to capture and destroy anthrax simulant spores.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Jahir; Pan, Guoqing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Galarnyk, Michael; Wang, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Towards addressing the need for detecting and eliminating biothreats, we describe a micromotor-based approach for screening, capturing, isolating and destroying anthrax simulant spores in a simple and rapid manner with minimal sample processing. The B. globilli antibody-functionalized micromotors can recognize, capture and transport B. globigii spores in environmental matrices, while showing non-interactions with excess of non-target bacteria. Efficient destruction of the anthrax simulant spores is demonstrated via the micromotor-induced mixing of a mild oxidizing solution. The new micromotor-based approach paves a way to dynamic multifunctional systems that rapidly recognize, isolate, capture and destroy biological threats.

  12. Confined explosive joining of tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Technique uses explosive ribbon to join and seal tubes hermetically while totally confining explosive products, such as smoke, light, and sound. Only click is audible. Process yields joints of the same strengths as parent metal.

  13. The combustion of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S. F.

    2001-01-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

  14. The First Nova Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Gil-Pons, Pilar

    2007-06-01

    Classical novae are stellar explosions with an energy release that is only overcome by supernovae and γ-ray bursts. Theoretical and observational evidence suggests that these cataclysmic events are major sources of the Galactic 15N, 17O, and 13C, and contribute to the abundances of 7Li, and 26Al, with a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Ca. However, there are reasons to believe that these nuclear signatures have changed during the overall Galactic history. In this Letter, the first that addresses the nature of nova explosions in the most primitive, low-metallicity binaries, we show that primordial novae eject more massive envelopes and display a larger nuclear activity than classical novae, leading to a new type of explosion, halfway between a supernova and a nova. The ejected shells from the most violent, massive primordial novae yield large excesses of Ti and a likely nucleosynthetic endpoint around Cu-Zn, signatures never before associated with a nova-like explosion. We conclude that the chemical abundance pattern of the nova ejecta is strongly modified at low metallicities and suggest that primordial novae are a possible birthplace of a rare variety of presolar grains whose origin remains uncertain.

  15. The Combustion of Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, S. F.

    2002-07-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The search also continues for improved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Currently, the most significant uncertainties are in the processes immediately following ignition. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions. This paper presents a view of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed. Novel materials may yield insight into the mechanisms involved with rapid deflagration processes.

  16. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109 (36 FR 10553-10562). OSHA based the... revisions to the standard (37 FR 6577, 57 FR 6356, and 63 FR 33450). On July 29, 2002, the Institute of... revision (72 FR 18792). On July 17, 2007, however, OSHA closed the comment period, stating that it...

  17. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  18. Managing the data explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    1993-01-01

    The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

  19. Electromagnetic launch of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, William R.; Kolm, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil can become a source of relatively inexpensive oxygen propellant for vehicles going from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and beyond. This lunar oxygen could replace the oxygen propellant that, in current plans for these missions, is launched from the Earth's surface and amounts to approximately 75 percent of the total mass. The reason for considering the use of oxygen produced on the Moon is that the cost for the energy needed to transport things from the lunar surface to LEO is approximately 5 percent the cost from the surface of the Earth to LEO. Electromagnetic launchers, in particular the superconducting quenchgun, provide a method of getting this lunar oxygen off the lunar surface at minimal cost. This cost savings comes from the fact that the superconducting quenchgun gets its launch energy from locally supplied, solar- or nuclear-generated electrical power. We present a preliminary design to show the main features and components of a lunar-based superconducting quenchgun for use in launching 1-ton containers of liquid oxygen, one every 2 hours. At this rate, nearly 4400 tons of liquid oxygen would be launched into low lunar orbit in a year.

  20. Nighttime Launch at NASA Wallops

    NASA Video Gallery

    A U.S. Air Force Minotaur 1 rocket carrying the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space office’s ORS-1 satellite was successfully launched at 11:09 p.m. EDT, June 29, 2011, from NASA...

  1. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  2. Space Shuttle Launch: STS-129

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-129. Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member crew began an 11-day delivery flight to the International Space Station on Monday, Nov 16, 2009, with a 2:28 p.m. EST launch from NASA's Kennedy S...

  3. Starfire 1 Consort III Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Consort 3 is a commercial suborbital rocket that carried 12 microgravity experiments. It was launched on a Starfire rocket on May 16, 1990, from the Naval Ordnance Missile Test Station facilities at the U.S. Army's White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM. The videotape opens with approximately 2 minutes of a man speaking into a microphone but there is no sound. This is followed by a brief summary of the payload, and the expected trajectory, a view of the launch vehicle, the countdown and the launch. The videotape then shows a film clip from the University of Alabama, with Dr. Francis Wessling, project manager for the Consort 3 project, speaking about the mission goals in the materials sciences experimentation. The video shows footage of the payload being assembled. The next section is a discussion by Dr. Roy Hammustedt, of Pennsylvania State University, who reviews the Penn State Bio Module,and the goal of learning about the effects of gravity on physiology. This is followed by George Maybee, from McDonald Douglas, who spoke about the payload integration process while the video shows some of the construction. The last section of the videotape shows a press conference at the launch site. Ana Villamil answers questions from the press about the flight.

  4. Roles of the major, small, acid-soluble spore proteins and spore-specific and universal DNA repair mechanisms in resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to ionizing radiation from X rays and high-energy charged-particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Setlow, Peter; Horneck, Gerda; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Günther; Rettberg, Petra; Doherty, Aidan J; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2008-02-01

    The role of DNA repair by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination, spore photoproduct lyase, and DNA polymerase I and genome protection via alpha/beta-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) in Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to accelerated heavy ions (high-energy charged [HZE] particles) and X rays has been studied. Spores deficient in NHEJ and alpha/beta-type SASP were significantly more sensitive to HZE particle bombardment and X-ray irradiation than were the recA, polA, and splB mutant and wild-type spores, indicating that NHEJ provides an efficient DNA double-strand break repair pathway during spore germination and that the loss of the alpha/beta-type SASP leads to a significant radiosensitivity to ionizing radiation, suggesting the essential function of these spore proteins as protectants of spore DNA against ionizing radiation.

  5. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Toward First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. It will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017. Its first crewed flight follows in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. In the NASA project life cycle process, SLS has completed 50 percent of its major milestones toward first flight. Every SLS element manufactured development hardware for testing over the past year. Accomplishments during 2013/2014 included manufacture of core stage test articles, preparations for qualification testing the solid rocket boosters and the RS-25 main engines, and shipment of the first flight hardware in preparation for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) in 2014. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment of economic challenges, the SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets through the studied use of hardware, infrastructure, and workforce investments the United States made in the last half century, while selectively using new technologies for design, manufacturing, and testing, as well as streamlined management approaches

  6. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  7. New explosive seam welding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  8. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  9. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  10. Does proximity to neighbours affect germination of spores of non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum?

