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Sample records for explosives

  1. Explosives tester

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S [San Ramon, CA; Howard, Douglas E [Livermore, CA; Eckels, Joel D [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  2. Accidental explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Medard, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of accidental explosions, their nature and their causes. It covers the physical and chemical conditions governing accidental explosions, whether in the gas phase, or in the liquid or solid state. The theoretical background of the kinetics and thermochemistry of explosions is outlined, followed by a detailed study of the explosion and detonation properties of both gas and condensed explosives. The author surveys a wide variety of substances in daily use in industry which can give rise to accidental explosions. Their properties and hazards are spelt out in detail, the discussion drawing on a long history of sometimes catastrophic accidents. Includes case studies, tables of physical and chemical data.

  3. Insensitive explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

  4. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  5. An Orientation to Explosive Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Betty W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of various types of explosives. Classifies and describes explosives as initiating or primary explosives, low explosives, and high (secondary explosives). Discusses detonating devices, domestic explosive systems, the sensitivity of explosives, explosive reactions, and emergency responses. (TW)

  6. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.

    1996-04-09

    A complex modulated structure is described for reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures. 2 figs.

  7. Nanoengineered explosives

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    1996-01-01

    A complex modulated structure of reactive elements that have the capability of considerably more heat than organic explosives while generating a working fluid or gas. The explosive and method of fabricating same involves a plurality of very thin, stacked, multilayer structures, each composed of reactive components, such as aluminum, separated from a less reactive element, such as copper oxide, by a separator material, such as carbon. The separator material not only separates the reactive materials, but it reacts therewith when detonated to generate higher temperatures. The various layers of material, thickness of 10 to 10,000 angstroms, can be deposited by magnetron sputter deposition. The explosive detonates and combusts a high velocity generating a gas, such as CO, and high temperatures.

  8. Explosive laser

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Davis, W.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to a laser system wherein reaction products from the detonation of a condensed explosive expand to form a gaseous medium with low translational temperature but high vibration population. Thermal pumping of the upper laser level and de-excitation of the lower laser level occur during the expansion, resulting in a population inversion. The expansion may be free or through a nozzle as in a gas-dynamic configuration. In one preferred embodiment, the explosive is such that its reaction products are CO$sub 2$ and other species that are beneficial or at least benign to CO$sub 2$ lasing. (auth)

  9. Niche explosion.

    PubMed

    Normark, Benjamin B; Johnson, Norman A

    2011-05-01

    The following syndrome of features occurs in several groups of phytophagous insects: (1) wingless females, (2) dispersal by larvae, (3) woody hosts, (4) extreme polyphagy, (5) high abundance, resulting in status as economic pests, (6) invasiveness, and (7) obligate parthenogenesis in some populations. If extreme polyphagy is defined as feeding on 20 or more families of hostplants, this syndrome is found convergently in several species of bagworm moths, tussock moths, root weevils, and 5 families of scale insects. We hypothesize that extreme polyphagy in these taxa results from "niche explosion", a positive feedback loop connecting large population size to broad host range. The niche explosion has a demographic component (sometimes called the "amplification effect" in studies of pathogens) as well as a population-genetic component, due mainly to the increased effectiveness of natural selection in larger populations. The frequent origins of parthenogenesis in extreme polyphages are, in our interpretation, a consequence of this increased effectiveness of natural selection and consequent reduced importance of sexuality. The niche explosion hypothesis makes detailed predictions about the comparative genomics and population genetics of extreme polyphages and related specialists. It has a number of potentially important implications, including an explanation for the lack of observed trade-offs between generalists and specialists, a re-interpretation of the ecological correlates of parthenogenesis, and a general expectation that Malthusian population explosions may be amplified by Darwinian effects.

  10. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-09-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  11. Explosive complexes

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  12. Demonstration Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles "Skip"

    1998-05-01

    Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

  13. Explosive Joining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Laurence J. Bement of Langley Research Center invented a technique to permit metal joining operations under hazardous or inaccessible conditions. The process, which provides a joint with double the strength of the parent metal, involves the use of very small quantities of ribbon explosive to create hermetically sealed joints. When the metal plates are slammed together by the explosion's force, joining is accomplished. The collision causes a skin deep melt and ejection of oxide films on the surfaces, allowing a linkup of electrons that produce superstrong, uniform joints. The technique can be used to join metals that otherwise would not join and offers advantages over mechanical fasteners and adhesives. With Langley assistance, Demex International Ltd. refined and commercialized the technology. Applications include plugging leaking tubes in feedwater heaters. Demex produces the small plugs, associated sleeves and detonators. The technology allows faster plugging, reduces downtime, cuts plugging costs and increases reliability.

  14. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOEpatents

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  15. Explosives Safety Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-13

    Safety Awareness in NATO and Multi- National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” *under development Distance Learning/ Instructor-Led Training...and Multi- National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” Ammo-18 (Basics of Naval Explosives Hazard Control) Ammo-29 (Electrical Explosives...National Operations *Explosives Safety “ Rosetta Stone ” Ammo-47 (Lightning Protection for Air Force Facilities) *Explosives Safety Awareness in NATO and

  16. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  17. Chromospheric explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h; theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric h

    1986-01-01

    Three issues relative to chromospheric explosions were debated. (1) Resolved: The blue-shifted components of x-ray spectral lines are signatures of chromospheric evaporation. It was concluded that the plasma rising with the corona is indeed the primary source of thermal plasma observed in the corona during flares. (2) Resolved: The excess line broading of UV and X-ray lines is accounted for by a convective velocity distribution in evaporation. It is concluded that the hypothesis that convective evaporation produces the observed X-ray line widths in flares is no more than a hypothesis. It is not supported by any self-consistent physical theory. (3) Resolved: Most chromospheric heating is driven by electron beams. Although it is possible to cast doubt on many lines of evidence for electron beams in the chromosphere, a balanced view that debaters on both sides of the question might agree to is that electron beams probably heat the low corona and upper chromosphere, but their direct impact on evaporating the chromosphere is energetically unimportant when compared to conduction. This represents a major departure from the thick-target flare models that were popular before the Workshop.

  18. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  19. Bioremediation of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Kitts, C.L.; Alvarez, M.A.; Hanners, J.L.; Ogden, K.L.; Vanderberg-Twary, L.; Unkefer, P.J.

    1995-09-01

    Manufacture and use of high explosives has resulted in contamination of ground water and soils throughout the world. The use of biological methods for remediation of high explosives contamination has received considerable attention in recent years. Biodegradation is most easily studied using organisms in liquid cultures. Thus, the amount of explosive that can be degraded in liquid culture is quite small. However, these experiments are useful for gathering basic information about the biochemical pathways of biodegradation, identifying appropriate organisms and obtaining rates of degradation. The authors` laboratory has investigated all three major areas of explosives bioremediation: explosives in solution, explosives in soil, and the disposal of bulk explosives from demilitarization operations. They investigated the three explosives most commonly used in modern high explosive formulations: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX).

  20. Trends in explosive contamination.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Jimmie C; Smith, James L; Resende, Elmo; Pearce, Evan; Chamberlain, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    This study sought to assign a rough order of magnitude for the amount of explosive residue likely to be available in real-world searches for clandestine explosives. A variety of explosives (TNT, TATP, HMX, AN, RDX, PETN) in various forms (powder, flake, detonating cord, plastic) were carefully weighed or cut into containers, and the amount of residue inadvertently remaining on the work area, hands, or containers was quantified. This was used to evaluate the spillage potential of each explosive. The adhesion of each explosive to a glass surface was quantified from amount of explosive adhering to the inside of a glass vial into which the explosive had been placed and then removed by vigorous tapping. In powdered form, most of the explosives--TNT, PETN, RDX, HMX, and TATP--exhibited similar spillage and adhesion to glass. However, PETN as sheet explosive and plasticized RDX (C-4), showed very little potential to contaminate surfaces, either by spillage or adhesion to glass.

  1. Totally confined explosive welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The undesirable by-products of explosive welding are confined and the association noise is reduced by the use of a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and in which the explosion occurs. An infrangible enclosure is removably attached to one of the members to be bonded at the point directly opposite the bond area. An explosive is completely confined within the enclosure at a point in close proximity to the member to be bonded and a detonating means is attached to the explosive. The balance of the enclosure, not occupied by explosive, is filled with a shaped material which directs the explosive pressure toward the bond area. A detonator adaptor controls the expansion of the enclosure by the explosive force so that the enclosure at no point experiences a discontinuity in expansion which causes rupture. The use of the technique is practical in the restricted area of a space station.

  2. Cell phone explosion.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging.

  3. Explosive Line Wave Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    curvature produced by each line wave generator. Piezoelectric pins were used for an additional assessment of the explosive lens design...to a visual assessment of the wave curvature from the high speed camera images, the explosive lens design was also evaluated using piezoelectric pins...High Explosive Firing Complex (HEFC). The various explosive line wave generators were taped vertically on a supporting board and the detonation wave

  4. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  5. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  6. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  7. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOEpatents

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  8. 75 FR 5545 - Explosives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... for classifying, labeling, and providing safety data sheets for explosives. By withdrawing this.... OSHA-S031-2006-0665 and OSHA-S-031)] RIN 1218-AC09 Explosives AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health... the rulemaking to amend its Explosives and Blasting Agents Standard at 29 CFR 1910.109. OSHA is...

  9. New Mix Explosives for Explosive Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreevskikh, Leonid

    2011-06-01

    Suggested and tested were some mix explosives--powder mixtures of a brisant high explosive (HE = RDX, PETN) and an inert diluent (baking soda)--for use in explosive welding. RDX and PETN were selected in view of their high throwing ability and low critical diameter. Since the decomposition of baking soda yields a huge amount of gaseous products, its presence ensures (even at a low HE percentage) a throwing speed that is sufficient for realization of explosive welding, at a reduced brisant action of charge. Mix chargers containing 30-70 wt % HE (the rest baking soda) have been tested experimentally and optimized. For study of possibility to reduce critical diameter of HE mixture, the mixture was prepared where HE crystal sizes did not exceed 10 μm. The tests, which were performed with this HE, revealed that the mixture detonated stably with the velocity D ~ 2 km/s, if the layer thickness was d = 2 mm. The above explosives afford to markedly diminish deformations within the oblique impact zone and thus to carry out explosive welding of hollow items and thin metallic foils.

  10. 78 FR 64246 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosives Materials... of list of explosives materials. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 841(d) and 27 CFR 555.23, the... blasting agents and detonators, all of which are defined as explosive materials in 18 U.S.C. 841(c). The...

  11. Free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  12. Explosive Generation of Chaff

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    aluminium coated glass fibre . v. 6. Example of birdnesting of stainless steel wire By 7. Distribution of dipoles from static firing Av’t 1...manner and filled with explosive. The explosive used in most cases was PE4 but in some experiments a polymer bonded explosive containing 88% RDX was used...experiments other than those mentioned in Section 2.1 designed solely to assess cutter p!rformanceo thu dipole material was wound onto a spool of fibre

  13. Explosives tester with heater

    DOEpatents

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  14. Photoacoustic Sensing of Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    the ultrasonic frequency band, well above human hearing. This work is sponsored by the Department of Defense under U.S. Air Force contract, FA8721-05...discrimination—distinguishing between explosives and diverse background materials. PHASE’s noncontact standoff explosives-sensing system achieves

  15. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  16. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  17. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  18. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  19. Gunshot and Explosion Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Peleg, Kobi; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Stein, Michael; Michaelson, Moshe; Kluger, Yoram; Simon, Daniel; Noji, Eric K.

    2004-01-01

    Context: An increase of terror-related activities may necessitate treatment of mass casualty incidents, requiring a broadening of existing skills and knowledge of various injury mechanisms. Objective: To characterize and compare injuries from gunshot and explosion caused by terrorist acts. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry (ITR), all due to terror-related injuries, between October 1, 2000, to June 30, 2002. The ITR records all casualty admissions to hospitals, in-hospital deaths, and transfers at 9 of the 23 trauma centers in Israel. All 6 level I trauma centers and 3 of the largest regional trauma centers in the country are included. The registry includes the majority of severe terror-related injuries. Injury diagnoses, severity scores, hospital resource utilization parameters, length of stay (LOS), survival, and disposition. Results: A total of 1155 terror-related injuries: 54% by explosion, 36% gunshot wounds (GSW), and 10% by other means. This paper focused on the 2 larger patient subsets: 1033 patients injured by terror-related explosion or GSW. Seventy-one percent of the patients were male, 84% in the GSW group and 63% in the explosion group. More than half (53%) of the patients were 15 to 29 years old, 59% in the GSW group and 48% in the explosion group. GSW patients suffered higher proportions of open wounds (63% versus 53%) and fractures (42% versus 31%). Multiple body-regions injured in a single patient occurred in 62% of explosion victims versus 47% in GSW patients. GSW patients had double the proportion of moderate injuries than explosion victims. Explosion victims have a larger proportion of minor injuries on one hand and critical to fatal injuries on the other. LOS was longer than 2 weeks for 20% (22% in explosion, 18% in GSW). Fifty-one percent of the patients underwent a surgical procedure, 58% in the GSW group and 46% in explosion group. Inpatient death rate was 6.3% (65 patients), 7

  20. 77 FR 58410 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2012R-10T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... Ammonal. Ammonium nitrate explosive mixtures (cap sensitive). * Ammonium nitrate explosive mixtures (non.... * Blasting agents, nitro-carbo-nitrates, including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives... Calcium nitrate explosive mixture. Cellulose hexanitrate explosive mixture. Chlorate explosive...

  1. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  2. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  3. Polymeric binder for explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissell, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical reaction for producing a polymer which can be mixed with explosives to produce a rigid material is discussed. Physical and chemical properties of polymers are described and chemical structure of the polymer is illustrated.

  4. Saturn's Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation based on data obtained by NASA's Cassini Spacecraft shows how the "explosions" of hot plasma on the night side (orange and white) periodically inflate Saturn's magnetic field (white ...

  5. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2016-07-12

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  6. Modeling nuclear explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    As a result of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, no nuclear explosion tests have been performed by the US since 1992. This appreciably limits valuable experimental data needed for improvement of existing weapons and development of new ones, as well as for use of nuclear devices in non-military applications (such as making underground oil reservoirs or compressed air energy storages). This in turn increases the value of numerical modeling of nuclear explosions and of their effects on the environment. We develop numerical codes simulating fission chain reactions in a supercritical U and Pu core and the dynamics of the subsequent expansion of generated hot plasma in order to better understand the impact of such explosions on their surroundings. The results of our simulations (of both above ground and underground explosions) of various energy yields are presented.

  7. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  8. Explosion suppression system

    DOEpatents

    Sapko, Michael J.; Cortese, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  9. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  10. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  11. Saturn Hot Plasma Explosions

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-14

    This frame from an animation based on data obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows how the explosions of hot plasma on the night side orange and white periodically inflate Saturn magnetic field white lines.

  12. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  13. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  14. Overview of Explosive Initiators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    Primary explosive Initiator Detonator Primer Blasting cap Lead azide Lead styphnate 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Conclusions 13 References 15 Distribution List 17 FIGURES 1 Decomposition reaction of lead azide in the presence of carbon dioxide and water (ref...the world, currently the most popular are lead azide (Pb(N3)2) and lead styphnate (both normal and basic forms) and tetrazene. With its high explosive

  15. Modeling of interior explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Y. V.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulation of an interior explosion are presented. The main purpose of the work is an investigation of shock-wave structure caused by explosion and estimation of pressure level on building walls. The numerical simulation was carried out by means of ANSYS AUTODYN software at normal atmospheric conditions with different mass of charge and internal geometry of room. The effect of mass charge and presence of vent area were shown. The calculation results are compared with published experimental data.

  16. Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    to traditional blast explosives. Traditional Chapman - Jouguet detonation theory does not explain the observed detonation states achieved by these...aluminum Hugoniot for a given explosive and does not represent traditional Chapman - Jouguet sonic conditions. It appears that with small aluminum particles...the never achieved 100% aluminum reaction Chapman - Jouguet (C-J) point for which the calculated detonation velocity is 8.21 km/s: P = 358 kbar and T

  17. Explosions from stellar collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.

    The collapse of a massive star releases a considerable amount of gravitational potential energy. This energy is believed to be the power source of some of the largest explosions in the universe: supernovae, hypernovae, gamma-ray bursts. In this proceedings, we review the mechanisms by which the potential energy from stellar collapse can be tapped to produce these strong explosions, emphasizing how our understanding of massive stars can help constrain these mechanisms.

  18. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  19. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  20. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  1. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  2. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  3. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  4. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  5. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Albin K.; Rychnovsky, Raymond E.; Visbeck, Cornelius N.

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  6. Explosively separable casing

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, A.K.; Rychnovsky, R.E.; Visbeck, C.N.

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a picket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  7. Explosion containment device

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  8. Electromagnetic Field Effects in Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H.; Lee, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

  9. Novel high explosive compositions

    DOEpatents

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  10. A real explosion: the requirement of steam explosion pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengdao; Zhang, Bailiang; Yu, Fuqiang; Xu, Guizhuan; Song, Andong

    2012-10-01

    The severity factor is a common term used in steam explosion (SE) pretreatment that describes the combined effects of the temperature and duration of the pretreatment. However, it ignores the duration of the explosion process. This paper describes a new parameter, the explosion power density (EPD), which is independent of the severity factor. Furthermore, we present the adoption of a 5m(3) SE model for a catapult explosion mode, which completes the explosion within 0.0875 s. The explosion duration ratio of this model to a conventional model of the same volume is 1:123. The comparison between the two modes revealed a qualitative change by explosion speed, demonstrating that this real explosion satisfied the two requirements of consistency, and suggested a guiding mechanism for the design of SE devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  12. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  13. Electric explosion nickel nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partizan, G.; Mansurov, B. Z.; Medyanova, B. S.; Koshanova, A. B.; Aliev, B. A.

    2016-11-01

    The structure and the morphology of the nickel nanopowders synthesized by an electric explosion of a metallic wire are comprehensively studied. The results of scanning and transmission electron microscopies show that the nickel nanoclusters have a spherical shape with an average diameter of 50 nm. An analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrates that the lattice parameter of the electric explosion nanopowder particles is larger than the standard parameter. The results of computer experiments agree well with the conclusions drawn from X-ray diffraction data. However, the causes of the lattice distortion in the nickel nanoclusters are still debatable.

  14. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  15. Explosive MHD Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, E. F.; Ostashev, V. E.; Fortov, V. E.

    2004-11-01

    Explosive driven MHD generators (EMHD) occupy an intermediate position between destroyed Explosive Flux Compression Generators and solid-propellant- pulsed MHD generators. Studies revealed the negative consequences of destroying a plasma liner through Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The real efficiency of conversion of condensed HE charge chemical energy reaches ~10% if the magnetic field in a MHD channel is approximately 8-10 T. Accommodation of 20-30 linear MHD channels into a toroidal magnet seems to be optimal for EMHD generator design. This device may operate repeatedly with a frequency of up to 6.5×103pps.

  16. Fire safety. Explosion safety - Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratov, Anatolii Nikolaevich

    The physicochemical principles underlying combustion and explosion processes are examined, and the main fire and explosion safety characteristics of materials are reviewed with particular reference to the ignition limits of combustible mixtures, the minimal oxygen content that constitutes an explosion hazard, and the flash point and ignition temperatures. Fire-fighting and explosion suppression methods and equipment are described. The discussion also covers the efficiency of fire prevention measures and safety engineering in fire fighting.

  17. Underwater Explosion Test Cases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    target loading, which primarily occurs as a consequence of the initial shock and subsequent bubble collapse. These damage mechanisms occur on time scales...17 2.24. Bubble Radius as a Function of Time ...................................................... 17 2.25...model problems to three-dimensional (3-D) explosion bubble simulations. This document describes each test case, defines the meshes on which it will

  18. Explosive inventory program

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.A.; Taylor, R.S.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the computer program used at the Tonopah Test Range to maintain the explosive inventory. The program, which uses dBASE III or dBASE III Plus and runs on an IBM PC or compatible, has the capabilities to update (add or subtract) items, edit or delete, append, and generate various reports.

  19. The Information Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    Three facets of the media--events, myths, and sales pitches--constitute the most important lines of force taken by the information bombardment which all of us encounter and are influenced by every day. The focus of this book is on the changes created and hastened by this information explosion of the media bombardment: how we can live with them,…

  20. Defusing the Cambrian 'explosion'?

    PubMed

    Morris, S C

    1997-02-01

    A recent molecular phylogenetic study argues against the orthodox view that metazoan phyla emerged abruptly during the Cambrian 'explosion', pointing instead to a protracted history for metazoans that arguably stretches back a billion years or more; the fossils, however, seem to tell a different story.

  1. The combustion of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S. F.

    2001-01-01

    The safe use of energetic materials has been scientifically studied for over 100 years. Even with this long history of scientific inquiry, the level of understanding of the important deflagration phenomena in accidental initiations of high explosives remains inadequate to predict the response to possible thermal and mechanical (impact) scenarios. The! search also continues for more well behaved explosives and propellants that perform well, yet are insensitive. Once ignition occurs in an explosive, the question then becomes what the resulting violence will be. The classical view is that simple wave propagation proceeds from the ignition point. Recently, several experiments have elucidated the importance of reactive cracks involved in reaction violence in both thermally ignited experiments and impacted explosives, in contrast to classical assumptions, This work presents a viiw of reaction violence, in both thermal and mechanical insults, that argues for the importance of reactive cracks, rather than simple wave propagation processes. Recent work in this area will be reviewed and presented. Initial results involving novel energetic materials will also be discussed.

  2. Managing the data explosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, Richard P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.

    1993-01-01

    The 'data explosion' brought on by electronic sensors and automatic samplers can strain the capabilities of existing water-quality data-management systems just when they're needed most to process the information. The U.S. Geological Survey has responded to the problem by setting up an innovative system that allows rapid data analysis.

