Science.gov

Sample records for exponential growth kinetics

  1. Noise in Exponential Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Wright, Charles; Henry, Jon; Burov, Stas; Lin, Yihan; Crosson, Sean; Dinner, Aaron; Scherer, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    The interplay between growth and division of cells is has been studied in the context of exponential growth of bacterial cells (in suitable conditions) for decades. However, bulk culture studies obscure phenomena that manifest in single cells over many generations. We introduce a unique technology combining microfluidics, single-cell imaging, and quantitative analysis. This enables us to track the growth of single Caulobacter crescentus stalked cells over hundreds of generations. The statistics that we extract indicate a size thresholding mechanism for cell division and a non-trivial scaling collapse of division time distributions at different temperatures. In this talk I shall discuss these observations and a stochastic model of growth and division that captures all our observations with no free parameters.

  2. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  3. Universality in Stochastic Exponential Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crooks, Gavin E.; Scherer, Norbert F.; Dinner, Aaron R.

    2014-07-01

    Recent imaging data for single bacterial cells reveal that their mean sizes grow exponentially in time and that their size distributions collapse to a single curve when rescaled by their means. An analogous result holds for the division-time distributions. A model is needed to delineate the minimal requirements for these scaling behaviors. We formulate a microscopic theory of stochastic exponential growth as a Master Equation that accounts for these observations, in contrast to existing quantitative models of stochastic exponential growth (e.g., the Black-Scholes equation or geometric Brownian motion). Our model, the stochastic Hinshelwood cycle (SHC), is an autocatalytic reaction cycle in which each molecular species catalyzes the production of the next. By finding exact analytical solutions to the SHC and the corresponding first passage time problem, we uncover universal signatures of fluctuations in exponential growth and division. The model makes minimal assumptions, and we describe how more complex reaction networks can reduce to such a cycle. We thus expect similar scalings to be discovered in stochastic processes resulting in exponential growth that appear in diverse contexts such as cosmology, finance, technology, and population growth.

  4. Growth Kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in Broth and Beef Frankfurters– Determination of Lag Phase Duration and Exponential Growth Rate under Isothermal Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a new kinetic model to describe the isothermal growth of microorganisms. The new model was tested with Listeria monocytogenes in broth and frankfurters, and compared with two commonly used models - Baranyi and modified Gompertz models. Bias factor (BF)...

  5. Exponential kinetics of formation of organic microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, C. L.; Folsome, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Organic microstructure production in Miller-Urey spark discharge flasks is an energy-dependent, autocatalytic process which follows first order kinetics similar to microbial growth curves. These relationships hold for all three major morphological types of microstructures observed. The three types are assembled from smaller precursor subunits which associate according to a binomial distribution. These structures could have formed bounded systems in which pre-biological processes might have occurred.

  6. A Simulation To Model Exponential Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelbaum, Elizabeth Berman

    2000-01-01

    Describes a simulation using dice-tossing students in a population cluster to model the growth of cancer cells. This growth is recorded in a scatterplot and compared to an exponential function graph. (KHR)

  7. An Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory: Students' Emerging Understanding of Exponential Growth through Covariation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Amy B.; Ozgur, Zekiye; Kulow, Torrey; Dogan, Muhammed F.; Amidon, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory (EGLT), a trajectory identifying and characterizing middle grade students' initial and developing understanding of exponential growth as a result of an instructional emphasis on covariation. The EGLT explicates students' thinking and learning over time in relation to a set of tasks…

  8. A Simple Mechanical Experiment on Exponential Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    With a rod, cord, pulleys, and slotted masses, students can observe and graph exponential growth in the cord tension over a factor of increase as large as several hundred. This experiment is adaptable for use either in algebra-based or calculus-based physics courses, fitting naturally with the study of sliding friction. Significant parts of the…

  9. Stretched versus compressed exponential kinetics in α-helix folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Peter; Helbing, Jan; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2006-03-01

    In a recent paper (J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, J.R. Kumita, G.A. Woolley, P. Hamm, α-helix formation in a photoswitchable peptide tracked from picoseconds to microseconds by time resolved IR spectroscopy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 102 (2005) 2379), we have investigated the folding of a photo-switchable α-helix with a kinetics that could be fit by a stretched exponential function exp(-( t/ τ) β). The stretching factor β became smaller as the temperature was lowered, a result which has been interpreted in terms of activated diffusion on a rugged energy surface. In the present paper, we discuss under which conditions diffusion problems occur with stretched exponential kinetics ( β < 1) and under which compressed exponential kinetics is obtained ( β > 1). We show that diffusion problems do have a strong tendency to yield stretched exponential kinetics, yet, that there are conditions (strong perturbation from equilibrium, performing the experiment in the folding direction) under which compressed exponential kinetics would be expected instead. We discuss the kinetics on free energy surfaces predicted by simple initiation-propagation models (zipper models) of α-helix folding, as well as by folding funnel models. We show that our recent experiment has been performed under condition for which models with strong downhill driving force, such as the zipper model, would predict compressed, rather than stretched exponential kinetics, in disagreement with the experimental observation. We therefore propose that the free energy surface along a reaction coordinate that governs the folding kinetics must be relatively flat and has a shape similar to a 1D golf course. We discuss how this conclusion can be unified with the thermodynamically well established zipper model by introducing an additional kinetic reaction coordinate.

  10. A Simple Mechanical Experiment on Exponential Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrew, Ralph

    2015-04-01

    With a rod, cord, pulleys, and slotted masses, students can observe and graph exponential growth in the cord tension over a factor of increase as large as several hundred. This experiment is adaptable for use either in algebra-based or calculus-based physics courses, fitting naturally with the study of sliding friction. Significant parts of the activity are accessible to students in physical science and environmental science courses.

  11. 101 Ways to Teach About Exponential Growth and Its Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    Exponential growth is a mega-concept which has many applications. It is fundamental to understanding how and why systems work and fail, be they natural or man-made systems. Lessons/activities in this booklet are designed for Florida teachers to help provide their students with an understanding of the nature and implications of exponential growth.…

  12. A Stochastic Super-Exponential Growth Model for Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, P.; Rekker, A.

    2010-11-01

    A super-exponential growth model with environmental noise has been studied analytically. Super-exponential growth rate is a property of dynamical systems exhibiting endogenous nonlinear positive feedback, i.e., of self-reinforcing systems. Environmental noise acts on the growth rate multiplicatively and is assumed to be Gaussian white noise in the Stratonovich interpretation. An analysis of the stochastic super-exponential growth model with derivations of exact analytical formulae for the conditional probability density and the mean value of the population abundance are presented. Interpretations and various applications of the results are discussed.

  13. Generalized exponential function and discrete growth models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto Martinez, Alexandre; Silva González, Rodrigo; Lauri Espíndola, Aquino

    2009-07-01

    Here we show that a particular one-parameter generalization of the exponential function is suitable to unify most of the popular one-species discrete population dynamic models into a simple formula. A physical interpretation is given to this new introduced parameter in the context of the continuous Richards model, which remains valid for the discrete case. From the discretization of the continuous Richards’ model (generalization of the Gompertz and Verhulst models), one obtains a generalized logistic map and we briefly study its properties. Notice, however that the physical interpretation for the introduced parameter persists valid for the discrete case. Next, we generalize the (scramble competition) θ-Ricker discrete model and analytically calculate the fixed points as well as their stabilities. In contrast to previous generalizations, from the generalized θ-Ricker model one is able to retrieve either scramble or contest models.

  14. Exponential order statistic models of software reliability growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Failure times of a software reliabilty growth process are modeled as order statistics of independent, nonidentically distributed exponential random variables. The Jelinsky-Moranda, Goel-Okumoto, Littlewood, Musa-Okumoto Logarithmic, and Power Law models are all special cases of Exponential Order Statistic Models, but there are many additional examples also. Various characterizations, properties and examples of this class of models are developed and presented.

  15. Teaching Exponential Growth and Decay: Examples from Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbie, Russell K.

    1973-01-01

    A treatment of exponential growth and decay is sketched which does not require knowledge of calculus, and hence, it can be applied to many cases in the biological and medical sciences. Some examples are bacterial growth, sterilization, clearance, and drug absorption. (DF)

  16. Kinetics of Prion Growth

    PubMed Central

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Frömmel, Cornelius

    2003-01-01

    We study the kinetics of prion fibril growth, described by the nucleated polymerization model analytically and by means of numerical experiments. The elementary processes of prion fibril formation lead us to a set of differential equations for the number of fibrils, their total mass, and the number of prion monomers. In difference to previous studies we analyze this set by explicitly taking into account the time-dependence of the prion monomer concentration. The theoretical results agree with experimental data, whereas the generally accepted hypothesis of constant monomer concentration leads to a fibril growth behavior which is not in agreement with experiments. The obtained size distribution of the prion fibril aggregates is shifted significantly toward shorter lengths as compared to earlier results, which leads to a enhanced infectivity of the prion material. Finally, we study the effect of filtering of the inoculated material on the incubation time of the disease. PMID:14645042

  17. Iterative exponential growth of stereo- and sequence-controlled polymers.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jonathan C; Ehrlich, Deborah J C; Gao, Angela X; Leibfarth, Frank A; Jiang, Yivan; Zhou, Erica; Jamison, Timothy F; Johnson, Jeremiah A

    2015-10-01

    Chemists have long sought sequence-controlled synthetic polymers that mimic nature's biopolymers, but a practical synthetic route that enables absolute control over polymer sequence and structure remains a key challenge. Here, we report an iterative exponential growth plus side-chain functionalization (IEG+) strategy that begins with enantiopure epoxides and facilitates the efficient synthesis of a family of uniform >3 kDa macromolecules of varying sequence and stereoconfiguration that are coupled to produce unimolecular polymers (>6 kDa) with sequences and structures that cannot be obtained using traditional polymerization techniques. Selective side-chain deprotection of three hexadecamers is also demonstrated, which imbues each compound with the ability to dissolve in water. We anticipate that these new macromolecules and the general IEG+ strategy will find broad application as a versatile platform for the scalable synthesis of sequence-controlled polymers.

  18. Fluctuating reaction rate and non-exponential blinking statistics in single-enzyme kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jau; Yeh, Yi-Cheun; Tai, Po-Tse

    2008-09-01

    Extending the Michaelis-Menten kinetic scheme, we consider a three-state diffusion-controlled reaction model to investigate the effects of fluctuating reaction rate on the blinking statistics of single-enzyme catalytic reactions. As a result of conformational changes, the barrier-height and the reaction rate for the bottleneck enzymatic reaction could fluctuate in time, leading to non-exponential blinking statistics. To illustrate model applications, some reported experimental data for single β-galactosidase molecules were reanalyzed here to extract useful kinetic parameters.

  19. Integration of large chemical kinetic mechanisms via exponential methods with Krylov approximations to Jacobian matrix functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2012-06-01

    Recent trends in hydrocarbon fuel research indicate that the number of species and reactions in chemical kinetic mechanisms is rapidly increasing in an effort to provide predictive capabilities for fuels of practical interest. In order to cope with the computational cost associated with the time integration of stiff, large chemical systems, a novel approach is proposed. The approach combines an exponential integrator and Krylov subspace approximations to the exponential function of the Jacobian matrix. The components of the approach are described in detail and applied to the ignition of stoichiometric methane-air and iso-octane-air mixtures, here described by two widely adopted chemical kinetic mechanisms. The approach is found to be robust even at relatively large time steps and the global error displays a nominal third-order convergence. The performance of the approach is improved by utilising an adaptive algorithm for the selection of the Krylov subspace size, which guarantees an approximation to the matrix exponential within user-defined error tolerance. The Krylov projection of the Jacobian matrix onto a low-dimensional space is interpreted as a local model reduction with a well-defined error control strategy. Finally, the performance of the approach is discussed with regard to the optimal selection of the parameters governing the accuracy of its individual components.

  20. Exponential growth of publications on carbon nanodots by Chinese authors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junqing; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-01-01

    Publication statistics was retrieved on carbon nanodots (C-dots) from 2004 up till 2014 using the web of ScienceTM search engine. The number of publications from Chinese authors increased exponentially during this period. Till 2014 China mainland authors contributed 47% of the total publications. Publications on pharmacology and toxicology lagged far behind the publications on chemistry and material science, indicating that research is not solidly moving toward the direction of application. PMID:26380753

  1. Femtosecond Laser Pulse Driven Melting in Gold Nanorod Aqueous Colloidal Suspension: Identification of a Transition from Stretched to Exponential Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuelin; Jiang, Zhang; Lin, Xiao-Min; Wen, Haidan; Walko, Donald A.; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Subbaraman, Ram; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Gray, Stephen K.; Ho, Phay

    2015-01-01

    Many potential industrial, medical, and environmental applications of metal nanorods rely on the physics and resultant kinetics and dynamics of the interaction of these particles with light. We report a surprising kinetics transition in the global melting of femtosecond laser-driven gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension. At low laser intensity, the melting exhibits a stretched exponential kinetics, which abruptly transforms into a compressed exponential kinetics when the laser intensity is raised. It is found the relative formation and reduction rate of intermediate shapes play a key role in the transition. Supported by both molecular dynamics simulations and a kinetic model, the behavior is traced back to the persistent heterogeneous nature of the shape dependence of the energy uptake, dissipation and melting of individual nanoparticles. These results could have significant implications for various applications such as water purification and electrolytes for energy storage that involve heat transport between metal nanorod ensembles and surrounding solvents. PMID:25634673

  2. Femtosecond laser pulse driven melting in gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension: identification of a transition from stretched to exponential kinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Jiang, Zhang; Lin, Xiao-Min; Wen, Haidan; Walko, Donald A; Deshmukh, Sanket A; Subbaraman, Ram; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Gray, Stephen K; Ho, Phay

    2015-01-30

    Many potential industrial, medical, and environmental applications of metal nanorods rely on the physics and resultant kinetics and dynamics of the interaction of these particles with light. We report a surprising kinetics transition in the global melting of femtosecond laser-driven gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension. At low laser intensity, the melting exhibits a stretched exponential kinetics, which abruptly transforms into a compressed exponential kinetics when the laser intensity is raised. It is found the relative formation and reduction rate of intermediate shapes play a key role in the transition. Supported by both molecular dynamics simulations and a kinetic model, the behavior is traced back to the persistent heterogeneous nature of the shape dependence of the energy uptake, dissipation and melting of individual nanoparticles. These results could have significant implications for various applications such as water purification and electrolytes for energy storage that involve heat transport between metal nanorod ensembles and surrounding solvents.

  3. Femtosecond laser pulse driven melting in gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension: Identification of a transition from stretched to exponential kinetics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Yuelin; Jiang, Zhang; Lin, Xiao -Min; Wen, Haidan; Walko, Donald A.; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Subbaraman, Ram; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Gray, Stephen K.; Ho, Phay

    2015-01-30

    Many potential industrial, medical, and environmental applications of metal nanorods rely on the physics and resultant kinetics and dynamics of the interaction of these particles with light. We report a surprising kinetics transition in the global melting of femtosecond laser-driven gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension. At low laser intensity, the melting exhibits a stretched exponential kinetics, which abruptly transforms into a compressed exponential kinetics when the laser intensity is raised. It is found the relative formation and reduction rate of intermediate shapes play a key role in the transition. Supported by both molecular dynamics simulations and a kinetic model, themore » behavior is traced back to the persistent heterogeneous nature of the shape dependence of the energy uptake, dissipation and melting of individual nanoparticles. These results could have significant implications for various applications such as water purification and electrolytes for energy storage that involve heat transport between metal nanorod ensembles and surrounding solvents.« less

  4. Femtosecond laser pulse driven melting in gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension: Identification of a transition from stretched to exponential kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuelin; Jiang, Zhang; Lin, Xiao -Min; Wen, Haidan; Walko, Donald A.; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Subbaraman, Ram; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Gray, Stephen K.; Ho, Phay

    2015-01-30

    Many potential industrial, medical, and environmental applications of metal nanorods rely on the physics and resultant kinetics and dynamics of the interaction of these particles with light. We report a surprising kinetics transition in the global melting of femtosecond laser-driven gold nanorod aqueous colloidal suspension. At low laser intensity, the melting exhibits a stretched exponential kinetics, which abruptly transforms into a compressed exponential kinetics when the laser intensity is raised. It is found the relative formation and reduction rate of intermediate shapes play a key role in the transition. Supported by both molecular dynamics simulations and a kinetic model, the behavior is traced back to the persistent heterogeneous nature of the shape dependence of the energy uptake, dissipation and melting of individual nanoparticles. These results could have significant implications for various applications such as water purification and electrolytes for energy storage that involve heat transport between metal nanorod ensembles and surrounding solvents.

  5. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 1; Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive slow-crack-growth (SCG) analysis was made using a primary exponential crack-velocity formulation under three widely used load configurations: constant stress rate, constant stress, and cyclic stress. Although the use of the exponential formulation in determining SCG parameters of a material requires somewhat inconvenient numerical procedures, the resulting solutions presented gave almost the same degree of simplicity in both data analysis and experiments as did the power-law formulation. However, the fact that the inert strength of a material should be known in advance to determine the corresponding SCG parameters was a major drawback of the exponential formulation as compared with the power-law formulation.

  6. Cancer Progression and Tumor Growth Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoev, Krastan; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wilkerson, Julia; Sprinkhuizen, Sara; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bates, Susan; Rosen, Bruce; Fojo, Tito

    2013-03-01

    We present and analyze tumor growth data from prostate and brain cancer. Scaling the data from different patients shows that early stage prostate tumors show non-exponential growth while advanced prostate and brain tumors enter a stage of exponential growth. The scaling analysis points to the existence of cancer stem cells and/or massive apoptosis in early stage prostate cancer and that late stage cancer growth is not dominated by cancer stem cells. Statistical models of these two growth modes are discussed. Work supported by the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health

  7. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang.

  8. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2014-09-12

    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. PMID:25103410

  9. Understanding Exponential Growth: As Simple as a Drop in a Bucket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Fred; Shuman, James

    1984-01-01

    Provides procedures for a simple laboratory activity on exponential growth and its characteristic doubling time. The equipment needed consists of a large plastic bucket, an eyedropper, a stopwatch, an assortment of containers and graduated cylinders, and a supply of water. (JN)

  10. Exponential Growth and the Shifting Global Center of Gravity of Science Production, 1900-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang; Powell, Justin J. W.; Baker, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Long historical trends in scientific discovery led mid-20th century scientometricians to mark the advent of "big science"--extensive science production--and predicted that over the next few decades, the exponential growth would slow, resulting in lower rates of increase in production at the upper limit of a logistic curve. They were…

  11. Entire solutions with exponential growth for an elliptic system modelling phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soave, Nicola; Zilio, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    We prove the existence of entire solutions with exponential growth for the semilinear elliptic system \\begin{equation*} \\left\\{\\begin{array}{@{}ll@{}} -\\Delta u = -u v^2 \\quad& in~{R}^N,\\\\ -\\Delta v= -u^2 v \\quad&in~{R}^N, \\\\ u,v>0, \\end{array}\\right. \\end{equation*} for every N ⩾ 2. Our construction is based on an approximation procedure, whose convergence is ensured by suitable Almgren-type monotonicity formulae. The construction of the resulting solutions is extended to systems with k components, for every k > 2 in this case, the proof is much more involved and is achieved by approximation of solutions with exponential growth by means of solutions with algebraic growth of increasing degree, translating the limit \\begin{equation*}\\lim_{d \\to +\\infty} \\Im\\left[\\left(1+\\frac{z}{d}\\right)^{d}\\right] = \\rme^x \\sin y \\end{equation*} in the present setting.

  12. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation.

    PubMed

    Birk, T; Henriksen, S; Müller, K; Hansen, T B; Aabo, S

    2016-11-01

    Raw meat for sausage production can be contaminated with Salmonella. For technical reasons, meat is often frozen prior to mincing but it is unknown how growth of Salmonella in meat prior to freezing affects its growth potential during sausage fermentation. We investigated survival of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at -18°C and their subsequent growth potential during 72h sausage fermentation at 25°C. After 0, 7 and >35d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100ppm) and fermented with and without starter culture. With no starter culture, both strains grew in both growth phases. In general, a functional starter culture abolished S. Typhimurium growth independent of growth phase and we concluded that ensuring correct fermentation is important for sausage safety. However, despite efficient fermentation, sporadic growth of exponential-phase cells of S. Typhimurium was observed drawing attention to the handling and storage of sausage meat.

  13. Exponential-fitted methods for integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations: Applications to homogeneous gas-phase chemical kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    Conventional algorithms for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on the use of polynomial functions as interpolants. However, the exact solutions of stiff ODEs behave like decaying exponential functions, which are poorly approximated by polynomials. An obvious choice of interpolant are the exponential functions themselves, or their low-order diagonal Pade (rational function) approximants. A number of explicit, A-stable, integration algorithms were derived from the use of a three-parameter exponential function as interpolant, and their relationship to low-order, polynomial-based and rational-function-based implicit and explicit methods were shown by examining their low-order diagonal Pade approximants. A robust implicit formula was derived by exponential fitting the trapezoidal rule. Application of these algorithms to integration of the ODEs governing homogenous, gas-phase chemical kinetics was demonstrated in a developmental code CREK1D, which compares favorably with the Gear-Hindmarsh code LSODE in spite of the use of a primitive stepsize control strategy.

  14. Growth and dissolution kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaco, L. A.; Rosenberger, F.

    1993-01-01

    The growth and dissolution kinetics of lysozyme in a 25 ml solution bridge inside a closed growth cell was investigated. It was found that, under all growth conditions, the growth habit forming (110) and (101) faces grew through layer spreading with different growth rate dependence on supersaturation/temperature. On the other hand, (100) faces which formed only at low temperatures underwent a thermal roughening transition around 12 C.

  15. Power Law Versus Exponential Form of Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Structural Ceramics: Dynamic Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress-rate ("dynamic fatigue") and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the strength versus In (stress rate) relation was found to be very reasonable for most of the materials. It was also found that preloading technique was equally applicable for the case of slow crack growth (SCG) parameter n > 30. The major limitation in the exponential crack velocity formulation, however, was that an inert strength of a material must be known priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared to the conventional power-law crack velocity formulation.

  16. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator.

  17. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator. PMID:26339793

  18. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator. PMID:26339793

  19. Inference of Super-exponential Human Population Growth via Efficient Computation of the Site Frequency Spectrum for Generalized Models.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The site frequency spectrum (SFS) and other genetic summary statistics are at the heart of many population genetic studies. Previous studies have shown that human populations have undergone a recent epoch of fast growth in effective population size. These studies assumed that growth is exponential, and the ensuing models leave an excess amount of extremely rare variants. This suggests that human populations might have experienced a recent growth with speed faster than exponential. Recent studies have introduced a generalized growth model where the growth speed can be faster or slower than exponential. However, only simulation approaches were available for obtaining summary statistics under such generalized models. In this study, we provide expressions to accurately and efficiently evaluate the SFS and other summary statistics under generalized models, which we further implement in a publicly available software. Investigating the power to infer deviation of growth from being exponential, we observed that adequate sample sizes facilitate accurate inference; e.g., a sample of 3000 individuals with the amount of data expected from exome sequencing allows observing and accurately estimating growth with speed deviating by ≥10% from that of exponential. Applying our inference framework to data from the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project, we found that a model with a generalized growth epoch fits the observed SFS significantly better than the equivalent model with exponential growth (P-value [Formula: see text]). The estimated growth speed significantly deviates from exponential (P-value [Formula: see text]), with the best-fit estimate being of growth speed 12% faster than exponential.

  20. Growth kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, M.; Naumann, R.

    1986-01-01

    A method for immobilizing protein crystals in small volumes to determine growth rates on various faces is applied to study the growth kinetics of the (100) face of tetragonal hen-egg white lysozyme crystals at different degrees of bulk saturation. In normal gravity, transport is found to be dominated by convection for crystal sizes larger than a few microns, while in a microgravity environment, transport is diffusion-limited for sizes up to a few mm. It is found that convection can be significant even in microgravity for crystals approaching cm sizes, and that lysozyme growth is limited by surface kinetics in normal gravity.

  1. Ammonium removal from aqueous solutions by clinoptilolite: determination of isotherm and thermodynamic parameters and comparison of kinetics by the double exponential model and conventional kinetic models.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Ismail

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption isotherm, the adsorption kinetics, and the thermodynamic parameters of ammonium removal from aqueous solution by using clinoptilolite in aqueous solution was investigated in this study. Experimental data obtained from batch equilibrium tests have been analyzed by four two-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R)) and four three-parameter (Redlich-Peterson (R-P), Sips, Toth and Khan) isotherm models. D-R and R-P isotherms were the models that best fitted to experimental data over the other two- and three-parameter models applied. The adsorption energy (E) from the D-R isotherm was found to be approximately 7 kJ/mol for the ammonium-clinoptilolite system, thereby indicating that ammonium is adsorbed on clinoptilolite by physisorption. Kinetic parameters were determined by analyzing the nth-order kinetic model, the modified second-order model and the double exponential model, and each model resulted in a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of above 0.989 with an average relative error lower than 5%. A Double Exponential Model (DEM) showed that the adsorption process develops in two stages as rapid and slow phase. Changes in standard free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) of ammonium-clinoptilolite system were estimated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients.

  2. Ammonium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Clinoptilolite: Determination of Isotherm and Thermodynamic Parameters and Comparison of Kinetics by the Double Exponential Model and Conventional Kinetic Models

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, İsmail

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption isotherm, the adsorption kinetics, and the thermodynamic parameters of ammonium removal from aqueous solution by using clinoptilolite in aqueous solution was investigated in this study. Experimental data obtained from batch equilibrium tests have been analyzed by four two-parameter (Freundlich, Langmuir, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R)) and four three-parameter (Redlich-Peterson (R-P), Sips, Toth and Khan) isotherm models. D-R and R-P isotherms were the models that best fitted to experimental data over the other two- and three-parameter models applied. The adsorption energy (E) from the D-R isotherm was found to be approximately 7 kJ/mol for the ammonium-clinoptilolite system, thereby indicating that ammonium is adsorbed on clinoptilolite by physisorption. Kinetic parameters were determined by analyzing the nth-order kinetic model, the modified second-order model and the double exponential model, and each model resulted in a coefficient of determination (R2) of above 0.989 with an average relative error lower than 5%. A Double Exponential Model (DEM) showed that the adsorption process develops in two stages as rapid and slow phase. Changes in standard free energy (∆G°), enthalpy (∆H°) and entropy (∆S°) of ammonium-clinoptilolite system were estimated by using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients. PMID:22690177

  3. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  4. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden. PMID:24346044

  5. Kinetics of phosphate limited algal growth.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, N

    1977-04-01

    The kinetics of phosphate limited growth of two green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum have been studied in chemostats. Several kinetic models which express the specific growth rate as a function of the intracellular phosphorus content have been examined, and one of the models was found to be significantly better than the other models. The principles of this model were described in a recent paper by Nyholm. The kinetics of phosphate uptake have been investigated by adding pulses of phosphate to the chemostats, The uptake by phosphorus deficient cells could be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics for phosphate concentrations below approximately 500 microng P/liter. Further, with the assumption of a discontinuous adjustment of the uptake rate at the onset of phosphorus deficiency, a complete kinetic model for growth and phosphate removal is proposed. The mean cell size and the contents of chlorophyll a and RNA per unit dry weight have been measured for C. pyrenoidosa as a function of the dilution rate. PMID:856323

  6. Transport and Growth Kinetics in Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otalora, F.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.; Carotenuto, L.; Castagnolo, D.; Novella, M. L.; Chernov, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between mass transport and incorporation of growth units into the surface of a crystal growing from solution in microgravity is used to derive quantitative information on the crystal growth kinetics. To this end, new procedures for experiment preparation, interferometric data processing and model fitting have been developed. The use of experimental data from the bulk diffusive maw transport together with a model for steady state stagnant crystal growth allows the detailed quantitative understanding of the kinetics of both the concentration depletion zone around the crystal and the growth of the crystal interface. The protein crystal used in the experiment is shown to be growing in the mixed kinetic regime (0.2 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second less than beta R/D less than 0.9 x 10(exp -6) centimeters per second).

  7. Stretching of single poly-ubiquitin molecules revisited: Dynamic disorder in the non-exponential unfolding kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue; Bian, Yukun; Zhao, Nanrong; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2014-03-01

    A theoretical framework based on a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) with fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) and a power-law memory kernel is presented to describe the non-exponential kinetics of the unfolding of a single poly-ubiquitin molecule under a constant force [T.-L. Kuo, S. Garcia-Manyes, J. Li, I. Barel, H. Lu, B. J. Berne, M. Urbakh, J. Klafter, and J. M. Fernández, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 11336 (2010)]. Such a GLE-fGn strategy is made on the basis that the pulling coordinate variable x undergoes subdiffusion, usually resulting from conformational fluctuations, over a one-dimensional force-modified free-energy surface U(x, F). By using the Kramers' rate theory, we have obtained analytical formulae for the time-dependent rate coefficient k(t, F), the survival probability S(t, F) as well as the waiting time distribution function f(t, F) as functions of time t and force F. We find that our results can fit the experimental data of f(t, F) perfectly in the whole time range with a power-law exponent γ = 1/2, the characteristic of typical anomalous subdiffusion. In addition, the fitting of the survival probabilities for different forces facilitates us to reach rather reasonable estimations for intrinsic properties of the system, such as the free-energy barrier and the distance between the native conformation and the transition state conformation along the reaction coordinate, which are in good agreements with molecular dynamics simulations in the literatures. Although static disorder has been implicated in the original work of Kuo et al., our work suggests a sound and plausible alternative interpretation for the non-exponential kinetics in the stretching of poly-ubiquitin molecules, associated with dynamic disorder.

  8. Stretching of single poly-ubiquitin molecules revisited: dynamic disorder in the non-exponential unfolding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue; Bian, Yukun; Zhao, Nanrong; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2014-03-28

    A theoretical framework based on a generalized Langevin equation (GLE) with fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) and a power-law memory kernel is presented to describe the non-exponential kinetics of the unfolding of a single poly-ubiquitin molecule under a constant force [T.-L. Kuo, S. Garcia-Manyes, J. Li, I. Barel, H. Lu, B. J. Berne, M. Urbakh, J. Klafter, and J. M. Fernández, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 11336 (2010)]. Such a GLE-fGn strategy is made on the basis that the pulling coordinate variable x undergoes subdiffusion, usually resulting from conformational fluctuations, over a one-dimensional force-modified free-energy surface U(x, F). By using the Kramers' rate theory, we have obtained analytical formulae for the time-dependent rate coefficient k(t, F), the survival probability S(t, F) as well as the waiting time distribution function f(t, F) as functions of time t and force F. We find that our results can fit the experimental data of f(t, F) perfectly in the whole time range with a power-law exponent γ = 1/2, the characteristic of typical anomalous subdiffusion. In addition, the fitting of the survival probabilities for different forces facilitates us to reach rather reasonable estimations for intrinsic properties of the system, such as the free-energy barrier and the distance between the native conformation and the transition state conformation along the reaction coordinate, which are in good agreements with molecular dynamics simulations in the literatures. Although static disorder has been implicated in the original work of Kuo et al., our work suggests a sound and plausible alternative interpretation for the non-exponential kinetics in the stretching of poly-ubiquitin molecules, associated with dynamic disorder. PMID:24697481

  9. Volumetric analysis of syringomyelia following hindbrain decompression for Chiari malformation Type I: syringomyelia resolution follows exponential kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Coumans, Jean-Valery; Walcott, Brian P.; Butler, William E.; Nahed, Brian V.; Kahle, Kristopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Object Resolution of syringomyelia is common following hindbrain decompression for Chiari malformation, yet little is known about the kinetics governing this process. The authors sought to establish the volumetric rate of syringomyelia resolution. Methods A retrospective cohort of patients undergoing hindbrain decompression for a Chiari malformation Type I with preoperative cervical or thoracic syringomyelia was identified. Patients were included in the study if they had at least 3 neuroimaging studies that detailed the entirety of their preoperative syringomyelia over a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. The authors reconstructed the MR images in 3 dimensions and calculated the volume of the syringomyelia. They plotted the syringomyelia volume over time and constructed regression models using the method of least squares. The Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion were used to calculate the relative goodness of fit. The coefficients of determination R2 (unadjusted and adjusted) were calculated to describe the proportion of variability in each individual data set accounted for by the statistical model. Results Two patients were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Plots of the least-squares best fit were identified as 4.01459e−0.0180804x and 13.2556e−0.00615859x. Decay of the syringomyelia followed an exponential model in both patients (R2 = 0.989582 and 0.948864). Conclusions Three-dimensional analysis of syringomyelia resolution over time enables the kinetics to be estimated. This technique is yet to be validated in a large cohort. Because syringomyelia is the final common pathway for a number of different pathological processes, it is possible that this exponential only applies to syringomyelia related to treatment of Chiari malformation Type I. PMID:21882909

  10. Intensification of β-poly(L: -malic acid) production by Aureobasidium pullulans ipe-1 in the late exponential growth phase.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weifeng; Luo, Jianquan; Zhao, Juan; Qiao, Changsheng; Ding, Luhui; Qi, Benkun; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua

    2012-07-01

    β-Poly(malic acid) (PMLA) has attracted industrial interest because this polyester can be used as a prodrug or for drug delivery systems. In PMLA production by Aureobasidium pullulans ipe-1, it was found that PLMA production was associated with cell growth in the early exponential growth phase and dissociated from cell growth in the late exponential growth phase. To enhance PMLA production in the late phase, different fermentation modes and strategies for controlling culture redox potential (CRP) were studied. The results showed that high concentrations of produced PMLA (above 40 g/l) not only inhibited PMLA production, but also was detrimental to cell growth. Moreover, when CRP increased from 57 to 100 mV in the late exponential growth phase, the lack of reducing power in the broth also decreased PMLA productivity. PMLA productivity could be enhanced by repeated-batch culture to maintain cell growth in the exponential growth phase, or by cell-recycle culture with membrane to remove the produced PMLA, or by maintaining CRP below 70 mV no matter which kind of fermentation mode was adopted. Repeated-batch culture afforded a high PMLA concentration (up to 63.2 g/l) with a productivity of 1.15 g l(-1) h(-1). Cell-recycle culture also confirmed that PMLA production by the strain ipe-1 was associated with cell growth.

  11. Modeling the Pre-Industrial Roots of Modern Super-Exponential Population Growth

    PubMed Central

    Stutz, Aaron Jonas

    2014-01-01

    To Malthus, rapid human population growth—so evident in 18th Century Europe—was obviously unsustainable. In his Essay on the Principle of Population, Malthus cogently argued that environmental and socioeconomic constraints on population rise were inevitable. Yet, he penned his essay on the eve of the global census size reaching one billion, as nearly two centuries of super-exponential increase were taking off. Introducing a novel extension of J. E. Cohen's hallmark coupled difference equation model of human population dynamics and carrying capacity, this article examines just how elastic population growth limits may be in response to demographic change. The revised model involves a simple formalization of how consumption costs influence carrying capacity elasticity over time. Recognizing that complex social resource-extraction networks support ongoing consumption-based investment in family formation and intergenerational resource transfers, it is important to consider how consumption has impacted the human environment and demography—especially as global population has become very large. Sensitivity analysis of the consumption-cost model's fit to historical population estimates, modern census data, and 21st Century demographic projections supports a critical conclusion. The recent population explosion was systemically determined by long-term, distinctly pre-industrial cultural evolution. It is suggested that modern globalizing transitions in technology, susceptibility to infectious disease, information flows and accumulation, and economic complexity were endogenous products of much earlier biocultural evolution of family formation's embeddedness in larger, hierarchically self-organizing cultural systems, which could potentially support high population elasticity of carrying capacity. Modern super-exponential population growth cannot be considered separately from long-term change in the multi-scalar political economy that connects family formation and

  12. Can the Site-Frequency Spectrum Distinguish Exponential Population Growth from Multiple-Merger Coalescents?

    PubMed Central

    Eldon, Bjarki; Birkner, Matthias; Blath, Jochen; Freund, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the site-frequency spectrum (SFS) to reflect the particularities of gene genealogies exhibiting multiple mergers of ancestral lines as opposed to those obtained in the presence of population growth is our focus. An excess of singletons is a well-known characteristic of both population growth and multiple mergers. Other aspects of the SFS, in particular, the weight of the right tail, are, however, affected in specific ways by the two model classes. Using an approximate likelihood method and minimum-distance statistics, our estimates of statistical power indicate that exponential and algebraic growth can indeed be distinguished from multiple-merger coalescents, even for moderate sample sizes, if the number of segregating sites is high enough. A normalized version of the SFS (nSFS) is also used as a summary statistic in an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach. The results give further positive evidence as to the general eligibility of the SFS to distinguish between the different histories. PMID:25575536

  13. Growth and nitrogen acquisition strategies of Acacia senegal seedlings under exponential phosphorus additions.

    PubMed

    Isaac, M E; Harmand, J M; Drevon, J J

    2011-05-15

    There remains conflicting evidence on the relationship between P supply and biological N(2)-fixation rates, particularly N(2)-fixing plant adaptive strategies under P limitation. This is important, as edaphic conditions inherent to many economically and ecologically important semi-arid leguminous tree species, such as Acacia senegal, are P deficient. Our research objective was to verify N acquisition strategies under phosphorus limitations using isotopic techniques. Acacia senegal var. senegal was cultivated in sand culture with three levels of exponentially supplied phosphorus [low (200 μmol of P seedling(-1) over 12 weeks), mid (400 μmol) and high (600 μmol)] to achieve steady-state nutrition over the growth period. Uniform additions of N were also supplied. Plant growth and nutrition were evaluated. Seedlings exhibited significantly greater total biomass under high P supply compared to low P supply. Both P and N content significantly increased with increasing P supply. Similarly, N derived from solution increased with elevated P availability. However, both the number of nodules and the N derived from atmosphere, determined by the (15)N natural abundance method, did not increase along the P gradient. Phosphorus stimulated growth and increased mineral N uptake from solution without affecting the amount of N derived from the atmosphere. We conclude that, under non-limiting N conditions, A. senegal N acquisition strategies change with P supply, with less reliance on N(2)-fixation when the rhizosphere achieves a sufficient N uptake zone.

  14. A Minimal Model of the E. Coli Bacterium in Exponential Phase Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken

    2013-03-01

    We study the fundamental process of exponential cell growth in the E. Coli bacterium under conditions of extracellular glucose limitations using a minimalistic reaction framework by accounting for energy metabolism and protein synthesis. The cell model has three nodes: ATP, the ribosomal and the non-ribosomal proteins. Their interdependencies and dynamics are wrapped in a system of ordinary differential equations. The formulations of their interactive fluxes capture the essence of cellular physiology under conditions of growth. We solve the model numerically for different glucose concentrations, and, where possible, explore the cell states analytically under steady state conditions. We verify the model predictions with available experimental data. The model lets us quantify the coupling between energy generation and biomass growth. An implication of this model is that it provides a layout to compute the fitness landscape in terms of the parameters of the cells, such as the protein translation rates, to make hypotheses about possible routes for cellular evolution under glucose limitation. Laufer Center for Phys. and Quant. Biology.

  15. Protein crystal growth - Growth kinetics for tetragonal lysozyme crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, M. L.; Snyder, R. S.; Naumann, R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from theoretical and experimental studies of the growth rate of lysozyme as a function of diffusion in earth-gravity conditions. The investigations were carried out to form a comparison database for future studies of protein crystal growth in the microgravity environment of space. A diffusion-convection model is presented for predicting crystal growth rates in the presence of solutal concentration gradients. Techniques used to grow and monitor the growth of hen egg white lysozyme are detailed. The model calculations and experiment data are employed to discuss the effects of transport and interfacial kinetics in the growth of the crystals, which gradually diminished the free energy in the growth solution. Density gradient-driven convection, caused by presence of the gravity field, was a limiting factor in the growth rate.

  16. Growth kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M.; Subramanian, R.; Bly, M.J.; Winter, S.; Aronson, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219, a phenol-resistant thermophile, can convert phenol to the specialty chemical catechol. The growth kinetics of this organism were studied in batch, continuous, and immobilized-cell culture. Batch growth was insensitive to pH between 6.0 and 8.0, but little growth occurred at 5.5. In continuous culture on a dilute medium supplemented with 10 mM phenol, several steady states were achieved between dilution rates of 0.25 and 1.3 h{sup -1}. Phenol degradation was found to be uncoupled from growth. Immobilized cells grew rapidly in a rich medium, but cell viability plummeted following a switch to a dilute medium supplemented with 5 mM phenol.

  17. Morphological stability and kinetics in crystal growth from vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) microscopy image storage and processing system; (2) growth kinetics and morphology study with carbon tetrabromide; (3) photothermal deflection vapor growth setup; (4) bridgman growth of iodine single crystals; (5) vapor concentration distribution measurement during growth; and (6) Monte Carlo modeling of anisotropic growth kinetics and morphology. A collection of presentations and publications of these results are presented.

  18. Teaching the Verhulst Model: A Teaching Experiment in Covariational Reasoning and Exponential Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo-Garsow, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Both Thompson and the duo of Confrey and Smith describe how students might be taught to build "ways of thinking" about exponential behavior by coordinating the covariation of two changing quantities, however, these authors build exponential behavior from different meanings of covariation. Confrey and Smith advocate beginning with discrete additive…

  19. Metabolic Flux Analysis during the Exponential Growth Phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Quirós, Manuel; Martínez-Moreno, Rubén; Albiol, Joan; Morales, Pilar; Vázquez-Lima, Felícitas; Barreiro-Vázquez, Antonio; Ferrer, Pau; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of the increase in global average temperature, grapes with the adequate phenolic and aromatic maturity tend to be overripe by the time of harvest, resulting in increased sugar concentrations and imbalanced C/N ratios in fermenting musts. This fact sets obvious additional hurdles in the challenge of obtaining wines with reduced alcohols levels, a new trend in consumer demands. It would therefore be interesting to understand Saccharomyces cerevisiae physiology during the fermentation of must with these altered characteristics. The present study aims to determine the distribution of metabolic fluxes during the yeast exponential growth phase, when both carbon and nitrogen sources are in excess, using continuous cultures. Two different sugar concentrations were studied under two different winemaking temperature conditions. Although consumption and production rates for key metabolites were severely affected by the different experimental conditions studied, the general distribution of fluxes in central carbon metabolism was basically conserved in all cases. It was also observed that temperature and sugar concentration exerted a higher effect on the pentose phosphate pathway and glycerol formation than on glycolysis and ethanol production. Additionally, nitrogen uptake, both quantitatively and qualitatively, was strongly influenced by environmental conditions. This work provides the most complete stoichiometric model used for Metabolic Flux Analysis of S. cerevisiae in wine fermentations employed so far, including the synthesis and release of relevant aroma compounds and could be used in the design of optimal nitrogen supplementation of wine fermentations. PMID:23967264

  20. The Cultural Divide: Exponential Growth in Classical 2D and Metabolic Equilibrium in 3D Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Borkowski, Kamil; Schwämmle, Veit; Dai, Jie; Joensen, Kira Eyd; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Carvalho, Vasco Botelho; Fey, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analyzed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dramatically different. Results Structurally, actin organization is changed, microtubules are increased and keratins 8 and 18 decreased. Metabolically, glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism and the pentose phosphate shunt are increased while TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation is unchanged. Enzymes involved in cholesterol and urea synthesis are increased consistent with the attainment of cholesterol and urea production rates seen in vivo. DNA repair enzymes are increased even though cells are predominantly in Go. Transport around the cell – along the microtubules, through the nuclear pore and in various types of vesicles has been prioritized. There are numerous coherent changes in transcription, splicing, translation, protein folding and degradation. The amount of individual proteins within complexes is shown to be highly coordinated. Typically subunits which initiate a particular function are present in increased amounts compared to other subunits of the same complex. Summary We have previously demonstrated that cells at dynamic equilibrium can match the physiological performance of cells in tissues in vivo. Here we describe the multitude of protein changes necessary to achieve this performance. PMID:25222612

  1. Growth morphology with anisotropic surface kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The morphological evolution of crystals growing from an incongruent vapor phase is studied using a Monte Carlo model, and the full range of growth morphologies is recovered. The diffusion in the bulk nutrient and the anisotropy in the interface kinetics are morphologically destabilizing and stabilizing, respectively. For a given set of simulation parameters and lattice symmetries there is a critical size, which scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its stable, macroscopically faceted growth shape. Surface diffusion stabilizes faceted growth on the shorter scale of the mean surface diffusion length. In simulations with a uniform drift superimposed on the random walk nutrient transport, crystal faces oriented toward the drift show enhanced morphological stability compared to the purely diffusive situation. Rotational drifts with periodic reversal of direction are morphologically stabilizing for all crystal facets.

  2. Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    1998-01-01

    The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.

  3. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 3; Constant Stress and Cyclic Stress Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on advanced structural ceramics tested under constant stress and cyclic stress loading at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation between the time to failure and applied stress (or maximum applied stress in cyclic loading) was very reasonable for most of the materials studied. It was also found that life prediction for cyclic stress loading from data of constant stress loading in the exponential formulation was in good agreement with the experimental data, resulting in a similar degree of accuracy as compared with the power-law formulation. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.

  4. Slow Crack Growth of Brittle Materials With Exponential Crack-Velocity Formulation. Part 2; Constant Stress Rate Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Nemeth, Noel N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    The previously determined life prediction analysis based on an exponential crack-velocity formulation was examined using a variety of experimental data on glass and advanced structural ceramics in constant stress rate and preload testing at ambient and elevated temperatures. The data fit to the relation of strength versus the log of the stress rate was very reasonable for most of the materials. Also, the preloading technique was determined equally applicable to the case of slow-crack-growth (SCG) parameter n greater than 30 for both the power-law and exponential formulations. The major limitation in the exponential crack-velocity formulation, however, was that the inert strength of a material must be known a priori to evaluate the important SCG parameter n, a significant drawback as compared with the conventional power-law crack-velocity formulation.

  5. Correlation between the change in the kinetics of the ribosomal RNA rrnB P2 promoter and the transition from lag to exponential phase with Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Robin C

    2008-01-15

    Developing accurate mathematical models to describe the pre-exponential lag phase in food-borne pathogens presents a considerable challenge to food microbiologists. While the growth rate is influenced by current environmental conditions, the lag phase is affected in addition by the history of the inoculum. A deeper understanding of physiological changes taking place during the lag phase would improve accuracy of models, and in earlier studies a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens containing the Tn7-luxCDABE gene cassette regulated by the rRNA promoter rrnB P2 was used to measure the influence of starvation, growth temperature and sub-lethal heating on promoter expression and subsequent growth. The present study expands the models developed earlier to include a model which describes the change from exponential to linear increase in promoter expression with time when the exponential phase of growth commences. A two-phase linear model with Poisson weighting was used to estimate the lag (LPDLin) and the rate (RLin) for this linear increase in bioluminescence. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient (r=0.830) between the LPDLin and the growth lag phase (LPDOD) was extremely significant (Pexponential growth. These results suggest that models based on measurable physiological changes in the cells can be useful in predicting the behaviour of food-borne pathogens.

  6. Domain Growth Kinetics in Stratifying Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are μ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, for certain low molecular weight surfactants, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification. We experimentally elucidate the influence of these different driving forces, and confinement on drainage kinetics of horizontal stratifying foam films. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. Quantitative characterization of domain growth visualized in a using Scheludko-type thin film cell and a theoretical model based on lubrication analysis, provide critical insights into hydrodynamics of thin foam films, and the strength and nature of surface forces, including supramolecular oscillatory structural forces.

  7. Determining the Kinetic Parameters Characteristic of Microalgal Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Sancho, Maria Eugenie; And Others

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students obtain a growth curve for algae, identify the exponential and linear growth phases, and calculate the parameters which characterize both phases is described. The procedure, a list of required materials, experimental conditions, analytical technique, and a discussion of the interpretations of individual results are…

  8. Domain growth kinetics in stratifying foam films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yiran; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    Baking bread, brewing cappuccino, pouring beer, washing dishes, shaving, shampooing, whipping eggs and blowing bubbles all involve creation of aqueous foam films. Typical foam films consist of two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 5 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of viscous and interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Interestingly, a layered ordering of micelles inside the foam films (thickness <100 nm) leads to a stepwise thinning phenomena called stratification, which results in a thickness-dependent variation in reflected light intensity, visualized as progressively darker shades of gray. Thinner, darker domains spontaneously grow within foam films. We show that the domain expansion dynamics exhibit two distinct growth regimes with characteristic scaling laws. Though several studies have focused on the expansion dynamics of isolated domains that exhibit a diffusion-like scaling, the change in expansion kinetics observed after domains contact with the Plateau border has not been reported and analyzed before.

  9. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect

    Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  10. Large-scale epitaxial growth kinetics of graphene: A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2015-08-28

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be C{sub 1}-attachment for concave growth-front segments and C{sub 5}-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  11. Reaction kinetics of dolomite rim growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Abart, R.; Morales, L. F. G.; Rhede, D.; Jeřábek, P.; Dresen, G.

    2014-04-01

    Reaction rims of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) were produced by solid-state reactions at the contacts of oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals at 400 MPa pressure, 750-850 °C temperature, and 3-146 h annealing time to determine the reaction kinetics. The dolomite reaction rims show two different microstructural domains. Elongated palisades of dolomite grew perpendicular into the MgCO3 interface with length ranging from about 6 to 41 µm. At the same time, a 5-71 µm wide rim of equiaxed granular dolomite grew at the contact with CaCO3. Platinum markers showed that the original interface is located at the boundary between the granular and palisade-forming dolomite. In addition to dolomite, a 12-80 µm thick magnesio-calcite layer formed between the dolomite reaction rims and the calcite single crystals. All reaction products show at least an axiotactic crystallographic relationship with respect to calcite reactant, while full topotaxy to calcite prevails within the granular dolomite and magnesio-calcite. Dolomite grains frequently exhibit growth twins characterized by a rotation of 180° around one of the equivalent axis. From mass balance considerations, it is inferred that the reaction rim of dolomite grew by counter diffusion of MgO and CaO. Assuming an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence, activation energies for diffusion of CaO and MgO are E a (CaO) = 192 ± 54 kJ/mol and E a (MgO) = 198 ± 44 kJ/mol, respectively.

  12. Growth Kinetics of Thiobacillus thiooxidans on the Surface of Elemental Sulfur.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Y; Asai, S; Yoshida, N

    1995-10-01

    The growth kinetics of Thiobacillus thiooxidans on elemental sulfur in batch cultures at 30(deg)C and pH 1.5 was studied by measuring the time courses of the concentration of adsorbed cells on sulfur, the concentration of free cells suspended in liquid medium, and the amount of sulfur oxidized. As the elemental sulfur was oxidized to sulfate ions, the surface concentration of adsorbed cells per unit mass of sulfur approached a maximum value (maximum adsorption capacity of sulfur particles) whereas the concentration of free cells continued to increase with time. There was a close relationship between the concentrations of free and adsorbed cells during the microbial sulfur oxidation, and the two cell concentrations were well correlated by the Langmuir isotherm with adsorption equilibrium constant K(infA) and maximum adsorption capacity X(infAm) of 2.10 x 10(sup-9) ml per cell and 4.57 x 10(sup10) cells per g, respectively. The total concentration of free and adsorbed cells increased in parallel with the amount of sulfate formed. The total growth on elemental sulfur gave a characteristic growth curve in which a linear-growth phase followed the period of an initial exponential phase. The batch rate data collected under a wide variety of inoculum levels (about 10(sup5) to 10(sup8) cells per ml) were consistent with a kinetic model assuming that the growth rate of adsorbed bacteria is proportional to the product of the concentration, X(infA), of adsorbed cells and the fraction, (theta)(infV), of adsorption sites unoccupied by cells. The kinetic and stoichiometric parameters appearing in the model were estimated from the experimental data, and the specific growth rate, (mu)(infA), and growth yield, Y(infA), were 2.58 day(sup-1) and 2.05 x 10(sup11) cells per g, respectively. The proposed model and the parameter values allowed us to predict quantitatively the surface attachment of T. thiooxidans cells on elemental sulfur and the bacterial growth in both initial

  13. Growth Kinetics of Suspended Microbial Cells: From Single-Substrate-Controlled Growth to Mixed-Substrate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kovárová-Kovar, Karin; Egli, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Growth kinetics, i.e., the relationship between specific growth rate and the concentration of a substrate, is one of the basic tools in microbiology. However, despite more than half a century of research, many fundamental questions about the validity and application of growth kinetics as observed in the laboratory to environmental growth conditions are still unanswered. For pure cultures growing with single substrates, enormous inconsistencies exist in the growth kinetic data reported. The low quality of experimental data has so far hampered the comparison and validation of the different growth models proposed, and only recently have data collected from nutrient-controlled chemostat cultures allowed us to compare different kinetic models on a statistical basis. The problems are mainly due to (i) the analytical difficulty in measuring substrates at growth-controlling concentrations and (ii) the fact that during a kinetic experiment, particularly in batch systems, microorganisms alter their kinetic properties because of adaptation to the changing environment. For example, for Escherichia coli growing with glucose, a physiological long-term adaptation results in a change in KS for glucose from some 5 mg liter−1 to ca. 30 μg liter−1. The data suggest that a dilemma exists, namely, that either “intrinsic” KS (under substrate-controlled conditions in chemostat culture) or μmax (under substrate-excess conditions in batch culture) can be measured but both cannot be determined at the same time. The above-described conventional growth kinetics derived from single-substrate-controlled laboratory experiments have invariably been used for describing both growth and substrate utilization in ecosystems. However, in nature, microbial cells are exposed to a wide spectrum of potential substrates, many of which they utilize simultaneously (in particular carbon sources). The kinetic data available to date for growth of pure cultures in carbon-controlled continuous culture

  14. A new mechanistic growth model for simultaneous determination of lag phase duration and exponential growth rate and a new Belehdradek-type model for evaluating the effect of temperature on growth rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new mechanistic growth model was developed to describe microbial growth under isothermal conditions. The new mathematical model was derived from the basic observation of bacterial growth that may include lag, exponential, and stationary phases. With this model, the lag phase duration and exponen...

  15. Understanding Linear and Exponential Growth: Searching for the Roots in 6- To 9-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Van Dooren, Wim; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that children as young as 9 years old have developed an understanding of non-linear growth processes prior to formal education. The present experiment aimed at investigating this competency in even younger samples (i.e., in kindergartners, first, and third graders, ages 6, 7 and 9, respectively). Children (N=90)…

  16. Kinetics of growth and caffeine demethylase production of Pseudomonas sp. in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N; Santhosh, Devarai

    2010-09-01

    The effect of various initial caffeine concentrations on growth and caffeine demethylase production by Pseudomonas sp. was studied in bioreactor. At initial concentration of 6.5 g l(-1) caffeine, Pseudomonas sp. showed a maximum specific growth rate of 0.2 h(-1), maximum degradation rate of 1.1 g h(-1), and caffeine demethylase activity of 18,762 U g CDW(-1) (CDW: cell dry weight). Caffeine degradation rate was 25 times higher in bioreactor than in shake flask. For the first time, we show highest degradation of 75 g caffeine (initial concentration 20 g l(-1)) in 120 h, suggesting that the tested strain has potential for successful bioprocess for caffeine degradation. Growth kinetics showed substrate inhibition phenomenon. Various substrate inhibition models were fitted to the kinetic data, amongst which the double-exponential (R(2) = 0.94), Luong (R(2) = 0.92), and Yano and Koga 2 (R(2) = 0.94) models were found to be the best. The Luedeking-Piret model showed that caffeine demethylase production kinetics was growth related. This is the first report on production of high levels of caffeine demethylase in batch bioreactor with faster degradation rate and high tolerance to caffeine, hence clearly suggesting that Pseudomonas sp. used in this study is a potential biocatalyst for industrial decaffeination.

  17. Kinetics of growth and caffeine demethylase production of Pseudomonas sp. in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N; Santhosh, Devarai

    2010-09-01

    The effect of various initial caffeine concentrations on growth and caffeine demethylase production by Pseudomonas sp. was studied in bioreactor. At initial concentration of 6.5 g l(-1) caffeine, Pseudomonas sp. showed a maximum specific growth rate of 0.2 h(-1), maximum degradation rate of 1.1 g h(-1), and caffeine demethylase activity of 18,762 U g CDW(-1) (CDW: cell dry weight). Caffeine degradation rate was 25 times higher in bioreactor than in shake flask. For the first time, we show highest degradation of 75 g caffeine (initial concentration 20 g l(-1)) in 120 h, suggesting that the tested strain has potential for successful bioprocess for caffeine degradation. Growth kinetics showed substrate inhibition phenomenon. Various substrate inhibition models were fitted to the kinetic data, amongst which the double-exponential (R(2) = 0.94), Luong (R(2) = 0.92), and Yano and Koga 2 (R(2) = 0.94) models were found to be the best. The Luedeking-Piret model showed that caffeine demethylase production kinetics was growth related. This is the first report on production of high levels of caffeine demethylase in batch bioreactor with faster degradation rate and high tolerance to caffeine, hence clearly suggesting that Pseudomonas sp. used in this study is a potential biocatalyst for industrial decaffeination. PMID:20495941

  18. Production of Thiol Species From An Exponential Growth Diatom Under Copper Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, D.; Shafer, M. M.; Karner, D. A.; Armstrong, D. E.; Schauer, J.

    2003-12-01

    The intracellar induction of phytochelatins is a well documented response of eukaryotic microorganisms to aqueous metal exposure. The extracellular release of thiolic compounds from algal species has been observed; and in some cases, this release can contribute a significant fraction of the uncharacterized metal-complexing ligands. Glutathione (GSH) or cysteine is among the detectable thiols excreted. A quantitative assessment of the excretion of thiols from algae cells into growth media is needed to assess the significance of biogenic-thiols as a source of strong ligands in natural waters and as a "forgotten" route in sulfur biogeochemical cycle. Unbuffered growth media (e.g., without adding complexing ligand such as EDTA) have only rarely been used to study the possible release of metal-complexing ligands from algal species, and the ligand titration techniques used varied considerably. The majority of culture studies have applied metal-buffered media. A direct comparison of released ligands under buffered and unbuffered conditions is lacking, partially due to the inherent difficulties of the titration methods applied. Using HPLC with fluorescence detection of thiol-monobromobimane derivatives, we were able to follow the dynamic change of GSH released in both media types during algal growth: (1) the cell quotas for thiols and pigments varied (mostly decreases) with growth time. Therefore, pigment-normalized cellular thiol concentrations were more or less conservative. (2) GSH was released into both the EDTA-buffered and -unbuffered growth media at similar concentrations. (3) at similar available Cu concentrations, EDTA possibly enhanced, rather than hindered, the release of GSH.

  19. Crystal growth kinetics of the two-step model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Clifford Y.; Lin, Chiu-Hsiung

    1987-03-01

    The single crystal technique was used to measure the growth rate of the potassium alum (111) face and the magnesium sulfate (110) face. The two-step model was found appropriate to describe the growth kinetics with the surface integration order of two for potassium alum crystal and of one for magnesium sulfate crystal. The individual rate constants, Kd and Kr, were determined accordingly.