    PubMed

    Webb, Martin D; Stringer, Sandra C; Le Marc, Yvan; Baranyi, József; Peck, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    It is recognised that inoculum size affects the rate and extent of bacterial spore germination. It has been proposed that this is due to spores interacting: molecules released from germinated spores trigger germination of dormant neighbours. This study investigated whether changes to the total number of spores in a system or proximity to other spores (local spore density) had a more significant effect on interaction between spores of non-proteolytic Clostridium botulinum strain Eklund 17B attached to defined areas of microscope slides. Both the number of spores attached to the slides and local spore density (number of spores per mm(2)) were varied by a factor of nine. Germination was observed microscopically at 15 °C for 8 h and the probability of, and time to, germination calculated from image analysis measurements. Statistical analysis revealed that the effect of total spore number on the probability of germination within 8 h was more significant than that of proximity to neighbours (local spore density); its influence on germination probability was approximately four-times greater. Total spore number had an even more significant affect on time to germination; it had a nine-fold greater influence than proximity to neighbours. The applied models provide a means to characterise, quantitatively, the effect of the total spore number on spore germination relative to the effect of proximity to neighbouring spores.

  11. Effects of temperature and desiccation on ex situ conservation of nongreen fern spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation of the genetic diversity of ferns is limited by the paucity of ex situ spore banks. Conflicting reports of fern spore response to low temperature and moisture impedes establishment of fern spore banks. There is little information available to evaluate longevity of fern spores under dif...

  12. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems. PMID:27161541

  13. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems. PMID:27161541

  14. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-05-10

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems.

  15. The photon pair source that survived a rocket explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongkan; Chandrasekara, Rakhitha; Tan, Yue Chuan; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Ling, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    We report on the performance of a compact photon pair source that was recovered intact from a failed space launch. The source had been embedded in a nanosatellite and was designed to perform pathfinder experiments leading to global quantum communication networks using spacecraft. Despite the launch vehicle explosion soon after takeoff, the nanosatellite was successfully retrieved from the accident site and the source within it was found to be fully operational. We describe the assembly technique for the rugged source. Post-recovery data is compared to baseline measurements collected before the launch attempt and no degradation in brightness or polarization correlation was observed. The survival of the source through an extreme environment provides strong evidence that it is possible to engineer rugged quantum optical systems.

  16. Late Silurian trilete spores from northern Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Wang; Li

    2000-08-01

    The Late Silurian is generally considered to a particular significant key period in the study of early land vascular plants. A trilete spore assemblage of the Upper Silurian is described from northern Jiangsu, China. This assemblage comprises 11 genera and 20 species of trilete spores (including laevigate, apiculate, perinotrilite, patinate, rarely distally murornate and equatorially crassitate, and three indeterminate trilete miospores forms). It has similarities to those described from coeval assemblages from around the world (e.g., England and South Wales; Tripolitania, Libya; Cornwallis Island, Canadian Arctic; Northwest Spain). The rare cryptospore, only one specimen (Tetrahedraletes sp.) had been found to be associated with the Chinese trilete spore assemblage. The discovery of the trilete spores from Late Silurian rocks indicates the existence of early land plants, some possibly vascular, at that time in northern Jiangsu, China.

  17. Environmental Stresses on Spore Populations of Bacillus stearothermophilus1

    PubMed Central

    Fields, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    Heat-shocking spores at 110 C in 20% sucrose solutions decreased the percentage of the rough variant in a mixed population (rough and smooth variants) of strain M. Heat-shocking spores of the rough variant of strain NCA 1518 in 20% sucrose produced a decline in the number which germinated, whereas the smooth variant of strain NCA 1518 increased in the number which germinated. By the use of phase microscopy and plate counts, from the same incubated spore suspension in distilled water, heat-induced dormancy was demonstrated at 52 C. Dormancy also occurred in 20% sucrose solutions when held at room temperatures. Heat-shocking spores of strain M in 20% sucrose solutions and plating immediately after 24- and 48-hr holding periods at 25 C produced a decline in the total population with the percentage of rough variant increasing with time. A second heat shock produced only an increase in the rough variant. PMID:14215969

  18. Oxidation mechanism of Penicillium digitatum spores through neutral oxygen radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the inactivation process of Penicillium digitatum spores through neutral oxygen species, the spores were treated with an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source and observed in-situ using a fluorescent confocal-laser microscope. The treated spores were stained with two fluorescent dyes, 1,1‧-dioctadecyl-3,3,Y,3‧-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) and diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP). The intracellular organelles as well as the cell membranes in the spores treated with the oxygen radical source were stained with DiI without a major morphological change of the membranes. DPPP staining revealed that the organelles were oxidized by the oxygen radical treatment. These results suggest that neutral oxygen species, especially atomic oxygen, induce a minor structural change or functional inhibition of cell membranes, which leads to the oxidation of the intracellular organelles through the penetration of reactive oxygen species into the cell.

  19. Interplanetary Migration of Eucaryotic Cell, Spore of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, N.; Nosaka, J.; Ando, R.; Hashimoto, H.; Yokobori, S.; Narumi, I.; Nakagawa, K.; Yamagishi, A.; Tohda, H.

    2013-11-01

    The Tanpopo mission to examine possible interplanetary migration of microbes is progressing. Spore of Schizosaccharomyces pombe are considered as the exposed samples. In this paper, results of preliminary experiments for the exposure are shown.

  20. A versatile nano display platform from bacterial spore coat proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wu, I-Lin; Narayan, Kedar; Castaing, Jean-Philippe; Tian, Fang; Subramaniam, Sriram; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2015-01-01

    Dormant bacterial spores are encased in a thick protein shell, the ‘coat', which contains ∼70 different proteins. The coat protects the spore from environmental insults, and is among the most durable static structures in biology. Owing to extensive cross-linking among coat proteins, this structure has been recalcitrant to detailed biochemical analysis, so molecular details of how it assembles are largely unknown. Here, we reconstitute the basement layer of the coat atop spherical membranes supported by silica beads to create artificial spore-like particles. We report that these synthetic spore husk-encased lipid bilayers (SSHELs) assemble and polymerize into a static structure, mimicking in vivo basement layer assembly during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. In addition, we demonstrate that SSHELs may be easily covalently modified with small molecules and proteins. We propose that SSHELs may be versatile display platforms for drugs and vaccines in clinical settings, or for enzymes that neutralize pollutants for environmental remediation. PMID:25854653

  1. Surface Bacterial-Spore Assay Using Tb3+/DPA Luminescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponce, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and a method for rapidly assaying solid surfaces for contamination by bacterial spores are undergoing development. The method would yield a total (nonviable plus viable) spore count of a surface within minutes and a viable-spore count in about one hour. In this method, spores would be collected from a surface by use of a transparent polymeric tape coated on one side with a polymeric adhesive that would be permeated with one or more reagent(s) for detection of spores by use of visible luminescence. The sticky side of the tape would be pressed against a surface to be assayed, then the tape with captured spores would be placed in a reader that illuminates the sample with ultraviolet light and counts the green luminescence spots under a microscope to quantify the number of bacterial spores per unit area. The visible luminescence spots seen through the microscope would be counted to determine the concentration of spores on the surface. This method is based on the chemical and physical principles of methods described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Live/Dead Spore Assay Using DPA-Triggered Tb Luminescence (NPO-30444), Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 7a. To recapitulate: The basic idea is to exploit the observations that (1) dipicolinic acid (DPA) is present naturally only in bacterial spores; and (2) when bound to Tb3+ ions, DPA triggers intense green luminescence of the ions under ultraviolet excitation; (3) DPA can be released from the viable spores by using L-alanine to make them germinate; and (4) by autoclaving, microwaving, or sonicating the sample, one can cause all the spores (non-viable as well as viable) to release their DPA. One candidate material for use as the adhesive in the present method is polydimethysiloxane (PDMS). In one variant of the method for obtaining counts of all (viable and nonviable) spores the PDMS would be doped with TbCl3. After collection of a sample, the spores immobilized on the sticky tape surface

  2. 14 CFR 417.17 - Launch reporting requirements and launch specific updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system test schedule. For each launch of a launch vehicle flown with a flight safety system, a launch operator must file an updated flight safety system test schedule and points of contact no later than six...) Flight termination system qualification test reports. For the launch of a launch vehicle flown with...