  3. Ecotoxicology of Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Giffen, Neil R; Morrill, Valerie; Jenkins, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    Managing sites contaminated with munitions constituents is an international challenge. Although the choice of approach and the use of Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) tools may vary from country to country, the assurance of quality and the direction of ecotoxicological research are universally recognized as shared concerns. Drawing on a multidisciplinary team of contributors, 'Ecotoxicology of Explosives' provides comprehensive and critical reviews available to date on fate, transport, and effects of explosives. The book delineates the state of the science of the ecotoxicology of explosives, past, present, and recently developed. It reviews the accessible fate and ecotoxicological data for energetic materials (EMs) and the methods for their development. The chapters characterize the fate of explosives in the environment, then provide information on their ecological effects in key environmental media, including aquatic, sedimentary, and terrestrial habitats. The book also discusses approaches for assembling these lines of evidence for risk assessment purposes. The chapter authors have critically examined the peer-reviewed literature to identify and prioritize the knowledge gaps and to recommend future areas of research. The editors include a review of the genotoxic effects of the EMs and the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of these chemicals. They also discuss the transport, transformation, and degradation pathways of these chemicals in the environment that underlie the potential hazardous impact and bioaccumulation of EMs in different terrestrial and aquatic ecological receptors. This information translates into practical applications for the environmental risk assessment of EM-contaminated sites and into recommendations for the sustainable use of defense installations.

  4. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  5. New explosive seam welding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Recently developed techniques provide totally-confined linear explosive seam welding and produce scarf joint with linear explosive seam welding. Linear ribbon explosives are utilized in making narrow, continuous, airtight joints in variety of aluminum alloys, titanium, copper, brass, and stainless steel.

  6. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  7. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  8. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  9. Explosive detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doremus, Steven; Crownover, Robin

    2017-05-01

    The continuing proliferation of improvised explosive devices is an omnipresent threat to civilians and members of military and law enforcement around the world. The ability to accurately and quickly detect explosive materials from a distance would be an extremely valuable tool for mitigating the risk posed by these devices. A variety of techniques exist that are capable of accurately identifying explosive compounds, but an effective standoff technique is still yet to be realized. Most of the methods being investigated to fill this gap in capabilities are laser based. Raman spectroscopy is one such technique that has been demonstrated to be effective at a distance. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) is a technique capable of identifying chemical compounds inside of containers, which could be used to detect hidden explosive devices. Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) utilized a coherent pair of lasers to excite a sample, greatly increasing the response of sample while decreasing the strength of the lasers being used, which significantly improves the eye safety issue that typically hinders laser-based detection methods. Time-gating techniques are also being developed to improve the data collection from Raman techniques, which are often hindered fluorescence of the test sample in addition to atmospheric, substrate, and contaminant responses. Ultraviolet based techniques have also shown significant promise by greatly improved signal strength from excitation of resonance in many explosive compounds. Raman spectroscopy, which identifies compounds based on their molecular response, can be coupled with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) capable of characterizing the sample's atomic composition using a single laser.

  10. Explosive bulk charge

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  11. Explosion of Leidenfrost Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, Florian; Colinet, Pierre; Dorbolo, Stephane

    2012-11-01

    When a drop is released on a plate heated above a given temperature, a thin layer of vapour can isolate the droplet so that it levitates over the plate. This effect was first reported by Leidenfrost in 1756. However, this fascinating subject remains an active field of research in both fundamental and applied researches. In this work, we focus on what happens when surfactant is added to the drop. The aim is to study the influence of a decrease of the surface tension. Surprisingly, as the droplet evaporates, suddenly it explodes. The evolution of the droplet and the resulting explosion are followed using a high speed camera. We show that when a critical concentration of surfactant is reached inside the drop, a shell of surfactant is formed leading to the explosion. The authors would like to thank FNRS for financial support. This work is financially supported by ODILE project (Contract No. FRFC 2.4623.11).

  12. Conventional Weapons Underwater Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Bubble and a Solid Submerged Body, TRACOR Hydronautics Technical Report 86029-1 (1988). 26. Solomon, J., Szymczak , W., and Berger, A., private...FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Explosions, underwater, bubbles , detonatiohs, metal combustion, combustion 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and...detonations, bubble dynamics, bubble -water interface phencmena an~d metal combustion behavior, It was concluded that there are many potertial researCh areas

  13. Distributed Explosive Performance Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    18 Analytic Code ( DEPAC ). DEPAC is a restructured and an upgraded one-stop code of the previous version of the Linear Explosive Array Performance...findings1. 3. Developed the initial version of DEPAC (LEAP and LAM) 3. 4. Released three Technical Results (TRs). 5. Established the methodology for quick...the input files for each run for CTH, process the data generated by CTH, and create the input database files for DEPAC . The line charge is composed of

  14. Test of Explosive Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Hexamethylolbenzenehexanitrate Tetra-B-nitroxylethyl ammonium nitrate Hexanitrosobenzene It should be recalled that mercury fulminate was eliminated and...Lead azide Poor - Poor Lead azide Poor PETN - More sensitive than mercury fulminate - Mercury fulminate or worse Poor Lead azide - Mercury ...the purpose of comparison, there are included in this table the results of the same tests of the explosives TNT, RDX, PETN, lead azide, and mercury

  15. High explosive compound

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Theodore C.

    1976-01-01

    1. A low detonation velocity explosive consisting essentially of a particulate mixture of ortho-boric acid and trinitrotoluene, said mixture containing from about 25 percent to about 65 percent by weight of ortho-boric acid, said ortho-boric acid comprised of from 60 percent to 90 percent of spherical particles having a mean particle size of about 275 microns and 10 percent to 40 percent of spherical particles having a particle size less than about 44 microns.

  16. Superenantioselective chiral surface explosions.

    PubMed

    Gellman, Andrew J; Huang, Ye; Feng, Xu; Pushkarev, Vladimir V; Holsclaw, Brian; Mhatre, Bharat S

    2013-12-26

    Chiral inorganic materials predated life on Earth, and their enantiospecific surface chemistry may have played a role in the origins of biomolecular homochirality. However, enantiospecific differences in the interaction energies of chiral molecules with chiral surfaces are small and typically lead to modest enantioselectivities in adsorption, catalysis, and chemistry on chiral surfaces. To yield high enantioselectivities, small energy differences must be amplified by reaction mechanisms such as autocatalytic surface explosions which have nonlinear kinetics. Herein, we report the first observations of superenantiospecificity resulting from an autocatalytic surface explosion reaction of a chiral molecule on a naturally chiral surface. R,R- and S,S-tartaric acid decompose via a vacancy-mediated surface explosion mechanism on Cu single crystal surfaces. When coupled with surface chirality, this leads to decomposition rates that exhibit extraordinarily high enantiospecificity. On the enantiomorphs of naturally chiral Cu(643)(R&S), Cu(17,5,1)(R&S), Cu(531)(R&S) and Cu(651)(R&S) single crystal surfaces, R,R- and S,S-tartaric acid exhibit enantiospecific decomposition rates that differ by as much as 2 orders of magnitude, despite the fact that the effective rates constants for decomposition differ by less than a factor of 2.

  17. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  18. Powdery Emulsion Explosive: A New Excellent Industrial Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Ouqi; Zhang, Kaiming; Yu, Zhengquan; Tang, Shujuan

    2012-07-01

    Powdery emulsion explosive (PEE), a new powdery industrial explosive with perfect properties, has been made using an emulsification-spray drying technique. PEE is composed of 91-92.5 wt% ammonium nitrate (AN), 4.5-6 wt% organic fuels, and 1.5-1.8 wt% water. Due to its microstructure as a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion and low water content, it has excellent detonation performance, outstanding water resistance, reliable safety, and good application compared with other industrial explosives, such as ammonite, emulsion explosives, and ANFO.

  19. 75 FR 70291 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2010R-27T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    .... Ammonal. Ammonium nitrate explosive mixtures (cap sensitive). * Ammonium nitrate explosive mixtures (non... mixtures. *Blasting agents, nitro-carbo-nitrates, including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel... tetryl. C Calcium nitrate explosive mixture. Cellulose hexanitrate explosive mixture. Chlorate...

  20. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  1. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  2. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  3. Gasdynamics of explosions today.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brode, H. L.; Glass, I. I.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1971-01-01

    A brief review is given of blast and detonation wave phenomena and some of their uses in war and peace. It is concluded that great strides have been made over the last three decades toward the physical understanding, the analytical-numerical solution, and the measurement of dynamic and thermodynamic quantities, also taking into consideration severe environments and extremely short durations. Questions of internal ballistics are discussed together with hypervelocity launchers and shock tubes, collapsing cylindrical drivers, spherical implosions, explosive weapons, dynamic response, and equation of state data.

  4. Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.

    PubMed

    Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

    2013-06-21

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

  5. Controlled by Distant Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    VLT Automatically Takes Detailed Spectra of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows Only Minutes After Discovery A time-series of high-resolution spectra in the optical and ultraviolet has twice been obtained just a few minutes after the detection of a gamma-ray bust explosion in a distant galaxy. The international team of astronomers responsible for these observations derived new conclusive evidence about the nature of the surroundings of these powerful explosions linked to the death of massive stars. At 11:08 pm on 17 April 2006, an alarm rang in the Control Room of ESO's Very Large Telescope on Paranal, Chile. Fortunately, it did not announce any catastrophe on the mountain, nor with one of the world's largest telescopes. Instead, it signalled the doom of a massive star, 9.3 billion light-years away, whose final scream of agony - a powerful burst of gamma rays - had been recorded by the Swift satellite only two minutes earlier. The alarm was triggered by the activation of the VLT Rapid Response Mode, a novel system that allows for robotic observations without any human intervention, except for the alignment of the spectrograph slit. ESO PR Photo 17a/07 ESO PR Photo 17a/07 Triggered by an Explosion Starting less than 10 minutes after the Swift detection, a series of spectra of increasing integration times (3, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 minutes) were taken with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the VLT. "With the Rapid Response Mode, the VLT is directly controlled by a distant explosion," said ESO astronomer Paul Vreeswijk, who requested the observations and is lead-author of the paper reporting the results. "All I really had to do, once I was informed of the gamma-ray burst detection, was to phone the staff astronomers at the Paranal Observatory, Stefano Bagnulo and Stan Stefl, to check that everything was fine." The first spectrum of this time series was the quickest ever taken of a gamma-ray burst afterglow

  6. Explosive components facility certification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dorrell, L.; Johnson, D.

    1995-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed construction of a new Explosive Components Facility (ECF) that will be used for the research and development of advanced explosives technology. The ECF includes nine indoor firing pads for detonating explosives and monitoring the detonations. Department of Energy requirements for certification of this facility include detonation of explosive levels up to 125 percent of the rated firing pad capacity with no visual structural degradation resulting from the explosion. The Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia decided to expand this certification process to include vibration and acoustic monitoring at various locations throughout the building during these explosive events. This information could then be used to help determine the best locations for noise and vibration sensitive equipment (e.g. scanning electron microscopes) used for analysis throughout the building. This facility has many unique isolation features built into the explosive chamber and laboratory areas of the building that allow normal operation of other building activities during explosive tests. This paper discusses the design of this facility and the various types of explosive testing performed by the Explosives Projects and Diagnostics Department at Sandia. However, the primary focus of the paper is directed at the vibration and acoustic data acquired during the certification process. This includes the vibration test setup and data acquisition parameters, as well as analysis methods used for generating peak acceleration levels and spectral information. Concerns over instrumentation issues such as the choice of transducers (appropriate ranges, resonant frequencies, etc.) and measurements with long cable lengths (500 feet) are also discussed.

  7. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  8. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takayoshi; Umeda, Hideyuki; Iwamoto, Koichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Hix, W. Raphael; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl

    2001-07-01

    We examine the characteristics of nucleosynthesis in ``hypernovae,'' i.e., supernovae with very large explosion energies (>~1052 ergs). We carry out detailed nucleosynthesis calculations for these energetic explosions and compare the yields with those of ordinary core-collapse supernovae. We find that both complete and incomplete Si-burning takes place over more extended, lower density regions, so that the α-rich freezeout is enhanced and produces more Ti in comparison with ordinary supernova nucleosynthesis. In addition, oxygen and carbon burning takes place in more extended, lower density regions than in ordinary supernovae. Therefore, the fuel elements O, C, and Al are less abundant, while a larger amount of Si, S, Ar, and Ca (``Si'') are synthesized by oxygen burning; this leads to larger ratios of ``Si''/O in the ejecta. Enhancement of the mass ratio between complete and incomplete Si-burning regions in the ejecta may explain the abundance ratios among iron-peak elements in metal-poor stars. Also the enhanced ``Si''/O ratio may explain the abundance ratios observed in star burst galaxies. We also discuss other implications of enhanced [Ti/Fe] and [Fe/O] for Galactic chemical evolution and the abundances of low-mass black hole binaries.

  9. Active Water Explosion Suppression System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    efficient in eliminating the heat of detonation , thereby eliminating the heat of combustion and the associated burning of explosive by-products in the...efficiency in eliminating the heat of detonation . In any case, the net effect of the water absorbing the detonation energy of the explosive is a major

  10. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford; Preston, Daniel N.

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  11. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, Sergei M.; Gorlov, Evgeny V.; Zharkov, Victor I.; Panchenko, Yury N.

    2016-06-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexogen (RDX), trotyl-hexogen (Comp B), octogen (HMX), and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  12. Numerical Model for Hydrovolcanic Explosions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Charles; Gittings, Michael

    2007-03-01

    A hydrovolcanic explosion is generated by the interaction of hot magma with ground water. It is called Surtseyan after the 1963 explosive eruption off Iceland. The water flashes to steam and expands explosively. Liquid water becomes water gas at constant volume and generates pressures of about 3GPa. The Krakatoa hydrovolcanic explosion was modeled using the full Navier-Stokes AMR Eulerian compressible hydrodynamic code called SAGE [1] which includes the high pressure physics of explosions. The water in the hydrovolcanic explosion was described as liquid water heated by magma to 1100 K. The high temperature water is treated as an explosive with the hot liquid water going to water gas. The BKW [2] steady state detonation state has a peak pressure of 8.9 GPa, a propagation velocity of 5900 meters/sec and the water is compressed to 1.33 g/cc. [1] Numerical Modeling of Water Waves, Second Edition, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 2004. [2] Numerical Modeling of Explosions and Propellants, Charles L. Mader, CRC Press 1998.

  13. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  14. The Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wardell, J F; Maienschein, J L

    2002-07-05

    We have developed the Scaled Thermal Explosion Experiment (STEX) to provide a database of reaction violence from thermal explosion for explosives of interest. Such data are needed to develop, calibrate, and validate predictive capability for thermal explosions using simulation computer codes. A cylinder of explosive 25, 50 or 100 mm in diameter, is confined in a steel cylinder with heavy end caps, and heated under controlled conditions until reaction. Reaction violence is quantified through non-contact micropower impulse radar measurements of the cylinder wall velocity and by strain gauge data at reaction onset. Here we describe the test concept, design and diagnostic recording, and report results with HMX- and RDX-based energetic materials.

  15. A primer on explosives costs

    SciTech Connect

    Paddock, R.C.

    1987-03-01

    There are a multitude of cost centers in the typical coal mine, and almost as many ways to calculate their individual and collective effect on the bottom line. The costs of explosives is, in some ways, very difficult to determine without consideration of drilling, loading, hauling and breaking costs. Saving a nickel in explosive costs, for example, could end up costing a dollar more in crushing expenses. Typically, mines request quotations for explosives products on a weight basis. Were the market one of pure commodities, this would give a valid comparison. However, the energy being purchased often is not considered. The cost of any explosive should be considered in light of the work it can do, not the air it displaces or the price per pound. Consider in essence, the purchase of explosive energy as you would the sale of coal, in terms of dollars per Btu. Recent new developments in explosives technology make the economic implications of blast design and explosive selection more important than ever. Let's look to improve overall production costs through a better understanding of relevant explosive criteria. One has to consider what the explosives parameters really are. A brief review of explosives development history is helpful, plus a review of the secondary production factors reliant upon an effective blast. Due to the many variables, which are site specific, it is beyond the scope of this brief article to cover in detail all aspects. However, this may well raise awareness to the potential cost savings and resultant competitive edge that available high energy blasting agents can give.

  16. The interaction of explosively generated plasma with explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Douglas G.; Whitley, Von H.; Johnson, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that the temperature of explosively generated plasma (EGP) is of the order of 1 eV and plasma ejecta can be focused to achieve velocities as high as 25 km/s. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to determine if EGP could be used for explosive ordnance demolition and other applications. The goals were: to benignly disable ordnance containing relatively sensitive high performance explosives (PBX-9501); and to investigate the possibility of interrupting an ongoing detonation in a powerful high explosive (again PBX-9501) with EGP. Experiments were performed to establish the optimum sizes of plasma generators for the benign deactivation of high explosives, i.e., the destruction of the ordnance without initiating a detonation or comparable violent event. These experiments were followed by attempts to interrupt an ongoing detonation by the benign disruption of the unreacted explosive in its path. The results were encouraging. First, it was demonstrated that high explosives could be destroyed without the initiation of a detonation or high order reaction. Second, ongoing detonations were successfully interrupted with EGP. [LA-UR-15-25350

  17. The Interaction of Explosively Generated Plasma with Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, Douglas; LANL Team

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown that the temperature of explosively generated plasma (EGP) is of the order of 1 eV and plasma ejecta can be focused to achieve velocities as high as 25 km/s. These high velocity plasma can readily penetrate a wide range of materials including metals. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to determine if EGP could be used for explosive ordnance demolition and other applications. The test goals were: to benignly disable ordnance containing relatively sensitive high performance explosives (PBX-9501); and to investigate the possibility of interrupting an ongoing detonation in a powerful high explosive (again PBX-9501) with EGP. Experiments were performed to establish the optimum sizes of plasma generators for the benign deactivation of high explosives, i.e., the destruction of the ordnance without initiating a detonation or comparable violent event. These experiments were followed by attempts to interrupt an ongoing detonation by the destruction of the unreacted explosive in its path. The results were encouraging. First, it was demonstrated that high explosives could be destroyed without the initiation of a detonation or high order reaction. Second, ongoing detonations were successfully interrupted with EGP. LA-UR-15-20612.

  18. On the violence of thermal explosion in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S.K.; Tarver, C.M.; Green, L.G.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1997-07-01

    Heavily confined cylinders of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB) were heated at rates varying from 2 C/min to 3.3 C/h. Fourteen of the cylinders were hollow, and inner metallic liners with small heaters attached were used to produce uniform temperatures just prior to explosion. A complex thermocouple pattern was used to measure the temperature history throughout the charge and to determine the approximate location where the runaway exothermic reaction first occurred. The violence of the resulting explosion was measured using velocity pin arrays placed inside and outside of the metal confinement cylinders, flash x-rays, overpressure gauges, and fragment collection techniques. Five cylinders were intentionally detonated for violence comparisons. The measured temperature histories, times to explosion, and the locations of first reaction agreed closely with those calculated by a two-dimensional heat transfer code using multistep chemical decomposition models. The acceleration of the confining metal cylinders by the explosion process was accurately simulated using a two-dimensional pressure dependent deflagration reactive flow hydrodynamic mode. The most violent HMX thermal explosions gradually accelerated their outer cases to velocities approaching those of intentional detonations approximately 120 {micro}m after the onset of explosion. The measured inner cylinder collapse velocities from thermal explosions were considerably lower than those produced by detonations. In contrast to the HMX thermal reactions, no violent thermal explosions were produced by the TATB-based explosive LX-17. A heavily confined, slowly heated LX-17 test produced sufficient pressure to cause a 0.1 cm bend in a 2 cm thick steel plate.

  19. Assessing nuclear explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    The all-Union session on the Geophysical and Geochemical Consequences of Nuclear Explosions at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting attracted a large audience, and many were unable to find a seat or standing room. The speakers and questioners emphasized the complexity of the processes and the need to extend the computer models. In particular, the global-circulation models presented byscientists from the National Center for Atmospheric Research showed that smoke/dust clouds should cause major changes in the weather systems with great contrast between the temperature perturbations over oceanic, coastal, and continental regions. Important developments in the models and conclusions can be expected over the next few years as AGU members from many disciplines contribute their skills.

  20. Nucleosynthesis in stellar explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Axelrod, T.S.; Weaver, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    The final evolution and explosion of stars from 10 M/sub solar/ to 10/sup 6/ M/sub solar/ are reviewed with emphasis on factors affecting the expected nucleosynthesis. We order our paper in a sequence of decreasing mass. If, as many suspect, the stellar birth function was peaked towards larger masses at earlier times (see e.g., Silk 1977; but also see Palla, Salpeter, and Stahler 1983), this sequence of masses might also be regarded as a temporal sequence. At each stage of Galactic chemical evolution stars form from the ashes of preceding generations which typically had greater mass. A wide variety of Type I supernova models, most based upon accreting white dwarf stars, are also explored using the expected light curves, spectra, and nucleosynthesis as diagnostics. No clearly favored Type I model emerges that is capable of simultaneously satisfying all three constraints.

  1. Mixing in explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    Explosions always contain embedded turbulent mixing regions, for example: boundary layers, shear layers, wall jets, and unstable interfaces. Described here is one particular example of the latter, namely, the turbulent mixing occurring in the fireball of an HE-driven blast wave. The evolution of the turbulent mixing was studied via two-dimensional numerical simulations of the convective mixing processes on an adaptive mesh. Vorticity was generated on the fireball interface by baroclinic effects. The interface was unstable, and rapidly evolved into a turbulent mixing layer. Four phases of mixing were observed: (1) a strong blast wave phase; (2) and implosion phase; (3) a reshocking phase; and (4) an asymptotic mixing phase. The flowfield was azimuthally averaged to evaluate the mean and r.m.s. fluctuation profiles across the mixing layer. The vorticity decayed due to a cascade process. This caused the corresponding enstrophy parameter to increase linearly with time -- in agreement with homogeneous turbulence calculations of G.K. Batchelor.

  2. Watersheds and Explosive percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Hans J.; Araujo, Nuno A. M.

    The recent work by Achlioptas, D'Souza, and Spencer opened up the possibility of obtaining a discontinuous (explosive) percolation transition by changing the stochastic rule of bond occupation. Despite the active research on this subject, several questions still remain open about the leading mechanism and the properties of the system. We review the largest cluster and the Gaussian models recently introduced. We show that, to obtain a discontinuous transition it is solely necessary to control the size of the largest cluster, suppressing the growth of a cluster di_ering significantly, in size, from the average one. As expected for a discontinuous transition, a Gaussian cluster-size distribution and compact clusters are obtained. The surface of the clusters is fractal, with the same fractal dimension of the watershed line.