  20. The lack of synchronization between iron uptake and cell growth leads to iron overload in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during post-exponential growth modes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinkyu; McCormick, Sean P; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Lindahl, Paul A

    2013-12-31

    Fermenting cells growing exponentially on rich (YPAD) medium underwent a transition to a slow-growing state as glucose levels declined and their metabolism shifted to respiration. During exponential growth, Fe import and cell-growth rates were matched, affording an approximately invariant cellular Fe concentration. During the transition period, the high-affinity Fe import rate declined slower than the cell-growth rate declined, causing Fe to accumulate, initially as Fe(III) oxyhydroxide nanoparticles but eventually as mitochondrial and vacuolar Fe. Once the cells had reached slow-growth mode, Fe import and cell-growth rates were again matched, and the cellular Fe concentration was again approximately invariant. Fermenting cells grown on minimal medium (MM) grew more slowly during the exponential phase and underwent a transition to a true stationary state as glucose levels declined. The Fe concentration of MM cells that just entered the stationary state was similar to that of YPAD cells, but MM cells continued to accumulate Fe in the stationary state. Fe initially accumulated as nanoparticles and high-spin Fe(II) species, but vacuolar Fe(III) also eventually accumulated. Surprisingly, Fe-packed 5-day-old MM cells suffered no more reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage than younger cells, suggesting that the Fe concentration alone does not accurately predict the extent of ROS damage. The mode and rate of growth at the time of harvesting dramatically affected cellular Fe content. A mathematical model of Fe metabolism in a growing cell was developed. The model included the import of Fe via a regulated high-affinity pathway and an unregulated low-affinity pathway. The import of Fe from the cytosol to vacuoles and mitochondria and nanoparticle formation were also included. The model captured essential trafficking behavior, demonstrating that cells regulate Fe import in accordance with their overall growth rate and that they misregulate Fe import when nanoparticles

  1. Multiple substrate growth kinetics of Leptothrix discophora SP-6.

    PubMed

    Yurt, Nurdan; Sears, John; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    2002-01-01

    The growth parameters of Leptothrix discophora SP-6 were quantified on the basis of the steady-state concentrations and utilization rates of pyruvate, dissolved oxygen, and concentration of microorganisms in a chemostat operated at 25 degrees C, pH 7.2, and an agitation rate of 350 rpm. The results showed that the microbial growth was limited by both pyruvate and dissolved oxygen. A combined growth kinetics model using Monod growth kinetics for pyruvate and Tessier growth kinetics for oxygen showed the best correlation with the experimental data when analyzed using an interactive multiple substrate model. The growth kinetics parameters and the respective confidence limits, estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation, were mu(max) = 0.576 +/- 0.021 h(-1), K(sMp) = 38.81 +/- 4.24 mg L(-1), K(sTo) = 0.39 +/- 0.04 mg L(-1), Y(X/p) = 0.150 (mg microorganism mg(-1) pyruvate), Y(X/o) = 1.24 (mg microorganism mg(-1) oxygen), the maintenance factors for pyruvate and oxygen were m(p) = 0.129 (mg pyruvate consumed mg(-1) microorganism h(-1)) and m(o) = 0.076 (mg oxygen consumed mg(-1) microorganism h(-1)), respectively. PMID:12363350

  2. Fetal growth velocity: kinetic, clinical, and biological aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Bertino, E.; Di Battista, E.; Bossi, A.; Pagliano, M.; Fabris, C.; Aicardi, G.; Milani, S.

    1996-01-01

    With the aim of determining fetal growth kinetics, prenatal data were analysed which had been longitudinally collected in the framework of a perinatal growth survey. The sample comprised 238 singleton normal pregnancies, selected in Genoa and Turin (between 1987 and 1990), and repeatedly assessed by ultrasound scans (five to nine per pregnancy). Five morphometric traits were considered: BPD (biparietal diameter), OFD (occipitofrontal diameter), HC (head circumference), FDL (femur diaphysis length) and AC (abdomen circumference). Growth rate seemed to increase in the early part of the second trimester, and decrease subsequently: velocity peaks were steeper and earlier for head diameters and circumference (about 18 weeks) than for femur length (20 weeks) and abdomen circumference (22 weeks). Velocity standards were traced using a longitudinal two-stage linear model: this ensures unbiased description of the shape of the growth curve, even when growth kinetics are asynchronous, and efficient estimation of the outer centiles--the most useful for diagnostic purposes. PMID:8653429

  3. Kinetics of nucleation with decreasing rate of growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurasov, Victor

    2015-10-01

    Extension of analytical description of the stage of nucleation to the case of the slow growth rates of the embryos growth has been constructed. The metastable phase consumption by the already formed embryos affects the nucleation rate which leads to the non-linear evolution. The power exponentials which are smaller than that for the diffusion growth are chosen as the model laws of the embryos growth. All main characteristics of the nucleation period including the form of the embryos sizes spectrum are found. Analytical description of nucleation in the closed systems as well as in the open systems with the metastable phase influx is presented. It is shown that the relative errors of this description are small.

  4. Thermodynamic and kinetic control of the lateral Si wire growth

    SciTech Connect

    Dedyulin, Sergey N. Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2014-03-24

    Reproducible lateral Si wire growth has been realized on the Si (100) surface. In this paper, we present experimental evidence showing the unique role that carbon plays in initiating lateral growth of Si wires on a Si (100) substrate. Once initiated in the presence of ≈5 ML of C, lateral growth can be achieved in the range of temperatures, T = 450–650 °C, and further controlled by the interplay of the flux of incoming Si atoms with the size and areal density of Au droplets. Critical thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the growth are discussed in detail.

  5. Metastable Solution Thermodynamic Properties and Crystal Growth Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soojin; Myerson, Allan S.

    1996-01-01

    The crystal growth rates of NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, KAl(SO4)2 central dot 12H2O, NaCl, and glycine and the nucleation rates of KBr, KCl, NaBr central dot 2H2O, (NH4)2Cl, and (NH4)2SO4 were expressed in terms of the fundamental driving force of crystallization calculated from the activity of supersaturated solutions. The kinetic parameters were compared with those from the commonly used kinetic expression based on the concentration difference. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, rate expressions based on the chemical potential difference provide accurate kinetic representation over a broad range of supersaturation. The rates estimated using the expression based on the concentration difference coincide with the true rates of crystallization only in the concentration range of low supersaturation and deviate from the true kinetics as the supersaturation increases.

  6. Kinetics of laser-assisted carbon nanotube growth.

    PubMed

    van de Burgt, Y; Bellouard, Y; Mandamparambil, R

    2014-03-21

    Laser-assisted chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth is an attractive mask-less process for growing locally aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in selected places on temperature sensitive substrates. The nature of the localized process results in fast carbon nanotube growth with high experimental throughput. Here, we report on the detailed investigation of growth kinetics related to physical and chemical process characteristics. Specifically, the growth kinetics is investigated by monitoring the dynamical changes in reflected laser beam intensity during growth. Benefiting from the fast growth and high experimental throughput, we investigate a wide range of experimental conditions and propose several growth regimes. Rate-limiting steps are determined using rate equations linked to the proposed growth regimes, which are further characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), therefore directly linking growth regimes to the structural quality of the CNTs. Activation energies for the different regimes are found to be in the range of 0.3-0.8 eV. PMID:24481313

  7. Growth Kinetics and Modeling of ZnO Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Penny S.; Maddox, Leone M.; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nico H.; Ford, Michael J.; Waclawik, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    The technique for producing quantum-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles is much safer than a technique that used hydrogen sulfide gas to produce cadmium sulfide and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. A further advantage of this method is the ability to sample the solution over time and hence determine the growth kinetics.

  8. Grain boundary curvature and grain growth kinetics with particle pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahandeh, Sina; Militzer, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Second-phase particles are used extensively in design of polycrystalline materials to control the grain size. According to Zener's theory, a distribution of particles creates a pinning pressure on a moving grain boundary. As a result, a limiting grain size is observed, but the effect of pinning on the detail of grain growth kinetics is less known. The influence of the particles on the microstructure occurs in multiple length scales, established by particle radius and the grain size. In this article, we use a meso-scale phase-field model that simulates grain growth in the presence of a uniform pinning pressure. The curvature of the grain boundary network is measured to determine the driving pressure of grain growth in 2D and 3D systems. It was observed that the grain growth continues, even under conditions where the average driving pressure is smaller than the pinning pressure. The limiting grain size is reached when the maximum of driving pressure distribution in the structure is equal to the pinning pressure. This results in a limiting grain size, larger than the one predicted by conventional models, and further analysis shows consistency with experimental observations. A physical model is proposed for the kinetics of grain growth using parameters based on the curvature analysis of the grain boundaries. This model can describe the simulated grain growth kinetics.

  9. Lag phase is a distinct growth phase that prepares bacteria for exponential growth and involves transient metal accumulation.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, Matthew D; Rice, Christopher J; Lucchini, Sacha; Pin, Carmen; Thompson, Arthur; Cameron, Andrew D S; Alston, Mark; Stringer, Michael F; Betts, Roy P; Baranyi, József; Peck, Michael W; Hinton, Jay C D

    2012-02-01

    Lag phase represents the earliest and most poorly understood stage of the bacterial growth cycle. We developed a reproducible experimental system and conducted functional genomic and physiological analyses of a 2-h lag phase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Adaptation began within 4 min of inoculation into fresh LB medium with the transient expression of genes involved in phosphate uptake. The main lag-phase transcriptional program initiated at 20 min with the upregulation of 945 genes encoding processes such as transcription, translation, iron-sulfur protein assembly, nucleotide metabolism, LPS biosynthesis, and aerobic respiration. ChIP-chip revealed that RNA polymerase was not "poised" upstream of the bacterial genes that are rapidly induced at the beginning of lag phase, suggesting a mechanism that involves de novo partitioning of RNA polymerase to transcribe 522 bacterial genes within 4 min of leaving stationary phase. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to discover that iron, calcium, and manganese are accumulated by S. Typhimurium during lag phase, while levels of cobalt, nickel, and sodium showed distinct growth-phase-specific patterns. The high concentration of iron during lag phase was associated with transient sensitivity to oxidative stress. The study of lag phase promises to identify the physiological and regulatory processes responsible for adaptation to new environments.

  10. Lag Phase Is a Distinct Growth Phase That Prepares Bacteria for Exponential Growth and Involves Transient Metal Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Rolfe, Matthew D.; Rice, Christopher J.; Lucchini, Sacha; Pin, Carmen; Thompson, Arthur; Cameron, Andrew D. S.; Alston, Mark; Stringer, Michael F.; Betts, Roy P.; Baranyi, József; Peck, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Lag phase represents the earliest and most poorly understood stage of the bacterial growth cycle. We developed a reproducible experimental system and conducted functional genomic and physiological analyses of a 2-h lag phase in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Adaptation began within 4 min of inoculation into fresh LB medium with the transient expression of genes involved in phosphate uptake. The main lag-phase transcriptional program initiated at 20 min with the upregulation of 945 genes encoding processes such as transcription, translation, iron-sulfur protein assembly, nucleotide metabolism, LPS biosynthesis, and aerobic respiration. ChIP-chip revealed that RNA polymerase was not “poised” upstream of the bacterial genes that are rapidly induced at the beginning of lag phase, suggesting a mechanism that involves de novo partitioning of RNA polymerase to transcribe 522 bacterial genes within 4 min of leaving stationary phase. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to discover that iron, calcium, and manganese are accumulated by S. Typhimurium during lag phase, while levels of cobalt, nickel, and sodium showed distinct growth-phase-specific patterns. The high concentration of iron during lag phase was associated with transient sensitivity to oxidative stress. The study of lag phase promises to identify the physiological and regulatory processes responsible for adaptation to new environments. PMID:22139505

  11. Growth kinetics of CdTe colloidal nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, D Lourençoni; Silva, F Oliveira; Viol, L Cristina de Souza; Licínio, P; Valadares, M; Cury, L Alberto; Schiavon, M Antônio; Alves, J Luiz Aarestrup

    2009-08-28

    The growth kinetics of CdTe colloidal nanocrystals has been analyzed quantitatively by means of dynamic light scattering and photoluminescence measurements. The growth rates, size distributions, critical radii, and diffusion constants have been calculated in the framework of the Sugimoto theoretical model. A two-step diffusion-controlled growth regime has been proposed for the reported synthesis and a set of relations for the time evolution of the size distribution has been derived and discussed in the sense of the size distribution focusing concept. PMID:19725626

  12. The stretching of single poly-ubiquitin molecules: Static versus dynamic disorder in the non-exponential kinetics of chain unfolding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Debarati; Cherayil, Binny J.

    2011-04-01

    Static disorder has recently been implicated in the non-exponential kinetics of the unfolding of single molecules of poly-ubiquitin under a constant force [Kuo, Garcia-Manyes, Li, Barel, Lu, Berne, Urbakh, Klafter, and Fernández, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 11336 (2010), 10.1073/pnas.1006517107]. In the present paper, it is suggested that dynamic disorder may provide a plausible, alternative description of the experimental observations. This suggestion is made on the basis of a model in which the barrier to chain unfolding is assumed to be modulated by a control parameter r that evolves in a parabolic potential under the action of fractional Gaussian noise according to a generalized Langevin equation. The treatment of dynamic disorder within this model is pursued using Zwanzig's indirect approach to noise averaging [Acc. Chem. Res. 23, 148 (1990)]. In conjunction with a self-consistent closure scheme developed by Wilemski and Fixman [J. Chem. Phys. 58, 4009 (1973), 10.1063/1.1679757; ibid. 60, 866 (1974), 10.1063/1.1681162], this approach eventually leads to an expression for the chain unfolding probability that can be made to fit the corresponding experimental data very closely.

  13. Heterogeneity of epidermal growth factor binding kinetics on individual cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, J C; Sciaky, N; Gross, D J

    1997-01-01

    Binding of fluorescein-conjugated epidermal growth factor (EGF) to individual A431 cells at 4 degrees C is measured by a quantitative fluorescence imaging technique. After background fluorescence and cell autofluorescence photobleaching corrections, the kinetic data are fit to simple models of one monovalent site and two independent monovalent sites, both of which include a first-order dye photobleaching process. Model simulations and the results from data analysis indicate that the one-monovalent-site model does not describe EGF binding kinetics at the single-cell level, whereas the two-site model is consistent with, but not proved by, the single-cell binding data. In addition, the kinetics of binding of fluorescein-EGF to different cells from the same coverslip often differ significantly from each other, indicating cell-to-cell variations in the binding properties of the EGF receptor. PMID:9251825

  14. Growth morphologies of wax in the presence of kinetic inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetervak, Alexander A.

    Driven by the need to prevent crystallization of normal alkanes from diesel fuels in cold climates, the petroleum industry has developed additives to slow the growth of these crystals and alter their morphologies. Although the utility of these kinetic inhibitors has been well demonstrated in the field, few studies have directly monitored their effect at microscopic morphology, and the mechanisms by which they act remain poorly understood. Here we present a study of the effects of such additives on the crystallization of long-chain n-alkanes from solution. The additives change the growth morphology from plate-like crystals to a microcrystalline mesh. When we impose a front velocity by moving the sample through a temperature gradient, the mesh growth may form a macroscopic banded pattern and also exhibit a burst-crystallization behavior. In this study, we characterize these crystallization phenomena and also two growth models: a continuum model that demonstrates the essential behavior of the banded crystallization, and a simple qualitative cellular automata model that captures basics of the burst-crystallization process. Keywords: solidification; mesh crystallization; kinetic inhibitor; burst growth.

  15. Role of Transport and Kinetics in Growth of Renal Stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Iskovitz, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    Renal stone disease is not only a concern on earth but could conceivably pose as a serious risk to the astronauts health and safety in Space. In this paper, a combined transport-kinetics model for growth of calcium oxalate crystals is presented. The model is used to parametrically investigate the growth of renal calculi in urine with a focus on the coupled effects of transport and surface reaction on the ionic concentrations at the surface of the crystal and their impact on the resulting growth rates. It is shown that under nominal conditions of low solution supersaturation and low Damkohler number that typically exist on Earth, the surface concentrations of calcium and oxalate approach their bulk solution values in the urine and the growth rate is most likely limited by the surface reaction kinetics. But for higher solution supersaturations and larger Damkohler numbers that may be prevalent in the microgravity environment of Space, the calcium and oxalate surface concentrations tend to shift more towards their equilibrium or saturation values and thus the growth process may be limited by the transport through the medium. Furthermore, parametric numerical studies suggest that changes to the renal biochemistry of astronauts due in space may promote development of renal calculi during long duration space expeditions.

  16. Grain Growth Kinetics of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals During Calcining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao-lan; He, Xi; Yang, Hai-ping; Qu, Yi-xin; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2008-06-01

    BaTiO3 nanocrystals were synthesized by sol-gel method using barium acetate (Ba(CH3COO)2) and tetra-butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as raw materials. Xerogel precursors and products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of the calcination temperature and duration on the lattice constant, the lattice distortion, and the grain size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals was discussed based on the XRD results. The grain growth kinetics of BaTiO3 nanocrystals during the calcination process were simulated with a conventional grain growth model which only takes into account diffusion, and an isothermal model proposed by Qu and Song, which takes into account both diffusion and surface reactions. Using these models, the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the rate constant were estimated. The simulation results indicate that the isothermal model is superior to the conventional one in describing the grain growth process, implying that both diffusion and surface reactions play important roles in the grain growth process.

  17. Computer simulation of grain growth kinetics with solute drag

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, D.; Chen, S.P.; Chen, L.

    1999-03-01

    The effects of solute drag on the grain growth kinetics were studied in two-dimensional (2D) computer simulations by using a diffuse-interface field model. It is shown that, in the low velocity/low driving force regime, the velocity of a grain boundary motion departs from a linear relation with driving force (curvature) with solute drag. The nonlinear relation of migration velocity and driving force comes from the dependence of grain boundary energy and width on the curvature. The growth exponent {ital m} of power growth law for a polycrystalline system is affected by the segregation of solutes to grain boundaries. With the solute drag, the growth exponent {ital m} can take any value between 2 and 3, depending on the ratio of lattice diffusion to grain boundary mobility. The grain size and topological distributions are unaffected by solute drag, which are the same as those in a pure system. {copyright} {ital 1999 Materials Research Society.}

  18. Computer Simulation of Grain Growth Kinetics with Solute Drag

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chen, S.P.; Fan, D.

    1998-12-23

    The effects of solute dragon grain growth kinetics were studied in two dimensional (2-D) computer simulations by using a diffuse-interface field model. It is shown that, in the low velocity / low driving force regime, the velocity of a grain boundary motion departs from a linear relation with driving force (curvature) with solute drag. The nonlinear relation of migration velocity and driving force comes from the dependence of grain boundary energy and width on the curvature. The growth exponent m of power growth law for a polycrystalline system is affected by the segregation of solutes to grain boundaries. With the solute drag, the growth exponent m can take any value between 2 and 3 depending on the ratio of lattice diffusion to grain boundary mobility. The grain size and topological distributions are unaffected by solute drag, which are the same as those in a pure system.

  19. Calcite growth kinetics: Modeling the effect of solution stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolthers, Mariëtte; Nehrke, Gernot; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Until recently the influence of solution stoichiometry on calcite crystal growth kinetics has attracted little attention, despite the fact that in most aqueous environments calcite precipitates from non-stoichiometric solution. In order to account for the dependence of the calcite crystal growth rate on the cation to anion ratio in solution, we extend the growth model for binary symmetrical electrolyte crystals of Zhang and Nancollas (1998) by combining it with the surface complexation model for the chemical structure of the calcite-aqueous solution interface of Wolthers et al. (2008). To maintain crystal stoichiometry, the rate of attachment of calcium ions to step edges is assumed to equal the rate of attachment of carbonate plus bicarbonate ions. The model parameters are optimized by fitting the model to the step velocities obtained previously by atomic force microscopy (AFM, Teng et al., 2000; Stack and Grantham, 2010). A variable surface roughness factor is introduced in order to reconcile the new process-based growth model with bulk precipitation rates measured in seeded calcite growth experiments. For practical applications, we further present empirical parabolic rate equations fitted to bulk growth rates of calcite in common background electrolytes and in artificial seawater-type solutions. Both the process-based and empirical growth rate equations agree with measured calcite growth rates over broad ranges of ionic strength, pH, solution stoichiometry and degree of supersaturation.

  20. Diverse Growth Kinetics in Suspension Culture of a Model Eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum, Confirmation of Lagless Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Zhou, Xaio-Qiao S.; Deshmukh, Amrish; Bogart, Elijah; Lau, Sharon; Daie, Kayvon; Bae, Albert

    2010-03-01

    In recent work we explored the notion that the transition between slow and fast growth, the lag-log transition, with increasing density seen in shaken cell culture represents a collective effect. (Phys. Rev. E 77, 041905 (2008)). We reported preliminary observations in which the lag phase was apparently missing. Here, we present significantly more measurements than in our original work as well as increased sensitivity at low densities. We confirm that instances of nearly exponential (``log'') growth do in fact appear, but more frequently, we find evidence of lagging. The degree of lagging fluctuates significantly from run to run, in contrast to our earlier observations and theory, but in all cases exponential growth is established with increasing density once the range of 10^4 to 10^5 cells/ml is reached. We present evidence against two natural explanations for these fluctuations: 1) a mixture of strains which have different growth phenotypes or 2) a single strain variation due to an epigenetic switch which can be set to the low growth state by subjecting cells to high density environments. The appearance of such growth variations has considerable practical significance and suggests that there is an additional dynamical variable besides density in play.

  1. Role of MgATP and MgADP in the cross-bridge kinetics in chemically skinned rabbit psoas fibers. Study of a fast exponential process (C)

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, M; Halvorson, H R

    1989-01-01

    The role of the substrate (MgATP) and product (MgADP) molecules in cross-bridge kinetics is investigated by small amplitude length oscillations (peak to peak: 3 nm/cross-bridge) and by following amplitude change and phase shift in tension time courses. The range of discrete frequencies used for this investigation is 0.25-250 Hz, which corresponds to 0.6-600 ms in time domain. This report investigates the identity of the high frequency exponential advance (process C), which is equivalent to "phase 2" of step analysis. The experiments are performed in maximally activated (pCa 4.5-5.0) single fibers from chemically skinned rabbit psoas fibers at 20 degrees C and at the ionic strength 195 mM. The rate constant 2 pi c deduced from process (C) increases and saturates hyperbolically with an increase in MgATP concentration, whereas the same rate constant decreases monotonically with an increase in MgADP concentration. The effects of MgATP and MgADP are opposite in all respects we have studied. These observations are consistent with a cross-bridge scheme in which MgATP and MgADP are in rapid equilibria with rigorlike cross-bridges, and they compete for the substrate site on myosin heads. From our measurements, the association constants are found to be 1.4 mM-1 for MgATP and 2.8 mM-1 for MgADP. We further deduced that the composite second order rate constant of MgATP binding to cross-bridges and subsequent isomerization/dissociation reaction to be 0.57 x 10(6)M-1s-1. PMID:2785822

  2. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Aaron M.; McCollough, Forest W.; Eldreth, Bryan L.; Binder, Brad M.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  3. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Aaron M.; McCollough, Forest W.; Eldreth, Bryan L.; Binder, Brad M.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  4. Analysis of Network Topologies Underlying Ethylene Growth Response Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Aaron M; McCollough, Forest W; Eldreth, Bryan L; Binder, Brad M; Abel, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Most models for ethylene signaling involve a linear pathway. However, measurements of seedling growth kinetics when ethylene is applied and removed have resulted in more complex network models that include coherent feedforward, negative feedback, and positive feedback motifs. The dynamical responses of the proposed networks have not been explored in a quantitative manner. Here, we explore (i) whether any of the proposed models are capable of producing growth-response behaviors consistent with experimental observations and (ii) what mechanistic roles various parts of the network topologies play in ethylene signaling. To address this, we used computational methods to explore two general network topologies: The first contains a coherent feedforward loop that inhibits growth and a negative feedback from growth onto itself (CFF/NFB). In the second, ethylene promotes the cleavage of EIN2, with the product of the cleavage inhibiting growth and promoting the production of EIN2 through a positive feedback loop (PFB). Since few network parameters for ethylene signaling are known in detail, we used an evolutionary algorithm to explore sets of parameters that produce behaviors similar to experimental growth response kinetics of both wildtype and mutant seedlings. We generated a library of parameter sets by independently running the evolutionary algorithm many times. Both network topologies produce behavior consistent with experimental observations, and analysis of the parameter sets allows us to identify important network interactions and parameter constraints. We additionally screened these parameter sets for growth recovery in the presence of sub-saturating ethylene doses, which is an experimentally-observed property that emerges in some of the evolved parameter sets. Finally, we probed simplified networks maintaining key features of the CFF/NFB and PFB topologies. From this, we verified observations drawn from the larger networks about mechanisms underlying ethylene

  5. Spherulitic growth of wax in the presence of kinetic inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Jeffrey L.; Smith, Chris; Khmaladze, Alexander

    2001-03-01

    The petroleum industry has developed polymeric additives to prevent the precipitation of wax from diesel fuels in cold climates. These additives affect the crystallization kinetics of wax growth without affecting the thermodynamics. Some additives apparently operate by adsorbing to crystalline surfaces and blocking step flow, though direct evidence is lacking. We have used optical microscopy to study this process in model n-alkane systems with inhibitors added as a 1 wt% impurity. We find that the presence of the polymer dramatically alters the growth morphology of the wax --- rather than the usual plate-like growth, we see forms with all of the attributes of spherulites typical of bulk polymer growth, including radially oriented lamellae and banding. Since models for spherulitic growth postulate lamellar alignment by entropic pressure due to dangling polymer chains, the surface-adsorbed polymers are likely responsible for the similar alignment in wax spherulites. The banding seen in this case, however, results from periodic growth, rather than from the lamellar twisting seen in traditional polymer spherulites. We have modeled this effect as a coupling between the polymer adsorption rate and the growth rate of wax crystals.

  6. Correlation between PLD repair capacity and the survival curve of human fibroblasts in exponential growth phase: analysis in terms of several parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fertil, B.; Deschavanne, P.J.; Debieu, D.; Malaise, E.P.

    1988-10-01

    Published data on the in vitro radiosensitivity of 46 nontransformed fibroblasts of different genetic origins studied in plateau phase with immediate or delayed plating were used to investigate to what extent potentially lethal damage repair capacity is related to intrinsic radiosensitivity (i.e., irradiated in exponential growth phase). While most of the survival curve analysis is conducted in terms of D0, Dq, and the mean inactivation dose D, some of the data are also discussed in terms of the linear-quadratic model parameter alpha. Using D it is shown that: (i) the radiosensitivity of human fibroblasts in exponential growth phase does not significantly differ from that of plateau-phase fibroblasts with immediate plating; (ii) the radiosensitivity of plateau-phase cells with delayed plating is correlated to the radiosensitivity of cells with immediate plating: the more radioresistant the cell strain in exponential growth phase, the higher its repair capacity; (iii) the repair capacity of the cell strains is related to their genetic origin. In conclusion, we suggest that the survival curve of growing cells depends on the repair capacity of the cells.

  7. Kinetic model of impurity poisoning during growth of calcite

    SciTech Connect

    DeYoreo, J; Wasylenki, L; Dove, P; Wilson, D; Han, N

    2004-05-18

    The central role of the organic component in biologically controlled mineralization is widely recognized. These proteins are characterized by a high proportion of acidic amino acid residues, especially aspartate, Asp. At the same time, biomineralization takes place in the presence of a number of naturally-occurring, inorganic impurities, particularly Mg and Sr. In an attempt to decipher the controls on calcite growth imposed by both classes of modifiers, we have used in situ AFM to investigate the dependence of growth morphology and step kinetics on calcite in the presence of Sr{sup 2+}, as well as a wide suite of Aspartic acid-bearing polypeptides. In each case, we observe a distinct and step-specific modification. Most importantly, we find that the step speed exhibits a characteristic dependence on impurity concentration not predicted by existing crystal growth models. While all of the impurities clearly induce appearance of a 'dead zone,' neither the width of that dead zone nor the dependence of step speed on activity or impurity content can be explained by invoking the Gibbs-Thomson effect, which is the basis for the Cabrera-Vermilyea model of impurity poisoning. Common kink-blocking models also fail to explain the observed dependencies. Here we propose a kinetic model of inhibition based on a 'cooperative' effect of impurity adsorption at adjacent kink sites. The model is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results in that it predicts a non-linear dependence of dead zone width on impurity concentration, as well as a sharp drop in step speed above a certain impurity content. However, a detailed model of impurity adsorption kinetics that give quantitative agreement with the data has yet to be developed.

  8. Glass susceptibility: Growth kinetics and saturation under shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2016-07-01

    We study the growth kinetics of glassy correlations in a structural glass by monitoring the evolution, within mode-coupling theory, of a suitably defined three-point function χC(t ,tw) with time t and waiting time tw. From the complete wave-vector-dependent equations of motion for domain growth, we pass to a schematic limit to obtain a numerically tractable form. We find that the peak value χCP of χC(t ,tw) , which can be viewed as a correlation volume, grows as tw0.5, and the relaxation time as tw0.8, following a quench to a point deep in the glassy state. These results constitute a theoretical explanation of the simulation findings of Parisi [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 4128 (1999), 10.1021/jp983967m] and Kob and Barrat [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4581 (1997), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.78.4581], and they are also in qualitative agreement with Parsaeian and Castillo [Phys. Rev. E 78, 060105(R) (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.060105]. On the other hand, if the quench is to a point on the liquid side, the correlation volume grows to saturation. We present a similar calculation for the growth kinetics in a p -spin spin glass mean-field model where we find a slower growth, χCP˜tw0.13 . Further, we show that a shear rate γ ˙ cuts off the growth of glassy correlations when tw˜1 /γ ˙ for quench in the glassy regime and tw=min(tr,1 /γ ˙) in the liquid, where tr is the relaxation time of the unsheared liquid. The relaxation time of the steady-state fluid in this case is ∝γ˙-0.8 .

  9. Kinetically controlled growth of gallium on stepped Si (553) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, Syed Khalid; Govind

    2013-10-01

    Kinetically controlled growth of gallium (Ga) metal has been reported on high index stepped Si (553) surface and its thermal stability with various novel superstructural phases has been analyzed. Auger electron spectroscopy studies revealed that the adsorption of Ga at room temperature (RT) follows Frank-van der Merwe (FM) growth mode while for higher substrate temperature, Ga adsorption remains within the submonolayer range. Thermal desorption and low energy electron diffraction studies investigated the formation of thermally stable Ga-islands and the various Ga induced superstructural phase on Si (553). During room temperature adsorption, (1 1 1)7 × 7 facet of Si (553) reconstructed into (1 1 1)6 × 6 facet while during desorption process, stable (1 1 1)6 × 6 and (1 1 1)√3 × √3-R30° surface reconstructions has been observed.

  10. Continuous growth kinetics of Candida utilis in pineapple cannery effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Prior, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown on a pineapple cannery effluent as the sole carbon and energy source in a chemostat at dilution rates between 0.10 and 0.62 h/sup -1/ to determine the growth kinetics. The principal sugars in the effluent were sucrose, glucose, and fructose. The cell yield coefficient on carbohydrate varied with dilution rate and a maximum value of 0.63 was observed at a dilution rate of 0.33 h/sup -1/. The steady-state concentrations of carbohydrate, reducing sugar, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) appeared to follow Monod saturation kinetics with increasing dilution rate, although none of the measured parameters represented a pure substrate. The maximum specific growth rate and reducing sugar saturation constant were 0.64 h/sup -1/ and 0.060 g/L, respectively. A maximum cell mass productivity of 2.3 g/L h was observed at a dilution rate of 0.51 h/sup -1/. At this dilution rate, only 68% of the COD was removed. A 95% COD removal was attained at a dilution rate of 0.10 h/sup -1/. Optimal yeast productivity and COD reduction occurred at a dilution rate of 0.33 h/sup -1/.

  11. Effect of molecular weight on the exponential growth and morphology of hyaluronan/chitosan multilayers: a surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Kujawa, Piotr; Moraille, Patricia; Sanchez, Jacqueline; Badia, Antonella; Winnik, Françoise M

    2005-06-29

    The layer-by-layer growth of multilayer assemblies of two polysaccharides, the polyanion hyaluronan (HA) and the polycation chitosan (CH), was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, with primary emphasis on the effect of the polysaccharide molecular weights on the film thickness and surface morphology. The HA/CH multilayers exhibit an exponential increase of the optical film thickness with the number of deposited bilayers. We show that the multilayer thickness at a given stage depends on the size of both CH, the diffusing polyelectrolyte, and HA, the non-diffusing species. Assemblies (12 bilayers) of high molecular weight polysaccharides (HA, 360,000; CH, 160,000) were twice as thick (approximately 900 nm vs approximately 450 nm) as those obtained with low molecular weight polymers (HA, 30,000; CH, 31,000), as assessed by AFM scratch tests. The exponential growth rate is the same for the high and low molecular weight pairs; the larger film thicknesses observed by SPR and by AFM arising from an earlier onset of the steep exponential growth phase in the case of the high molecular weight pair. In all cases, isolated islets form during the deposition of the first CH layer onto the underlying HA. Upon further film growth, individual islets coalesce into larger vermiculate features. The transition from distinct islands to vermiculate structures depends on the molecular weights of the polysaccharides and the lower molecular weight construct presents larger worm-like surface domains than the high molecular weight pair.

  12. Thermodynamic-kinetic simulation of constrained dendrite growth in steels

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, J.

    2000-04-01

    A model of constrained dendritic growth for steels, based on thermodynamic and kinetic theory, is presented. The model links thermodynamic chemical potential-equality equations to an existing, approximate treatment of constrained dendritic growth in multicomponent steels, taking into account the deviation from the local thermodynamic equilibrium of the phase interface caused by interface friction, capillarity, and solute trapping. Due to the thermodynamic approach, with a thermodynamic model and recently assessed data, the present treatment yields a more accurate determination of phase stabilities than the earlier methods. Depending on the steel composition and the growth conditions (growth rate and temperature gradient), the model determines the dendrite tip undercooling, the primary solid phase (ferrite or austenite), the stability of that phase, certain dimensions of the microstructure, and the solute accumulation ahead of the dendrite tip. A special optional calculations is that of the equally probable formation of ferrite and austenite in stainless steels. Calculations for testing the model and for validation it with experimental data are presented.

  13. Kinetics of ice particles growth in the polar summer mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasetsky, A. Y.; Petelina, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The growth kinetics of ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere is discussed. The particle growth time is calculated using the temperature, water vapor density, and ice number density simultaneously measured by the infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer on the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS) satellite. The formation rate for ice particles is a very strong function of temperature and water vapor concentration. We found the equilibrium radius of ice particles to be in the range from 20 to 70 nm, and the formation time - from about 2 hours at 150 K to about 18 hours at 125 K. Our results imply that in addition to the commonly accepted particle growth during their sedimentation from higher altitudes, in-situ growth to radii of 50-70 nm at mesospheric temperatures near 150 K in two hours or less may also be possible. Our analysis of possible shapes for mesospheric ice particles using the band shape of ice absorption feature measured by ACE-FTS suggests that cubes or compact hexagonal prisms (with an aspect ratio of 1.1) are the best candidates to represent the crystalline ice particles in the polar summer mesosphere.

  14. Kinetics of droplet growth observed in recent field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, F.; Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can indirectly influence global climate budget by changing the microphysical structure, lifetime, and coverage of clouds. While it is generally agreed that aerosol indirect effects act to cool the Earth-atmosphere system by increasing cloud reflectivity and coverage, the magnitudes of the indirect effects are poorly understood. The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles is kinetically controlled by the availability of water vapor, equilibrium water vapor pressure above the growing droplet surface, and both the gas phase and aerosol phase mass transfer resistances. It has been hypothesized that the formation of surface organic films or the delay in dissolution of solute could significantly delay the growth of cloud droplets. Such delay could lead to a higher maximum supersaturation within a rising cloud parcel, therefore higher droplet number concentration and smaller droplet size at constant liquid water content. When only a subset of the droplets experiences significant growth delay, the overall droplet size spectrum will be broadened, which facilitates the formation of precipitation. During three recent field campaigns (CalNex-LA, CARES, and Aerosol Intensive Observation Period at Brookhaven National Laboratory), the CCN activity and droplet growth of size selected particles ranging from 25 to 320 nm were characterized by a CCN counter under supersaturations from 0.1% to 0.8%. The three campaigns allow us to examine the droplet growth for many representative organic aerosol types, including biogenic SOA, anthropogenic SOA, and organic aerosols from biomass burning. The droplet growth of size-selected ambient particles inside the CCN counter was found to be influenced by a number of parameters, including particle critical supersaturation, heterogeneity in particle composition, and particle concentration. For example, reduced droplet growth due to water vapor depletion was observed when particle concentration was higher than 200 cm

  15. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth ratemore » of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.« less

  16. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overall growth rate of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m-2∙h-1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl2, respectively.

  17. Glass susceptibility: Growth kinetics and saturation under shear.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2016-07-01

    We study the growth kinetics of glassy correlations in a structural glass by monitoring the evolution, within mode-coupling theory, of a suitably defined three-point function χ_{C}(t,t_{w}) with time t and waiting time t_{w}. From the complete wave-vector-dependent equations of motion for domain growth, we pass to a schematic limit to obtain a numerically tractable form. We find that the peak value χ_{C}^{P} of χ_{C}(t,t_{w}), which can be viewed as a correlation volume, grows as t_{w}^{0.5}, and the relaxation time as t_{w}^{0.8}, following a quench to a point deep in the glassy state. These results constitute a theoretical explanation of the simulation findings of Parisi [J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 4128 (1999)JPCBFK1520-610610.1021/jp983967m] and Kob and Barrat [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4581 (1997)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.78.4581], and they are also in qualitative agreement with Parsaeian and Castillo [Phys. Rev. E 78, 060105(R) (2008)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.78.060105]. On the other hand, if the quench is to a point on the liquid side, the correlation volume grows to saturation. We present a similar calculation for the growth kinetics in a p-spin spin glass mean-field model where we find a slower growth, χ_{C}^{P}∼t_{w}^{0.13}. Further, we show that a shear rate γ[over ̇] cuts off the growth of glassy correlations when t_{w}∼1/γ[over ̇] for quench in the glassy regime and t_{w}=min(t_{r},1/γ[over ̇]) in the liquid, where t_{r} is the relaxation time of the unsheared liquid. The relaxation time of the steady-state fluid in this case is ∝γ[over ̇]^{-0.8}. PMID:27575179

  18. Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics and lunisolar tidal acceleration.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Klingele, Emile; Barlow, Peter

    2012-07-01

    • All living organisms on Earth are continually exposed to diurnal variations in the gravitational tidal force due to the Sun and Moon. • Elongation of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings maintained at a constant temperature was monitored for periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging. The time-course of the half-hourly elongation rates exhibited an oscillation which was maintained when the roots were placed in the free-running condition of continuous illumination. • Correlation between the root growth kinetics collected from seedlings initially raised under several light protocols but whose roots were subsequently in the free-running condition and the lunisolar tidal profiles enabled us to identify that the latter is the probable exogenous determinant of the rhythmic variation in root elongation rate. Similar observations and correlations using roots of Arabidopsis starch mutants suggest a central function of starch metabolism in the response to the lunisolar tide. The periodicity of the lunisolar tidal signal and the concomitant adjustments in root growth rate indicate that an exogenous timer exists for the modulation of root growth and development. • We propose that, in addition to the sensitivity to Earthly 1G gravity, which is inherent to all animals and plants, there is another type of responsiveness which is attuned to the natural diurnal variations of the lunisolar tidal force. PMID:22583121

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics and lunisolar tidal acceleration.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Joachim; Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Klingele, Emile; Barlow, Peter

    2012-07-01

    • All living organisms on Earth are continually exposed to diurnal variations in the gravitational tidal force due to the Sun and Moon. • Elongation of primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings maintained at a constant temperature was monitored for periods of up to 14 d using high temporal- and spatial-resolution video imaging. The time-course of the half-hourly elongation rates exhibited an oscillation which was maintained when the roots were placed in the free-running condition of continuous illumination. • Correlation between the root growth kinetics collected from seedlings initially raised under several light protocols but whose roots were subsequently in the free-running condition and the lunisolar tidal profiles enabled us to identify that the latter is the probable exogenous determinant of the rhythmic variation in root elongation rate. Similar observations and correlations using roots of Arabidopsis starch mutants suggest a central function of starch metabolism in the response to the lunisolar tide. The periodicity of the lunisolar tidal signal and the concomitant adjustments in root growth rate indicate that an exogenous timer exists for the modulation of root growth and development. • We propose that, in addition to the sensitivity to Earthly 1G gravity, which is inherent to all animals and plants, there is another type of responsiveness which is attuned to the natural diurnal variations of the lunisolar tidal force.

  20. Screening and kinetic studies of catharanthine and ajmalicine accumulation and their correlation with growth biomass in Catharanthus roseus hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Benyammi, Roukia; Paris, Cédric; Khelifi-Slaoui, Majda; Zaoui, Djamila; Belabbassi, Ouarda; Bakiri, Nouara; Meriem Aci, Myassa; Harfi, Boualem; Malik, Sonia; Makhzoum, Abdullah; Desobry, Stéphane; Khelifi, Lakhdar

    2016-10-01

    Context Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don (Apocynaceae) is still one of the most important sources of terpene indole alkaloids including anticancer and hypertensive drugs as vincristine and vinblastine. These final compounds have complex pathway and many enzymes are involved in their biosynthesis. Indeed, ajmalicine and catharanthine are important precursors their increase can lead to enhance levels of molecules of interest. Objective This study aims at selecting the highest yield of hairy root line(s) and at identifying best times for further treatments. We study kinetics growth and alkaloids (ajmalicine and catharanthine) accumulation of three selected hairy root lines during the culture cycle in order to determine the relationship between biomass production and alkaloids accumulation. Materials and methods Comparative analysis has been carried out on three selected lines of Catharanthus roseus hairy roots (LP10, LP21 and L54) for their kinetics of growth and the accumulation of ajamalicine and catharanthine, throughout a 35-day culture cycle. The methanolic extract for each line in different times during culture cycle is analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results Maximum accumulation of the alkaloids is recorded for LP10 line in which the peak of ajmalicine and catharanthine accumulation reached to 3.8 and 4.3 mg/g dry weight (DW), respectively. This increase coincides with an exponential growth phase. Discussion and conclusion Our results suggest that the evolution of accumulation of ajmalicine and catharanthine are positively correlated with the development of the biomass growth. Significantly, for LP10 line the most promising line to continue optimizing the production of TIAs. Additionally, the end of exponential phase remains the best period for elicitor stimuli. PMID:26983347

  1. Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics of Monascus purpureus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, D G; Kilikian, B V

    2001-01-01

    Growth kinetics and red pigment production of Monascus purpureus CCT 3802 was studied. A reproducible inoculum with extremely dispersed hyphae for bioreactor runs was obtained through a two-step cultivation in a shaker. First, the spores were cultivated in a complex medium rendering a suspension of vegetative cells. In the second step these cells were grown in a semisynthetic medium. Two types of media were employed in the bioreactor runs: a semisynthetic (glucose, salts, and yeast extract), and a synthetic, without yeast extract. The inclusion of yeast extract, caused an increase in cell yield on glucose (Yx/s) as high as 40%. Also, yeast extract probably yielded a higher proportion of red pigment associated with the cell, relative to the synthetic medium. On the other hand, cells grown on the synthetic medium were slightly higher producers of red soluble pigments.

  2. Measurement of fatigue crack growth kinetics of Copper-Kapton laminates by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, J.M.; Walters, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Copper-Kapton laminates fabricated with epoxy and Du Pont WA acrylic adhesives are used in printed circuit applications that are of current interest to the Department of Energy. Kinetics for fatigue crack growth at the Cu-epoxy interface were measured under a helium atmosphere over the temperature range of 473 to 563 K by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). A least squares treatment of data derived on the basis of a first-order fatigue mechanism resulted in: log(k(T)/s/sup -1/ = (14.6 +- 0.4) - (175.4 +- 3.8)/2.303RT, where k(T) is the rate coefficient for thermal fatigue, T is absolute temperature, and R is the ideal gas law constant (R = 0.00831 kJ/K mol). Error estimates for the pre-exponential factor and activation energy correspond to one standard deviation. Arguments are presented which indicate that the upper temperature limit for continuous use of the laminate is 85/sup 0/C. It is concluded that the laminate will meet and possibly exceed the 27-y shelf life required by the DOE.

  3. Pattern Formation and Growth Kinetics in Eutectic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Jing

    2007-01-01

    Growth patterns during liquid/solid phase transformation are governed by simultaneous effects of heat and mass transfer mechanisms, creation of new interfaces, jump of the crystallization units from liquid to solid and their rearrangement in the solid matrix. To examine how the above processes influence the scale of microstructure, two eutectic systems are chosen for the study: a polymeric system polyethylene glycol-p-dibromobenzene (PEG-DBBZ) and a simple molecular system succinonitrile (SCN)-camphor. The scaling law for SCN-camphor system is found to follow the classical Jackson-Hunt model of circular rod eutectic, where the diffusion in the liquid and the interface energy are the main physics governing the two-phase pattern. In contrast, a significantly different scaling law is observed for the polymer system. The interface kinetics of PEG phase and its solute concentration dependence thus have been critically investigated for the first time by directional solidification technique. A model is then proposed that shows that the two-phase pattern in polymers is governed by the interface diffusion and the interface kinetics. In SCN-camphor system, a new branch of eutectic, elliptical shape rodl, is found in thin samples where only one layer of camphor rods is present. It is found that the orientation of the ellipse can change from the major axis in the direction of the thickness to the direction of the width as the velocity and/or the sample thickness is decreased. A theoretical model is developed that predicts the spacing and orientation of the elliptical rods in a thin sample. The single phase growth patterns of SCN-camphor system were also examined with emphasis on the three-dimensional single cell and cell/dendrite transition. For the 3D single cell in a capillary tube, the entire cell shape ahead of the eutectic front can be described by the Saffmann-Taylor finger only at extremely low growth rate. A 3D directional solidification model is developed to

  4. Physiologic growth hormone replacement improves fasting lipid kinetics in patients with HIV lipodystrophy syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HIV lipodystrophy syndrome (HLS) is characterized by accelerated lipolysis, inadequate fat oxidation, increased hepatic reesterification, and a high frequency of growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement on these lipid kinetic abnormalities is unknown. We aimed ...

  5. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Woehl, Taylor J.; Park, Chiwoo; Evans, James E.; Arslan, Ilke; Ristenpart, William D.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-01-08

    Direct observations of solution-phase nanoparticle growth using in situ liquid transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have demonstrated the importance of “non-classical” growth mechanisms, such as aggregation and coalescence, on the growth and final morphology of nanocrystals at the atomic and single nanoparticle scales. To date, groups have quantitatively interpreted the mean growth rate of nanoparticles in terms of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) model for Ostwald ripening, but less attention has been paid to modeling the corresponding particle size distribution. Here we use in situ fluid stage scanning TEM to demonstrate that silver nanoparticles grow by a length-scale dependent mechanism, where individual nanoparticles grow by monomer attachment but ensemble-scale growth is dominated by aggregation. Although our observed mean nanoparticle growth rate is consistent with the LSW model, we show that the corresponding particle size distribution is broader and more symmetric than predicted by LSW. Following direct observations of aggregation, we interpret the ensemble-scale growth using Smoluchowski kinetics and demonstrate that the Smoluchowski model quantitatively captures the mean growth rate and particle size distribution.

  6. Growth kinetics of forsterite reaction rims at high-pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Yu; Maruyama, Genta; Nishi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Growth kinetics of forsterite (Fo) reaction rims between periclase (Per) and enstatite (En) were studied experimentally at pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions of 3.0-11.1 GPa and 1473-1873 K, respectively. Pt markers originally placed at the Per-En interface were always observed at the Per-Fo interface, which indicates that Mg and O are the diffusing species in Fo rim growth (Mg-O coupled diffusion). The presence of some En inclusions in Fo grains and the growth rate of the Fo rim suggests that grain boundary diffusion is dominant rather than lattice diffusion. Considering the very fast grain boundary diffusion of O in olivine, the Mg-O coupled grain boundary diffusion in Fo is deduced to be rate-limited by the diffusivity of Mg. Based on an analysis of data collected under dry conditions, the product of the Mg grain boundary diffusion coefficient (Dgb) and the effective grain boundary width (δ) was determined to be δDgb = δDgb,0exp[-(E∗ + PV∗)/RT] with δDgb,0 = 10-9.68 ± 1.51 m3/s, E∗ = 379 ± 44 kJ/mol and V∗ = -1.9 ± 1.4 cm3/mol. Our results, combined with previously reported data on Mg lattice diffusion in Fo, suggest that for Mg, the significance of grain boundary diffusion increases with depth in the Earth's upper mantle, although lattice diffusion is still dominant for typical mantle grain sizes of 1-10 mm.

  7. Growth kinetic model that describes the inhibitory and lytic effects of phenol on Candida tropicalis yeast.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Hernández-Manzano, E; Ruiz-Lagúnez, J C; Cristiani-Urbina, E; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    1998-01-01

    The object of this work was to carry out a kinetic study on the Candida tropicalis cell lysis and to obtain a kinetic model that would describe the inhibitory and lytic effects of phenol on the yeast growth. From the experiments, a model for the growth kinetic behavior of the yeast was evolved. The proposed model describes satisfactorily the inhibitory and lytic effects of phenol on yeast cultures. From the kinetic model constants, it was found that C. tropicalis showed high affinity and tolerance toward phenol. The overall growth yields decreased when the initial phenol concentration increased, and it may be due to an increased maintenance coefficient and to cell lysis.

  8. Callus Growth Kinetics of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas L.) and Content of Fatty Acids from Crude Oil Obtained In Vitro.

    PubMed

    da Luz Costa, Jefferson; da Silva, André Luís Lopes; Bier, Mário César Jucoski; Brondani, Gilvano Ebling; Gollo, André Luiz; Letti, Luiz Alberto Junior; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The callus growth kinetics allows identifying the appropriate moment for callus pealing and monitoring the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant species used for biofuel production due to its high oil content; however, this plant presents a great amount of bioactive compounds which can be useful for industry. The aim of this research was to establish a calli growth curve and to evaluate the fatty acid profile of crude oil extracted from callus. The callus growth kinetics presented a sigmoid standard curve with six distinct phases: lag, exponential, linear, deceleration, stationary, and decline. Total soluble sugars were higher at the inoculation day. Reducing sugars were higher at the inoculation day and at the 80th day. The highest percentage of ethereal extract (oil content) was obtained at the 120th day of culture, reaching 18 % of crude oil from the callus. The calli produced medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids (from 10 to 18 carbon atoms). The palmitic acid was the fatty acid with the highest proportion in oil (55.4 %). The lipid profile obtained in callus oil was different from the seed oil profile. PMID:25917545

  9. Influence of deformation on dolomite rim growth kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helpa, Vanessa; Rybacki, Erik; Grafulha Morales, Luiz Fernando; Dresen, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Using a gas-deformation apparatus stacks of oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals were deformed at T = 750° C and P = 400 MPa to examine the influence of stress and strain on magnesio-calcite and dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) growth kinetics. Triaxial compression and torsion tests performed at constant stresses between 7 and 38 MPa and test durations between 4 and 171 hours resulted in bulk strains of 0.03-0.2 and maximum shear strains of 0.8-5.6, respectively. The reaction rims consist of fine-grained (2-7 μm) dolomite with palisade-shaped grains growing into magnesite reactants and equiaxed granular dolomite grains next to calcite. In between dolomite and pure calcite, magnesio-calcite grains evolved with an average grain size of 20-40 μm. Grain boundaries tend to be straighter at high bulk strains and equilibrium angles at grain triple junctions are common within the magnesio-calcite layer. Transmission electron microscopy shows almost dislocation free palisades and increasing dislocation density within granular dolomite towards the magnesio-calcite boundary. Within magnesio-calcite grains, dislocations are concentrated at grain boundaries. Variation of time at fixed stress (˜17 MPa) yields a parabolic time dependence of dolomite rim width, indicating diffusion-controlled growth, similar to isostatic rim growth behavior. In contrast, the magnesio-calcite layer growth is enhanced compared to isostatic conditions. Triaxial compression at given time shows no significant change of dolomite rim thickness (11±2 μm) and width of magnesio-calcite layers (33±5 μm) with increasing stress. In torsion experiments, reaction layer thickness and grain size decrease from the center (low stress/strain) to the edge (high strain/stress) of samples. Chemical analysis shows nearly stoichiometric composition of dolomite palisades, but enhanced Ca content within granular grains, indicating local disequilibrium with magnesio-calcite, in particular for twisted

  10. Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G-Y; Cummings, J.; Chang, C S; Podhorszki, Norbert; Klasky, Scott A; Ku, S.; Pankin, A.; Samtaney, Ravi; Shoshani, A.; Snyder, P.; Sugiyama, L.

    2009-01-01

    Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.

  11. Coupled simulation of kinetic pedestal growth and MHD ELM crash

    SciTech Connect

    Park, G.; Cummings, J.; Chang, C. S.; Klasky, Scott A; Ku, S.; Podhorszki, Norbert; Pankin, A.; Samtaney, Ravi; Shoshani, A.; Snyder, P.; Strauss, H.; Sugiyama, L.; CPES Team, the

    2007-01-01

    Edge pedestal height and the accompanying ELM crash are critical elements of ITER physics yet to be understood and predicted through high performance computing. An entirely self-consistent first principles simulation is being pursued as a long term research goal, and the plan is planned for completion in time for ITER operation. However, a proof-of-principle work has already been established using a computational tool that employs the best first principles physics available at the present time. A kinetic edge equilibrium code XGC0, which can simulate the neoclassically dominant pedestal growth from neutral ionization (using a phenomenological residual turbulence diffusion motion superposed upon the neoclassical particle motion) is coupled to an extended MHD code M3D, which can perform the nonlinear ELM crash. The stability boundary of the pedestal is checked by an ideal MHD linear peeling-ballooning code, which has been validated against many experimental data sets for the large scale (type I) ELMs onset boundary. The coupling workflow and scientific results to be enabled by it are described.

  12. Reactions of allylic radicals that impact molecular weight growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Villano, Stephanie M; Dean, Anthony M

    2015-03-01

    The reactions of allylic radicals have the potential to play a critical role in molecular weight growth (MWG) kinetics during hydrocarbon oxidation and/or pyrolysis. Due to their stability (when compared to alkyl radicals), they can accumulate to relatively high concentrations. Thus, even though the rate coefficients for their various reactions are small, the rates of these reactions may be significant. In this work, we use electronic structure calculations to examine the recombination, addition, and abstraction reactions of allylic radicals. For the recombination reaction of allyl radicals, we assign a high pressure rate rule that is based on experimental data. Once formed, the recombination product can potentially undergo an H-atom abstraction reaction followed by unimolecular cyclization and β-scission reactions. Depending upon the conditions (e.g., higher pressures) these pathways can lead to the formation of stable MWG species. The addition of allylic radicals to olefins can also lead to MWG species formation. Once again, cyclization of the adduct followed by β-scission is an important energy accessible route. Since the recombination and addition reactions produce chemically-activated adducts, we have explored the pressure- and temperature-dependence of the overall rate constants as well as that for the multiple product channels. We describe a strategy for estimating these pressure-dependencies for systems where detailed electronic structure information is not available. We also derive generic rate rules for hydrogen abstraction reactions from olefins and diolefins by methyl and allyl radicals.

  13. Regulation of the spvR gene of the Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid during exponential-phase growth in intracellular salts medium and at stationary phase in L broth.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J A; Gulig, P A

    1998-07-01

    The authors previously showed that the SpvR-regulated spvABCD operon of the Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid is highly induced during exponential-phase growth by salmonellae intracellularly in mammalian cells and in a medium designed to mimic the intracellular environment of mammalian cells, intracellular salts medium (ISM), as well as at stationary phase in L broth (LB). The most relevant signal(s) for spv gene expression in vivo is not known. To elucidate the means by which salmonellae regulate the spv genes in response to the environment during the disease process, expression of the spvR gene, encoding the positive regulatory protein SpvR, was examined under these same growth conditions by using RNAse-protection analysis. spvR was expressed at a low, basal level during exponential growth in LB but was induced during exponential growth in ISM and during stationary phase in LB, the same conditions that increased expression of the spvABCD operon. Basal expression of spvR during exponential growth in LB was independent of both SpvR and the alternative sigma factor RpoS, whereas maximal induction of spvR was dependent on both SpvR and RpoS. In an RpoS- background, spvR message was decreased in stationary phase, whereas spvR exhibited residual RpoS-independent induction during exponential growth in ISM. Deletion of spvA from the virulence plasmid of S. typhimurium increased expression of spvR during stationary phase in LB, but not during exponential growth in ISM. These results suggest that expression of spvR is controlled by different regulatory factors, depending on the growth conditions encountered by the salmonellae.

  14. Exploring growth kinetics of carbon nanotube arrays by in situ optical diagnostics and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Pannala, Sreekanth; Rouleau, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Simple kinetic models of carbon nanotube growth have been able to successfully link together many experimental parameters involved in the growth of carbon nanotubes for practical applications including the prediction of growth rates, terminal lengths, number of walls, activation energies, and their dependences on the growth environment. The implications of recent experiments utilizing in situ monitoring of carbon nanotube growth on our past kinetic model are first reviewed. Then, sub-second pulsed feedstock gas introduction is discussed to explore the nucleation and initial growth of carbon nanotubes in the context of the kinetic model. Moreover, kinetic effects in "pulsed CVD" - using repeated pulsed gas introduction to stop and restart nanotube growth - are explored to understand renucleation, the origin of alignment in nanotube arrays, and incremental growth. Time-resolved reflectivity of the surface is used to remotely understand the kinetics of nucleation and the coordinated growth of arrays. This approach demonstrates that continuous vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes can be grown incrementally by pulsed CVD, and that the first exposure of fresh catalyst to feedstock gas is critical to nanotubes site density required for coordinated growth. Aligned nanotube arrays (as short as 60 nm) are shown to nucleate and grow within single, sub-second gas pulses. The multiple-pulse growth experiments (> 100 pulses) show that a high fraction of nanotubes renucleate on subsequent gas pulses.

  15. Non-exponential relaxation, fictive temperatures, and dispersive kinetics in the liquid-glass-liquid transition range of acetaminophen, sulfathiazole, and their mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Khouri, J.; Johari, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of added molecular heterogeneity on the hysteretic features of liquid-glass-liquid transition, we studied acetaminophen, sulfathiazole, and three of their mixtures by calorimetry, and determined the Tg and the fictive temperature, Tf, from changes in the enthalpy and entropy on the cooling and heating paths, as well as the non-exponential parameter, βcal. We find that, (i) Tf for cooling is within 1-3 K of Tf for heating and both are close to Tg, (ii) the closed loop entropy change in the liquid-glass-liquid range is negligibly small, (iii) Tg and Tf increase on increasing sulfathiazole in the mixture, (iv) βcal first slightly increases when the second component is added and then decreases, and (v) ageing causes deviations from a non-exponential, nonlinear behavior of the glass. In terms of fluctuations in a potential energy landscape, adding a solute heterogeneity would shift the state point to another part of the landscape with a different distribution of barrier heights and a different number of minima accessible to the state point. Part of the change in βcal is attributed to hydrogen-bond formation between the two components. Ageing changes the relaxation times distribution, more at short relaxation times than at long relaxation times, and multiplicity of relaxation modes implied by βcal < 1 indicates that each mode contributing to the enthalpy has its own Tg or Tf. βcal differs from βage determined from isothermal ageing, and the distribution parameter of α-relaxation times would differ from both βcal and βage.