  3. 14 CFR 417.17 - Launch reporting requirements and launch specific updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system test schedule. For each launch of a launch vehicle flown with a flight safety system, a launch operator must file an updated flight safety system test schedule and points of contact no later than six...) Flight termination system qualification test reports. For the launch of a launch vehicle flown with...

  4. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the debris dispersion radius of the largest launch vehicle type and weight class proposed for the launch point. (b) For a launch site supporting any expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall use the largest distance provided by table 2 for the type and weight class of any launch vehicle proposed for...

  5. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the debris dispersion radius of the largest launch vehicle type and weight class proposed for the launch point. (b) For a launch site supporting any expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall use the largest distance provided by table 2 for the type and weight class of any launch vehicle proposed for...

  6. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the debris dispersion radius of the largest launch vehicle type and weight class proposed for the launch point. (b) For a launch site supporting any expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall use the largest distance provided by table 2 for the type and weight class of any launch vehicle proposed for...

  7. Disinfection of Bacillus spores with acidified nitrite.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Adcock, Noreen J; Rice, Eugene W

    2014-10-01

    Disinfecting water generated from a bioterrorism contamination event will require large amounts of disinfectant since the volume of water flushed from a drinking water distribution system or wash water collected from a contaminated outdoor area can accumulate quickly. Commonly used disinfectants may be unavailable in the necessary amounts, so evaluation of alternative disinfectants is needed. This study focuses on disinfection of Bacillus spores in water using acidified nitrite. The effect of varying pH (2 or 3), temperature (5°C or 24°C), nitrite concentration (0.01 or 0.1M), buffer (Butterfields or Phosphate Buffered Saline, PBS) and Bacillus species (B. globigii and B. anthracis Sterne) was evaluated. B. globigii was more resistant to disinfection under all water quality conditions. Disinfection was more effective for B. globigii and B. anthracis Sterne at 0.1M nitrite, pH 2, and 24°C. Disinfection of B. anthracis Sterne was enhanced in low ionic strength Butterfields buffer compared to PBS.

  8. Vacuum-induced Mutations In Bacillus Subtilis Spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munakata, N.; Maeda, M.; Hieda, K.

    During irradiation experiments with vacuum-UV radiation using synchrotron sources, we made unexpected observation that Bacillus subtilis spores of several recombination-deficient strains lost colony-forming ability by the exposure to high vacuum alone. Since this suggested the possible injury in spore DNA, we looked for mutation induction using the spores of strains HA101 (wild-type repair capability) and TKJ6312 (excision and spore repair deficient) that did not lose survivability. It was found that the frequency of nalidixic-acid resistant mutation increased several times in both of these strains by the exposure to high vacuum (10e-4 Pa after 24 hours). The analysis of sequence changes in gyrA gene showed that the majority of mutations carried a unique allele (gyrA12) of tandem double-base substitutions from CA to TT. The observation has been extended to rifampicin resistant mutations, the majority of that carried substitutions from CA to TT or AT in rpoB gene. On the other hand, when the spores of strains PS578 and PS2319 (obtained from P. Setlow) that are defective in a group of small acidic proteins (alpha/beta-type SASP) were similarly treated, none of the mutants analyzed carried such changes. This suggests that the unique mutations might be induced by the interaction of small acidic proteins with spore DNA under forced dehydration. The results indicate that extreme vacuum causes severe damage in spore DNA, and provide additional constraint to the long-term survival of bacterial spores in the space environment.

  9. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    PubMed

    Howerton, Amber; Patra, Manomita; Abel-Santos, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection. PMID:24023628

  10. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosko, R.J.; Loughin, S.

    1997-01-01

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Space Launch System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Development of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) heavy lift rocket is shifting from the formulation phase into the implementation phase in 2014, a little more than three years after formal program approval. Current development is focused on delivering a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. This "Block 1" configuration will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017, followed by its first crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Benefits associated with its unprecedented mass and volume include reduced trip times and simplified payload design. Every SLS element achieved significant, tangible progress over the past year. Among the Program's many accomplishments are: manufacture of Core Stage test panels; testing of Solid Rocket Booster development hardware including thrust vector controls and avionics; planning for testing the RS-25 Core Stage engine; and more than 4,000 wind tunnel runs to refine vehicle configuration, trajectory, and guidance. The Program shipped its first flight hardware - the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Stage Adapter (MSA) - to the United Launch Alliance for integration with the Delta IV heavy rocket that will launch an Orion test article in 2014 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Objectives of this Earth-orbit flight include validating the performance of Orion's heat shield and the MSA design, which will be manufactured again for SLS missions to deep space. The Program successfully completed Preliminary Design Review in 2013 and Key Decision Point C in early 2014. NASA has authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015 and a December 2017 first launch. The Program's success to date is due to prudent use of proven

  12. Wet and dry bacterial spore densities determined by buoyant sedimentation.

    PubMed Central

    Tisa, L S; Koshikawa, T; Gerhardt, P

    1982-01-01

    The wet densities of various types of dormant bacterial spores and reference particles were determined by centrifugal buoyant sedimentation in density gradient solutions of three commercial media of high chemical density. With Metrizamide or Renografin, the wet density values for the spores and permeable Sephadex beads were higher than those obtained by a reference direct mass method, and some spore populations were separated into several density bands. With Percoll, all of the wet density values were about the same as those obtained by the direct mass method, and only single density bands resulted. The differences were due to the partial permeation of Metrizamide and Renografin, but not Percoll, into the spores and the permeable Sephadex beads. Consequently, the wet density of the entire spore was accurately represented only by the values obtained with the Percoll gradient and the direct mass method. The dry densities of the spores and particles were determined by gravity buoyant sedimentation in a gradient of two organic solvents, one of high and the other of low chemical density. All of the dry density values obtained by this method were about the same as those obtained by the direct mass method. PMID:6285824

  13. Air sampling of mold spores by slit impactors: yield comparison.

    PubMed

    Pityn, Peter J; Anderson, James

    2013-01-01

    The performance of simple slit impactors for air sampling of mold contamination was compared under field conditions. Samples were collected side-by-side, outdoors in quadruplicates with Burkhard (ambient sampler) and Allergenco MK3 spore traps and with two identical Allergenco slit cassettes operated at diverse flow rates of 5 and 15 L/min, respectively. The number and types of mold spores in each sample were quantified by microscopy. Results showed all four single-stage slit impactors produced similar spore yields. Moreover, paired slit cassettes produced similar outcomes despite a three-fold difference in their sampling rate. No measurable difference in the amount or mix of mold spores per m(3)of air was detected. The implications for assessment of human exposures and interpretation of indoor/outdoor fungal burden are discussed. These findings demonstrate that slit cassettes capture most small spores, effectively and without bias, when operated at a range of flow rates including the lower flow rates used for personal sampling. Our findings indicate sampling data for mold spores correlate for different single stage impactor collection methodologies and that data quality is not deteriorated by operating conditions deviating from manufacturers' norms allowing such sampling results to be used for scientific, legal, investigative, or property insurance purposes. The same conclusion may not be applied to other particle sampling instruments and mulit-stage impactors used for ambient particulate sampling, which represent an entirely different scenario. This knowledge may help facilitate comparison between scientific studies where methodological differences exist.