  3. Explosion risks from nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillard, Jacques; Vignes, Alexis; Dufaud, Olivier; Perrin, Laurent; Thomas, Dominique

    2009-05-01

    Emerging nanomanufactured products are being incorporated in a variety of consumer products ranging from closer body contact products (i.e. cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpastes, pharmaceuticals, clothing) to more remote body-contact products (electronics, plastics, tires, automotive and aeronautical), hence posing potential health and environmental risks. The new field of nanosafety has emerged and needs to be explored now rather than after problems becomes so ubiquitous and difficult to treat that their trend become irreversible. Such endeavour necessitates a transdisciplinary approach. A commonly forgotten and/or misunderstood risk is that of explosion/detonation of nanopowders, due to their high specific active surface areas. Such risk is emphasized and illustrated with the present development of an appropriate risk analysis. For this particular risk, a review of characterization methods and their limitations with regard to nanopowders is presented and illustrated for a few organic and metallic nanopowders.

  4. Direct imaging of explosives.

    PubMed

    Knapp, E A; Moler, R B; Saunders, A W; Trower, W P

    2000-01-01

    Any technique that can detect nitrogen concentrations can screen for concealed explosives. However, such a technique would have to be insensitive to metal, both encasing and incidental. If images of the nitrogen concentrations could be captured, then, since form follows function, a robust screening technology could be developed. However these images would have to be sensitive to the surface densities at or below that of the nitrogen contained in buried anti-personnel mines or of the SEMTEX that brought down Pan Am 103, approximately 200 g. Although the ability to image in three-dimensions would somewhat reduce false positives, capturing collateral images of carbon and oxygen would virtually assure that nitrogenous non-explosive material like fertilizer, Melmac dinnerware, and salami could be eliminated. We are developing such an instrument, the Nitrogen Camera, which has met experimentally these criteria with the exception of providing oxygen images, which awaits the availability of a sufficiently energetic light source. Our Nitrogen Camera technique uses an electron accelerator to produce photonuclear reactions whose unique decays it registers. Clearly if our Nitrogen Camera is made mobile, it could be effective in detecting buried mines, either in an active battlefield situation or in the clearing of abandoned military munitions. Combat operations require that a swathe the width of an armored vehicle, 5 miles deep, be screened in an hour, which is within our camera's scanning speed. Detecting abandoned munitions is technically easier as it is free from the onerous speed requirement. We describe here our Nitrogen Camera and show its 180 pixel intensity images of elemental nitrogen in a 200 g mine simulant and in a 125 g stick of SEMTEX. We also report on our progress in creating a lorry transportable 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron, the principal enabling technology that will allow our Nitrogen Camera to be deployed in the field.

  5. Optical detection of explosives: spectral signatures for the explosive bouquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Tabetha; Kaimal, Sindhu; Causey, Jason; Burns, William; Reeve, Scott

    2009-05-01

    Research with canines suggests that sniffer dogs alert not on the odor from a pure explosive, but rather on a set of far more volatile species present in an explosive as impurities. Following the explosive trained canine example, we have begun examining the vapor signatures for many of these volatile impurities utilizing high resolution spectroscopic techniques in several molecular fingerprint regions. Here we will describe some of these high resolution measurements and discuss strategies for selecting useful spectral signature regions for individual molecular markers of interest.

  6. Shock desensitizing of solid explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shock wave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in testing these ideas.

  7. Shock desensitizing of solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, William C

    2010-01-01

    Solid explosive can be desensitized by a shockwave too weak to initiate it promptly, and desensitized explosive does not react although its chemical composition is almost unchanged. A strong second shock does not cause reaction until it overtakes the first shock. The first shock, if it is strong enough, accelerates very slowly at first, and then more rapidly as detonation approaches. These facts suggest that there are two competing reactions. One is the usual explosive goes to products with the release of energy, and the other is explosive goes to dead explosive with no chemical change and no energy release. The first reaction rate is very sensitive to the local state, and the second is only weakly so. At low pressure very little energy is released and the change to dead explosive dominates. At high pressure, quite the other way, most of the explosive goes to products. Numerous experiments in both the initiation and the full detonation regimes are discussed and compared in support of these ideas.

  8. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Phelan, James M.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  9. Explosive signatures: Pre & post blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Evan Thomas

    Manuscripts 1 and 2 of this dissertation both involve the pre-blast detection of trace explosive material. The first manuscript explores the analysis of human hair as an indicator of exposure to explosives. Field analysis of hair for trace explosives is quick and non-invasive, and could prove to be a powerful linkage to physical evidence in the form of bulk explosive material. Individuals tested were involved in studies which required handling or close proximity to bulk high explosives such as TNT, PETN, and RDX. The second manuscript reports the results of research in the design and application of canine training aids for non-traditional, peroxide-based explosives. Organic peroxides such as triacetonetriperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine (HMTD) can be synthesized relatively easily with store-bought ingredients and have become popular improvised explosives with many terrorist groups. Due to the hazards of handling such sensitive compounds, this research established methods for preparing training aids which contained safe quantities of TATP and HMTD for use in imprinting canines with their characteristic odor. Manuscripts 3 and 4 of this dissertation focus on research conducted to characterize pipe bombs during and after an explosion (post-blast). Pipe bombs represent a large percentage of domestic devices encountered by law enforcement. The current project has involved the preparation and controlled explosion of over 90 pipe bombs of different configurations in order to obtain data on fragmentation patterns, fragment velocity, blast overpressure, and fragmentation distance. Physical data recorded from the collected fragments, such as mass, size, and thickness, was correlated with the relative power of the initial device. Manuscript 4 explores the microstructural analysis of select pipe bomb fragments. Shock-loading of the pipe steel led to plastic deformation and work hardening in the steel grain structure as evidenced by optical microscopy and

  10. Radiologic diagnosis of explosion casualties.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    The threat of terrorist events on domestic soil remains an ever-present risk. Despite the notoriety of unconventional weapons, the mainstay in the armament of the terrorist organization is the conventional explosive. Conventional explosives are easily weaponized and readily obtainable, and the recipes are widely available over the Internet. According to the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over one half of the global terrorist events involve explosions, averaging two explosive events per day worldwide in 2005 (Terrorism Research Center. Available at www.terrorism.com. Accessed April 1, 2007). The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, published by the Institute of Medicine, states that explosions were the most common cause of injuries associated with terrorism (Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads. Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2007). Explosive events have the potential to inflict numerous casualties with multiple injuries. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated by the fact that few providers or medical facilities have experience with mass casualty events in which human and material resources can be rapidly overwhelmed. Care of explosive-related injury is based on same principles as that of standard trauma management paradigms. The basic difference between explosion-related injury and other injury mechanisms are the number of patients and multiplicity of injuries, which require a higher allocation of resources. With this caveat, the appropriate utilization of radiology resources has the potential to impact in-hospital diagnosis and triage and is an essential element in optimizing the management of the explosive-injured patients.

  11. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  12. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  13. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  14. Noise From Shallow Underwater Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloway, Alexander G.

    Naval activities such as ordnance disposal, demolition and requisite training, can involve detonation of small explosive charges in shallow water that have the potential to harm nearby marine life. Measurements of the underwater sound generated by sub-surface explosions were collected as part of a naval training exercise. In this thesis the noise levels from these explosions will be investigated using peak pressure, sound exposure level and energy spectral density. Measurements of very-low frequency Scholte interface waves will also be presented and used to investigate elastic parameters in the sediment.

  15. Observational characteristics of explosive events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénoux, J.-C.; Dere, K. P.

    The characteristics of dynamic phenomena observed in the EUV with the HRTS instruments, chromospheric jets and explosive events, are reviewed here. Most of the review is devoted to explosive events that are short duration explosions involving a plasma at 105 K. These events are characterised by strong Doppler shifts rather than by brightness enhancements, contrary to EUV impulsive brightenings observed by SMM. They are presumably due to magnetic reconnection involving unresolved fine structures of the magnetic field near the network. The role of the density of concentrated magnetic fluxtubes in a reconnection scenario has still to be understood.

  16. Observational characteristics of explosive events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénoux, J. C.; Dere, K. P.

    The characteristics of dynamic phenomena observed in the EUV with the HRTS instruments, chromospheric jets and explosive events, are reviewed. Most of the review is devoted to explosive events that are short duration explosions involving a plasma at 105K. These events are characterised by strong Doppler shifts rather than by brightness enhancements, contrary to EUV impulsive brightenings observed by SMM. They are presumably due to magnetic reconnection involving unresolved fine structures of the magnetic field near the network. The role of the density of concentrated magnetic fluxtubes in a reconnection scenario has still to be understood.

  17. High Explosive Radio Telemetry System

    SciTech Connect

    Bracht, R.R.; Crawford, T.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Mclaughlin, B.M.

    1998-11-04

    This paper overviews the High Explosive Radio Telemetry (HERT) system, under co-development by Los Alamos National Laboratories and Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies. This telemetry system is designed to measure the initial performance of an explosive package under flight environment conditions, transmitting data from up to 64 sensors. It features high speed, accurate time resolution (10 ns) and has the ability to complete transmission of data before the system is destroyed by the explosion. In order to affect the resources and performance of a flight delivery vehicle as little as possible, the system is designed such that physical size, power requirements, and antenna demands are as small as possible.

  18. Testing of Confining Pressure Impacton Explosion Energy of Explosive Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drzewiecki, Jan; Myszkowski, Jacek; Pytlik, Andrzej; Pytlik, Mateusz

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the results of testing the explosion effects of two explosive charges placed in an environment with specified values of confining pressure. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of variable environmental conditions on the suitability of particular explosives for their use in the prevention of natural hazards in hard coal mining. The research results will contribute to improving the efficiency of currently adopted technologies of natural hazard prevention and aid in raising the level of occupational safety. To carry out the subject matter measurements, a special test stand was constructed which allows the value of the initial pressure inside the chamber, which constitutes its integral part, to be altered before the detonation of the charge being tested. The obtained characteristics of the pressure changes during the explosion of the analysed charge helped to identify the work (energy) which was produced during the process. The test results are a valuable source of information, opening up new possibilities for the use of explosives, the development of innovative solutions for the construction of explosive charges and their initiation.

  19. Explosive Microsphere Particle Standards for Trace Explosive Detection Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Fletcher, Robert; Gillen, Greg

    2007-11-01

    Increases in Homeland Security measures have led to a substantial deployment of trace explosive detection systems within the United States and US embassies around the world. One such system is a walk-through portal which aerodynamically screens people for trace explosive particles. Another system is a benchtop instrument that can detect explosives from swipes used to collect explosive particles from surfaces of luggage and clothing. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is involved in a chemical metrology program to support the operational deployment and effective utilization of trace explosive and narcotic detection devices and is working to develop a measurement infrastructure to optimize, calibrate and standardize these instruments. Well characterized test materials are essential for validating the performance of these systems. Particle size, chemical composition, and detector response are particularly important. Here, we describe one method for producing monodisperse polymer microspheres encapsulating trace explosives, simulants, and narcotics using a sonicated co-flow Berkland nozzle. The nozzle creates uniform droplets that undergo an oil/water emulsion process and cure to form hardened microspheres containing the desired analyte. Issues such as particle size, particle uniformity and levels of analyte composition will be discussed.

  20. [Causation, prevention and treatment of dust explosion].

    PubMed

    Dong, Maolong; Jia, Wenbin; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Fei; Li, Xiao-Qiang; Hu, Dahai

    2014-10-01

    With the development of industrial technology, dust explosion accidents have increased, causing serious losses of people's lives and property. With the development of economy, we should lay further emphasis on causation, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion. This article summarizes the background, mechanism, prevention, and treatment of dust explosion, which may provide some professional knowledge and reference for the treatment of dust explosion.

  1. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  3. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  4. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  5. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  6. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  7. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  9. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  11. 36 CFR 1002.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 1002.38 Section... RECREATION § 1002.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of a permit....

  12. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  13. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  14. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  15. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  16. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... configuration of the launch site follows its explosive site plan, and the licensee's explosive site...

  17. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  18. 36 CFR 2.38 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 2.38 Section 2.38... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.38 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and...

  19. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  20. 32 CFR 1903.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives. 1903.9 Section 1903.9 National... INSTALLATIONS § 1903.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents, ammunition or explosive materials is prohibited on any Agency installation, except as authorized by...

  1. 32 CFR 234.9 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives. 234.9 Section 234.9 National Defense... PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.9 Explosives. (a) Using, possessing, storing, or transporting explosives, blasting agents or explosive materials is prohibited, except pursuant to the terms and conditions of...

  2. The challenge of improvised explosives

    DOE PAGES

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intendedmore » target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.« less

  3. The challenge of improvised explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intended target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.

  4. Detonation probabilities of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhawer, S.W.; Bott, T.F.; Bement, T.R.

    1995-07-01

    The probability of a high explosive violent reaction (HEVR) following various events is an extremely important aspect of estimating accident-sequence frequency for nuclear weapons dismantlement. In this paper, we describe the development of response curves for insults to PBX 9404, a conventional high-performance explosive used in US weapons. The insults during dismantlement include drops of high explosive (HE), strikes of tools and components on HE, and abrasion of the explosive. In the case of drops, we combine available test data on HEVRs and the results of flooring certification tests to estimate the HEVR probability. For other insults, it was necessary to use expert opinion. We describe the expert solicitation process and the methods used to consolidate the responses. The HEVR probabilities obtained from both approaches are compared.

  5. An Explosion of Infrared Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-12-09

    This oddly colorful nebula is the supernova remnant IC 443 as seen by NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer; the Jellyfish nebula is particularly interesting because it provides a look into how stellar explosions interact with their environment.

  6. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  7. Explosive Spot Joining of Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an apparatus and method for wire splicing using an explosive joining process. The apparatus consists of a prebend, U-shaped strap of metal that slides over prepositioned wires. A standoff means separates the wires from the strap before joining. An adhesive means holds two ribbon explosives in position centered over the U-shaped strap. A detonating means connects to the ribbon explosives. The process involves spreading strands of each wire to be joined into a flat plane. The process then requires alternating each strand in alignment to form a mesh-like arrangement with an overlapped area. The strap slides over the strands of the wires. and the standoff means is positioned between the two surfaces. The detonating means then initiates the ribbon explosives that drive the strap to accomplish a high velocity. angular collision between the mating surfaces. This collision creates surface melts and collision bonding resulting in electron-sharing linkups.

  8. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, Stanley P.

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  9. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOEpatents

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The characterization and evaluation of accidental explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strehlow, R. A.; Baker, W. E.

    1975-01-01

    Accidental explosions are discussed from a number of viewpoints. First, all accidental explosions, intentional explosions and natural explosions are characterized by type. Second, the nature of the blast wave produced by an ideal (point source or HE) explosion is discussed to form a basis for describing how other explosion processes yield deviations from ideal blast wave behavior. The current status blast damage mechanism evaluation is also discussed. Third, the current status of our understanding of each different category of accidental explosions is discussed in some detail.

  11. Quantitative understanding of explosive stimulus transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmel, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanisms of detonation transfer across hermetically sealed interfaces created by necessary interruptions in high explosive trains, such as at detonators to explosive columns, field joints in explosive columns, and components of munitions fuse trains are demostrated. Reliability of detonation transfer is limited by minimizing explosive quantities, the use of intensitive explosives for safety, and requirements to propagate across gaps and angles dictated by installation and production restraints. The major detonation transfer variables studied were: explosive quanity, sensitivity, and thickness, and the separation distances between donor and acceptor explosives.

  12. Explosive Contagion in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Lotero, L.; Taraskin, S. N.; Pérez-Reche, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on. PMID:26819191

  13. Disaster management following explosion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B R

    2008-01-01

    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making.

  14. The Cambrian explosion.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2015-10-05

    The sudden appearance of fossils that marks the so-called 'Cambrian explosion' has intrigued and exercised biologists since Darwin's time. In On the Origin of Species, Darwin made it clear that he believed that ancestral forms 'lived long before' their first fossil representatives. While he considered such an invisible record necessary to explain the level of complexity already seen in the fossils of early trilobites, Darwin was at a loss to explain why there were no corresponding fossils of these earlier forms. In chapter 9 of the Origin, entitled 'On the imperfection of the geological record', he emphasized the 'poorness of our palaeontological collections' and stated categorically that 'no organism wholly soft can be preserved'. Fortunately much has been discovered in the last 150 years, not least multiple examples of Cambrian and Precambrian soft-bodied fossils. We now know that the sudden appearance of fossils in the Cambrian (541-485 million years ago) is real and not an artefact of an imperfect fossil record: rapid diversification of animals coincided with the evolution of biomineralized shells. And although fossils in earlier rocks are rare, they are not absent: their rarity reflects the low diversity of life at this time, as well as the low preservation potential of Precambrian organisms (see Primer by Butterfield, in this issue).

  15. Explosive Contagion in Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J.; Lotero, L.; Taraskin, S. N.; Pérez-Reche, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on.

  16. Explosive Contagion in Networks.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gardeñes, J; Lotero, L; Taraskin, S N; Pérez-Reche, F J

    2016-01-28

    The spread of social phenomena such as behaviors, ideas or products is an ubiquitous but remarkably complex phenomenon. A successful avenue to study the spread of social phenomena relies on epidemic models by establishing analogies between the transmission of social phenomena and infectious diseases. Such models typically assume simple social interactions restricted to pairs of individuals; effects of the context are often neglected. Here we show that local synergistic effects associated with acquaintances of pairs of individuals can have striking consequences on the spread of social phenomena at large scales. The most interesting predictions are found for a scenario in which the contagion ability of a spreader decreases with the number of ignorant individuals surrounding the target ignorant. This mechanism mimics ubiquitous situations in which the willingness of individuals to adopt a new product depends not only on the intrinsic value of the product but also on whether his acquaintances will adopt this product or not. In these situations, we show that the typically smooth (second order) transitions towards large social contagion become explosive (first order). The proposed synergistic mechanisms therefore explain why ideas, rumours or products can suddenly and sometimes unexpectedly catch on.

  17. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Joshua David

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  18. Explosive actuated valves

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, Jr., Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a generally tubular housing having an end portion forming a chamber to receive the sensitive portion of an explosive squib, a plunger within said housing having an end portion exposed to said chamber, squib retaining means for engaging said housing and a said squib to releasably maintain the squib in close proximity to said plunger end portion including a retaining ring of fusible material spaced outwardly from and encircling at least part of a said squib and part of its sensitive portion for reception of heat from an external source prior to appreciable reception thereof by the sensitive portion of the squib, an annular compression spring bearing at one end against said housing for urging at least a portion of the squib retaining means and a said squib away from said housing and from said plunger end portion upon subjection of the fusible material to heat sufficient to melt at least a portion thereof, and guide means for said spring to maintain even expansion thereof as a said squib is being urged away from said housing.

  19. Explosive actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Kenneth G.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

  20. exLOPA for explosion risks assessment.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam S

    2007-04-11

    The European Union regulations require safety and health protection of workers who are potentially at risk from explosive atmosphere areas. According to the requirements, the operators of installations where potentially explosive atmosphere can occur are obliged to produce an explosion protection document. The key objective of this document is the assessment of explosion risks. This paper is concerned with the so-called explosion layer of protection analysis (exLOPA), which allows for semi-quantitative explosion risk assessment for process plants where explosive atmospheres occur. The exLOPA is based on the original work of CCPS for LOPA but takes into account some typical factors appropriate for explosion, like the probability that an explosive atmosphere will occur, probability that sources of ignition will be present and become effective as well as the probability of failure on demand for appropriate explosion prevention and mitigation means.

  1. System for analysis of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Jeffrey S

    2010-06-29

    A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

  2. Explosives Removal from Munitions Wastewaters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    SERVICE springiel.d, VA. 22151 ’ PRESENTED AT THE 30TH ANNUAL PURDUE INDUSTRIAL WASTE C0NFERENCh MAY 6-7-8, 1975 -I/ * * V ’ Removal of Explosives From...explosive Laterials, such as DNT and nitrocresols, from waste streams. The loaded adsorbent can be regenerated with solvent. To minimize operating costs...Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 19105 2 Background Generally, pollation in munitions plant waste water stems from washing and steam cleaning

  3. Net Catches Debris From Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Jon B.; Schneider, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Device restrains fragments and absorbs their kinetic energy. Net of stitched webbing folds compactly over honeycomb plug. Attaches to frame mounted on wall around rectangular area to be cut out by explosion. Honeycomb panel absorbs debris from explosion and crumples into net. Dissipates energy by ripping about 9 in. of stitched net. Developed for emergency escape system in Space Shuttle, adaptable to restraint belts for vehicles; subjecting passengers to more gradual deceleration and less shock.

  4. Intraperitoneal explosion following gastric perforation.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Scott K; Borrowdale, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.

  5. Microbial remediation of explosive waste.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljinder; Kaur, Jagdeep; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-05-01

    Explosives are synthesized globally mainly for military munitions. Nitrate esters, such as GTN and PETN, nitroaromatics like TNP and TNT and nitramines with RDX, HMX and CL20, are the main class of explosives used. Their use has resulted in severe contamination of environment and strategies are now being developed to clean these substances in an economical and eco-friendly manner. The incredible versatility inherited in microbes has rendered these explosives as a part of the biogeochemical cycle. Several microbes catalyze mineralization and/or nonspecific transformation of explosive waste either by aerobic or anaerobic processes. It is likely that ongoing genetic adaptation, with the recruitment of silent sequences into functional catabolic routes and evolution of substrate range by mutations in structural genes, will further enhance the catabolic potential of bacteria toward explosives and ultimately contribute to cleansing the environment of these toxic and recalcitrant chemicals. This review summarizes information on the biodegradation and biotransformation pathways of several important explosives. Isolation, characterization, utilization and manipulation of the major detoxifying enzymes and the molecular basis of degradation are also discussed. This may be useful in developing safer and economic microbiological methods for clean up of soil and water contaminated with such compounds. The necessity of further investigations concerning the microbial metabolism of these substances is also discussed.

  6. Trace explosives sensor testbed (TESTbed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Greg E.; Malito, Michael P.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Giordano, Braden C.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Field, Christopher R.; Rogers, Duane A.; Jeffries, Russell A.; Colton, Richard J.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2017-03-01

    A novel vapor delivery testbed, referred to as the Trace Explosives Sensor Testbed, or TESTbed, is demonstrated that is amenable to both high- and low-volatility explosives vapors including nitromethane, nitroglycerine, ethylene glycol dinitrate, triacetone triperoxide, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The TESTbed incorporates a six-port dual-line manifold system allowing for rapid actuation between a dedicated clean air source and a trace explosives vapor source. Explosives and explosives-related vapors can be sourced through a number of means including gas cylinders, permeation tube ovens, dynamic headspace chambers, and a Pneumatically Modulated Liquid Delivery System coupled to a perfluoroalkoxy total-consumption microflow nebulizer. Key features of the TESTbed include continuous and pulseless control of trace vapor concentrations with wide dynamic range of concentration generation, six sampling ports with reproducible vapor profile outputs, limited low-volatility explosives adsorption to the manifold surface, temperature and humidity control of the vapor stream, and a graphical user interface for system operation and testing protocol implementation.