  16. Thermotolerance kinetics and growth rate changes in the R1H tumour heated at 43 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Mooibroek, J; Dikomey, E; Zywietz, F; Jung, H

    1988-01-01

    R1H rhabdomyosarcomas implanted into the foot of the right hind leg of female WAG/Rij rats were exposed to fractionated hyperthermia at 43 degrees C and the kinetics of thermotolerance and heat-induced growth rate changes were studied. Tumours of anaesthetized animals were exposed to heat by immersing the leg up to the thigh in a water bath. Tumour growth delay (TGD) and tumour volume doubling time were calculated from individual growth curves. After single heating, TGD increased with increasing heating time, the increase being linear for heating times exceeding 60 min. Thermotolerance was induced by a priming heat treatment at 43 degrees C for 60 min and the kinetics of development and decay was studied for fractionation intervals ranging from 4 to 144 h. After 4 h the thermal sensitivity of the tumours was enhanced by about 30 per cent, probably due to the sensitizing effect of heat-induced physiological alterations in the tumour tissue such as suboptimal environmental conditions caused by depressed blood flow. For longer time intervals thermotolerance developed and reached a maximum at 24 h where the thermotolerance ratio was 4.5 +/- 1.5. From 24 to 144 h thermotolerance decayed exponentially with a half-time of 28 +/- 8 h. Heat also affected the growth rate of the treated tumours. After single heat treatments at 43 degrees C for 15-60 min the tumours grew faster than untreated control tumours. This change was statistically significant. After prolonged single heating, growth rate was found to be reduced. Tumour volume doubling time was not detectably changed after fractionated heat treatments. PMID:3171262

  17. Kinetics of Austenite Grain Growth During Heating and Its Influence on Hot Deformation of LZ50 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shiwen; Li, Yongtang; Zheng, Yi

    2016-07-01

    Grain growth behaviors of LZ50 have been systematically investigated for various temperatures and holding times. Quantitative evaluations of the grain growth kinetics over a wide range of temperature (950-1200 °C) and holding time (10-180 min) have been performed. With the holding time kept constant, the average austenite grain size has an exponential relationship with the heating temperature, while with the heating temperature kept constant, the relationship between the austenite average grain size and holding time is a parabolic curve approximately. The holding time dependence of average austenite grain size obeys the Beck's equation. As the heating temperature increases, the time exponent for grain growth n increases from 0.21 to 0.39. On the basis of previous models and experimental results, taking the initial grain size into account, the mathematical model for austenite grain growth of LZ50 during isothermal heating and non-isothermal heating is proposed. The effects of initial austenite grain size on hot deformation behavior of LZ50 are analyzed through true stress-strain curves under different deformation conditions. Initial grain size has a slight effect on peak stress.

  18. Phase-field Model for Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics and Thermodynamic and Kinetic Models of Irradiated Fe-Cr Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-06-15

    Microstructure evolution kinetics in irradiated materials has strongly spatial correlation. For example, void and second phases prefer to nucleate and grow at pre-existing defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and cracks. Inhomogeneous microstructure evolution results in inhomogeneity of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. Therefore, the simulation capability for predicting three dimensional (3-D) microstructure evolution kinetics and its subsequent impact on material properties and performance is crucial for scientific design of advanced nuclear materials and optimal operation conditions in order to reduce uncertainty in operational and safety margins. Very recently the meso-scale phase-field (PF) method has been used to predict gas bubble evolution, void swelling, void lattice formation and void migration in irradiated materials,. Although most results of phase-field simulations are qualitative due to the lake of accurate thermodynamic and kinetic properties of defects, possible missing of important kinetic properties and processes, and the capability of current codes and computers for large time and length scale modeling, the simulations demonstrate that PF method is a promising simulation tool for predicting 3-D heterogeneous microstructure and property evolution, and providing microstructure evolution kinetics for higher scale level simulations of microstructure and property evolution such as mean field methods. This report consists of two parts. In part I, we will present a new phase-field model for predicting interstitial loop growth kinetics in irradiated materials. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) generation, diffusion and recombination, sink strength, long-range elastic interaction, inhomogeneous and anisotropic mobility on microstructure evolution kinetics is taken into account in the model. The model is used to study the effect of elastic interaction on interstitial loop growth kinetics, the interstitial flux, and sink

  19. Metabolic Profiling and Flux Analysis of MEL-2 Human Embryonic Stem Cells during Exponential Growth at Physiological and Atmospheric Oxygen Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Titmarsh, Drew; Krömer, Jens O.; Kao, Li-Pin; Nielsen, Lars; Wolvetang, Ernst; Cooper-White, Justin

    2014-01-01

    As human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) steadily progress towards regenerative medicine applications there is an increasing emphasis on the development of bioreactor platforms that enable expansion of these cells to clinically relevant numbers. Surprisingly little is known about the metabolic requirements of hESCs, precluding the rational design and optimisation of such platforms. In this study, we undertook an in-depth characterisation of MEL-2 hESC metabolic behaviour during the exponential growth phase, combining metabolic profiling and flux analysis tools at physiological (hypoxic) and atmospheric (normoxic) oxygen concentrations. To overcome variability in growth profiles and the problem of closing mass balances in a complex environment, we developed protocols to accurately measure uptake and production rates of metabolites, cell density, growth rate and biomass composition, and designed a metabolic flux analysis model for estimating internal rates. hESCs are commonly considered to be highly glycolytic with inactive or immature mitochondria, however, whilst the results of this study confirmed that glycolysis is indeed highly active, we show that at least in MEL-2 hESC, it is supported by the use of oxidative phosphorylation within the mitochondria utilising carbon sources, such as glutamine to maximise ATP production. Under both conditions, glycolysis was disconnected from the mitochondria with all of the glucose being converted to lactate. No difference in the growth rates of cells cultured under physiological or atmospheric oxygen concentrations was observed nor did this cause differences in fluxes through the majority of the internal metabolic pathways associated with biogenesis. These results suggest that hESCs display the conventional Warburg effect, with high aerobic activity despite high lactate production, challenging the idea of an anaerobic metabolism with low mitochondrial activity. The results of this study provide new insight that can be used in

  20. Metabolic profiling and flux analysis of MEL-2 human embryonic stem cells during exponential growth at physiological and atmospheric oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jennifer; Quek, Lake-Ee; Titmarsh, Drew; Krömer, Jens O; Kao, Li-Pin; Nielsen, Lars; Wolvetang, Ernst; Cooper-White, Justin

    2014-01-01

    As human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) steadily progress towards regenerative medicine applications there is an increasing emphasis on the development of bioreactor platforms that enable expansion of these cells to clinically relevant numbers. Surprisingly little is known about the metabolic requirements of hESCs, precluding the rational design and optimisation of such platforms. In this study, we undertook an in-depth characterisation of MEL-2 hESC metabolic behaviour during the exponential growth phase, combining metabolic profiling and flux analysis tools at physiological (hypoxic) and atmospheric (normoxic) oxygen concentrations. To overcome variability in growth profiles and the problem of closing mass balances in a complex environment, we developed protocols to accurately measure uptake and production rates of metabolites, cell density, growth rate and biomass composition, and designed a metabolic flux analysis model for estimating internal rates. hESCs are commonly considered to be highly glycolytic with inactive or immature mitochondria, however, whilst the results of this study confirmed that glycolysis is indeed highly active, we show that at least in MEL-2 hESC, it is supported by the use of oxidative phosphorylation within the mitochondria utilising carbon sources, such as glutamine to maximise ATP production. Under both conditions, glycolysis was disconnected from the mitochondria with all of the glucose being converted to lactate. No difference in the growth rates of cells cultured under physiological or atmospheric oxygen concentrations was observed nor did this cause differences in fluxes through the majority of the internal metabolic pathways associated with biogenesis. These results suggest that hESCs display the conventional Warburg effect, with high aerobic activity despite high lactate production, challenging the idea of an anaerobic metabolism with low mitochondrial activity. The results of this study provide new insight that can be used in

  1. Interactive effects of temperature, pH, and water activity on the growth kinetics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 3.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Ukuku, Dike; Hwang, Cheng-An; Wu, Vivian C H; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2014-05-01

    The risk of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains has become a growing public health concern. Several studies characterized the behavior of E. coli O157:H7; however, no reports on the influence of multiple factors on E. coli O104:H4 are available. This study examined the effects and interactions of temperature (7 to 46°C), pH (4.5 to 8.5), and water activity (aw ; 0.95 to 0.99) on the growth kinetics of E. coli O104:H4 and developed predictive models to estimate its growth potential in foods. Growth kinetics studies for each of the 23 variable combinations from a central composite design were performed. Growth data were used to obtain the lag phase duration (LPD), exponential growth rate, generation time, and maximum population density (MPD). These growth parameters as a function of temperature, pH, and aw as controlling factors were analyzed to generate second-order response surface models. The results indicate that the observed MPD was dependent on the pH, aw, and temperature of the growth medium. Increasing temperature resulted in a concomitant decrease in LPD. Regression analysis suggests that temperature, pH, and aw significantly affect the LPD, exponential growth rate, generation time, and MPD of E. coli O104:H4. A comparison between the observed values and those of E. coli O157:H7 predictions obtained by using the U. S. Department of Agriculture Pathogen Modeling Program indicated that E. coli O104:H4 grows faster than E. coli O157:H7. The developed models were validated with alfalfa and broccoli sprouts. These models will provide risk assessors and food safety managers a rapid means of estimating the likelihood that the pathogen, if present, would grow in response to the interaction of the three variables assessed. PMID:25198132

  2. Notes on Interface Growth Kinetics 50 Years After Burton, Cabrera and Frank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    This is an overview of basic problems of crystal growth kinetics controlled by processes on the crystal interface with solution and melt. Included, also, are results on fundamental issues concerning morphological stability of crystal-solution interface that engage both interface kinetics and mass transport by diffusion and convection.

  3. Temperature dependence of protein solubility-determination, application to crystallization, and growth kinetics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation method was developed for determinations of the temperature dependence of the solubility, and of nucleation induction times of proteins, in 50-100 mu(l) volumes of solution. Solubility data for lysozyme and horse serum albumin were obtained for various combinations of pH and precipitant concentrations. These data and the nucleation induction information were used for dynamic crystallization control, that is, for the controlled separation of nucleation and growth stages. Individual lysozyme and horse serum albumin crystals were grown in 15-20 mu(l) solution volumes contained in x-ray capillaries. The morphology and kinetics of the growth and dissolution of lysozyme in aqueous solutions with 2.5 percent NaCl and at pH = 4.5 was studied in situ with a depth resolution of 300 A (4 unit cells) by high resolution optical microscopy and digital image processing. The bulk super- or under saturation, sigma, of the solution inside a closed growth cell was controlled by temperature. The growth habit was bound by (110) and (101) faces that grew through layer spreading, although with different growth rate dependencies on supersaturation/temperature. At sigma less than 10 (obtained at higher temperatures) growth was purely kinetic ally controlled, with impurity effects (macrostep formation and kinetic hindrance) becoming significant for sigma less than 2. At sigma greater than 10 (lower temperatures), anisotropies in the interfacial kinetics were more pronounced, with interfacial kinetics and bulk transport becoming equally important to the growth morphology. Growth rates were growth history dependent. The formation of striations (layers of irregularly incorporated solution) was unambiguously correlated with growth temperature variations. Etching exposed dislocations and various high-index faces whose growth morphologies were studied during return to the steady state growth form. Growth steps were observed to originate from two-dimensional nuclei or from outcrops

  4. Correlated responses in body composition to divergent selection for exponential growth rate to 14 or 42 days of age in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sizemore, F G; Barbato, G F

    2002-07-01

    Chicks divergently selected for 14-d (14H and 14L) or 42-d (42H and 42L) exponential growth rate (EGR) over five generations were used to determine correlated responses between growth at different ages and body composition. Regression coefficient estimates across five generations of selection were not significant for any line at either age for percentage total body water or protein. Genetic correlations between EGR from hatching to 14 d of age (EGR14) and 42-d percentage carcass fat were -0.18, -0.57, 0.63, and -0.79 among the 14H, 14L, 42H, and 42L lines, respectively. Genetic correlations between EGR from hatching to 42 d of age (EGR42) and 42-d percentage carcass fat were 0.09, -0.67,0.50, and -0.75 among the 14H, 14L, 42H, and 42L lines, respectively. During the short-term selection experiment, selection for fast EGR14 or EGR42 increased fat at the age of selection. However, selection for fast EGR42 increased body weight and percentage fat at 42 d of age (DOA), whereas selection for fast EGR14 increased body weight but not fat at 42 DOA. Therefore, it is possible to simultaneously select for high body weight at, or near, the inflection point of the growth curve without increasing fat deposition or obesity by taking advantage of the lack of a genetic correlation between EGR14 and body fat percentage at later ages. PMID:12162352

  5. Recognizing Exponential Growth. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Two heuristic and three rigorous arguments are given for the fact that functions of the form Ce[kx], with C an arbitrary constant, are the only solutions of the equation dy/dx=ky where k is constant. Various of the proofs in this self-contained note could find classroom use in a first-year calculus course, an introductory course on differential…

  6. The Escherichia coli FIS protein is not required for the activation of tyrT transcription on entry into exponential growth.

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, L R; Travers, A A

    1993-01-01

    The Escherichia coli DNA bending protein factor for inversion stimulation (FIS), is neither necessary nor responsible for the stimulation of transcription from the wild type promoter for the tyrT operon (encoding a species of tyrosine tRNA) that occurs upon resumption of exponential growth. This conclusion is unexpected given that the regulatory element required for optimal transcription of tyrT contains three binding sites for FIS protein. In addition, it is in apparent conflict with reports from other laboratories which have described FIS-dependent activation of the stable RNA promoters rrnB P1 and thrU(tufB) in vivo. However, tyrT transcription is stimulated in a FIS-dependent manner both in vivo and in vitro when promoter function is impaired by mutation of the promoter itself or by the addition of the polymerase effector guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate. These conditions, which expose a requirement for activation of stable RNA synthesis by FIS, suggest that FIS serves an adaptive role permitting high levels of stable RNA transcription on nutritional shift-up when RNA polymerase levels are depleted. In principle such a mechanism could confer a significant selective advantage thus accounting for the conservation of FIS binding sites in the regulatory regions of stable RNA promoters. Images PMID:7685276

  7. Volume diffusion-controlled growth kinetics and mechanisms in binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Trivedi, R.

    1981-01-01

    Growth kinetics and stability of simple precipitate morphologies which develop during solid-solid phase transformations in binary alloys will be briefly reviewed. Emphasis will be placed on our current understanding of the dependence of growth kinetics on the shape of precipitates and on the interfacial structure. As an example, we shall consider the lengthening kinetics of Widmanstatten precipitates and develop a stability criteria which determines the dimension of the advancing tip of these precipitates. These theoretical results will then be compared with the available experimental data in binary alloys. The importance of interface structure in determining growth kinetics will also be illustrated by considering the migration rate of partially coherent interphase boundaries with ledge structures. These results will then be synthesized to understand the development and stability of microstructures in binary alloys.

  8. Si(011)16x2 gas-source molecular beam epitaxy: Growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, N.; Kim, H.; Desjardins, P.; Foo, Y. L.; Greene, J. E.

    2000-05-15

    The growth rates R{sub Si} of Si layers deposited on Si(011)''16x2'' by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy from Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} were determined as a function of temperature T{sub s} (400-975 degree sign C) and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} flux J{sub Si{sub 2}}{sub H{sub 6}}(5.0x10{sup 15}-9.0x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}). R{sub Si} ranges from 0.0015 {mu}m h-1 at T{sub s}=400 degree sign C to 0.415 {mu}m h-1 at T{sub s}=975 degree sign C with J{sub Si{sub 2}}{sub H{sub 6}}=2.2x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In the surface-reaction-limited regime at T{sub s}<725 degree sign C, R{sub Si} initially exhibits an exponential decrease with 1/T{sub s}, then decreases at a slower rate at T{sub s}{<=}550 degree sign C as an additional deposition pathway becomes operative. In the impingement-flux-limited regime, 725{<=}T{sub s}{<=}900 degree sign C, R{sub Si} is independent of T{sub s} but increases linearly with J{sub Si{sub 2}}{sub H{sub 6}}. At T{sub s}>900 degree sign C, R{sub Si}(T{sub s}) increases with T{sub s} due to surface roughening. Overall, R{sub Si}(J{sub Si{sub 2}}{sub H{sub 6}},T{sub s}) is well described at T{sub s}{<=}900 degree sign C by a kinetic model incorporating two competing film growth mechanisms: (1) dissociative chemisorption of Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} onto dangling bonds followed by fast surface dissociation steps and second-order H{sub 2} desorption from the surface monohydride phase; and (2) Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} insertion into Si-H surface bonds followed by second-order desorption of SiH{sub 4}. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Giving Exponential Functions a Fair Shake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    This article details an exploration of exponential decay and growth relationships using M&M's and dice. Students collect data for mathematical models and use graphing calculators to make sense of the general form of the exponential functions. (Contains 10 figures and 2 tables.)

  10. Epitaxy growth kinetics of GaN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bei; Ma, Ronghui; Zhang, Hui

    2003-03-01

    Group III nitrides, such as GaN, AlN and InGaN, have attracted a lot of attention due to the development of blue-green and ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lasers. A GaN crystal can be grown from the vapor phase by either evaporation of Gallium (Ga) metal or sublimation of GaN powder in ammonia (NH 3) atmosphere at a temperature-controlled growth furnace. In this paper, an integrated GaN growth model using a sublimation growth model has been developed based on the conservation of momentum, mass, chemical species and energy together with necessary boundary conditions that account for heterogeneous chemical reactions both at the source and seed surfaces. For the growth rate, the effects of the gas-flow rate, source temperature, temperature difference, and the gap width of the growth cell on the growth process have been studied.

  11. Modeling of Scale-Dependent Bacterial Growth by Chemical Kinetics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Haydee; Cruz, José-Manuel; Ayala, Guadalupe; Rivera, Marco; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We applied the so-called chemical kinetics approach to complex bacterial growth patterns that were dependent on the liquid-surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V) of the bacterial cultures. The kinetic modeling was based on current experimental knowledge in terms of autocatalytic bacterial growth, its inhibition by the metabolite CO2, and the relief of inhibition through the physical escape of the inhibitor. The model quantitatively reproduces kinetic data of SA/V-dependent bacterial growth and can discriminate between differences in the growth dynamics of enteropathogenic E. coli, E. coli  JM83, and Salmonella typhimurium on one hand and Vibrio cholerae on the other hand. Furthermore, the data fitting procedures allowed predictions about the velocities of the involved key processes and the potential behavior in an open-flow bacterial chemostat, revealing an oscillatory approach to the stationary states. PMID:25105169

  12. Modeling of scale-dependent bacterial growth by chemical kinetics approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Haydee; Sánchez, Joaquín; Cruz, José-Manuel; Ayala, Guadalupe; Rivera, Marco; Buhse, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We applied the so-called chemical kinetics approach to complex bacterial growth patterns that were dependent on the liquid-surface-area-to-volume ratio (SA/V) of the bacterial cultures. The kinetic modeling was based on current experimental knowledge in terms of autocatalytic bacterial growth, its inhibition by the metabolite CO2, and the relief of inhibition through the physical escape of the inhibitor. The model quantitatively reproduces kinetic data of SA/V-dependent bacterial growth and can discriminate between differences in the growth dynamics of enteropathogenic E. coli, E. coli JM83, and Salmonella typhimurium on one hand and Vibrio cholerae on the other hand. Furthermore, the data fitting procedures allowed predictions about the velocities of the involved key processes and the potential behavior in an open-flow bacterial chemostat, revealing an oscillatory approach to the stationary states.

  13. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chou, Yi -Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C.; Stach, Eric A.; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-03-15

    Here, we visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas.

  14. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: a review of the fifty-year history.

    PubMed

    Xu, X George

    2014-09-21

    Radiation dose calculation using models of the human anatomy has been a subject of great interest to radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy. However, early pioneers of this field did not foresee the exponential growth of research activity as observed today. This review article walks the reader through the history of the research and development in this field of study which started some 50 years ago. This review identifies a clear progression of computational phantom complexity which can be denoted by three distinct generations. The first generation of stylized phantoms, representing a grouping of less than dozen models, was initially developed in the 1960s at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to calculate internal doses from nuclear medicine procedures. Despite their anatomical simplicity, these computational phantoms were the best tools available at the time for internal/external dosimetry, image evaluation, and treatment dose evaluations. A second generation of a large number of voxelized phantoms arose rapidly in the late 1980s as a result of the increased availability of tomographic medical imaging and computers. Surprisingly, the last decade saw the emergence of the third generation of phantoms which are based on advanced geometries called boundary representation (BREP) in the form of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) or polygonal meshes. This new class of phantoms now consists of over 287 models including those used for non-ionizing radiation applications. This review article aims to provide the reader with a general understanding of how the field of computational phantoms came about and the technical challenges it faced at different times. This goal is achieved by defining basic geometry modeling techniques and by analyzing selected phantoms in terms of geometrical features and dosimetric problems to be solved. The rich historical information is summarized in four tables that are aided by highlights in the text on how some of the most

  15. An exponential growth of computational phantom research in radiation protection, imaging, and radiotherapy: A review of the fifty-year history

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X. George

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose calculation using models of the human anatomy has been a subject of great interest to radiation protection, medical imaging, and radiotherapy. However, early pioneers of this field did not foresee the exponential growth of research activity as observed today. This review article walks the reader through the history of the research and development in this field of study which started some 50 years ago. This review identifies a clear progression of computational phantom complexity which can be denoted by three distinct generations. The first generation of stylized phantoms, representing a grouping of less than dozen models, was initially developed in the 1960s at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to calculate internal doses from nuclear medicine procedures. Despite their anatomical simplicity, these computational phantoms were the best tools available at the time for internal/external dosimetry, image evaluation, and treatment dose evaluations. A second generation of a large number of voxelized phantoms arose rapidly in the late 1980s as a result of the increased availability of tomographic medical imaging and computers. Surprisingly, the last decade saw the emergence of the third generation of phantoms which are based on advanced geometries called boundary representation (BREP) in the form of Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) or polygonal meshes. This new class of phantoms now consists of over 287 models including those used for non-ionizing radiation applications. This review article aims to provide the reader with a general understanding of how the field of computational phantoms came about and the technical challenges it faced at different times. This goal is achieved by defining basic geometry modeling techniques and by analyzing selected phantoms in terms of geometrical features and dosimetric problems to be solved. The rich historical information is summarized in four tables that are aided by highlights in the text on how some of the most well

  16. Fractal growth kinetics and electric potential oscillations during electropolymerization of pyrrole.

    PubMed

    Das, Ishwar; Agrawal, Namita R; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Gupta, Sujeet Kumar; Rastogi, R P

    2009-05-01

    Fractal growth, growth kinetics, and electrical conductivity of aggregates obtained during electropolymerization in the systems (A) pyrrole-4-toluene sulfonic acid silver salt (4-TSS)-acetonitrile, (B) pyrrole-4-TSS-ZnSO(4)-acetonitrile, and (C) pyrrole-4-TSS-aniline-acetonitrile were investigated. In the case of system (A), effect of [4-TSS], [pyrrole], field intensity, and solvents H(2)O and CH(3)OH on morphology, fractal character, and growth kinetics was also studied. Fractal growth data were examined in detail. During studies on system (A), electric potential oscillations were observed and subjected to detailed study. The results indicate that fractal growth pattern and electric potential oscillations are inter-related. The mechanism of development of fractal growth, dendritic structure, and electric potential oscillations is discussed in terms of diffusion-limited aggregation and modified Diaz's mechanism, which explains the random movement of radical cations.

  17. In Bacillus subtilis LutR is part of the global complex regulatory network governing the adaptation to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Irigül-Sönmez, Öykü; Köroğlu, Türkan E; Öztürk, Büşra; Kovács, Ákos T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Yazgan-Karataş, Ayten

    2014-02-01

    The lutR gene, encoding a product resembling a GntR-family transcriptional regulator, has previously been identified as a gene required for the production of the dipeptide antibiotic bacilysin in Bacillus subtilis. To understand the broader regulatory roles of LutR in B. subtilis, we studied the genome-wide effects of a lutR null mutation by combining transcriptional profiling studies using DNA microarrays, reverse transcription quantitative PCR, lacZ fusion analyses and gel mobility shift assays. We report that 65 transcriptional units corresponding to 23 mono-cistronic units and 42 operons show altered expression levels in lutR mutant cells, as compared with lutR(+) wild-type cells in early stationary phase. Among these, 11 single genes and 25 operons are likely to be under direct control of LutR. The products of these genes are involved in a variety of physiological processes associated with the onset of stationary phase in B. subtilis, including degradative enzyme production, antibiotic production and resistance, carbohydrate utilization and transport, nitrogen metabolism, phosphate uptake, fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis, protein synthesis and translocation, cell-wall metabolism, energy production, transfer of mobile genetic elements, induction of phage-related genes, sporulation, delay of sporulation and cannibalism, and biofilm formation. Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay performed in the presence of both SinR and LutR revealed a close overlap between the LutR and SinR targets. Our data also revealed a significant overlap with the AbrB regulon. Together, these findings reveal that LutR is part of the global complex, interconnected regulatory systems governing adaptation of bacteria to the transition from exponential growth to stationary phase. PMID:24196425

  18. Monoculture parameters successfully predict coculture growth kinetics of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and two Bifidobacterium strains.

    PubMed

    Van Wey, A S; Cookson, A L; Roy, N C; McNabb, W C; Soboleva, T K; Shorten, P R

    2014-11-17

    Microorganisms rarely live in isolation but are most often found in a consortium. This provides the potential for cross-feeding and nutrient competition among the microbial species, which make it challenging to predict the growth kinetics in coculture. In this paper we developed a mathematical model to describe substrate consumption and subsequent microbial growth and metabolite production for bacteria grown in monoculture. The model characterized substrate utilization kinetics of 18 Bifidobacterium strains. Some bifidobacterial strains demonstrated preferential degradation of oligofructose in that sugars with low degree of polymerization (DP) (DP≤3 or 4) were metabolized before sugars of higher DP, or vice versa. Thus, we expanded the model to describe the preferential degradation of oligofructose. In addition, we adapted the model to describe the competition between human colonic bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262 and Bifidobacterium longum LMG 11047 or Bifidobacterium breve Yakult for inulin as well as cross-feeding of breakdown products from the extracellular hydrolysis of inulin by B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262. We found that the coculture growth kinetics could be predicted based on the respective monoculture growth kinetics. Using growth kinetics from monoculture experiments to predict coculture dynamics will reduce the number of in vitro experiments required to parameterize multi-culture models.

  19. Kinetics of monolayer graphene growth by segregation on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, H. S.; Murata, Y.; Kodambaka, S.; Ebnonnasir, A.; Ciobanu, C. V.; Nie, S.; McCarty, K. F.

    2014-03-10

    Using in situ low-energy electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations, we follow the growth of monolayer graphene on Pd(111) via surface segregation of bulk-dissolved carbon. Upon lowering the substrate temperature, nucleation of graphene begins on graphene-free Pd surface and continues to occur during graphene growth. Measurements of graphene growth rates and Pd surface work functions establish that this continued nucleation is due to increasing C adatom concentration on the Pd surface with time. We attribute this anomalous phenomenon to a large barrier for attachment of C adatoms to graphene coupled with a strong binding of the non-graphitic C to the Pd surface.

  20. Kinetic constants of abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    The grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel with a purity of 99.5 at % during non-isothermal annealing was experimentally investigated using differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Nanocrystalline nickel was prepared by electrodeposition and had an average grain size of approximately 20 nm. It was shown that, at a temperature corresponding to the calorimetric signal peak, abnormal grain growth occurs with the formation of a bimodal grain microstructure. Calorimeters signals were processed within the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami formalism. This made it possible to determine the exponent of the corresponding equation, the frequency factor, and the activation energy of the grain growth, which was found to be equal to the activation energy of the vacancy migration. The reasons for the abnormal grain growth in nanocrystalline nickel were discussed.

  1. Growth Kinetics and Mechanics of Hydrate Films by Interfacial Rheology.

    PubMed

    Leopércio, Bruna C; de Souza Mendes, Paulo R; Fuller, Gerald G

    2016-05-01

    A new approach to study and understand the kinetics and mechanical properties of hydrates by interfacial rheology is presented. This is made possible using a "double wall ring" interfacial rheology cell that has been designed to provide the necessary temperature control. Cyclopentane and water are used to form hydrates, and this model system forms these structures at ambient pressures. Different temperature and water/hydrocarbon contact protocols are explored. Of particular interest is the importance of first contacting the hydrocarbon against ice crystals in order to initiate hydrate formation. Indeed, this is found to be the case, even though the hydrates may be created at temperatures above the melting point of ice. Once hydrates completely populate the hydrocarbon/water interface, strain sweeps of the interfacial elastic and viscous moduli are conducted to interrogate the mechanical response and fragility of the hydrate films. The dependence on temperature, Tf, by the kinetics of formation and the mechanical properties is reported, and the cyclopentane hydrate dissociation temperature was found to be between 6 and 7 °C. The formation time (measured from the moment when cyclopentane first contacts ice crystals) as well as the elastic modulus and the yield strain increase as Tf increases. PMID:27076092

  2. Growth Kinetics of Attached Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wichlacz, Paul L.; Unz, Richard F.

    1985-01-01

    A model of growth and substrate utilization for ferrous-iron-oxidizing bacteria attached to the disks of a rotating biological contactor was developed and tested. The model describes attached bacterial growth as a saturation function in which the rate of substrate utilization is determined by a maximum substrate oxidation rate constant (P), a half-saturation constant (Ks), and the concentration of substrate within the rotating biological contactor (S1). The maximum oxidation rate constant was proportional to flow rate, and the substrate concentration in the reactor varied with influent substrate concentration (S0). The model allowed the prediction of metabolic constants and included terms for both constant and growth-rate-dependent maintenance energies. Estimates for metabolic constants of the attached population of acidophilic, chemolithotrophic, iron-oxidizing bacteria limited by ferrous iron were: maximum specific growth rate (μmax), 1.14 h−1; half-saturation constant (Ks) for ferrous iron, 54.9 mg/liter; constant maintenance energy coefficient (m1), 0.154 h−1; growth-rate-dependent maintenance energy coefficient (m′), 0.07 h−1; maximum yield (Yg), 0.063 mg of organic nitrogen per mg of Fe(II) oxidized. PMID:16346863

  3. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Lens, Piet N L; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Bester, Kai; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2011-05-30

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was supplied to the reactor to provide the source of reduced sulfur. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen was monitored. The utilization rates of both hydrogen sulfide and oxygen suggested exponential bacterial growth with median growth rates of 1.25 d(-1) and 1.33 d(-1) as determined from the utilization rates of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively. Elemental sulfur was found to be the immediate product of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation. When exponential growth had been achieved, the addition of hydrogen sulfide was terminated leading to elemental sulfur oxidation. The ratio of consumed sulfur to consumed oxygen suggested that sulfuric acid was the ultimate oxidation product. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to determine the growth rate of bacteria involved in concrete corrosion with hydrogen sulfide as source of reduced sulfur. PMID:21440988

  4. Growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henriette Stokbro; Lens, Piet N L; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Bester, Kai; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2011-05-30

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation by microbes present on concrete surfaces of sewer pipes is a key process in sewer corrosion. The growth of aerobic sulfur oxidizing bacteria from corroded concrete surfaces was studied in a batch reactor. Samples of corrosion products, containing sulfur oxidizing bacteria, were suspended in aqueous solution at pH similar to that of corroded concrete. Hydrogen sulfide was supplied to the reactor to provide the source of reduced sulfur. The removal of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen was monitored. The utilization rates of both hydrogen sulfide and oxygen suggested exponential bacterial growth with median growth rates of 1.25 d(-1) and 1.33 d(-1) as determined from the utilization rates of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen, respectively. Elemental sulfur was found to be the immediate product of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation. When exponential growth had been achieved, the addition of hydrogen sulfide was terminated leading to elemental sulfur oxidation. The ratio of consumed sulfur to consumed oxygen suggested that sulfuric acid was the ultimate oxidation product. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to determine the growth rate of bacteria involved in concrete corrosion with hydrogen sulfide as source of reduced sulfur.

  5. Graphene CVD growth on copper and nickel: role of hydrogen in kinetics and structure.

    PubMed

    Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria Michela; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni

    2011-12-14

    Understanding the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) kinetics of graphene growth is important for advancing graphene processing and achieving better control of graphene thickness and properties. In the perspective of improving large area graphene quality, we have investigated in real-time the CVD kinetics using CH(4)-H(2) precursors on both polycrystalline copper and nickel. We highlighted the role of hydrogen in differentiating the growth kinetics and thickness of graphene on copper and nickel. Specifically, the growth kinetics and mechanism is framed in the competitive dissociative chemisorption of H(2) and dehydrogenating chemisorption of CH(4), and in the competition of the in-diffusion of carbon and hydrogen, being hydrogen in-diffusion faster in copper than nickel, while carbon diffusion is faster in nickel than copper. It is shown that hydrogen acts as an inhibitor for the CH(4) dehydrogenation on copper, contributing to suppress deposition onto the copper substrate, and degrades quality of graphene. Additionally, the evidence of the role of hydrogen in forming C-H out of plane defects in CVD graphene on Cu is also provided. Conversely, resurfacing recombination of hydrogen aids CH(4) decomposition in the case of Ni. Understanding better and providing other elements to the kinetics of graphene growth is helpful to define the optimal CH(4)/H(2) ratio, which ultimately can contribute to improve graphene layer thickness uniformity even on polycrystalline substrates. PMID:22006173

  6. Role of plasma activation in the kinetics of CNT growth in PECVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Irina; Gavrikov, Alexey; Baranov, Alexey; Belov, Maxim; Knizhnik, Andrey; Potapkin, Boris; Sommerer, Timothy

    2009-10-01

    The work presents kinetic modeling of the effect of acceleration for the growth kinetics of carbon nanotubes by hydrocarbon gas mixture modification with plasma discharge. The plasma activation creates active species in hydrocarbon gas mixture, which can easily adsorb and dissociate on the catalyst surface. So plasma treatment of the gas mixture in the CVD process allows to increase the carbon supply rate by a few orders of magnitude compared to that in thermal CVD process. On the other hand, plasma can also provide etching of carbon species from the catalyst surface. To correctly reproduce both of these effects of plasma, the kinetic model of growth of carbon nanotubes is developed based on first-principles analysis of heterogeneous processes on the catalyst surface and detailed kinetics of gas phase chemistry. The model is used to compare the growth rates of carbon nanotubes in thermal and plasma-enhanced CVD processes and to determine critical gas pressures, at which CNT growth kinetics switches from the adsorption limitation to the limitation by reaction and diffusion on the catalyst.

  7. Crystal nucleation and cluster-growth kinetics in a model glass under shear.

    PubMed

    Mokshin, Anatolii V; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-01

    Crystal nucleation and growth processes induced by an externally applied shear strain in a model metallic glass are studied by means of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, in a range of temperatures. We observe that the nucleation-growth process takes place after a transient, induction regime. The critical cluster size and the lag-time associated with this induction period are determined from a mean first-passage time analysis. The laws that describe the cluster-growth process are studied as a function of temperature and strain rate. A theoretical model for crystallization kinetics that includes the time dependence for nucleation and cluster growth is developed within the framework of the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami scenario and is compared with the molecular dynamics data. Scalings for the cluster-growth laws and for the crystallization kinetics are also proposed and tested. The observed nucleation rates are found to display a nonmonotonic strain rate dependency. PMID:20866816

  8. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Epitaxial Thin Film Growth: Formation of Submonolayer Islands and Multilayer Mounds

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J. W.; Thiel, P. A.; Li, Maozhi

    2007-06-14

    We consider homoepitaxy (or low-misfit heteroepitaxy) via vapor deposition or MBE under UHV conditions. Thin film growth is initiated by nucleation and growth of 2D islands in the submonolayer regime. For atoms subsequently deposited on top of islands, a step edge barrier often inhibits downward transport and produces kinetic roughening during multilayer growth. Such unstable growth is characterized by the formation of 3D mounds (multilayer stacks of 2D islands). Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation of suitable atomistic lattice-gas models can address fundamental or general issues related to both submonolayer and multilayer film evolution, and can also provide a predictive tool for morphological evolution in specific systems. Examples of the successes of KMC modeling are provided for metal homoepitaxial film growth, specifically for contrasting behavior in the classic Ag/Ag(100) and Ag/Ag(111) systems.

  9. Relationship between kinetics of growth and production of exo-electrons: Case study with Geobacter toluenoxydans.

    PubMed

    Szöllősi, Attila; Narr, László; Kovács, Attila G; Styevkó, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Kinetics of growth and product formation of G. toluenoxydans DSMZ 19350 strain were investigated using sodium-acetate as substrate and Fe(3+)-ions and fumarate as electron acceptor. Response surface method was adapted for evaluation of growth of bacteria. Results showed that maximum growth was detected in the case of 2.2 g/L substrate concentration. Application of higher substrate concentration (>2.5 g/L sodium acetate) significantly inhibits the bacterial growth. Luong's model was found to be the most suitable to determine kinetic parameters (μ(max) = 0.033 1/h, KS = 0.205 g/L) of growth of G.toluenoxydans strain, and the growth was completely inhibited at substrate concentration higher than 3.1 g/L. In the case of product formation the Haldane model was used and kinetic parameters are μ(Pmax) = 0.123 mg/h, K(PS)= 0.184 g/L. Correlation between microbial growth and product formation was observed using the Luedeking-Piret empirical method. Both factors (growth and number of cells) affected significantly iron(III)-reduction, thus the product formation. These results are important and open the possibility to design a continuous MFC setting operating with G. toluenoxydans as biocatalyst. PMID:26551573

  10. Effect of low dose rate radiation on cell growth kinetics.

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, E C; Yau, T M; Kim, S C

    1979-01-01

    Experimental determinations were made of cell number as a function of time for two strains of L5178Y mammalian cells maintained continuously in various environments of radiation. One strain possessed a shoulder in its dose response curve whereas the other did not. Neither strain showed any significant difference in growth rate for interdivision doses on the order of the median lethal dose or less delivered continuously at a low dose rate or pulsed every 4 h at a high instantaneous dose rate. It was also shown that large numbers of dead cells have little effect on growth rate and that these dead cells last as discrete entities for many days. A simple theory of growth rate in the presence of radiation is presented, and the agreement with the observations implies that there is no effect of any sublethal low dose rate radiation received in one generation on the growth rate or radiation sensitivity of the succeeding generation. Further analysis of the data also showed that for the no-shoulder cells at 37 degrees C, tritiated water had a relative biological effect close to unity for cell sterilization. PMID:262446

  11. An Unusual Exponential Graph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to…

  12. Modified Gompertz equation for electrotherapy murine tumor growth kinetics: predictions and new hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy effectiveness at different doses has been demonstrated in preclinical and clinical studies; however, several aspects that occur in the tumor growth kinetics before and after treatment have not yet been revealed. Mathematical modeling is a useful instrument that can reveal some of these aspects. The aim of this paper is to describe the complete growth kinetics of unperturbed and perturbed tumors through use of the modified Gompertz equation in order to generate useful insight into the mechanisms that underpin this devastating disease. Methods The complete tumor growth kinetics for control and treated groups are obtained by interpolation and extrapolation methods with different time steps, using experimental data of fibrosarcoma Sa-37. In the modified Gompertz equation, a delay time is introduced to describe the tumor's natural history before treatment. Different graphical strategies are used in order to reveal new information in the complete kinetics of this tumor type. Results The first stage of complete tumor growth kinetics is highly non linear. The model, at this stage, shows different aspects that agree with those reported theoretically and experimentally. Tumor reversibility and the proportionality between regions before and after electrotherapy are demonstrated. In tumors that reach partial remission, two antagonistic post-treatment processes are induced, whereas in complete remission, two unknown antitumor mechanisms are induced. Conclusion The modified Gompertz equation is likely to lead to insights within cancer research. Such insights hold promise for increasing our understanding of tumors as self-organizing systems and, the possible existence of phase transitions in tumor growth kinetics, which, in turn, may have significant impacts both on cancer research and on clinical practice. PMID:21029411

  13. Crystal Growth Kinetics and Viscous Behavior in Ge2Sb2Se5 Undercooled Melt.

    PubMed

    Barták, Jaroslav; Koštál, Petr; Podzemná, Veronika; Shánělová, Jana; Málek, Jiří

    2016-08-18

    Crystal growth, viscosity, and melting were studied in Ge2Sb2Se5 bulk samples. The crystals formed a compact layer on the surface of the sample and then continued to grow from the surface to the central part of the sample. The formed crystalline layer grew linearly with time, which suggests that the crystal growth is controlled by liquid-crystal interface kinetics. Combining the growth data with the measured viscosities and melting data, crystal growth could be described on the basis of standard crystal growth models. The screw dislocation growth model seems to be operative in describing the temperature dependence of the crystal growth rate in the studied material in a wide temperature range. A detailed discussion on the relation between the kinetic coefficient of crystal growth and viscosity (ukin ∝ η(-ξ)) is presented. The activation energy of crystal growth was found to be higher than the activation energy of crystallization obtained from differential scanning calorimetry, which covers the whole nucleation-growth process. This difference is considered and explained under the experimental conditions. PMID:27441575

  14. Phosphate-limited continuous culture of Rhodotorula rubra: kinetics of transport, leakage, and growth.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, B R; Button, D K

    1979-01-01

    The phosphate-limited growth kinetics of Rhodotorula rubra, a small yeast of marine origin, were examined by analysis of 32P distributions in continuous cultures. Isotope relaxation procedures were used to identify unidirectional flows of Pi and organic phosphate among compartments modeled during growth. The concentrations of phosphates in these compartments at various growth rates were used, together with attendant flows, to produce a mathematical model of growth. Both Pi and phosphate-containing metabolic intermediates leaked from cells during growth. Total leakage ranged from 4 to 10% of influx and was comprised mostly of Pi. Transport capacity was at least 10 times that required for growth at saturating Pi concentrations, so that influx was linear with concentration during growth. This led to the realization that the curvature of Monod plots (Kmu = 12 nM mumax = 0.18/h, and the threshold At = 2.5 nM) is due to change in yield with growth rate. Growth rate related to Pi by the affinity, aA (= 0.43 liter/mg of cells.h) of cells for Pi and the growth rate-dependent yield. It was also specified by a series of kinetic constants that specified flow among the various compartments and equilibrium compartment concentrations as they were set by extracellular Pi. The importance of leakage by healthy cells to the organic chemistry of aquatic systems is noted. PMID:37231

  15. Growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate. III. Variation of solution composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijvoet, Olav L. M.; Blomen, Leo J. M. J.; Will, Eric J.; van der Linden, Hanneke

    1983-11-01

    The influence of the variations of initial supersaturation, ionic strength and calcium-to-oxalate ratio on the growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate from suspension at 37°C have been investigated in an isotopic system. All experiments can be described with a single growth formula, containing three constants: kA (growth rate constant), La (thermodynamic solubility product) and [ tm] (a parameter describing the agglomeration of any seed suspension). This formula is able to predict any growth curve when the initial concentrations of seed, oxalate and indifferent electrolyte are known. Comparisons with datak from the literature are discussed.

  16. Model for computing kinetics of the graphene edge epitaxial growth on copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khenner, Mikhail

    2016-06-01

    A basic kinetic model that incorporates a coupled dynamics of the carbon atoms and dimers on a copper surface is used to compute growth of a single-layer graphene island. The speed of the island's edge advancement on Cu[111] and Cu[100] surfaces is computed as a function of the growth temperature and pressure. Spatially resolved concentration profiles of the atoms and dimers are determined, and the contributions provided by these species to the growth speed are discussed. Island growth under the conditions of a thermal cycling is studied.

  17. Integrated Kinetic and Probabilistic Modeling of the Growth Potential of Bacterial Populations

    PubMed Central

    George, S. M.; Métris, A.

    2015-01-01

    When bacteria are exposed to osmotic stress, some cells recover and grow, while others die or are unculturable. This leads to a viable count growth curve where the cell number decreases before the onset of the exponential growth phase. From such curves, it is impossible to estimate what proportion of the initial cells generates the growth because it leads to an ill-conditioned numerical problem. Here, we applied a combination of experimental and statistical methods, based on optical density measurements, to infer both the probability of growth and the maximum specific growth rate of the culture. We quantified the growth potential of a bacterial population as a quantity composed from the probability of growth and the “suitability” of the growing subpopulation to the new environment. We found that, for all three laboratory media studied, the probability of growth decreased while the “work to be done” by the growing subpopulation (defined as the negative logarithm of their suitability parameter) increased with NaCl concentration. The results suggest that the effect of medium on the probability of growth could be described by a simple shift parameter, a differential NaCl concentration that can be accounted for by the change in the medium composition. Finally, we highlighted the need for further understanding of the effect of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine on metabolism. PMID:25747002

  18. Integrated kinetic and probabilistic modeling of the growth potential of bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    George, S M; Métris, A; Baranyi, J

    2015-05-01

    When bacteria are exposed to osmotic stress, some cells recover and grow, while others die or are unculturable. This leads to a viable count growth curve where the cell number decreases before the onset of the exponential growth phase. From such curves, it is impossible to estimate what proportion of the initial cells generates the growth because it leads to an ill-conditioned numerical problem. Here, we applied a combination of experimental and statistical methods, based on optical density measurements, to infer both the probability of growth and the maximum specific growth rate of the culture. We quantified the growth potential of a bacterial population as a quantity composed from the probability of growth and the "suitability" of the growing subpopulation to the new environment. We found that, for all three laboratory media studied, the probability of growth decreased while the "work to be done" by the growing subpopulation (defined as the negative logarithm of their suitability parameter) increased with NaCl concentration. The results suggest that the effect of medium on the probability of growth could be described by a simple shift parameter, a differential NaCl concentration that can be accounted for by the change in the medium composition. Finally, we highlighted the need for further understanding of the effect of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine on metabolism.

  19. Kinetics and thermodynamics of sucrose crystal growth in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Vasanth; Rocha, F.

    2010-06-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of Hodag CB6, a non-ionic surfactant, on the growth kinetics of sucrose crystals as a function of supersaturation, impurity concentration and temperature. The growth promoting effect of the added impurity, studied using a recently introduced spiral nucleation model (SNM), was due to the decrease in the surface free energy induced by the added surfactant. The growth process was influenced by both kinetic and thermodynamic effect, the latter being predominant. The coverage of impurity molecules on the sucrose surface followed a Henry type expression according to Langmuir isotherm at studied temperatures. In the case of a pure system, the total active kink density was found to be around 10 16 kinks/m 2. The active growth sites on the crystal surface were found to be two orders of magnitude lower than the total number of sucrose molecules.

  20. The logistic growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) and kinetics of ammonium uptake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Yun; Shen, Yu; Huang, Lei; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models have been developed to describe nitrogen uptake and duckweed growth experimentally to study the kinetics of ammonium uptake under various concentrations. The kinetics of duckweed ammonium uptake was investigated using the modified depletion method after plants were grown for two weeks at different ammonium concentrations (0.5-14 mg/L) in the culture medium. The maximum uptake rate and Michaelis-Menten constant for ammonium were estimated as 0.082 mg/(g fresh weight x h) and 1.877 mg/L, respectively. Duckweed growth was assessed when supplied at different total nitrogen (TN) concentrations (1-5 mg/L) in the culture medium. The results showed that the intrinsic growth rate was from 0.22 to 0.26 d(-1), and TN concentrations had no significant influence on the duckweed growth rate.

  1. Effect of wall growth on the kinetic modeling of nitrite oxidation in a CSTR.

    PubMed

    Dokianakis, Spiros N; Kornaros, Michael; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2006-03-01

    A simple kinetic model was developed for describing nitrite oxidation by autotrophic aerobic nitrifiers in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), in which mixed (suspended and attached) growth conditions prevail. The CSTR system was operated under conditions of constant nitrite feed concentration and varying volumetric flow rates. Experimental data from steady-state conditions in the CSTR system and from batch experiments were used for the determination of the model's kinetic parameters. Model predictions were verified against experimental data obtained under transient operating conditions, when volumetric flow rate and nitrite feed concentration disturbances were imposed on the CSTR. The presented kinetic modeling procedure is quite simple and general and therefore can also be applied to other mixed growth biological systems.

  2. Kinetic Roughening and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth: A Preliminary Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    We examined particulars of crystal growth from measurements obtained at both microscopic and molecular levels. The crystal growth measurements performed at the microscopic level are well characterized by a model that balances the flux of macromolecules towards the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface. Numerical evaluation of model with measurements of crystal growth, in time, provided accurate estimates for the average growth velocities. Growth velocities thus obtained were also interpreted using well-established phenomenological theories. Moreover, we find that microscopic measurements of growth velocity measurements obtained as a function of temperature best characterizes changes in crystal growth modes, when present. We also examined the possibility of detecting a change in crystal growth modes at the molecular level using atomic force microscopy, AFM. From preliminary AFM measurements performed at various supersaturations, we find that magnitude of surface height fluctuations, h(x), increases with supersaturation. Further examination of surface height fluctuations using methods established for fluctuation spectroscopy also enabled the discovery of the existence of a characteristic length, c, which may possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the results are preliminary, we establish the non- critical divergence of 5 and the root-mean-square (rms) magnitude of height-height fluctuations as the kinetic roughening transition temperatures are approached. Moreover, we also examine approximate models for interpreting the non-critical behavior of both 6 and rms magnitude of height-height fluctuations, as the solution supersaturation is increased towards the kinetic roughening supersaturation.

  3. Growth Kinetics of Intracellular RNA/Protein Droplets: Signature of a Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Joel; Weber, Stephanie C.; Vaidya, Nilesh; Zhu, Lian; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford P.

    2015-03-01

    Nonmembrane-bound organelles are functional, dynamic assemblies of RNA and/or protein that can self-assemble and disassemble within the cytoplasm or nucleoplasm. The possibility that underlying intracellular phase transitions may drive and mediate the morphological evolution of some membrane-less organelles has been supported by several recent studies. In this talk, results from a collaborative experimental-theoretical study of the growth and dissolution kinetics of nucleoli and extranucleolar droplets (ENDs) in C. elegans embryos will be presented. We have employed Flory-Huggins solution theory, reaction-diffusion kinetics, and quantitative statistical dynamic scaling analysis to characterize the specific growth mechanisms at work. Our findings indicate that both in vivo and in vitro droplet scaling and growth kinetics are consistent with those resulting from an equilibrium liquid-liquid phase transition mediated by passive nonequilibrium growth mechanisms - simultaneous Brownian coalescence and Ostwald ripening. This supports a view in which cells can employ phase transitions to drive structural organization, while utilizing active processes, such as local transcriptional activity, to fine tune the kinetics of these phase transitions in response to given conditions.

  4. Growth kinetics of Al–Fe intermetallic compounds during annealing treatment of friction stir lap welds

    SciTech Connect

    Movahedi, M.; Kokabi, A.H.; Seyed Reihani, S.M.; Najafi, H.; Farzadfar, S.A.; Cheng, W.J.; Wang, C.J.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we explored the growth kinetics of the Al–Fe intermetallic (IM) layer at the joint interface of the St-12/Al-5083 friction stir lap welds during post-weld annealing treatment at 350, 400 and 450 °C for 30 to 180 min. Optical microscope (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to investigate the structure of the weld zone. The thickness and composition of the IM layers were evaluated using image analysis system and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. Moreover, kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis was performed to evaluate the level of stored energy in the as-welded state. The results showed that the growth kinetics of the IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. Presence of the IM compounds as well as high stored energy near the joint interface of the as-welded sample was recognized to be the origin of the observed deviation from the parabolic diffusion law. - Highlights: • This work provided a new insight into growth kinetics of Al–Fe IM thickness. • The growth kinetics of IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. • IM near the joint interface was the origin of deviation from the parabolic law. • High stored energy at joint interface was origin of deviation from parabolic law.

  5. Mathematical modeling and growth kinetics of Clostridium sporogenes in cooked beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium sporogenes PA 3679 is a common surrogate for proteolytic Clostridium botulinum for thermal process development and validation. However, little information is available concerning the growth kinetics of C. sporogenes in food. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the...

  6. Unravelling kinetic and thermodynamic effects on the growth of gold nanoplates by liquid transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alloyeau, Damien; Dachraoui, Walid; Javed, Yasir; Belkahla, Hannen; Wang, Guillaume; Lecoq, Hélène; Ammar, Souad; Ersen, Ovidiu; Wisnet, Andreas; Gazeau, Florence; Ricolleau, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The growth of colloidal nanoparticles is simultaneously driven by kinetic and thermodynamic effects that are difficult to distinguish. We have exploited in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy in liquid to study the growth of Au nanoplates by radiolysis and unravel the mechanisms influencing their formation and shape. The electron dose provides a straightforward control of the growth rate that allows quantifying the kinetic effects on the planar nanoparticles formation. Indeed, we demonstrate that the surface-reaction rate per unit area has the same dose-rate dependent behavior than the concentration of reducing agents in the liquid cell. Interestingly, we also determine a critical supply rate of gold monomers for nanoparticle faceting, corresponding to three layers per second, above which the formation of nanoplates is not possible because the growth is then dominated by kinetic effects. At lower electron dose, the growth is driven by thermodynamic and the formation and shape of nanoplates are directly related to the twin-planes formed during the growth.

  7. Generality of the growth kinetics of the average individual cell in different bacterial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Trueba, F J; Neijssel, O M; Woldringh, C L

    1982-01-01

    The kinetics of growth of all the cells in a population is reflected in the shape of the size distribution of the population. To ascertain whether the kinetics of growth of the average individual cell is similar for different strains or growth conditions, we compared the shape of normalized size distributions obtained from steady-state populations. Significant differences in the size distributions were found, but these could be ascribed either to the precision achieved at division or to a constriction period which is long relative to the total cell cycle time. The remaining difference is quite small. Thus, without establishing the pattern itself, it is concluded that the basic course of growth is very similar for the various Escherichia coli strains examined and probably also for other rod-shaped bacteria. The effects of differences in culture technique (batch or chemostat culture), growth rate, and differences among strains were not found to influence the shape of the size distributions and hence the growth kinetics in a direct manner; small differences were found, but only when the precision at division or the fraction of constricted cells (long constriction period) were different as well. PMID:6804435

  8. Endosomal receptor kinetics determine the stability of intracellular growth factor signalling complexes

    PubMed Central

    Tzafriri, A. Rami; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2006-01-01

    There is an emerging paradigm that growth factor signalling continues in the endosome and that cell response to a growth factor is defined by the integration of cell surface and endosomal events. As activated receptors in the endosome are exposed to a different set of binding partners, they probably elicit differential signals compared with when they are at the cell surface. As such, complete appreciation of growth factor signalling requires understanding of growth factor–receptor binding and trafficking kinetics both at the cell surface and in endosomes. Growth factor binding to surface receptors is well characterized, and endosomal binding is assumed to follow surface kinetics if one accounts for changes in pH. Yet, specific binding kinetics within the endosome has not been examined in detail. To parse the factors governing the binding state of endosomal receptors we analysed a whole-cell mathematical model of epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking and binding. We discovered that the stability of growth factor–receptor complexes within endosomes is governed by three primary independent factors: the endosomal dissociation constant, total endosomal volume and the number of endosomal receptors. These factors were combined into a single dimensionless parameter that determines the endosomal binding state of the growth factor–receptor complex and can distinguish different growth factors from each other and different cell states. Our findings indicate that growth factor binding within endosomal compartments cannot be appreciated solely on the basis of the pH-dependence of the dissociation constant and that the concentration of receptors in the endosomal compartment must also be considered. PMID:17117924

  9. Growth kinetics of three species of Tetrahymena on solid agar

    SciTech Connect

    Dobra, K.W.; McArdle, E.W.; Ehret, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    A nutrient-agar method without liquid overlay has been developed for cultivation of ciliates. Three species of Tetrahymena-T. pyriformis strain W, T. rostrata strain UNI, and T. vorax strain V/sub 2/S, representing the 3 main groups of Tetrahymena species, were used; however the method should apply to other ciliates. Growth on the surface of the agar was facilitated by an optimal surface-to-volume ratio yielding a high density of ciliates and short generation times. At the highest density achieved, the cells became irregularly hexagonal and formed a monolayer tissue on the agar. Ciliates grown on agar were like those in liquid culture, typical oral ciliature, food-vacuole formation, and typical cortical patterns being retained. Advantages of this method include high cell density, easy recovery, and optimal O/sub 2/ supply. The organisms can also be cultivated on the surface of sterile cellulose-nitrate filters, facilitating in situ fixation and staining as well as transfer into different media by transfer of filters with cells, without prior centrifugation and resuspension.

  10. Growth kinetics of calcium fluoride at high supersaturation in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, K; Zhou, K G; Yang, Y C; Du, H

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization process in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been regarded as an environmentally friendly technology for the removal and recovery of fluoride from industrial wastewater. The growth kinetics of calcium fluoride at high supersaturation was studied for design, control, and operation of an FBR. The main variables, including supersaturation, superficial velocity, pH value, and particle size of seed that influenced the crystal growth were investigated. Then, a growth model was used to predict the linear growth rate of calcium fluoride at a high influent concentration of fluoride. The pressure difference in the FBR was used as a feature to characterize the growth rate of calcium fluoride. The aggregation and adsorption between seeds and fine particles were proven to be a possible mechanism for growth of calcium fluoride.

  11. The kinetic boundary layer around an absorbing sphere and the growth of small droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, M.E.; Titulaer, U.M. )

    1989-06-01

    Deviations from the classical Smoluchowski expression for the growth rate of a droplet in a supersaturated vapor can be expected when the droplet radius is not large compared to the mean free path of a vapor molecule. The growth rate then depends significantly on the structure of the kinetic boundary layer around a sphere. The authors consider this kinetic boundary layer for a dilute system of Brownian particles. For this system a large class of boundary layer problems for a planar wall have been solved. They show how the spherical boundary layer can be treated by a perturbation expansion in the reciprocal droplet radius. In each order one has to solve a finite number of planar boundary layer problems. The first two corrections to the planar problem are calculated explicitly. For radii down to about two velocity persistence lengths (the analog of the mean free path for a Brownian particle) the successive approximations for the growth rate agree to within a few percent. A reasonable estimate of the growth rate for all radii can be obtained by extrapolating toward the exactly known value at zero radius. Kinetic boundary layer effects increase the time needed for growth from 0 to 10 (or 2{1/2}) velocity persistence lengths by roughly 35% (or 175%).

  12. Analytical solution of Luedeking-Piret equation for a batch fermentation obeying Monod growth kinetics.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Alain; Gaillet, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Not so many fermentation mathematical models allow analytical solutions of batch process dynamics. The most widely used is the combination of the logistic microbial growth kinetics with Luedeking-Piret bioproduct synthesis relation. However, the logistic equation is principally based on formalistic similarities and only fits a limited range of fermentation types. In this article, we have developed an analytical solution for the combination of Monod growth kinetics with Luedeking-Piret relation, which can be identified by linear regression and used to simulate batch fermentation evolution. Two classical examples are used to show the quality of fit and the simplicity of the method proposed. A solution for the combination of Haldane substrate-limited growth model combined with Luedeking-Piret relation is also provided. These models could prove useful for the analysis of fermentation data in industry as well as academia.