  14. Quantification of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Spore Loads in Food Materials

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Gary C.; Malakar, Pradeep K.; Plowman, June

    2016-01-01

    We have produced data and developed analysis to build representations for the concentration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in materials that are used during the manufacture of minimally processed chilled foods in the United Kingdom. Food materials are categorized into homogenous groups which include meat, fish, shellfish, cereals, fresh plant material, dairy liquid, dairy nonliquid, mushroom and fungi, and dried herbs and spices. Models are constructed in a Bayesian framework and represent a combination of information from a literature survey of spore loads from positive-control experiments that establish a detection limit and from dedicated microbiological tests for real food materials. The detection of nonproteolytic C. botulinum employed an optimized protocol that combines selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR, and the majority of tests on food materials were negative. Posterior beliefs about spore loads center on a concentration range of 1 to 10 spores kg−1. Posterior beliefs for larger spore loads were most significant for dried herbs and spices and were most sensitive to the detailed results from control experiments. Probability distributions for spore loads are represented in a convenient form that can be used for numerical analysis and risk assessments. PMID:26729721

  15. Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-10-06

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

  16. Determination of the carbon content of airborne fungal spores.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heidi; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Zibuschka, Franziska; Hitzenberger, Regina; Kraus, Gunther F; Puxbaum, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores contribute potentially to the organic carbon of the atmospheric aerosol, mainly in the "coarse aerosol" size range 2.5-10 microm aerodynamic equivalent diameter (aed). Here, we report about a procedure to determine the organic carbon content of fungal spores frequently observed in the atmosphere. Furthermore, we apply a new (carbon/individual) factor to quantify the amount of fungal-spores-derived organic carbon in aerosol collected at a mountain site in Austria. Spores of representatives of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., and Alternaria sp., the four predominant airborne genera, were analyzed for their carbon content using two different analytical procedures. The result was an average carbon content of 13 pg C/spore (RSD, 46%), or expressed as a carbon-per-volume ratio, 0.38 pg C/microm3 (RSD, 30%). These values are comparable to conversion factors for bacteria and some representatives of the zooplankton. Because biopolymers are suspected of interfering with elemental carbon determination by thermal methods, the amount of "fungal carbon" that might be erroneously mistaken for soot carbon was determined using the "two-step combustion" method of Cachier et al. and termed as "apparent elemental carbon" (AEC). This fraction amounted to up to 46% of the initial fungal carbon content. Although the aerosol samples were collected in March under wintry conditions, the organic carbon from fungal spores amounted to 2.9-5.4% of organic carbon in the "coarse mode" size fraction.

  17. Dispersal of spores following a persistent random walk.

    PubMed

    Bicout, D J; Sache, I

    2003-03-01

    A model of a persistent random walk is used to describe the transport and deposition of the spore dispersal process. In this model, the spore particle flies along straight line trajectories, with constant speed v, which are interrupted by scattering, originating from interaction of spores with the field and wind variations, which randomly change its direction. To characterize the spore dispersal gradients, we have derived analytical expressions of the deposition probability epsilon (r|v) of airborne spores as a function of the distance r from the spore source in an infinite free space and in a disk of radius R with an absorbing edge that mimics an agricultural field surrounded with fields of nonhost plants and bare land. It is found in the free space that epsilon (r|v) approximately e(-alphar/l), with alpha a function of l(d)/l, where l and l(d) are the scattering and deposition mean free paths, respectively. In the disk, however, epsilon (r|v) is an infinite series of Bessel functions and, exhibits three regimes: absorbing (Rl(d)).

  18. Heat-induced temperature sensitivity of outgrowing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K M; Busta, F F

    1984-01-01

    Inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores during cooling (10 degrees C/h) from 90 degrees C occurred in two phases. One phase occurred during cooling from 90 to 80 degrees C; the second occurred during cooling from 46 to 38 degrees C. In contrast, no inactivation occurred when spores were cooled from a maximum temperature of 80 degrees C. Inactivation of spores at a constant temperature of 45 degrees C was induced by initial heat treatments from 80 to 90 degrees C. The higher temperatures accelerated the rate of inactivation. Germination of spores was required for 45 degrees C inactivation to occur; however, faster germination was not the cause of accelerated inactivation of spores receiving higher initial heat treatments. Repair of possible injury was not observed in Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems), peptone, beef extract, starch, or L-alanine at 30 or 35 degrees C. Microscopic evaluation of spores outgrowing at 45 degrees C revealed that when inactivation occurred, outgrowth halted at the swelling stage. Inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol at the optimum temperature also stopped outgrowth at swelling; thus protein synthesis may play a role in the 45 degree C inactivation mechanism. PMID:6426390

  19. Lipids stimulate spore germination in the entomopathogenic ascomycete Ascosphaera aggregata.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Buckner, J S

    2004-10-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata) is solitary and managed on a large scale for pollination of alfalfa seed crops. The bees nest in holes drilled in wood or polystyrene blocks, and their larvae are highly prone to a fungal disease called chalkbrood. The most prevalent form of chalkbrood is caused by Ascosphaera aggregata, but this ascomycete is difficult to culture. Hyphae will grow on standard fungal media, but spore germination is difficult to achieve and highly variable. We found that germination can be enhanced with oils. Lipids derived from plants and bee larvae increased germination from 50% (without oil) to 75-85% (with oil). Percent germination was significantly greater in the presence of lipids but germination was not significantly different when different oils, including mineral oil, were used. A. aggregata spores oriented along the oil-aqueous interface in the broth in a polar fashion, with swelling and germ tube formation always occurring into the aqueous portion of the broth. The other half of the spore tended to attach to a lipid droplet, where it remained, without swelling, during germ tube formation. The physical attachment of spores to the oil-aqueous interface is what most probably stimulates spore germination, as opposed to some nutritional stimulation. However, further research is needed to determine if and where the spores encounter such an interface when germinating in the host gut, where germination normally occurs. PMID:15645171

  20. Small acid soluble proteins for rapid spore identification.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2006-12-01

    This one year LDRD addressed the problem of rapid characterization of bacterial spores such as those from the genus Bacillus, the group that contains pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis. In this effort we addressed the feasibility of using a proteomics based approach to spore characterization using a subset of conserved spore proteins known as the small acid soluble proteins or SASPs. We proposed developing techniques that built on our previous expertise in microseparations to rapidly characterize or identify spores. An alternative SASP extraction method was developed that was amenable to both the subsequent fluorescent labeling required for laser-induced fluorescence detection and the low ionic strength requirements for isoelectric focusing. For the microseparations, both capillary isoelectric focusing and chip gel electrophoresis were employed. A variety of methods were evaluated to improve the molecular weight resolution for the SASPs, which are in a molecular weight range that is not well resolved by the current methods. Isoelectric focusing was optimized and employed to resolve the SASPs using UV absorbance detection. Proteomic signatures of native wild type Bacillus spores and clones genetically engineered to produce altered SASP patterns were assessed by slab gel electrophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing with absorbance detection as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection.