  7. Ultra-relativistic double explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2017-04-01

    We consider fluid dynamics of relativistic double explosion—when a point explosion with energy E1 is followed by a second explosion with energy E2 after time td (the second explosion could be in a form of a long lasting wind). The primary explosion creates a self-similar relativistic blast wave propagating with Lorentz factor Γ1(t ) . A sufficiently strong second explosion, with total energy E2≥10-2E1 , creates a fast second shock in the external fluid previously shocked by the primary shock. At times longer than the interval between the explosions td, yet short compared with the time when the second shock catches up the primary shock at ˜tdΓ12 , the structure of the second shock is approximately self-similar. The self-similar structure of the second shock exists for the case of constant external density (in this case Γ2∝t-7 /3 ), but not for the wind environment. At early times, the Lorentz factor of the second shock may exceed that of the primary shock and may boost the synchrotron emission of locally accelerated electrons into the Fermi Large Area Telescope range.

  8. Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) Studies Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Analysts, Inc. (ISA) Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 2 ● Identify / Quantify Explosives Hazards ● Minimize Risks ● Resolve long...Siting Recommendations ● Produce DDESB Compliant Explosives Safety Site plans EHR Goals & Objectives Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 3...of Barricades ● Automated Wash Rack ● Use ISO Trailers in MSA Explosives Hazard Reduction (EHR) ProgramAs of: 6 Proposed Facilities Joint Operations

  9. Modeling of explosive densensitization by preshocking

    SciTech Connect

    Mader, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Densensitization of heterogeneous explosives by shocks too weak to initiate propagating detonation occurs because the preshock desensitizes the heterogeneous explosive by closing the voids and making it more homogeneous. A higher pressure second shock has a lower temperature in the multiple shocked explosive than in single shocked explosive. The multiple shock temperature may be low enough to cause a detonation wave to fail to propagate through the preshocked explosive. 9 refs., 8figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Tiny Electromagnetic Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    This paper considers electromagnetic transients of a modest total energy ({ E }≳ {10}40 erg) and small initial size ({ R }≳ {10}-1 cm). They could be produced during collisions between relativistic field structures (e.g., macroscopic magnetic dipoles) that formed around or before cosmic electroweak symmetry breaking. The outflowing energy has a dominant electromagnetic component; a subdominant thermal component (temperature > 1 GeV) supplies inertia in the form of residual {e}+/- . A thin shell forms, expanding subluminally and attaining a Lorentz factor ˜ {10}6{--7} before decelerating. Drag is supplied by the reflection of an ambient magnetic field and deflection of ambient free electrons. Emission of low-frequency (GHz-THz) superluminal waves takes place through three channels: (i) reflection of the ambient magnetic field; (ii) direct linear conversion of the embedded magnetic field into a superluminal mode; and (iii) excitation outside the shell by corrugation of its surface. The escaping electromagnetic pulse is very narrow (a few wavelengths), so the width of the detected transient is dominated by propagation effects. GHz radio transients are emitted from (i) the dark matter halos of galaxies and (ii) the near-horizon regions of supermassive black holes that formed via direct gas collapse and now accrete slowly. Brighter and much narrower 0.01-1 THz pulses are predicted at a rate at least comparable to fast radio bursts, experiencing weaker scattering and absorption. The same explosions also accelerate protons up to ˜ {10}19 eV, and heavier nuclei up to 1020-21 eV.

  11. The Quiet Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    A European-led team of astronomers are providing hints that a recent supernova may not be as normal as initially thought. Instead, the star that exploded is now understood to have collapsed into a black hole, producing a weak jet, typical of much more violent events, the so-called gamma-ray bursts. The object, SN 2008D, is thus probably among the weakest explosions that produce very fast moving jets. This discovery represents a crucial milestone in the understanding of the most violent phenomena observed in the Universe. Black Hole ESO PR Photo 23a/08 A Galaxy and two Supernovae These striking results, partly based on observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope, will appear tomorrow in Science Express, the online version of Science. Stars that were at birth more massive than about 8 times the mass of our Sun end their relatively short life in a cosmic, cataclysmic firework lighting up the Universe. The outcome is the formation of the densest objects that exist, neutron stars and black holes. When exploding, some of the most massive stars emit a short cry of agony, in the form of a burst of very energetic light, X- or gamma-rays. In the early afternoon (in Europe) of 9 January 2008, the NASA/STFC/ASI Swift telescope discovered serendipitously a 5-minute long burst of X-rays coming from within the spiral galaxy NGC 2770, located 90 million light-years away towards the Lynx constellation. The Swift satellite was studying a supernova that had exploded the previous year in the same galaxy, but the burst of X-rays came from another location, and was soon shown to arise from a different supernova, named SN 2008D. Researchers at the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF), the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), ESO, and at various other institutions have observed the supernova at great length. The team is led by Paolo Mazzali of INAF's Padova Observatory and MPA. "What made this event very interesting," says Mazzali, "is that the X-ray signal was very

  12. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using 12CO(J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  13. Recycled ejecta modulating Strombolian explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capponi, Antonio; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Palladino, Danilo M.

    2016-02-01

    Two main end-members of eruptive regimes are identified from analyses of high-speed videos collected at Stromboli volcano (Italy), based on vent conditions: one where the vent is completely clogged by debris, and a second where the vent is open, without any cover. By detailing the vent processes for each regime, we provide the first account of how the presence of a cover affects eruptive dynamics compared to open-vent explosions. For clogged vents, explosion dynamics are controlled by the amount and grain size of the debris. Fine-grained covers are entirely removed by explosions, favouring the generation of fine ash plumes, while coarse-grained covers are only partially removed by the explosions, involving minor amounts of ash. In both fine- and coarse-grained cases, in-vent ground deformation of the debris reflect variations in the volumetric expansion of gas in the conduit, with rates of change of the deformation comparable to ground inflation related to pre-burst conduit pressurization. Eruptions involve the ejection of relatively slow and cold bombs and lapilli, and debris is observed to both fall back into the vent after each explosion and to gravitationally accumulate between explosions by rolling down the inner crater flanks to produce the cover itself. Part of this material may also contribute to the formation of a more degassed, crystallized and viscous magma layer at the top of the conduit. Conversely, open-vent explosions erupt with hotter pyroclasts, with higher exit velocity and with minor or no ash phase involved.

  14. Shock Initiation of Heterogeneous Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2004-05-10

    The fundamental picture that shock initiation in heterogeneous explosives is caused by the linking of hot spots formed at inhomogeneities was put forward by several researchers in the 1950's and 1960's, and more recently. Our work uses the computer hardware and software developed in the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program of the U.S. Department of Energy to explicitly include heterogeneities at the scale of the explosive grains and to calculate the consequences of realistic although approximate models of explosive behavior. Our simulations are performed with ALE-3D, a three-dimensional, elastic-plastic-hydrodynamic Arbitrary Lagrange-Euler finite-difference program, which includes chemical kinetics and heat transfer, and which is under development at this laboratory. We developed the parameter values for a reactive-flow model to describe the non-ideal detonation behavior of an HMX-based explosive from the results of grain-scale simulations. In doing so, we reduced the number of free parameters that are inferred from comparison with experiment to a single one - the characteristic defect dimension. We also performed simulations of the run to detonation in small volumes of explosive. These simulations illustrate the development of the reaction zone and the acceleration of the shock front as the flame fronts start from hot spots, grow, and interact behind the shock front. In this way, our grain-scale simulations can also connect to continuum experiments directly.

  15. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  16. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, Jack L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Von Holle, William G.

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  17. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1994-01-04

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

  18. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOEpatents

    Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1994-01-04

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

  19. Optimal dynamic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Greenfield, Margo T; Scharff, R J; Rabitz, Herschel A; Roslund, J

    2009-01-01

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off distances, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring optimal dynamic detection to exploit the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity of explosives signatures while reducing the influence of noise and the signals from background interferents in the field (increase selectivity). These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal nonlinear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe sub-pulses. With sufficient bandwidth, the technique is capable of intrinsically providing orthogonal broad spectral information for data fusion, all from a single optimal pulse.

  20. Trace explosives detection by photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Menzel, E Roland; Bouldin, Kimberly K; Murdock, Russell H

    2004-02-26

    Some field tests in counter-terrorism efforts to detect explosive traces employ chemistries that yield colored products. We have examined a test kit of this kind, ETK(Plus), based on widely used chemistries and employed extensively by the Israel Police. Our investigation focuses on the prospect of gaining sensitivity by replacing the normal colorimetric modality with photoluminescence detection, which, to our knowledge, has not been explored to date. We find two or more orders of magnitude sensitivity gains for all explosives studied, using field-worthy photoluminescence techniques. We have also investigated a general lanthanide-based photoluminescence approach which shows promise and the ability to photoluminescence-detect trace explosives in the presence of intense background color and/or background fluorescence by time-resolved imaging.

  1. Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

  2. Evidence for nearby supernova explosions.

    PubMed

    Benítez, Narciso; Maíz-Apellániz, Jesús; Canelles, Matilde

    2002-02-25

    Supernova (SN) explosions are one of the most energetic---and potentially lethal---phenomena in the Universe. We show that the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, a group of young stars currently located at approximately 130 pc from the Sun, has generated 20 SN explosions during the last 11 Myr, some of them probably as close as 40 pc to our planet. The deposition on Earth of (60)Fe atoms produced by these explosions can explain the recent measurements of an excess of this isotope in deep ocean crust samples. We propose that approximately 2 Myr ago, one of the SNe exploded close enough to Earth to seriously damage the ozone layer, provoking or contributing to the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary marine extinction.

  3. The Most Powerful Stellar Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Woosley, Stan; Almgren, Ann; Zhang, Weiqun

    2013-04-01

    We present the results from our 3D simulations of thermonuclear supernovae from the stars with initial masses above 80 solar masses by using CASTRO, a new, massively parallel, multidimensional Eulerian, adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), radiation-hydrodynamics code. We first use Kepler, a one-dimensional spherically-symmetric Lagrangian code to model the possible explosions beyond hypernovae. These extreme explosions include two types of electron/positron production instability supernovae and one type of general relativity instability supernovae. The resulting 1D presupernova profiles are mapped onto 3D grids of CASTRO as initial conditions. We simulate the explosion in 3D and resolve the emergent fluid instabilities. In this talk, we will discuss the energetics, nucleosynthesis, and possible observational signatures of these supernovae.

  4. Explosive evaporation in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper develops a simple analytical model for the phenomenon of 'explosive evaporation' driven by nonthermal electron heating in solar flares. The model relates the electron energy flux and spectrum, plus details of the preflare atmosphere, to the time scale for explosive evaporation to occur, the maximum pressure and temperature to be reached, rough estimates for the UV pulse emission flux and duration, and the evolution of the blueshifted component of the soft X-ray lines. An expression is given for the time scale for buildup to maximum pressures and the onset of rapid motion of the explosively evaporating plasma. This evaporation can excite a rapid response of UV line and continuum emission. The emission lines formed in the plasma approach a given emissivity-weighted blueshift speed.

  5. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  6. Studies in combustion and explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Sivashinsky, Gregory I.

    1999-10-31

    The objective of the proposed research is to investigate the influence of various aerodynamical, diffusive-thermal, radiative and reaction-rate factors on certain fundamental phenomena concerning combustion and explosion of gaseous premixtures. Different modeling techniques will be employed to reduce the study of pertinent physical systems to simple approximate problems tractable either analytically or numerically. Specifically the authors plan to study: (1) fluid dynamical aspects of flame anchoring by solid bodies; (2) fluid dynamical aspects of thermal explosion and fire flashover; (3) fluid dynamical aspects of fuel leakage in near-limit-flames; (4) reduced models for gaseous detonation.

  7. Nonequilibrium detonation of composite explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols III, A.L.

    1997-07-01

    The effect of nonequilibrium diffusional flow on detonation velocities in composite explosives is examined. Detonation conditions are derived for complete equilibrium, temperature and pressure equilibrium, and two forms of pressure equilibrium. Partial equilibria are associated with systems which have not had sufficient time for transport to smooth out the gradients between spatially separate regions. The nonequilibrium detonation conditions are implemented in the CHEQ equation of state code. We show that the detonation velocity decreases as the non-chemical degrees of freedom of the explosive are allowed to equilibrate. It is only when the chemical degrees of freedom are allowed to equilibrate that the detonation velocity increases.

  8. Intravesical explosion during transurethral electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Georgios, Kallinikas; Evangelos, Boulinakis; Helai, Habib; Ioannis, Gerzelis

    2015-05-01

    Intravesical explosion is a very rare complication of transurethral resection of prostate and transurethral resection of bladder tumour operations. In vitro studies have shown that the gases produced during the procedure could result in a blast once they are mixed with air from the atmosphere. A 79-year-old male experienced an explosion in his bladder while undergoing a transurethral resection of bladder tumour. The case is presented as well as the way that it was treated as an emergency. Precautions of such events are finally suggested.

  9. Explosive coalescence of magnetic islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tajima, T.; Sakai, J.-I.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation results from both the EM collisionless particle code and the MHD particle code reveal an explosive reconnection process associated with nonlinear evolution of the coalescence instability. The explosive coalescence is a self-similar process of magnetic collapse, and ensuing amplitude oscillations in the magnetic and electrostatic energies and temperatures are modeled by an equation of motion for the scale factor in the Sagdeev potential. This phenomenon may explain the rapid energy release of a certain class of solar flares during their impulsive phase.

  10. Lightning Protection for Explosive Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory funds construction of lightning protection systems to protect explosive processing and storage facilities. This paper provides an intuitive understanding of the lighting risks and types of lightning protection available. Managers can use this information to decide if limited funds should be spent constructing a lightning protection system for their own facilities. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Why do you need lightning protection systems? (2) How do lightning protection systems work? and (3) Why are there no documented cases of lightning problems at existing explosive facilities?

  11. Explosively Joining Dissimilar Metal Tubes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    both steel, photograph (7), and the Ni-Cu specimen, photograph (8) , showed considerable pitting corrosion in the aluminum . 4. The paint was then...for 6061 -T6 aluminum and are: collision angle 5 - 200, collision velocity 270 - 350 m/sec, with an impact pressure of at least 27 Kbar (391 Kpsi...Welded Aluminum Alloy 1 .. 5 rn-i (P0 -I Op. 2si 11 6W TABLE I Explosive2 Cladder Metal Base Metal Explosive Loading (gins/in2 6061 -T6 Al 304 SS TSE- 1004

  12. Detonation wave profiles in HMX based explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.; Alcon, R.R.

    1997-11-01

    Detonation wave profiles have been measured in several HMX based plastic bonded explosives including PBX9404, PBX9501, and EDC-37, as well as two HMX powders (coarse and fine) pressed to 65% of crystal density. The powders had 120 and 10 {micro}m average grain sizes, respectively. Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with projectiles launched in a 72-mm bore gas gun. Impactors, impact velocity, and explosive thickness were chosen so that the run distance to detonation was always less than half the explosive thickness. For the high density plastic bonded explosives, particle velocity wave profiles were measured at an explosive/window interface using two VISAR interferometers. PMMA windows with vapor deposited aluminum mirrors were used for all experiments. Wave profiles for the powdered explosives were measured using magnetic particle velocity gauges. Estimates of the reaction zone parameters were obtained from the profiles using Hugoniots of the explosive and window.

  13. Prompt detonation of secondary explosives by laser

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Secondary high explosives have been promptly detonated by directing a laser beam of various wavelengths from 266 nanometers to 1.06 micron on the surface of the explosives. For this paper ''prompt'' means the excess transit time through an explosive charge is /approximately/250 nanoseconds (or less) less than the accepted full detonation velocity time. Timing between laser pulse, explosive initiation and detonation velocity and function time have been recorded. The laser parameters studied include: wavelength, pulse length, energy and power density, and beam diameter (spot size). Explosives evaluated include: PETN, HNS, HMX, and graphited PETN, HNS, and HMX. Explosive parameters that have been correlated with optical parameters include: density, surface area, critical diameter (spot size), spectral characteristics and enhance absorption. Some explosives have been promptly detonated over the entire range of wavelengths, possibly by two competing initiating mechanisms. Other explosives could not be detonated at any of the wavelengths or power densities tested. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  15. The behavior limestone under explosive load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, M. Yu; Orlova, Yu N.; Bogomolov, G. N.

    2016-11-01

    Limestone behavior under explosive loading was investigated. The behavior of the limestone by the action of the three types of explosives, including granular, ammonite and emulsion explosives was studied in detail. The shape and diameter of the explosion craters were obtained. The observed fragments after the blast have been classified as large, medium and small fragments. Three full-scale experiments were carried out. The research results can be used as a qualitative test for the approbation of numerical methods.

  16. Explosives for Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Explosive charges of various sizes were investigated for use in lunar seismic studies. Program logistics, and the specifications for procurement of bulk explosives are described. The differential analysis, thermal properties, and detonation velocity measurements on HNS/Teflon 7C 90/10 are reported along with the field tests of the hardware. It is concluded that nearly all large explosive charges crack after fabrication, from aging or thermal shock. The cracks do not affect the safety, or reliability of the explosives.

  17. Effects of Particle Beams on Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    azide) and secondary (HMX, RDX, TATB, HNS , NTO and TNT) explosives as well as the oxidizer ammonium perchlorate. During each experiment the explosive...out with HMX, RDX, TNT, TATB, HNS and NTO. During this study, the rate of energy deposition was approximately 1-1.5 cal/gm-s, yielding a temperature...RECRYSTALLIZED HMX PRIMARY EXPLOSIVE - PROTON BEAMS When experiments on primary explosives such as lead azide, lead styphnate, PETN and ammonium perchlorate were

  18. Guided Terahertz Waves for Characterizing Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    spectroscopy is the detection of explosives materials through identi- fication of their vibrational fingerprint spectra. While much progress has been...made toward the measure- ment of THz vibrational fingerprints of explosives,1 fundamental issues remain to be addressed for THz sensing of...explosives to reach its full potential. One issue is that line broadening mechanisms obscure the vibrational spectra of explosives, such that individual

  19. Shock response of several plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, G.T.; Ashwell, K.D.; OConnor, J.H.; Baker, R.N.; Lemar, E.R.

    1996-05-01

    Multiple {ital in situ} manganin gauge experiments were performed on explosive compositions IRX-1, IRX-3A, PBXN-111 (PBXW-115), and PBXN-110 (PBXW-113). For most explosives, stress-time profiles show substantial reaction. These profiles are compared to those measured in other explosives and plans are discussed for future reactive rate modeling involving these explosives. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Measuring explosive non-ideality

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P C

    1999-02-17

    The sonic reaction zone length may be measured by four methods: (1) size effect, (2) detonation front curvature, (3) crystal interface velocity and (4) in-situ gauges. The amount of data decreases exponentially from (1) to (4) with there being almost no gauge data for prompt detonation at steady state. The ease and clarity of obtaining the reaction zone length increases from (1) to (4). The method of getting the reaction zone length, , is described for the four methods. A measure of non-ideality is proposed: the reaction zone length divided by the cylinder radius. N = /R{sub o}. N = 0 for true ideality. It also decreases with increasing radius as it should. For N < 0.10, an equilibrium EOS like the JWL may be used. For N > 0.10, a time-dependent description is essential. The crystal experiment, which measures the particle velocity of an explosive-transparent material interface, is presently rising in importance. We examine the data from three experiments and apply: (1) an impedance correction that transfers the explosive C-J particle velocity to the corresponding value for the interface, and (2) multiplies the interface time by 3/4 to simulate the explosive speed of sound. The result is a reaction zone length comparable to those obtained by other means. A few explosives have reaction zones so small that the change of slope in the particle velocity is easily seen.

  1. LX-10 Explosive Damage Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-03

    Laboratory for further analysis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS CompB, Composition B, cylinders , energetic materials, explosive, LX-10, melt cast, pressed, shotgun...11  Part I – Cylinder ...Impact Velocity ........................................................... 14  11. Maximum Burn Area Ratio Versus Impact Velocity for LX-10 Cylinders

  2. Surface Instabilities From Buried Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-21

    during the explosive event. This has been done successfully on a larger scale using tourmaline pressure gages, for example, [5]. With quite small... tourmaline pressure gages, it should be possible to do so in small scale tests as well. Measuring the pressure will enable one to address the effect

  3. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  4. Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04

    A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

  5. Laser initiation of secondary explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.; Trott, Wayne M.

    Several experiments were performed to investigate the effects of explosive material parameters on energy thresholds for direct laser initiation of secondary explosives. Laser energy requirements for initiation of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) were decreased for small particle size powder and low density pressings. Promptness of detonation, however, was aided by higher densities. Initiation of PETN was achieved at energies at or below 10 mJ (power densities approximately 0.2 GW sq cm) at laser wavelengths of 1.06 micrometers, 532 nm and 355 nm and strong confinement of the explosive sample assisted build-up to detonation. At 355 and 308 nm PETN could be initiated by irradiation on the bare explosive surface. Hexahydro 1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine (RDX) was initiated at 308 nm but not at 1.06 micrometers. Hexanitrostibene (HNS) by direct irradiation at any of these wavelengths was successful. The results suggest that if sufficient energy is deposited, a fast deflagration or convective burn is achieved and that this grows to detonation via a conventional deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  6. Recent Combined Effects Explosives Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    compared to traditional blast explosives. However, the traditional Chapman - Jouguet detonation theory does not explain the observed detonation states...expansion along the principle isentrope from the Chapman - Jouguet state. The analytic cylinder test model was recently updated to include eigenvalue...for eigenvalue detonations compared to Chapman - Jouguet detonations. The details of the analytic cylinder test are presented. Additionally, new semi

  7. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  8. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  9. Lead-free primary explosives

    DOEpatents

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  10. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  11. Doping explosive materials for neutron radiographic enhancement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of studies relating to the selection of doping materials of high neutron absorption usable for enhancing the neutron radiographic imaging of explosive mixtures, without interfering with the proper chemical reaction of the explosives. The results of the studies show that gadolinium oxide is an excellent material for doping explosive mixtures to enhance the neutron radiographic image.