  13. Kinetic Simulation of Gold Nanorod Growth in Solution Based on Optical Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-ying; Li, Bo-xuan; Vdovic, Silvije; Wang, Xue-fei; Xia, An-dong

    2012-04-01

    By monitoring the time evolution of the optical absorption spectrum corresponding to dynamic information of aspect ratio (AR) and volume, we succeeded in following the growth kinetics of gold nanorods. The results indicate that the rods growth consists of two stages: seeds develop into rods with a fast AR increase and the rods grow big with constant AR. Here, a charge transfer model, involving positive charge transfer from Au(I) to seed and neutralization by electron from ascorbic acid, has been introduced to explain the autocatalysis mechanism of rod growth. The good agreement between the numerical simulation based on this model and experimental results supports the proposed mechanism.

  14. Review of "Going Exponential: Growing the Charter School Sector's Best"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, David

    2011-01-01

    This Progressive Policy Institute report argues that charter schools should be expanded rapidly and exponentially. Citing exponential growth organizations, such as Starbucks and Apple, as well as the rapid growth of molds, viruses and cancers, the report advocates for similar growth models for charter schools. However, there is no explanation of…

  15. Adsorption kinetics and dynamics in Si(100) epitaxial growth and oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Bradley Alan

    rate law consistent with chemisorption occurring on two adjacent unoccupied surface sites. Calculated thermal gas adsorption probabilities indicate that the trapping-mediated mechanism dominates adsorption over the entire range of conditions investigated. A simple disilane decomposition kinetic model has been used to calculate hydrogen surface coverage and growth rates as a function of temperature and disilane partial pressure, and produces good agreement with experimental growth rate measurements.

  16. Edge-controlled growth and kinetics of single-crystal graphene domains by chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Ren, Wencai; Zhang, Xiuyun; Liu, Zhibo; Gao, Yang; Yin, Li-Chang; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Ding, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-12-17

    The controlled growth of large-area, high-quality, single-crystal graphene is highly desired for applications in electronics and optoelectronics; however, the production of this material remains challenging because the atomistic mechanism that governs graphene growth is not well understood. The edges of graphene, which are the sites at which carbon accumulates in the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice, influence many properties, including the electronic properties and chemical reactivity of graphene, and they are expected to significantly influence its growth. We demonstrate the growth of single-crystal graphene domains with controlled edges that range from zigzag to armchair orientations via growth-etching-regrowth in a chemical vapor deposition process. We have observed that both the growth and the etching rates of a single-crystal graphene domain increase linearly with the slanted angle of its edges from 0° to ∼19° and that the rates for an armchair edge are faster than those for a zigzag edge. Such edge-structure-dependent growth/etching kinetics of graphene can be well explained at the atomic level based on the concentrations of the kinks on various edges and allow the evolution and control of the edge and morphology in single-crystal graphene following the classical kinetic Wulff construction theory. Using these findings, we propose several strategies for the fabrication of wafer-sized, high-quality, single-crystal graphene.

  17. Insitu Measurements and Modeling of Carbon Nanotube Array Growth Kinetics during Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Jesse, Stephen; Ivanov, Ilia N; Eres, Gyula

    2005-01-01

    Direct measurements of carbon nanotube growth kinetics are described based upon time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) of a HeNe laser beam from vertically aligned nanotube arrays (VANTAs) as they grow during chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Growth rates and terminal lengths were measured in situ for VANTAs growing during CVD between 535 C and 900 C on Si substrates with evaporated Al/Fe/Mo multi-layered catalysts and acetylene feedstock at different feedstock partial pressures. Methods of analysis of the TRR signals are presented to interpret catalyst particle formation and oxidation, as well as the porosity of the VANTAs. A rate-equation model is developed to describe the measured kinetics in terms of activation energies and rate constants for surface carbon formation and diffusion on the catalyst nanoparticle, nanotube growth, and catalyst over-coating. Taken together with the TRR data, this model enables basic understanding and optimization of growth conditions for any catalyst/feedstock combination. The model lends insight into the main processes responsible for the growth of VANTAs, the measured number of walls in the nanotubes at different temperatures, conditions for growth of single-wall carbon nanotube arrays, and likely catalyst poisoning mechanisms responsible for the sharp decline in growth rates observed at high temperatures.

  18. Exponentially Enhanced Quantum Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, S. M.; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2008-06-06

    We show that when a suitable entanglement-generating unitary operator depending on a parameter is applied on N qubits in parallel, a precision of the order of 2{sup -N} in estimating the parameter may be achieved. This exponentially improves the precision achievable in classical and in quantum nonentangling strategies.

  19. Growth kinetics of Hyphomicrobium and Thiobacillus spp. in mixed cultures degrading dimethyl sulfide and methanol.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Alexander C; Liss, Steven N; Allen, D Grant

    2010-08-01

    The growth kinetics of Hyphomicrobium spp. and Thiobacillus spp. on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanol (in the case of Hyphomicrobium spp.) in an enrichment culture created from a biofilter cotreating DMS and methanol were studied. Specific growth rates of 0.099 h(-1) and 0.11 h(-1) were determined for Hyphomicrobium spp. and Thiobacillus spp., respectively, growing on DMS at pH 7. These specific growth rates are double the highest maximum specific growth rate for bacterial growth on DMS reported to date in the literature. When the pH of the medium was decreased from pH 7 to pH 5, the specific growth rate of Hyphomicrobium spp. decreased by 85%, with a near 100-fold decline in the yield of Hyphomicrobium 16S rRNA gene copies in the mixed culture. Through the same pH shift, the specific growth rate and 16S rRNA gene yield of Thiobacillus spp. remained similar. When methanol was used as a substrate, the specific growth rate of Hyphomicrobium spp. declined much less over the same pH range (up to 30%) while the yield of 16S rRNA gene copies declined by only 50%. Switching from an NH(4)(+)-N-based source to a NO(3)(-)-N-based source resulted in the same trends for the specific growth rate of these microorganisms with respect to pH. This suggests that pH has far more impact on the growth kinetics of these microorganisms than the nitrogen source. The results of these mixed-culture batch experiments indicate that the increased DMS removal rates observed in previous studies of biofilters cotreating DMS and methanol are due to the proliferation of DMS-degrading Hyphomicrobium spp. on methanol at pH levels not conducive to high growth rates on DMS alone. PMID:20562269

  20. Kinetic modeling of Moorella thermoacetica growth on single and dual-substrate systems.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Elliott; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick; Ehsanipour, Mandana

    2016-10-01

    Acetic acid is an important chemical raw material that can be produced directly from sugars in lignocellulosic biomass. Development of kinetic models that capture the bioconversion dynamics of multiple sugar systems will be critical to optimization and process control in future lignocellulosic biorefinery processes. In this work, a kinetic model was developed for the single- and dual-substrate conversion of xylose and glucose to acetic acid using the acetogen Moorella thermoacetica. Batch fermentations were performed experimentally at 20 g L(-1) total sugar concentration using synthetic glucose, xylose, and a mixture of glucose and xylose at a 1:1 ratio. The product yield, calculated as total product formed divided by total sugars consumed, was 79.2, 69.9, and 69.7 % for conversion of glucose, xylose, and a mixture of glucose and xylose (1:1 ratio), respectively. During dual-substrate fermentation, M. thermoacetica demonstrated diauxic growth where xylose (the preferred substrate) was almost entirely consumed before consumption of glucose began. Kinetic parameters were similar for the single-substrate fermentations, and a strong linear correlation was determined between the maximum specific growth rate μ max and substrate inhibition constant, K s . Parameters estimated for the dual-substrate system demonstrated changes in the specific growth rate of both xylose and glucose consumption. In particular, the maximum growth rate related to glucose tripled compared to the single-substrate system. Kinetic growth is affected when multiple substrates are present in a fermentation system, and models should be developed to reflect these features. PMID:27262717

  1. Growth kinetics and complex characterization of PECVD SiO x N y dielectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereyaslavtsev, A.; Sokolov, I.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of patterns of dielectric film growth depending on the parameters of the plasma chemical deposition process. The study has revealed the influence of the basic reagents’ content on the changes in surface morphology, breakdown voltage and stoichiometry (transition to the intermediate oxidation states of silicon) of dielectric films. Furthermore, an exponential pattern of the change in the films’ growth rate has been registered. When increasing the N/Si ratio, a nonlinear dependence of the change in the dielectric films’ band gap has been recorded. When increasing the SiH4/N2O ratio, a shift of the peak positions of the interband interactions relative to the band gap boundaries has been detected. The dataset on breakdown voltage and band structure suggests a certain optimum of barrier properties of SiO x N y dielectric films at the basic reagents’ ratio close to 0.3-0.4.

  2. Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth kinetics with high temporal and spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanbakhsh, Nima; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Background Methods exist to quantify the distribution of growth rate over the root axis. However, non-destructive, high-throughput evaluations of total root elongation in controlled environments and the field are lacking in growth studies. A new imaging approach to analyse total root elongation is described. Scope High pixel resolution of the images enables the study of growth in short time intervals and provides high temporal resolution. Using the method described, total root elongation rates are calculated from the displacement of the root tip. Although the absolute root elongation rate changes in response to growth conditions, this set-up enables root growth of Arabidopsis wild-type seedlings to be followed for more than 1 month after germination. The method provides an easy approach to decipher root extension rate and much simpler calculations compared with other methods that use segmental growth to address this question. Conclusions The high temporal resolution allows small modifications of total root elongation growth to be revealed. Furthermore, with the options to investigate growth of various mutants in diverse growth conditions the present tool allows modulations in root growth kinetics due to different biotic and abiotic stimuli to be unravelled. Measurements performed on Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (Col0) plants revealed rhythms superimposed on root elongation. Results obtained from the starchless mutant pgm, however, present a clearly modified pattern. As expected, deviation is strongest during the dark period. PMID:20421235

  3. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Cadmium Carbonate Heteroepitaxial Growth at the Calcite (101¯4) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Man; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-06-01

    Elucidating the kinetics and mechanisms of heteroepitaxial nucleation and growth at mineral-water interfaces is essential to understanding surface reactivity in geochemical systems. In the present work, the formation of heteroepitaxial cadmium carbonate coatings at calcite-water interfaces was investigated by exposing calcite (10-14) surfaces to Cd-bearing aqueous solutions. In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed as the primary technique. The AFM results indicate that the heteroepitaxial growth of cadmium carbonate proceeds via three different mechanisms depending on the initial supersaturation of the aqueous solution: advancement of existing steps, nucleation and growth of three-dimensional (3D) islands, and nucleation and spread of two-dimensional (2D) nuclei. The 3D islands and 2D nuclei exhibit different morphologies and growth kinetics. The effects of supersaturation on heteroepitaxial growth mechanisms can be interpreted in terms of the free energy barrier for nucleation. At low initial supersaturation, where 3D nucleation dominates, it is hypothesized, from the growth rate and morphology of the 3D islands observed with AFM, that the crystallization of the overgrowth follows a non-classical pathway involving the formation of a surface precursor that is not fully crystalline, whereas high supersaturation favors the formation of crystalline 2D nuclei whose morphology is based on the atomic structure of the calcite substrate. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images reveal that the atomic structure of the interface between the cadmium carbonate coating and calcite shows perfect, dislocation-free epitaxy.

  4. Growth and dissolution kinetics of α and γ polymorphs of DL-methionine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wantha, Lek; Flood, Adrian E.

    2013-01-01

    Growth kinetics of the two common polymorphs of DL-methionine (DL-met), α-DL-met and γ-DL-met, and dissolution kinetics of γ-DL-met, were studied in aqueous solution as part of an attempt to complete an a-priori model of the solution-mediated transformation (SMT) of polymorphs in this system, which will then be compared to measured rates of polymorph transformation. The growth rates of α-DL-met and γ-DL-met were found to be linearly dependent on the relative supersaturation of DL-met in the system. The dissolution rate of γ-DL-met was found to linearly depend on the relative undersaturation of DL-met in the system. Both the growth and dissolution rate constants are temperature dependent and follow an Arrhenius relationship. At all temperatures studied, both the growth rate of α-DL-met and the dissolution rate of γ-DL-met are faster than the growth rate of γ-DL-met, indicating that if the dissolution is a diffusion controlled process, then the SMT of the polymorphs of DL-met is likely to be controlled by the growth rate of γ-DL-met.

  5. Exponential growth of an unstable [ital l]=1 diocotron mode for a hollow electron column in a warm-fluid model

    SciTech Connect

    Rasband, S.N.; Spencer, R.L.; Vanfleet, R.R. )

    1993-03-01

    Numerical investigations of a warm-fluid model with an isothermal equation of state for the perpendicular dynamics of an axisymmetric, magnetically confined pure electron plasma predict an exponentially unstable, [ital l]=1, diocotron mode for hollow density profiles. The unstable mode can be identified with a stable, nonsmooth mode that exists in cold drift models but which is destabilized by finite temperature effects. The unstable mode has many properties similar to the experimental results reported by Driscoll [Phys. Rev. Lett. [bold 64], 645 (1990)].

  6. Nonlinear Growth Kinetics of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Johnson, Sara; Liu, Shou; Kanojia, Deepak; Yue, Wei; Singn, Udai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Qi; Nie, Qing; Chen, Hexin

    2013-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in primary breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The CSC population varies widely among cancerous tissues and cell lines, and is often associated with aggressive breast cancers. Despite of intensive research, how the CSC population is regulated within a tumor is still not well understood so far. In this paper, we present a mathematical model to explore the growth kinetics of CSC population both in vitro and in vivo. Our mathematical models and supporting experiments suggest that there exist non-linear growth kinetics of CSCs and negative feedback mechanisms to control the balance between the population of CSCs and that of non-stem cancer cells. The model predictions can help us explain a few long-standing questions in the field of cancer stem cell research, and can be potentially used to predict the efficicacy of anti-cancer therapy.

  7. Prediction of microbial growth rate versus biomass yield by a metabolic network with kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Adadi, Roi; Volkmer, Benjamin; Milo, Ron; Heinemann, Matthias; Shlomi, Tomer

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the factors that determine microbial growth rate under various environmental and genetic conditions is a major challenge of systems biology. While current genome-scale metabolic modeling approaches enable us to successfully predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes, including maximal biomass yield, the prediction of actual growth rate is a long standing goal. This gap stems from strictly relying on data regarding reaction stoichiometry and directionality, without accounting for enzyme kinetic considerations. Here we present a novel metabolic network-based approach, MetabOlic Modeling with ENzyme kineTics (MOMENT), which predicts metabolic flux rate and growth rate by utilizing prior data on enzyme turnover rates and enzyme molecular weights, without requiring measurements of nutrient uptake rates. The method is based on an identified design principle of metabolism in which enzymes catalyzing high flux reactions across different media tend to be more efficient in terms of having higher turnover numbers. Extending upon previous attempts to utilize kinetic data in genome-scale metabolic modeling, our approach takes into account the requirement for specific enzyme concentrations for catalyzing predicted metabolic flux rates, considering isozymes, protein complexes, and multi-functional enzymes. MOMENT is shown to significantly improve the prediction accuracy of various metabolic phenotypes in E. coli, including intracellular flux rates and changes in gene expression levels under different growth rates. Most importantly, MOMENT is shown to predict growth rates of E. coli under a diverse set of media that are correlated with experimental measurements, markedly improving upon existing state-of-the art stoichiometric modeling approaches. These results support the view that a physiological bound on cellular enzyme concentrations is a key factor that determines microbial growth rate. PMID:22792053

  8. Prediction of microbial growth rate versus biomass yield by a metabolic network with kinetic parameters.

    PubMed

    Adadi, Roi; Volkmer, Benjamin; Milo, Ron; Heinemann, Matthias; Shlomi, Tomer

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the factors that determine microbial growth rate under various environmental and genetic conditions is a major challenge of systems biology. While current genome-scale metabolic modeling approaches enable us to successfully predict a variety of metabolic phenotypes, including maximal biomass yield, the prediction of actual growth rate is a long standing goal. This gap stems from strictly relying on data regarding reaction stoichiometry and directionality, without accounting for enzyme kinetic considerations. Here we present a novel metabolic network-based approach, MetabOlic Modeling with ENzyme kineTics (MOMENT), which predicts metabolic flux rate and growth rate by utilizing prior data on enzyme turnover rates and enzyme molecular weights, without requiring measurements of nutrient uptake rates. The method is based on an identified design principle of metabolism in which enzymes catalyzing high flux reactions across different media tend to be more efficient in terms of having higher turnover numbers. Extending upon previous attempts to utilize kinetic data in genome-scale metabolic modeling, our approach takes into account the requirement for specific enzyme concentrations for catalyzing predicted metabolic flux rates, considering isozymes, protein complexes, and multi-functional enzymes. MOMENT is shown to significantly improve the prediction accuracy of various metabolic phenotypes in E. coli, including intracellular flux rates and changes in gene expression levels under different growth rates. Most importantly, MOMENT is shown to predict growth rates of E. coli under a diverse set of media that are correlated with experimental measurements, markedly improving upon existing state-of-the art stoichiometric modeling approaches. These results support the view that a physiological bound on cellular enzyme concentrations is a key factor that determines microbial growth rate.

  9. Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(1122) growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lahourcade, L.; Wirthmueller, A.; Monroy, E.; Chauvat, M. P.; Ruterana, P.; Laufer, A.; Eickhoff, M.

    2009-10-26

    We report the effect of Mg doping on the growth kinetics of semipolar GaN(1122) synthesized by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. Mg tends to segregate on the surface, inhibiting the formation of the self-regulated Ga film which is used as a surfactant for the growth of undoped and Si-doped GaN(1122). We observe an enhancement of Mg incorporation in GaN(1122) compared to GaN(0001). Typical structural defects or polarity inversion domains found in Mg-doped GaN(0001) were not observed for the semipolar films investigated in the present study.

  10. Effect of clofibrate on the growth-kinetics of the murine P 1798(sc) lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ubeira, F. M.; Seoane, R.; Puentes, E.; Faro, J.; Regueiro, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Clofibrate (CPIB) is a drug applied as an antilipidaemic agent in mammals. In this work we have tested its efficacy in vivo on the growth kinetics of P 1798(sc) lymphoma transplanted to recipient (BALB/c x AKR)F1 mice. Our results show a facilitation of the tumour growth rate in treated recipients. This fact may be related to an effect of the agent on the recipient which produces a decrease in the immune response as was confirmed on testing CPIB on thymus-dependent antigens in haemolytic plaque assays. Images Figure 3 PMID:6351886

  11. Influence of protein hydrolysis on the growth kinetics of β-lg fibrils.

    PubMed

    Kroes-Nijboer, Ardy; Venema, Paul; Bouman, Jacob; van der Linden, Erik

    2011-05-17

    Recently it was found that protein hydrolysis is an important step in the formation of β-lactoglobulin fibrils at pH 2 and elevated temperatures. The objective of the present study was to further investigate the influence of hydrolysis on the kinetics of fibril formation. Both the hydrolysis of β-lactoglobulin and the growth of the fibrils were followed as a function of time and temperature, using SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a Thioflavin T fluorescence assay. As an essential extension to existing models, the quantification of the effect of the hydrolysis on the fibrillar growth was established by a simple polymerization model including a hydrolysis step.

  12. Effects of Alloying on Nanoscale Grain Growth in Substitutional Binary Alloy System: Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haoran; Chen, Yuzeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Applying the regular solution model, the Gibbs free energy of mixing for substitutional binary alloy system was constructed. Then, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, e.g., driving force and solute drag force, controlling nanoscale grain growth of substitutional binary alloy systems were derived and compared to their generally accepted definitions and interpretations. It is suggested that for an actual grain growth process, the classical driving force P = γ/D ( γ the grain boundary (GB) energy, D the grain size) should be replaced by a new expression, i.e., P^' = γ /D - Δ P . Δ P represents the energy required to adjust nonequilibrium solute distribution to equilibrium solute distribution, which is equivalent to the generally accepted solute drag force impeding GB migration. By incorporating the derived new driving force for grain growth into the classical grain growth model, the reported grain growth behaviors of nanocrystalline Fe-4at. pct Zr and Pd-19at. pct Zr alloys were analyzed. On this basis, the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters ( i.e., P, Δ P and the GB mobility ( M GB)) on nanoscale grain growth, were investigated. Upon grain growth, the decrease of P is caused by the reduction of γ as a result of solute segregation in GBs; the decrease of Δ P is, however, due to the decrease of grain growth velocity; whereas the decrease of M GB is attributed to the enhanced difference of solute molar fractions between the bulk and the GBs as well as the increased activation energy for GB diffusion.

  13. Quantifying the Nucleation and Growth Kinetics of Microwave Nanochemistry Enabled by in Situ High-Energy X-ray Scattering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi; Gao, Min-Rui; Liu, Yuzi; Okasinski, John S; Ren, Yang; Sun, Yugang

    2016-01-13

    The fast reaction kinetics presented in the microwave synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles was quantitatively studied, for the first time, by integrating a microwave reactor with in situ X-ray diffraction at a high-energy synchrotron beamline. Comprehensive data analysis reveals two different types of reaction kinetics corresponding to the nucleation and growth of the Ag nanoparticles. The formation of seeds (nucleation) follows typical first-order reaction kinetics with activation energy of 20.34 kJ/mol, while the growth of seeds (growth) follows typical self-catalytic reaction kinetics. Varying the synthesis conditions indicates that the microwave colloidal chemistry is independent of concentration of surfactant. These discoveries reveal that the microwave synthesis of Ag nanoparticles proceeds with reaction kinetics significantly different from the synthesis present in conventional oil bath heating. The in situ X-ray diffraction technique reported in this work is promising to enable further understanding of crystalline nanomaterials formed through microwave synthesis.

  14. Release kinetics of platelet-derived and plasma-derived growth factors from autologous plasma rich in growth factors.

    PubMed

    Anitua, Eduardo; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Orive, Gorka

    2013-10-01

    Many studies have evaluated the biological effects of platelet rich plasma reporting the final outcomes on cell and tissues. However, few studies have dealt with the kinetics of growth factor delivery by plasma rich in growth factors. Venous blood was obtained from three healthy volunteers and processed with PRGF-Endoret technology to prepare autologous plasma rich in growth factors. The gel-like fibrin scaffolds were then incubated in triplicate, in a cell culture medium to monitor the release of PDGF-AB, VEGF, HGF and IGF-I during 8 days of incubation. A leukocyte-platelet rich plasma was prepared employing the same technology and the concentrations of growth factors and interleukin-1β were determined after 24h of incubation. After each period, the medium was collected, fibrin clot was destroyed and the supernatants were stored at -80°C until analysis. The growth factor delivery is diffusion controlled with a rapid initial release by 30% of the bioactive content after 1h of incubation and a steady state release when almost 70% of the growth factor content has been delivered. Autologous fibrin matrix retained almost 30% of the amount of the growth factors after 8 days of incubation. The addition of leukocytes to the formula of platelet rich plasma did not increase the concentration of the growth factors, while it drastically increased the presence of pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Further studies employing an in vitro inflammatory model would be interesting to study the difference in growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines between leukocyte-free and leukocyte-rich platelet rich plasma.

  15. Comparison of growth kinetics for healthy and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes in eight enrichment broths.

    PubMed

    Silk, Todd M; Roth, Tatiana M T; Donnelly, C W

    2002-08-01

    Detection of Listeria in food products is often limited by performance of enrichment media used to support growth of Listeria to detectable levels. In this study, growth curves were generated using healthy and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes strain F5069 in three nonselective and five selective enrichment broths. Nonselective enrichment media included the current Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual Listeria enrichment broth base (BAM), Listeria repair broth (LRB), and Trypticase soy broth. Selective enrichment media included BAM with selective agents and LRB with selective agents, BCM L. monocytogenes preenrichment broth, Fraser broth, and UVM-modified Listeria enrichment broth. The Gompertz equation was used to model the growth of L. monocytogenes. Gompertz parameters were used to calculate exponential growth rate, lag-phase duration (LPD), generation time, maximum population density (MPD), and time required for repair of injured cells. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) in broth performance were noted for LPD and MPD when healthy and injured cells were inoculated into the broths. With the exception of Fraser broth, there were no significant differences in the time required for the repair of injured cells. Results indicate that the distinction between selective and nonselective broths in their ability to grow healthy Listeria and to repair sublethally injured cells is not solely an elementary issue of presence or absence of selective agents.

  16. A phase-field model coupled with lattice kinetics solver for modeling crystal growth in furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guang; Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Henager, Charles H.

    2014-02-02

    In this study, we present a new numerical model for crystal growth in a vertical solidification system. This model takes into account the buoyancy induced convective flow and its effect on the crystal growth process. The evolution of the crystal growth interface is simulated using the phase-field method. Two novel phase-field models are developed to model the crystal growth interface in vertical gradient furnaces with two temperature profile setups: 1) fixed wall temperature profile setup and 2) time-dependent temperature profile setup. A semi-implicit lattice kinetics solver based on the Boltzmann equation is employed to model the unsteady incompressible flow. This model is used to investigate the effect of furnace operational conditions on crystal growth interface profiles and growth velocities. For a simple case of macroscopic radial growth, the phase-field model is validated against an analytical solution. Crystal growth in vertical gradient furnaces with two temperature profile setups have been also investigated using the developed model. The numerical simulations reveal that for a certain set of temperature boundary conditions, the heat transport in the melt near the phase interface is diffusion dominant and advection is suppressed.

  17. Kinetics of Si and Ge nanowires growth through electron beam evaporation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Si and Ge have the same crystalline structure, and although Si-Au and Ge-Au binary alloys are thermodynamically similar (same phase diagram, with the eutectic temperature of about 360°C), in this study, it is proved that Si and Ge nanowires (NWs) growth by electron beam evaporation occurs in very different temperature ranges and fluence regimes. In particular, it is demonstrated that Ge growth occurs just above the eutectic temperature, while Si NWs growth occurs at temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, at about 450°C. Moreover, Si NWs growth requires a higher evaporated fluence before the NWs become to be visible. These differences arise in the different kinetics behaviors of these systems. The authors investigate the microscopic growth mechanisms elucidating the contribution of the adatoms diffusion as a function of the evaporated atoms direct impingement, demonstrating that adatoms play a key role in physical vapor deposition (PVD) NWs growth. The concept of incubation fluence, which is necessary for an interpretation of NWs growth in PVD growth conditions, is highlighted. PMID:21711696

  18. Dynamic kinetic analysis of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in a simulated comminuted, non-cured cooked pork product

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to directly construct a tertiary growth model for Listeria monocytogenes in cooked pork and simultaneously determine the kinetic parameters using a combination of dynamic and isothermal growth curves. Growth studies were conducted using a cocktail of 5 strains of L. ...

  19. Synthesis, growth kinetics and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticle suspensions and thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Eva May

    2000-10-01

    Colloidal chemistry techniques were used to synthesize ZnO particles in the nanometer size regime. The particle aging kinetics were determined by monitoring the optical band edge absorption and using the effective mass model to approximate the particle size as a function of time. The growth kinetics of the ZnO particles were found to follow the Lifshitz, Slyozov, Wagner theory for Ostwald ripening. In this model, the higher curvature and hence chemical potential of smaller particles provides a driving force for dissolution. The larger particles continue to grow by diffusion limited transport of species dissolved in solution. Thin films of ZnO quantum particles were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition from suspensions prepared via a colloidal chemistry synthesis route. Films were prepared at constant current thus eliminating the limited deposition rate associated with constant voltage deposition. The kinetics for the deposition of thin films were determined using optical absorbance techniques in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrometry. The particle velocity during deposition and the charge on the particles were determined from the deposition kinetics. The thin films prepared by electrophoretic deposition exhibited optical properties characteristic of the quantum size particles. The average particle size, and hence the optical properties, were tailored by controlling the aging time and temperature of the suspensions. Both the band-to-band and visible photoluminescence were progressively blue shifted, relative to the bulk value, with decreasing particle size in the film. A linear dependence was found between the band-to-band and visible emission. Finally, particle growth was manipulated by the specific adsorption of a series of capping ligands at the particle surface. The adsorption of the capping ligands was found to produce a diffusion barrier such that particle growth was stunted following incorporation with the extent of this effect being dependent

  20. A combined transport-kinetics model for the growth of renal calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Brock, Robert; Nemeth, Noel

    2011-10-01

    Renal stone disease is not only a concern on the Earth but could conceivably pose a serious risk to the astronauts' health and safety in Space. In this study, a combined transport-kinetics model for the growth of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals is presented. The model is used to parametrically investigate the growth of renal calculi in urine with a focus on the coupled effects of transport and surface reaction on the ionic concentrations at the surface of the crystal and their impact on the resulting growth rates. It is shown that under nominal conditions of low solution supersaturation and low Damköhler number that typically exist on the Earth, the surface concentrations of calcium and oxalate approach their bulk solution values in the urine and the growth rate is most likely limited by the surface reaction kinetics. But for higher solution supersaturations and large Damköhler numbers that may be prevalent in the microgravity environment of Space, the calcium and oxalate surface concentrations tend to shift more towards their equilibrium or saturation values and thus the growth process may be limited by the transport through the medium. Furthermore, it is shown that as the crystal size increases a shift towards a transport-limited growth process is likely. In this situation beyond a critical radius that is a function of the physiochemical parameters of the renal environment, the growth rate will not be independent of the radius as in a reaction-limited situation but will decrease as the crystal size increases.

  1. Evaluation of a kinetic model for computer simulation of growth and fermentation by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis fed D-xylose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheffersomyces (formly Pichia) stipitis is a potential biocatalyst for converting lignocelluloses to ethanol because the yeast natively ferments xylose. An unstructured kinetic model based upon a system of linear differential equations has been formulated that describes growth and ethanol productio...

  2. A mathematical model of the kinetics of beta-amyloid fibril growth from the denatured state.

    PubMed Central

    Pallitto, M M; Murphy, R M

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous conversion of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) from soluble monomer to insoluble fibril may underlie the neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease. A complete description of Abeta self-association kinetics requires identification of the oligomeric species present and the pathway of association, as well as quantitation of rate constants and reaction order. Abeta was rendered monomeric and denatured by dissolution in 8 M urea, pH 10. "Refolding" and fibrillization were initiated by rapid dilution into phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.4. The kinetics of growth were followed at three different concentrations, using size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and static light scattering. A multi-step pathway for fibril formation and growth was postulated. This pathway included 1) rapid commitment to either stable monomer/dimer or unstable intermediate, 2) cooperative association of intermediate into a multimeric "nucleus," 3) elongation of the "nucleus" into filaments via addition of intermediate, 4) lateral aggregation of filaments into fibrils, and 5) fibril elongation via end-to-end association. Differential and algebraic equations describing this kinetic pathway were derived, and model parameters were determined by fitting the data. The utility of the model for identifying toxic Abeta oligomeric specie(s) is demonstrated. The model should prove useful for designing compounds that inhibit Abeta aggregation and/or toxicity. PMID:11509390

  3. Kinetics of substrate utilization and bacterial growth of crude oil degraded by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Jafarzadeh, Nematollah; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Talaie, Mohammad Reza; Beheshti, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Pollution associated with crude oil (CO) extraction degrades the quality of waters, threatens drinking water sources and may ham air quality. The systems biology approach aims at learning the kinetics of substrate utilization and bacterial growth for a biological process for which very limited knowledge is available. This study uses the Pseudomonas aeruginosa to degrade CO and determines the kinetic parameters of substrate utilization and bacterial growth modeled from a completely mixed batch reactor. The ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can remove 91 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbons and 83 % of the aromatic compounds from oily environment. The value k of 9.31 g of substrate g(-1) of microorganism d(-1) could be far higher than the value k obtained for petrochemical wastewater treatment and that for municipal wastewater treatment. The production of new cells of using CO as the sole carbon and energy source can exceed 2(3) of the existing cells per day. The kinetic parameters are verified to contribute to improving the biological removal of CO from oily environment. PMID:26413306

  4. Control of Electron Beam-Induced Au Nanocrystal Growth Kinetics through Solution Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeung Hun; Schneider, Nicholas M; Grogan, Joseph M; Reuter, Mark C; Bau, Haim H; Kodambaka, Suneel; Ross, Frances M

    2015-08-12

    Measurements of solution-phase crystal growth provide mechanistic information that is helpful in designing and synthesizing nanostructures. Here, we examine the model system of individual Au nanocrystal formation within a defined liquid geometry during electron beam irradiation of gold chloride solution, where radiolytically formed hydrated electrons reduce Au ions to solid Au. By selecting conditions that favor the growth of well-faceted Au nanoprisms, we measure growth rates of individual crystals. The volume of each crystal increases linearly with irradiation time at a rate unaffected by its shape or proximity to neighboring crystals, implying a growth process that is controlled by the arrival of atoms from solution. Furthermore, growth requires a threshold dose rate, suggesting competition between reduction and oxidation processes in the solution. Above this threshold, the growth rate follows a power law with dose rate. To explain the observed dose rate dependence, we demonstrate that a reaction-diffusion model is required that explicitly accounts for the species H(+) and Cl(-). The model highlights the necessity of considering all species present when interpreting kinetic data obtained from beam-induced processes, and suggest conditions under which growth rates can be controlled with higher precision.

  5. Control of Electron Beam-Induced Au Nanocrystal Growth Kinetics through Solution Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeung Hun; Schneider, Nicholas M; Grogan, Joseph M; Reuter, Mark C; Bau, Haim H; Kodambaka, Suneel; Ross, Frances M

    2015-08-12

    Measurements of solution-phase crystal growth provide mechanistic information that is helpful in designing and synthesizing nanostructures. Here, we examine the model system of individual Au nanocrystal formation within a defined liquid geometry during electron beam irradiation of gold chloride solution, where radiolytically formed hydrated electrons reduce Au ions to solid Au. By selecting conditions that favor the growth of well-faceted Au nanoprisms, we measure growth rates of individual crystals. The volume of each crystal increases linearly with irradiation time at a rate unaffected by its shape or proximity to neighboring crystals, implying a growth process that is controlled by the arrival of atoms from solution. Furthermore, growth requires a threshold dose rate, suggesting competition between reduction and oxidation processes in the solution. Above this threshold, the growth rate follows a power law with dose rate. To explain the observed dose rate dependence, we demonstrate that a reaction-diffusion model is required that explicitly accounts for the species H(+) and Cl(-). The model highlights the necessity of considering all species present when interpreting kinetic data obtained from beam-induced processes, and suggest conditions under which growth rates can be controlled with higher precision. PMID:26207841

  6. Antifreeze effect of carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine on the growth kinetics of ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Dmitry A; Sazaki, Gen; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2014-08-28

    Some biological substances control the nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals. Antifreeze proteins, which prohibit ice crystal growth in living organisms, promise are also important as biological antifreezes for medical applications and in the frozen food industries. In this work, we investigated the crystallization of ice in the presence of a new cryoprotector, carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine (COOH-PLL). In order to reveal the characteristics and the mechanism of its antifreeze effect, free-growth experiments of ice crystals were carried out in solutions with various COOH-PLL concentrations and degrees of supercooling, and the depression of the freezing point and growth rates of the tips of ice dendrites were obtained using optical microscopy. Hysteresis of growth rates and depression of the freezing point was revealed in the presence of COOH-PLL. The growth-inhibition effect of COOH-PLL molecules could be explained on the basis of the Gibbs-Thomson law and the use of Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. Theoretical kinetic curves for hysteresis calculated on the basis of Punin-Artamonova's model were in good agreement with experimental data. We conclude that adsorption of large biological molecules in the case of ice crystallization has a non-steady-state character and occurs more slowly than the process of embedding of crystal growth units. PMID:25113284

  7. Antifreeze effect of carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine on the growth kinetics of ice crystals.

    PubMed

    Vorontsov, Dmitry A; Sazaki, Gen; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2014-08-28

    Some biological substances control the nucleation and growth of inorganic crystals. Antifreeze proteins, which prohibit ice crystal growth in living organisms, promise are also important as biological antifreezes for medical applications and in the frozen food industries. In this work, we investigated the crystallization of ice in the presence of a new cryoprotector, carboxylated ε-poly-L-lysine (COOH-PLL). In order to reveal the characteristics and the mechanism of its antifreeze effect, free-growth experiments of ice crystals were carried out in solutions with various COOH-PLL concentrations and degrees of supercooling, and the depression of the freezing point and growth rates of the tips of ice dendrites were obtained using optical microscopy. Hysteresis of growth rates and depression of the freezing point was revealed in the presence of COOH-PLL. The growth-inhibition effect of COOH-PLL molecules could be explained on the basis of the Gibbs-Thomson law and the use of Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. Theoretical kinetic curves for hysteresis calculated on the basis of Punin-Artamonova's model were in good agreement with experimental data. We conclude that adsorption of large biological molecules in the case of ice crystallization has a non-steady-state character and occurs more slowly than the process of embedding of crystal growth units.

  8. Kinetics of tumor growth and regression in IgG multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Salmon, Sydney E.

    1972-01-01

    Studies of immunoglobulin synthesis, total body tumor cell number, and tumor kinetics were carried out in a series of patients with IgG multiple myeloma. The changes in tumor size associated with tumor growth or with regression were underestimated when the concentration of serum M-component was used as the sole index of tumor mass. Calculation of the total body M-component synthetic rate (corrected for concentration-dependent changes in IgG metabolism) and tumor cell number gave a more accurate and predictable estimate of changes in tumor size. Tumor growth and drug-induced tumor regression were found to follow Gompertzian kinetics, with progressive retardation of the rate of change of tumor size in both of these circumstances. This retardation effect, describable with a constant α, may be caused by a shift in the proportion of tumor cells in the proliferative cycle. Drug sensitivity of the tumor could be described quantitatively with a calculation of BO, the tumor's initial sensitivity to a given drug regimen. Of particular clinical significance, the magnitude of a given patient's tumor regression could be predicted from the ratio of BO to α. Mathematical proof was obtained that the retardation constant determined during tumor regression also applied to the earlier period of tumor growth, and this constant was used to reconstruct the preclinical history of disease. In the average patient, fewer than 5 yr elapse from the initial tumor cell doubling to its clinical presentation with from 1011 to more than 1012 myeloma cells in the body. The reduction in total body tumor mass in most patients responding to therapy ranges from less than one to almost two orders of magnitude. Application of predictive kinetic analysis to the design of sequential drug regimens may lead to further improvement in the treatment of multiple myeloma and other tumors with similar growth characteristics. PMID:5040867

  9. A Kinetic and Factorial Approach to Study the Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Growth and Toxin Production by the Dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Pablo; Vázquez, José A; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José M; Figueroa, Rosa I; Kremp, Anke; Bravo, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Alexandrium ostenfeldii is present in a wide variety of environments in coastal areas worldwide and is the only dinoflagellate known species that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and two types of cyclic imines, spirolides (SPXs) and gymnodimines (GYMs). The increasing frequency of A. ostenfeldii blooms in the Baltic Sea has been attributed to the warming water in this region. To learn more about the optimal environmental conditions favoring the proliferation of A. ostenfeldii and its complex toxicity, the effects of temperature and salinity on the kinetics of both the growth and the net toxin production of this species were examined using a factorial design and a response-surface analysis (RSA). The results showed that the growth of Baltic A. ostenfeldii occurs over a wide range of temperatures and salinities (12.5-25.5°C and 5-21, respectively), with optimal growth conditions achieved at a temperature of 25.5°C and a salinity of 11.2. Together with the finding that a salinity > 21 was the only growth-limiting factor detected for this strain, this study provides important insights into the autecology and population distribution of this species in the Baltic Sea. The presence of PSP toxins, including gonyautoxin (GTX)-3, GTX-2, and saxitoxin (STX), and GYMs (GYM-A and GYM-B/-C analogues) was detected under all temperature and salinity conditions tested and in the majority of the cases was concomitant with both the exponential growth and stationary phases of the dinoflagellate's growth cycle. Toxin concentrations were maximal at temperatures and salinities of 20.9°C and 17 for the GYM-A analogue and > 19°C and 15 for PSP toxins, respectively. The ecological implications of the optimal conditions for growth and toxin production of A. ostenfeldii in the Baltic Sea are discussed. PMID:26636674

  10. A Kinetic and Factorial Approach to Study the Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Growth and Toxin Production by the Dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii from the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Pablo; Vázquez, José A.; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José M.; Figueroa, Rosa I.; Kremp, Anke; Bravo, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Alexandrium ostenfeldii is present in a wide variety of environments in coastal areas worldwide and is the only dinoflagellate known species that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and two types of cyclic imines, spirolides (SPXs) and gymnodimines (GYMs). The increasing frequency of A. ostenfeldii blooms in the Baltic Sea has been attributed to the warming water in this region. To learn more about the optimal environmental conditions favoring the proliferation of A. ostenfeldii and its complex toxicity, the effects of temperature and salinity on the kinetics of both the growth and the net toxin production of this species were examined using a factorial design and a response-surface analysis (RSA). The results showed that the growth of Baltic A. ostenfeldii occurs over a wide range of temperatures and salinities (12.5–25.5°C and 5–21, respectively), with optimal growth conditions achieved at a temperature of 25.5°C and a salinity of 11.2. Together with the finding that a salinity > 21 was the only growth-limiting factor detected for this strain, this study provides important insights into the autecology and population distribution of this species in the Baltic Sea. The presence of PSP toxins, including gonyautoxin (GTX)-3, GTX-2, and saxitoxin (STX), and GYMs (GYM-A and GYM-B/-C analogues) was detected under all temperature and salinity conditions tested and in the majority of the cases was concomitant with both the exponential growth and stationary phases of the dinoflagellate’s growth cycle. Toxin concentrations were maximal at temperatures and salinities of 20.9°C and 17 for the GYM-A analogue and > 19°C and 15 for PSP toxins, respectively. The ecological implications of the optimal conditions for growth and toxin production of A. ostenfeldii in the Baltic Sea are discussed. PMID:26636674

  11. Kinetics of crystal nucleation and growth in Pd(40)Ni(40)P(20) glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drehman, A. J.; Greer, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of Pd(40)Ni(40)P(20) glass, produced by cooling the melt at 1 or 800 K/s, are heated in a differential scanning calorimeter to determine the crystallization kinetics. Optical microscopy shows that eutectic crystallization proceeds both by growth from the surface of the samples and by the growth of spherical regions around preexisting nuclei in the interior. A modified Kissinger (1957) analysis is used to obtain the activation energy for crystal growth (3.49 eV). The steady state homogeneous nucleation frequency at 590 K is about 10 million/cu m per sec. This is estimated to be the maximum nucleation frequency: it is too low to account for the observed population of quenched-in nuclei, which are therefore presumed to be heterogeneous. The major practical obstacle to glass formation in this system is heterogeneous nucleation.

  12. Exponentiated power Lindley distribution

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Samir K.; Eltehiwy, Mahmoud A.

    2014-01-01

    A new generalization of the Lindley distribution is recently proposed by Ghitany et al. [1], called as the power Lindley distribution. Another generalization of the Lindley distribution was introduced by Nadarajah et al. [2], named as the generalized Lindley distribution. This paper proposes a more generalization of the Lindley distribution which generalizes the two. We refer to this new generalization as the exponentiated power Lindley distribution. The new distribution is important since it contains as special sub-models some widely well-known distributions in addition to the above two models, such as the Lindley distribution among many others. It also provides more flexibility to analyze complex real data sets. We study some statistical properties for the new distribution. We discuss maximum likelihood estimation of the distribution parameters. Least square estimation is used to evaluate the parameters. Three algorithms are proposed for generating random data from the proposed distribution. An application of the model to a real data set is analyzed using the new distribution, which shows that the exponentiated power Lindley distribution can be used quite effectively in analyzing real lifetime data. PMID:26644927

  13. Nonlinear kinetic description of Raman growth using an envelope code, and comparisons with Vlasov simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Benisti, Didier; Morice, Olivier; Gremillet, Laurent; Siminos, Evangelos; Strozzi, David J.

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we present our nonlinear kinetic modeling of stimulated Raman scattering in a uniform and collisionless plasma using envelope equations. We recall the derivation of these equations, as well as our theoretical predictions for each of the nonlinear kinetic terms, the precision of which having been carefully checked against Vlasov simulations. We particularly focus here on the numerical resolution of these equations, which requires the additional concept of ''self-optimization'' that we explain, and we describe the envelope code BRAMA that we used. As an application of our modeling, we present one-dimensional BRAMA simulations of stimulated Raman scattering which predict threshold intensities, as well as time scales for Raman growth above threshold, in very good agreement with those inferred from Vlasov simulations. Finally, we discuss the differences between our modeling and other published ones.

  14. Nonlinear kinetic description of Raman growth using an envelope code, and comparisons with Vlasov simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénisti, Didier; Morice, Olivier; Gremillet, Laurent; Siminos, Evangelos; Strozzi, David J.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present our nonlinear kinetic modeling of stimulated Raman scattering in a uniform and collisionless plasma using envelope equations. We recall the derivation of these equations, as well as our theoretical predictions for each of the nonlinear kinetic terms, the precision of which having been carefully checked against Vlasov simulations. We particularly focus here on the numerical resolution of these equations, which requires the additional concept of "self-optimization" that we explain, and we describe the envelope code BRAMA that we used. As an application of our modeling, we present one-dimensional BRAMA simulations of stimulated Raman scattering which predict threshold intensities, as well as time scales for Raman growth above threshold, in very good agreement with those inferred from Vlasov simulations. Finally, we discuss the differences between our modeling and other published ones.

  15. The importance of growth kinetic analysis in determining bacterial susceptibility against antibiotics and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Theophel, Karsten; Schacht, Veronika J; Schlüter, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Schaumann, Reiner; Bunge, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18-24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48 h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07) as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 μg mL(-1) of vancomycin and 8 μg mL(-1) of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0) nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25426104

  16. The importance of growth kinetic analysis in determining bacterial susceptibility against antibiotics and silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Theophel, Karsten; Schacht, Veronika J.; Schlüter, Michael; Schnell, Sylvia; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Schaumann, Reiner; Bunge, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Routine antibiotics susceptibility testing still relies on standardized cultivation-based analyses, including measurement of inhibition zones in conventional agar diffusion tests and endpoint turbidity-based measurements. Here, we demonstrate that common off-line monitoring and endpoint determination after 18–24 h could be insufficient for reliable growth-dependent evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility. Different minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained in 20- and 48 h microdilution plate tests using an Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate (strain UKI-MB07) as a model organism. Hence, we used an on-line kinetic assay for simultaneous cultivation and time-resolved growth analysis in a 96-well format instead of off-line susceptibility testing. Growth of the Enterococcus test organism was delayed up to 30 h in the presence of 0.25 μg mL-1 of vancomycin and 8 μg mL-1 of fosfomycin, after which pronounced growth was observed. Despite the delayed onset of growth, treatment with fosfomycin, daptomycin, fusidic acid, cefoxitin, or gentamicin resulted in higher maximum growth rates and/or higher final optical density values compared with antibiotic-free controls, indicating that growth stimulation and hormetic effects may occur with extended exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations. Whereas neither maximum growth rate nor final cell density correlated with antibiotic concentration, the lag phase duration for some antibiotics was a more meaningful indicator of dose-dependent growth inhibition. Our results also reveal that non-temporal growth profiles are only of limited value for cultivation-based antimicrobial silver nanoparticle susceptibility testing. The exposure to Ag(0) nanoparticles led to plasma membrane damage in a concentration-dependent manner and induced oxidative stress in Enterococcus faecium UKI-MB07, as shown by intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25426104

  17. Anisotropy in growth kinetics of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrate: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Nada, Hiroki

    2009-04-01

    The growth kinetics of a tetrahydrofuran (THF) clathrate hydrate at the interface between the clathrate and an aqueous THF solution were investigated by means of a molecular dynamic simulation. The simulation was carried out for the interface of both the {100} and {111} planes of the THF clathrate. The simulation indicated the same anisotropic growth as that observed in real systems: the growth of the THF clathrate was much slower at the {111} interface than at the {100} interface. When the THF clathrate grew, THF molecules that were dissolved in the solution first were arranged at both large and small cage sites on the interface. Subsequently, the formation of cages by H(2)O molecules occurred in regions surrounded or sandwiched by those arranged THF molecules. As the formation of cages progressed, the THF molecules that had once been arranged at small cage sites gradually moved away from the sites, and finally the structure of the clathrate was completely formed. Simulation results strongly suggested that the rate-determining process for clathrate growth was the rearrangement of THF molecules at the interface from a disordered state to a state in which THF molecules were ideally arranged at large cage sites only. This rearrangement occurred much more slowly at the {111} interface than at the {100} interface, owing to the formation of a modified structure in which large and small cages were formed at opposite positions of the {111} interface. The anisotropic growth kinetics of the THF clathrate, which were obtained in this study, are consistent with the fact that growth shapes of THF clathrates in real systems are octahedral with flat {111} planes.

  18. Modification of bone-like apatite nanoparticle size and growth kinetics by alizarin red S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibsen, Casper Jon Steenberg; Birkedal, Henrik

    2010-11-01

    The formation of nanocrystals in biomineralization such as in bone occurs under the influence of organic molecules. Prompted by this fact, the effect of alizarin red S, a dye used in in vivo bone labeling methods, on bone-like carbonated apatite nanocrystal formation was investigated as a function of alizarin red S additive concentration. The obtained nanoparticles were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR as well thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) while the kinetics of nanoparticle formation was investigated by in situ pH and synchrotron XRD measurements. Increasing alizarin red S concentration lead to amorphous particles over a threshold concentration and to smaller crystallites in a dose-dependent fashion. Alizarin red S induced a macroscopic lattice strain that scaled linearly with the alizarin red S concentration; this effect is reminiscent of that seen in biogenic calcium carbonates. TGA showed that the amorphous particles contained significantly more water than the crystalline samples and the DSC data showed that crystallization occurs after loss of most of the included organic material. The in situ studies showed that the formation of apatite goes via the very rapid formation of an amorphous precursor that after a certain nucleation time crystallizes into apatite. This nucleation time increased exponentially with alizarin red S concentration showing that this additive strongly stabilizes the amorphous precursor phase.

  19. Effects of spill-treating agents on growth kinetics of marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Menduiña, Araceli; Fuciños, Pablo; González, Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Vázquez, José A

    2013-12-15

    The effects of four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol(®) OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth kinetics of three marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were studied. Chlorophyll a concentration and optical density at 700 nm were assessed to describe the logistic growth of algae in batch cultures. The optical density data were initially analyzed as described for standard algal growth inhibition tests and subsequently modelled by a bivariate model, as a function of time and dose, to assess the toxic effects on growth parameters. Increasing trends in EC50 and EC10 values with time were found with the standard approach. In 8 of the 11 tests, the lag phase (λ) or the time required to achieve half the maximum biomass (τ) was significantly dependent on the STA concentration. A global parameter (EC50,τ) was calculated to summarize the effects of STAs on growth parameters in the bivariate model. The ranking of sensitivity as EC50,τ values was I. galbana>C. gracilis>P. tricornutum. For all species tested, the least toxic agent was Agma OSD 569, followed by CytoSol. The mathematical model allowed successful ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals on microalgal growth. PMID:23911058

  20. Effects of spill-treating agents on growth kinetics of marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Menduiña, Araceli; Fuciños, Pablo; González, Pilar; Mirón, Jesús; Vázquez, José A

    2013-12-15

    The effects of four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol(®) OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth kinetics of three marine microalgae (Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Phaeodactylum tricornutum) were studied. Chlorophyll a concentration and optical density at 700 nm were assessed to describe the logistic growth of algae in batch cultures. The optical density data were initially analyzed as described for standard algal growth inhibition tests and subsequently modelled by a bivariate model, as a function of time and dose, to assess the toxic effects on growth parameters. Increasing trends in EC50 and EC10 values with time were found with the standard approach. In 8 of the 11 tests, the lag phase (λ) or the time required to achieve half the maximum biomass (τ) was significantly dependent on the STA concentration. A global parameter (EC50,τ) was calculated to summarize the effects of STAs on growth parameters in the bivariate model. The ranking of sensitivity as EC50,τ values was I. galbana>C. gracilis>P. tricornutum. For all species tested, the least toxic agent was Agma OSD 569, followed by CytoSol. The mathematical model allowed successful ecotoxicological evaluation of chemicals on microalgal growth.

  1. Growth kinetics of a diesel-degrading bacterial strain from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, S F A; Yunus, I; Johari, W L W; Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-03-01

    A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics.

  2. Step-flow kinetics model for the vapor-solid-solid Si nanowires growth.

    PubMed

    Cui, H; Lü, Y Y; Yang, G W; Chen, Y M; Wang, C X

    2015-05-13

    Vapor-solid-solid (VSS) process has recently received continued attention as an alternative to grow Si nanowire. In comparison with common vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with liquid catalyst, VSS growth can prevent the catalyst species from incorporating into nanowires with deep-level impurity, and achieve the compositionally abrupt interfaces by restraining the so-called "reservoir effect". However, despite the huge advances in experimental observations with in situ electron microscopy, VSS growth still remains much less understood in theory. Here, we developed a general mass-transport-limited kinetic model to describe the VSS growth process of Si nanowires by considering three surface diffusion processes and a slow interface diffusion process, where the former determines the atoms supplies way, while the latter dominates the growth of nanowires. The present model is not only well consistent with the available experimental data of Si nanowire, but also gives a clear physical image for the successive side-to-side ledge flow VSS growth.

  3. Growth kinetics of a diesel-degrading bacterial strain from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Dahalan, S F A; Yunus, I; Johari, W L W; Shukor, M Y; Halmi, M I E; Shamaan, N A; Syed, M A

    2014-03-01

    A diesel-degrading bacterium was isolated from a diesel-contaminated site in Selangor, Malaysia. The isolate was tentatively identified as Acinetobacter sp. strain DRY12 based on partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny and Biolog GN microplate panels and Microlog database. Optimum growth occurred from 3 to 5% diesel and the strain was able to tolerate as high as 8% diesel. The optimal pH that supported growth of the bacterium was between pH 7.5 to 8.0. The isolate exhibited optimal growth in between 30 and 35 degrees C. The best nitrogen source was potassium nitrate (between 0.6 and 0.9% (w/v)) followed by ammonium chloride, sodium nitrite and ammonium sulphate in descending order. An almost complete removal of diesel components was seen from the reduction in hydrocarbon peaks observed using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography analysis after 10 days of incubation. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibiting growth with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate- micromax was 0.039 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant Ks and inhibition constant Ki, were 0.387% and 4.46%, respectively. MATH assays showed that 75% of the bacterium was found in the hexadecane phase indicating that the bacterium was hydrophobic. The characteristics of this bacterium make it useful for bioremediation works in the Tropics. PMID:24665769

  4. Ascorbic-acid-assisted growth of high quality M@ZnO: a growth mechanism and kinetics study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun; Han, Shuhua; Zhou, Guangju; Zhang, Lijie; Li, Xingliang; Zou, Chao; Huang, Shaoming

    2013-12-01

    We present a general route for synthesizing M@ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) by using ascorbic acid (AA) to induce deposition of ZnO on various shaped and structured cationic-surfactant-capped NP surfaces (noble, magnetic, semiconductor, rod-like, spherical, cubic, dendrite, alloy, core@shell). The results show that the complexing (AA and Zn(2+)) and cooperative effects (AA and CTAB) play important roles in the formation of polycrystalline ZnO shells. Besides, the growth kinetics of M@ZnO was systematically studied. It was found that the slow growth rate favors the successful formation of uniform core@ZnO NPs with relatively loose shells. An appropriate growth rate allows achieving high quality M@ZnO NPs with dense shells. However, very fast growth causes significant additional nucleation and the formation of pure ZnO NPs. This general method is suitable for preparing M@ZnO using seed NPs prepared in both water and organic phases. It might be an alternative route for functionalizing NPs for bioapplications (ZnO is biocompatible), modulating material properties as designed, or synthesizing template materials for building other nanostructures. PMID:24122007

  5. Surface induced constant composition crystal growth kinetics studies. The brushite gypsum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hina, A.; Nancollas, G. H.; Grynpas, M.

    2001-02-01

    The possible oriented growth of one crystalline phase on the surface of another is especially important in systems containing both phosphate and sulfate salts of calcium. Whether the overgrowth results from a true epitaxial relationship is dependent on factors such as the thermodynamic driving forces and the free energies of the surfaces. Despite the fact that calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD, gypsum) and calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, brushite) show many crystallographic and structural analogies, their surface reactions are quite different. The nucleation and growth of gypsum on brushite surfaces has been investigated in supersaturated solutions of calcium sulfate dihydrate at 25.0°C using the constant composition (CC) method. During the kinetics experiments, the harvested solid phases were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Induction periods, τ, preceding the initial formation of gypsum crystals at the brushite surfaces, varied markedly with relative supersaturation, σ. A thin layer wicking method was used to investigate the interfacial free energies of the growing phases, and these data were also calculated from the kinetics results. The interfacial free energy, γ, estimated from initial growth rates was 8.4 mJ m -2, while that calculated from the induction times was 8.9 mJ m -2. These values were in agreement with those determined directly using thin layer wicking.

  6. The Powder-Pack Nitriding Process: Growth Kinetics of Nitride Layers on Pure Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Silva, I.; Ortiz-Dominguez, M.; Elias-Espinosa, M.; Vega-Morón, R. C.; Bravo-Bárcenas, D.; Figueroa-López, U.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the growth kinetics of nitride layers that develop during the powder-pack nitriding process on the surface of ARMCO pure iron was estimated. The powder-pack nitriding of pure iron was performed according to the Pulnieren© (H.E.F. Durferrit) method using a "Pulnier" powder and an activator, at 798-848 K with different exposure times (2-12 h) for each temperature. In addition, for the entire set of nitriding conditions, three different activator/"Pulnier" powder ratios (0.20, 0.25, and 0.35) were used to evaluate the activation level during the growth of nitride layers. The kinetics of the nitride layers over the surface of ARMCO pure iron were estimated by two mathematical approaches, that consider the mass balance equations at the growth interphases. The resulting expressions for the effective diffusion coefficients in the nitride layers were evaluated as a function of nitriding temperatures and activator/"Pulnier" powder ratio. Finally, based on the experimental parameters ascribed to the powder-pack nitriding process, two expressions were proposed to estimate the nitride layer thicknesses at 798 and 823 K after 9 h of exposure for each temperature, to validate the diffusion models used in this work.

  7. The effect of Co alloying content on the kinetics of reaction zone growth in tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Tien, J. K.; Caulfield, T.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1988-01-01

    A Co-free modified superalloy similar in composition to Waspaloy is investigated in an effort to understand the effect of Co on reaction zone growth kinetics and verify the chemistry dependence of reaction zone growth in the matrix of tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy composites. The values of the parabolic rate constant, characterizing the kinetics of reaction zone growth, for the Waspaloy matrix and the C-free alloy as well as five other alloys from a previous study confirm the dependence of reaction zone growth kinetics on cobalt content of the matrix. The Co-free alloy composite exhibits the slowest reaction zone growth among all tungsten fiber reinforced composites studied to date.