  1. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering of bacillus subtilis spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusciano, G.; Zito, G.; Pesce, G.; Sasso, A.; Isticato, R.; Ricca, E.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding of the complex interactions of molecules at biological interfaces is a fundamental issue in biochemistry, biotechnology as well as biomedicine. A plethora of biological processes are ruled by the molecular texture of cellular membrane: cellular communications, drug transportations and cellular recognition are just a few examples of such chemically-mediated processes. Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) is a novel, Raman-based technique which is ideally suited for this purpose. TERS relies on the combination of scanning probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The basic idea is the use of a metalled tip as a sort of optical nano-antenna, which gives place to SERS effect close to the tip end. Herein, we present the application of TERS to analyze the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores. The choice of this biological systems is related to the fact that a number of reasons support the use of spores as a mucosal delivery system. The remarkable and well-documented resistance of spores to various environmental and toxic effects make them clear potentials as a novel, surface-display system. Our experimental outcomes demonstrate that TERS is able to provide a nano-scale chemical imaging of spore surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that TERS allows differentiation between wilde-type spore and genetically modified strains. These results hold promise for the characterization and optimization of spore surface for drug-delivery applications.

  2. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.

  3. Atmospheric mold spore counts in relation to meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katial, R. K.; Zhang, Yiming; Jones, Richard H.; Dyer, Philip D.

    Fungal spore counts of Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum were studied during 8 years in Denver, Colorado. Fungal spore counts were obtained daily during the pollinating season by a Rotorod sampler. Weather data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Daily averages of temperature, relative humidity, daily precipitation, barometric pressure, and wind speed were studied. A time series analysis was performed on the data to mathematically model the spore counts in relation to weather parameters. Using SAS PROC ARIMA software, a regression analysis was performed, regressing the spore counts on the weather variables assuming an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) error structure. Cladosporium was found to be positively correlated (P<0.02) with average daily temperature, relative humidity, and negatively correlated with precipitation. Alternaria and Epicoccum did not show increased predictability with weather variables. A mathematical model was derived for Cladosporium spore counts using the annual seasonal cycle and significant weather variables. The model for Alternaria and Epicoccum incorporated the annual seasonal cycle. Fungal spore counts can be modeled by time series analysis and related to meteorological parameters controlling for seasonallity; this modeling can provide estimates of exposure to fungal aeroallergens.

  4. Dynamic Tow Maneuver Orbital Launch Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutan, Elbert L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An orbital launch system and its method of operation use a maneuver to improve the launch condition of a booster rocket and payload. A towed launch aircraft, to which the booster rocket is mounted, is towed to a predetermined elevation and airspeed. The towed launch aircraft begins the maneuver by increasing its lift, thereby increasing the flight path angle, which increases the tension on the towline connecting the towed launch aircraft to a towing aircraft. The increased tension accelerates the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket, while decreasing the speed (and thus the kinetic energy) of the towing aircraft, while increasing kinetic energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket by transferring energy from the towing aircraft. The potential energy of the towed launch aircraft and booster rocket is also increased, due to the increased lift. The booster rocket is released and ignited, completing the launch.

  5. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Designed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. NASA is working to deliver this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact that has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, the path it is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after 2021. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen that combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new developments that will evolve the launch vehicle's capabilities. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved 130 t Block 2 vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware, to life

  6. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration and development. NASA is working to develop this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen which combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new development projects that will evolve the capabilities of the launch vehicle. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved version of the vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight

  7. IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF STACHYLYSIN IN STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM SPORES AND SPORE-IMPACTED MOUSE AND RAT LUNG TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachylysin is a proteinaceous hemolytic agent that is producted by S. chartarum. Stachylysin was found, using immunohistochemistical and immunocytochemical methods, to be localized in S. chartarum spores/mycelia primarily in the inner wall suggesting that it is constitutively ...

  8. UV-Photobiology of bacterial spores in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Panitz, Corinna; Rabbow, Elke; Moeller, Ralf; Rettberg, Petra

    The vast, cold and radiation filled regimes of outer space present on one hand an environmental challenge for any form of terrestrial life; on the other hand they constitute a unique platform for astrobiology research. Major environmental parameters of space that are of interest to astrobiology are (i) space vacuum, (ii) solar electromagnetic radiation, above all the high energy UV radiation, (iii) galactic cosmic radiation, (iv) extreme temperature fluctuations, and (v) microgravity. Exposure facilities on board of Earth orbiting satellites and the International Space Station (ISS) have provided unique opportunities to study biological and chemical processes in response to those parameters directly in space. Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially B. subtilis, characterized by an extreme resistance to environmental insults and an incredible longevity have served as experimental models in studies on (i) the role of the ozone layer in protecting our biosphere; (ii) the likelihood of the interplanetary transfer of life via meteorites, i.e. the hypothesis of lithopanspermia; (iii) the habitability of Mars; (iv) the need for planetary protection measures; and (v) the molecular mechanisms underlying the extreme lethality of solar extraterrestrial UV-radiation. Role of the ozone layer in protecting our biosphere: Using solar extraterrestrial UV radiation and a set of optical filters, the terrestrial UV radiation climate at different ozone concentration was simulated and the biologically effective irradiance was measured with B. subtilis spores immobilized in a biofilm. With decreasing (simulated) ozone concentrations the biologically effective solar irradiance strongly increased by nearly 1000-fold for early Earth conditions before the ozone layer was built up. Likelihood of lithopanspermia: In an impact-driven scenario of lithopanspermia, rock-dwelling microorganisms - after being ejected from a planet - may wander through space for extended periods of time before being

  9. Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Greg A.; Graettinger, Alison H.; Sonder, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions can result from the interaction of ascending magma with groundwater. Experiments over a wide range of energies show that for a given energy there is a depth below which an explosion will be contained within the subsurface (not erupt), and there is a corresponding shallower depth that will optimize ejecta dispersal. We combine these relationships with constraints on the energies of phreatomagmatic explosions at maar-diatreme volcanoes and show that most eruptions are likely sourced by explosions in the uppermost ~200 m, and even shallower ones (<100 m) are likely to dominate deposition onto tephra rings. Most explosions below ~200 m will not erupt but contribute to formation of, and to the vertical mixing of materials within, a diatreme (vent structure), with only rare very high energy explosions between ~200 and 500 m erupting. Similar constraints likely apply at other volcanoes that experience phreatomagmatic explosions.

  10. TDRS is ready for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the early morning hours on Launch Pad 36A, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, the tower rolls back from NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-H) before liftoff atop an Atlas IIA/Centaur rocket. One of three satellites (labeled H, I and J) being built by the Hughes Space and Communications Company, the latest TDRS uses an innovative springback antenna design. A pair of 15-foot- diameter, flexible mesh antenna reflectors fold up for launch, then spring back into their original cupped circular shape on orbit. The new satellites will augment the TDRS system's existing S- and Ku-band frequencies by adding Ka-band capability. TDRS will serve as the sole means of continuous, high-data-rate communication with the Space Shuttle, with the International Space Station upon its completion, and with dozens of unmanned scientific satellites in low earth orbit.