  12. Near field optical characterization of explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNesby, Kevin L.; Homan, Barrie E.; Benjamin, Richard A.; Boyle, Vincent M.; Biss, Matthew M.; Densmore, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques and instrumentation allow for simultaneous, real-time mapping of temperature, pressure, chemical species and energy deposition during and following explosions. This work provides quantitative, simultaneous measurement in the explosive near and far-field (0-500 charge diameters) of surface temperatures, peak air-shock pressures, chemical species signatures and shock energy deposition that characterize explosions.

  13. Scientific Support for NQR Explosive Detection Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 8 March 2004 - 7 March 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Scientific Support for NQR Explosive Detection Development...Laboratory (NRL) to improve explosive detection using nuclear quadrupole resonance ( NQR ) is summarized. The work includes studies of the effects...superconducting coils for explosive detection. Additional studies involving slowly rotating NQR measurements were also pursued. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nuclear

  14. Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives

    DOEpatents

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1979-01-01

    By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

  15. 46 CFR 147.95 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives. 147.95 Section 147.95 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.95 Explosives. (a) Explosives—general. Except as provided for elsewhere in this subchapter, explosives, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50, which are hazardous...

  16. 46 CFR 147.95 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives. 147.95 Section 147.95 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.95 Explosives. (a) Explosives—general. Except as provided for elsewhere in this subchapter, explosives, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50, which are hazardous...

  17. 46 CFR 147.95 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives. 147.95 Section 147.95 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.95 Explosives. (a) Explosives—general. Except as provided for elsewhere in this subchapter, explosives, as defined in 49 CFR 173.50, which are hazardous...

  18. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  19. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  20. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  1. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  2. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  3. 78 FR 1143 - Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 420 RIN 2120-AJ73 Explosive Siting Requirements; Correction... regulations to the requirements for siting explosives under a license to operate a launch site. The rule... liquids and explosives. The FAA inadvertently did not correctly identify the Department of...

  4. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522)....

  5. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  6. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  9. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  10. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  11. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-ENG)....

  12. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  13. 33 CFR 401.67 - Explosive vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive vessels. 401.67 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.67 Explosive vessels. A vessel carrying explosives, either Government or commercial, as defined in the Dangerous Cargo Act of the...

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-25 - Explosive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Explosive. 188.10-25 Section 188.10-25 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-25 Explosive. This term means a chemical compound or... release of gas and heat. Explosives are discussed in more detail in 49 CFR parts 171-179....

  15. 46 CFR 153.921 - Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Explosives. 153.921 Section 153.921 Shipping COAST GUARD....921 Explosives. No person may load, off-load, or carry a cargo listed in this part on board a vessel that carries explosives unless he has the prior written permission of the Commandant (CG-522)....

  16. 14 CFR 420.63 - Explosive siting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Explosive siting. 420.63 Section 420.63... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE Responsibilities of a Licensee § 420.63 Explosive... the configuration of the launch site is in accordance with an explosive site plan, and that...

  17. Insensitive Munitions -- New Explosives on the Horizon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    DNAN ); the second was 3-nitro-1, 2, 4-tri- azol-5-one (NTO). OSI manufactures DNAN and NTO in a facility originally designed to destroy explosive...explosive ingredients, including DNAN and NTO. OSI used DNAN , NTO and other in- gredients to develop Ordnance Systems Explosive-Common Ammunition New- fill

  18. Analysis of Picattiny Sample for Trace Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Klunder, G; Whipple, R; Carman, L; Spackman, P E; Reynolds, J; Alcaraz, A

    2008-05-23

    The sample received from Picatinny Arsenal was analyzed for trace amounts of high explosives (HE). A complete wash of the surface was performed, concentrated, and analyzed using two sensitive analysis techniques that are capable of detecting numerous types of explosives. No explosives were detected with either test.

  19. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1301 - Explosives; magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives; magazines. 77.1301 Section 77.1301... and Blasting § 77.1301 Explosives; magazines. (a) Detonators and explosives other than blasting agents shall be stored in magazines. (b) Detonators shall not be stored in the same magazine with...

  4. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  5. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.202 Classes of explosive materials. For purposes of this part, there are three classes of explosive...

  6. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Classes of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.202 Classes of explosive materials. For purposes of this part, there are three classes of explosive...

  7. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  8. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Identification of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive materials,...

  9. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  10. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  11. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  12. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  13. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  14. 27 CFR 555.32 - Special explosive devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Special explosive devices..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.32 Special explosive devices. The Director may exempt certain explosive...

  15. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  16. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Classes of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.202 Classes of explosive materials. For purposes of this part, there are three classes of explosive...

  17. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... explosive materials. 555.109 Section 555.109 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive...

  18. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  19. 27 CFR 555.109 - Identification of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Identification of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Conduct of Business or Operations § 555.109 Identification of explosive materials. (a) General. Explosive materials,...

  20. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.202 Classes of explosive materials. For purposes of this part, there are three classes of explosive...

  1. 27 CFR 555.202 - Classes of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.202 Classes of explosive materials. For purposes of this part, there are three classes of explosive...

  2. 27 CFR 555.205 - Movement of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Movement of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.205 Movement of explosive materials. All explosive materials must be kept in locked magazines meeting...

  3. Recycling Propellants and Explosives into the Commercial Explosive Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    for Belarus’ and Ukraine’s mining industry . The net results of these munition conversion efforts include: • an environmentally safe conversion of...previously had. This activity keeps the mining industry from taking additional ammonium nitrate away from the agricultural sector where it is used as a...propellants and explosives into the commercial mining industry . First, the reclaimed energetic materials cannot be economically used if the EPA identifies

  4. Explosive events on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harra, Louise K.

    2002-12-01

    I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System-the explosive flares that can occur when plasma is confined by magnetic fields and the large-scale ejections of material known as 'coronal mass ejections'. These explosive events are poorly understood and yet occur in a variety of contexts in the Universe, ranging from planetary magnetospheres to active galactic nuclei. Understanding why flares and coronal mass ejections occur is a major goal across a wide range of space physics and astrophysics. Although explosive events from the Sun have dramatic effects on Earth, flares in other stars, for example, can be vastly more energetic and have an even more profound effect on their environment. We are now in the unprecedented position of having access to a number of space observatories dedicated to the Sun: the Yohkoh spacecraft, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. These cover a wide wavelength range from white light to gamma rays with both spectroscopy and imaging, and allow huge progress to be made in understanding the processes involved in such large explosions. The high-resolution data show dramatic and complex explosions of material on all spatial scales on the Sun. They have revealed that the Sun is constantly changing everywhere on its surface-something that was never imagined before. One of the mechanisms that has been proposed to account for the large energy release is magnetic reconnection. Recent observations from space increasingly support this view. This article will discuss those observations that support this model and also those that suggest different processes. The current space missions have given us an excellent insight into the actual explosive processes in the Sun. However, they have provided us with only a tantalizing glimpse of what causes the elusive trigger. Future missions such as Solar-B (the follow-on to

  5. Explosive events on the Sun.

    PubMed

    Harra, Louise K

    2002-12-15

    I describe two of the most dynamic and highly energetic phenomena in the Solar System--the explosive flares that can occur when plasma is confined by magnetic fields and the large-scale ejections of material known as 'coronal mass ejections'. These explosive events are poorly understood and yet occur in a variety of contexts in the Universe, ranging from planetary magnetospheres to active galactic nuclei. Understanding why flares and coronal mass ejections occur is a major goal across a wide range of space physics and astrophysics. Although explosive events from the Sun have dramatic effects on Earth, flares in other stars, for example, can be vastly more energetic and have an even more profound effect on their environment. We are now in the unprecedented position of having access to a number of space observatories dedicated to the Sun: the Yohkoh spacecraft, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. These cover a wide wavelength range from white light to gamma rays with both spectroscopy and imaging, and allow huge progress to be made in understanding the processes involved in such large explosions. The high-resolution data show dramatic and complex explosions of material on all spatial scales on the Sun. They have revealed that the Sun is constantly changing everywhere on its surface--something that was never imagined before. One of the mechanisms that has been proposed to account for the large energy release is magnetic reconnection. Recent observations from space increasingly support this view. This article will discuss those observations that support this model and also those that suggest different processes. The current space missions have given us an excellent insight into the actual explosive processes in the Sun. However, they have provided us with only a tantalizing glimpse of what causes the elusive trigger. Future missions such as Solar-B (the follow-on to

  6. Sensitivity to friction for primary explosives.

    PubMed

    Matyáš, Robert; Šelešovský, Jakub; Musil, Tomáš

    2012-04-30

    The sensitivity to friction for a selection of primary explosives has been studied using a small BAM friction apparatus. The probit analysis was used for the construction of a sensitivity curve for each primary explosive tested. Two groups of primary explosives were chosen for measurement (a) the most commonly used industrially produced primary explosives (e.g. lead azide, tetrazene, dinol, lead styphnate) and (b) the most produced improvised primary explosives (e.g. triacetone triperoxide, hexamethylenetriperoxide diamine, mercury fulminate, acetylides of heavy metals). A knowledge of friction sensitivity is very important for determining manipulation safety for primary explosives. All the primary explosives tested were carefully characterised (synthesis procedure, shape and size of crystals). The sensitivity curves obtained represent a unique set of data, which cannot be found anywhere else in the available literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOEpatents

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  8. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  9. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  10. Printable sensors for explosive detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Matthew J. Cooling, Nathan A.; Elkington, Daniel C.; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Muller, Elmar

    2014-10-06

    Here, we report the development of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based on printable solution processed polymers and employing a quantum tunnelling composite material as a sensor to convert the pressure wave output from detonation transmission tubing (shock tube) into an inherently amplified electronic signal for explosives initiation. The organic electronic detector allows detection of the signal in a low voltage operating range, an essential feature for sites employing live ordinances that is not provided by conventional electronic devices. We show that a 30-fold change in detector response is possible using the presented detector assembly. Degradation of the OTFT response with both time and repeated voltage scans was characterised, and device lifetime is shown to be consistent with the requirements for on-site printing and usage. The integration of a low cost organic electronic detector with inexpensive shock tube transmission fuse presents attractive avenues for the development of cheap and simple assemblies for precisely timed initiation of explosive chains.

  11. Applying NASA's explosive seam welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.

    1991-01-01

    The status of an explosive seam welding process, which was developed and evaluated for a wide range of metal joining opportunities, is summarized. The process employs very small quantities of explosive in a ribbon configuration to accelerate a long-length, narrow area of sheet stock into a high-velocity, angular impact against a second sheet. At impact, the oxide films of both surface are broken up and ejected by the closing angle to allow atoms to bond through the sharing of valence electrons. This cold-working process produces joints having parent metal properties, allowing a variety of joints to be fabricated that achieve full strength of the metals employed. Successful joining was accomplished in all aluminum alloys, a wide variety of iron and steel alloys, copper, brass, titanium, tantalum, zirconium, niobium, telerium, and columbium. Safety issues were addressed and are as manageable as many currently accepted joining processes.

  12. Ranchero Explosive Pulsed Power Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Goforth, J.H.; Atchison, W.L.; Deninger, W.J.; Fowler, C.M.; Herrera, D.H.; King, J.C.; Lopez, E.A.; Oona, H.; Reinovsky, R.E.; Stokes, J.L.; Sena, F.C.; Tabaka, L.J.; Tasker, D.G.; Torres, D.T.; Lindemuth, I.R.; Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Taylor, A.J.; Rodriguez, G.; Oro, D.M.; Garcia, O.F.; parker, J.V.; Broste, W.B.

    1999-06-27

    The authors are developing the Ranchero high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system to power cylindrically imploding solid-density liners for hydrodynamics experiments. The near-term goal is to conduct experiments in the regime pertinent to the Atlas Capacitor bank. That is, they will attempt to implode liners of {approximately}50 g mass at velocities approaching 15 km/sec. The basic building block of the HEPP system is a coaxial generator with a 304.8 mm diameter stator, and an initial armature diameter of 152 mm. The armature is expanded by a high explosive (HE) charge detonated simultaneously along its axis. They have reported a variety of experiments conducted with generator modules 43 cm long and have presented an initial design for hydrodynamic liner experiments. In this paper they give a synopsis of their first system test, and a status report on the development of a generator module that is 1.4 m long.

  13. Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives

    DOE PAGES

    Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; ...

    2015-04-14

    Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, andmore » an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.« less

  14. Photographic laboratory studies of explosions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, M. M.; Oppenheim, A. K.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a series of cinematographic studies of explosions made with a high-speed rotating-mirror streak camera which uses a high-frequency stroboscopic ruby laser as the light source. The results obtained mainly concern explosions initiated by focused laser irradiation from a pulsed neodymium laser in a detonating gas consisting essentially of an equimolar mixture of acetylene and oxygen at an initial pressure of 100 torr at room temperature. Among the most significant observations were observations of a spherical blast wave preceded by a Chapman-Jouguet detonation which is stabilized immediately after initiation, the merging of a spherical flame with a shock front of the blast wave in which the flame is propagating, the division of a spherical detonation front into a shock wave and flame, and the generation of shock waves by a network of spherical flames.

  15. Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.

    2015-04-14

    Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, and an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.

  16. Liquids and homemade explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenbogen, Michael; Bijjani, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Excerpt from the US Transportation Security Agency website: "The ban on liquids, aerosols and gels was implemented on August 10 after a terrorist plot was foiled. Since then, experts from around the government, including the FBI and our national labs have analyzed the information we now have and have conducted extensive explosives testing to get a better understanding of this specific threat." In order to lift the ban and ease the burden on the flying public, Reveal began an extensive effort in close collaboration with the US and several other governments to help identify these threats. This effort resulted in the successful development and testing of an automated explosive detection system capable of resolving these threats with a high probability of detection and a low false alarm rate. We will present here some of the methodology and approach we took to address this problem.

  17. Fluid Instabilities inside Astrophysical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Zheng, Weiqun

    2014-11-01

    We present our results from the simulations of fluid instabilities inside supernovae with a new radiation-hydrodynamic code, CASTRO. Massive stars are ten times more massive than Sun. Observational and theoretical studies suggest that these massive stars tend to end their lives with energetic explosions, so-called supernovae. Many fluid instabilities occur during the supernova explosions. The fluid instabilities can be driven by hydrodynamics, nuclear burning, or radiation. In this talk, we discuss about the possible physics of fluid instabilities found in our simulations and how the resulting mixing affects the observational signatures of supernovae. This work was supported by the DOE HEP Program under contract DE-SC0010676; the National Science Foundation (AST 0909129) and the NASA Theory Program (NNX14AH34G).

  18. Stellar explosions, instabilities, and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Miles, A. R.; Muthsam, H. J.; Plewa, T.

    2009-04-15

    It has become very clear that the evolution of structure during supernovae is centrally dependent on the pre-existing structure in the star. Modeling of the pre-existing structure has advanced significantly, leading to improved understanding and to a physically based assessment of the structure that will be present when a star explodes. It remains an open question whether low-mode asymmetries in the explosion process can produce the observed effects or whether the explosion mechanism somehow produces jets of material. In any event, the workhorse processes that produce structure in an exploding star are blast-wave driven instabilities. Laboratory experiments have explored these blast-wave-driven instabilities and specifically their dependence on initial conditions. Theoretical work has shown that the relative importance of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities varies with the initial conditions and does so in ways that can make sense of a range of astrophysical observations.

  19. Explosives Dissolved from Unexploded Ordnance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    is corroded through, can release the high explosive fill into the surrounding soils. The rates at which the steel casings corrode depend on the...2004) compiled corrosion rates for the main steel types used to manufacture common military rounds. The lowest rates (ɘ.001 mm yr-1) were reported for...Stainless Steel or Aluminum in an aerobic water environment. The highest rates (1-1.5 mm yr-1) were reported for steel containing carbon and

  20. Surf Zone Explosive Channel Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    Surf Zone Explosive Channel Modeling William G. Szymczak Physical Acoustics Branch, Code 7131 Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5350...phone: (202) 767-7212 fax: (202) 404-7420 e-mail: szymczak @eeyore.nrl.navy.mil Award #: N0001498WX30162 Stephen Van Denk NSWC Indian Head...excavation by the explosion’s bubble Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information

  1. Migration of Explosives in Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-06

    I .1• N"WC TR 82.568 LI •MIGRATION OF EXPLOSIVES IN SOIL BY ELEONORE G. KAYSER, NICHOLAS E. BURLINSON , RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT...GRANT NUmSitR(*) Eleonore G. Kayser Nicholas E. Burlinson 1. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND AODRESS tO.-*ROUAM ELIMEN TROJECT, "rSIC11. OAK UNIT NUMI...Avenue U. S. Environmental Protection Menlo Park , CA 94025 Agency Office of Research & Development Atlantic Research Corporation Monitoring

  2. Pre-Engineered Explosives Magazines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    JUN 2001 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pre-Engineered Explosives Magazines 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pre-engineered magazines provide a cost...Design Guidelines for Physical Security of Facilities.? Pre-engineered magazines are available in a variety of sizes at about half the cost of onsite

  3. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  4. Safety with Explosives and Amunitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    these t i m e s to human life were the cause of large number of acidents and the seriousness of their consequences. In older days manufacturing ...Seminar (24th) Held in St. Louis, MO on 28-30 August 1990. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...developing new methods and approaches to eliminate the possible hazardous situations. Explosives are fraught with r isk and every effort has thereflre

  5. Models of Explosively Driven Metal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    AN ARBITRARY NUMBER OF LAYERS A. Introduction 49 B. The Jelly Roll and Onion 51 C. The Dagwood .... .,.,,.. .. . 58 SUMMARY ........ .:’’. :’ir...50 10. Layer Numbering Scheme for the Jelly Roll and Onion 53 11. Layer Numbering Scheme for the Dagwood • 59 This page Left Intentionally Blank...Dependence of the Rate of Detonation of Solid Explosives on the Diameter of the Charge," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 189A, 1946, p. 415

  6. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  7. Explosive shielding by weak layers

    SciTech Connect

    Fourney, W.L.; Dick, R.D.; Weaver, T.A.

    1993-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of computations which were carried out to determine the effect that a layer of extremely weak rock embedded in an otherwise strong rock matrix would have on the displacements and velocities which result from the detonation of a nearby explosive source. The motivation for the study was the apparently different measurements obtained on the Mission Cyber Nuclear Event when compared to results obtained from other events of equal yield in similar geologic media.

  8. Explosive shielding by weak layers

    SciTech Connect

    Fourney, W.L.; Dick, R.D.; Weaver, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of computations which were carried out to determine the effect that a layer of extremely weak rock embedded in an otherwise strong rock matrix would have on the displacements and velocities which result from the detonation of a nearby explosive source. The motivation for the study was the apparently different measurements obtained on the Mission Cyber Nuclear Event when compared to results obtained from other events of equal yield in similar geologic media.

  9. Energy transfer in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Fried, L.E.; Ruggiero, A.J.; Calef, D.F.

    1993-07-01

    The nonequilibrium Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring theory of detonation in solid explosives is extended to include recent nanosecond and picosecond experimental and theoretical results on each of the four main regions of the reaction zone. The first region is the three-dimensional, Mach stem dominated leading shock front which excites the phonon modes of the explosive molecules in less than a picosecond. The second region is the multiphonon up-pumping process in which the excited phonons anharmonically couple to the low frequency (doorway) vibrational modes which in turn equilibrate with the higher frequency modes by internal vibrational redistribution. This process may require on the order of tens of picoseconds. The third region is the chemical reconstitution region in which the vibrationally equilibrated transition state decomposes in a series of chain reaction steps into highly vibrationally excited diatomic and triatomic molecules in approximately one nanosecond. The fourth region is dominated by vibrational deexcitation and solid species formation as chemical and thermal equilibrium is approached. This is the region measured by current nanosecond resolution techniques and can last from nanoseconds to microseconds depending on the oxygen balance of the solid explosive.

  10. Fish kill from underwater explosions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, David J.

    1962-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has used 23 different shotpoints during two seasons of field work in our seismic study of crustal structure in western United States. Without exception, it has been found that under-water shotpoints result in a more efficient conversion of explosive energy into seismic energy than do drilled-hole shotpoints. This experience, together with elimination of drilling costs, has led to the use of underwater shotpoints wherever possible. Three of the 23 shotpoints were in the Pacific Ocean, and for these we have no detailed information on the fish kill. Another six shotpoints were located in inland bodies of water. These are: * Soda Lake near Fallon, Nevada * Mono Lake near Lee Vining, California * Lake Mead near Boulder City, Nevada * Shasta Lake near Redding, California * C.J. Strike Reservoir near Bruneau, Idaho * Lucky Peak Reservoir near Boise, Idaho The 22 high-explosive charges, weighing a total of 95,100 pounds, that were fired in lakes containing fish life resulted in the known death of 2,413 game fish with a total weight of 759 pounds. The average mortality was 110 game fish or 34.5 pounds of game fish killed per average shot of 4,325 pounds of high-explosives.

  11. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-03-12

    We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

  12. Intravesical explosions during transurethral endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Masood, J; Ghei, M; Kasmani, Z; Ball, A J; Miller, R

    2007-01-01

    Every Urologist, during the course of fulguration treatment of bladder tumours, has at some time or another experienced small intravesical explosions usually manifesting as a "pop". Major intravesical explosions are rare but potentially devastating complications of transurethral endoscopic resections. The damage to the bladder can range from small mucosal tears to bladder rupture, which can either be intraperitoneal (requiring laparotomy and open bladder repair) or extraperitoneal. We review the literature on intravesical explosions to determine the aetiology of these explosions and suggest strategies to prevent these. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain information using search terms: intravesical explosions, transurethral procedures, endoscopic procedures, diathermyIntravesical explosions occur due to the production of explosive gases during use of diathermy on human tissues. The most dangerous combination is hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen alone is not explosive and it only becomes explosive when admixed with oxygen. Oxygen is not produced in sufficient quantity during diathermy to cause explosions but can enter into the bladder from the atmosphere during endoscopic procedures. Careful operative technique (correct use of the Ellick evacuator bulb and reducing the frequency of manual irrigations of the bladder) with minimisation of the operative time and using the coagulation current at moderate power as well as judicious coagulation of tissues can reduce the risk of this dangerous complication arising.

  13. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect

    Demin, V.N.; Malahova, M.N.; Martysevich, P.N.; Mihaylova, N.N.; Nurmagambetov, A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F. D.; Edomin, V.I.

    1996-12-01

    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  14. Explosive response model evaluation using the explosive H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Gerrit T.; Burns, Joseph

    2000-04-01

    Reactive rate model parameters for a two term Lee Tarver [simplified ignition and growth (SIG)] model were obtained for the explosive H6 from modified gap test data. These model was used to perform simulations of the underwater sensitivity test (UST) using the CTH hydrocode. Reaction was predicted in the simulations for the same water gaps that reaction was observed in the UST. The expansions observed for the UST samples were not simulated correctly, and this is attributed to the density equilibrium conditions imposed between unreacted and reacted components in CTH for the Lee-Tarver model.