  8. Polymorph-specific kinetics and thermodynamics of β-amyloid fibril growth

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Wei; Kelley, Kevin; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils formed by the 40-residue β-amyloid peptide (Aβ1–40) are highly polymorphic, with molecular structures that depend on the details of growth conditions. Underlying differences in physical properties are not well understood. Here, we investigate differences in growth kinetics and thermodynamic stabilities of two Aβ1–40 fibril polymorphs for which detailed structural models are available from solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Rates of seeded fibril elongation in the presence of excess soluble Aβ1–40 and shrinkage in the absence of soluble Aβ1–40 are determined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). From these rates, we derive polymorph-specific values for the soluble Aβ1–40 concentration at quasi-equilibrium, from which relative stabilities can be derived. The AFM results are supported by direct measurements by ultraviolet absorbance, using a novel dialysis system to establish quasi-equilibrium. At 24° C, the two polymorphs have significantly different elongation and shrinkage kinetics but similar thermodynamic stabilities. At 37° C, differences in kinetics are reduced, and thermodynamic stabilities are increased significantly. Fibril length distributions in AFM images provide support for an intermittent growth model, in which fibrils switch randomly between an "on" state (capable of elongation) and an "off" state (incapable of elongation). We also monitor interconversion between polymorphs at 24° C by solid state NMR, showing that the two-fold symmetric "agitated" () polymorph is more stable than the three-fold symmetric "quiescent" polymorph. Finally, we show that the two polymorphs have significantly different rates of fragmentation in the presence of shear forces, a difference that helps explain the observed predominance of the structure when fibrils are grown in agitated solutions. PMID:23627695

  9. Understanding filamentary growth in electrochemical metallization memory cells using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Stephan; Kaupmann, Philip; Waser, Rainer

    2015-07-01

    We report on a 2D kinetic Monte Carlo model that describes the resistive switching in electrochemical metallization cells. To simulate the switching process, we consider several different processes on the atomic scale: electron-transfer reactions at the boundaries, ion migration, adsorption/desorption from/to interfaces, surface diffusion and nucleation. These processes result in a growth/dissolution of a metallic filament within an insulating matrix. In addition, the model includes electron tunneling between the growing filament and the counter electrode, which allows for simulating multilevel switching. It is shown that the simulation model can reproduce the reported switching kinetics, switching variability and multilevel capabilities of ECM devices. As a major result, the influence of mechanical stress working on the host matrix due to the filamentary growth is investigated. It is demonstrated that the size and shape of the filament depend on the Young's modulus of the insulating matrix. For high values a wire-like structure evolves, whereas the shape is dendritic if the Young's modulus is negligible.We report on a 2D kinetic Monte Carlo model that describes the resistive switching in electrochemical metallization cells. To simulate the switching process, we consider several different processes on the atomic scale: electron-transfer reactions at the boundaries, ion migration, adsorption/desorption from/to interfaces, surface diffusion and nucleation. These processes result in a growth/dissolution of a metallic filament within an insulating matrix. In addition, the model includes electron tunneling between the growing filament and the counter electrode, which allows for simulating multilevel switching. It is shown that the simulation model can reproduce the reported switching kinetics, switching variability and multilevel capabilities of ECM devices. As a major result, the influence of mechanical stress working on the host matrix due to the filamentary growth is

  10. Quantifying in vitro growth and metabolism kinetics of human mesenchymal stem cells using a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Higuera, Gustavo; Schop, Deborah; Janssen, Frank; van Dijkhuizen-Radersma, Riemke; van Boxtel, Ton; van Blitterswijk, C A

    2009-09-01

    Better quantitative understanding of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) metabolism is needed to identify, understand, and subsequently optimize the processes in expansion of hMSCs in vitro. For this purpose, we analyzed growth of hMSCs in vitro with a mathematical model based on the mass balances for viable cell numbers, glucose, lactate, glutamine, and glutamate. The mathematical modeling had two aims: (1) to estimate kinetic parameters of important metabolites for hMSC monolayer cultures, and (2) to quantitatively assess assumptions on growth of hMSCs. Two cell seeding densities were used to investigate growth and metabolism kinetics of MSCs from three human donors. We analyzed growth up to confluency and used metabolic assumptions described in literature. Results showed a longer initial phase, a slower growth rate, and a higher glucose, lactate, glutamine, and glutamate metabolic rates at the lower cell seeding density. Higher metabolic rates could be induced by a lower contact inhibition effect when seeding at 100 cells/cm2 than when seeding at 1000 cells/cm2. In addition, parameter estimation describing kinetics of hMSCs in culture, depending on the seeding density, showed doubling times in the order of 17-32h, specific glucose consumption in the order of 1.25 x 10(-1) to 3.77 x 10(-1) pmol/cell/h, specific lactate production in the order of 2.48 x 10(-1) to 7.67 x 10(-1)pmol/cell/h, specific glutamine production in the order of 7.04 x 10(-3) to 2.27 pmol/cell/h, and specific glutamate production in the order of 4.87 x 10(-1) to 23.4 pmol/cell/h. Lactate-to-glucose yield ratios confirmed that hMSCs use glucose via anaerobic glycolysis. In addition, glutamine and glutamate metabolic shifts were identified that could be important for understanding growth of hMSCs in vitro. This study showed that the mathematical modeling approach supports quantitative analysis of important mechanisms in proliferation of hMSCs in vitro.

  11. An identification algorithm of model kinetic parameters of the interfacial layer growth in fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubov, V.; Lurie, S.; Solyaev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    This paper considers the identification algorithm of parameters included in a parabolic law that is often used to predict the time dependence of the thickness of the interfacial layers in the structure of composite materials based on a metal matrix. The incubation period of the process and the speed of reaction and pressure are taken into account. The proposed algorithm of identification is based on the introduction of a minimized objective function of a special kind. The problem of identification of unknown parameters in the parabolic law is formulated in a variational form. The authors of the paper have determined the desired parameters, under which the objective function has a minimum value. It is shown that on the basis of four known experimental values of the interfacial layer thickness, corresponding to different values of temperature, pressure and the time of the interfacial layer growth, it is possible to identified four model parameters. They are the activation energy, a pre-exponential parameter, the delay time of the start of the interfacial layer formation, and the parameter determining the pressure effect on the rate of interfacial layer growth. The stability of the proposed identification algorithm is also studied.

  12. Comparison of the growth kinetics and proteolytic activities of Chryseobacterium species and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Bekker, A; Steyn, L; Charimba, G; Jooste, P; Hugo, C

    2015-12-01

    The effect of temperature on the growth kinetics and proteolytic activity of Chryseobacterium joostei and Chryseobacterium bovis was determined during this study. The results were compared with the activities of Pseudomonas fluorescens, which is regarded to be a major food spoilage psychrotolerant microorganism. For the growth studies, cultures were incubated in nutrient broth in a temperature gradient incubator (from 9 to 50 °C) and separately at 4 °C, and the optical density was measured at different time intervals. Growth temperature profiles for each organism were constructed. For determination of proteolytic activity, the cultures were incubated in fat-free ultra-high temperature processed milk in the temperature gradient incubator for 72 h (temperature range as above). Cell-free extracts were used to determine the proteolytic activity using the azocasein method. Results of the growth studies showed that C. joostei had the ability to grow over a wider temperature range than C. bovis and P. fluorescens without being affected by changes in the temperature. For the proteolytic activity, C. joostei had significantly (p < 0.001) higher activity per milligram of protein at 15.5 °C, followed by C. bovis and P. fluorescens. The results showed that C. joostei potentially has an even greater spoilage capacity in milk on the basis of growth rate and proteolytic activity than did P. fluorescens.

  13. Flux-Dependent Growth Kinetics and Diameter Selectivity in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Geohegan, David B; Puretzky, Alexander A; Jackson, Jeremy Joseph; Rouleau, Christopher M; Eres, Gyula; More, Karren Leslie

    2011-01-01

    The nucleation and growth kinetics of single-wall carbon nanotubes in aligned arrays have been measured using fast pulses of acetylene and in situ optical diagnostics in conjunction with low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Increasing the acetylene partial pressure is shown to decrease nucleation times by three orders of magnitude, permitting aligned nanotube arrays to nucleate and grow to microns lengths within single gas pulses at high (up to 7 micron/s) peak growth rates and short ~ 0.5 s times.Low-frequency Raman scattering (> 10 cm-1) and transmission electron microscopy measurements show that increasing the feedstock flux in both continuous-CVD and pulsed-CVD shifts the product distribution to large single-wall carbon nanotube diameters > 2.5 nm. Sufficiently high acetylene partial pressures in pulsed-CVD appear to temporarily terminate the growth of the fastest- growing, small-diameter nanotubes by overcoating the more catalytically-active, smaller catalyst nanoparticles within the ensemble with non-nanotube carbon in agreement with a growth model. The results indicate that subsets of catalyst nanoparticle ensembles nucleate, grow, and terminate growth within different flux ranges according to their catalytic activity.

  14. Kinetics and mechanisms of crystal growth inhibition of indomethacin by model precipitation inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dhaval

    Supersaturating Drug Delivery Systems (SDDS) could enhance oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs (PWSD). Precipitation inhibitors (PIs) in SDDS could maintain supersaturation by inhibiting nucleation, crystal growth, or both. The mechanisms by which these effects are realized are generally unknown. The goal of this dissertation was to explore the mechanisms underpinning the effects of model PIs including hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrins (HP-beta-CD), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the crystal growth of indomethacin, a model PWSD. At high degrees of supersaturation (S), the crystal growth kinetics of indomethacin was bulk diffusion-controlled, which was attributed to a high energy form deposited on the seed crystals. At lower S, indomethacin growth kinetics was surface integration-controlled. The effect of HP-beta-CD at high S was successfully modeled using the reactive diffusion layer theory. The superior effects of PVP and HPMC as compared to HP-beta-CD at high S were attributed to a change in the rate limiting step from bulk diffusion to surface integration largely due to prevention of the high energy form formation. The effects of PIs at low S were attributed to significant retardation of the surface integration rate, a phenomenon that may reflect the adsorption of PIs onto the growing surface. PVP was selected to further understand the relationship between adsorption and crystal growth inhibition. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model fit the adsorption isotherms of PVP and N-vinylpyrrolidone well. The affinity and extent of adsorption of PVP were significantly higher than those of N-vinylpyrrolidone, which was attributed to cooperative interactions between PVP and indomethacin. The extent of PVP adsorption on a weight-basis was greater for higher molecular weight PVP but less on a molar-basis indicating an increased percentage of loops and tails for higher molecular weight PVPs. PVP significantly inhibited

  15. Kinetic model for dependence of thin film stress on growth rate, temperature, and microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chason, E.; Shin, J. W.; Hearne, S. J.; Freund, L. B.

    2012-04-01

    During deposition, many thin films go through a range of stress states, changing from compressive to tensile and back again. In addition, the stress depends strongly on the processing and material parameters. We have developed a simple analytical model to describe the stress evolution in terms of a kinetic competition between different mechanisms of stress generation and relaxation at the triple junction where the surface and grain boundary intersect. The model describes how the steady state stress scales with the dimensionless parameter D/LR where D is the diffusivity, R is the growth rate, and L is the grain size. It also explains the transition from tensile to compressive stress as the microstructure evolves from isolated islands to a continuous film. We compare calculations from the model with measurements of the stress dependence on grain size and growth rate in the steady state regime and of the evolution of stress with thickness for different temperatures.

  16. Grain growth kinetics and its effect on instrumented indentation response to nanocrystalline Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Arnomitra; Sharma, Garima; Chakravartty, J. K.

    2013-02-01

    Thermal instability in nanocrystalline (nc) Ni with a grain size of ˜60 nm was studied in detail. The kinetics of thermal grain growth behavior was studied by DSC and resistivity experiments. Thermal instability was characterized by determining the activation energy required for grain growth in the temperature range of 100-400 °C. The activation energy was found to be ˜ 100 kJ/mol below Curie temperature and ˜ 298 kJ/mol above Curie temperature. The effect of grain size on hardness and activation volume was investigated using nanoindentation technique. The interaction of dislocations-grain boundaries mediated mechanism was found to be the rate controlling plastic deformation mechanism.

  17. Media for study of growth kinetics and envelope properties of iron-deprived bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kadurugamuwa, J L; Anwar, H; Brown, M R; Shand, G H; Ward, K H

    1987-05-01

    Ion-exchange chromatography was used to remove iron from complex and chemically defined laboratory media. The kinetics of metal cation removal from the media was investigated by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and the results indicated that over 90% of the iron could be eliminated from certain complex media by this treatment. The treated medium was used for growth studies in a gram-positive and a number of gram-negative organisms that were isolated from infections in humans. High-molecular-weight outer membrane proteins that are known to be induced under iron-depleted growth conditions (iron-regulated membrane proteins) were observed when a number of gram-negative pathogens were cultivated in the treated media. Iron uptake by Staphylococcus aureus varied, depending on the iron content of the medium. PMID:3108311

  18. Growth kinetics of racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid nanowires on calcite (104)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einax, Mario; Richter, Tobias; Nimmrich, Markus; Rahe, Philipp; Stará, Irena G.; Starý, Ivo; Kühnle, Angelika; Maass, Philipp

    2016-10-01

    Molecular self-assembly of racemic heptahelicene-2-carboxylic acid on a dielectric substrate at room temperature can be used to generate wire-like organic nanostructures consisting of single and double molecular rows. By means of non-contact atomic force microscopy, we investigate the growth of the wire-like pattern after deposition by experimental and theoretical means. From analyzing the time dependence of the mean row length, two distinct regimes were found. At the early post-deposition stage, the mean length grows in time. Subsequently, a crossover to a second regime is observed, where the mean row length remains nearly constant. We explain these findings by a mean-field rate equation approach providing a comprehensive picture of the growth kinetics. As a result, we demonstrate that the crossover between the two distinct regimes is accomplished by vanishing of the homochiral single rows. At later stages only heterochiral double row structures remain.

  19. Experimental Studies of the Growth Kinetics of Methane Clathrate Hydrates & Superfluid Hydrodynamics on the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botimer, Jeffrey David

    This thesis details the experimental findings of three distinct research projects. The first studies the growth kinetics of methane clathrate hydrates grown under the influence of multiple factors including surfactants, porous media, substrate wetting properties, and salt content. The second investigates the flow behaviors of superfluid helium through single, high aspect ratio nanopipes. The third models the frequency response of a quartz tuning fork in high pressure normal and superfluid helium and demonstrates how quartz tuning forks can be used as cheap, small, in situ, cryogenic pressure gauges. The first project reports studies of the kinetics of growth of methane hydrates from liquid water containing small amounts of surfactant (<500 ppm of sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS). The kinetics are monitored using simultaneous measurements of the uptake of methane detected by a pressure drop in the gas phase, and either visual observations of the amount of liquid water and solid phase in the reaction vessel, or in situ micro-Raman measurements or in situ NMR measurements. These diagnostics show that the uptake of methane and the conversion of liquid water to a solid phase do not occur simultaneously; the uptake of gas always lags the visual and spectroscopic signatures of the disappearance of liquid water and the formation of solid. The evidence suggests that the SDS causes water to form an intermediate immobile solid-like state before combining with the methane to form hydrate. The growth mechanism is related to the surfactant and disappears for low SDS concentrations (<25 ppm). Also reported are studies of the growth rates of methane hydrates as a function of substrate wetting properties, driving force, and growth media. The second project studies pressure driven flow of superfluid helium through single high aspect ratio glass nanopipes into a vacuum has been studied for a wide range of pressure drop (0--30 atm), reservoir temperature (0.8--2.5K), pipe lengths (1-30mm

  20. Direct dynamic kinetic analysis and computer simulation of growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked turkey during cooling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research applied a new one-step methodology to directly construct a tertiary model for describing the growth of C. perfringens in cooked turkey meat under dynamically cooling conditions. The kinetic parameters of the growth models were determined by numerical analysis and optimization using mu...

  1. Prediction of fatigue crack growth kinetics in the plane structural elements of aircraft in the biaxial stress state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanyavskij, A. A.; Karaev, K. Z.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Koronov, M. Z.; Orlov, E. F.

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of fatigue crack growth in the case of a complex stress state is investigated with particular reference to D16T aluminum alloy. By using simulation models in the form of plane cruciform specimens, the characteristics of fatigue crack growth are investigated under conditions of uniaxial and biaxial tension-compression, with the ratio of the main stresses varying from -1 to 1.5. An algorithm is developed which makes it possible to predict the kinetics of fatigue crack growth and the equivalent stress level under conditions of multiparametric loading.

  2. Kinetic Model of Photoautotrophic Growth of Chlorella sp. Microalga, Isolated from the Setúbal Lagoon.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Josué Miguel; Irazoqui, Horacio Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a kinetic expression relating light availability in the culture medium with the rate of microalgal growth is obtained. This expression, which is valid for low illumination conditions, was derived from the reactions that take part in the light-dependent stage of photosynthesis. The kinetic expression obtained is a function of the biomass concentration in the culture, as well as of the local volumetric rate of absorption of photons, and only includes two adjustable parameters. To determine the value of these parameters and to test the validity of the hypotheses made, autotrophic cultures of the Chlorella sp. strain were carried out in a modified BBM medium at three CO2 concentrations in the gas stream, namely 0.034%, 0.34% and 3.4%. Moreover, the local volumetric rate of photon absorption was predicted based on a physical model of the interaction of the radiant energy with the suspended biomass, together with a Monte Carlo simulation algorithm. The proposed intrinsic expression of the biomass growth rate, together with the Monte Carlo radiation field simulator, are key to scale up photobioreactors when operating under low irradiation conditions, independently of the configuration of the reactor and of its light source.

  3. Global Genome Response of Escherichia coli O157∶H7 Sakai during Dynamic Changes in Growth Kinetics Induced by an Abrupt Downshift in Water Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; King, Thea; Gobius, Kari; Bowman, John P.; Ross, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate growth kinetics and time-dependent change in global expression of Escherichia coli O157∶H7 Sakai upon an abrupt downshift in water activity (aw). Based on viable count data, shifting E. coli from aw 0.993 to aw 0.985 or less caused an apparent loss, then recovery, of culturability. Exponential growth then resumed at a rate characteristic for the aw imposed. To understand the responses of this pathogen to abrupt osmotic stress, we employed an integrated genomic and proteomic approach to characterize its cellular response during exposure to a rapid downshift but still within the growth range from aw 0.993 to aw 0.967. Of particular interest, genes and proteins with cell envelope-related functions were induced during the initial loss and subsequent recovery of culturability. This implies that cells undergo remodeling of their envelope composition, enabling them to adapt to osmotic stress. Growth at low aw, however, involved up-regulating additional genes and proteins, which are involved in the biosynthesis of specific amino acids, and carbohydrate catabolism and energy generation. This suggests their important role in facilitating growth under such stress. Finally, we highlighted the ability of E. coli to activate multiple stress responses by transiently inducing the RpoE and RpoH regulons to control protein misfolding, while simultaneously activating the master stress regulator RpoS to mediate long-term adaptation to hyperosmolality. This investigation extends our understanding of the potential mechanisms used by pathogenic E. coli to adapt, survive and grow under osmotic stress, which could potentially be exploited to aid the selection and/or development of novel strategies to inactivate this pathogen. PMID:24594867

  4. Three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of cubic transition metal nitride thin film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, F.; Mastail, C.; Abadias, G.

    2016-02-01

    A three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) model has been developed and used to simulate the microstructure and growth morphology of cubic transition metal nitride (TMN) thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Results are presented for the case of stoichiometric TiN, chosen as a representative TMN prototype. The model is based on a NaCl-type rigid lattice and includes deposition and diffusion events for both N and Ti species. It is capable of reproducing voids and overhangs, as well as surface faceting. Simulations were carried out assuming a uniform flux of incoming particles approaching the surface at normal incidence. The ballistic deposition model is parametrized with an interaction parameter r0 that mimics the capture distance at which incoming particles may stick on the surface, equivalently to a surface trapping mechanism. Two diffusion models are implemented, based on the different ways to compute the site-dependent activation energy for hopping atoms. The influence of temperature (300-500 K), deposition flux (0.1-100 monolayers/s), and interaction parameter r0 (1.5-6.0 Å) on the obtained growth morphology are presented. Microstructures ranging from highly porous, [001]-oriented straight columns with smooth top surface to rough columns emerging with different crystallographic facets are reproduced, depending on kinetic restrictions, deposited energy (seemingly captured by r0), and shadowing effect. The development of facets is a direct consequence of the diffusion model which includes an intrinsic (minimum energy-based) diffusion anisotropy, although no crystallographic diffusion anisotropy was explicitly taken into account at this stage. The time-dependent morphological evolution is analyzed quantitatively to extract the growth exponent β and roughness exponent α , as indicators of kinetic roughening behavior. For dense TiN films, values of α ≈0.7 and β =0.24 are obtained in good agreement with existing experimental data. At this

  5. Process development for hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on growth and product formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Florian; Morweiser, Michael; Rosello Sastre, Rosa; Kruse, Olaf; Posten, Clemens

    2012-11-30

    Certain strains of microalgae are long known to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase enzyme recombines electrons from the chloroplast electron transport chain with protons to form molecular hydrogen directly inside the chloroplast. A sustained hydrogen production can be obtained under low sulfur conditions in C. reinhardtii, reducing the net oxygen evolution by reducing the photosystem II activity and thereby overcoming the inhibition of the hydrogenases. The development of specially adapted hydrogen production strains led to higher yields and optimized biological process preconditions. So far sustainable hydrogen production required a complete exchange of the growth medium to establish sulfur-deprived conditions after biomass growth. In this work we demonstrate the transition from the biomass growth phase to the hydrogen production phase in a single batch culture only by exact dosage of sulfur. This eliminates the elaborate and energy intensive solid-liquid separation step and establishes a process strategy to proceed further versus large scale production. This strategy has been applied to determine light dependent biomass growth and hydrogen production kinetics to assess the potential of H₂ production with C. reinhardtii as a basis for scale up and further process optimization.

  6. Cell growth kinetics of Chlorella sorokiniana and nutritional values of its biomass.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Dasgupta, Chitralekha Nag; Das, Debabrata

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different physico-chemical parameters for the growth of Chlorella sorokiniana and subsequently determination of nutritional values of its biomass. Most suitable temperature, light intensity, pH, and acetic acid concentration were 30°C, 100 μmol m(-2)s(-1), pH 7.5, and 34.8mM, respectively for the growth of this microorganism. Arrhenius growth activation energy, Ea was calculated as 7.08 kJ mol(-1). Monod kinetics constants: maximum specific growth rate (μ max) and substrate (acetic acid) affinity coefficient (Ks) were determined as 0.1 ± 0.01 h(-1) and 76 ± 8 mg L(-1), respectively. Stoichiometric analysis revealed the capture of 1.83 g CO2 and release of 1.9 g O2 for 1g algal biomass synthesis. Algal biomass of C. sorokiniana was found rich in protein and several important minerals such as Mg, Ca, and Fe. Astaxanthin and β-carotene were extracted and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography.

  7. Process development for hydrogen production with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii based on growth and product formation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Florian; Morweiser, Michael; Rosello Sastre, Rosa; Kruse, Olaf; Posten, Clemens

    2012-11-30

    Certain strains of microalgae are long known to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase enzyme recombines electrons from the chloroplast electron transport chain with protons to form molecular hydrogen directly inside the chloroplast. A sustained hydrogen production can be obtained under low sulfur conditions in C. reinhardtii, reducing the net oxygen evolution by reducing the photosystem II activity and thereby overcoming the inhibition of the hydrogenases. The development of specially adapted hydrogen production strains led to higher yields and optimized biological process preconditions. So far sustainable hydrogen production required a complete exchange of the growth medium to establish sulfur-deprived conditions after biomass growth. In this work we demonstrate the transition from the biomass growth phase to the hydrogen production phase in a single batch culture only by exact dosage of sulfur. This eliminates the elaborate and energy intensive solid-liquid separation step and establishes a process strategy to proceed further versus large scale production. This strategy has been applied to determine light dependent biomass growth and hydrogen production kinetics to assess the potential of H₂ production with C. reinhardtii as a basis for scale up and further process optimization. PMID:22750091

  8. Revealing the surface and bulk regimes of isothermal graphene growth on Ni with in situ kinetic measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Puretzky, Alexander A; Merkulov, Igor A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Eres, Gyula; Geohegan, David B

    2014-01-01

    In situ optical diagnostics are used to reveal the isothermal nucleation and growth mechanisms of graphene on Ni across a wide temperature range (560 C < T < 840 C) by chemical vapor deposition from single, sub-second pulses of acetylene. An abrupt, two-orders of magnitude change in growth times (~ 100s to 1s) is revealed at T = 680 C. Below and above this temperature, similar sigmoidal kinetics are measured and attributed to autocatalytic growth reactions but by two different mechanisms, surface assembly and dissolution/precipitation, respectively. These data are used to develop a simple and general kinetic model for graphene growth that includes the nucleation phase and includes the effects of carbon solubility in metals, describes delayed nucleation, and allows the interpretation of the competition between surface and bulk growth modes. The sharp transition in growth kinetics at T = 680 C is explained by a change in defect site density required for nucleation due to a transition in the carbon-induced mobility of the Ni surface. The easily-implemented optical reflectivity diagnostics and the simple kinetic model described here allow a pathway to optimize the growth of graphene on metals with arbitrary carbon solubility.

  9. Kinetics-controlled growth of bimetallic RhAg on Au nanorods and their catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Wei; Guo, Xia; Xie, Fang; Zhu, Rui; Zhao, Qing; Yang, Jian

    2014-03-01

    Controlled growth of hybrid metallic nanocomposites for a desirable structure in a combination of selected components is highly important for their applications. Herein, the controllable growth of RhAg on the gold nanorods is achieved from the dumbbell-like RhAg-tipped nanorods to the brushy RhAg-coated nanorods, or the rod-like Au@Ag-Rh nanorattles. These different growth modes of RhAg on the gold nanorods are correlated with the reducing kinetics of RhCl3 and AgNO3. In view of the promising catalytic properties of Rh, the gold nanorods modified by RhAg in different structures are examined as catalysts for the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine. It is found that brushy RhAg-coated nanorods present a higher catalytic efficiency than dumbbell-like RhAg-tipped nanorods and rod-like Au@Ag-Rh nanorattles. These results would benefit the overgrowth control on the one-dimensional metallic nanorods and the rational design of new generation heterogeneous catalysts and optical devices.Controlled growth of hybrid metallic nanocomposites for a desirable structure in a combination of selected components is highly important for their applications. Herein, the controllable growth of RhAg on the gold nanorods is achieved from the dumbbell-like RhAg-tipped nanorods to the brushy RhAg-coated nanorods, or the rod-like Au@Ag-Rh nanorattles. These different growth modes of RhAg on the gold nanorods are correlated with the reducing kinetics of RhCl3 and AgNO3. In view of the promising catalytic properties of Rh, the gold nanorods modified by RhAg in different structures are examined as catalysts for the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine. It is found that brushy RhAg-coated nanorods present a higher catalytic efficiency than dumbbell-like RhAg-tipped nanorods and rod-like Au@Ag-Rh nanorattles. These results would benefit the overgrowth control on the one-dimensional metallic nanorods and the rational design of new generation heterogeneous catalysts and optical devices. Electronic

  10. Effect of amitriptylin on the growth-kinetics of 2 human cancer xenograft lines in nude-mice.

    PubMed

    Bassukas, I

    1994-04-01

    With respect to the controversial discussion of the effect of antidepressants on the development of cancer in the literature, elicited by a recent report on growth stimulating effects of antidepressants (Brandes et al, Cancer Res 52: 3796, 1992), the effect of daily doses of amitriptylin (80 mg/m2 body surface, intraperitoneally) on the macroscopic growth of two human tumor xenograft lines in nude mice was studied (a malignant. melanoma, FO-1 and a renal cell adenocarcinoma, RCC). The application of the Gompertzian difference equation to compare the growth patterns of treated and untreated tumors shows that amitriptylin does modify the growth characteristics of both lines (p<0.05). however, in opposite directions: The growth of the melanoma FO-1 is stimulated whereas that of the RCC is inhibited. The growth pattern analysis further indicates, that this difference mainly consists of the differential effect of amitriptylin on the growth retarding processes of the tumors: amitriptylin inhibits the initial intrinsic growth rate of both tumor lines, however, only in the case of the FO-1 does it inhibit simultaneously also the growth retarding process and, thus, it ultimately stimulates its growth. On the contrary the near exponential growth of the RCC is not affected by amitriptylin. However, it cannot be excluded that at least some of the tumor growth modifying effects of the present treatment may be attributed to the potentiation of the animal weight loss by amitriptylin in the tumor-bearing animals (p<0.05).

  11. Suppression in droplet growth kinetics by the addition of organics to sulfate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jenny P. S.; Liggio, John; Li, Shao-Meng; Nenes, Athanasios; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions are affected by the rate at which water vapor condenses onto particles during cloud droplet growth. Changes in droplet growth rates can impact cloud droplet number and size distribution. The current study investigated droplet growth kinetics of acidic and neutral sulfate particles which contained various amounts and types of organic compounds, from model compounds (carbonyls) to complex mixtures (α-pinene secondary organic aerosol and diesel engine exhaust). In most cases, the formed droplet size distributions were shifted to smaller sizes relative to control experiments (pure sulfate particles), due to suppression in droplet growth rates in the cloud condensation nuclei counter. The shift to smaller droplets correlated with increasing amounts of organic material, with the largest effect observed for acidic seed particles at low relative humidity. For all organics incorporated onto acidic particles, formation of high molecular weight compounds was observed, probably by acid-catalyzed Aldol condensation reactions in the case of carbonyls. To test the reversibility of this process, carbonyl experiments were conducted with acidic particles exposed to higher relative humidity. High molecular weight compounds were not measured in this case and no shift in droplet sizes was observed, suggesting that high molecular weight compounds are the species affecting the rate of water uptake. While these results provide laboratory evidence that organic compounds can slow droplet growth rates, the modeled mass accommodation coefficient of water on these particles (α > 0.1) indicates that this effect is unlikely to significantly affect cloud properties, consistent with infrequent field observations of slower droplet growth rates.

  12. Prognostic markers and tumour growth kinetics in melanoma patients progressing on vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Heike; Fisher, Rosalie; Martin-Liberal, Juan; Edmonds, Kim; Hughes, Peta; Khabra, Komel; Gore, Martin; Larkin, James

    2016-04-01

    The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib is an effective drug in patients with BRAF mutant metastatic melanoma, but resistance occurs after a median of 6 months. The anti-CTLA4-antibody, ipilimumab, is a standard first-line and second-line treatment option in Europe, with a median time to response of 2-3 months, but some patients show rapid clinical deterioration before that. The aim of this analysis was to identify prognostic markers for survival after failure of vemurafenib treatment to identify patients who have a sufficient life expectancy to respond to new immunotherapy treatments. We retrospectively analysed 101 consecutive unselected patients treated with vemurafenib for metastatic melanoma at a single institution. The association between clinical parameters and death within 3 months after cessation of vemurafenib (n=69) was assessed by binary logistic and Cox regression. Of the patients, 45% died within 3 months of progression on vemurafenib. Elevated baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase, absence of normalization of serum lactate dehydrogenase on vemurafenib therapy, performance status of at least 2 at progression and time from primary tumour to metastatic disease less than 5 years were identified as poor prognostic markers. In an exploratory tumour growth kinetics analysis (n=16), we found that following cessation of vemurafenib, approximately a third each showed a stable, decelerated or accelerated rate of tumour growth. Patients with these poor prognostic markers are unlikely to have sufficient life expectancy to complete ipilimumab treatment after failure with vemurafenib. Consideration needs to be given to the elective use of immunotherapy before patients become resistant to vemurafenib. This requires prospective randomized evaluation. Our tumour growth kinetics analysis requires confirmation; however, it may suggest that intermittent vemurafenib treatment should be investigated in clinical trials.

  13. Troilite formation kinetics and growth mechanism in the solar nebula. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Troilite formation via the reaction Fe(s) + H2S(g) + H2(g) is the major mechanism for S retention in grains in the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations predict that troilite condenses from a solar composition gas. We present experimental results on the kinetics and growth of troilite crystals on Fe metal at temperature (450-650 C) and composition (50-1000 ppm H2S in H2) conditions similar to those in the solar nebula. The fraction of Fe reacted (based on gravimetric data) is plotted at 450, 505, 575, and 650 C. The thickness change of unreacted iron (measured by optical microscopy) is plotted at 575 and 650 C vs. time. the weight change per unit area varies as the square root of time at the lower temperatures and varies linearly with time at the highest temperature. The growth behavior along the lower isotherms is due to diffusion. This behavior suggests sulfide diffusion to the metal-sulfide interface and suggests Fe(2+) diffusion to the sulfide-gas interface. The reaction along the highest isotherm appears to be interface controlled. The formation of troilite crystals is a rapid process forming measurable layers in a few hours. The crystalgrowth is complicated. Initially there are intergrowths of troilite into the pure Fe metal. As the reaction progresses two distinct layers of troilite crystals form. One is in contact with the Fe metal and consists of small randomly oriented crystals with pore space between them. The outermost layer contains large crystals that are all oriented in the same direction. The intergrowth layer is much smaller at 650 C than at 575 C. This suggest that FeS nucleation is inhibited at the higher temperature, accounting for the initially slower reaction rate. Once nucleated, the reaction kinetics are apparently controlled by the growth of the crystals at the interface.

  14. Prognostic markers and tumour growth kinetics in melanoma patients progressing on vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Heike; Fisher, Rosalie; Martin-Liberal, Juan; Edmonds, Kim; Hughes, Peta; Khabra, Komel; Gore, Martin; Larkin, James

    2016-04-01

    The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib is an effective drug in patients with BRAF mutant metastatic melanoma, but resistance occurs after a median of 6 months. The anti-CTLA4-antibody, ipilimumab, is a standard first-line and second-line treatment option in Europe, with a median time to response of 2-3 months, but some patients show rapid clinical deterioration before that. The aim of this analysis was to identify prognostic markers for survival after failure of vemurafenib treatment to identify patients who have a sufficient life expectancy to respond to new immunotherapy treatments. We retrospectively analysed 101 consecutive unselected patients treated with vemurafenib for metastatic melanoma at a single institution. The association between clinical parameters and death within 3 months after cessation of vemurafenib (n=69) was assessed by binary logistic and Cox regression. Of the patients, 45% died within 3 months of progression on vemurafenib. Elevated baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase, absence of normalization of serum lactate dehydrogenase on vemurafenib therapy, performance status of at least 2 at progression and time from primary tumour to metastatic disease less than 5 years were identified as poor prognostic markers. In an exploratory tumour growth kinetics analysis (n=16), we found that following cessation of vemurafenib, approximately a third each showed a stable, decelerated or accelerated rate of tumour growth. Patients with these poor prognostic markers are unlikely to have sufficient life expectancy to complete ipilimumab treatment after failure with vemurafenib. Consideration needs to be given to the elective use of immunotherapy before patients become resistant to vemurafenib. This requires prospective randomized evaluation. Our tumour growth kinetics analysis requires confirmation; however, it may suggest that intermittent vemurafenib treatment should be investigated in clinical trials. PMID:26684061

  15. Observational Constraints on Modeling Growth and Evaporation Kinetics of Isoprene SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shilling, J. E.; Zelenyuk, A.; Liu, J.; Wilson, J. M.; Laskin, A.; Wang, B.; Fast, J. D.; Easter, R. C.; Wang, J.; Kuang, C.; Thornton, J. A.; Setyan, A.; Zhang, Q.; Onasch, T. B.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Isoprene is thought to be a major contributor to the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget, and therefore has the potential to exert a significant influence on earth's climate via aerosol direct and indirect radiative effects. Both aerosol optical and cloud condensation nuclei properties are quite sensitive to aerosol number size distribution, as opposed to the total aerosol mass concentration. Recent studies suggest that SOA particles can be highly viscous, which can affect the kinetics of SOA partitioning and size distribution evolution when the condensing organic vapors are semi-volatile. In this study, we examine the growth kinetics of SOA formed from isoprene photooxidation in the presence of pre-existing Aitken and accumulation mode aerosols in: (a) the ambient atmosphere during the CARES field campaign, and (b) the environmental chamber at PNNL. Each growth episode is analyzed and interpreted with the updated MOSAIC aerosol box model, which performs kinetic gas-particle partitioning of SOA and takes into account diffusion and chemical reaction within the particle phase. The model is initialized with the observed aerosol size distribution and composition at the beginning of the experiment, and the total amount of SOA formed in the model at any given time is constrained by the observed total amount of SOA formed. The variable model parameters include the number of condensing organic species, their gas-phase formation rates, their effective volatilities, and their bulk diffusivities in the Aitken and accumulation modes. The objective of the constrained modeling exercise is then to determine which model configuration is able to best reproduce the observed size distribution evolution, thus providing valuable insights into the possible mechanism of SOA formation. We also examine the evaporation kinetics of size-selected particles formed in the environmental chamber to provide additional constraints on the effective volatility and bulk diffusivity of the

  16. Effect of damage rate on the kinetics of void nucleation and growth by phase field modeling for materials under irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xuejian; Zhao, Jiejiang; Huang, Hao; Ding, Shurong; Huo, Yongzhong

    2016-11-01

    The void formation and growth in materials under irradiations is studied by a modified Cahn-Hilliard equation coupled with the explicit nucleation algorithm. Through the numerical simulations, the stages of incubation, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the irradiation induced voids are clearly observed with a faster kinetics for stronger damage rate. There seems to exist a critical damage rate g˙vc at which the kinetics speeds up significantly. For smaller damage rates, very few voids can be nucleated. But the nucleated voids can grow rather large with its average radius growing as Rv ∝t1/d. For stronger irradiations, much more voids could be nucleated, but they cannot grow very large before coarsening. The growth follows a much faster kinetics as Rv ∝t2/d. The critical damage rate g˙vc should be determined by the competition of the rate of diffusion and the rate of vacancy production due to irradiations.

  17. Notes on Interface Growth Kinetics 50 Years after Burton, Cabrera and Frank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    This overview is devoted to some unresolved basic problems in crystal growth kinetics. The density wave approach to propagation of a spatially diffuse interface between a growing crystal and its simple (e.g., metallic) melt is discussed is Section 2. This approach allows for the calculation of kinetic coefficients and is an alternative to the localized interface concept in which each atom belongs to either a solid or a liquid. Sections 3 and 4 deals mainly with layer growth from solution. Mutual retardation of the growth steps via their bulk and d a c e diffusion fields is the major subject. The influence of solution flow on step bunching (Section 4) suggests the essential influence of bulk diffusion on the surface morphology. The flow within the solution boundary layer enhances step-step interaction, influences the step bunching process and the resulting step pattern morphology on the growing surface. Recent experiments on the rates at which strongly polygonized steps on protein and small molecule crystals propagate during growth from solution are analyzed in Section 5 . We have shown that the step segments may be "singular" and that "one-dimensional nucleation" may be the rate limiting stage for the segments that are shorter or comparable in length to the thermodynamically equilibrium interlink distance. In this case, the reciprocal dependence of the segment propagation rate on the segment length that follow from the Gibbs-Thompson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch from zero to a finite constant velocity. Until recently, the Kossel crystal remained the only model used in crystal growth theory. In such Kossel Gibbs-Thomson law, should be replaced by an abrupt switch &om zero to a finite constant velocity. crystals, all kinks at the steps are identical and the kink rate is a linear function of the supersaturation. In the non-Kossel crystals, there may be several kink configurations characterized by different geometries and energies. These configurations

  18. Growth rate for blackhole instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, Kartik; Wald, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Hollands and Wald showed that dynamic stability of stationary axisymmetric black holes is equivalent to positivity of canonical energy on a space of linearised axisymmetric perturbations satisfying certain boundary and gauge conditions. Using a reflection isometry of the background, we split the energy into kinetic and potential parts. We show that the kinetic energy is positive. In the case that potential energy is negative, we show existence of exponentially growing perturbations and further obtain a variational formula for the growth rate.

  19. A diffusion-controlled kinetic model for growth of Au-catalyzed ZnO nanorods: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, S. R.; Madaah Hosseini, H. R.

    2007-11-01

    A kinetic model for growth of ZnO nanorods via vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism based on the bulk diffusion of Zn atoms through the Au-Zn droplet is presented. The dependences of the growth rate on size are given quantitatively. A general expression for the growth rate of nanorods during VLS process is derived. The derived formula shows the dependences of growth rate on lateral size of nanorods, concentration and supersaturation of Zn atoms in the liquid droplet. Based on the presented kinetic model the smaller nanorods have faster growth rate. Au-catalyzed ZnO nanorods are grown by chemical vapor transport and condensation (CVTC) process experimentally. Theoretical and experimental rate/radius curves are compared to each other. Theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Influence of Nitrogen Content on Thermal Stability and Grain Growth Kinetics of Cryomilled Al Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi-Sadraei, L.; Mousavi, S. E.; Vogt, R.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Lavernia, E. J.; Schoenung, J. M.

    2012-02-01

    Nanocomposite powders of Al 5083/B4C were produced via cryogenic milling (cryomilling) of boron carbide (B4C) particles in Al 5083 matrix. The effect of milling time (up to 24 hours), and consequential nitrogen content, on grain growth in the nanocrystalline Al 5083 matrix was investigated. Thermal stability was studied at temperatures as high as ~0.96 T m and annealing times of up to 24 hours. Average grain sizes increased with time and temperature and tended to stabilize after longer annealing times, regardless of nitrogen content. Higher thermal stability was observed in samples with higher nitrogen content, with the average grain size remaining in the range of 30 nm, even after exposure to the most extreme annealing conditions. This behavior was attributed to the retarding effect that nitrides have on grain growth, as a result of pinning grain boundaries. Kinetic studies based on the Burke equation showed two thermally activated grain growth regimes—a low-temperature regime with an activation energy of 15 kJ/mol and a high-temperature regime with an activation energy of 58 kJ/mol.

  1. On the Matrix Exponential Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Shui-Hung; Hou, Edwin; Pang, Wan-Kai

    2006-01-01

    A novel and simple formula for computing the matrix exponential function is presented. Specifically, it can be used to derive explicit formulas for the matrix exponential of a general matrix A satisfying p(A) = 0 for a polynomial p(s). It is ready for use in a classroom and suitable for both hand as well as symbolic computation.

  2. Kinetics of subdiffusive growth of new phase particles in supersaturated solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Svetukhin, V. V. Sibatov, R. T.

    2015-04-15

    The kinetics of the subdiffusion-limited growth of spherical precipitates is studied. The process is described by the equation of anomalous diffusion with a fractional derivative with respect to time. It is shown that a decrease in the concentration of monomers is described by the law exp(−kt{sup 3α/2}) at the initial stage and the power law t{sup −α} at large times, where 0 < α ≤ 1 is the dispersion parameter coinciding with the order of time derivative in the subdiffusion equation. The time dependence of the size of a spherical precipitate is obtained. The results generalize the Ham diffusion theory and are in agreement with the Monte Carlo simulation data.

  3. Solubility, phase transition, kinetic ripening and growth rates of porcine pancreatic α-amylase isoenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boistelle, Roland; Astier, Jean Pierre; Marchis-Mouren, Guy; Desseaux, Véronique; Haser, Richard

    1992-09-01

    Two polymorphic modifications, A and B, of porcine pancreatic α-amylase were grown between 4 and 30°C. A and B crystals are made up by two isoenzymes so that four crystal varieties (AI, AII, BI, BII) exist. A and B are easily distinguished due to their typical crystal habits but there is no difference between AI and AII or BI and BII respectively at least as concerns their unit cells, crystal habits and solubilities for instance. On the other hand, the growth rates are somewhat different, even if the overall rate determining step is volume diffusion. The transition temperature between A and B polymorphs is 18°C, A being stable above this temperature. A and B can undergo a phase transition by slightly changing the temperature around the transition point. Kinetic ripening experiments show that ripening can be used for growing larger crystals at the expenses of smaller ones.

  4. The kinetics of dolomite reaction rim growth under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. G.; Abart, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    During burial and exhumation, rocks are simultaneously exposed to metamorphic reactions and tectonic stresses. Therefore, the reaction rate of newly formed minerals may depend on chemical and mechanical driving forces. Here, we investigate the reaction kinetics of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) rim growth by solid-state reactions experiments on oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions. Cylindrical samples of 3-5 mm length and 7 mm diameter were drilled and polished perpendicular to the rhombohedral cleavage planes of natural clear crystals. The tests were performed using a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at P = 400 MPa confining pressure, temperatures, T, between 750 and 850°C, and reaction durations, t, of 2 - 146 h to calculate the kinetic parameters of dolomite rim growth under isostatic stress conditions. For non-isostatic reaction experiments we applied in addition differential stresses, σ, up to 40 MPa perpendicular to the contact interface at T = 750°C for 4 - 171 h duration, initiating minor inelastic deformation of calcite. The thickness of the resulting dolomite reaction rims increases linearly with the square root of time, indicating a diffusion-controlled reaction. The rims consist of two different textural domains. Granular dolomite grains (≈ 2 -5 μm grain size) form next to calcite and elongated palisade-shaped grains (1-6 μm diameter) grow perpendicular to the magnesite interface. Texture measurements with the electron backscatter diffraction technique indicate that the orientations of dolomite grains are mainly influenced by the orientation of the calcite educt crystal, in particular in the granular rim. To some extent, the texture of dolomite palisades is also influenced by the orientation of magnesite. The thickness of the two individual layers increases with temperature. At 400 MPa isostatic pressure, T = 750°C and t = 29 hours, a 5 μm thick granular dolomite layer

  5. Kinetics of low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 on InP and Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 from SiH4 and O2 has been investigated for the case of an indirect (remote) plasma process. Homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous operating ranges have been experimentally identified. The process was shown to be consistent within the heterogeneous surface-reaction dominated range of operation. A kinetic rate equation is given for growth at 14 W RF power input and 400 mtorr total pressure on both InP and Si substrates. The process exhibits an activation energy of 8.4 + or - 0.6 kcal/mol.

  6. Enhanced Generic Phase-field Model of Irradiation Materials: Fission Gas Bubble Growth Kinetics in Polycrystalline UO2

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin

    2012-05-30

    Experiments show that inter-granular and intra-granular gas bubbles have different growth kinetics which results in heterogeneous gas bubble microstructures in irradiated nuclear fuels. A science-based model predicting the heterogeneous microstructure evolution kinetics is desired, which enables one to study the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the system on gas bubble microstructure evolution kinetics and morphology, improve the understanding of the formation mechanisms of heterogeneous gas bubble microstructure, and provide the microstructure to macroscale approaches to study their impact on thermo-mechanical properties such as thermo-conductivity, gas release, volume swelling, and cracking. In our previous report 'Mesoscale Benchmark Demonstration, Problem 1: Mesoscale Simulations of Intra-granular Fission Gas Bubbles in UO2 under Post-irradiation Thermal Annealing', we developed a phase-field model to simulate the intra-granular gas bubble evolution in a single crystal during post-irradiation thermal annealing. In this work, we enhanced the model by incorporating thermodynamic and kinetic properties at grain boundaries, which can be obtained from atomistic simulations, to simulate fission gas bubble growth kinetics in polycrystalline UO2 fuels. The model takes into account of gas atom and vacancy diffusion, vacancy trapping and emission at defects, gas atom absorption and resolution at gas bubbles, internal pressure in gas bubbles, elastic interaction between defects and gas bubbles, and the difference of thermodynamic and kinetic properties in matrix and grain boundaries. We applied the model to simulate gas atom segregation at grain boundaries and the effect of interfacial energy and gas mobility on gas bubble morphology and growth kinetics in a bi-crystal UO2 during post-irradiation thermal annealing. The preliminary results demonstrate that the model can produce the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and the morphology of gas bubbles at

  7. Non-classical nuclei and growth kinetics of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys during ageing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Xin

    2014-01-10

    In this manuscript, we quantitatively calculated the thermodynamic properties of critical nuclei of Cr precipitates in FeCr alloys. The concentration profiles of the critical nuclei and nucleation energy barriers were predicted by the constrained shrinking dimer dynamics (CSDD) method. It is found that Cr concentration distribution in the critical nuclei strongly depend on the overall Cr concentration as well as temperature. The critical nuclei are non-classical because the concentration in the nuclei is smaller than the thermodynamic equilibrium value. These results are in agreement with atomic probe observation. The growth kinetics of both classical and non-classical nuclei was investigated by the phase field approach. The simulations of critical nucleus evolution showed a number of interesting phenomena: 1) a critical classical nucleus first shrinks toward its non-classical nucleus and then grows; 2) a non-classical nucleus has much slower growth kinetics at its earlier growth stage compared to the diffusion-controlled growth kinetics. 3) a critical classical nucleus grows faster at the earlier growth stage than the non-classical nucleus. All of these results demonstrate that it is critical to introduce the correct critical nuclei in order to correctly capture the kinetics of precipitation.

  8. D-Alanylation of Teichoic Acids and Loss of Poly-N-Acetyl Glucosamine in Staphylococcus aureus during Exponential Growth Phase Enhance IL-12 Production in Murine Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Lisbeth Drozd; Ingmer, Hanne; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that has evolved very efficient immune evading strategies leading to persistent colonization. During different stages of growth, S. aureus express various surface molecules, which may affect the immune stimulating properties, but very little is known about their role in immune stimulation and evasion. Depending on the growth phase, S. aureus may affect antigen presenting cells differently. Here, the impact of growth phases and the surface molecules lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan and poly-N-acetyl glucosamine on the induction of IL-12 imperative for an efficient clearance of S. aureus was studied in dendritic cells (DCs). Exponential phase (EP) S. aureus was superior to stationary phase (SP) bacteria in induction of IL-12, which required actin-mediated endocytosis and endosomal acidification. Moreover, addition of staphylococcal cell wall derived peptidoglycan to EP S. aureus stimulated cells increased bacterial uptake but abrogated IL-12 induction, while addition of lipoteichoic acid increased IL-12 production but had no effect on the bacterial uptake. Depletion of the capability to produce poly-N-acetyl glucosamine increased the IL-12 inducing activity of EP bacteria. Furthermore, the mutant dltA unable to produce D-alanylated teichoic acids failed to induce IL-12 but like peptidoglycan and the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands LPS and Pam3CSK4 the mutant stimulated increased macropinocytosis. In conclusion, the IL-12 response by DCs against S. aureus is highly growth phase dependent, relies on cell wall D-alanylation, endocytosis and subsequent endosomal degradation, and is abrogated by receptor induced macropinocytosis. PMID:26872029

  9. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Cooked Potato and Potato Salad--A One-Step Kinetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive spherically-shaped bacterium capable of producing heat-stable enterotoxins that cause acute gastrointestinal diseases. The growth of this pathogen in food is a major threat to public health worldwide. Potato salad is a frequent vehicle for infection and food poisoning caused by S. aureus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of S. aureus in cooked potato and potato salad. Samples of potato cubes and potato salad inoculated with S. aureus were incubated at temperatures between 8 and 43 °C to observe its growth for developing growth models. No growth was observed at 8 °C. The experimental results showed that the growth curves did not exhibit lag phases, and can be described by a 3-parameter logistic model. A one-step kinetic analysis approach was used to simultaneously analyze all growth curves by direct construction of both the primary and secondary (Ratkowsky square root) models using nonlinear regression to minimize the global residual error. The estimated nominal minimum growth temperature of S. aureus was 6.12 °C in potato cubes and 8.80 °C in potato salad. The estimated maximum growth temperatures of S. aureus in potato cubes and potato salad were very close to each other (46.3 and 46.8 °C, respectively). On the average, the specific growth rates of S. aureus in potato cubes were approximately 70% higher than those in potato salad. This study suggests that cooked potato and potato salad should be stored below 6 °C or above 47 °C to prevent the growth of S. aureus. The mathematical models and kinetic parameters can be used to accurately evaluate the effect of temperature abuse on the growth of S. aureus and conduct risk assessments of S. aureus in cooked potato and potato salad. PMID:26539902

  10. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Cooked Potato and Potato Salad--A One-Step Kinetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive spherically-shaped bacterium capable of producing heat-stable enterotoxins that cause acute gastrointestinal diseases. The growth of this pathogen in food is a major threat to public health worldwide. Potato salad is a frequent vehicle for infection and food poisoning caused by S. aureus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of S. aureus in cooked potato and potato salad. Samples of potato cubes and potato salad inoculated with S. aureus were incubated at temperatures between 8 and 43 °C to observe its growth for developing growth models. No growth was observed at 8 °C. The experimental results showed that the growth curves did not exhibit lag phases, and can be described by a 3-parameter logistic model. A one-step kinetic analysis approach was used to simultaneously analyze all growth curves by direct construction of both the primary and secondary (Ratkowsky square root) models using nonlinear regression to minimize the global residual error. The estimated nominal minimum growth temperature of S. aureus was 6.12 °C in potato cubes and 8.80 °C in potato salad. The estimated maximum growth temperatures of S. aureus in potato cubes and potato salad were very close to each other (46.3 and 46.8 °C, respectively). On the average, the specific growth rates of S. aureus in potato cubes were approximately 70% higher than those in potato salad. This study suggests that cooked potato and potato salad should be stored below 6 °C or above 47 °C to prevent the growth of S. aureus. The mathematical models and kinetic parameters can be used to accurately evaluate the effect of temperature abuse on the growth of S. aureus and conduct risk assessments of S. aureus in cooked potato and potato salad.

  11. Estimation of the growth kinetic parameters of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by pulsed light treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; de Fernando, Gonzalo García; Hierro, Eva; Hospital, Xavier F; Ordóñez, Juan A; Fernández, Manuela

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment requires the knowledge of the effect of food preservation technologies on the growth parameters of the survivors of the treatment. This is of special interest in the case of the new non-thermal technologies that are being investigated for minimal processing of foods. This is a study on the effect of pulsed light technology (PL) on the lag phase of Bacillus cereus spores surviving the treatment and the maximum growth rate (μmax) of the survivors after germination. The D value was estimated as 0.35 J/cm(2) and our findings showed that PL affected the kinetic parameters of the microorganism. A log linear relationship was observed between the lag phase and the intensity of the treatment. Increasing the lethality lengthened the mean lag phase and proportionally increased its variability. A polynomial regression was fitted between the μmax of the survivors and the inactivation achieved. The μmax decreased as intensity increased. From these data, and their comparison to published results on the effect of heat and e-beam irradiation on B. cereus spores, it was observed that the shelf-life of PL treated foods would be longer than those treated with heat and similar to irradiated ones. These findings offer information of interest for the implementation of PL for microbial decontamination in the food industry. PMID:25755081

  12. Estimation of the growth kinetic parameters of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by pulsed light treatment.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Juan S; de Fernando, Gonzalo García; Hierro, Eva; Hospital, Xavier F; Ordóñez, Juan A; Fernández, Manuela

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessment requires the knowledge of the effect of food preservation technologies on the growth parameters of the survivors of the treatment. This is of special interest in the case of the new non-thermal technologies that are being investigated for minimal processing of foods. This is a study on the effect of pulsed light technology (PL) on the lag phase of Bacillus cereus spores surviving the treatment and the maximum growth rate (μmax) of the survivors after germination. The D value was estimated as 0.35 J/cm(2) and our findings showed that PL affected the kinetic parameters of the microorganism. A log linear relationship was observed between the lag phase and the intensity of the treatment. Increasing the lethality lengthened the mean lag phase and proportionally increased its variability. A polynomial regression was fitted between the μmax of the survivors and the inactivation achieved. The μmax decreased as intensity increased. From these data, and their comparison to published results on the effect of heat and e-beam irradiation on B. cereus spores, it was observed that the shelf-life of PL treated foods would be longer than those treated with heat and similar to irradiated ones. These findings offer information of interest for the implementation of PL for microbial decontamination in the food industry.

  13. Kinetic aspects of the thermostatted growth of ice from supercooled water in simulations.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Volker C; Rullich, Markus; Köhler, Christof; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2011-07-21

    In experiments, the growth rate of ice from supercooled water is seen to increase with the degree of supercooling, that is, the lower the temperature, the faster the crystallization takes place. In molecular dynamics simulations of the freezing process, however, the temperature is usually kept constant by means of a thermostat that artificially removes the heat released during the crystallization by scaling the velocities of the particles. This direct removal of energy from the system replaces a more realistic heat-conduction mechanism and is believed to be responsible for the curious observation that the thermostatted ice growth proceeds fastest near the melting point and more slowly at lower temperatures, which is exactly opposite to the experimental findings [M. A. Carignano, P. B. Shepson, and I. Szleifer, Mol. Phys. 103, 2957 (2005)]. This trend is explained by the diffusion and the reorientation of molecules in the liquid becoming the rate-determining steps for the crystal growth, both of which are slower at low temperatures. Yet, for a different set of simulations, a kinetic behavior analogous to the experimental finding has been reported [H. Nada and Y. Furukawa, J. Crystal Growth 283, 242 (2005)]. To clarify this apparent contradiction, we perform relatively long simulations of the TIP4P/Ice model in an extended range of temperatures. The temperature dependence of the thermostatted ice growth is seen to be more complex than was previously reported: The crystallization process is very slow close to the melting point at 270 K, where the thermodynamic driving force for the phase transition is weak. On lowering the temperature, the growth rate initially increases, but displays a maximum near 260 K. At even lower temperatures, the freezing process slows down again due to the reduced diffusivity in the liquid. The velocity of the thermostatted melting process, in contrast, shows a monotonic increase upon raising the temperature beyond the normal melting point

  14. Kinetic aspects of the thermostatted growth of ice from supercooled water in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Volker C.; Rullich, Markus; Köhler, Christof; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    In experiments, the growth rate of ice from supercooled water is seen to increase with the degree of supercooling, that is, the lower the temperature, the faster the crystallization takes place. In molecular dynamics simulations of the freezing process, however, the temperature is usually kept constant by means of a thermostat that artificially removes the heat released during the crystallization by scaling the velocities of the particles. This direct removal of energy from the system replaces a more realistic heat-conduction mechanism and is believed to be responsible for the curious observation that the thermostatted ice growth proceeds fastest near the melting point and more slowly at lower temperatures, which is exactly opposite to the experimental findings [M. A. Carignano, P. B. Shepson, and I. Szleifer, Mol. Phys. 103, 2957 (2005), 10.1080/00268970500243796]. This trend is explained by the diffusion and the reorientation of molecules in the liquid becoming the rate-determining steps for the crystal growth, both of which are slower at low temperatures. Yet, for a different set of simulations, a kinetic behavior analogous to the experimental finding has been reported [H. Nada and Y. Furukawa, J. Crystal Growth 283, 242 (2005), 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.05.057]. To clarify this apparent contradiction, we perform relatively long simulations of the TIP4P/Ice model in an extended range of temperatures. The temperature dependence of the thermostatted ice growth is seen to be more complex than was previously reported: The crystallization process is very slow close to the melting point at 270 K, where the thermodynamic driving force for the phase transition is weak. On lowering the temperature, the growth rate initially increases, but displays a maximum near 260 K. At even lower temperatures, the freezing process slows down again due to the reduced diffusivity in the liquid. The velocity of the thermostatted melting process, in contrast, shows a monotonic increase upon

  15. In situ atomic scale visualization of surface kinetics driven dynamics of oxide growth on a Ni-Cr surface.

    PubMed

    Luo, Langli; Zou, Lianfeng; Schreiber, Daniel K; Olszta, Matthew J; Baer, Donald R; Bruemmer, Stephen M; Zhou, Guangwen; Wang, Chong-Min

    2016-02-25

    We report the in situ atomic-scale visualization of the dynamic three-dimensional growth of NiO during the initial oxidation of Ni-10at%Cr using environmental transmission electron microscopy. A step-by-step adatom growth mechanism in 3D is observed and a change in the surface planes of growing oxide islands can be induced by local surface kinetic variations. PMID:26815841

  16. Biomineralization: Systematics of organic-directed controls on carbonate growth morphologies and kinetics determined by in situ AFM. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, P.M.