  11. Aqua 10 Years After Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 a.m. The rocket quickly went through a low-lying cloud cover, after which the main portion of the rocket fell to the waters below and the rockets second stage proceeded to carry Aqua south across the Pacific, onward over Antarctica, and north to Africa, where the spacecraft separated from the rocket 59.5 minutes after launch. Then, 12.5 minutes later, the solar array unfurled over Europe, and Aqua was on its way in the first of what by now have become over 50,000 successful orbits of the Earth.

  12. Russian Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle, which carried the first resident crew to the International Space Station, moves toward the launch pad at the Baikonur complex in Kazakhstan. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960' until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  13. Investigating the Inactivation Mechanism of Bacillus subtilis Spores by High Pressure CO2.

    PubMed

    Rao, Lei; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Yongtao; Chen, Fang; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation mechanism of Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 (HPCD) processing. The spores of B. subtilis were subjected to heat at 0.1 MPa or HPCD at 6.5-20 MPa, and 64-86°C for 0-120 min. The germination, the permeability of inner membrane (IM) and cortex, the release of pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA), and changes in the morphological and internal structures of spores were investigated. The HPCD-treated spores did not lose heat resistance and their DPA release was lower than the inactivation, suggesting that spores did not germinate during HPCD. The flow cytometry analysis suggested that the permeability of the IM and cortex of HPCD-treated spores was increased. Furthermore, the DPA of the HPCD-treated spores were released in parallel with their inactivation and the fluorescence photomicrographs showed that these treated spores were stained by propidium iodide, ensuring that the permeability of IM of spores was increased by HPCD. The scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs showed that spores were crushed into debris or exhibited a hollowness on the surface, and the transmission electron microscopy photomicrographs exhibited an enlarged core, ruptured and indistinguishable IM and a loss of core materials in the HPCD-treated spores, indicating that HPCD damaged the structures of the spores. These findings suggested that HPCD inactivated B. subtilis spores by directly damaging the structure of the spores, rather than inducing germination of the spores. PMID:27656175

  14. Investigating the Inactivation Mechanism of Bacillus subtilis Spores by High Pressure CO2

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Lei; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Yongtao; Chen, Fang; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation mechanism of Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 (HPCD) processing. The spores of B. subtilis were subjected to heat at 0.1 MPa or HPCD at 6.5-20 MPa, and 64-86°C for 0-120 min. The germination, the permeability of inner membrane (IM) and cortex, the release of pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA), and changes in the morphological and internal structures of spores were investigated. The HPCD-treated spores did not lose heat resistance and their DPA release was lower than the inactivation, suggesting that spores did not germinate during HPCD. The flow cytometry analysis suggested that the permeability of the IM and cortex of HPCD-treated spores was increased. Furthermore, the DPA of the HPCD-treated spores were released in parallel with their inactivation and the fluorescence photomicrographs showed that these treated spores were stained by propidium iodide, ensuring that the permeability of IM of spores was increased by HPCD. The scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs showed that spores were crushed into debris or exhibited a hollowness on the surface, and the transmission electron microscopy photomicrographs exhibited an enlarged core, ruptured and indistinguishable IM and a loss of core materials in the HPCD-treated spores, indicating that HPCD damaged the structures of the spores. These findings suggested that HPCD inactivated B. subtilis spores by directly damaging the structure of the spores, rather than inducing germination of the spores.

  15. Investigating the Inactivation Mechanism of Bacillus subtilis Spores by High Pressure CO2

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Lei; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Yongtao; Chen, Fang; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation mechanism of Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 (HPCD) processing. The spores of B. subtilis were subjected to heat at 0.1 MPa or HPCD at 6.5-20 MPa, and 64-86°C for 0-120 min. The germination, the permeability of inner membrane (IM) and cortex, the release of pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA), and changes in the morphological and internal structures of spores were investigated. The HPCD-treated spores did not lose heat resistance and their DPA release was lower than the inactivation, suggesting that spores did not germinate during HPCD. The flow cytometry analysis suggested that the permeability of the IM and cortex of HPCD-treated spores was increased. Furthermore, the DPA of the HPCD-treated spores were released in parallel with their inactivation and the fluorescence photomicrographs showed that these treated spores were stained by propidium iodide, ensuring that the permeability of IM of spores was increased by HPCD. The scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs showed that spores were crushed into debris or exhibited a hollowness on the surface, and the transmission electron microscopy photomicrographs exhibited an enlarged core, ruptured and indistinguishable IM and a loss of core materials in the HPCD-treated spores, indicating that HPCD damaged the structures of the spores. These findings suggested that HPCD inactivated B. subtilis spores by directly damaging the structure of the spores, rather than inducing germination of the spores. PMID:27656175

  16. Analysis of the Loss in Heat and Acid Resistance during Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    A major event in the nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species is release of the spores' large depot of dipicolinic acid (DPA). This event is preceded by both commitment, in which spores continue through germination even if germinants are removed, and loss of spore heat resistance. The latter event is puzzling, since spore heat resistance is due largely to core water content, which does not change until DPA is released during germination. We now find that for spores of two Bacillus species, the early loss in heat resistance during germination is most likely due to release of committed spores' DPA at temperatures not lethal for dormant spores. Loss in spore acid resistance during germination also paralleled commitment and was also associated with the release of DPA from committed spores at acid concentrations not lethal for dormant spores. These observations plus previous findings that DPA release during germination is preceded by a significant release of spore core cations suggest that there is a significant change in spore inner membrane permeability at commitment. Presumably, this altered membrane cannot retain DPA during heat or acid treatments innocuous for dormant spores, resulting in DPA-less spores that are rapidly killed. PMID:24563034

  17. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  18. Hermes rescue strategies during launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cledassou, Rodelphe

    Safety and rescue strategies during the launch of Hermes space plane by Ariane 5 are discussed. Before solid booster separation, the pilots must be ejected by seats which are later recovered. After solid booster separation it becomes possible to extract the plane, which can perform a reentry leading to an available landing site or to sea recovery. When there is no useful landing site, the plane can be injected on a downgraded orbit.

  19. Atmosphere Explorer set for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer-D (Explorer-54) is described which will explore in detail an area of the earth's outer atmosphere where important energy transfer, atomic and molecular processes, and chemical reactions occur that are critical to the heat balance of the atmosphere. Data are presented on the mission facts, launch vehicle operations, AE-D/Delta flight events, spacecraft description, scientific instruments, tracking, and data acquisition.

  20. Minuteman 2 launched small satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Sunny; Hinders, Kriss; Martin, Trent; Mcmillian, Shandy; Sharp, Brad; Vajdos, Greg

    1994-01-01

    The goal of LEOSat Industries' Spring 1994 project was to design a small satellite that has a strong technology demonstration or scientific justification and incorporates a high level of student involvement. The satellite is to be launched into low earth orbit by the converted Minuteman 2 satellite launcher designed by Minotaur Designs, Inc. in 1993. The launch vehicle shroud was modified to a height of 90 inches, a diameter of 48 inches at the bottom and 35 inches at the top for a total volume of 85 cubic feet. The maximum allowable mass of the payload is about 1100 lb., depending on the launch site, orbit altitude, and inclination. The satellite designed by LEOSat Industries is TerraSat, a remote-sensing satellite that will provide information for use in space-based earth studies. It will consist of infrared and ultraviolet/visible sensors similar to the SDI-developed sensors being tested on Clementine. The sensors will be mounted on the Defense Systems, Inc. Standard Satellite-1 spacecraft bus. LEOSat has planned for two satellites orbiting the Earth with trajectories similar to that of LANDSAT 5. The semi-major axis is 7080 kilometers, the eccentricity is 0, and the inclination is 98.2 degrees. The estimated mass of TerraSat is 145 kilograms and the estimated volume is 1.8 cubic meters. The estimated cost of TerraSat is $13.7 million. The projected length of time from assembly of the sensors to launch of the spacecraft is 13 months.