  15. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, Christos; Baker, Ernest; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steven; Stiel, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of theory and performance for recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives. Traditional high energy explosives used for metal pushing incorporate high loading percentages of HMX or RDX, whereas blast explosives incorporate some percentage of aluminum. However, the high blast explosives produce increased blast energies, with reduced metal pushing capability due to late time aluminum reaction. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder wall velocities and Gurney energies. Our Recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing and high blast energies. Traditional Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory does not explain the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. This work demonstrates, with the use of cylinder expansion data and thermochemical code calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH), that eigenvalue detonation theory explains the observed behavior.

  16. Thermal explosion in oscillating ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novozhilov, Vasily

    2016-07-01

    Thermal explosion problem for a medium with oscillating ambient temperature at its boundaries is considered. This is a new problem in thermal explosion theory, not previously considered in a distributed system formulation, but important for combustion and fire science. It describes autoignition of wide range of fires (such as but not limited to piles of biosolids and other organic matter; storages of munitions, explosives, propellants) subjected to temperature variations, such as seasonal or day/night variation. The problem is considered in formulation adopted in classical studies of thermal explosion. Critical conditions are determined by frequency and amplitude of ambient temperature oscillations, as well as by a number of other parameters. Effects of all the parameters on critical conditions are quantified. Results are presented for the case of planar symmetry. Development of thermal explosion in time is also considered, and a new type of unsteady thermal explosion development is discovered where thermal runaway occurs after several periods of temperature oscillations within the medium.

  17. Explosives Detection: Exploitation of the Physical Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, David

    2010-10-01

    Explosives based terrorism is an ongoing threat that is evolving with respect to implementation, configuration and materials used. There are a variety of devices designed to detect explosive devices, however, each technology has limitations and operational constraints. A full understanding of the signatures available for detection coupled with the array of detection choices can be used to develop a conceptual model of an explosives screening operation. Physics based sensors provide a robust approach to explosives detection, typically through the identification of anomalies, and are currently used for screening in airports around the world. The next generation of detectors for explosives detection will need to be more sensitive and selective, as well as integrate seamlessly with devices focused on chemical signatures. An appreciation for the details of the physical signature exploitation in cluttered environments with time, space, and privacy constraints is necessary for effective explosives screening of people, luggage, cargo, and vehicles.

  18. Background-Oriented Schlieren Characterization of Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo, Cynthia; Hargather, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Characterizing the energy release from large explosions is a difficult process using traditional point-pressure gages. The background oriented schlieren technique is used here to provide large-field-of-view visualization of the shock wave propagation from large-scale explosions. This technique is used to allow field-measurements of blast wave properties instead of traditional point-wise measurements. By analyzing the shock wave propagation Mach number the peak overpressure and overpressure duration are estimated for different explosions. The technique is applied to the visualization of encased explosions, including car bombs, to estimate the amount of shock energy lost to the fragmentation and acceleration of the casing. Comparisons are made to un-encased explosions. The optically measured data is compared to experimental data recorded using piezoelectric pressure transducers. Scaling relationships are examined to determine scalability of encased explosions.

  19. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  20. Numerical Methods for Explosion Plume Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-12

    AD-A262 343 6 NAVSWC TR 91-718 A -22~4..v~w•T ,,-., I II It ill/111111 ti(. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR EXPLOSION PLUME PREDICTIONS BY W.G. SZYMCZAK AND A...METHODS FOR EXPLOSION PLUME PREDICTIONS BY W. G. SZYMCZAK AND A. B. WARDLAW RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT 12 MARCH 1993 Approved for public release...2 TABLES Table Page 3-1 SHALLOW DEPTH EXPLOSION BUBBLE INITIAL DATA

  1. Explosibility of Victorian brown coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboenko, F.

    1987-04-01

    The explosibility of Victorian brown coal dusts has been investigated in a wide range of equipment, including the 1.2 dm/sup 3/ Hartmann bomb and the 20 litre spherical bomb. The Hartmann bomb seriously underestimates the severity of brown coal dust explosions and empirical relations between Hartmann bomb and Spherical bomb results cited in the literature are not valid for brown coal. Explosibility increases with decreasing moisture content and particle size and increases with increasing volatile matter content.

  2. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  3. Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives. Project Plowshare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1959-09-01

    ALBUQUERQUE.., NEW MEXICO P E A C E F U L USES OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVES (U) 1. September 1.959 s contents unauthorized p e r s o n is proh...3. DATES COVERED FEB 1957 - SEP 1959 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosives (U) Project Plowshare 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This report summarizes the AEC activity in the peaceful uses of nuclear explosives. The

  4. White phosphorus poisoning--explosive encounter.

    PubMed

    Pande, T K; Pandey, S

    2004-03-01

    Poisoning by white or yellow phosphorus is reported in various forms and also in ages varying from infants to adults, but spontaneous combustion and explosion during its management has never been described. This incidence occurred while attempting to pass a Ryle's tube. Its free end first exhibited a yellow flame and this later on led to an explosive encounter. Role of static electricity generated while handling plastic materials leading to ignition and explosion cannot be overlooked.

  5. Detecting explosive substances by the IR spectrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuula, J.; Rinta, Heikki J.; Pölönen, I.; Puupponen, H.-H.; Haukkamäki, Marko; Teräväinen, T.

    2014-05-01

    Fast and safe detection methods of explosive substances are needed both before and after actualized explosions. This article presents an experiment of the detection of three selected explosives by the ATR FTIR spectrometer and by three different IR hyperspectral imaging devices. The IR spectrometers give accurate analyzing results, whereas hyperspectral imagers can detect and analyze desired samples without touching the unidentified target at all. In the controlled explosion experiment TNT, dynamite and PENO were at first analyzed as pure substances with the ATR FTIR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR cameras. After three controlled explosions also the residues of TNT, dynamite and PENO were analyzed with the same IR devices. The experiments were performed in arctic outdoor conditions and the residues were collected on ten different surfaces. In the measurements the spectra of all three explosives were received as pure substances with all four IR devices. Also the explosion residues of TNT were found on cotton with the IR spectrometer and with VNIR, SWIR and MWIR hyperspectral imagers. All measurements were made directly on the test materials which had been placed on the explosion site and were collected for the analysis after each blast. Measurements were made with the IR spectrometer also on diluted sample. Although further tests are suggested, the results indicate that the IR spectrography is a potential detection method for explosive subjects, both as pure substances and as post-blast residues.

  6. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    DOEpatents

    Moore, David Steven [Santa Fe, NM

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  7. The Safety Aspects of Handling Primary Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Neha; Oyler, Karl; Cheng, Gartung

    2013-06-01

    Primary Explosives, unlike secondary explosives, show a very rapid transition from deflagration to detonation and are considerably sensitive to small stimuli, such as impact,friction, electrostatic discharge, and heat. Primary explosives generate either a large amount of heat or a shockwave which makes the transfer of the detonation to a less sensitive propellant or secondary explosive possible. Primary explosives are key components in detonators and primers, which are the initiating elements to many military items such as small, medium and large caliber munitions, mortars, artilleries, warheads, etc. The two most common military primary explosives are lead azide and lead styphnate. Lead based compounds such as these are well-established hazards to health and the environment. To overcome these concerns, we are seeking to replace lead azide in common U.S. Army detonators and primers with DBX-1. Further, in order to minimize the dangers to personnel and equipment associated with synthesizing and handling primary explosives, we have developed a dedicated, remote-operated facility for the synthesis and testing of primary explosives. This paper will present the characterization capabilities and testing methods of primary explosives safe, along with the automation process developed.

  8. Momentum transfer in indirect explosive drive

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, J.E.; Warnes, R.H.; Cherry, C.R.; Cherry, C.R. Jr.; Fischer, S.H.

    1996-07-01

    Material which is not in direct contact with detonating explosives may still be driven by the explosion through impact by driven material or by attachment to driven material. In such circumstances the assumption of inelastic collision permits estimation of the final velocity of an assemblage. Examples of the utility of this assumption are demonstrated through use of Gurney equations. The inelastic collision calculation may also be used for metal parts which are driven by explosives partially covering the metal. We offer a new discounting angle to account for side energy losses from laterally unconfined explosive charges in cases where the detonation wave travels parallel to the surface which is driven.

  9. Overall characterization of cork dust explosion.

    PubMed

    Pilão, R; Ramalho, E; Pinho, C

    2006-05-20

    Explosibility and ignitability studies of air/cork dust mixtures were conducted in a near-spherical 22.7 L explosibility test chamber using pyrotechnic ignitors and in a furnace of 1.23 L. The suspension dust burned as air-dispersed dust clouds and the uniformity of the dispersion inside the chamber was evaluated through optical dust probes. The range of tested particle sizes went from a mass median diameter of 47.4 to 438.3 microm and the covered dust cloud concentration was up to 700-800 g/m(3). Measured explosion parameters included minimum explosible concentration, maximum explosion pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise and minimum autoignition temperature. The effect of dust particle size on flammability was evaluated and it was found that the minimum explosible concentration is around 40 g/m(3) and it is relatively independent of particle size below 180 microm. Maximum explosion pressure of 7.2 bar and maximum rate of pressure rise of 179 bar/s were detected for the smallest tested sizes. The limitations on the rates of devolatilization of the solid particles became rate controlling at high burning velocities, at high dust loadings and for large particle sizes. The effect of initial pressure on the characteristic parameters of the explosion was studied by varying the initial absolute pressure from 0.9 bar to 2.2 bar, and it was found that as initial pressure increases, there is a proportional increase of minimum explosion limit, maximum explosion pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise. The influence of the intensity of the ignition energy on the development of the explosion was evaluated using ignition energies of 1000 J, 2500 J and 5000 J, and the experimental data showed that the value of 2500 J is the most convenient to use in the determination of minimum explosion concentration. The behavior of the cork dust explosion in hybrid methane air mixtures was studied for atmospheres with 2% and 3.5% (v/v) of methane. The effect of methane content on the

  10. Premature explosive transformation in magnetocumulative generators

    SciTech Connect

    Lyudaev, R.Z.; Plyashkevich, L.N.; Shuvalov, A.M.

    1986-07-01

    Direct observations were made of the transformation of the explosive using a flat magnetocumulative generator. The generator was powered by a capacitor bank with a capacitance of 6000 microf. The explosive was plastic and the alloy TG 50/50 was also used for the charge. The experiments performed clearly show that under the action of the magnetic pressure the process of explosive transformation can develop in the explosive charge in the generator, which must be taken into account when the generator is designed.

  11. Explosive radiation sources for analytical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, V. I.; Plotnikov, S. V.; Turlybekuly, A.

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of using the explosion energy of condensed explosives in solids analytical spectroscopy was investigated. For the atomization and excitation emission spectra of solids (BaCl2 and SrCl2) pressed powders of furazanotetrazinedioxide (FTDO, C2N6O3) were used. Initiation of the explosion was induced by the influence of high-current electron beam. The impurity atoms that are the part of FTDO, as well as atoms and molecules formed by the evaporation of BaCl2 and SrCl2 were identified in the spectra of explosion plasma.

  12. Explosive genetic evidence for explosive human population growth.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Keinan, Alon

    2016-12-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technology has allowed the collection of vast amounts of genetic variation data. A recurring discovery from studying larger and larger samples of individuals had been the extreme, previously unexpected, excess of very rare genetic variants, which has been shown to be mostly due to the recent explosive growth of human populations. Here, we review recent literature that inferred recent changes in population size in different human populations and with different methodologies, with many pointing to recent explosive growth, especially in European populations for which more data has been available. We also review the state-of-the-art methods and software for the inference of historical population size changes that lead to these discoveries. Finally, we discuss the implications of recent population growth on personalized genomics, on purifying selection in the non-equilibrium state it entails and, as a consequence, on the genetic architecture underlying complex disease and the performance of mapping methods in discovering rare variants that contribute to complex disease risk.

  13. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  14. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  15. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  16. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  17. 27 CFR 555.181 - Reporting of plastic explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting of plastic..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Marking of Plastic Explosives § 555.181 Reporting of plastic explosives. All persons, other than an agency of the United...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in... explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not exceed the amount estimated to...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in... explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not exceed the amount estimated to...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in... explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not exceed the amount estimated to...

  1. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false List of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  4. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  5. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  6. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  7. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false List of explosive..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  8. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  9. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  10. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true List of explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.902 - Surface transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface transportation of explosives. 1926.902 Section 1926... Explosives § 1926.902 Surface transportation of explosives. (a) Transportation of explosives shall meet the... Carriers. (b) Motor vehicles or conveyances transporting explosives shall only be driven by, and be in...

  13. 27 CFR 555.28 - Stolen explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Stolen explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.28 Stolen explosive materials. No person shall receive, conceal, transport,...

  14. 27 CFR 555.23 - List of explosive materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true List of explosive materials..., AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 555.23 List of explosive materials. The Director shall compile a list of...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1310 - Explosives and blasting equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting equipment. 75.1310... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1310 Explosives and blasting equipment. (a) Only permissible explosives, approved sheathed explosive units,...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system checked...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in...) Trucks used for the transportation of explosives underground shall have the electrical system checked...

  19. Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

  20. Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

  1. Explosion Welding for Hermetic Containerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgin, Benjamin; Sanok, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    A container designed for storing samples of hazardous material features a double wall, part of which is sacrificed during an explosion-welding process in which the container is sealed and transferred to a clean environment. The major advantage of this container sealing process is that once the samples have been sealed inside, the outer wall of what remains of the container is a clean surface that has not come into contact with the environment from which the samples were taken. Thus, there is no need to devise a decontamination process capable of mitigating all hazards that might be posed by unanticipated radioactive, chemical, and/or biological contamination of the outside of the container. The container sealing method was originally intended to be used to return samples from Mars to Earth, but it could also be used to store samples of hazardous materials, without the need to decontaminate its outer surface. The process stages are shown. In its initial double-wall form, the volume between the walls is isolated from the environment; in other words, the outer wall (which is later sacrificed) initially serves to protect the inner container from contamination. The sample is placed inside the container through an opening at one end, then the container is placed into a transfer dock/lid. The surfaces that will be welded together under the explosive have been coated with a soft metallic sacrificial layer. During the explosion, the sacrificial layer is ejected, and the container walls are welded together, creating a strong metallic seal. The inner container is released during the same event and enters the clean environment.

  2. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  3. Supernova Explosions Stay In Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-12-01

    At a very early age, children learn how to classify objects according to their shape. Now, new research suggests studying the shape of the aftermath of supernovas may allow astronomers to do the same. A new study of images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory on supernova remnants - the debris from exploded stars - shows that the symmetry of the remnants, or lack thereof, reveals how the star exploded. This is an important discovery because it shows that the remnants retain information about how the star exploded even though hundreds or thousands of years have passed. "It's almost like the supernova remnants have a 'memory' of the original explosion," said Laura Lopez of the University of California at Santa Cruz, who led the study. "This is the first time anyone has systematically compared the shape of these remnants in X-rays in this way." Astronomers sort supernovas into several categories, or "types", based on properties observed days after the explosion and which reflect very different physical mechanisms that cause stars to explode. But, since observed remnants of supernovas are leftover from explosions that occurred long ago, other methods are needed to accurately classify the original supernovas. Lopez and colleagues focused on the relatively young supernova remnants that exhibited strong X-ray emission from silicon ejected by the explosion so as to rule out the effects of interstellar matter surrounding the explosion. Their analysis showed that the X-ray images of the ejecta can be used to identify the way the star exploded. The team studied 17 supernova remnants both in the Milky Way galaxy and a neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. For each of these remnants there is independent information about the type of supernova involved, based not on the shape of the remnant but, for example, on the elements observed in it. The researchers found that one type of supernova explosion - the so-called Type Ia - left behind relatively symmetric, circular

  4. 76 FR 64974 - Commerce in Explosives; List of Explosive Materials (2011R-18T)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... oxidizing acids and nitrogen bases, sulfates, or sulfamates (cap sensitive). Water-in-oil emulsion explosive..., including non-cap sensitive slurry and water gel explosives. Blasting caps. Blasting gelatin. Blasting... and nitro bodies. Explosive mixtures containing oxygen-releasing inorganic salts and water insoluble...

  5. EXPLOSIVE PROPERTIES OF INITIAL EXPLOSIVES: CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC, MOLECULAR, AND QUANTUM-CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    secondary structure of their crystals; Analysis of the crystal structure of mercury fulminate ; Studies of the properties and explosion mechanism of... mercury fulminate based on the image of its crystal; and Quantum-chemical consideration of explosive properties of initial explosives.

  6. Estimation of explosive charge mass used for explosions on concrete surface for the forensic purpose.

    PubMed

    Bjelovuk, Ivana D; Jaramaz, Slobodan; Mickovic, Dejan

    2012-03-01

    The method of choice used by most terrorists for achieving political goals remains the utilization of explosive devices and there is always visible evidence at a crime scene after the deployment of such devices. Given favorable circumstances, forensic analysis can determine the cause of the explosion - the type of the explosive device, the means of detonation, the type and mass of the explosive charge that has been used and perhaps provide information to lead to the identity of the individual who may have constructed or deployed the explosive device, etc. Evidence of an explosion may take the form of a crater or other damage which may provide some information facilitating and estimating the mass of explosive material used. This paper reports the findings obtained by performing experimental explosions of known charges on a concrete surface, in order to establish the correlation between the charge weight and the effects of the explosion. Known masses of explosives were fired and the dimensions of craters made by explosions were measured. Five empirical equations for estimation of the explosive charge mass from crater dimensions were used.

  7. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Pulse and Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes prior work related to low frequency (< 100 Hz) EMP (ElectroMagnetic Pulse) observed from explosions. It focuses on how EMP signals might, or might not, be useful in monitoring underground nuclear tests, based on the limits of detection, and physical understanding of these signals. In summary: (1) Both chemical and nuclear explosions produce an EMP. (2) The amplitude of the EMP from underground explosions is at least two orders of magnitude lower than from above ground explosions and higher frequency components of the signal are rapidly attenuated due to ground conductivity. (3) In general, in the near field, that is distances (r) of less than 10s of kilometers from the source, the amplitude of the EMP decays approximately as 1/r{sup 3}, which practically limits EMP applications to very close (<{approx}1km) distances. (4) One computational model suggests that the EMP from a decoupled nuclear explosion may be enhanced over the fully coupled case. This has not been validated with laboratory or field data. (5) The magnitude of the EMP from an underground nuclear explosion is about two orders of magnitude larger than that from a chemical explosion, and has a larger component of higher frequencies. In principle these differences might be used to discriminate a nuclear from a chemical explosion using sensors at very close (<{approx}1 km) distances. (6) Arming and firing systems (e.g. detonators, exploding bridge wires) can also produce an EMP from any type of explosion. (7) To develop the understanding needed to apply low frequency EMP to nuclear explosion monitoring, it is recommended to carry out a series of controlled underground chemical explosions with a variety of sizes, emplacements (e.g. fully coupled and decoupled), and arming and firing systems.

  8. Subsurface Explosions in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shuyue; Houim, Ryan; Oran, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations of coupled gas-granular flows are used to study properties of shock formation and propagation in media, such as sand or regolith on the moon, asteroids, or comets. The simulations were performed with a multidimensional fully compressible model, GRAF, which solves two sets of coupled Navier-Stokes equations, one for the gas and one for the granular medium. The specific case discussed here is for a subsurface explosion in a granular medium initiated by an equivalent of 200g of TNT in depths ranging from 0.1m to 3m. The background conditions of 100K, 10 Pa and loose initial particle volume fraction of 25% are consistent with an event on a comet. The initial blast creates a cavity as a granular shock expands outwards. Since the gas-phase shock propagates faster than the granular shock in loose, granular material, some gas and particles are ejected before the granular shock arrives. When the granular shock reaches the surface, a cap-like structure forms. This cap breaks and may fall back on the surface and in this process, relatively dense particle clusters form. At lower temperatures, the explosion timescales are increased and entrained particles are more densely packed.

  9. High temperature two component explosive

    DOEpatents

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  10. The locations of cosmic explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, A. S.; Levan, A. J.; Strolger, L.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Bersier, D.; Burud, I.; Castro-Ceron, J. M.; Consclice, C.; Dahlen, T.; Strolger, L.

    2005-01-01

    When massive stars exhaust their fuel they collapse and often produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known as core-collapse supernovae. Recently, it has become apparent that stellar collapse can power the even more brilliant relativistic explosions known as long-duration gamma-ray bursts. In some cases, a gamma-ray burst and a supernova have been observed from the same event. One would thus expect that gamma-ray bursts and supernovae should be found in similar environments. Here we show that this expectation is wrong. Using Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the host galaxies of long-duration gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae, we demonstrate that while the distribution of the supernovae in their hosts traces the blue light of young stars, the gamma-ray bursts are much more concentrated on the very brightest regions of their hosts. Furthermore, the host galaxies of the gamma-ray bursts are significantly fainter and more irregular than the hosts of the supernovae. Together these results suggest that long-duration gamma-ray bursts are associated with the very most massive stars and may be restricted to galaxies of limited chemical evolution. Our results directly imply that long-duration gamma-ray bursts are relatively rare in galaxies such as our own Milky Way.

  11. Advances IN Explosive Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotay, Gavin

    2016-09-01

    Breathtaking results from the Planck satellite mission and Hubble space telescope have highlighted the key role modern Astronomy is playing for our understanding of Big Bang Cosmology. However, not so widely publicized is the similar wealth of observational data now available on explosive stellar phenomena, such as X-ray bursts, novae and Supernovae. These astronomical events are responsible for the synthesis of almost all the chemical elements we find on Earth and observe in our Galaxy, as well as energy generation throughout the cosmos. Regrettably, understanding the latest collection of observational data is severely hindered by the current, large uncertainties in the underlying nuclear physics processes that drive such stellar scenarios. In order to resolve this issue, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a need to explore the unknown properties and reactions of nuclei away from the line of stability. Consequently, state-of-the-art radioactive beam facilities have become terrestrial laboratories for the reproduction of explosive astrophysical events. In this talk, both direct and indirect methods for studying key astrophysical reactions using radioactive beams will be discussed.

  12. EXPLOSIVE INSTABILITY AND CORONAL HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Liu, J.-H.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Nigro, G.