    1998-12-01

    During the three years of this project, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the microscopic kinetic controls on calcite growth and in investigations of amino acid controls on modifying crystal growth and dissolution. The project began with a focus on the aspartate-calcite system because previous studies have found that acidic matrix macromolecules involved in the regulation of biological crystal growth usually contain aspartic acid-rick domains. Indeed, several studies have shown that aspartate (Asp) modifies the growth morphology of calcite. Aspartate-rich proteins and {beta}-sheet polyaspartate adsorbed on sulfonated polystyrene surfaces were shown to stabilize {l_brace}0001{r_brace} growth surfaces. It was also shown that aspartate also stabilizes the prismatic {l_brace}1{bar 1}00{r_brace} growth forms. For the first time, the author has an understanding of the microscopic controls of aspartate on growth and dissolution.

  17. Phase-field Modeling of Void Migration and Growth Kinetics in Materials under Irradiation and Temperature Field

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Gao, Fei; Henager, Charles H.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-12-15

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the migration of vacancies, interstitials, and voids as well as void growth kinetics in materials under radiation and temperature field. The model takes into account the generation of vacancies and interstitials associated with the irradiation damage, the recombination between vacancies and interstitials, defect diffusion, and defect sinks. The effect of void sizes, vacancy concentration, vacancy generation rate, recombination rate, and temperature gradient on a single void migration and growth kinetics is parametrically studied. The results demonstrate that the temperature gradient causes void migration and defect fluxes, i.e., the Soret effect, which affects void stability and growth kinetics. It is found that 1) the void migration mobility is independent of the void size, which is in agreement with the theoretical prediction with the assumption of bulk diffusion controlled migration; 2) the void migration mobility strongly depends on temperature gradient; and 3) the effect of defect concentration, generation rate, and recombination rate on void migration mobility is minor although they strongly influence the void growth kinetics.

  18. KINETICS OF GROWTH AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION ON DIFFERENT CARBON SUBSTRATES USING GENETICALLY ENGINEERED XYLOSE-FERMENTING YEAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424A (LNH-ST) strain was used for fermentation of glucose and xylose. Growth kinetics and ethanol productivity were calculated for batch fermentation on media containing different combinations of glucose and xylose to give a final sugar concentra...

  19. High-throughput quantitative analysis with cell growth kinetic curves for low copy number mutant cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, James Z; Gabos, Stephan; Huang, Biao; Pan, Tianhong; Huang, Min; Chen, Jie

    2012-10-01

    The mutation rate in cells induced by environmental genotoxic hazards is very low and difficult to detect using traditional cell counting assays. The established genetic toxicity tests currently recognized by regulatory authorities, such as conventional Ames and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) assays, are not well suited for higher-throughput screening as they require large amounts of test compounds and are very time consuming. In this study, we developed a novel cell-based assay for quantitative analysis of low numbers of cell copies with HPRT mutation induced by an environmental mutagen. The HPRT gene mutant cells induced by the mutagen were selected by 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and the cell's kinetic growth curve monitored by a real-time cell electronic sensor (RT-CES) system. When a threshold is set at a certain cell index (CI) level, samples with different initial mutant cell copies take different amounts of time in order for their growth (or CI accumulation) to cross this threshold. The more cells that are initially seeded in the test well, the faster the cell accumulation and therefore the shorter the time required to cross this threshold. Therefore, the culture time period required to cross the threshold of each sample corresponds to the original number of cells in the sample. A mutant cell growth time threshold (MT) value of each sample can be calculated to predict the number of original mutant cells. For mutagenesis determination, the RT-CES assay displayed an equal sensitivity (p > 0.05) and coefficients of variation values with good correlation to conventional HPRT mutagenic assays. Most importantly, the RT-CES mutation assay has a higher throughput than conventional cellular assays.

  20. Kinetics of Nucleation and Crystal Growth in Glass Forming Melts in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Delbert E.; Ray, Chandra S.

    1999-01-01

    The following list summarizes the most important results that have been consistently reported for glass forming melts in microgravity: (1) Glass formation is enhanced for melts prepared in space; (2) Glasses prepared in microgravity are more chemically homogeneous and contain fewer and smaller chemically heterogeneous regions than identical glasses prepared on earth; (3) Heterogeneities that are deliberately introduced such as Pt particles are more uniformly distributed in a glass melted in space than in a glass melted on earth; (4) Glasses prepared in microgravity are more resistant to crystallization and have a higher mechanical strength and threshold energy for radiation damage; and (5) Glasses crystallized in space have a different microstructure, finer grains more uniformly distributed, than equivalent samples crystallized on earth. The preceding results are not only scientifically interesting, but they have considerable practical implications. These results suggest that the microgravity environment is advantageous for developing new and improved glasses and glass-ceramics that are difficult to prepare on earth. However, there is no suitable explanation at this time for why a glass melted in microgravity will be more chemically homogeneous and more resistant to crystallization than a glass melted on earth. A fundamental investigation of melt homogenization, nucleation, and crystal growth processes in glass forming melts in microgravity is important to understanding these consistently observed, but yet unexplained results. This is the objective of the present research. A lithium disilicate (Li2O.2SiO2) glass will be used for this investigation, since it is a well studied system, and the relevant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for nucleation and crystal growth at 1-g are available. The results from this research are expected to improve our present understanding of the fundamental mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth in melts and liquids, and to lead

  1. Growth Kinetics, Characterization, and Plasticity of Human Menstrual Blood Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Nazarabadi, Roshanak Bahrami; Kasraeian, Maryam; Tamadon, Amin; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Vahdati, Akbar; Zare, Shahrokh; Ghobadi, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    One of the readily available sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is menstrual blood-derived stem cells (Men-SCs), which exhibit characteristics similar to other types of MSCs. This study was performed to determine the growth kinetics, plasticity, and characterization of Men-SCs in women. During spring 2014 in the southern Iranian city of Shiraz, menstrual blood (5 mL) was obtained from 10 women on their third day of menstruation in 2 age groups of 30 to 40 and 40 to 50 years old. Ficoll was used to separate the mononuclear cell fraction. After the Men-SCs were cultured, they were subcultured up to passage 4. Growth behavior and population doubling time were evaluated by seeding 5×104 cells into 12- and 24-well culture plates, and the colonies were enumerated. The expression of CD44, CD90, and CD34 was evaluated. The osteogenic potential was assessed by alizarin red staining. The Men-SCs were shown to be plastic adherent and spindle-shaped. Regarding the growth curves in the 12- and 24-well culture plates, it was demonstrated that in the women aged between 30 and 40 years, population doubling time was 55.5 and 62 hours, respectively, while these values in the women aged between 40 and 50 years were 70.4 and 72.4 hours, correspondingly. Positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD34 were noted. In the osteogenic differentiation medium, the cells differentiated toward osteoblasts. As human Men-SCs are easily collectable without any invasive procedure and are a safe and rapid source of MSCs, they can be a good candidate for stem cell banking and cell transplantation in women. PMID:26989284

  2. Growth Kinetics, Characterization, and Plasticity of Human Menstrual Blood Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Nazarabadi, Roshanak Bahrami; Kasraeian, Maryam; Tamadon, Amin; Dianatpour, Mehdi; Vahdati, Akbar; Zare, Shahrokh; Ghobadi, Farnaz

    2016-03-01

    One of the readily available sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is menstrual blood-derived stem cells (Men-SCs), which exhibit characteristics similar to other types of MSCs. This study was performed to determine the growth kinetics, plasticity, and characterization of Men-SCs in women. During spring 2014 in the southern Iranian city of Shiraz, menstrual blood (5 mL) was obtained from 10 women on their third day of menstruation in 2 age groups of 30 to 40 and 40 to 50 years old. Ficoll was used to separate the mononuclear cell fraction. After the Men-SCs were cultured, they were subcultured up to passage 4. Growth behavior and population doubling time were evaluated by seeding 5×10(4) cells into 12- and 24-well culture plates, and the colonies were enumerated. The expression of CD44, CD90, and CD34 was evaluated. The osteogenic potential was assessed by alizarin red staining. The Men-SCs were shown to be plastic adherent and spindle-shaped. Regarding the growth curves in the 12- and 24-well culture plates, it was demonstrated that in the women aged between 30 and 40 years, population doubling time was 55.5 and 62 hours, respectively, while these values in the women aged between 40 and 50 years were 70.4 and 72.4 hours, correspondingly. Positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD34 were noted. In the osteogenic differentiation medium, the cells differentiated toward osteoblasts. As human Men-SCs are easily collectable without any invasive procedure and are a safe and rapid source of MSCs, they can be a good candidate for stem cell banking and cell transplantation in women.

  3. The Poisson and Exponential Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Winston A.

    1978-01-01

    The students in a basic course on probability and statistics in Trinidad demonstrated that the number of fatal highway accidents appeared to follow a Poisson distribution while the length of time between deaths followed exponential distribution. (MN)

  4. Determination of kinetic parameters of crystal growth rate of borax in aqueous solution by using the rotating disc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Omer; Aslan, Fevzi; Ozdemir, Mustafa; Durgun, Mustafa

    2004-10-01

    Growth rate of polycrystalline disc of borax compressed at different pressure and rotated at various speed has been measured in a rotating disc crystallizer under well-defined conditions of supersaturation. It was found that the mass transfer coefficient, K, increased while overall growth rate constant, Kg, and surface reaction constant, kr, decreased with increasing smoothness of the disc. It was also determined that kinetic parameters (kr , r , K , g) of crystal growth rate of borax decreased with increasing rotating speed of the polycrystalline disc. The effectiveness factor was calculated from the growth rate data to evaluate the relative magnitude of the steps in series bulk diffusion through the mass transfer boundary layer and the surface integration. At low rotating speed of disc, the crystal growth rate of borax is mainly controlled by integration. However, both diffusion and integration steps affect the growth rate of borax at higher rotating speed of polycrystalline disc.

  5. A kinetic model describing cell growth and production of highly active, recombinant ice nucleation protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Palaiomylitou, M A; Matis, K A; Zouboulis, A I; Kyriakidis, D A

    2002-05-01

    A structured kinetic model, which describes the production of the recombinant ice nucleation protein in different conditions, was applied. The model parameters were estimated based on the variation of the specific growth rate and the intracellular product concentration during cultivation. The equations employed relate the cellular plasmid content or plasmid copy number with the cloned-gene expression; these correlations were successfully tested on the experimental data. The optimal nutrient conditions for the growth of Escherichia coli expressing the inaZ gene of Pseudomonas syringae were determined for the production of active ice nucleation protein. The kinetics of the cultures expressing the inaZ gene were studied in a bioreactor at different growth temperatures and nutrient conditions. PMID:11920448

  6. Kinetics of Nucleation and Crystal Growth in Glass Forming Melts in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Delbert E.; Ray, Chandra S.

    2003-01-01

    This flight definition project has the specific objective of investigating the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth in high temperature inorganic oxide, glass forming melts in microgravity. It is related to one1 of our previous NASA projects that was concerned with glass formation for high temperature containerless melts in microgravity. The previous work culminated in two experiments which were conducted aboard the space shuttle in 1983 and 1985 and which consisted of melting (at 1500 C) and cooling levitated 6 to 8 mm diameter spherical samples in a Single Axis Acoustic Levitator (SAAL) furnace. Compared to other types of materials, there have been relatively few experiments, 6 to 8, conducted on inorganic glasses in space. These experiments have been concerned with mass transport (alkali diffusion), containerless melting, critical cooling rate for glass formation, chemical homogeneity, fiber pulling, and crystallization of glass forming melts. One of the most important and consistent findings in all of these experiments has been that the glasses prepared in microgravity are more resistant to crystallization (better glass former) and more chemically homogeneous than equivalent glasses made on earth (1g). The chemical composition of the melt appears relatively unimportant since the same general results have been reported for oxide, fluoride and chalcogenide melts. These results for space-processed glasses have important implications, since glasses with a higher resistance to crystallization or higher chemical homogeneity than those attainable on earth can significantly advance applications in areas such as fiber optics communications, high power laser glasses, and other photonic devices where glasses are the key functional materials. The classical theories for nucleation and crystal growth for a glass or melt do not contain any parameter that is directly dependent upon the g-value, so it is not readily apparent why glasses prepared in microgravity should be

  7. Discovery of novel insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitors with unique time-dependent binding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meizhong; Petronella, Brenda A; Cooke, Andy; Kadalbajoo, Mridula; Siu, Kam W; Kleinberg, Andrew; May, Earl W; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Schulz, Ryan; Kahler, Jennifer; Bittner, Mark A; Foreman, Kenneth; Pachter, Jonathan A; Wild, Robert; Epstein, David; Mulvihill, Mark J

    2013-07-11

    This letter describes a series of small molecule inhibitors of IGF-1R with unique time-dependent binding kinetics and slow off-rates. Structure-activity and structure-kinetic relationships were elucidated and guided further optimizations within the series, culminating in compound 2. With an IGF-1R dissociative half-life (t 1/2) of >100 h, compound 2 demonstrated significant and extended PD effects in conjunction with tumor growth inhibition in xenograft models at a remarkably low and intermittent dose, which correlated with the observed in vitro slow off-rate properties. PMID:24900721

  8. Growth kinetics of hexagonal sub-micrometric β-tricalcium phosphate particles in ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Galea, Laetitia; Bohner, Marc; Thuering, Juerg; Doebelin, Nicola; Ring, Terry A; Aneziris, Christos G; Graule, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Recently, uniform, non-agglomerated, hexagonal β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) platelets (diameter≈400-1700nm, h≈100-200nm) were obtained at fairly moderate temperatures (90-170°C) by precipitation in ethylene glycol. Unfortunately, the platelet aspect ratios (diameter/thickness) obtained in the latter study were too small to optimize the strength of polymer-β-TCP composites. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate β-TCP platelet crystallization kinetics, and based on this, to find ways to better control the β-TCP aspect ratio. For that purpose, precipitations were performed at different temperatures (90-170°C) and precursor concentrations (4, 16 and 32mM). Solution aliquots were retrieved at regular intervals (10s-24h), and the size of the particles was measured on scanning electron microscopy images, hence allowing the determination of the particle growth rates. The β-TCP platelets were observed to nucleate and grow very rapidly. For example, the first crystals were observed after 30s at 150°C, and crystallization was complete within 2min. The crystal growth curves could be well-fitted with both diffusion- and reaction-controlled equations, but the high activation energies (∼100kJmol(-1)) pointed towards a reaction-controlled mechanism. The results revealed that the best way to increase the diameter and aspect ratio of the platelets was to increase the precursor concentration. Aspect ratios as high as 14 were obtained, but the synthesis of such particles was always associated with the presence of large fractions of monetite impurities. PMID:24632361

  9. Kinetics of Diffusional Droplet Growth in a Liquid/Liquid Two-Phase System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Fradkov, V. E.

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of diffusional interactions in a finite sized cluster of spherical particles for volume fractions, V(sub v) in the range 0-0.01. We determined the quasi-static monopole diffusion solution for n particles distributed at random in a continuous matrix. A global mass conservation condition is employed, obviating the need for any external boundary condition. The numerical results provide the instantaneous (snapshot) growth or shrinkage rate of each particle, precluding the need for extensive time-dependent computations. The close connection between these snapshot results and the coarsegrained kinetic constants are discussed. A square-root dependence of the deviations of the rate constants from their zero volume fraction value is found for the higher V(sub v) investigated. This behavior is consistent with predictions from diffusion Debye-Huckel screening theory. By contrast, a cube-root dependence, reported in earlier numerical studies, is found for the lower V(sub v) investigated. The roll-over region of the volume fraction where the two asymptotics merge depends on the number of particles, n, alone. A theoretical estimate for the roll-over point predicts that the corresponding V(sub v) varies as n(sup -2), in good agreement with the numerical results.

  10. Different antibacterial activity of novel theophylline-based ionic liquids - Growth kinetic and cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Cłapa, Tomasz; Narożna, Dorota; Selwet, Marek; Pęziak, Daria; Markiewicz, Bartosz; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate novel theophylline-based ionic liquids and their cytotoxic effects towards model Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, respectively). Growth kinetics, respiratory rates and dehydrogenase activities were studied in the presence of ionic liquids at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000mg/L. Additionally, the influence of ionic liquids on bacterial cells associated with specific interactions based on the structure of cell wall was evaluated. This effect was assessed by viability tests and scanning electron microscope observations. The obtained results confirmed that ionic liquids exhibit different levels of toxicity in relation to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Those effects are associated with the chemical structure of the cationic species of the ionic liquids and their critical micelle concentration value. It was established that the presence of an alkyl or allyl group increased the toxicity, whereas the presence of an aryl group in the cation decreased the toxic effect of ILs. Results presented in this study also revealed unexpected effects of self-aggregation of E. coli cells. Overall, it was established that the studied ILs exhibited higher toxicity towards Gram-positive bacteria due to different interactions between the ILs and the cell membranes. These findings may be of importance for the design of ILs with targeted antimicrobial properties.

  11. Cellular kinetics in growth anomalies of the scleractinian corals Porites australiensis and Montipora informis .

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Naoko; Hidaka, Michio

    2012-12-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) in corals are characterized by morphological abnormalities of the skeleton as well as polyps and coenosarcs. GAs commonly appear as protuberances with fewer polyps and are paler in color due to decreased zooxanthellae density. To test the hypothesis that morphological anomalies in GAs may be caused by unregulated cellular kinetics, the relative abundances of apoptotic cells and proliferating cells were compared between GAs and apparently healthy regions in 2 corals, Porites australiensis and Montipora informis. Apoptotic cells and proliferating cells were detected using TUNEL assays and BrdU incorporation assays, respectively. The labeling indices for apoptotic nuclei and BrdU-labeled nuclei were measured in the epidermis, oral gastrodermis, aboral gastrodermis, and calicodermis. The labeling index for apoptotic nuclei in the oral gastrodermis and the calicodermis was significantly lower in GAs than in healthy regions in both coral species. The index for BrdU-labeled cells in the calicodermis was significantly higher in GAs than in healthy regions in both coral species. When GA regions partially died, the GA tissues directly adjacent to the dead areas exhibited signs of necrosis, although some apoptotic cells were also present. Healthy oral gastrodermis adjacent to the border between the healthy and GA regions exhibited higher frequencies of apoptotic cells. These results suggest that apoptotic pathways were suppressed and cell proliferation was promoted in GA regions, although cells in GAs may die through both necrosis and apoptosis. PMID:23209073

  12. Modified energetics and growth kinetics on H-terminated GaAs (110)

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Díez-Merino, L.; Tejedor, P.; Lorbek, S.; Hlawacek, G.; Teichert, C.

    2013-10-28

    Atomic hydrogen modification of the surface energy of GaAs (110) epilayers, grown at high temperatures from molecular beams of Ga and As{sub 4}, has been investigated by friction force microscopy (FFM). The reduction of the friction force observed with longer exposures to the H beam has been correlated with the lowering of the surface energy originated by the progressive de-relaxation of the GaAs (110) surface occurring upon H chemisorption. Our results indicate that the H-terminated GaAs (110) epilayers are more stable than the As-stabilized ones, with the minimum surface energy value of 31 meV/Å{sup 2} measured for the fully hydrogenated surface. A significant reduction of the Ga diffusion length on the H-terminated surface irrespective of H coverage has been calculated from the FFM data, consistent with the layer-by-layer growth mode and the greater As incorporation coefficient determined from real-time reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies. Arsenic incorporation through direct dissociative chemisorption of single As{sub 4} molecules mediated by H on the GaAs (110) surface has been proposed as the most likely explanation for the changes in surface kinetics observed.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of domain growth in the kinetic Ising model on the connection machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques G.; Sullivan, Francis

    1989-10-01

    A fast multispin algorithm for the Monte Carlo simulation of the two-dimensional spin-exchange kinetic Ising model, previously described by Sullivan and Mountain and used by Amar et al. has been adapted for use on the Connection Machine and applied as a first test in a calculation of domain growth. Features of the code include: (a) the use of demon bits, (b) the simulation of several runs simultaneously to improve the efficiency of the code, (c) the use of virtual processors to simulate easily and efficiently a larger system size, (d) the use of the (NEWS) grid for last communication between neighbouring processors and updating of boundary layers, (e) the implementation of an efficient random number generator much faster than that provided by Thinking Machines Corp., and (f) the use of the LISP function "funcall" to select which processors to update. Overall speed of the code when run on a (128x128) processor machine is about 130 million attempted spin-exchanges per second, about 9 times faster than the comparable code, using hardware vectorised-logic operations and 64-bit multispin coding on the Cyber 205. The same code can be used on a larger machine (65 536 processors) and should produce speeds in excess of 500 million attempted spin-exchanges per second.

  14. Mechanism and kinetics of biofilm growth process influenced by shear stress in sewers.

    PubMed

    Ai, Hainan; Xu, Jingwei; Huang, Wei; He, Qiang; Ni, Bingjie; Wang, Yinliang

    2016-01-01

    Sewer biofilms play an important role in the biotransformation of substances for methane and sulfide emission in sewer networks. The dynamic flows and the particular shear stress in sewers are the key factors determining the growth of the sewer biofilm. In this work, the development of sewer biofilm with varying shear stress is specifically investigated to gain a comprehensive understanding of the sewer biofilm dynamics. Sewer biofilms were cultivated in laboratory-scale gravity sewers under different hydraulic conditions with the corresponding shell stresses are 1.12 Pa, 1.29 Pa and 1.45 Pa, respectively. The evolution of the biofilm thickness were monitored using microelectrodes, and the variation in total solids (TS) and extracellular polymer substance (EPS) levels in the biofilm were also measured. The results showed that the steady-state biofilm thickness were highly related to the corresponding shear stresses with the biofilm thickness of 2.4 ± 0.1 mm, 2.7 ± 0.1 mm and 2.2 ± 0.1 mm at shear stresses of 1.12 Pa, 1.29 Pa and 1.45 Pa, respectively, which the chemical oxygen demand concentration is 400 mg/L approximately. Based on these observations, a kinetic model for describing the development of sewer biofilms was developed and demonstrated to be capable of reproducing all the experimental data. PMID:27054728

  15. Hyperhalophilic archaeal biofilms: growth kinetics, structure, and antagonistic interaction in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Di Meglio, Leonardo; Busalmen, Juan Pablo; Pastore, Juan Ignacio; Ballarín, Virginia Laura; Nercessian, Débora

    2014-02-01

    Biofilms by the hyperhalophilic archaea Halorubrum sp. and Halobacterium sp. were analyzed, and for the first time the progression of structural features and the developmental parameters of these sessile populations are described. Optical slicing and digital analysis of sequential micrographs showed that their three dimensional structure was microorganism dependent. Biofilms of Halobacterium sp. developed in clusters that covered about 30% of the supporting surface at the interface level and expanded over about 86 ± 4 μm in thickness, while Halorubrum sp. biofilms covered less than 20% of the surface and reached a thickness of 41 ± 1 μm. The kinetics of growth was lower in biofilms, with generation times of 27 ± 1 and 36 ± 2 h for Halobacterium sp. and Halorubrum sp., respectively, as compared to 8.4 ± 0.3 and 14 ± 1 h in planktonic cultures. Differences between microorganisms were also observed at the cell morphology level. The interaction between the two microorganisms was also evaluated, showing that Halobacterium sp. can outcompete already established Halorubrum sp. biofilms by a mechanism that might include the combined action of tunnelling swimmers and antimicrobial compounds.

  16. Cell growth kinetics of the human cell line Colo-205 irradiated with photons and astatine-211 alpha-particles.

    PubMed

    Palm, S; Andersson, H; Bäck, T; Claesson, I; Delle, U; Hultborn, R; Jacobsson, L; Köpf, I; Lindegren, S

    2000-01-01

    Cell growth kinetics following Astatine-211 (211At, alpha-particle emitter) and photon irradiation were studied for the human colorectal cell line Colo-205. A growth assay using 96-well plates was chosen. The growth kinetics could be simulated by assuming certain fractions of cells with various proliferative capacities, i.e. from none up to 5 cell doublings, in addition to the defined survivors with remaining unlimited clonogenic capacity. No significant difference in cell growth characteristics was seen between 211At and photon irradiation. The cell doubling time, as calculated from the increment in optical density, was compared with the results from BrdU experiments in the early phases of growth (Tpot = 18.5 +/- 0.6 h for LDR (low dose rate) photon irradiated and 20.3 +/- 0.8 hours for sham-irradiated cells 40-45 hours post-irradiation) confirming the transient accelerated growth of irradiated cells. No statistically significant difference in growth was found between LDR, MDR (medium dose rate) and HDR (high dose rate) photon irradiation.

  17. Understanding the performance of sulfate reducing bacteria based packed bed reactor by growth kinetics study and microbial profiling.

    PubMed

    Dev, Subhabrata; Roy, Shantonu; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2016-07-15

    A novel marine waste extract (MWE) as alternative nitrogen source was explored for the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Variation of sulfate and nitrogen (MWE) showed that SRB growth follows an uncompetitive inhibition model. The maximum specific growth rates (μmax) of 0.085 and 0.124 h(-1) and inhibition constants (Ki) of 56 and 4.6 g/L were observed under optimized sulfate and MWE concentrations, respectively. The kinetic data shows that MWE improves the microbial growth by 27%. The packed bed bioreactor (PBR) under optimized sulfate and MWE regime showed sulfate removal efficiency of 62-66% and metals removal efficiency of 66-75% on using mine wastewater. The microbial community analysis using DGGE showed dominance of SRB (87-89%). The study indicated the optimum dosing of sulfate and cheap organic nitrogen to promote the growth of SRB over other bacteria.

  18. Understanding the performance of sulfate reducing bacteria based packed bed reactor by growth kinetics study and microbial profiling.

    PubMed

    Dev, Subhabrata; Roy, Shantonu; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2016-07-15

    A novel marine waste extract (MWE) as alternative nitrogen source was explored for the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Variation of sulfate and nitrogen (MWE) showed that SRB growth follows an uncompetitive inhibition model. The maximum specific growth rates (μmax) of 0.085 and 0.124 h(-1) and inhibition constants (Ki) of 56 and 4.6 g/L were observed under optimized sulfate and MWE concentrations, respectively. The kinetic data shows that MWE improves the microbial growth by 27%. The packed bed bioreactor (PBR) under optimized sulfate and MWE regime showed sulfate removal efficiency of 62-66% and metals removal efficiency of 66-75% on using mine wastewater. The microbial community analysis using DGGE showed dominance of SRB (87-89%). The study indicated the optimum dosing of sulfate and cheap organic nitrogen to promote the growth of SRB over other bacteria. PMID:27085153

  19. Effect of interwire separation on growth kinetics and properties of site-selective GaAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D.; Schweickert, L.; Morkötter, S.; Loitsch, B.; Hertenberger, S.; Becker, J.; Bichler, M.; Finley, J. J.; Koblmüller, G.; Abstreiter, G.

    2014-07-21

    We report tuning of the growth kinetics, geometry, and properties of autocatalytic GaAs nanowires (NW) by precisely controlling their density on SiO{sub 2}-mask patterned Si (111) substrates using selective area molecular beam epitaxy. Using patterned substrates with different mask opening size (40–120 nm) and pitch (0.25–3 μm), we find that the NW geometry (length, diameter) is independent of the opening size, in contrast to non-catalytic GaAs NWs, whereas the NW geometry strongly depends on pitch, i.e., interwire separation and NW density. In particular, two distinct growth regimes are identified: a diffusion-limited regime for large pitches (low NW density) and a competitive growth regime for smaller pitches (high NW density), where axial and radial NW growth rates are reduced. The transition between these two regimes is significantly influenced by the growth conditions and shifts to smaller pitches with increasing As/Ga flux ratio. Ultimately, the pitch-dependent changes in growth kinetics lead to distinctly different photoluminescence properties, highlighting that mask template design is a very critical parameter for tuning intrinsic NW properties.

  20. Sputtering temperature dependent growth kinetics and CO2 sensing properties of ZnO deposited over porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, L.; Holguín-Momaca, J. T.; Karthik, T. V. K.; Olive-Méndez, S. F.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Agarwal, V.

    2016-10-01

    We report the growth kinetics and sensing properties of ZnO deposited over macro-porous silicon substrates at 400 and 600 °C using magnetron-sputtering technique. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphology and the particle size of the ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The grain growth kinetics was analyzed with the help of the phenomenological equation rn =k0 texp(- Q / RT) finding an activation energy Q = 13.92 kJ/mol. The grain growth exponent (n = 2.85) for the growth at 400 °C corresponds to an Ostwald ripening process, while the growth at 600 °C is described by n = 1.66 implying a higher growth rate attributed to a high surface diffusion of add-atoms contributing to the formation of larger grains. The sensing response of the complete structure has been tested at different temperatures. The highest sensitivity, S ∼10, was obtained at a sensor temperature of 300 °C on the ZnO NPs sputtered on to the porous silicon substrate at 400 °C. The high response is attributed to the infiltration, uniform and homogenous distribution of the ZnO NPs into the pores. ZnO NPs sputtered at 400 °C are found to be smaller than those grown at 600 °C, exhibiting a larger surface-area/volume ratio and hence increasing the oxygen adsorption resulting in an enhanced CO2 sensitivity.

  1. Anomalous phase separation kinetics observed in a micelle system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcoxon, J.P.; Martin, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a real-time, two-dimensional light scattering study of the evolution of structure of a two component nonionic micelle system undergoing phase separation. The micelles act like molecular slug-a-beds whose domain growth is lethargic (i.e. slower than the cube root of time prediction for simple binary fluids). In fact, the growth kinetics can be empirically described as a stretched exponential approach to a pinned domain size. Although the kinetics are not yet understood, the anomalous behavior may be due to the ability of the spherical micelles to reorganize into more complex structures.

  2. Layer-growth kinetics on gaseous nitriding of pure iron: Evaluation of diffusion coefficients for nitrogen in iron nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Marcel A. J.; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    1995-01-01

    Models were derived for monolayer and bilayer growth into a substrate in which diffusion of the solute governs the growth kinetics, as in gas-solid reactions, for example. In the models, the composition dependence of the solute diffusivity in the phases constituting the layers was accounted for by appropriate definition of an effective diffusion coefficient for a (sub)layer. This effective diffusion coefficient is the intrinsic diffusion coefficient weighted over the composition range of the (sub)layer. The models were applied for analyzing the growth kinetics of a γ'-Fe4N1-x monolayer on an α-Fe substrate and the growth kinetics of an ɛ-Fe2N1-z/γ'-Fe4N1-x bilayer on an α-Fe substrate, as observed by gaseous nitriding in an NH3/H2-gas mixture at 843 K. The kinetics of layer development and the evolution of the microstructure were investigated by means of thermogravimetry, layer-thickness measurements, light microscopy, and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The effective and self-diffusion coefficients were determined for each of the nitride layers. The composition dependence of the intrinsic (and effective) diffusion coefficients was established. Re-evaluating literature data for diffusion in γ'-Fe4N1-x on the basis of the present model, it followed that the previous and present data are consistent. The activation energy for diffusion of nitrogen in γ'-Fe4N1-x was determined from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion coefficient. The self-diffusion coefficient for nitrogen in ɛ-Fe2N1-z was significantly larger than that for γ'-Fe4N1-x. This was explained qualitatively, considering the possible mechanisms for interstitial diffusion of nitrogen atoms in the close-packed iron lattices of the ɛ and γ' iron nitrides.

  3. Kinetics of Nucleation and Crystal Growth in Glass Forming Melts in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Delbert E.; Ray, Chandra S.

    2001-01-01

    This flight definition project has the specific objective of investigating the kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth in high temperature inorganic oxide, glass forming melts in microgravity. It is related to one of our previous NASA projects that was concerned with glass formation for high temperature containerless melts in microgravity. The previous work culminated in two experiments which were conducted aboard the space shuttle in 1983 and 1985 and which consisted of melting (at 1500 C) and cooling levitated 6 to 8 mm diameter spherical samples in a Single Axis Acoustic Levitator (SAAL) furnace. Compared to other types of materials, there have been relatively few experiments, 6 to 8, conducted on inorganic glasses in space. These experiments have been concerned with mass transport (alkali diffusion), containerless melting, critical cooling rate for glass formation, chemical homogeneity, fiber pulling, and crystallization of glass forming melts. One of the most important and consistent findings in all of these experiments has been that the glasses prepared in microgravity are more resistant to crystallization (better glass former) and more chemically homogeneous than equivalent glasses made on Earth (1 g). The chemical composition of the melt appears relatively unimportant since the same general results have been reported for oxide, fluoride and chalcogenide melts. These results for space-processed glasses have important implications, since glasses with a higher resistance to crystallization or higher chemical homogeneity than those attainable on Earth can significantly advance applications in areas such as fiber optics communications, high power laser glasses, and other photonic devices where glasses are the key functional materials.

  4. Plagioclase nucleation and growth kinetics in a hydrous basaltic melt by decompression experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzilli, Fabio; Agostini, C.; Landi, P.; Fortunati, A.; Mancini, L.; Carroll, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Isothermal single-step decompression experiments (at temperature of 1075 °C and pressure between 5 and 50 MPa) were used to study the crystallization kinetics of plagioclase in hydrous high-K basaltic melts as a function of pressure, effective undercooling (Δ T eff) and time. Single-step decompression causes water exsolution and a consequent increase in the plagioclase liquidus, thus imposing an effective undercooling (∆ T eff), accompanied by increased melt viscosity. Here, we show that the decompression process acts directly on viscosity and thermodynamic energy barriers (such as interfacial-free energy), controlling the nucleation process and favoring the formation of homogeneous nuclei also at high pressure (low effective undercoolings). In fact, this study shows that similar crystal number densities ( N a) can be obtained both at low and high pressure (between 5 and 50 MPa), whereas crystal growth processes are favored at low pressures (5-10 MPa). The main evidence of this study is that the crystallization of plagioclase in decompressed high-K basalts is more rapid than that in rhyolitic melts on similar timescales. The onset of the crystallization process during experiments was characterized by an initial nucleation event within the first hour of the experiment, which produced the largest amount of plagioclase. This nucleation event, at short experimental duration, can produce a dramatic change in crystal number density ( N a) and crystal fraction ( ϕ), triggering a significant textural evolution in only 1 h. In natural systems, this may affect the magma rheology and eruptive dynamics on very short time scales.

  5. Approximating Functions with Exponential Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of approximating a function with a linear combination of exponential functions of the form e[superscript x], e[superscript 2x], ... is considered as a parallel development to the notion of Taylor polynomials which approximate a function with a linear combination of power function terms. The sinusoidal functions sin "x" and cos "x"…

  6. Linear or Exponential Number Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Pat

    2011-01-01

    Having decided to spend some time looking at one's understanding of numbers, the author was inspired by "Alex's Adventures in Numberland," by Alex Bellos to look at one's innate appreciation of number. Bellos quotes research studies suggesting that an individual's natural appreciation of numbers is more likely to be exponential rather than linear,…

  7. Study of Grain-Growth Kinetics in Delta-Ferrite and Austenite with Application to Thin-Slab Cast Direct-Rolling Microalloyed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tihe; O'Malley, Ronald J.; Zurob, Hatem S.

    2010-08-01

    The high-temperature grain-growth kinetics in delta-ferrite and austenite is investigated. The delta-ferrite growth kinetics was observed directly on a model alloy that contained 2.5 wt pct aluminum in order to stabilize delta-ferrite down to room temperature. The gamma grain-growth kinetics was by etching the former austenite grain boundaries in a precipitate-free variant of APIX60 steel. At high temperatures and in the absence of precipitation, the growth kinetics in both delta-ferrite and austenite appeared to follow a simple parabolic growth law. The findings are applied to the problem of grain-size control during the process of thin-slab casting direct rolling (TSCDR).

  8. Analysis of an Energy Localization Approximation applied to three-dimensional Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of heteroepitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golenbiewski, Kyle L.; Schulze, Tim P.

    2016-10-01

    Heteroepitaxial growth involves depositing one material onto another with a different lattice spacing. This misfit leads to long-range elastic stresses that affect the behavior of the film. Previously, an Energy Localization Approximation was applied to Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional growth in which the elastic field is updated using a sequence of nested domains. We extend the analysis of this earlier work to a three-dimensional setting and show that while it scales with the increase in dimensionality, a more intuitive Energy Truncation Approximation does not.

  9. The catalytic properties of hybrid Rubisco comprising tobacco small and sunflower large subunits mirror the kinetically equivalent source Rubiscos and can support tobacco growth.

    PubMed

    Sharwood, Robert Edward; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Maliga, Pal; Whitney, Spencer Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plastomic replacement of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Rubisco large subunit gene (rbcL) with that from sunflower (Helianthus annuus; rbcL(S)) produced tobacco(Rst) transformants that produced a hybrid Rubisco consisting of sunflower large and tobacco small subunits (L(s)S(t)). The tobacco(Rst) plants required CO(2) (0.5% v/v) supplementation to grow autotrophically from seed despite the substrate saturated carboxylation rate, K(m), for CO(2) and CO(2)/O(2) selectivity of the L(s)S(t) enzyme mirroring the kinetically equivalent tobacco and sunflower Rubiscos. Consequently, at the onset of exponential growth when the source strength and leaf L(s)S(t) content were sufficient, tobacco(Rst) plants grew to maturity without CO(2) supplementation. When grown under a high pCO(2), the tobacco(Rst) seedlings grew slower than tobacco and exhibited unique growth phenotypes: Juvenile plants formed clusters of 10 to 20 structurally simple oblanceolate leaves, developed multiple apical meristems, and the mature leaves displayed marginal curling and dimpling. Depending on developmental stage, the L(s)S(t) content in tobacco(Rst) leaves was 4- to 7-fold less than tobacco, and gas exchange coupled with chlorophyll fluorescence showed that at 2 mbar pCO(2) and growth illumination CO(2) assimilation in mature tobacco(Rst) leaves remained limited by Rubisco activity and its rate (approximately 11 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) was half that of tobacco controls. (35)S-methionine labeling showed the stability of assembled L(s)S(t) was similar to tobacco Rubisco and measurements of light transient CO(2) assimilation rates showed L(s)S(t) was adequately regulated by tobacco Rubisco activase. We conclude limitations to tobacco(Rst) growth primarily stem from reduced rbcL(S) mRNA levels and the translation and/or assembly of sunflower large with the tobacco small subunits that restricted L(s)S(t) synthesis.

  10. Atmospheric pressure flow reactor / aerosol mass spectrometer studies of tropospheric aerosol nucleat and growth kinetics. Final report, June, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this program was to determine the mechanisms and rates of growth and transformation and growth processes that control secondary aerosol particles in both the clear and polluted troposphere. The experimental plan coupled an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer to provide simultaneous measurement of condensed and particle phases. The first task investigated the kinetics of tropospheric particle growth and transformation by measuring vapor accretion to particles (uptake coefficients, including mass accommodation coefficients and heterogeneous reaction rate coefficients). Other work initiated investigation of aerosol nucleation processes by monitoring the appearance of submicron particles with the AMS as a function of precursor gas concentrations. Three projects were investigated during the program: (1) Ozonolysis of oleic acid aerosols as model of chemical reactivity of secondary organic aerosol; (2) Activation of soot particles by measurement deliquescence in the presence of sulfuric acid and water vapor; (3) Controlled nucleation and growth of sulfuric acid aerosols.

  11. Quantification of epidermal growth factor receptor expression level and binding kinetics on cell surfaces by surface plasmon resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fenni; Wang, Shaopeng; Yin, Linliang; Yang, Yunze; Guan, Yan; Wang, Wei; Xu, Han; Tao, Nongjian

    2015-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as ErbB-1 or HER-1) is a membrane bound protein that has been associated with a variety of solid tumors and the control of cell survival, proliferation, and metabolism. Quantification of the EGFR expression level in cell membranes and the interaction kinetics with drugs are thus important for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Here we report mapping of the distribution and interaction kinetics of EGFR in their native environment with the surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) technique. The monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody was used as a model drug in this study. The binding of the antibody to EGFR overexpressed A431 cells was monitored in real time, which was found to follow the first-order kinetics with an association rate constant (ka) and dissociation rate constant (kd) of (2.7 ± 0.6) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and (1.4 ± 0.5) × 10(-4) s(-1), respectively. The dissociation constant (KD) was determined to be 0.53 ± 0.26 nM with up to seven-fold variation among different individual A431 cells. In addition, the averaged A431 cell surface EGFR density was found to be 636/μm(2) with an estimation of 5 × 10(5) EGFR per cell. Additional measurement also revealed that different EGFR positive cell lines (A431, HeLa, and A549) show receptor density dependent anti-EGFR binding kinetics. The results demonstrate that SPRi is a valuable tool for direct quantification of membrane protein expression level and ligand binding kinetics at single cell resolution. Our findings show that the local environment affects the drug-receptor interactions, and in situ measurement of membrane protein binding kinetics is important.

  12. New insight into the ZnO sulfidation reaction: mechanism and kinetics modeling of the ZnS outward growth.

    PubMed

    Neveux, Laure; Chiche, David; Pérez-Pellitero, Javier; Favergeon, Loïc; Gay, Anne-Sophie; Pijolat, Michèle

    2013-02-01

    Zinc oxide based materials are commonly used for the final desulfurization of synthesis gas in Fischer-Tropsch based XTL processes. Although the ZnO sulfidation reaction has been widely studied, little is known about the transformation at the crystal scale, its detailed mechanism and kinetics. A model ZnO material with well-determined characteristics (particle size and shape) has been synthesized to perform this study. Characterizations of sulfided samples (using XRD, TEM and electron diffraction) have shown the formation of oriented polycrystalline ZnS nanoparticles with a predominant hexagonal form (wurtzite phase). TEM observations also have evidenced an outward development of the ZnS phase, showing zinc and oxygen diffusion from the ZnO-ZnS internal interface to the surface of the ZnS particle. The kinetics of ZnO sulfidation by H(2)S has been investigated using isothermal and isobaric thermogravimetry. Kinetic tests have been performed that show that nucleation of ZnS is instantaneous compared to the growth process. A reaction mechanism composed of eight elementary steps has been proposed to account for these results, and various possible rate laws have been determined upon approximation of the rate-determining step. Thermogravimetry experiments performed in a wide range of H(2)S and H(2)O partial pressures have shown that the ZnO sulfidation reaction rate has a nonlinear variation with H(2)S partial pressure at the same time no significant influence of water vapor on reaction kinetics has been observed. From these observations, a mixed kinetics of external interface reaction with water desorption and oxygen diffusion has been determined to control the reaction kinetics and the proposed mechanism has been validated. However, the formation of voids at the ZnO-ZnS internal interface, characterized by TEM and electron tomography, strongly slows down the reaction rate. Therefore, the impact of the decreasing ZnO-ZnS internal interface on reaction kinetics has been

  13. Correlation between growth kinetics and nanoscale resistive switching properties of SrTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenstermann, Ruth; Menke, Tobias; Dittmann, Regina; Mi, Shaobo; Jia, Chun-Lin; Park, Daesung; Mayer, Joachim

    2010-12-01

    We deliberately fabricated SrTiO3 thin films deviating from ideal stoichiometry and from two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth mode, in order to study the impact of well pronounced defect arrangements on the nanoscale electrical properties. By combining transmission electron microscopy with conductive-tip atomic force microscopy we succeeded to elucidate the microstructure of thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition under kinetically limited growth conditions and to correlate it with the local electrical properties. SrTiO3 thin films, grown in a layer-by-layer growth mode, exhibit a defect structure and conductivity pattern close to single crystals, containing irregularly distributed, resistive switching spots. In contrast to this, Ti-rich films exhibit short-range-ordered, well-conducting resistive switching units. For Ti-rich films grown in a kinetically more restricted island growth mode, we succeeded to identify defective island boundaries with the location of tip-induced resistive switching. The observed nanoscale switching behavior is consistent with a voltage driven oxygen vacancy movement that induces a local redox-based metal-to-insulator transition. Switching occurs preferentially in defect-rich regions, that exhibit a high concentration of oxygen vacancies and might act as easy-diffusion-channels.

  14. Kinetic modeling of anthocyanin degradation and microorganism growth during postharvest storage of açai fruits (Euterpe oleracea).

    PubMed

    Rogez, Hervé; Akwie, Santuscha N L T; Moura, Fábio G; Larondelle, Yvan

    2012-12-01

    The unavoidable damage of açai (Euterpe oleracea) fruits (AF) during picking leads to microbial contamination and anthocyanin degradation, which prejudice the consumed fruit drink. Thirteen lots of AF (24 kg) from different municipal districts of the Pará State (Brazil) were monitored during a 75-h-long storage in the dark at 30 °C for microbial growth, and 7 lots for anthocyanin degradation. On arrival at the laboratory, anthocyanins presented a mean concentration of 828 mg kg(-1) fruits with a standard deviation of 323 mg kg(-1) fruits whereas mean microbial contamination was 2.64 10(6) CFU g(-1) of dry matter for total mesophilic bacteria, 1.98 10(3) MPN g(-1) DM for fecal coliforms, and 1.11 10(5) CFU g(-1) DM for moulds and yeasts. Kinetic growth of the microbes could be fitted to a quadratic equation with an unusual rapid growth during the 1st 24 h. The kinetics of anthocyanin degradation fitted a 1st-order equation. The mean velocity constant of the reaction (k(1)) was of 0.0137 h(-1) and the mean half-life (t(½)) of the anthocyanins was 50 h. These results indicate that the AF simultaneously suffer extensive anthocyanin degradation and explosive microbial growth during the postharvest period needing a special care.

  15. Activation of oxygen-mediating pathway using copper ions: fine-tuning of growth kinetics in gold nanorod overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqi; Zhang, Hui; Wen, Tao; Yan, Jiao; Hou, Shuai; Shi, Xiaowei; Hu, Zhijian; Ji, Yinglu; Wu, Xiaochun

    2014-10-21

    Growth kinetics plays an important role in the shape control of nanocrystals (NCs). Herein, we presented a unique way to fine-tune the growth kinetics via oxidative etching activated by copper ions. For the overgrowth of gold nanorods (Au NRs), competitive adsorption of dissolved oxygen on rod surface was found to slow down the overgrowth rate. Copper ions were able to remove the adsorbed oxygen species from the Au surface via oxidative etching, thus exposing more reaction sites for Au deposition. In this way, copper ions facilitated the overgrowth process. Furthermore, Cu(2+) rather than Cu(+) acted as the catalyst for the oxidative etching. Comparative study with Ag(+) indicated that Cu(2+) cannot regulate NC shapes via an underpotential deposition mechanism. In contrast, Ag(+) led to the formation of Au tetrahexahedra (THH) and a slight decrease of the growth rate at similar growth conditions. Combining the distinct roles of the two ions enabled elongated THH to be produced. Copper ions activating the O2 pathway suggested that dissolved oxygen has a strong affinity for the Au surface. Moreover, the results of NC-sensitized singlet oxygen ((1)O2) indicated that the absorbed oxygen species on the surface of Au NCs bounded with low-index facets mainly existed in the form of molecular O2. PMID:25244407

  16. Study of oxide and α-Zr(O) growth kinetics from high temperature steam oxidation of Zircaloy-4 cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawarn, Tapan K.; Banerjee, Suparna; Samanta, Akanksha; Rath, B. N.; Kumar, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    Oxidation kinetics of Zircaloy-4 cladding of fuel pins of Indian pressurized heavy water reactors (IPHWRs) under a simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition was investigated. The kinetic rate constants for the oxide and oxygen stabilized α-Zr phase growth were established from the isothermal metal-steam reaction at high temperatures (900-1200 °C) with soaking periods in the range of 60-900 s. Oxide and α-Zr(O) layer thickness were measured to derive the respective growth rates. The observed rates obeyed a parabolic law and Arrhenius expressions of rate constants were established. Percentage equivalent clad reacted (%ECR) was calculated using Baker-Just equation. Hydrogen estimation was carried out on the oxidized samples using inert gas fusion technique. The hydrogen pick up was found to be in the range 10-30 ppm. The measured values of oxide and α-Zr(O) layer thickness were compared with the results obtained using OXYCON, an indigenously developed model. The model predicts the oxide growth reasonably well but under predicts the α-Zr(O) growth significantly at thickness values higher than 80 μm.

  17. Si-adatom kinetics in defect mediated growth of multilayer epitaxial graphene films on 6H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetu, Shamaita S.; Omar, S. U.; Daniels, K. M.; Daas, B.; Andrews, J.; Ma, S.; Sudarshan, T. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.

    2013-10-01

    We present a quantitative study on the growth of multilayer epitaxial graphene (EG) by solid-state decomposition of SiC on polar (c-plane Si and C-face) and non-polar (a and m planes) 6H-SiC faces, with distinctly different defect profiles. The growth rates are slower than expected from a mechanism that involves Si loss from an open and free surface, and much faster than expected for the nucleation of a defect-free EG layer, implying that defects in the EG play a critical role in determining the growth kinetics. We show that a Deal-Grove growth model, which assumes vertical diffusion of Si through these defects as the limiting factor for EG growth, is unsuitable for describing multilayer growth. Instead, we introduce a lateral "adatom" diffusion mechanism for Si out-diffusion, based on a modified Burton, Cabrera, and Frank model. In this model, defects in epitaxial graphene serve as sinks for Si desorption loss, taking the place of reactive sites, such as step edges for nucleation and growth of crystals produced with external precursors. This analysis shows that the surface diffusion of Si atoms to the grain boundaries of EG limits the growth on c-plane C-face and non-polar faces, rather than the purely vertical diffusion of Si through the grain boundaries described in the Deal-Grove model. However, for Si-face c-plane growth, diffusion of Si to the defects, as well as desorption of Si at the grain boundaries are both relevant, leading to a different temperature trend compared with the other faces. This distinct qualitative difference is ascribed to point-defects in Si-face growth, as contrasted with line defects/grain boundaries on the other faces. The size of the EG grains correlates with the surface diffusion length extracted from this model. The longer a Si adatom diffuses, the higher the quality of the grown EG film, an insight that provides valuable information on Si adatom kinetics for optimizing EG growth. We discuss the applicability of this model to

  18. Effect of GaAs substrate orientation on the growth kinetic of GaN layer grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laifi, J.; Chaaben, N.; Bouazizi, H.; Fourati, N.; Zerrouki, C.; El Gmili, Y.; Bchetnia, A.; Salvestrini, J. P.; El Jani, B.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the kinetic growth of low temperature GaN nucleation layers (LT-GaN) grown on GaAs substrates with different crystalline orientations. GaN nucleation layers were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in a temperature range of 500-600 °C on oriented (001), (113), (112) and (111) GaAs substrates. The growth was in-situ monitored by laser reflectometry (LR). Using an optical model, including time-dependent surface roughness and growth rate profiles, simulations were performed to best approach the experimental reflectivity curves. Results are discussed and correlated with ex-situ analyses, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible reflectance (SR). We show that the GaN nucleation layers growth results the formation of GaN islands whose density and size vary greatly with both growth temperature and substrate orientation. Arrhenius plots of the growth rate for each substrate give values of activation energy varying from 0.20 eV for the (001) orientation to 0.35 eV for the (113) orientation. Using cathodoluminescence (CL), we also show that high temperature (800-900 °C) GaN layers grown on top of the low temperature (550 °C) GaN nucleation layers, grown themselves on the GaAs substrates with different orientations, exhibit cubic or hexagonal phase depending on both growth temperature and substrate orientation.

  19. Optimization of growth medium for Sporosarcina pasteurii in bio-based cement pastes to mitigate delay in hydration kinetics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah L; Kirisits, Mary Jo; Ferron, Raissa Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Microbial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation has been identified as a novel method to improve durability and remediate cracks in concrete. One way to introduce microorganisms to concrete is by replacing the mixing water with a bacterial culture in nutrient medium. In the literature, yeast extract often has been used as a carbon source for this application; however, severe retardation of hydration kinetics has been observed when yeast extract is added to cement. This study investigates the suitability of alternative carbon sources to replace yeast extract for microbial-induced calcium carbonate precipitation in cement-based materials. A combination of meat extract and sodium acetate was identified as a suitable replacement in growth medium for Sporosarcina pasteurii; this alternative growth medium reduced retardation by 75 % (as compared to yeast extract) without compromising bacterial growth, urea hydrolysis, cell zeta potential, and ability to promote calcium carbonate formation.

  20. Growth kinetics of low temperature single-wall and few walled carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohier, A.; Minea, T. M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Jiménez, J.; Granier, A.

    2007-03-01

    Single-wall, double walled or few walled nanotubes (FWNT) are grown by electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PECVD) at temperature as low as 600 °C. Most of these structures are isolated and self-oriented perpendicular to the substrate. The growth mechanism observed for single-wall and few walled (less than seven walls) nanotubes is the “base-growth” mode. Their grow kinetics is investigated regarding two parameters namely the growth time and the synthesis temperature. It is shown that nucleation and growth rate is correlated with the number of walls into FWNT. It also provides an evidence of a critical temperature for FWNT synthesis.

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of type A streptococcal exotoxin: kinetics and regulation during growth of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Houston, C W; Ferretti, J J

    1981-01-01

    We describe the detection and quantitation of type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This sensitive and specific technique detected microgram amounts of type A exotoxin and was useful for studying the kinetics and regulation of type A exotoxin production during the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes NY5. Maximum production of type A exotoxin was observed during the mid-log phase of growth, similar to the production of other streptococcal extracellular products. When S. pyogenes NY5 was grown at 42 degrees C, decreases in both growth and type A exotoxin production were observed. The results obtained when we studied the influence of nutrient additives and metal ions on the production of type A exotoxin led to the conclusion that none of these factors significantly affected type A exotoxin synthesis and that regulation was constitutive. Images PMID:7026447

  2. Gas-source molecular beam epitaxy of SiGe virtual substrates: I. Growth kinetics and doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Gallas, B.; Ferguson, R.; Fernàndez, J.; Zhang, J.; Harris, J. J.

    2000-04-01

    We have studied the growth by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy (GS-MBE) of SiGe virtual substrates. We have first determined the relationship existing between the Ge concentration in SiGe thick films and the gas phase ratio of disilane and germane, and its behaviour versus growth temperature. We find that Si atoms are 4.6 times more likely to be incorporated than Ge atoms at 550 °C. This incorporation probability decreases as the growth temperature increases, following a thermally activated law with a 0.082-0.126 eV characteristic energy. The dependence of SiGe growth rate on substrate temperatures has a cross-over point at approximately 8% of Ge, above which the growth rate decreases significantly as the temperature increases . Otherwise, we show what p-type or n-type doping levels are typically achievable in SiGe virtual substrates, and the influence diluted diborane and arsine have on the growth kinetics of SiGe. Additionally, we demonstrate that the `pre-build-up/flash-off' technique originally proposed by Iyer et al for solid-source MBE (1981 J. Appl. Phys. 52 5608) yields abrupt arsenic doping profiles in GS-MBE.

  3. From Peptides to Proteins: Systematic Control of Net Molecular Charge and Hydrophilicity on the Kinetics of Calcite Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhadj, S.; de Yoreo, J. J.; Hoyer, J. J.; Dove, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    The compartment-specific compositions of biologic molecules isolated from biominerals suggest that control of mineral growth may be linked to biochemical features. Here we define a systematic relationship between the ability of biomolecules in solution to promote the growth of calcite (CaCO3) and their net negative molecular charge and hydrophilicity. The degree of enhancement is dependent on peptide composition, but not on peptide sequence. Data analysis shows that this rate enhancement arises from an increase in the kinetic coefficient. We interpret the mechanism of growth enhancement to be a catalytic process whereby biomolecules reduce the magnitude of the diffusive barrier, Ek, by perturbations that displace water molecules- a water shell destruction mechanism. The result is a decrease in the repulsive barrier for attachment of solutes to the solid phase. This previously unrecognized relationship also rationalizes recently reported data showing acceleration of calcite growth rates over rates measured in the pure system by nanomolar levels of abalone nacre proteins. These findings show that the growth-modifying properties of small model peptides may be scaled up to analyze mineralization processes that are mediated by more complex proteins. We suggest that enhancement of calcite growth may now be estimated a priori from the composition of peptide sequences and the calculated values of hydrophilicity and net molecular charge without need for detailed tests for each biomolecule. This insight may contribute to an improved understanding of mineralization in diverse systems of biomineralization.

  4. Sequential and coordinated action of phytochromes A and B during Arabidopsis stem growth revealed by kinetic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, B. M.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Photoreceptor proteins of the phytochrome family mediate light-induced inhibition of stem (hypocotyl) elongation during the development of photoautotrophy in seedlings. Analyses of overt mutant phenotypes have established the importance of phytochromes A and B (phyA and phyB) in this developmental process, but kinetic information that would augment emerging molecular models of phytochrome signal transduction is absent. We have addressed this deficiency by genetically dissecting phytochrome-response kinetics, after having solved the technical issues that previously limited growth studies of small Arabidopsis seedlings. We show here, with resolution on the order of minutes, that phyA initiated hypocotyl growth inhibition upon the onset of continuous red light. This primary contribution of phyA began to decrease after 3 hr of irradiation, the same time at which immunochemically detectable phyA disappeared and an exclusively phyB-dependent phase of inhibition began. The sequential and coordinated actions of phyA and phyB in red light were not observed in far-red light, which inhibited growth persistently through an exclusively phyA-mediated pathway.

  5. Effects of Bonding Wires and Epoxy Molding Compound on Gold and Copper Ball Bonds Intermetallic Growth Kinetics in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, C. L.; Classe, F. C.; Chan, B. L.; Hashim, U.

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bonding wires and epoxy mold compounds (EMC) on intermetallic compound (IMC) diffusion kinetics and apparent activation energies ( E aa) of CuAl and AuAl IMCs in a fineline ball grid array package. The objective of this study is to study the CuAl and AuAl IMC growth rates with different epoxy mold compounds and to determine the apparent activation energies of different combination of package bills of materials. IMC thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion ( D o) and E aa various aging conditions of different EMCs and bonding wires. Apparent activation energies ( E aa) of both wire types were investigated after high temperature storage life tests (HTSL) for both molding compounds. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The E aa obtained for CuAl IMC diffusion kinetics are 1.08 and 1.04 eV with EMC A and EMC B, respectively. For AuAl IMC diffusion kinetics, the E aa obtained are 1.04 and 0.98 eV, respectively, on EMC A and EMC B. These values are close to previous HTSL studies conducted on Au and Cu ball bonds and are in agreement to the theory of HTSL performance of Au and Cu bonding wires.Overall, EMC B shows slightly lower apparent activation energy ( E aa) valueas in CuAl and AuAl IMCs. This proves that the different types of epoxy mold compounds have some influence on IMC growth rates.