  1. Large payload launch vehicles examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahney, J. H.

    1985-04-01

    Several Shuttle-derived vehicle (SDV) designs have been envisioned for near-term NASA and DOD heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) missions into the 21st century. Studies performed at the Marshall Center have included SRB-X, side mount and in-line boostered configurations, each an evolutive concept incorporating STS features to deliver 144,000-195,000 lb payloads into LEO or 10,000 lb into GEO. A three-stage multitank design sporting a cluster of eight 1.757 Mlb thrust engines on the first stage is emerging as a favored HLLV. The second stage would be lofted by four 481,000 lb thrust SSME derivative engines and the third stage would have two of the derivatives. All stages would be drogue-parachuted to water touchdown for reuse. The technology requiring the greatest advances to realize the design is a reusable, long-life liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon fueled booster. The 5-6 yr development span would require associated selections of launch sites and the construction of launch facilities which would not interfere with STS operations.

  2. Voice command weapons launching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, H. E.

    1984-09-01

    This abstract discloses a voice-controlled weapons launching system for use by a pilot of an aircraft against a plurality of simultaneously appearing (i.e., existing) targets, such as two or more aggressor aircraft (or tanks, or the like) attacking more aggressor aircraft. The system includes, in combination, a voice controlled input device linked to and controlling a computer; apparatus (such as a television camera, receiver, and display), linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot, for acquiring and displaying an image of the multi-target area; a laser, linked to and actuated by the computer by a voice command from the pilot to point to (and to lock on to) any one of the plurality of targets, with the laser emitting a beam toward the designated (i.e., selected) target; and a plurality of laser beam-rider missiles, with a different missile being launched toward and attacking each different designated target by riding the laser beam to that target. Unlike the prior art, the system allows the pilot to use his hands full-time to fly and to control the aircraft, while also permitting him to launch each different missile in rapid sequence by giving a two-word spoken command after he has visually selected each target of the plurality of targets, thereby making it possible for the pilot of a single defender aircraft to prevail against the plurality of simultaneously attacking aircraft, or tanks, or the like.

  3. High explosive compound

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Theodore C.

    1976-01-01

    1. A low detonation velocity explosive consisting essentially of a particulate mixture of ortho-boric acid and trinitrotoluene, said mixture containing from about 25 percent to about 65 percent by weight of ortho-boric acid, said ortho-boric acid comprised of from 60 percent to 90 percent of spherical particles having a mean particle size of about 275 microns and 10 percent to 40 percent of spherical particles having a particle size less than about 44 microns.

  4. Improvement of Biological Indicators by Uniformly Distributing Bacillus subtilis Spores in Monolayers To Evaluate Enhanced Spore Decontamination Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Raguse, Marina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Stapelmann, Katharina; Madela, Kazimierz; Laue, Michael; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Thwaite, Joanne E.; Setlow, Peter; Awakowicz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Novel decontamination technologies, including cold low-pressure plasma and blue light (400 nm), are promising alternatives to conventional surface decontamination methods. However, the standardization of the assessment of such sterilization processes remains to be accomplished. Bacterial endospores of the genera Bacillus and Geobacillus are frequently used as biological indicators (BIs) of sterility. Ensuring standardized and reproducible BIs for reliable testing procedures is a significant problem in industrial settings. In this study, an electrically driven spray deposition device was developed, allowing fast, reproducible, and homogeneous preparation of Bacillus subtilis 168 spore monolayers on glass surfaces. A detailed description of the structural design as well as the operating principle of the spraying device is given. The reproducible formation of spore monolayers of up to 5 × 107 spores per sample was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Surface inactivation studies revealed that monolayered spores were inactivated by UV-C (254 nm), low-pressure argon plasma (500 W, 10 Pa, 100 standard cubic cm per min), and blue light (400 nm) significantly faster than multilayered spores were. We have thus succeeded in the uniform preparation of reproducible, highly concentrated spore monolayers with the potential to generate BIs for a variety of nonpenetrating surface decontamination techniques. PMID:26801572

  5. Improvement of Biological Indicators by Uniformly Distributing Bacillus subtilis Spores in Monolayers To Evaluate Enhanced Spore Decontamination Technologies.

    PubMed

    Raguse, Marina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Stapelmann, Katharina; Madela, Kazimierz; Laue, Michael; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Thwaite, Joanne E; Setlow, Peter; Awakowicz, Peter; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Novel decontamination technologies, including cold low-pressure plasma and blue light (400 nm), are promising alternatives to conventional surface decontamination methods. However, the standardization of the assessment of such sterilization processes remains to be accomplished. Bacterial endospores of the genera Bacillus and Geobacillus are frequently used as biological indicators (BIs) of sterility. Ensuring standardized and reproducible BIs for reliable testing procedures is a significant problem in industrial settings. In this study, an electrically driven spray deposition device was developed, allowing fast, reproducible, and homogeneous preparation of Bacillus subtilis 168 spore monolayers on glass surfaces. A detailed description of the structural design as well as the operating principle of the spraying device is given. The reproducible formation of spore monolayers of up to 5 × 10(7) spores per sample was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Surface inactivation studies revealed that monolayered spores were inactivated by UV-C (254 nm), low-pressure argon plasma (500 W, 10 Pa, 100 standard cubic cm per min), and blue light (400 nm) significantly faster than multilayered spores were. We have thus succeeded in the uniform preparation of reproducible, highly concentrated spore monolayers with the potential to generate BIs for a variety of nonpenetrating surface decontamination techniques. PMID:26801572

  6. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  7. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  8. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Vikrant; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  9. Explosives signatures and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fountain, Augustus Way, III; Oyler, Jonathan M.; Ostazeski, Stanley A.

    2008-04-01

    The challenge of sampling explosive materials for various high threat military and civilian operational scenarios requires the community to identify and exploit other chemical compounds within the mixtures that may be available to support stand-off detection techniques. While limited surface and vapor phase characterization of IEDs exist, they are insufficient to guide the future development and evaluation of field deployable explosives detection (proximity and standoff) capabilities. ECBC has conducted a limited investigation of three artillery ammunition types to determine what chemical vapors, if any, are available for sensing; the relative composition of the vapors which includes the more volatile compounds in munitions, i.e., plastersizers and binders; and the sensitivity needed detect these vapors at stand-off. Also in partnership with MIT-Lincoln Laboratory, we performed a background measurement campaign at the National Training Center to determine the baseline ambient amounts and variability of nitrates and nitro-ester compounds as vapors, particulates, and on surfaces; as well as other chemical compounds related to non-energetic explosive additives. Environmental persistence studies in contexts relevant to counter-IED sensing operations, such as surface residues, are still necessary.