    2009-10-20

    The observed energy-loss rate from the solar corona implies that the coronal magnetic field has a critical angle at which energy is released. It has been hypothesized that at this critical angle an 'explosive instability' would occur, leading to an enhanced conversion of magnetic energy into heat. In earlier investigations, we have shown that a shear-dependent magnetohydrodynamic process called 'secondary instability' has many of the distinctive features of the hypothetical 'explosive instability'. In this paper, we give the first demonstration that this 'secondary instability' occurs in a system with line-tied magnetic fields and boundary shearing-basically the situation described by Parker. We also show that, as the disturbance due to secondary instability attains finite amplitude, there is a transition to turbulence which leads to enhanced dissipation of magnetic and kinetic energy. These results are obtained from numerical simulations performed with a new parallelized, viscoresistive, three-dimensional code that solves the cold plasma equations. The code employs a Fourier collocation-finite difference spatial discretization, and uses a third-order Runge-Kutta temporal discretization.

  13. Coronal Heating by Magnetic Explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, D. A.; Porter, Jason G.; Suess, Steven T.

    1998-01-01

    We build a case for the persistent strong coronal heating in active regions and the pervasive quasi-steady heating of the corona in quiet regions and coronal holes being driven in basically the same way as the intense transient heating in solar flares: by explosions of sheared magnetic fields in the cores of initially closed bipoles. We begin by summarizing the observational case for exploding sheared core fields being the drivers of a wide variety of flare events, with and without coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the arrangement of an event's flare heating, whether there is a coronal mass ejection, and the time and place of the ejection relative to the flare heating are all largely determined by four elements of the form and action the magnetic field: (1) the arrangement of the impacted, interacting bipoles participating in the event, (2) which of these bipoles are active (have sheared core fields that explode) and which are passive (are heated by injection from impacted active bipoles), (3) which core field explodes first, and (4) which core-field explosions are confined within the closed field of their bipoles and which ejectively open their bipoles.

  14. The locations of cosmic explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruchter, A. S.; Levan, A. J.; Strolger, L.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Bersier, D.; Burud, I.; Castro-Ceron, J. M.; Consclice, C.; Dahlen, T.; Strolger, L.

    2005-01-01

    When massive stars exhaust their fuel they collapse and often produce the extraordinarily bright explosions known as core-collapse supernovae. Recently, it has become apparent that stellar collapse can power the even more brilliant relativistic explosions known as long-duration gamma-ray bursts. In some cases, a gamma-ray burst and a supernova have been observed from the same event. One would thus expect that gamma-ray bursts and supernovae should be found in similar environments. Here we show that this expectation is wrong. Using Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the host galaxies of long-duration gamma-ray bursts and core-collapse supernovae, we demonstrate that while the distribution of the supernovae in their hosts traces the blue light of young stars, the gamma-ray bursts are much more concentrated on the very brightest regions of their hosts. Furthermore, the host galaxies of the gamma-ray bursts are significantly fainter and more irregular than the hosts of the supernovae. Together these results suggest that long-duration gamma-ray bursts are associated with the very most massive stars and may be restricted to galaxies of limited chemical evolution. Our results directly imply that long-duration gamma-ray bursts are relatively rare in galaxies such as our own Milky Way.

  15. Explosive double salts and preparation

    DOEpatents

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

  16. Shock initiation in heterogeneous explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Nunziato, J.W.; Kipp, M.E.; Setchell, R.E.; Walsh, E.K.

    1982-09-01

    It is generally accepted that the shock initiation of heterogeneous explosives begins with the formation of hot spots in the vicinity of microstructural defects such as voids, grain boundaries, and phase boundaries where there can be significant localized deformation as a result of material viscosity, plastic work, and intergranular friction. In this report, we describe this phenomenon in the context of a recently developed theory of chemically reacting, multiphase mixtures. In particular, we consider a granular explosive with an energetic binder (e.g. PBX-9404) and represent it as a three-phase, saturated mixture consisting of the granular reactant, the binder phase, and the product gases. Under dynamic loading, viscous dissipation results in high temperatures in the binder phase which subsequently thermally explodes to form product gases. Decomposition of the granular reactant is achieved by laminar grain burning. This model has been incorporated into a 1-D Lagrangian finite-difference code (WONDY) and the evolution of compressive shock and acceleration (ramp) waves have been calculated for PBX-9404. The calculated wave growth at the front, as well as the reaction-induced pressure wave behind the front, are shown to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  17. Cosmic Explosions in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Peter; Kumar, Pawan; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2011-08-01

    Introduction: 3-D Explosions: a meditation on rotation (and magnetic fields) J. C. Wheeler; Part I. Supernovae: Observations Today: 1. Supernova explosions: lessons from spectropolarimetry L. Wang; 2. Spectropolarimetric observations of Supernovae A. Filippenko and D. C. Leonard; 3. Observed and physical properties of type II plateau supernovae M. Hamuy; 4. SN1997B and the different types of Type Ic Supernovae A. Clocchiatti, B. Leibundgut, J. Spyromilio, S. Benetti, E. Cappelaro, M. Turatto and M. Phillips; 5. Near-infrared spectroscopy of stripped-envelope Supernovae C. L. Gerardy, R. A. Fesen, G. H. Marion, P. Hoeflich and J. C. Wheeler; 6. Morphology of Supernovae remnants R. Fesen; 7. The evolution of Supernova remnants in the winds of massive stars V. Dwarkadas; 8. Types for the galactic Supernovae B. E. Schaefer; Part II. Theory of Thermonuclear Supernovae: 9. Semi-steady burning evolutionary sequences for CAL 83 and CAL 87: supersoft X-ray binaries are Supernovae Ia progenitors S. Starrfield, F. X. Timmes, W. R. Hix, E. M. Sion, W. M. Sparks and S. Dwyer; 10. Type Ia Supernovae progenitors: effects of the spin-up of the white dwarfs S.-C. Yoon and N. Langer; 11. Terrestrial combustion: feedback to the stars E. S. Oran; 12. Non-spherical delayed detonations E. Livne; 13. Numerical simulations of Type Ia Supernovae: deflagrations and detonations V. N. Gamezo, A. M. Khokhlov and E. S. Oran; 14. Type Ia Supernovae: spectroscopic surprises D. Branch; 15. Aspherity effects in Supernovae P. Hoeflich, C. Gerardy and R. Quimby; 16. Broad light curve SneIa: asphericity or something else? A. Howell and P. Nugent; 17. Synthetic spectrum methods for 3-D SN models R. Thomas; 18. A hole in Ia' spectroscopic and polarimetric signatures of SN Ia asymmetry due to a companion star D. Kasen; 19. Hunting for the signatures of 3-D explosions with 1-D synthetic spectra E. Lentz, E. Baron and P. H. Hauschildt; 20. On the variation of the peak luminosity of Type Ia J. W. Truran, E

  18. Explosive stimulation of a geothermal well at the Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Hanold, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The use of an explosive in a vapor-dominated reservoir is discussed. The explosive and the present experimental plan are described. The explosive is HITEX II and some of its properties are listed. (MHR)

  19. Dust explosions-cases, causes, consequences, and control.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Tasneem; Abbasi, S A

    2007-02-09

    Dust explosions pose the most serious and widespread of explosion hazards in the process industry alongside vapour cloud explosions (VCE) and boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions (BLEVE). Dust explosions almost always lead to serious financial losses in terms of damage to facilities and down time. They also often cause serious injuries to personnel, and fatalities. We present the gist of the dust explosion state-of-the-art. Illustrative case studies and past accident analyses reflect the high frequency, geographic spread, and damage potential of dust explosions across the world. The sources and triggers of dust explosions, and the measures with which different factors associated with dust explosions can be quantified are reviewed alongside dust explosion mechanism. The rest of the review is focused on the ways available to prevent dust explosion, and on cushioning the impact of a dust explosion by venting when the accident does take place.

  20. Sensitivity of solid explosives: Minimum energy of a dangerous impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afanasyev, G. T.

    1986-01-01

    A method which uses initiating explosives for determining the sensitivity of solid explosives is described. The energy index of sensitivity is determined by the mechanical properties of the explosives. The results of the calculations are discussed.

  1. The relation of batteries to explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, C.

    1980-09-01

    All batteries contain chemical materials which can be made to explode under certain conditions. This report defines applicable explosives terminology and discusses these definitions in terms of explosives, thermal runaway and fires associated with aqueous (Le Clanche, mercury, lead acid, nickel cadmium) and non-aqueous (lithium anode systems) batteries.

  2. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prepare to test the diesel power package as follows: (i) Perform a detailed check of...

  3. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prepare to test the diesel power package as follows: (i) Perform a detailed check of...

  4. 30 CFR 7.100 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion tests. 7.100 Section 7.100 Mineral... Underground Coal Mines Where Permissible Electric Equipment is Required § 7.100 Explosion tests. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prepare to test the diesel power package as follows: (i) Perform a detailed check of...

  5. Estimating effects of accidental propellant explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.; Baker, W. E.; Kulesz, P. K.; Moseley, P. K.; Parr, V. B.; Ricker, R. E.; Vargas, L. M.; Westine, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    Workbook assesses magnitudes and effects of blasts and fragments from ground system explosions. It provides designer and safety engineer with rapid methods for predicting damage and hazards from explosions of liquid-propellant and compressed-gas vessels used in ground storage, transport, and handling.

  6. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  7. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  8. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  9. Explosive Joining for Nuclear-Reactor Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    In explosive joining technique, adapter flange from fuel channel machined to incorporate a V-notch interface. Ribbon explosive, 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) in width, drives V-notched wall of adapter into bellows assembly, producing atomic-level metallurgical bond. Ribbon charge yields joint with double parent metal strength.

  10. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema

    Atkinson, David

    2016-07-12

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  11. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1993-01-01

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  12. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  13. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a... and constructed to contain an explosive gas mixture to surround and fill the motor assembly being... surrounding the motor assembly. (2) A methane gas supply with at least 98 by volume per centum of...

  14. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a... and constructed to contain an explosive gas mixture to surround and fill the motor assembly being... surrounding the motor assembly. (2) A methane gas supply with at least 98 by volume per centum of...

  15. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a... and constructed to contain an explosive gas mixture to surround and fill the motor assembly being... surrounding the motor assembly. (2) A methane gas supply with at least 98 by volume per centum of...

  16. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a... and constructed to contain an explosive gas mixture to surround and fill the motor assembly being... surrounding the motor assembly. (2) A methane gas supply with at least 98 by volume per centum of...

  17. 30 CFR 7.306 - Explosion tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.306 Explosion tests. (a... and constructed to contain an explosive gas mixture to surround and fill the motor assembly being... surrounding the motor assembly. (2) A methane gas supply with at least 98 by volume per centum of...

  18. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    DOEpatents

    Dike, Robert S.; Kewish, Jr., Ralph W.

    1976-01-13

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor.

  19. Redundant, Confined-Explosive Severance Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Noncontaminating, long, explosive joint with highly reliable separation capability invented for such applications as separation of rocket-motor stages of spacecraft from rockets or Space Shuttle. Two explosive cords housed in tubes held in place by two notched doublers and commercially available fasteners. When either cord fired, its tube expands, bending doublers and causing fracture at adjacent notch.

  20. 77 FR 55108 - Explosive Siting Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... separation from a given net explosive weight (NEW) is one percent, which is an equivalent level of safety to... trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalents of less than or equal to 450 pounds. Although decreased, the revised separation... handling of division 1.3 explosives, while maintaining a level of safety equivalent to current requirements...

  1. Method for laser machining explosives and ordnance

    DOEpatents

    Muenchausen, Ross E.; Rivera, Thomas; Sanchez, John A.

    2003-05-06

    Method for laser machining explosives and related articles. A laser beam is directed at a surface portion of a mass of high explosive to melt and/or vaporize the surface portion while directing a flow of gas at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion. The gas flow sends the melted and/or vaporized explosive away from the charge of explosive that remains. The method also involves splitting the casing of a munition having an encased explosive. The method includes rotating a munition while directing a laser beam to a surface portion of the casing of an article of ordnance. While the beam melts and/or vaporizes the surface portion, a flow of gas directed at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion sends it away from the remaining portion of ordnance. After cutting through the casing, the beam then melts and/or vaporizes portions of the encased explosive and the gas stream sends the melted/vaporized explosive away from the ordnance. The beam is continued until it splits the article, after which the encased explosive, now accessible, can be removed safely for recycle or disposal.

  2. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  3. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-05-09

    A simulator is disclosed which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  4. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-05-09

    A simulator is disclosed which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  5. Energetic Trend in Explosive Activity of Stromboli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.; Cristaldi, A.; Mangiagli, S.; Nunnari, G.; Pecora, E.

    2003-12-01

    The typical activity of Stromboli consists of intermittent mild explosions lasting a few seconds, which take place at different vents and at variable intervals, the most common time interval being 10-20 minutes. However, the routine activity can be interrupted by more violent, paroxysmal explosions, that eject m-sized scoriaceous bombs and lava blocks to a distance of several hundreds of meters from the craters, endangering the numerous tourists that watch the spectacular activity from the volcano's summit located about two hundreds meters from the active vents. On average, 1-2 paroxysmal explosions occurred per year over the past century, but this statistic may be underestimated in absence of continuous monitoring. For this reason from summer 1996 a remote surveillance camera works on Stromboli recording continuously the volcanic activity. It is located on Pizzo Sopra la Fossa, 100 metres above the crater terrace where are the active vents. Using image analysis we seeks to identify any change of the explosive activity trend that could precede a particular eruptive event, like paroxysmal explosions, fire fountains, lava flows. The analysis include the counting of the explosions occurred at the different craters and the parameterization in classes of intensity for each explosion on the base of tephra dispersion and kinetics energy. Associating at each class a corresponding Index of energy in order to compute an heuristic value of the Average Daily Energy Released (ADER) of the explosive activity at Stromboli and plotting this value for each crater versus time, the diagram shows a cyclic behavior with max and min of explosive activity ranging from a few days to a month. Often the craters show opposite trends so when the activity decreases in a crater, increases in the other. Before every paroxysmal explosions recorded, the crater that produced the event decreased and then stopped its activity from a few days to weeks before. The other crater tried to compensate

  6. Explosive Vapor Detection Using Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A

    2004-01-01

    MEMS-based microcantilever platforms have been used to develop extremely sensitive explosive vapour sensors. Two unique approaches of detecting of explosive vapours are demonstrated. In the first approach a cantilever beam coated with a selective layer undergoes bending and resonance frequency variation due to explosive vapour adsorption. The resonance frequency variation is due to mass loading while adsorption-induced cantilever bending is due to a differential stress due molecular adsorption. In the second approach that does not utilize selective coatings for speciation, detection is achieved by deflagration of adsorbed explosive molecules. Deflagration of adsorbed explosive molecules causes the cantilever to bend due to released heat while its resonance frequency decreases due to mass unloading.

  7. Detonation in shocked homogeneous high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.; Souers, P.C.

    1995-11-01

    We have studied shock-induced changes in homogeneous high explosives including nitromethane, tetranitromethane, and single crystals of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) by using fast time-resolved emission and Raman spectroscopy at a two-stage light-gas gun. The results reveal three distinct steps during which the homogeneous explosives chemically evolve to final detonation products. These are (1) the initiation of shock compressed high explosives after an induction period, (2) thermal explosion of shock-compressed and/or reacting materials, and (3) a decay to a steady-state representing a transition to the detonation of uncompressed high explosives. Based on a gray-body approximation, we have obtained the CJ temperatures: 3800 K for nitromethane, 2950 K for tetranitromethane, and 4100 K for PETN. We compare the data with various thermochemical equilibrium calculations. In this paper we will also show a preliminary result of single-shot time-resolved Raman spectroscopy applied to shock-compressed nitromethane.

  8. Understanding ultrafine nanodiamond formation using nanostructured explosives

    PubMed Central

    Pichot, Vincent; Risse, Benedikt; Schnell, Fabien; Mory, Julien; Spitzer, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The detonation process is able to build new materials with a bottom-up approach. Diamond, the hardest material on earth, can be synthesized in this way. This unconventional synthesis route is possible due to the presence of carbon inside the high-explosive molecules: firing high-explosive mixtures with a negative oxygen balance in a non-oxidative environment leads to the formation of nanodiamond particles. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexogen (RDX) are the explosives primarily used to synthesize nanodiamonds. Here we show that the use of nanostructured explosive charges leads to the formation of smaller detonation nanodiamonds, and it also provides new understanding of nanodiamond formation-mechanisms. The discontinuity of the explosive at the nanoscale level plays the key role in modifying the diamond particle size, and therefore varying the size with microstructured charges is impossible. PMID:23831716

  9. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  10. [Explosion injuries - prehospital care and management].

    PubMed

    Holsträter, Thorsten; Holsträter, Susanne; Rein, Daniela; Helm, Matthias; Hossfeld, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Explosion injuries are not restricted to war-like military conflicts or terrorist attacks. The emergency physician may also encounter such injuries in the private or industrial fields, injuries caused by fireworks or gas explosions. In such cases the injury patterns are especially complex and may consist of blunt and penetrating injuries as well as thermal damage. Emergency medical personnel must be prepared to cope with explosion trauma not only in individual cases but also in major casualty incidents (MCI). This necessitates a sound knowledge about the mechanisms and processes of an explosion as well as the particular pathophysiological relationships of explosion injuries in order to be able to initiate the best possible, guideline-conform trauma therapy.

  11. Morphomechanical Innovation Drives Explosive Seed Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Hofhuis, Hugo; Moulton, Derek; Lessinnes, Thomas; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Bomphrey, Richard J; Mosca, Gabriella; Reinhardt, Hagen; Sarchet, Penny; Gan, Xiangchao; Tsiantis, Miltos; Ventikos, Yiannis; Walker, Simon; Goriely, Alain; Smith, Richard; Hay, Angela

    2016-06-30

    How mechanical and biological processes are coordinated across cells, tissues, and organs to produce complex traits is a key question in biology. Cardamine hirsuta, a relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, uses an explosive mechanism to disperse its seeds. We show that this trait evolved through morphomechanical innovations at different spatial scales. At the organ scale, tension within the fruit wall generates the elastic energy required for explosion. This tension is produced by differential contraction of fruit wall tissues through an active mechanism involving turgor pressure, cell geometry, and wall properties of the epidermis. Explosive release of this tension is controlled at the cellular scale by asymmetric lignin deposition within endocarp b cells-a striking pattern that is strictly associated with explosive pod shatter across the Brassicaceae plant family. By bridging these different scales, we present an integrated mechanism for explosive seed dispersal that links evolutionary novelty with complex trait innovation. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  12. Independence day explosion on lovers key.

    PubMed

    Harding, Brett A; Wolf, Barbara C

    2007-09-01

    The display of fireworks is a popular holiday celebration in the United States. Because injuries due to recreational fireworks-related explosions among private consumers are relatively common, the sale of fireworks is regulated by the federal government and is also limited by state and local laws. In contrast, because fireworks display companies are under tight safety regulations, explosions in the professional pyrotechnics industry are uncommon occurrences, and the literature contains rare reports of injuries and fatalities resulting from such explosions. We report the 2003 Fourth of July commercial fireworks explosion on Lovers Key in southwest Florida that resulted in five fatalities. Events occurring during the investigation of the scene of this explosion illustrate the unique considerations and hazards for medicolegal death investigators, law enforcement and other investigative agencies. Additionally, this case demonstrates unusual aspects of the postmortem examinations performed on victims of fireworks-related incidents.

  13. Explosion interaction with water in a tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homae, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    2017-02-01

    As proposed and legislated in Japan, subsurface magazines have an explosive storage chamber, a horizontal passageway, and a vertical shaft for a vent. The authors found that a small amount of water on the floor of the storage chamber mitigated blast pressure remarkably. The mitigation mechanism has been examined more closely. To examine the effect of water, the present study assesses explosions in a transparent, square cross section, and a straight tube. A high-speed camera used to observe the tube interior. Blast pressure in and around the tube was also measured. Images obtained using the high-speed camera revealed that water inside the tube did not move after the explosion. Differences between cases of tubes without water and with water were unclear. Along with blast pressure measurements, these study results suggest that blast pressure mitigation by water occurs because of interaction between the explosion and the water near the explosion point.

  14. Explosion probability of unexploded ordnance: expert beliefs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Jacqueline Anne; Small, Mitchell J; Morgan, M G

    2008-08-01

    This article reports on a study to quantify expert beliefs about the explosion probability of unexploded ordnance (UXO). Some 1,976 sites at closed military bases in the United States are contaminated with UXO and are slated for cleanup, at an estimated cost of $15-140 billion. Because no available technology can guarantee 100% removal of UXO, information about explosion probability is needed to assess the residual risks of civilian reuse of closed military bases and to make decisions about how much to invest in cleanup. This study elicited probability distributions for the chance of UXO explosion from 25 experts in explosive ordnance disposal, all of whom have had field experience in UXO identification and deactivation. The study considered six different scenarios: three different types of UXO handled in two different ways (one involving children and the other involving construction workers). We also asked the experts to rank by sensitivity to explosion 20 different kinds of UXO found at a case study site at Fort Ord, California. We found that the experts do not agree about the probability of UXO explosion, with significant differences among experts in their mean estimates of explosion probabilities and in the amount of uncertainty that they express in their estimates. In three of the six scenarios, the divergence was so great that the average of all the expert probability distributions was statistically indistinguishable from a uniform (0, 1) distribution-suggesting that the sum of expert opinion provides no information at all about the explosion risk. The experts' opinions on the relative sensitivity to explosion of the 20 UXO items also diverged. The average correlation between rankings of any pair of experts was 0.41, which, statistically, is barely significant (p= 0.049) at the 95% confidence level. Thus, one expert's rankings provide little predictive information about another's rankings. The lack of consensus among experts suggests that empirical studies

  15. Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, Joel Del [Livermore, CA; Nunes,; Peter, J [Danville, CA; Alcaraz, Armando [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA

    2011-05-10

    A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPLOSIVES AND INITIATORS FOR SPECIAL WARFARE OPERATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FUZES(ORDNANCE), FUZES(ORDNANCE), DETONATORS, DETONATING CORD, PREPARATION, CORDAGE, PHENOLS, NITRATES, WARFARE, EXPLOSIONS, DEMOLITION, MERCURY COMPOUNDS, NITRIC ACID, ALCOHOLS, EXPLOSIVES INITIATORS.

  17. Explosion safety in industrial electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, S. V.; Kiss, I.; Berta, I.