  6. Exponential Size Distribution of von Willebrand Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lippok, Svenja; Obser, Tobias; Müller, Jochen P.; Stierle, Valentin K.; Benoit, Martin; Budde, Ulrich; Schneppenheim, Reinhard; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2013-01-01

    Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is a multimeric protein crucial for hemostasis. Under shear flow, it acts as a mechanosensor responding with a size-dependent globule-stretch transition to increasing shear rates. Here, we quantify for the first time, to our knowledge, the size distribution of recombinant VWF and VWF-eGFP using a multilateral approach that involves quantitative gel analysis, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We find an exponentially decaying size distribution of multimers for recombinant VWF as well as for VWF derived from blood samples in accordance with the notion of a step-growth polymerization process during VWF biosynthesis. The distribution is solely described by the extent of polymerization, which was found to be reduced in the case of the pathologically relevant mutant VWF-IIC. The VWF-specific protease ADAMTS13 systematically shifts the VWF size distribution toward smaller sizes. This dynamic evolution is monitored using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and compared to a computer simulation of a random cleavage process relating ADAMTS13 concentration to the degree of VWF breakdown. Quantitative assessment of VWF size distribution in terms of an exponential might prove to be useful both as a valuable biophysical characterization and as a possible disease indicator for clinical applications. PMID:24010664

  7. Barrierless growth of precursor-free, ultrafast laser-fragmented noble metal nanoparticles by colloidal atom clusters - A kinetic in situ study.

    PubMed

    Jendrzej, Sandra; Gökce, Bilal; Amendola, Vincenzo; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Unintended post-synthesis growth of noble metal colloids caused by excess amounts of reactants or highly reactive atom clusters represents a fundamental problem in colloidal chemistry, affecting product stability or purity. Hence, quantified kinetics could allow defining nanoparticle size determination in dependence of the time. Here, we investigate in situ the growth kinetics of ps pulsed laser-fragmented platinum nanoparticles in presence of naked atom clusters in water without any influence of reducing agents or surfactants. The nanoparticle growth is investigated for platinum covering a time scale of minutes to 50days after nanoparticle generation, it is also supplemented by results obtained from gold and palladium. Since a minimum atom cluster concentration is exceeded, a significant growth is determined by time resolved UV/Vis spectroscopy, analytical disc centrifugation, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. We suggest a decrease of atom cluster concentration over time, since nanoparticles grow at the expense of atom clusters. The growth mechanism during early phase (<1day) of laser-synthesized colloid is kinetically modeled by rapid barrierless coalescence. The prolonged slow nanoparticle growth is kinetically modeled by a combination of coalescence and Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner kinetic for Ostwald ripening, validated experimentally by the temperature dependence of Pt nanoparticle size and growth quenching by Iodide anions.

  8. Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.

    1996-01-01

    One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).

  9. Interpolation via symmetric exponential functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezubik, Agata; Pošta, Severin

    2013-11-01

    Complex valued functions on the Euclidean space Bbb Rn, symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to the permutation group Sn, are often dealt with in various branches of physics, such as quantum theory or theory of integrable systems. One often needs to approximate such functions with series consisting of various special functions which satisfy nice properties. Questions of uniform convergence of such approximations are crucial for applications. In this article a family of special functions called the symmetric exponential functions are used for such approximation and the uniform convergence of their sums is considered.

  10. Cosmological evolution in exponential gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2010-08-01

    We explore the cosmological evolution in the exponential gravity f(R) = R+c{sub 1}(1−e{sup −c{sub 2}R}) (c{sub 1,2} = constant). We summarize various viability conditions and explicitly demonstrate that the late-time cosmic acceleration following the matter-dominated stage can be realized. We also study the equation of state for dark energy and confirm that the crossing of the phantom divide from the phantom phase to the non-phantom (quintessence) one can occur. Furthermore, we illustrate that the cosmological horizon entropy globally increases with time.

  11. Integration of biological kinetics and computational fluid dynamics to model the growth of Nannochloropsis salina in an open channel raceway.

    PubMed

    Park, Stephen; Li, Yebo

    2015-05-01

    Microalgal growth and systemic productivity is not only affected by environmental conditions such as temperature, irradiance, and nutrient concentrations, but also by physical processes such as fluid flow and particulate sedimentation. Modeling and simulating the system is a cost-effective way to predict the growth behavior under various environmental and physical conditions while determining effective engineering approaches to maximize productivity. Many mathematical models have been proposed to describe microalgal growth, while computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to model the behavior of many fluid systems. Integrating the growth kinetics into a CFD model can help researchers understand the impact of a variety of parameters and determine what measures can be taken to overcome some obstacles in the aquaculture industry--self-shading, biomass sedimentation, and contamination--which prevent the production of high biomass yields. The aim of this study was to integrate physical and environmental effects to predict space- and time-dependent algal growth in industrial scale raceways. A commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent 14.5, was used to solve the proposed models in regards to fluid flow, heat transfer, and nutrient balance. User-defined functions written in C language were used to incorporate the kinetic equations into a three-dimensional standard k-ε turbulence model of an open channel raceway system driven by a single paddlewheel. Simulated results were compared with light intensity, temperature, nutrient concentration, and algal biomass data acquired for 56 day from an industrial scale raceway pond constructed for the growth of Nannochloropsis salina and were observed to be in good agreement with one another. There was up to a 17.6% increase in simulated productivity when the incoming CO2 concentration was increased from 0.0006 to 0.150 g L(-1), while the effect of paddlewheel velocity was not significant. Sensitivity analysis showed that the model

  12. Submonolayer nucleation and growth and the initial stage of multilayer kinetic roughening during Ag/Ag (100) homoepitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.

    1996-08-01

    A comprehensive Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) study of submonolayer nucleation and growth of 2D islands in Ag/Ag(100) homoepitaxy for temperature between 295K and 370K is presented. The initial stages of multilayer kinetic roughening is also studied. Analysis of an appropriate model for metal (100) homoepitaxy, produces estimates of 350 meV for the terrace diffusion barrier, 400 meV for the adatom bond energy, and 25 meV for the additional Ehrlich-Schwoebel step-edge barrier.

  13. Effects of Temperature and Packaging on the Growth Kinetics of Clostridium perfringens in Ready-to-eat Jokbal (Pig's Trotters).

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Jin; Na, Yu-Jin; Cho, Joon-Il; Lee, Soon-Ho; Yoon, Ki-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) Jokbal (Pig's trotter), which consists of pig's feet cooked in soy sauce and various spices, is a very popular and widely sold in Korean retail markets. Commercially, the anaerobically packed Jokbal have also become a popular RTE food in several convenience stores. This study evaluates the effects of storage temperature and packaging methods for the growth of C. perfringens in Jokbal. Growth kinetic parameters of C. perfringens in aerobically and anaerobically packed Jokbals are determined at each temperature by the modified Gompertz equation. The lag time, specific growth rate, and maximum population density of C. perfringens are being analyzed as a function of temperature and packaging method. The minimum growth temperature of C. perfringens in aerobically and anaerobically packed Jokbal is 24℃ and 18℃, respectively. The C. perfringens in Jokbal did not grow under conditions of over 50℃ regardless of the packaging methods, indicating that the holding temperature of Jokbal in markets must be maintained at above 50℃ or below 18℃. Growth of C. perfringens in anaerobically packed Jokbal is faster than in aerobically packed Jokbal when stored under the same conditions. This indicates that there are a higher risks associated with C. perfringens for anaerobically packed meat products. PMID:26760749

  14. Effects of Temperature and Packaging on the Growth Kinetics of Clostridium perfringens in Ready-to-eat Jokbal (Pig's Trotters).

    PubMed

    Park, Hee-Jin; Na, Yu-Jin; Cho, Joon-Il; Lee, Soon-Ho; Yoon, Ki-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ready-to-eat (RTE) Jokbal (Pig's trotter), which consists of pig's feet cooked in soy sauce and various spices, is a very popular and widely sold in Korean retail markets. Commercially, the anaerobically packed Jokbal have also become a popular RTE food in several convenience stores. This study evaluates the effects of storage temperature and packaging methods for the growth of C. perfringens in Jokbal. Growth kinetic parameters of C. perfringens in aerobically and anaerobically packed Jokbals are determined at each temperature by the modified Gompertz equation. The lag time, specific growth rate, and maximum population density of C. perfringens are being analyzed as a function of temperature and packaging method. The minimum growth temperature of C. perfringens in aerobically and anaerobically packed Jokbal is 24℃ and 18℃, respectively. The C. perfringens in Jokbal did not grow under conditions of over 50℃ regardless of the packaging methods, indicating that the holding temperature of Jokbal in markets must be maintained at above 50℃ or below 18℃. Growth of C. perfringens in anaerobically packed Jokbal is faster than in aerobically packed Jokbal when stored under the same conditions. This indicates that there are a higher risks associated with C. perfringens for anaerobically packed meat products.

  15. Growth kinetics of the (001) face of TGS below the ferroelectric transition temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, D. A.; Kroes, R. L.; Anderson, E. E.

    1987-01-01

    The growth rates of the (001) face of triglycine sulfate (TGS) from aqueous solutions were measured at 33.55 C in an apparatus which produced a laminar flow of solution past the crystal. The data of growth rate as a function of relative supersaturation were compared with the results of two well-known models: the Burton-Cabrera-Frank (1951) surface diffusion model and the birth-and-spreading growth model. Both models produced good fits to the growth rate data. However, on the basis of the qualitative aspects of the experimentally-observed growth, it is suggested that the correct growth model for these crystals is the Burton-Cabrera-Frank model.

  16. Defect, Kinetics and Heat Transfer of CDTE Bridgman Growth without Wall Contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, D. J., Jr.; Zhang, H.

    2003-01-01

    A detached growth mechanism has been proposed, which is similar to that proposed by Duffar et al. and used to study the current detached growth system. From numerical results, we can conclude that detached growth will more likely appear if the growth and wetting angles are large and meniscus is flat. Detached thickness is dependent on growth angle, wetting angle, and gap width and shape of the fins. The model can also explain why the detached growth will not happen for metals in which the growth angle is almost zero. Since the growth angle of CdZnTe cannot be changed, to promote detached growth, the number density of the fins should be low and the wetting angle should be high. Also, a much smaller gap width of the fins should be used in the ground experiment and the detached gap width is much smaller. The shape of the fins has minor influence on detached growth. An integrated numerical model for detached solidification has been developed combining a global heat transfer sub-model and a wall contact sub-model. The global heat transfer sub-model accounts for heat and mass transfer in the multiphase system, convection in the melt, macro-segregation, and interface dynamics. The location and dynamics of the solidification interface are accurately tracked by a multizone adaptive grid generation scheme. The wall contact sub-model accounts for the meniscus dynamics at the three-phase boundary. Simulations have been performed for crystal growth in a conventional ampoule and a designed ampoule to understand the benefits of detached solidification and its impacts on crystalline structural quality, e.g., stoichiometry, macro-segregation, and stress. From simulation results, both the Grashof and Marangoni numbers will have significant effects on the shape of growth front, Zn concentration distribution, and radial segregation. The integrated model can be used in designing apparatus and determining the optimal geometry for detached solidification in space and on the ground.

  17. Growth kinetics of potassium alum crystal in a well-agitated vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Clifford Y.; Yu, K. H.

    1989-08-01

    Growth rates of potassium alum crystal in a well-agitated vessel were determined from the de-supersaturation curve of the solution. The mass transfer and surface integration coefficients were then estimated using the two-step model. Both coefficients were found to increase with increasing crystal size. Judging from the Damköhler number for crystal growth and the over-all order of the growth rate equation, it is concluded that both mass transfer resistance and surface integration resistance are significant in the growth process.

  18. Priming Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hyaluronan Alters Growth Kinetics and Increases Attachment to Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Succar, Peter; Medynskyj, Michael; Breen, Edmond J.; Batterham, Tony; Molloy, Mark P.; Herbert, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biological therapeutics such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy are gaining acceptance for knee-osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. Reports of OA-patients show reductions in cartilage defects and regeneration of hyaline-like-cartilage with MSC-therapy. Suspending MSCs in hyaluronan commonly occurs in animals and humans, usually without supporting data. Objective. To elucidate the effects of different concentrations of hyaluronan on MSC growth kinetics. Methods. Using a range of hyaluronan concentrations, we measured MSC adherence and proliferation on culture plastic surfaces and a novel cartilage-adhesion assay. We employed time-course and dispersion imaging to assess MSC binding to cartilage. Cytokine profiling was also conducted on the MSC-secretome. Results. Hyaluronan had dose-dependent effects on growth kinetics of MSCs at concentrations of entanglement point (1 mg/mL). At higher concentrations, viscosity effects outweighed benefits of additional hyaluronan. The cartilage-adhesion assay highlighted for the first time that hyaluronan-primed MSCs increased cell attachment to cartilage whilst the presence of hyaluronan did not. Our time-course suggested patients undergoing MSC-therapy for OA could benefit from joint-immobilisation for up to 8 hours. Hyaluronan also greatly affected dispersion of MSCs on cartilage. Conclusion. Our results should be considered in future trials with MSC-therapy using hyaluronan as a vehicle, for the treatment of OA. PMID:26981136

  19. Empirical force field-based kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of precipitate evolution and growth in Al–Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Kaushik; Chaudhuri, Santanu

    2016-10-01

    Ability to accelerate the morphological evolution of nanoscale precipitates is a fundamental challenge for atomistic simulations. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) methodology is an effective approach for accelerating the evolution of nanoscale systems that are dominated by so-called rare events. The quality and accuracy of energy landscape used in KMC calculations can be significantly improved using DFT-informed interatomic potentials. Using newly developed computational framework that uses molecular simulator LAMMPS as a library function inside KMC solver SPPARKS, we investigated formation and growth of Guiner–Preston (GP) zones in dilute Al–Cu alloys at different temperature and copper concentrations. The KMC simulations with angular dependent potential (ADP) predict formation of coherent disc-shaped monolayers of copper atoms (GPI zones) in early stage. Such monolayers are then gradually transformed into energetically favored GPII phase that has two aluminum layers sandwiched between copper layers. We analyzed the growth kinetics of KMC trajectory using Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) theory and obtained a phase transformation index close to 1.0. In the presence of grain boundaries, the KMC calculations predict the segregation of copper atoms near the grain boundaries instead of formation of GP zones. The computational framework presented in this work is based on open source potentials and MD simulator and can predict morphological changes during the evolution of the alloys in the bulk and around grain boundaries.

  20. Kinetics of microbial growth and biodegradation of methanol and toluene in biofilters and an analysis of the energetic indicators.

    PubMed

    Avalos Ramirez, Antonio; Bénard, Sandrine; Giroir-Fendler, Anne; Jones, J Peter; Heitz, Michèle

    2008-11-25

    The kinetics of microbial growth and the biodegradation of methanol and toluene in (a) biofilters (BFs), and (b) biotrickling filters (BTFs), packed with inert materials, has been studied and analyzed. The specific growth rate, mu, for the treatment of methanol was 0.037h(-1) for a wide range of operating conditions. In the BF, mu was found to be a function of the methanol and toluene concentrations in the biofilm. In the BF used for treating methanol, mu was found to be affected by (1) the nitrogen concentration present in the nutrient solution, and (2) the kind of packing material employed. The kinetics of the methanol and toluene biodegradations were also analyzed using "mixed order" models. A Michaelis-Menten model type provided a good fit for the elimination capacity (EC) of the BTF treating methanol, while a Haldane model type provided a good fit to the EC of the BF treating methanol and toluene. The carbon dioxide production rate was related to the packed bed temperature and the content of the volatile solids within the biofilm. For the BF, the ratio of temperature/carbon dioxide production rate (PCO(2)) was 0.024 degrees C per unit of PCO(2), and for the BTF it was 0.15 degrees C per unit of PCO(2). PMID:18778740

  1. Priming Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hyaluronan Alters Growth Kinetics and Increases Attachment to Articular Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Succar, Peter; Medynskyj, Michael; Breen, Edmond J; Batterham, Tony; Molloy, Mark P; Herbert, Benjamin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biological therapeutics such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy are gaining acceptance for knee-osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. Reports of OA-patients show reductions in cartilage defects and regeneration of hyaline-like-cartilage with MSC-therapy. Suspending MSCs in hyaluronan commonly occurs in animals and humans, usually without supporting data. Objective. To elucidate the effects of different concentrations of hyaluronan on MSC growth kinetics. Methods. Using a range of hyaluronan concentrations, we measured MSC adherence and proliferation on culture plastic surfaces and a novel cartilage-adhesion assay. We employed time-course and dispersion imaging to assess MSC binding to cartilage. Cytokine profiling was also conducted on the MSC-secretome. Results. Hyaluronan had dose-dependent effects on growth kinetics of MSCs at concentrations of entanglement point (1 mg/mL). At higher concentrations, viscosity effects outweighed benefits of additional hyaluronan. The cartilage-adhesion assay highlighted for the first time that hyaluronan-primed MSCs increased cell attachment to cartilage whilst the presence of hyaluronan did not. Our time-course suggested patients undergoing MSC-therapy for OA could benefit from joint-immobilisation for up to 8 hours. Hyaluronan also greatly affected dispersion of MSCs on cartilage. Conclusion. Our results should be considered in future trials with MSC-therapy using hyaluronan as a vehicle, for the treatment of OA. PMID:26981136

  2. Growth kinetics and characterizations of gallium nitride thin films by remote PECVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. W.; Bachmann, K. J.; Lucovsky, G.

    1993-01-01

    Thin films of GaN have been deposited at relatively low growth temperatures by remote plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (RPECVD), using a plasma excited NH3, and trimethylgallium (TMG), injected downstream from the plasma. The activation energy for GaN growth has been tentatively assigned to the dissociation of NH groups as the primary N-atom precursors in the surface reaction with adsorbed TMG, or TMG fragments. At high He flow rates, an abrupt increase in the growth rate is observed and corresponds to a change in the reaction mechanism attributed to the formation of atomic N. XRD reveals an increased tendency to ordered growth in the (0001) direction with increasing growth temperature, He flow rate, and RF plasma power. IR spectra show the fundamental lattice mode of GaN at 530 cm without evidence for vibrational modes of hydrocarbon groups.

  3. Real-Time Exponential Curve Fits Using Discrete Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    An improved solution for curve fitting data to an exponential equation (y = Ae(exp Bt) + C) has been developed. This improvement is in four areas -- speed, stability, determinant processing time, and the removal of limits. The solution presented avoids iterative techniques and their stability errors by using three mathematical ideas: discrete calculus, a special relationship (be tween exponential curves and the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives), and a simple linear curve fit algorithm. This method can also be applied to fitting data to the general power law equation y = Ax(exp B) + C and the general geometric growth equation y = Ak(exp Bt) + C.

  4. Enhancing the growth of Physcomitrella patens by combination of monochromatic red and blue light - a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Cerff, Martin; Posten, Clemens

    2012-04-01

    In the current work we demonstrate the relevance of monochromatic light conditions in moss plant cell culture. Light intensity and illumination wavelength are important cultivation parameters due to their impact on growth and chlorophyll formation kinetics of the moss Physcomitrella patens. This moss was chosen as a model organism due to its capability to produce complex recombinant pharmaceutical proteins. Filamentous moss cells were cultivated in mineral medium in shaking flasks. The flasks were illuminated by light emitting diodes (LED) providing nearly monochromatic red and blue light as well as white light as a reference. A maximum growth rate of 0.78 day((1) was achieved under additional CO(2) aeration and no growth inhibition was observed under high light illumination. The application of dual red and blue light is the most effective way to reach high growth and chlorophyll formation rates while minimizing energy consumption of the LEDs. These observations are discussed as effects of photo sensory pigments in the moss. The combination of monochromatic red and blue light should be considered when a large scale process is set up.

  5. [Features of kinetics of thrombocytic thrombi growth in the microcirculatory system].

    PubMed

    Kondrat'ev, A S; Mikhaĭlova, I A; Petrishchev, N N

    1998-01-01

    The nonuniform distribution of thrombocytes in a microvessel is considered in terms of a previously advanced phenomenological theory, which describes the relationship between the mean blood velocity and thrombus growth rate. PMID:9567187

  6. Grain growth kinetics in liquid-phase-sintered zinc oxide-barium oxide ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Sung-Chul; German, Randall M.

    1991-01-01

    Grain growth of ZnO in the presence of a liquid phase of the ZnO-BaO system has been studied for temperatures from 1300 to 1400 C. The specimens were treated in boiling water and the grains were separated by dissolving the matrix phase in an ultrasonic bath. As a consequence 3D grain size measurements were possible. Microstructural examination shows some grain coalescence with a wide range of neck size ratios and corresponding dihedral angles, however, most grains are isolated. Lognormal grain size distributions show similar shapes, indicating that the growth mechanism is invariant over this time and temperature. All regressions between G exp n and time for n = 2 and 3 proved statistically significant. The rate constants calculated with the growth exponent set to n = 3 are on the same order of magnitude as in metallic systems. The apparent activation energy for growth is estimated between 355 and 458 kJ/mol.

  7. The crystal growth kinetics of alpha calcium sulfate hemihydrate in concentrated CaCl2-HCl solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Thomas; Demopoulos, George P.

    2012-07-01

    The crystal growth kinetics of calcium sulfate α-hemihydrate (α-HH) in nearly constant supersaturated HCl-CaCl2 solutions were investigated. Two types of solutions were used, the first had a low HCl (1.4 mol/L) and high CaCl2 (2.8 mol/L) concentration and the second had a high HCl (5.6 mol/L) and low CaCl2 (0.7 mol/L) concentration. These conditions were chosen to represent the first and last stage of a newly developed stage-wise HCl regeneration process. The seeded growth experiments were carried out in a stirred, temperature controlled semi-batch reactor in which supersaturation was kept constant by simultaneous addition of CaCl2 and Na2SO4 solutions. The influence of the following parameters on α-HH crystal growth was studied: temperature (70-95 °C), specific power input of stirring (0.02-1.29 W/kg) and equimolar inflow rate of CaCl2 and Na2SO4 (0-0.6 mol/h). The crystal growth rate was derived from particle size distribution measurements made with the laser light diffraction technique. It was found that the surface area normalized crystal growth rate increased linearly with the molar inflow rate up to 0.3 mol/h, at higher inflow rates no further increase of the growth rate was observed. Temperature and specific power input, within the investigated ranges, did not show a marked effect on the growth rate, attributable to a diffusion/adsorption controlled growth process. An interesting finding of the present research is the establishment of a positive relationship between the narrowing of the width of the particle size distribution with increasing crystal growth rate. The results show that the resulting particle size distribution is positively related to the reagent inflow rate, a finding that can be applied to the industrial design and scale-up of the α-HH crystallization/HCl regeneration process.

  8. Continued Development of a Coupled Instrument Model for Quantifying Droplet Activation and Growth Kinetics in the DMT CCN Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathem, T. L.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Moore, R.; Nenes, A.

    2011-12-01

    The continuous-flow streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) chamber (CFSTGC1) and its commercialization by Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT) has enabled large strides in measuring and parameterizing the CCN activity of atmospheric aerosol. The fast time response of the DMT CCN coupled with its ability to both count and size the activated droplets exiting the flow chamber have facilitated studies on CCN activation kinetics. Such studies are increasing in importance because changes in the kinetics of cloud droplet growth may have large impacts on cloud droplet number concentrations and climate. However, we find that activated droplet sizes in the DMT CCN are also strongly dependent on the instrument operating conditions and dry aerosol properties. A detailed numerical instrument model1 is utilized to account for these dependences, thereby enabling the quantification of an empirical water uptake coefficient and detection of changes in droplet growth arising from particle composition-dependent mechanisms.
    We present improvements to the coupled instrument and droplet growth model of Roberts and Nenes (2005)1, which include significantly reducing computing time, enhancing convergence stability, and incorporating an explicit treatment of water vapor depletion effects2. We apply the model to a variety of field campaign data and find that water vapor depletion effects can explain a large portion of the observed variability in CCN droplet sizes, which might have otherwise been incorrectly attributed to slow activation kinetics. Model accuracy is assessed through comparison of measured and model predicted droplet sizes for ammonium sulfate calibration experiments at a variety of instrument flow rates, pressures, and supersaturations. The accuracy of CCN optical particle counter (OPC) is also assessed using polystyrene latex and glass spheres (2-10 μm), which indicate a small but significant bias toward under-sizing. This suggests that while the

  9. Kinetics of gypsum crystal growth from high ionic strength solutions: A case study of Dead Sea - seawater mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznik, Itay J.; Gavrieli, Ittai; Antler, Gilad; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2011-04-01

    Gypsum precipitation kinetics were examined from a wide range of chemical compositions (11growth theory ( Burton et al., 1951) and other layer-by-layer growth mechanisms ( Goto and Ridge, 1967; Van Rosmalen et al., 1981; Bosbach and Rammensee, 1994). Under further-away-from-equilibrium conditions, the reaction is dominated by an apparent 10th order reaction. A conceptual model for gypsum growth kinetics is presented. The model is based on the 2nd order kinetic coefficients determined in the present study and data from the literature and is valid under a wide range of ionic strengths and Ca/SO42- ratios. According to this model, the integration of SO42- to kinks on the surface of the growing crystals is the rate-limiting step in the precipitation reaction. At ionic strengths above 8.5 m the precipitation rate of gypsum is enhanced, possibly due to the formation of CaSO4° ion pairs and/or a decrease in hydration frequencies.

  10. Kinetic theory of protein filament growth: Self-consistent methods and perturbative techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Filamentous protein structures are of high relevance for the normal functioning of the cell, where they provide the structural component for the cytoskeleton, but are also implicated in the pathogenesis of many disease states. The self-assembly of these supra-molecular structures from monomeric proteins has been studied extensively in the past 50 years and much interest has focused on elucidating the microscopic events that drive linear growth phenomena in a biological setting. Master equations have proven to be particularly fruitful in this context, allowing specific assembly mechanisms to be linked directly to experimental observations of filamentous growth. Recently, these approaches have increasingly been applied to aberrant protein polymerization, elucidating potential implications for controlling or combating the formation of pathological filamentous structures. This article reviews recent theoretical advances in the field of filamentous growth phenomena through the use of the master-equation formalism. We use perturbation and self-consistent methods for obtaining analytical solutions to the rate equations describing fibrillar growth and show how the resulting closed-form expressions can be used to shed light on the general physical laws underlying this complex phenomenon. We also present a connection between the underlying ideas of the self-consistent analysis of filamentous growth and the perturbative renormalization group.

  11. Growth kinetics and yield study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa in chemically defined media

    SciTech Connect

    Joung, J.J.; Akin, C.

    1983-01-01

    A Chlorella culture free from heterotrophic bacteria was obtained by eliminating the bacteria with successive use of antibiotics and agar plants. The purified Chlorella was cultured in chemically defined media. Under a photon flux (16.7 mw/cmS) similar to insolation, both heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures were luxurious but the growth rates of autotrophic cultures were reduced substantially. The Chlorella culture grew most rapidly at 30 C in the absence of heterotrophic bacteria, and the highest specific growth rates were 1.43 x 10 h and 0.46 x 10 h for mixotrophic and autotrophic cultures, respectively. The highest photosynthetic efficiency over its growth period was 2.9% for autotrophic cultures. Elimination of heterotrophic bacteria from Chlorella cultures improved the algal growth rate as well as biomass yield significantly. A parasite of 0.1- m size was identified. The motile microorganism played an important role in the growth of the Chlorella and appeared to be common to green algae. 16 references, 2 tables.

  12. Growth kinetics and size-dependent wetting of Ag/α-Al₂O₃(0001) nanoparticles studied via the plasmonic response.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Rémi; Jupille, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    The growth of vapour-deposited silver nanoparticles on α-Al₂O₃ was studied in situ from 190 to 675 K by surface differential reflectivity spectroscopy in the UV-visible range. Changes in size, shape and density were derived from the plasmonic response modelled in the framework of interface susceptibilities by assuming that supported clusters were in the form of truncated spheres. The sticking coefficient of silver on alumina is close to one up to T ≃ 575 K before entering a regime of incomplete condensation. The Arrhenius dependence of the saturation density indicates a nucleation on defects at low temperature (T ≤ 300 K) and detrapping above. The particle size D evolution follows temporal power laws, independent of temperature and flux, which characterize the growth (D ∼ t(0.31)) and coalescence (D ∼ t(0.55)) of the film. These are indicative of the growth of isolated particles at constant density and dynamic coalescence, respectively. The wetting angle of the silver clusters is shown to increase during the growth regime, which is assigned to a combination of surface stress and mismatch-induced strain, and to decrease upon coalescence, which is attributed to plastic relaxation. For particles larger than 10 nm in size, the values of contact angle and adhesion energy level off with asymptotic limits (θ(c) = 127.5° ± 1° and 0.48 ± 0.02 J m⁻²) that nicely agree with tabulated data. This work highlights the ability of nanoplasmics to monitor in situ the growth kinetics of thin supported films. PMID:22421238

  13. Radiographically determined growth kinetics of primary lung tumors in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.E. . Coll. of Veterinary Medicine Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA ); Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.; Park, J.F. )

    1989-10-01

    Tumor growth rate patterns especially tumor doubling time (TDT), have been extensively evaluated in man. Studies involving the determination of TDT in humans are limited, however, by the number of cases, time consistent radiographic tumor measurements, and inability to perform experimental procedures. In animals similar constraints do not exist. Lifespan animal models lend themselves well to tumor growth pattern analysis. Experimental studies have been designed to evaluate both the biological effects and growth patterns of induced and spontaneous tumors. The purpose of this study was to calculate the tumor volume doubling times (TCDT) for radiation-induced and spontaneous primary pulmonary neoplasms in dogs to see if differences existed due to etiology, sex or histologic cell type, and to determine if the time of tumor onset could be extrapolated from the TVDT. 3 refs.

  14. Two-stream Maxwellian kinetic theory of cloud droplet growth by condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, N. F.; Scott, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    A new growth rate formula (NGRF) is developed for the rate of growth of cloud droplets by condensation. The theory used is a modification of the Lees-Shankar theory in which the two-stream Maxwellian distribution function of Lees is used in Maxwell's method of moments to determine the transport of water vapor to and heat away from the droplet. Boundary conditions at the droplet are the usual conditions set in terms of accommodation coefficients, and the solution passes smoothly into diffusion flow in the far region. Comparisons are given between NGRF and the conventional formula showing close agreement (approximately 0.1%) for large radii with significant difference (approximately 5%) for small radii (not greater than 1 micron). Growth times for haze droplets in a Laktionov chamber are computed.

  15. Growth kinetics of white graphene (h-BN) on a planarised Ni foil surface

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyunjin; Park, Sungchan; Won, Dong-Il; Kang, Sang Ook; Pyo, Seong-Soo; Kim, Dong-Ik; Kim, Soo Min; Kim, Hwan Chul; Kim, Myung Jong

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of the surface and the grain orientation of metal catalysts have been considered to be two important factors for the growth of white graphene (h-BN) by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). We report a correlation between the growth rate of h-BN and the orientation of the nickel grains. The surface of the nickel (Ni) foil was first polished by electrochemical polishing (ECP) and subsequently annealed in hydrogen at atmospheric pressure to suppress the effect of the surface morphology. Atmospheric annealing with hydrogen reduced the nucleation sites of h-BN, which induced a large crystal size mainly grown from the grain boundary with few other nucleation sites in the Ni foil. A higher growth rate was observed from the Ni grains that had the {110} or {100} orientation due to their higher surface energy. PMID:26156068

  16. Growth kinetics, effect of carbon substrate in biosynthesis of mcl-PHA by Pseudomonas putida Bet001

    PubMed Central

    Gumel, A.M.; Annuar, M.S.M.; Heidelberg, T.

    2014-01-01

    Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L−1 to 15.45 g L−1, respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7) monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (Tm) of 42.0 (± 0.2) °C, glass transition temperature (Tg) of −1.0 (± 0.2) °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of 110.3 (± 0.1) J g−1. The molecular weight (Mw) range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa. PMID:25242925

  17. Chromosome arrangement, differentiation of growth kinetics and volatile molecule profiles in Kluyveromyces marxianus strains from Italian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Giuseppe; Tofalo, Rosanna; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Schirone, Maria; Patrignani, Francesca; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Grazia, Luigi; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-nine strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus from Pecorino di Farindola cheese in comparison with 3 strains from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, 1 from fermented milk, 3 from cow whey and two type strains K. marxianus CBS 834(T) and Kluyveromyces lactis CBS 683(T) were tested for genetic and metabolic characteristics. Intraspecific diversity of chromosome arrangements was evaluated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Among K. marxianus strains chromosome polymorphisms were evident with 11 patterns that differed in size and number of the chromosomal bands. The number of the bands varied from 4 to 7 with sizes ranging from about 1.0 to 2.7 Mb. Twelve strains were selected for determining their growth capacity and volatile compound production in two wheys (raw cheese whey and ricotta cheese whey) under limited oxygen availability. The growth kinetics highlighted four different biotypes and the influence of whey composition on K. marxianus development. The main volatile compounds detected after the growth were alcohols, acids, esters, ketones and aldehydes. Ethanol was the most abundant in both wheys. Aldehydes and other minor compounds were produced only when the strains were inoculated in ricotta cheese whey, while esters, butanoic, decanoic and octanoic acids were qualitatively and quantitatively more present in raw cheese whey. This study highlights a great genetic and metabolic biodiversity within Pecorino di Farindola K. marxianus strains and it could be exploited to improve the knowledge of this yeast for biotechnological uses. PMID:26310129

  18. Evolution of Li2O2 growth and its effect on kinetics of Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chun; Waletzko, Michael; Chen, Limei; Peppler, Klaus; Klar, Peter J; Janek, Jürgen

    2014-08-13

    Lithium peroxide (Li2O2), the solid and intrinsically electronic insulating discharge product of Li-O2 batteries strongly influences the discharge and charge kinetics. In a series of experiments, we investigated the growth of Li2O2 upon discharge and the corresponding reduction and oxidation processes by varying the depth of discharge. The results indicate that insulating Li2O2 particles with a disc-like shape were formed during the initial discharge stage. Afterward, the nucleation and growth of Li2O2 resulted in the formation of conducting Li2O2 shells. When the discharge voltage dropped below 2.65 V, the Li2O2 discs evolved to toroid-shaped particles and defective superoxide-like phase presumably with high conductivity was formed on the rims of Li2O2 toroids. Both Li2O2 and the superoxide-like phase are unstable in ether-based electrolytes resulting in the degradation of the corresponding cells. Nevertheless, by controlling the growth of Li2O2, the chemical reactivity of the discharge product can be suppressed to improve the reversibility of Li-O2 batteries.

  19. Growth kinetics, effect of carbon substrate in biosynthesis of mcl-PHA by Pseudomonas putida Bet001.

    PubMed

    Gumel, A M; Annuar, M S M; Heidelberg, T

    2014-01-01

    Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L(-1) to 15.45 g L(-1), respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7) monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (T m) of 42.0 (± 0.2) °C, glass transition temperature (T g) of -1.0 (± 0.2) °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of 110.3 (± 0.1) J g(-1). The molecular weight (M w) range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa. PMID:25242925

  20. Chromosome arrangement, differentiation of growth kinetics and volatile molecule profiles in Kluyveromyces marxianus strains from Italian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Fasoli, Giuseppe; Tofalo, Rosanna; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Schirone, Maria; Patrignani, Francesca; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Grazia, Luigi; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Thirty-nine strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus from Pecorino di Farindola cheese in comparison with 3 strains from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese, 1 from fermented milk, 3 from cow whey and two type strains K. marxianus CBS 834(T) and Kluyveromyces lactis CBS 683(T) were tested for genetic and metabolic characteristics. Intraspecific diversity of chromosome arrangements was evaluated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Among K. marxianus strains chromosome polymorphisms were evident with 11 patterns that differed in size and number of the chromosomal bands. The number of the bands varied from 4 to 7 with sizes ranging from about 1.0 to 2.7 Mb. Twelve strains were selected for determining their growth capacity and volatile compound production in two wheys (raw cheese whey and ricotta cheese whey) under limited oxygen availability. The growth kinetics highlighted four different biotypes and the influence of whey composition on K. marxianus development. The main volatile compounds detected after the growth were alcohols, acids, esters, ketones and aldehydes. Ethanol was the most abundant in both wheys. Aldehydes and other minor compounds were produced only when the strains were inoculated in ricotta cheese whey, while esters, butanoic, decanoic and octanoic acids were qualitatively and quantitatively more present in raw cheese whey. This study highlights a great genetic and metabolic biodiversity within Pecorino di Farindola K. marxianus strains and it could be exploited to improve the knowledge of this yeast for biotechnological uses.

  1. Evolution of Li2O2 growth and its effect on kinetics of Li-O2 batteries.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chun; Waletzko, Michael; Chen, Limei; Peppler, Klaus; Klar, Peter J; Janek, Jürgen

    2014-08-13

    Lithium peroxide (Li2O2), the solid and intrinsically electronic insulating discharge product of Li-O2 batteries strongly influences the discharge and charge kinetics. In a series of experiments, we investigated the growth of Li2O2 upon discharge and the corresponding reduction and oxidation processes by varying the depth of discharge. The results indicate that insulating Li2O2 particles with a disc-like shape were formed during the initial discharge stage. Afterward, the nucleation and growth of Li2O2 resulted in the formation of conducting Li2O2 shells. When the discharge voltage dropped below 2.65 V, the Li2O2 discs evolved to toroid-shaped particles and defective superoxide-like phase presumably with high conductivity was formed on the rims of Li2O2 toroids. Both Li2O2 and the superoxide-like phase are unstable in ether-based electrolytes resulting in the degradation of the corresponding cells. Nevertheless, by controlling the growth of Li2O2, the chemical reactivity of the discharge product can be suppressed to improve the reversibility of Li-O2 batteries. PMID:25006701

  2. The kinetics of heterogeneous nucleation and growth: an approach based on a grain explicit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouet-Leduc, B.; Maillet, J.-B.; Denoual, C.

    2014-04-01

    A model for phase transitions initiated on grain boundaries is proposed and tested against numerical simulations: this approach, based on a grain explicit model, allows us to consider the granular structure, resulting in accurate predictions for a wide span of nucleation processes. Comparisons are made with classical models of homogeneous (JMAK: Johnson and Mehl 1939 Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. 135 416; Avrami 1939 J. Chem. Phys. 7 1103; Kolmogorov 1937 Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR, Mat. Ser. 1 335) as well as heterogeneous (Cahn 1996 Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Phase Transformations Im et al (Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society)) nucleation. A transition scale based on material properties is proposed, allowing us to discriminate between random and site-saturated regimes. Finally, we discuss the relationship between an Avrami-type exponent and the transition regime, establishing conditions for its extraction from experiments.

  3. Surface kinetics in AlN growth: A universal model for the control of surface morphology in III-nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Mita, Seiji; Rice, Anthony; Tweedie, James; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko

    2016-03-01

    AlN epitaxial thin films were grown on both vicinal (0001)-oriented native single crystal AlN substrates and AlN templates grown on vicinal (0001)-oriented sapphire to develop a surface kinetic framework for the control of surface morphology. A Burton, Cabrera, and Frank (BCF) theory-based model is formulated and utilized to understand the dependence of the surface kinetics on the vapor supersaturation, σ, and substrate misorientation angle, α. The surface energy of the Al-polar surface of AlN was experimentally determined using BCF theory to be 149±8 meV/Å2. The critical misorientation angle for the onset of step-bunching was determined to be ~0.25° for a growth rate of 500 nm/h and temperature of 1250 °C. Transitioning from a surface with 2D nuclei to one with bilayer steps required a decrease in σ or an increase in α, whereas the suppression of step-bunching required an increase in σ or a decrease in α.

  4. EXPONENTIAL GALAXY DISKS FROM STELLAR SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Struck, Curtis E-mail: curt@iastate.edu

    2013-10-01

    Stellar scattering off of orbiting or transient clumps is shown to lead to the formation of exponential profiles in both surface density and velocity dispersion in a two-dimensional non-self gravitating stellar disk with a fixed halo potential. The exponential forms for both nearly flat rotation curves and near-solid-body rotation curves. The exponential does not depend on initial conditions, spiral arms, bars, viscosity, star formation, or strong shear. After a rapid initial development, the exponential saturates to an approximately fixed scale length. The inner exponential in a two-component profile has a break radius comparable to the initial disk radius; the outer exponential is primarily scattered stars.

  5. Theory, computation, and application of exponential splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccartin, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    A generalization of the semiclassical cubic spline known in the literature as the exponential spline is discussed. In actuality, the exponential spline represents a continuum of interpolants ranging from the cubic spline to the linear spline. A particular member of this family is uniquely specified by the choice of certain tension parameters. The theoretical underpinnings of the exponential spline are outlined. This development roughly parallels the existing theory for cubic splines. The primary extension lies in the ability of the exponential spline to preserve convexity and monotonicity present in the data. Next, the numerical computation of the exponential spline is discussed. A variety of numerical devices are employed to produce a stable and robust algorithm. An algorithm for the selection of tension parameters that will produce a shape preserving approximant is developed. A sequence of selected curve-fitting examples are presented which clearly demonstrate the advantages of exponential splines over cubic splines.

  6. Growth kinetics and precipitation phenomena in undercooled Nd-Fe-B melts with Ti and C additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, O.; Hermann, R.; Schultz, L.

    2001-09-01

    The microstructure and the solidification kinetics of stoichiometric Nd-Fe-B alloy with Ti and C additions were investigated using the electromagnetic levitation technique. In situ temperature-time characteristics were carried out. A strong reduction of the growth velocity of the Nd 2Fe 14B phase was observed in the Nd-Fe-B-Ti-C alloy compared to the addition-less Nd-Fe-B alloy. The undercoolability of the melt depends on the alloy composition. Moreover, at high TiC contents, the maximum undercooling level is strongly reduced turning to low cooling rates. The TiC solution and its formation were studied in overheated and undercooled samples, respectively after subsequent quenching. The cooling rate prior to solidification influences drastically the morphology of the TiC precipitates which affects strongly the nucleation of the properitectic γ-Fe phase in the undercooled stage.

  7. Kinetics of phase growth in the Cu-Sn system and application to composite Nb3Sn strands

    SciTech Connect

    Emanuela Barzi et al.1

    2002-11-18

    Nb{sub 3}Sn is the superconductor most used in the R and D of high field accelerator magnets by either the wind and react or the react and wind technique. In order to program the low temperature steps of the heat treatment, the growth kinetics of Cu-Sn intermetallics was investigated as a function of duration and temperature. The diffusion constants of {eta}, {var_epsilon} and {delta} phases between 150 and 550 C were evaluated using Cu-Sn model samples. Statistical and systematic errors were thoroughly evaluated for an accurate data analysis. Next the behavior of Internal Tin and Modified Jelly Roll Nb{sub 3}Sn composites was compared with the model predictions.

  8. In situ real-time investigation of kinetics of nucleation and growth of sol-gel-derived functional oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tao; Hu, Hao; Pan, Zixiao; Li, Xuefa; Wang, Jin; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2008-05-01

    Early-stage nucleation and growth kinetics of sol-gel-derived multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films were investigated in situ and in real time by combining transmission electron microscopy and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS). While the initial phase of the nuclei was identified to be Bi2O2CO3 , the quantitative GISAXS analysis unambiguously revealed that the early-stage kinetic nucleation growth in the thin films was dominated by an oriented-attachment mechanism as opposed to the conventional Ostwald ripening in metallic and ceramic systems.

  9. Near-zero growth kinetics of Pseudomonas putida deduced from proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Panikov, Nicolai S; Mandalakis, Manolis; Dai, Shujia; Mulcahy, Lawrence R; Fowle, William; Garrett, Wendy S; Karger, Barry L

    2015-01-01

    Intensive microbial growth typically observed in laboratory rarely occurs in nature. Because of severe nutrient deficiency, natural populations exhibit near-zero growth (NZG). There is a long-standing controversy about sustained NZG, specifically whether there is a minimum growth rate below which cells die or whether cells enter a non-growing maintenance state. Using chemostat with cell retention (CCR) of Pseudomonas putida, we resolve this controversy and show that under NZG conditions, bacteria differentiate into growing and VBNC (viable but not non-culturable) forms, the latter preserving measurable catabolic activity. The proliferating cells attained a steady state, their slow growth balanced by VBNC production. Proteomic analysis revealed upregulated (transporters, stress response, self-degrading enzymes and extracellular polymers) and downregulated (ribosomal, chemotactic and primary biosynthetic enzymes) proteins in the CCR versus batch culture. Based on these profiles, we identified intracellular processes associated with NZG and generated a mathematical model that simulated the observations. We conclude that NZG requires controlled partial self-digestion and deep reconfiguration of the metabolic machinery that results in the biosynthesis of new products and development of broad stress resistance. CCR allows efficient on-line control of NZG including VBNC production. A well-nuanced understanding of NZG is important to understand microbial processes in situ and for optimal design of environmental technologies.

  10. Fast and slow crystal growth kinetics in glass-forming melts

    SciTech Connect

    Orava, J.; Greer, A. L.

    2014-06-07

    Published values of crystal growth rates are compared for supercooled glass-forming liquids undergoing congruent freezing at a planar crystal-liquid interface. For the purposes of comparison pure metals are considered to be glass-forming systems, using data from molecular-dynamics simulations. For each system, the growth rate has a maximum value U{sub max} at a temperature T{sub max} that lies between the glass-transition temperature T{sub g} and the melting temperature T{sub m}. A classification is suggested, based on the lability (specifically, the propensity for fast crystallization), of the liquid. High-lability systems show “fast” growth characterized by a high U{sub max}, a low T{sub max} / T{sub m}, and a very broad peak in U vs. T / T{sub m}. In contrast, systems showing “slow” growth have a low U{sub max}, a high T{sub max} / T{sub m}, and a sharp peak in U vs. T / T{sub m}. Despite the difference of more than 11 orders of magnitude in U{sub max} seen in pure metals and in silica, the range of glass-forming systems surveyed fit into a common pattern in which the lability increases with lower reduced glass-transition temperature (T{sub g} / T{sub m}) and higher fragility of the liquid. A single parameter, a linear combination of T{sub g} / T{sub m} and fragility, can show a good correlation with U{sub max}. For all the systems, growth at U{sub max} is coupled to the atomic/molecular mobility in the liquid. It is found that, across the diversity of glass-forming systems, T{sub max} / T{sub g} = 1.48 ± 0.15.

  11. Fast and slow crystal growth kinetics in glass-forming melts.

    PubMed

    Orava, J; Greer, A L

    2014-06-01

    Published values of crystal growth rates are compared for supercooled glass-forming liquids undergoing congruent freezing at a planar crystal-liquid interface. For the purposes of comparison pure metals are considered to be glass-forming systems, using data from molecular-dynamics simulations. For each system, the growth rate has a maximum value U(max) at a temperature T(max) that lies between the glass-transition temperature T(g) and the melting temperature T(m). A classification is suggested, based on the lability (specifically, the propensity for fast crystallization), of the liquid. High-lability systems show "fast" growth characterized by a high U(max), a low T(max)/T(m), and a very broad peak in U vs. T/T(m). In contrast, systems showing "slow" growth have a low U(max), a high T(max)/T(m), and a sharp peak in U vs. T/T(m). Despite the difference of more than 11 orders of magnitude in U(max) seen in pure metals and in silica, the range of glass-forming systems surveyed fit into a common pattern in which the lability increases with lower reduced glass-transition temperature (T(g)/T(m)) and higher fragility of the liquid. A single parameter, a linear combination of T(g)/T(m) and fragility, can show a good correlation with U(max). For all the systems, growth at U(max) is coupled to the atomic/molecular mobility in the liquid. It is found that, across the diversity of glass-forming systems, T(max)/T(g) = 1.48 ± 0.15. PMID:24908023

  12. The relationship between photoluminescence (PL) decay and crystal growth kinetics in thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs).

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiangying; Xue, Xiaogang; Huang, Yang; Zhuang, Zanyong; Lin, Zhang

    2014-06-21

    The PL lifetime optimization of CdTe QDs capped with TGA has yet to be understood from a perspective of growth kinetics. In this work, the growth kinetics and PL properties of CdTe QDs growing in aqueous solutions of two TGA concentrations, 0 mM and 57 mM, were systematically investigated using UV, TEM, and PL methods. CdTe QDs in 0 mM TGA solution were found to follow the mixed OA (Oriented Attachment)-OR (Ostwald Ripening) growth kinetics. The PL peaks experienced a red-shift with almost unchanged intensity and the PL lifetimes increased gradually. In 57 mM TGA solution, the QDs followed the OA dominated growth mechanism. The PL peak broadened greatly with a red-shift and its intensity decreased significantly. The PL lifetime increased much higher than that in 0 mM TGA solution. Based on the different growth kinetic models of the two systems, we suggest that in the low (0 mM) TGA solution, the increased surface defects induced by TGA desorption and the existence of partial internal defects caused by OA growth were the main reasons for the gradual increase of PL lifetime, while in high (57 mM) TGA solution, the increase of PL lifetime was ascribed to the abundant internal defects produced by OA collision. Finally, kinetic data showed the effect of the TGA concentration on crystal growth and PL lifetime of CdTe QDs. The results might provide guidance for understanding the mechanism behind the phenomena of ligand-related PL properties.

  13. Cluster-cluster aggregation kinetics and primary particle growth of soot nanoparticles in flame by light scattering and numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    di Stasio, Stefano; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G; Kostoglou, Margaritis

    2002-03-01

    The agglomeration kinetics of growing soot generated in a diffusion atmospheric flame are here studied in situ by light scattering technique to infer cluster morphology and size (fractal dimension D(f) and radius of gyration R(g)). SEM analysis is used as a standard reference to obtain primary particle size D(P) at different residence times. The number N(P) of primary particles per aggregate and the number concentration n(A) of clusters are evaluated on the basis of the measured angular patterns of the scattered light intensity. The major finding is that the kinetics of the coagulation process that yields to the formation of chain-like aggregates by soot primary particles (size 10 to 40 nm) can be described with a constant coagulation kernel beta(c,exp)=2.37x10(-9) cm3/s (coagulation constant tau(c) approximately = 0.28 ms). This result is in nice accord with the Smoluchowski coagulation equation in the free molecular regime, and, vice versa, it is in contrast with previous studies conducted by invasive (ex situ) techniques, which claimed the evidence in flames of coagulation rates much larger than the kinetic theory predictions. Thereafter, a number of numerical simulations is implemented to compare with the experimental results on primary particle growth rate and on the process of aggregate reshaping that is observed by light scattering at later residence times. The restructuring process is conjectured to occur, for not well understood reasons, as a direct consequence of the atomic rearrangement in the solid phase carbon due to the prolonged residence time within the flame. Thus, on one side, it is shown that the numerical simulations of primary size history compare well with the values of primary size from SEM experiment with a growth rate constant of primary diameter about 1 nm/s. On the other side, the evolution of aggregate morphology is found to be predictable by the numerical simulations when the onset of a first-order "thermal" restructuring mechanism is

  14. Kinetic modeling of growth and lipid body induction in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under heterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Neha; Kumar, G Dinesh; Gupta, Ravi Prakash; Mathur, Anshu Shankar; Manikandan, B; Basu, Biswajit; Tuli, Deepak Kumar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop a mathematical model to describe the biomass and (total) lipid productivity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738 under heterotrophic conditions. Biomass growth rate was predicted by Droop's cell quota model, while changes observed in cell quota (utilization) under carbon excess conditions were used for the modeling and predicting the lipid accumulation rate. The model was simulated under non-limiting (excess) carbon and limiting nitrate concentration and validated with experimental data for the culture grown in batch (flask) mode under different nitrate concentrations. The present model incorporated two modes (growth and stressed) for the prediction of endogenous lipid synthesis/induction and aimed to predict the effect and response of the microalgae under nutrient starvation (stressed) conditions. MATLAB and Genetic Algorithm were employed for the prediction and validation of the model parameters. PMID:27450124

  15. Specific heat capacity and dendritic growth kinetics of liquid peritectic Fe-Cu alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Z. C.; Wang, W. L.; Luo, S. B.; Wei, B.

    2016-08-01

    The specific heat and dendritic growth of highly undercooled peritectic Fe-Cu alloys were investigated by electromagnetic levitation technique. The specific heat values of liquid peritectic Fe92.8Cu7.2 and hyperperitectic Fe88.5Cu11.5 alloys were determined to be 40.4 and 39.58 J·mol-1·K-1 over wide temperature ranges. The measured growth velocities rose rapidly with increasing undercooling, which reached 69 and 68 m·s-1 at the maximum undercoolings of 401 K (0.23 TL) and 468 K (0.27 TL). The microstructures of peritectic Fe-Cu alloys were refined significantly with enhanced undercooling. Theoretical analyses showed that almost segregationless solidification was realized if undercooling was sufficiently large.

  16. Kinetic surface roughening and wafer bow control in heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC on Si(111) substrates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Walker, Glenn; Chai, Jessica; Iacopi, Alan; Fernandes, Alanna; Dimitrijev, Sima

    2015-01-01

    A thin, chemically inert 3C-SiC layer between GaN and Si helps not only to avoid the “melt-back” effect, but also to inhibit the crack generation in the grown GaN layers. The quality of GaN layer is heavily dependent on the unique properties of the available 3C-SiC/Si templates. In this paper, the parameters influencing the roughness, crystalline quality, and wafer bow are investigated and engineered to obtain high quality, low roughness 3C-SiC/Si templates suitable for subsequent GaN growth and device processing. Kinetic surface roughening and SiC growth mechanisms, which depend on both deposition temperature and off-cut angle, are reported for heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC on Si substrates. The narrower terrace width on 4° off-axis Si enhances the step-flow growth at 1200 °C, with the roughness of 3C-SiC remaining constant with increasing thickness, corresponding to a scaling exponent of zero. Crack-free 3C-SiC grown on 150-mm Si substrate with a wafer bow of less than 20 μm was achieved. Both concave and convex wafer bow can be obtained by in situ tuning of the deposited SiC layer thicknesses. The 3C-SiC grown on off-axis Si, compared to that grown on on-axis Si, has lower surface roughness, better crystallinity, and smaller bow magnitude. PMID:26487465

  17. Kinetic surface roughening and wafer bow control in heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC on Si(111) substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Walker, Glenn; Chai, Jessica; Iacopi, Alan; Fernandes, Alanna; Dimitrijev, Sima

    2015-10-21

    A thin, chemically inert 3C-SiC layer between GaN and Si helps not only to avoid the "melt-back" effect, but also to inhibit the crack generation in the grown GaN layers. The quality of GaN layer is heavily dependent on the unique properties of the available 3C-SiC/Si templates. In this paper, the parameters influencing the roughness, crystalline quality, and wafer bow are investigated and engineered to obtain high quality, low roughness 3C-SiC/Si templates suitable for subsequent GaN growth and device processing. Kinetic surface roughening and SiC growth mechanisms, which depend on both deposition temperature and off-cut angle, are reported for heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC on Si substrates. The narrower terrace width on 4° off-axis Si enhances the step-flow growth at 1200 °C, with the roughness of 3C-SiC remaining constant with increasing thickness, corresponding to a scaling exponent of zero. Crack-free 3C-SiC grown on 150-mm Si substrate with a wafer bow of less than 20 μm was achieved. Both concave and convex wafer bow can be obtained by in situ tuning of the deposited SiC layer thicknesses. The 3C-SiC grown on off-axis Si, compared to that grown on on-axis Si, has lower surface roughness, better crystallinity, and smaller bow magnitude.

  18. Growth of Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x}(011) on Si(011)16{times}2 by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy: Growth kinetics, Ge incorporation, and surface phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, N.; Kim, H.; Spila, T.; Eades, J.A.; Glass, G.; Desjardins, P.; Greene, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystal Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x}(011) layers with x{le}0.35 have been grown on double-domain Si(011){open_quotes}16{times}2{close_quotes} surfaces from Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}/Ge{sub 2}H{sub 6} mixtures at temperatures T{sub s}=400{endash}950{degree}C. D{sub 2} temperature programmed desorption was used to show that the structure of the Si(011){open_quotes}16{times}2{close_quotes} surface unit cell, more correctly written as [{sub 2}{sup 17}{sub 2}{sup 1}] since the unit cell vectors are nonorthogonal, is composed of 16 adatoms and eight {pi}-bonded dimers with a dangling bond density half that of the 1{times}1 surface. Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x}(011) overlayers are {open_quotes}16{times}2{close_quotes} when x{lt}x{sub c}(T{sub s}) and {open_quotes}2{times}8{close_quotes} with x{gt}x{sub c}(T{sub s}). The value of x{sub c} decreases from {approx_equal} 0.10 at T{sub s}=475{degree}C to 0.08 at 550{degree}C to 0.06 at 650{degree}C. Both the {open_quotes}2{times}8{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}16{times}2{close_quotes} Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x}(011) surface reconstructions gradually and reversibly transform to 1{times}1 at T{sub s} between 650 and 725{degree}C. Film growth kinetics exhibit three distinct regimes. At low temperatures (T{sub s}{approx_lt}500{degree}C), the film deposition rate R{sub SiGe} decreases exponentially with 1/T{sub s} in a surface-reaction-limited growth mode for which the rate-limiting step is hydrogen desorption from Si and Ge monohydride phases. R{sub SiGe} becomes essentially constant with T{sub s} in the intermediate impingement-flux-limited range, T{sub s}=500{endash}650{degree}C. At T{sub s}{gt}650{degree}C, R{sub SiGe} increases again with T{sub s} due initially (T{sub s}{approx_equal}650{endash}725{degree}C) to an increase in the steady-state dangling bond coverage as the surface reconstruction gradually transforms to 1{times}1. The continued increase in R{sub SiGe} at even higher T{sub s} is associated with strain

  19. The Exponential Function, the Human Race, and Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2004-05-01

    "The greatest shortcoming of the human race is our inability to understand the exponential function." This is the opening line of a talk I have given over 1500 times since 1969. In this context, the exponential function is used to give a quantitative description of steady growth of, for example, a population. As we all know, quantities that grow steadily, at even modest rates, quickly become impossibly large. Yet non-scientists in the business and government communities continue to fight for "sustainable growth" of the U.S. economy and population. What are scientists doing to increase public comprehension of the impossibility of "sustainable growth?" The main role of scientists seems to be to avoid calling attention to the impossibility of continued growth of populations and of rates of consumption of resources and, instead, to focus on minor aspects of the related problems. In so doing, we are complicit in making the problems worse. For scientists, this opening line should be revised to read: "The greatest shortcoming of scientists is our unwillingness to apply our knowledge of the exponential function to the great problems that are facing the human race."

  20. Formation and Growth Kinetics of Reverted Austenite During Tempering of a High Co-Ni Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Marina; Ressel, Gerald; Méndez Martín, Francisca; Ploberger, Sarah; Marsoner, Stefan; Ebner, Reinhold

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that high Co-Ni steels exhibit excellent toughness. Since the good toughness in these steels is supposed to be related to thin layers of austenite between martensite crystals, this work presents an experimental study corroborated with diffusional calculations to characterize the evolution of reverted austenite. Atom probe measurements were conducted for analyzing the element distribution in austenite and martensite during tempering. These results were correlated with crystallographic information, which was obtained by using transmission electron microscopy investigations. Additionally, the experimental findings were compared with kinetic calculations with DICTRA™. The investigations reveal that reverted austenite formation during tempering is connected with a redistribution of Ni, Co, Cr, and Mo atoms. The austenite undergoes a Ni and Cr enrichment and a Co depletion, while in the neighboring martensite, a zone of Ni and Cr depletion and Co enrichment is formed. The changes in the chemical composition of austenite during tempering affect the stability of the austenite against phase transformation to martensite during plastic deformation and have thus decisive influence on the toughness of the material.