  10. Virulence Plasmids of Spore-Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vicki; Li, Jihong; Wisniewski, Jessica A; Uzal, Francisco A; Moore, Robert J; McClane, Bruce A; Rood, Julian I

    2014-12-01

    Plasmid-encoded virulence factors are important in the pathogenesis of diseases caused by spore-forming bacteria. Unlike many other bacteria, the most common virulence factors encoded by plasmids in Clostridium and Bacillus species are protein toxins. Clostridium perfringens causes several histotoxic and enterotoxin diseases in both humans and animals and produces a broad range of toxins, including many pore-forming toxins such as C. perfringens enterotoxin, epsilon-toxin, beta-toxin, and NetB. Genetic studies have led to the determination of the role of these toxins in disease pathogenesis. The genes for these toxins are generally carried on large conjugative plasmids that have common core replication, maintenance, and conjugation regions. There is considerable functional information available about the unique tcp conjugation locus carried by these plasmids, but less is known about plasmid maintenance. The latter is intriguing because many C. perfringens isolates stably maintain up to four different, but closely related, toxin plasmids. Toxin genes may also be plasmid-encoded in the neurotoxic clostridia. The tetanus toxin gene is located on a plasmid in Clostridium tetani, but the botulinum toxin genes may be chromosomal, plasmid-determined, or located on bacteriophages in Clostridium botulinum. In Bacillus anthracis it is well established that virulence is plasmid determined, with anthrax toxin genes located on pXO1 and capsule genes on a separate plasmid, pXO2. Orthologs of these plasmids are also found in other members of the Bacillus cereus group such as B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. In B. thuringiensis these plasmids may carry genes encoding one or more insecticidal toxins.

  11. NASA Crew Launch Vehicle Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The US. Vision for Space Exploration, announced January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. These include: 1) Flying the Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. Following the confirmation of the new NASA Administrator in April 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts from government and industry to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which provided in-depth information for selecting the follow-on launch vehicle designs to enable these goals, The ESAS team analyzed a number of potential launch systems, with a focus on: (1) a human-rated launch vehicle for crew transport and (2) a heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) to carry cargo. After several months of intense study utilizing technical performance, budget, and schedule objectives, the results showed that the optimum architecture to meet the challenge of safe, reliable crew transport is a two-stage variant of the Space Shuttle propulsion system - utilizing the reusable Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as the first stage, along with a new upper stage that uses a derivative of the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine to deliver 25 metric tons to low-Earth orbit. The CEV that this new Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space

  12. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  13. An Air-Launched Low-Cost Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Gary C.

    2005-02-01

    The QuickReach concept is a responsive, mobile, air-launched, two-stage liquid pressure-fed rocket that is capable of placing nearly 2,000 pounds into low earth orbit. The rocket is extracted from a transport aircraft using gravity and a small drogue parachute for orientation stabilization. The design of the container holding the rocket allows the use of existing transport aircraft without any modification. Propulsion is LOX and propane using the Vapak concept for tank pressurization. Structures make use of advanced composites.

  14. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control. PMID:16673791

  15. Thermal inactivation and injury of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    PubMed Central

    Feeherry, F E; Munsey, D T; Rowley, D B

    1987-01-01

    Aqueous spore suspensions of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 were heated at different temperatures for various time intervals in a resistometer, spread plated on antibiotic assay medium supplemented with 0.1% soluble starch without (AAMS) or with (AAMS-S) 0.9% NaCl, and incubated at 55 degrees C unless otherwise indicated. Uninjured spores formed colonies on AAMS and AAMS-S; injured spores formed colonies only on AAMS. Values of D, the decimal reduction time (time required at a given temperature for destruction of 90% of the cells), when survivors were recovered on AAMS were 62.04, 18.00, 8.00, 3.33, and 1.05 min at 112.8, 115.6, 118.3, 121.1, and 123.9 degrees C, respectively. Recovery on AAMS-S resulted in reduced decimal reduction time. The computed z value (the temperature change which will alter the D value by a factor of 10) for spores recovered on AAMS was 8.3 degrees C; for spores recovered on AAMS-S, it was 7.6 degrees C. The rates of inactivation and injury were similar. Injury (judged by salt sensitivity) was a linear function of the heating temperature. At a heating temperature of less than or equal to 118.3 degrees C, spore injury was indicated by the curvilinear portion of the survival curve (judged by salt sensitivity), showing that injury occurred early in the thermal treatment as well as during logarithmic inactivation (reduced decimal reduction time). Heat-injured spores showed an increased sensitivity not only to 0.9% NaCl but also to other postprocessing environmental factors such as incubation temperatures, a pH of 6.6 for the medium, and anaerobiosis during incubation. PMID:3566270

  16. Effectivity of atmospheric electricity on launch availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Thunderstorm days at KSC; percentage of frequency of thunderstorms (1957-1989); effect of lightning advisory on ground operations; Shuttle launch history; Shuttle launch weather history; applied meteorology unit; and goals/operational benefits. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  17. Expedition 30 Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 19, the Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft and its booster were moved to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for final preparations before launch to the International Space Statio...

  18. Delta launch vehicle inertial guidance system (DIGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, K. I.

    1973-01-01

    The Delta inertial guidance system, part of the Delta launch vehicle improvement effort, has been flown on three launches and was found to perform as expected for a variety of mission profiles and vehicle configurations.

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: Powering Forward

    NASA Video Gallery

    One year ago, NASA announced a new capability for America's space program: a heavy-lift rocket to launch humans farther into space than ever before. See how far the Space Launch System has come in ...

  20. Expression of Meiotic Drive Elements Spore Killer-2 and Spore Killer-3 in Asci of Neurospora Tetrasperma

    PubMed Central

    Raju, N. B.; Perkins, D. D.

    1991-01-01

    It was shown previously that when a chromosomal Spore killer factor is heterozygous in Neurospora species with eight-spored asci, the four sensitive ascospores in each ascus die and the four survivors are all killers. Sk-2(K) and Sk-3(K) are nonrecombining haplotypes that segregate with the centromere of linkage group III. No killing occurs when either one of these killers is homozygous, but each is sensitive to killing by the other in crosses of Sk-2(K) X Sk-3(K). In the present study, Sk-2(K) and Sk-3(K) were transferred by recurrent backcrosses from the eight-spored species Neurospora crassa into Neurospora tetrasperma, a pseudohomothallic species which normally makes asci with four large spores, each heterokaryotic for mating type and for any other centromere-linked genes that are heterozygous in the cross. The action of Sk-2(K) and Sk-3(K) in N. tetrasperma is that predicted from their behavior in eight-spored species. A sensitive nucleus is protected from killing if it is enclosed in the same ascospore with a killer nucleus. Crosses of Sk-2(K) X Sk-2(S), Sk-3(K) X Sk-3(S), and Sk-2(K) X Sk-3(K) all produce four-spored asci that are wild type in appearance, with the ascospores heterokaryotic and viable. The Eight-spore gene E, which shows variable penetrance, was used to obtain N. tetrasperma asci in which two to eight spores are small and homokaryotic. When killer and sensitive alleles are segregating in the presence of E, only those ascospores that contain a killer allele survive. Half of the small ascospores are killed. In crosses of Sk-2(K) X Sk-3(K) (with E heterozygous), effectively all small ascospores are killed. The ability of N. tetrasperma to carry killer elements in cryptic condition suggests a possible role for Spore killers in the origin of pseudohomothallism, with adoption of the four-spored mode restoring ascospore viability of crosses in which killing would otherwise occur. PMID:1834522