    2011-01-01

    Complicated industrial systems are often endangered by electrostatic hazards, both from atmospheric (lightning phenomenon, primary and secondary lightning protection) and industrial (technological problems caused by static charging and fire and explosion hazards.) According to the classical approach protective methods have to be used in order to remove electrostatic charging and to avoid damages, however no attempt to compute the risk before and after applying the protective method is made, relying instead on well-educated and practiced expertise. The Budapest School of Electrostatics - in close cooperation with industrial partners - develops new suitable solutions for probability based decision support (Static Control Up-to-date Technology, SCOUT) using soft computing methods. This new approach can be used to assess and audit existing systems and - using the predictive power of the models - to design and plan activities in industrial electrostatics.

  18. Superclustering in the explosion scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, David H.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Dekel, Avishai

    1989-01-01

    A simple toy model is used to study the spatial distribution of rich clusters in a generic type of explosion scenario. The model, parameterized by the distribution of shell radii and the filling factor, places spherical shells at random and identifies each 'knot' as a cluster. The resulting cluster correlation function is close to a power law extending to the diameter of the largest spheres. Richer clusters form at the intersections of bigger shells and so have stronger correlations. Typical shell radii and filling factors are required to produce the observed number density of clusters. Models with a power-law radius distribution also reproduce the richness distribution of clusters in the Abell catalog. Supercluster multiplicity functions, void probabilities, number counts, topology statistics, and velocity correlations confirm the presence of strong superclustering and quantify the non-Gaussian nature of the model.

  19. Superclustering in the explosion scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, David H.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Dekel, Avishai

    1989-01-01

    A simple toy model is used to study the spatial distribution of rich clusters in a generic type of explosion scenario. The model, parameterized by the distribution of shell radii and the filling factor, places spherical shells at random and identifies each 'knot' as a cluster. The resulting cluster correlation function is close to a power law extending to the diameter of the largest spheres. Richer clusters form at the intersections of bigger shells and so have stronger correlations. Typical shell radii and filling factors are required to produce the observed number density of clusters. Models with a power-law radius distribution also reproduce the richness distribution of clusters in the Abell catalog. Supercluster multiplicity functions, void probabilities, number counts, topology statistics, and velocity correlations confirm the presence of strong superclustering and quantify the non-Gaussian nature of the model.

  20. Mass extinctions and supernova explosions.

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, P J; Brühl, C

    1996-01-01

    In a recent contribution to this journal Ellis and Schramm [Ellis, J. & Schramm, D. N. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 235-238] claim that supernova explosions can cause massive biological extinctions as a result of strongly enhanced stratospheric NOx (NO + NO2) production by accompanying galactic cosmic rays. They suggested that these NOx productions which would last over several centuries and occur once every few hundred million years would result in ozone depletions of about 95%, leading to vastly increased levels of biologically damaging solar ultraviolet radiation. Our detailed model calculations show, however, substantially smaller ozone depletions ranging from at most 60% at high latitudes to below 20% at the equator. PMID:11607631

  1. Ignition dynamics of high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Sander, R.K.; Asay, B.W.; Brewster, M.Q.

    1999-04-01

    The laser ignition of the explosives HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}), {delta}-phase HMX, PBX 9501 (95% HMX, 2.5% Estane, 2.5% BDNPA/BDNPF), TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}), and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F) and aged PBX 9502 has been conducted with the intent to compare the relative sensitivities of those explosives and to investigate the effect of beam profile, binder addition, and porosity. It has been found that there was little difference between a gaussian beam and a top hat profile on the laser ignition of HMX. The authors observe that the addition of binder in the amounts present in PBX 9501 resulted in longer ignition delays than that of HMX. In contrast to HMX, the addition of binder to TATB in PBX 9502 shows no measurable effect. Porosity effects were considered by comparing the ignition of granular HMX and pressed HMX pellets. Porosity appears to increase ignition delay due to an increased effective absorption scale and increased convective heat loss. This porosity effect also resulted in longer ignition delays for {delta}-phase HMX than for {beta}-phase HMX. In order to simulate ignition in voids or cracks, the standard ignition experiment was modified to include a NaCl window placed at variable distances above the sample surface. When ignition experiments were performed at 29 W/cm{sup 2} and 38 W/cm{sup 2} a critical gap distance was observed of 6 {+-} 0.4 mm below which ignition was severely inhibited. This result underscores the importance of gas phase processes in ignition and illustrates that conditions can exist where simple ignition criteria such as surface temperature is inadequate.

  2. Simulating Thermal Explosion of Octahydrotetranitrotetrazine-based explosives: Model Comparison with Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Nichols, A L; Tarver, C M

    2006-02-07

    The authors compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two octahydrotetranitrotetrazine (HMX)-based explosives, LX-04 and LX-10, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The present HMX modeling work shows very first violence calculations with thermal predictions associated with a confined thermal explosion test. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in larger scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 1 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase.

  3. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Thomas A; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Ronald L

    2004-04-01

    The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other countries is of similar magnitude. In recent years, growing concern about the health and ecological threats posed by man-made chemicals have led to studies of the toxicology of explosives, which have identified toxic and mutagenic effects of the common military explosives and their transformation products (Bruns-Nagel et al., 1999a; Fuchs et al., 2001; Homma-Takeda et al., 2002; Honeycutt et al., 1996; Rosenblatt et al., 1991; Spanggord et al., 1982; Tan et al., 1992 and Won et al., 1976). Because the cleanup of areas contaminated by explosives is now mandated because of public health concerns, considerable effort has been invested in finding economical remediation technologies. Biological treatment processes are often considered, since these are usually the least expensive means of destroying organic pollution. This review examines the most important groups of chemicals that must be treated at sites contaminated by explosives processing, the chemical and biological transformations they undergo, and commercial processes developed to exploit these transformations for treatment of contaminated soil. We critically examine about 150 papers on the topic, including approximately 60 published within the past 5 years.

  4. The prevention and mitigation of gas explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.M.; Vasey, M.W.

    1996-11-01

    Research has shown that following an accidental release of gas into a process area, the severity of an explosion resulting from the ignition of the gas/air mixture formed is increased by the presence of closely packed plant and pipework within the gas cloud, particularly when the process area is partially or completely confined. Such conditions exist on many onshore petrochemical sites, but are especially characteristic of off- shore oil and gas platforms in the UK and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea. The potential for a gas explosion on such platforms to cause damage and further loss of containment of flammable material was tragically illustrated by the Piper Alpha disaster, in which an explosion initiated a sequence of events which rapidly led to the total destruction of the platform. There are a range of factors which can influence the likelihood and severity of a gas explosion, such as the size of the gas cloud and the concentration of gas within it. Whilst it may not be possible to design a facility to withstand the {open_quotes}worst case{close_quotes} explosion overpressures, the overall risk presented by gas explosions can be minimized by considering prevention, control and mitigation measures for explosions as early as possible in the design process. Such measures include ventilation, platform layout, explosion relief and the use of water sprays. This broad approach of attacking all of the factors which contribute to the risk from explosions can significantly reduce the probability of an accidental release of flammable gas leading to major structural collapse and potential loss of life.

  5. Concussive brain injury from explosive blast

    PubMed Central

    de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Hamid, Hamada; Kulas, Joseph; Pan, Jullie W; Czlapinski, Rebecca; Rinaldi, Anthony; Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris A; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2014-01-01

    Objective Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. Methods The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla. Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were administered to characterize the neuropsychiatric deficits and compare with findings from MRSI. Results Significant reductions in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to choline (NAA/Ch) and N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) (P < 0.05) were found in the anterior portions of the hippocampus with explosive blast mTBI in comparison to control subjects and were more pronounced in the right hippocampus, which was 15% smaller in volume (P < 0.05). Decreased NAA/Ch and NAA/Cr were not influenced by comorbidities – PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Subjects with PTSD without blast had lesser injury, which tended to be in the posterior hippocampus. Explosive blast mTBI subjects had a reduction in visual memory compared to PTSD without blast. Interpretation The region of the hippocampus injured differentiates explosive blast mTBI from PTSD. MRSI is quite sensitive in detecting and localizing regions of neuronal injury from explosive blast associated with memory impairment. PMID:25493283

  6. Concussive brain injury from explosive blast.

    PubMed

    de Lanerolle, Nihal C; Hamid, Hamada; Kulas, Joseph; Pan, Jullie W; Czlapinski, Rebecca; Rinaldi, Anthony; Ling, Geoffrey; Bandak, Faris A; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2014-09-01

    Explosive blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is associated with a variety of symptoms including memory impairment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explosive shock waves can cause hippocampal injury in a large animal model. We recently reported a method for detecting brain injury in soldiers with explosive blast mTBI using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). This method is applied in the study of veterans exposed to blast. The hippocampus of 25 veterans with explosive blast mTBI, 20 controls, and 12 subjects with PTSD but without exposure to explosive blast were studied using MRSI at 7 Tesla. Psychiatric and cognitive assessments were administered to characterize the neuropsychiatric deficits and compare with findings from MRSI. Significant reductions in the ratio of N-acetyl aspartate to choline (NAA/Ch) and N-acetyl aspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) (P < 0.05) were found in the anterior portions of the hippocampus with explosive blast mTBI in comparison to control subjects and were more pronounced in the right hippocampus, which was 15% smaller in volume (P < 0.05). Decreased NAA/Ch and NAA/Cr were not influenced by comorbidities - PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Subjects with PTSD without blast had lesser injury, which tended to be in the posterior hippocampus. Explosive blast mTBI subjects had a reduction in visual memory compared to PTSD without blast. The region of the hippocampus injured differentiates explosive blast mTBI from PTSD. MRSI is quite sensitive in detecting and localizing regions of neuronal injury from explosive blast associated with memory impairment.

  7. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, C.; Baker, E. L.; Nicolich, S.; Balas, W.; Pincay, J.; Stiel, L. I.

    2007-12-01

    Theory and performance for recently developed combined—effects aluminized explosives are presented. Our recently developed combined-effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing, as well as high blast energies. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder and wall velocities and Gurney energies. Eigenvalue detonation explains the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. Cylinder expansion data and thermochemical calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH) verify the eigenvalue detonation behavior.

  8. Cosmological explosions from cold dark matter perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmological-explosion model is examined for a universe dominated by cold dark matter in which explosion seeds are produced from the growth of initial density perturbations of a given form. Fragmentation of the exploding shells is dominated by the dark-matter potential wells rather than the self-gravity of the shells, and particular conditions are required for the explosions to bootstrap up to very large scales. The final distribution of dark matter is strongly correlated with the baryons on small scales, but uncorrelated on large scales.

  9. Explosive Detection and Identification by PGNAA

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2004-11-01

    The goal of this project was to determine the feasibility of using field-portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) to detect and identify explosives in improvised nuclear devices (INDs). The studies were carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model results were tested experimentally using explosive simulants and the PINS PGNAA system developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The results of the MCNP calculations and PINS measurements are presented in this report. The calculations and measurements were in good agreement and indicate that most explosives are readily distinguishable from one another.

  10. Modeling the detonation structure of heterogeneous explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionne, J. P.; Lee, J. H. S.

    1998-07-01

    A simplified ZND calculation for the one-dimensional detonation (infinite diameter) of heterogeneous explosives is proposed. The effects of thermal relaxation within the two-phase products is incorporated into a source term in the chemical rate law. The explosive is then approximated as a homogeneous mixture of two phases. The source term is based on the rate of heat transfer from the liquid explosive to the inert heterogeneities. The effect of the properties of the heterogeneities (size, heat capacity, density) on this additional term is discussed.

  11. On the Violence of High Explosive Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M; Chidester, S K

    2004-02-09

    High explosive reactions can be caused by three general energy deposition processes: impact ignition by frictional and/or shear heating; bulk thermal heating; and shock compression. The violence of the subsequent reaction varies from benign slow combustion to catastrophic detonation of the entire charge. The degree of violence depends on many variables, including the rate of energy delivery, the physical and chemical properties of the explosive, and the strength of the confinement surrounding the explosive charge. The current state of experimental and computer modeling research on the violence of impact, thermal, and shock-induced reactions is reviewed.

  12. Simplified Explosive Joining of Tubes to Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W.; Perry, R.; Finch, M. S.

    1987-01-01

    Technique simplifies tube-to-fitting joining, as compared to fusion welding, and provides improvement on standard procedures used to join tubes explosively to tube fittings. Special tool inserted into tube to be joined. Tool allows strip of ribbon explosive to be placed right at joint. Ribbon explosive and mild detonating fuse allows use of smaller charge. Assembled tool storable, and process amenable to automation. Assembly of components, insertion of tool into weld site, and joining operation mechanized without human contact. Used to assemble components in nuclear reactors or in other environments hostile to humans.

  13. Explosive fragmentation of orbiting propellant tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, F. J.; Kays, R. L.; Bishop, C. V.; Eck, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    An examination is made of the in-orbit explosive characteristics of the Delta second stage and Ariane third stage, with a view to the vehicle breakups of the Ariane SPOT third-stage fuel tank in November, 1986, and of two Delta second stage tanks. Attention is given to the possible role of residual propellants in these breakups. After reviewing orbital data and comparing predicted fragment velocities with observed fragment velocities in debris patterns, a comparison has been made of total debris energy with total calculated explosion energy. Both physical and chemical explosions are deemed possible.

  14. Cosmological explosions from cold dark matter perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The cosmological-explosion model is examined for a universe dominated by cold dark matter in which explosion seeds are produced from the growth of initial density perturbations of a given form. Fragmentation of the exploding shells is dominated by the dark-matter potential wells rather than the self-gravity of the shells, and particular conditions are required for the explosions to bootstrap up to very large scales. The final distribution of dark matter is strongly correlated with the baryons on small scales, but uncorrelated on large scales.

  15. Explosive propulsion applications. [to future unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Varsi, G.; Back, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility and application of an explosive propulsion concept capable of supporting future unmanned missions in the post-1980 era were examined and recommendations made for advanced technology development tasks. The Venus large lander mission was selected as the first in which the explosive propulsion concept can find application. A conceptual design was generated and its performance, weight, costs, and interaction effects determined. Comparisons were made with conventional propulsion alternatives. The feasibility of the explosive propulsion system was verified for planetology experiments within the dense atmosphere of Venus as well as the outer planets. Additionally, it was determined that the Venus large lander mission could be augmented ballistically with a significant delivery margin.

  16. Simulation of collisional fragmentation with explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housen, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    For practical reasons, experimental studies of collisional fragmentation must at times rely on explosives to fragment a target body. For example, Housen et al., described experiments in which spheres were fragmented in a pressurized atmosphere. Explosives were used because impacts could not be performed in the pressure chamber. Explosives can also be used to study targets much larger than those which can be disrupted by conventional light-gas guns, thereby allowing size- and rate-effects to be investigated. The purpose of this study is to determine the charge burial depth required to simulate various aspects of collisions.

  17. Thermodynamic Model of Afterburning in Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Howard, M; Fried, L

    2003-04-23

    Thermodynamic states encountered during afterburning of explosion products gases in air were analyzed with the Cheetah code. Results are displayed in the form of Le Chatelier diagrams: the locus of states of specific internal energy versus temperature, for six different condensed explosives charges. Accuracy of the results was confirmed by comparing the fuel and products curves with the heats of detonation and combustion, and species composition as measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Results were fit with analytic functions u = f ( T ) suitable for specifying the thermodynamic properties required for gas-dynamic models of afterburning in explosions.

  18. Application of capillary electrophoresis for the determination of inorganic ions in trace explosives and explosive residues.

    PubMed

    Kishi, T; Nakamura, J; Arai, H

    1998-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was developed for the analysis of low explosive residue, because a significant amount of inorganic anions and cations remain after deflagration. Certain high explosives, such as emulsion explosives, produce a vast quantity of inorganic ions after a blast and can readily be analyzed using capillary electrophoresis. Often, trace amounts of explosive residues may be present on physical evidence submitted in criminal cases. Trace amounts of inorganic ions such as nitrate, chlorate, and ammonium may be detected using capillary electrophoresis owing to the low detection limit of these species. The utility of capillary electrophoresis in the analysis of explosive residues is in its ability to simultaneously analyze trace explosives and ionic products present on physical evidence.

  19. Rotationally resolved infrared spectra of the explosive bouquet compounds associated with C-4 explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clasp, Trocia N.; Johnson, Tiffani; Sullivan, Michael N.; Reeve, Scott W.

    2011-05-01

    The explosive material known as Composition C4, or simply C4, is an RDX based military grade explosive. RDX itself possesses a negligible vapor pressure at room temperature suggesting it is not a good target for conventional instruments designed to detect vapor phase chemical compounds. Recent research with canines has indicated that a better approach for detecting explosive vapors such as C4 is to focus on a characteristic mixture of impurities associated with the material. These characteristic mixtures of impurity vapors are referred to by canine researchers as the explosive bouquet and are fairly unique to the specific energetic material. In this paper, we will examine and report rotationally resolved infrared spectral signatures for the known compounds comprising the explosive bouquet for C4 based explosives including isobutylene, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and cyclohexanone.

  20. Influence of booster size on the total energy of RBUL-1 explosive in underwater explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Tongtang; Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Xiangrong; Wang, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the booster size on the total energy of DNAN-based insensitive melt-cast explosive RBUL-1, six groups of underwater explosion experiments with varied booster sizes were carried out to measure the total energy of RBUL-1 explosive. Experimental results show that the booster size especially the booster diameter has a great influence on the total energy of RBUL-1 explosive. An expression was proposed and calibrated to illustrate the relationship between the total energy of RBUL-1 explosive and the booster size. Besides, the booster size used in the underwater explosion experiments was optimized to achieve higher total energy results. The present investigation has practical significance for the design of the booster sequence and warhead.

  1. 30 CFR 57.6201 - Separation of transported explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of transported explosive material... MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6201 Separation of transported explosive material. Detonators shall not be transported on the same vehicle or conveyance with other explosives...

  2. 31 CFR 0.215 - Possession of weapons and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Possession of weapons and explosives... explosives. (a) Employees shall not possess firearms, explosives, or other dangerous or deadly weapons... paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to employees who are required to possess weapons or explosives...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1302 - Vehicles used to transport explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicles used to transport explosives. 77.1302... COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1302 Vehicles used to transport explosives. (a) Vehicles used to transport explosives, other than blasting agents, shall have substantially constructed bodies, no...

  4. HAZX Part 1. An Explosives Hazard Assessment Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Consequences to unrelated residents of nearby Coast Guard housing area – On-pad explosion of a Minotaur IV rocket • Effect on occupied buildings and... Minotaur IV on-pad explosion Taurus II Hot Fire explosion Trident offload explosion 22 DDESB 2010 Seminar –HHT HAZX Hazard Tool (HHT) Practical Uses

  5. 30 CFR 77.1302 - Vehicles used to transport explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles used to transport explosives. 77.1302... COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1302 Vehicles used to transport explosives. (a) Vehicles used to transport explosives, other than blasting agents, shall have substantially constructed bodies,...

  6. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste explosives...

  7. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste explosives...

  8. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste explosives...

  9. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste explosives...

  10. 40 CFR 265.382 - Open burning; waste explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open burning; waste explosives. 265... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Thermal Treatment § 265.382 Open burning; waste explosives. Open burning of hazardous waste is prohibited except for the open burning and detonation of waste explosives. Waste explosives...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1314 Sheathed explosive units. (a) A separate instantaneous detonator shall be used to fire each sheathed explosive...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transporting explosives and detonators. 75.1311... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1311 Transporting explosives and detonators. (a) When explosives and detonators are to be transported...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  19. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  20. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material shall be moved to a protected location...

  3. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  4. 30 CFR 57.6130 - Explosive material storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage facilities. 57.6130... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface Only § 57.6130 Explosive material storage facilities. (a) Detonators and explosives...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  6. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the...

  7. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Commerce in explosives. 70... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material shall be moved to a protected location...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive material shall be...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive material shall be...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 56.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage § 56.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive material shall be— (1) Stored in...

  15. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1314 Sheathed explosive units. (a) A separate instantaneous detonator shall be used to fire each sheathed explosive...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material shall...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1314 - Sheathed explosive units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sheathed explosive units. 75.1314 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1314 Sheathed explosive units. (a) A separate instantaneous detonator shall be used to fire each sheathed explosive...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material shall...

  20. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  1. 33 CFR 401.68 - Explosives Permission Letter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives Permission Letter. 401..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Dangerous Cargo § 401.68 Explosives Permission Letter. (a) A Seaway Explosives Permission Letter is required for an explosive vessel in...

  2. 30 CFR 57.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 57... Explosives General Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transporting explosives and detonators. 75.1311... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1311 Transporting explosives and detonators. (a) When explosives and detonators are to be transported...

  4. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1302 - Vehicles used to transport explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicles used to transport explosives. 77.1302... COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1302 Vehicles used to transport explosives. (a) Vehicles used to transport explosives, other than blasting agents, shall have substantially constructed bodies,...

  6. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1300 - Explosives and blasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and blasting. 77.1300 Section 77... Explosives and Blasting § 77.1300 Explosives and blasting. (a) No explosives, blasting agent, detonator, or... accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.1301 through 77.1304, inclusive. (b) The term “explosives” as used...

  11. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive material shall be...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6102 - Explosive material storage practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosive material storage practices. 57.6102... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Storage-Surface and Underground § 57.6102 Explosive material storage practices. (a) Explosive...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1302 - Vehicles used to transport explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicles used to transport explosives. 77.1302... COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 77.1302 Vehicles used to transport explosives. (a) Vehicles used to transport explosives, other than blasting agents, shall have substantially constructed bodies,...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6900 - Damaged or deteriorated explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. 56... Explosives General Requirements § 56.6900 Damaged or deteriorated explosive material. Damaged or deteriorated explosive material shall be disposed of in a safe manner in accordance with the instructions of...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 57.6305 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material shall...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material shall be moved to a protected location...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transporting explosives and detonators. 75.1311... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1311 Transporting explosives and detonators. (a) When explosives and detonators are to be transported...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6905 - Protection of explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of explosive material. 56.6905... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives General Requirements § 56.6905 Protection of explosive material. (a) Explosive material shall be...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6305 - Unused explosive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unused explosive material. 56.6305 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Use § 56.6305 Unused explosive material. Unused explosive material shall be moved to a protected location...

  20. 27 CFR 70.445 - Commerce in explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commerce in explosives. 70... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Firearms, Shells and Cartridges, and Explosives § 70.445 Commerce in explosives. Part 555 of title 27 CFR contains the...