  1. First principles kinetic Monte Carlo study on the growth patterns of WSe2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yifan; Liang, Chaoping; Zhang, Kehao; Zhao, Rui; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Colombo, Luigi; Robinson, Joshua A.; Wallace, Robert M.; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2016-06-01

    The control of domain morphology and defect level of synthesized transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) is of crucial importance for their device applications. However, current TMDs synthesis by chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy is in an early stage of development, where much of the understanding of the process-property relationships is highly empirical. In this work, we use a kinetic Monte Carlo coupled with first principles calculations to study one specific case of the deposition of monolayer WSe2 on graphene, which can be expanded to the entire TMD family. Monolayer WSe2 domains are investigated as a function of incident flux, temperature and precursor ratio. The quality of the grown WSe2 domains is analyzed by the stoichiometry and defect density. A phase diagram of domain morphology is developed in the space of flux and the precursor stoichiometry, in which the triangular compact, fractal and dendritic domains are identified. The phase diagram has inspired a new synthesis strategy for large TMD domains with improved quality.

  2. Epidemics, Exponential Functions, and Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Sarah B.; Gibbons, Katie; Karp, Karen S.; Dillon, Fred

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of outbreaks of dangerous diseases is both intriguing to students and of mathematical significance, which is exactly why the authors engaged eighth graders in an introductory activity on the growth that occurs as an epidemic spreads. Various contexts can set the stage for such an exploration. Reading adolescent literature like…

  3. Effect of poultry decontaminants concentration on growth kinetics for pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    del Río, Elena; González de Caso, Beatriz; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Various chemical compounds are currently under review for final approval as poultry decontaminants in the European Union (EU). Concentration is among the factors considered by the EU authorities in the evaluation of these treatments. The aim of this research was to compare the growth parameters for pathogenic and spoilage bacteria in presence of high and low concentrations of poultry decontaminants to assess whether such treatments could involve a potential sanitary risk for consumers. Growth curves for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Brochothrix thermosphacta were obtained at different levels of trisodium phosphate (TSP; 1.74%; 0.58%), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC; 210 ppm; 70 ppm) and citric acid (CA; 0.27%; 0.09%). The modified Gompertz equation was used as primary model to fit observed data. ASC and TSP were the most effective compounds in increasing lag phase (L) and reducing maximum growth rate (mu) in Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria were more influenced by CA. At high TSP levels, mu for Salmonella decreased. Low TSP levels increased mu for Salmonella and Listeria relative to control samples. In presence of 0.27% CA, Brochothrix showed the highest L and the lowest mu among strains tested. These results suggest that low TSP and high CA concentrations could favour the outgrowth of pathogenic bacteria (e.g. Salmonella) relative to spoilage bacteria, rending these treatments potentially dangerous for consumers. The findings of this study may be useful to the EU authorities and meat processors in their efforts to select adequate treatments for control of bacteria on poultry. PMID:18721678

  4. Imaging System to Measure Kinetics of Material Cluster Ejection During Exit-Surface Damage Initiation and Growth in Fused Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Negres, R A; Demos, S G

    2009-10-29

    Laser-induced damage on the surface of optical components typically is manifested by the formation of microscopic craters that can ultimately degrade the optics performance characteristics. It is believed that the damage process is the result of the material exposure to high temperatures and pressures within a volume on the order of several cubic microns located just below the surface. The response of the material following initial localized energy deposition by the laser pulse, including the timeline of events and the individual processes involved during this timeline, is still largely unknown. In this work we introduce a time-resolved microscope system designed to enable a detailed investigation of the sequence of dynamic events involved during surface damage. To best capture individual aspects of the damage timeline, this system is employed in multiple imaging configurations (such as multi-view image acquisition at a single time point and multi-image acquisition at different time points of the same event) and offers sensitivity to phenomena at very early delay times. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated with preliminary results from the study of exit-surface damage in fused silica. The time-resolved images provide information on the material response immediately following laser energy deposition, the processes later involved during crater formation or growth, the material ejecta kinetics, and overall material motion and transformation. Such results offer insight into the mechanisms governing damage initiation and growth in the optical components of ICF class laser systems.

  5. Self-catalyzed growth of S layers via an amorphous-to-crystalline transition limited by folding kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sungwook; Shin, Seong-Ho; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nonclassical, multistage crystallization pathways is increasingly evident from theoretical studies on colloidal systems and experimental investigations of proteins and biomineral phases. Although theoretical predictions suggest that proteins follow these pathways as a result of fluctuations that create unstable dense-liquid states, microscopic studies indicate these states are long-lived. Using in situ atomic force microscopy to follow 2D assembly of S-layer proteins on supported lipid bilayers, we have obtained a molecular-scale picture of multistage protein crystallization that reveals the importance of conformational transformations in directing the pathway of assembly. We find that monomers with an extended conformation first form a mobile adsorbed phase, from which they condense into amorphous clusters. These clusters undergo a phase transition through S-layer folding into crystalline clusters composed of compact tetramers. Growth then proceeds by formation of new tetramers exclusively at cluster edges, implying tetramer formation is autocatalytic. Analysis of the growth kinetics leads to a quantitative model in which tetramer creation is rate limiting. However, the estimated barrier is much smaller than expected for folding of isolated S-layer proteins, suggesting an energetic rationale for this multistage pathway. PMID:20823255

  6. Zirconium Carbide Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering and Hot Pressing: Densification Kinetics, Grain Growth, and Thermal Properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, Xialu; Back, Christina; Izhvanov, Oleg; Haines, Christopher; Olevsky, Eugene

    2016-07-14

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been employed to consolidate a micron-sized zirconium carbide (ZrC) powder. ZrC pellets with a variety of relative densities are obtained under different processing parameters. The densification kinetics of ZrC powders subjected to conventional hot pressing and SPS are comparatively studied by applying similar heating and loading profiles. Due to the lack of electric current assistance, the conventional hot pressing appears to impose lower strain rate sensitivity and higher activation energy values than those which correspond to the SPS processing. A finite element simulation is used to analyze the temperature evolution within the volume of ZrCmore » specimens subjected to SPS. The control mechanism for grain growth during the final SPS stage is studied via a recently modified model, in which the grain growth rate dependence on porosity is incorporated. Finally, the constant pressure specific heat and thermal conductivity of the SPS-processed ZrC are determined to be higher than those reported for the hot-pressed ZrC and the benefits of applying SPS are indicated accordingly.« less

  7. Treatment of agro based industrial wastewater in sequencing batch reactor: performance evaluation and growth kinetics of aerobic biomass.

    PubMed

    Lim, J X; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-12-15

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a working volume of 8 L and an exchange ratio of 25% was used to enrich biomass for the treatment of the anaerobically treated low pH palm oil mill effluent (POME). The influent concentration was stepwise increased from 5000 ± 500 mg COD/L to 11,500 ± 500 mg COD/L. The performance of the reactor was monitored at different organic loading rates (OLRs). It was found that approximately 90% of the COD content of the POME wastewater was successfully removed regardless of the OLR applied to the SBR. Cycle studies of the SBR show that the oxygen uptake by the biomass while there is no COD reduction may be due to the oxidation of the storage product by the biomass. Further, the growth kinetic parameters of the biomass were determined in batch experiments using respirometer. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was estimated to be 1.143 day(-1) while the half saturation constant (Ks) with respect to COD was determined to be 0.429 g COD/L. The decay coefficient (bD) and biomass yield (Y) were found to be 0.131 day(-1) and 0.272 mg biomass/mg COD consumed, respectively.

  8. Growth kinetics and mechanistic action of reactive oxygen species released by silver nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger on Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ninganagouda, Shivaraj; Rathod, Vandana; Singh, Dattu; Hiremath, Jyoti; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Mathew, Jasmine; ul-Haq, Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs), the real silver bullet, are known to have good antibacterial properties against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study AgNPs were prepared from extracellular filtrate of Aspergillus niger. Characterization of AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrum reveals specific surface plasmon resonance at peak 416 nm; TEM photographs revealed the size of the AgNPs to be 20-55 nm. Average diameter of the produced AgNPs was found to be 73 nm with a zeta potential that was -24 mV using Malvern Zetasizer. SEM micrographs showed AgNPs to be spherical with smooth morphology. EDS revealed the presence of pure metallic AgNPs along with carbon and oxygen signatures. Of the different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 μg/mL) used 10 μg/mL were sufficient to inhibit 10(7) CFU/mL of E. coli. ROS production was measured using DCFH-DA method and the the free radical generation effect of AgNPs on bacterial growth inhibition was investigated by ESR spectroscopy. This paper not only deals with the damage inflicted on microorganisms by AgNPs but also induces cell death through the production of ROS released by AgNPs and also growth kinetics of E. coli supplemented with AgNPs produced by A. niger. PMID:25028666

  9. Growth Kinetics and Mechanistic Action of Reactive Oxygen Species Released by Silver Nanoparticles from Aspergillus niger on Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Ninganagouda, Shivaraj; Rathod, Vandana; Singh, Dattu; Hiremath, Jyoti; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Mathew, Jasmine; ul-Haq, Manzoor

    2014-01-01

    Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs), the real silver bullet, are known to have good antibacterial properties against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study AgNPs were prepared from extracellular filtrate of Aspergillus niger. Characterization of AgNPs by UV-Vis spectrum reveals specific surface plasmon resonance at peak 416 nm; TEM photographs revealed the size of the AgNPs to be 20–55 nm. Average diameter of the produced AgNPs was found to be 73 nm with a zeta potential that was −24 mV using Malvern Zetasizer. SEM micrographs showed AgNPs to be spherical with smooth morphology. EDS revealed the presence of pure metallic AgNPs along with carbon and oxygen signatures. Of the different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 μg/mL) used 10 μg/mL were sufficient to inhibit 107 CFU/mL of E. coli. ROS production was measured using DCFH-DA method and the the free radical generation effect of AgNPs on bacterial growth inhibition was investigated by ESR spectroscopy. This paper not only deals with the damage inflicted on microorganisms by AgNPs but also induces cell death through the production of ROS released by AgNPs and also growth kinetics of E. coli supplemented with AgNPs produced by A. niger. PMID:25028666

  10. Kinetics of mesa overlayer growth: Climbing of adatoms onto the mesa top

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yong; Liu, Feng; Li, Shao-Chun; Jia, Jin-Feng; Xue, Qi-Kun; Lee, Byeong-Joo

    2008-01-17

    We have calculated the energy barriers for an adatom climbing up onto a Pb mesa top either over a facet-facet edge or through a facet-step joint, using a modified embedded atom method. We found that the second process is not only thermodynamically more favorable than the first one but also much faster with a diminishing barrier. Our results provide a plausible explanation for the experimentally observed intriguing growth behavior of a Pb mesa. The underlying mechanisms can be generally applicable to other systems.

  11. Nuclei growth kinetics during the nucleation of gold on UHV-cleaved mica substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, A. G.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of crystalline sizes during nucleation of gold on mica surfaces cleaved in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) reveal the presence of symmetric, sharply peaked distributions which flatten and broaden with increasing nucleation time. When the number density of nuclei increases, the growth rate is suppressed. The time taken to reach a given size increases with increasing temperature when the nuclei are growing as isolated particles. When the nuclei are spaced so far that their diffusion fields overlap, then the time taken to reach a given size decreases with increasing temperature.

  12. Real-time x-ray studies of indium island growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Demasi, Alexander; Rainville, Meliha G.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have investigated the early stages of indium island formation and growth by vapor phase deposition on room temperature sapphire using real-time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), followed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results are consistent with the formation and coalescence of hemispherical islands, as described by Family and Meakin. Monte Carlo simulations of systems of coalescing islands were used to supplement and quantify the results of GISAXS, and a good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations.

  13. CO2 Biofixation and Growth Kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Michał; Lasek, Janusz; Skawińska, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    CO2 biofixation was investigated using tubular bioreactors (15 and 1.5 l) either in the presence of green algae Chlorella vulgaris or Nannochloropsis gaditana. The cultivation was carried out in the following conditions: temperature of 25 °C, inlet-CO2 of 4 and 8 vol%, and artificial light enhancing photosynthesis. Higher biofixation were observed in 8 vol% CO2 concentration for both microalgae cultures than in 4 vol%. Characteristic process parameters such as productivity, CO2 fixation, and kinetic rate coefficient were determined and discussed. Simplified and advanced methods for determination of CO2 fixation were compared. In a simplified method, it is assumed that 1 kg of produced biomass equals 1.88 kg recycled CO2. Advance method is based on empirical results of the present study (formula with carbon content in biomass). It was observed that application of the simplified method can generate large errors, especially if the biomass contains a relatively low amount of carbon. N. gaditana is the recommended species for CO2 removal due to a high biofixation rate-more than 1.7 g/l/day. On day 10 of cultivation, the cell concentration was more than 1.7 × 10(7) cells/ml. In the case of C. vulgaris, the maximal biofixation rate and cell concentration did not exceed 1.4 g/l/day and 1.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, respectively. PMID:27052208

  14. CO2 Biofixation and Growth Kinetics of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis gaditana.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Michał; Lasek, Janusz; Skawińska, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    CO2 biofixation was investigated using tubular bioreactors (15 and 1.5 l) either in the presence of green algae Chlorella vulgaris or Nannochloropsis gaditana. The cultivation was carried out in the following conditions: temperature of 25 °C, inlet-CO2 of 4 and 8 vol%, and artificial light enhancing photosynthesis. Higher biofixation were observed in 8 vol% CO2 concentration for both microalgae cultures than in 4 vol%. Characteristic process parameters such as productivity, CO2 fixation, and kinetic rate coefficient were determined and discussed. Simplified and advanced methods for determination of CO2 fixation were compared. In a simplified method, it is assumed that 1 kg of produced biomass equals 1.88 kg recycled CO2. Advance method is based on empirical results of the present study (formula with carbon content in biomass). It was observed that application of the simplified method can generate large errors, especially if the biomass contains a relatively low amount of carbon. N. gaditana is the recommended species for CO2 removal due to a high biofixation rate-more than 1.7 g/l/day. On day 10 of cultivation, the cell concentration was more than 1.7 × 10(7) cells/ml. In the case of C. vulgaris, the maximal biofixation rate and cell concentration did not exceed 1.4 g/l/day and 1.3 × 10(7) cells/ml, respectively.

  15. Method for nonlinear exponential regression analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkin, B. G.

    1972-01-01

    Two computer programs developed according to two general types of exponential models for conducting nonlinear exponential regression analysis are described. Least squares procedure is used in which the nonlinear problem is linearized by expanding in a Taylor series. Program is written in FORTRAN 5 for the Univac 1108 computer.

  16. [Effect of light and temperature on growth kinetics of Anabaena flosaquae under phosphorus limitation].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhi-Kun; Li, Zhe; Wang, Sheng; Guo, Jin-Song; Xiao, Yan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus, light and temperature are the key environmental factors leading to algae growth. But the effects of interaction between light and temperature on the growth of Anabaena flosaquae under phosphorus limitation were not well documented in literature. Anabaena flosaquae was selected for the study and lab-scale experiment and simulation were carried out. The results showed that the optimal temperature of Anabaena flosaquae was 20 degrees C under phosphorus limitation when the light intensity was constant, and the optimal light intensity (illuminance) of Anabaena flosaquae was 3 000 lx under phosphorus limitation when the temperature was constant. Based on model fitting and parameter calibration, the optimal temperature and light intensity of Anabaena flosaquae were 21.03 degress C ± 1.55 degrees C and 2 675.12 lx ± 262.93 lx, respectively. These data were close to the actual water environmental condition at the end of spring. Results of this study will provide important foundation for prediction of Anabaena blooms. PMID:25929064

  17. Growth kinetics of Chlorococcum humicola - A potential feedstock for biomass with biofuel properties.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jibu; Jayachithra, E V

    2015-11-01

    Economically viable production facilities for microalgae depend on the optimization of growth parameters with regard to nutrient requirements. Using microalgae to treat industrial effluents containing heavy metals presents an alternative to the current practice of using physical and chemical methods. Present work focuses on the statistical optimization of growth of Chlorococcum humicola to ascertain the maximum production of biomass. Plackett Burman design was carried out to screen the significant variables influencing biomass production. Further, Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize the effect of inoculum, light intensity and pH on net biomass yield. Optimum conditions for maximum biomass yield were identified to be inoculum at 15%, light intensity to be 1500lx and pH 8.5. Theoretical and predicted values were in agreement and thus the model was found to be significant. Gas chromatography analyses of the FAME derivatives showed a high percentage of saturated fatty acids thereby confirming the biofuel properties of the oil derived from algal biomass.

  18. [Effect of light and temperature on growth kinetics of Anabaena flosaquae under phosphorus limitation].

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhi-Kun; Li, Zhe; Wang, Sheng; Guo, Jin-Song; Xiao, Yan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus, light and temperature are the key environmental factors leading to algae growth. But the effects of interaction between light and temperature on the growth of Anabaena flosaquae under phosphorus limitation were not well documented in literature. Anabaena flosaquae was selected for the study and lab-scale experiment and simulation were carried out. The results showed that the optimal temperature of Anabaena flosaquae was 20 degrees C under phosphorus limitation when the light intensity was constant, and the optimal light intensity (illuminance) of Anabaena flosaquae was 3 000 lx under phosphorus limitation when the temperature was constant. Based on model fitting and parameter calibration, the optimal temperature and light intensity of Anabaena flosaquae were 21.03 degress C ± 1.55 degrees C and 2 675.12 lx ± 262.93 lx, respectively. These data were close to the actual water environmental condition at the end of spring. Results of this study will provide important foundation for prediction of Anabaena blooms.

  19. Comparative Effects of CT Imaging Measurement on RECIST End Points and Tumor Growth Kinetics Modeling.

    PubMed

    Li, C H; Bies, R R; Wang, Y; Sharma, M R; Karovic, S; Werk, L; Edelman, M J; Miller, A A; Vokes, E E; Oto, A; Ratain, M J; Schwartz, L H; Maitland, M L

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative assessments of tumor burden and modeling of longitudinal growth could improve phase II oncology trials. To identify obstacles to wider use of quantitative measures we obtained recorded linear tumor measurements from three published lung cancer trials. Model-based parameters of tumor burden change were estimated and compared with similarly sized samples from separate trials. Time-to-tumor growth (TTG) was computed from measurements recorded on case report forms and a second radiologist blinded to the form data. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)-based progression-free survival (PFS) measures were perfectly concordant between the original forms data and the blinded radiologist re-evaluation (intraclass correlation coefficient = 1), but these routine interrater differences in the identification and measurement of target lesions were associated with an average 18-week delay (range, -20 to 55 weeks) in TTG (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.32). To exploit computational metrics for improving statistical power in small clinical trials will require increased precision of tumor burden assessments. PMID:26790562

  20. Vacuum hydride epitaxy of silicon: kinetics of monosilane pyrolysis on the growth surface

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, L. K.; Ivin, S. V.

    2011-04-15

    Analytical expressions relating the rate of silicon atom incorporation into a growing crystal to the typical frequency of silane molecule pyrolysis on the silicon surface in the growth temperature range are derived. Based on currently available experimental data, the range of typical decomposition frequencies of hydride molecule radicals adsorbed at the silicon wafer surface in the temperature range of 450-700 Degree-Sign C is determined for the most widely used physicochemical models. It is shown that the most probable molecular decomposition model can be chosen based on the experimental study of the temperature dependence of the decomposition rate of adsorbed hydride molecules. A change in the silane molecule pyrolysis rate or the hydrogen desorption rate from the surface in principle makes it possible to increase the Si layer growth rate without additional substrate heating under conditions of low-temperature epitaxy (450-550 Degree-Sign C), but no larger than by a factor of 2-3 in the former case and up to 100 times in the latter case. The analysis performed shows that physicochemical pyrolysis models in which hydrogen is trapped by the surface, mostly at the stage of decomposition of silane radicals adsorbed by the surface, are more realistic.

  1. Stretched Exponential relaxation in pure Se glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P.

    A universal feature of glasses is the stretched exponential relaxation, f (t) = exp[ - t / τ ] β . The model of diffusion of excitations to randomly distributed traps in a glass by Phillips1 yields the stretched exponent β = d[d +2] where d, the effective dimensionality. We have measured the enthalpy of relaxation ΔHnr (tw) at Tg of Se glass in modulated DSC experiments as glasses age at 300K and find β = 0.43(2) for tw in the 0 growth of interchain structural correlations mediated by both long range (van der Waals forces) and short-range (covalent) interactions. A striking consequence of this relaxation is a narrowing of the glass transition width from 7.1°C to 1.4°C, and the ΔHnr term increasing from 0.21 cal/gm to 0.92 cal/gm. In bulk GexSe100-x glasses as x increases to 20%, the length of the polymeric Sen chains between the Ge-crosslinks decreases to n = 2. and the striking relaxation effects nearly vanish. J.C. Phillips, Rep.Prog.Phys. 59 , 1133 (1996). Supported by NSF Grant DMR 08-53957.

  2. An Exponential Decay Model for Mediation

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis is often used to investigate mechanisms of change in prevention research. Results finding mediation are strengthened when longitudinal data are used because of the need for temporal precedence. Current longitudinal mediation models have focused mainly on linear change, but many variables in prevention change nonlinearly across time. The most common solution to nonlinearity is to add a quadratic term to the linear model, but this can lead to the use of the quadratic function to explain all nonlinearity, regardless of theory and the characteristics of the variables in the model. The current study describes the problems that arise when quadratic functions are used to describe all nonlinearity and how the use of nonlinear functions, such as exponential decay, addresses many of these problems. In addition, nonlinear models provide several advantages over polynomial models including usefulness of parameters, parsimony, and generalizability. The effects of using nonlinear functions for mediation analysis are then discussed and a nonlinear growth curve model for mediation is presented. An empirical example using data from a randomized intervention study is then provided to illustrate the estimation and interpretation of the model. Implications, limitations, and future directions are also discussed. PMID:23625557

  3. Kinetics of growth of thin-films of Co2Si, Ni2Si, WSi2 and VSi2 during a reactive diffusion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akintunde, S. O.; Selyshchev, P. A.

    A theoretical approach is developed which describes the growth kinetics of thin films of near noble metal silicide (especially of cobalt silicide (Co2Si) and nickel silicide (Ni2Si)) and refractory metal silicide (particularly of tungsten disilicide (WSi2) and vanadium disilicide (VSi2)) at the interfaces of metal-silicon system. In this approach, metal species are presented as A-atoms, silicon as B-atoms, and silicide as AB-compound. The AB-compound is formed as a result of chemical transformation between A- and B-atoms at the reaction interfaces A/AB and AB/B. The growth of AB-compound at the interfaces occurs in two stages. The first growth stage is reaction controlled stage which takes place at the interface with excess A or B-atoms and the second stage is diffusion limited stage which occurs at both interfaces. The critical thickness of AB-compound and the corresponding time is determined at the transition point between the two growth stages. The result that follows from this approach shows that the growth kinetics of any growing silicides depends on the number of kinds of dominant diffusing species in the silicide layer and also on their number densities at the reaction interface. This result shows a linear-parabolic growth kinetics for WSi2, VSi2, Co2Si, and Ni2Si and it is in good agreement with experiment.

  4. Isolation and growth kinetics of a novel phenol-degrading bacterium Microbacterium oxydans from the sediment of Taihu Lake (China).

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqiong; Li, Yi; Niu, Lihua; Dai, Yu; Wu, Yue; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Seven phylogenetically diverse phenol-degrading bacterial strains designated as P1 to P7 were isolated from the industry-effluent dump sites of an industrial area near Taihu Lake, China. Through the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, these strains were widely distributed among five different genera: Rhodococcus (P1), Pseudomonas (P2-P4), Acinetobacter (P5), Alcaligenes (P6), and Microbacterium (P7). All seven isolates were capable of growing with phenol as the sole carbon source. Strain P7 was found to be a novel phenol-degrading strain by detailed morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristic analysis as well as the 16S rDNA sequence analyses, and was named Microbacterium oxydans LY1 (M. oxydans LY1 in its short form). Degradation experiments of phenol at various initial concentrations (20-1,000 mg/L) revealed that phenol is an inhibitory substrate to M. oxydans LY1. In a batch culture experiment, more than 95% of the phenol (500 mg/L) was degraded by M. oxydans LY1 at 30°C, pH 7.0 and 120 rpm within 88 h. Phenol concentration higher than 200 mg/L was found to inhibit the bacterial growth. The growth kinetics correlated well with the Haldane model with μmax (maximum specific cell growth rate) = 0.243 h(-1), Ks (saturation constant) = 25.7 mg/L, and Ki (self-inhibition constant) = 156.3 mg/L. This is the first report of the ability of M. oxydans to degrade phenol, and the results could provide important information for bioremediation of phenol-contaminated environments.

  5. The coupled kinetics of grain growth and fission product behavior in nuclear fuel under degraded-core accident conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, J.

    1985-04-01

    The theoretical FASTGRASS-VFP model has been used in the interpretation of fission gas, iodine, and cesium release from (1) irradiated high-burnup LWR fuel in a flowing steam atmosphere during high-temperature, in-cell heating tests (performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and (2) trace-irradiated LWR fuel during severe-fuel-damage (SFD) tests (performed in the PBF reactor in Idaho). A theory of grain boundary sweeping of gas bubbles has been included within the FASTGRASS-VFP formalism. This theory considers the interaction between the moving grain boundary and two distinct size classes of bubbles, those on grain faces and on grain edges, and provides a means of determining whether gas bubbles are caught up and moved along by a moving grain boundary or whether the grain boundary is only temporarily retarded by the bubbles and then breaks away. In addition, as FASTGRASS-VFP provides for a mechanistic calculation of ultra- and intergranular fission product behavior, the coupled calculation between fission gas behavior and grain growth is kinetically comprehensive. Results of the analyses demonstrate that intragranular fission product behavior during both types of tests can be interpreted in terms of a grain-growth/grain-boundary-sweeping mechanism that enhances the flow of fission products from within the grains to the grain boundaries. The effect of fuel oxidation by steam on fission product and grain growth behavior is also considered. The FASTGRASS-VFP predictions, measured release rates from the above tests, and previously published release rates are compared and differences between fission product behavior in trace-irradiated and in high-burnup fuel are highlighted.

  6. Isolation and growth kinetics of a novel phenol-degrading bacterium Microbacterium oxydans from the sediment of Taihu Lake (China).

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqiong; Li, Yi; Niu, Lihua; Dai, Yu; Wu, Yue; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Seven phylogenetically diverse phenol-degrading bacterial strains designated as P1 to P7 were isolated from the industry-effluent dump sites of an industrial area near Taihu Lake, China. Through the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, these strains were widely distributed among five different genera: Rhodococcus (P1), Pseudomonas (P2-P4), Acinetobacter (P5), Alcaligenes (P6), and Microbacterium (P7). All seven isolates were capable of growing with phenol as the sole carbon source. Strain P7 was found to be a novel phenol-degrading strain by detailed morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristic analysis as well as the 16S rDNA sequence analyses, and was named Microbacterium oxydans LY1 (M. oxydans LY1 in its short form). Degradation experiments of phenol at various initial concentrations (20-1,000 mg/L) revealed that phenol is an inhibitory substrate to M. oxydans LY1. In a batch culture experiment, more than 95% of the phenol (500 mg/L) was degraded by M. oxydans LY1 at 30°C, pH 7.0 and 120 rpm within 88 h. Phenol concentration higher than 200 mg/L was found to inhibit the bacterial growth. The growth kinetics correlated well with the Haldane model with μmax (maximum specific cell growth rate) = 0.243 h(-1), Ks (saturation constant) = 25.7 mg/L, and Ki (self-inhibition constant) = 156.3 mg/L. This is the first report of the ability of M. oxydans to degrade phenol, and the results could provide important information for bioremediation of phenol-contaminated environments. PMID:27120643

  7. Kinetic and Stochastic Models of 1D yeast ``prions"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay

    2005-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeasts have proteins, which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast ``prions" are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein (1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics along with our own stochastic approach (2). Both models assume reconformation only upon aggregation, and include aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates.

  8. Evaporation kinetics in the hanging drop method of protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.; Frieden, Richard W.; Meehan, E. J., Jr.; Twigg, Pamela J.; Howard, Sandra B.; Fowlis, William A.

    1987-01-01

    An engineering analysis of the rate of evaporation of solvent in the hanging drop method of protein crystal growth is presented; these results are applied to 18 different drop and well arrangements commonly encountered in the laboratory, taking into account the chemical nature of the salt, the drop size and shape, the drop concentration, the well size, the well concentration, and the temperature. It is found that the rate of evaporation increases with temperature, drop size, and with the salt concentration difference between the drop and the well. The evaporation possesses no unique half-life. Once the salt in the drop achieves about 80 percent of its final concentration, further evaporation suffers from the law of diminishing returns.

  9. Aligned Titania Nanotube Array Thin Films: Growth Kinetics, Branched Structures, and Photovoltaic Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butail, Gorun

    Titanium dioxide or titania is an attractive raw materials in many applications such as energy generation, storage and delivery, gas sensing, and water purification. Titania due to its excellent photocatalytic activity, stability, and non-toxic nature helps in the efficient realization of number of applications. There is a great deal of interest to synthesize titania nanostructures by inexpensive methods to reap the photocatalytic activity over large surface areas for enhanced application. Recent developments have lead to huge effort that has been put into titania nanomaterials, which has resulted in a rich knowledge for their synthesis, properties and applications. We study and investigate in detail the physical, chemical, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of titania and understand the applications of titania from the point of view of its properties. We emphasize and explore the synthesis of titania nanotubes promising greater surface area and enhanced mass and charge transport. We report the kinetics of titania nanotube length evolution during anodizartion of titanium films. Our results show that the nanotube length increase is thermally activated, and governed by a voltage-dependent activation energy 0.6 eV ≤ Eef f ≤ 1.1 eV expressed by Eef f = E 0 -- alphaVanod where alpha is a constant and E0 = 1.6 eV is a voltage-independent term. The proximity of E0 to that of oxygen diffusion in titania suggests that oxygen transport across the titania walls at the pore bottoms is the rate-limiting step. These results provide insights into the mechanism of titania nanotube formation and a framework for their rational synthesis. We further demonstrate synthesis of branched titania nanotube formation during potentiostatic anodization of titanium films or foils in a single electrochemical bath by stepping down the anodization voltage Vanod below a threshold value. The linear dependence on the titanium nanotube diameter with V anod and the lack of nanotube formation

  10. Probing the affinity of polyanions for acidic fibroblast growth factor by unfolding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mach, H; Middaugh, C R

    1994-02-15

    The relationship between ligand-protein affinity and the extent of protein stabilization induced by such interactions has been investigated using the binding of polyanions to acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) as a model system. It was found that the experimentally observed unfolding rate constant of aFGF consists of two components: one equal to the unfolding rate constant of the aFGF-ligand complex and the other the product of the unfolding rate constant of free aFGF, the aFGF-ligand dissociation constant (Kd), and the reciprocal of the molar ligand concentration. This reflects the presence of two possible unfolding pathways: at high ligand excess dissociation is suppressed and slow unfolding of the aFGF-ligand complex itself prevails. When lower concentrations of ligand allows equilibrium-driven appearance of free aFGF, a more rapid unfolding of dissociated protein predominates. Existence of a steady state of dissociated aFGF undergoing unfolding was demonstrated by computer simulation of the elementary events, using experimentally determined rate constants. The potential applications of such simulations are outlined. An equation allowing estimation of dissociation constants from equilibrium denaturation curves obtained in the presence of a varying amount of ligand is also proposed. In addition, determination of initial unfolding rates in the presence of excess protein permits the the stoichiometry of the interaction to be determined.

  11. Decarburization and grain growth kinetics during the annealing of electrical steels

    SciTech Connect

    Oldani, C.R.

    1996-12-01

    Electrical steels are generally described as thin steel sheets of variable thickness (from 0.27 to 0.76 mm), whose function is to efficiently transport the magnetic flux in electrical equipments. The electromagnetic properties expected from these materials are low magnetic losses and a high permeability. It can be said that a cyclically magnetized-demagnetized material is not free of energy losses because a portion of the power, the loss, is irreversibly transformed into heat. These steels are usually produced in a partially processed condition and they reach their maximum magnetic potential during the final steps of manufacture at the user`s plant. Efficient control of the operations by which the sheets are submitted is essential to obtain the optimum steel yield in the magnetic circuit they are made for. In these operations a decarburization annealing heat treatment produces important effects such as removing punching residual tensions, decarburization to very low carbon content, ferritic grain growth and a favorable magnetic crystallographic texture.

  12. Microstructure and growth kinetics of nickel silicide ultra-thin films synthesized by solid-state reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coia, Cedrik

    substrate is not a necessary condition for θ-Ni2Si to form. Activated CMOS dopants and alloying impurities delay the growth of all Ni-rich compounds and eventually suppress the formation of θ-Ni2Si possibly because of a limited solubility. Impurities implanted without subsequent re-crystallization anneals stabilize the compound partly through the presence of an amorphous interface, at least at the beginning of the reaction. A quantitative investigation of the growth kinetics of θ-Ni 2Si on undoped Si(001) reveals two distinct stages which are well described by a model incorporating 2D nucleation-controlled growth at the silicide/Si interface and the non-planar diffusion-controlled penetration of θ-Ni 2Si in the overlying delta-Ni2Si grains. Despite the very good fit of the model to our data, we cannot rule out the possibility that the second stage consists of a 1D diffusion-controlled planar growth during which the composition of the non-stoichiometric θ-Ni2Si changes. In F-doped samples, the second stage corresponds to a 1D diffusion-controlled growth in the absence of delta-Ni2Si and Ni, suggesting a possible compositional change during growth. The results presented in this thesis show that thanks to the use of powerful in situ monitoring techniques we have observed the kinetic competition between different growing compounds in the early stages of their growth. This competition has been predicted by many growth models, yet to our knowledge it has not been observed so far. We also have shown that this competition can lead to the lateral co-existence of several compounds in the same layer whereas most solid-state reaction models assume or require a layer-by-layer co-existence scheme. Finally, we show that the combination of (i) strong interfacial concentration gradients, (ii) structural similarities between delta-Ni 2Si, NiSi and θ-Ni2Si, and (iii) the ability of the latter to sustain vacancies and to nucleate in concentration gradients lead to a very peculiar

  13. Film growth, adsorption and desorption kinetics of indigo on SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Scherwitzl, Boris Resel, Roland; Winkler, Adolf

    2014-05-14

    Organic dyes have recently been discovered as promising semiconducting materials, attributable to the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, the adsorption and desorption behavior, as well as thin film growth was studied in detail for indigo molecules on silicon dioxide with different substrate treatments. The material was evaporated onto the substrate by means of physical vapor deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions and was subsequently studied by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Atomic Force Microscopy. TDS revealed initially adsorbed molecules to be strongly bonded on a sputter cleaned surface. After further deposition a formation of dimers is suggested, which de-stabilizes the bonding mechanism to the substrate and leads to a weakly bonded adsorbate. The dimers are highly mobile on the surface until they get incorporated into energetically favourable three-dimensional islands in a dewetting process. The stronger bonding of molecules within those islands could be shown by a higher desorption temperature. On a carbon contaminated surface no strongly bonded molecules appeared initially, weakly bonded monomers rather rearrange into islands at a surface coverage that is equivalent to one third of a monolayer of flat-lying molecules. The sticking coefficient was found to be unity on both substrates. The desorption energies from carbon covered silicon dioxide calculated to 1.67 ± 0.05 eV for multilayer desorption from the islands and 0.84 ± 0.05 eV for monolayer desorption. Corresponding values for desorption from a sputter cleaned surface are 1.53 ± 0.05 eV for multilayer and 0.83 ± 0.05 eV for monolayer desorption.

  14. Kinetics of fluid demixing in complex plasmas: Domain growth analysis using Minkowski tensors.

    PubMed

    Böbel, A; Räth, C

    2016-07-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of the demixing process of a binary complex plasma is analyzed and the role of distinct interaction potentials is discussed by using morphological Minkowski tensor analysis of the minority phase domain growth in a demixing simulated binary complex plasma. These Minkowski tensor methods are compared with previous results that utilized a power spectrum method based on the time-dependent average structure factor. It is shown that the Minkowski tensor methods are superior to the previously used power-spectrum method in the sense of higher sensitivity to changes in domain size. By analysis of the slope of the temporal evolution of Minkowski tensor measures, qualitative differences between the case of particle interaction with a single length scale compared to particle interactions with two different length scales (dominating long-range interaction) are revealed. After proper scaling the graphs for the two length scale scenarios coincide, pointing toward universal behavior. The qualitative difference in demixing scenarios is evidenced by distinct demixing behavior: in the long-range dominated cases demixing occurs in two stages. At first, neighboring particles agglomerate, then domains start to merge in cascades. However, in the case of only one interaction length scale only agglomeration but no merging of domains can be observed. Thus, Minkowski tensor analysis is likely to become a useful tool for further investigation of this (and other) demixing processes. It is capable to reveal (nonlinear) local topological properties, probing deeper than (linear) global power-spectrum analysis, however, still providing easily interpretable results founded on a solid mathematical framework. PMID:27575224

  15. Film growth, adsorption and desorption kinetics of indigo on SiO2

    PubMed Central

    Scherwitzl, Boris; Resel, Roland; Winkler, Adolf

    2015-01-01

    Organic dyes have recently been discovered as promising semiconducting materials, attributable to the formation of hydrogen bonds. In this work, the adsorption and desorption behavior, as well as thin film growth was studied in detail for indigo molecules on silicon dioxide with different substrate treatments. The material was evaporated onto the substrate by means of physical vapor deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions and was subsequently studied by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS), Auger Electron Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Atomic Force Microscopy. TDS revealed initially adsorbed molecules to be strongly bonded on a sputter cleaned surface. After further deposition a formation of dimers is suggested, which de-stabilizes the bonding mechanism to the substrate and leads to a weakly bonded adsorbate. The dimers are highly mobile on the surface until they get incorporated into energetically favourable three-dimensional islands in a dewetting process. The stronger bonding of molecules within those islands could be shown by a higher desorption temperature. On a carbon contaminated surface no strongly bonded molecules appeared initially, weakly bonded monomers rather rearrange into islands at a surface coverage that is equivalent to one third of a monolayer of flat-lying molecules. The sticking coefficient was found to be unity on both substrates. The desorption energies from carbon covered silicon dioxide calculated to 1.67 ± 0.05 eV for multilayer desorption from the islands and 0.84 ± 0.05 eV for monolayer des orption. Corresponding values for desorption from a sputter cleaned surface are 1.53 ± 0.05 eV for multilayer and 0.83 ± 0.05 eV for monolayer desorption. PMID:24832297

  16. Kinetics of fluid demixing in complex plasmas: Domain growth analysis using Minkowski tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böbel, A.; Räth, C.

    2016-07-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of the demixing process of a binary complex plasma is analyzed and the role of distinct interaction potentials is discussed by using morphological Minkowski tensor analysis of the minority phase domain growth in a demixing simulated binary complex plasma. These Minkowski tensor methods are compared with previous results that utilized a power spectrum method based on the time-dependent average structure factor. It is shown that the Minkowski tensor methods are superior to the previously used power-spectrum method in the sense of higher sensitivity to changes in domain size. By analysis of the slope of the temporal evolution of Minkowski tensor measures, qualitative differences between the case of particle interaction with a single length scale compared to particle interactions with two different length scales (dominating long-range interaction) are revealed. After proper scaling the graphs for the two length scale scenarios coincide, pointing toward universal behavior. The qualitative difference in demixing scenarios is evidenced by distinct demixing behavior: in the long-range dominated cases demixing occurs in two stages. At first, neighboring particles agglomerate, then domains start to merge in cascades. However, in the case of only one interaction length scale only agglomeration but no merging of domains can be observed. Thus, Minkowski tensor analysis is likely to become a useful tool for further investigation of this (and other) demixing processes. It is capable to reveal (nonlinear) local topological properties, probing deeper than (linear) global power-spectrum analysis, however, still providing easily interpretable results founded on a solid mathematical framework.

  17. Ab initio-based study for adatom kinetics on AlN(0001) surfaces during metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Toru; Nakamura, Kohji; Ito, Tomonori

    2012-06-01

    The kinetics of Al and N adatoms on reconstructed AlN(0001) surfaces under growth conditions is investigated by performing first-principles pseudopotential calculations. Our calculations reveal that the adsorption of Al adatom strongly depends on the surface reconstruction while its diffusion is not affected by the reconstruction: the adsorption of Al adatom on the surface under N-rich conditions is much easier than that under H-rich conditions. These results indicate that the growth of AlN during metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is prominent under N-rich conditions rather than H-rich conditions, consistent with experimentally reported growth rate difference.

  18. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  19. Reconstructing cosmic growth with kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations in the era of stage IV experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, David; Louis, Thibaut; Bull, Philip; Ferreira, Pedro G.

    2016-08-01

    Future ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments will generate competitive large-scale structure data sets by precisely characterizing CMB secondary anisotropies over a large fraction of the sky. We describe a method for constraining the growth rate of structure to sub-1% precision out to z ≈1 , using a combination of galaxy cluster peculiar velocities measured using the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect, and the velocity field reconstructed from galaxy redshift surveys. We consider only thermal SZ-selected cluster samples, which will consist of O (1 04- 1 05) sources for Stage 3 and 4 CMB experiments respectively. Three different methods for separating the kSZ effect from the primary CMB are compared, including a novel blind "constrained realization" method that improves signal-to-noise by a factor of ˜2 over a commonly-used aperture photometry technique. Assuming a correlation between the integrated tSZ y -parameter and the cluster optical depth, it should then be possible to break the kSZ velocity-optical depth degeneracy. The effects of including CMB polarization and SZ profile uncertainties are also considered. In the absence of systematics, a combination of future Stage 4 experiments should be able to measure the product of the growth and expansion rates, α ≡f H , to better than 1% in bins of Δ z =0.1 out to z ≈1 —competitive with contemporary redshift-space distortion constraints from galaxy surveys. We conclude with a discussion of the likely impact of various systematics.

  20. Bacterial growth kinetics under a novel flexible methacrylate dressing serving as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F; Leaper, David J; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing.

  1. Modeling of helium bubble nucleation and growth in austenitic stainless steels using an Object Kinetic Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Backer, A.; Adjanor, G.; Domain, C.; Lescoat, M. L.; Jublot-Leclerc, S.; Fortuna, F.; Gentils, A.; Ortiz, C. J.; Souidi, A.; Becquart, C. S.

    2015-06-01

    Implantation of 10 keV helium in 316L steel thin foils was performed in JANNuS-Orsay facility and modeled using a multiscale approach. Density Functional Theory (DFT) atomistic calculations [1] were used to obtain the properties of He and He-vacancy clusters, and the Binary Collision Approximation based code MARLOWE was applied to determine the damage and He-ion depth profiles as in [2,3]. The processes involved in the homogeneous He bubble nucleation and growth were defined and implemented in the Object Kinetic Monte Carlo code LAKIMOCA [4]. In particular as the He to dpa ratio was high, self-trapping of He clusters and the trap mutation of He-vacancy clusters had to be taken into account. With this multiscale approach, the formation of bubbles was modeled up to nanometer-scale size, where bubbles can be observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy. Their densities and sizes were studied as functions of fluence (up to 5 × 1019 He/m2) at two temperatures (473 and 723 K) and for different sample thicknesses (25-250 nm). It appears that the damage is not only due to the collision cascades but is also strongly controlled by the He accumulation in pressurized bubbles. Comparison with experimental data is discussed and sensible agreement is achieved.

  2. Macrotransport-solidification kinetics modeling of equiaxed dendritic growth: Part II. Computation problems and validation on INCONEL 718 superalloy castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastac, L.; Stefanescu, D. M.

    1996-12-01

    In Part I of the article, a new analytical model that describes solidification of equiaxed dendrites was presented. In this part of the article, the model is used to simulate the solidification of INCONEL 718 superalloy castings. The model was incorporated into a commercial finite-element code, PROCAST. A special procedure called microlatent heat method (MLHM) was used for coupling between macroscopic heat flow and microscopic growth kinetics. A criterion for time-stepping selection in microscopic modeling has been derived in conjunction with MLHM. Reductions in computational (CPU) time up to 90 pct over the classic latent heat method were found by adopting this coupling. Validation of the model was performed against experimental data for an INCONEL 718 superalloy casting. In the present calculations, the model for globulitic dendrite was used. The evolution of fraction of solid calculated with the present model was compared with Scheil’s model and experiments. An important feature in solidification of INCONEL 718 is the detrimental Laves phase. Laves phase content is directly related to the intensity of microsegregation of niobium, which is very sensitive to the evolution of the fraction of solid. It was found that there is a critical cooling rate at which the amount of Laves phase is maximum. The critical cooling rate is not a function of material parameters (diffusivity, partition coefficient, etc.). It depends only on the grain size and solidification time. The predictions generated with the present model are shown to agree very well with experiments.

  3. Adsorption Kinetics, Conformation, and Mobility of the Growth Hormone and Lysozyme on Solid Surfaces, Studied with TIRF

    PubMed Central

    Buijs, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Interactions of recombinant human growth hormone and lysozyme with solid surfaces are studied using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) and monitoring the protein’s intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The intensity, spectra, quenching, and polarization of the fluorescence emitted by the adsorbed proteins are monitored and related to adsorption kinetics, protein conformation, and fluorophore rotational mobility. To study the influence of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions on the adsorption process, three sorbent surfaces are used which differ in charge and hydrophobicity. The chemical surface groups are silanol, methyl, and quaternary amine. Results indicate that adsorption of hGH is dominated by hydrophobic interactions. Lysozyme adsoption is strongly affected by the ionic strength. This effect is probably caused by an ionic strength dependent conformational state in solution which, in turn, influences the affinity for adsorption. Both proteins are more strongly bound to hydrophobic surfaces and this strong interaction is accompanied by a less compact conformation. Furthermore, it was seen that regardless of the characteristics of the sorbent surface, the rotational mobility of both proteins’ tryptophans is largely reduced upon adsorption. PMID:9241154

  4. Comparison of the growth kinetics of In2O3 and Ga2O3 and their suboxide desorption during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the In2O3 growth kinetics during plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy and compare it to that of the related oxide Ga2O3 [P. Vogt and O. Bierwagen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 072101 (2016)]. The growth rate and desorbing fluxes were measured during growth in-situ by a laser reflectometry set-up and line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectrometer, respectively. We extracted the In incorporation as a function of the provided In flux, different growth temperatures TG, and In-to-O flux ratios r. The data are discussed in terms of the competing formation of In2O3 and desorption of the suboxide In2O and O. The same three growth regimes as in the case of Ga2O3 can be distinguished: (i) In-transport limited, O-rich (ii) In2O-desorption limited, O-rich, and (iii) O-transport limited, In-rich. In regime (iii), In droplets are formed on the growth surface at low TG. The growth kinetics follows qualitatively that of Ga2O3 in agreement with their common oxide and suboxide stoichiometry. The quantitative differences are mainly rationalized by the difference in In2O and Ga2O desorption rates and vapor pressures. For the In2O, Ga2O, and O desorption, we extracted the activation energies and frequency factors by means of Arrhenius-plots.

  5. Growth from Solutions: Kink dynamics, Stoichiometry, Face Kinetics and stability in turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.; DeYoreo, J. J.; Rashkovich, L. N.; Vekilov, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    1. Kink dynamics. The first segment of a polygomized dislocation spiral step measured by AFM demonstrates up to 60% scattering in the critical length l*- the length when the segment starts to propagate. On orthorhombic lysozyme, this length is shorter than that the observed interkink distance. Step energy from the critical segment length based on the Gibbs-Thomson law (GTL), l* = 20(omega)alpha/(Delta)mu is several times larger than the energy from 2D nucleation rate. Here o is tine building block specific voiume, a is the step riser specific free energy, Delta(mu) is the crystallization driving force. These new data support our earlier assumption that the classical Frenkel, Burton -Cabrera-Frank concept of the abundant kink supply by fluctuations is not applicable for strongly polygonized steps. Step rate measurements on brushite confirms that statement. This is the1D nucleation of kinks that control step propagation. The GTL is valid only if l* growth velocity vk. This is equivalent to supersaturations sigma less than approx. alpha/2l*, where alpha is the building block size. For lysozyme, sigma much less than (1%). Conventionally used interstep distance generated by screw dislocation, 19(omega)alpha/Delta(mu) should be replaced by the very different real one, approx.4l*. 2. Stoichiometry. Kink, and thus step and face rates of a non-Kossel complex molecular monocomponent or any binary, AB, lattice was found theoretically to be proportional to 1/(zeta(sup 1/2) + zeta(sup - 1/2)), where zeta = [B]/[A] is the stoichiometry ratio in solution. The velocities reach maxima at zeta = 1. AFM studies of step rates on CaOxalate monohydrate (kidney stones) from aqueous solution was found to obey the law mentioned above. Generalization for more complex lattice will be discussed. 3. Turbulence. In agreement with theory, high precision in-situ laser interferometry of the (101) KDP crystal face shows step

  6. Repopulation Kinetics and the Linear-Quadratic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, S. F. C.; McAneney, H.; Starrett, C.; O'Sullivan, J. M.

    2009-08-01

    The standard Linear-Quadratic (LQ) survival model for radiotherapy is used to investigate different schedules of radiation treatment planning for advanced head and neck cancer. We explore how these treament protocols may be affected by different tumour repopulation kinetics between treatments. The laws for tumour cell repopulation include the logistic and Gompertz models and this extends the work of Wheldon et al. [1], which was concerned with the case of exponential repopulation between treatments. Treatment schedules investigated include standarized and accelerated fractionation. Calculations based on the present work show, that even with growth laws scaled to ensure that the repopulation kinetics for advanced head and neck cancer are comparable, considerable variation in the survival fraction to orders of magnitude emerged. Calculations show that application of the Gompertz model results in a significantly poorer prognosis for tumour eradication. Gaps in treatment also highlight the differences in the LQ model with the effect of repopulation kinetics included.

  7. Root-zone acidity and nitrogen source affects Typha latifolia L. growth and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Brix, Hans; Dyhr-Jensen, Kirsten; Lorenzen, Bent

    2002-12-01

    The NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) uptake kinetics by Typha latifolia L. were studied after prolonged hydroponics growth at constant pH 3.5, 5.0, 6.5 or 7.0 and with NH(4)(+) or NO(3)(-) as the sole N-source. In addition, the effects of pH and N source on H(+) extrusion and adenine nucleotide content were examined. Typha latifolia was able to grow with both N sources at near neutral pH levels, but the plants had higher relative growth rates, higher tissue concentrations of the major nutrients, higher contents of adenine nucleotides, and higher affinity for uptake of inorganic nitrogen when grown on NH(4)(+). Growth almost completely stopped at pH 3.5, irrespective of N source, probably as a consequence of pH effects on plasma membrane integrity and H(+) influx into the root cells. Tissue concentrations of the major nutrients and adenine nucleotides were severely reduced at low pH, and the uptake capacity for inorganic nitrogen was low, and more so for NO(3)(-)-fed than for NH(4)(+)-fed plants. The maximum uptake rate, V(max), was highest for NH(4)(+) at pH 6.5 (30.9 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight) and for NO(3)(-) at pH 5.0 (31.7 micro mol h(-1) g(-1) root dry weight), and less than 10% of these values at pH 3.5. The affinity for uptake as estimated by the half saturation constant, K((1/2)), was lowest at low pH for NH(4)(+) and at high pH for NO(3)(-). The changes in V(max) and K((1/2)) were thus consistent with the theory of increasing competition between cations and H(+) at low pH and between anions and OH(-) at high pH. C(min) was independent of pH, but slightly higher for NO(3)(-) than for NH(4)(+) (C(min)(NH(4)(+)) approximately 0.8 mmol m(-3); C(min)(NO(3)(-)) approximately 2.8 mmol m(-3)). The growth inhibition at low pH was probably due to a reduced nutrient uptake and a consequential limitation of growth by nutrient stress. Typha latifolia seems to be well adapted to growth in wetland soils where NH(4)(+) is the prevailing nitrogen compound, but very low p

  8. Growth of bulk AlN single crystals with low oxygen content taking into account thermal and kinetic effects of oxygen-related gaseous species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guguschev, C.; Dittmar, A.; Moukhina, E.; Hartmann, C.; Golka, S.; Wollweber, J.; Bickermann, M.; Fornari, R.

    2012-12-01

    Kinetic models in the system Al-N-O-C-H are useful to predict the time- and temperature-dependent influences of oxygen related species on aluminum nitride (AlN) bulk crystal growth by the sublimation-recondensation (also known as physical vapor transport, PVT) method. The transient oxygen incorporation is modeled based on non-linear regression analyses of experimental mass spectrometric data performed at conditions comparable to those of PVT crystal growth, and can be calculated for any user-specified temperature program. The results are in good qualitative agreement with SIMS measurements taken at several positions along the growth direction of a seeded isometric aluminum nitride crystal. By optimizing growth set-up geometry, source purification process, and growth parameters, the impurity content for the grown crystals decreases significantly to values of 6 ppm, 15 ppm, and 30 ppm for O, Si, and C, respectively, 2.5 mm above the AlN seed-crystal interface.

  9. Kinetic characteristics and modeling of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth and CO2 biofixation considering the coupled effects of light intensity and dissolved inorganic carbon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hai-Xing; Huang, Yun; Fu, Qian; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and optimizing the microalgae growth process is an essential prerequisite for effective CO2 capture using microalgae in photobioreactors. In this study, the kinetic characteristics of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris growth in response to light intensity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration were investigated. The greatest values of maximum biomass concentration (Xmax) and maximum specific growth rate (μmax) were obtained as 2.303 g L(-1) and 0.078 h(-1), respectively, at a light intensity of 120 μmol m(-2) s(-1) and DIC concentration of 17 mM. Based on the results, mathematical models describing the coupled effects of light intensity and DIC concentration on microalgae growth and CO2 biofixation are proposed. The models are able to predict the temporal evolution of C. vulgaris growth and CO2 biofixation rates from lag to stationary phases. Verification experiments confirmed that the model predictions agreed well with the experimental results.

  10. Chemical and Biological Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuel', N. M.

    1981-10-01

    Examples of the application of the methods and ideas of chemical kinetics in various branches of chemistry and biology are considered and the results of studies on the kinetics and mechanisms of autoxidation and inhibited and catalysed oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase are surveyed. Problems of the kinetics of the ageing of polymers and the principles of their stabilisation are discussed and certain trends in biological kinetics (kinetics of tumour growth, kinetic criteria of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, problems of gerontology, etc.) are considered. The bibliography includes 281 references.

  11. Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Without Matrix Exponentiation

    PubMed Central

    Irvahn, Jan; Minin, Vladimir N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic stochastic mapping is a method for reconstructing the history of trait changes on a phylogenetic tree relating species/organism carrying the trait. State-of-the-art methods assume that the trait evolves according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) and works well for small state spaces. The computations slow down considerably for larger state spaces (e.g., space of codons), because current methodology relies on exponentiating CTMC infinitesimal rate matrices—an operation whose computational complexity grows as the size of the CTMC state space cubed. In this work, we introduce a new approach, based on a CTMC technique called uniformization, which does not use matrix exponentiation for phylogenetic stochastic mapping. Our method is based on a new Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm that targets the distribution of trait histories conditional on the trait data observed at the tips of the tree. The computational complexity of our MCMC method grows as the size of the CTMC state space squared. Moreover, in contrast to competing matrix exponentiation methods, if the rate matrix is sparse, we can leverage this sparsity and increase the computational efficiency of our algorithm further. Using simulated data, we illustrate advantages of our MCMC algorithm and investigate how large the state space needs to be for our method to outperform matrix exponentiation approaches. We show that even on the moderately large state space of codons our MCMC method can be significantly faster than currently used matrix exponentiation methods. PMID:24918812

  12. Quantum Dots: Growth of InAs Quantum Dots on GaAs (511)A Substrates: The Competition between Thermal Dynamics and Kinetics (Small 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Wen, Lei; Gao, Fangliang; Zhang, Shuguang; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-08-01

    On page 4277, G. Li and co-workers aim to promote III-V compound semiconductors and devices for a broad range of applications with various technologies. The growth process of InAs quantum dots on GaAs (511)A substrates is systematically studied. By carefully controlling the competition between growth thermal-dynamics and kinetics, InAs quantum dots with high size uniformity are prepared, which are highly desirable for the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells. PMID:27510365

  13. Temperature effect on the build-up of exponentially growing polyelectrolyte multilayers. An exponential-to-linear transition point.

    PubMed

    Vikulina, Anna S; Anissimov, Yuri G; Singh, Prateek; Prokopović, Vladimir Z; Uhlig, Katja; Jaeger, Magnus S; von Klitzing, Regine; Duschl, Claus; Volodkin, Dmitry

    2016-03-21

    In this study, the effect of temperature on the build-up of exponentially growing polyelectrolyte multilayer films was investigated. It aims at understanding the multilayer growth mechanism as crucially important for the fabrication of tailor-made multilayer films. Model poly(L-lysine)/hyaluronic acid (PLL/HA) multilayers were assembled in the temperature range of 25-85 °C by layer-by-layer deposition using a dipping method. The film growth switches from the exponential to the linear regime at the transition point as a result of limited polymer diffusion into the film. With the increase of the build-up temperature the film growth rate is enhanced in both regimes; the position of the transition point shifts to a higher number of deposition steps confirming the diffusion-mediated growth mechanism. Not only the faster polymer diffusion into the film but also more porous/permeable film structure are responsible for faster film growth at higher preparation temperature. The latter mechanism is assumed from analysis of the film growth rate upon switching of the preparation temperature during the film growth. Interestingly, the as-prepared films are equilibrated and remain intact (no swelling or shrinking) during temperature variation in the range of 25-45 °C. The average activation energy for complexation between PLL and HA in the multilayers calculated from the Arrhenius plot has been found to be about 0.3 kJ mol(-1) for monomers of PLL. Finally, the following processes known to be dependent on temperature are discussed with respect to the multilayer growth: (i) polymer diffusion, (ii) polymer conformational changes, and (iii) inter-polymer interactions. PMID:26911320

  14. Hexagonal-Rod Growth Mechanism and Kinetics of the Primary Cu6Sn5 Phase in Liquid Sn-Based Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. H.; Cao, H. J.; Yang, H. F.; Li, M. Y.; Yu, Y. X.

    2016-08-01

    A hexagonal-rod growth mechanism is proposed to describe the growth behavior of the primary Cu6Sn5 phase in liquid Sn-based solder. After Sn-6.5 at.%Cu solder had been maintained at 250°C for 10 h, a large number of hexagonal-rod-type Cu6Sn5 grains were found to have separated within it. Our observations show that these hexagonal rods had side facets in the { 10overline{1} 0}_{η } family and round ends close to the {0002}η family. Moreover, the nucleation of the hexagonal rods was studied, and the corresponding growth kinetics found to be governed by a Cu-supply-controlled mechanism rather than an interfacial-reaction-controlled or Cu-diffusion-limited mechanism. More importantly, the anisotropic growth of the Cu6Sn5 phase was confirmed to be the dominant reason for production of these primary hexagonal rods with high aspect ratio. This may represent an avenue for synthesis of nanosized Cu6Sn5 single crystals for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, our Cu6Sn5 hexagonal-rod growth mechanism may provide insight into morphological and kinetic studies on interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains and similar intermetallics.

  15. Hexagonal-Rod Growth Mechanism and Kinetics of the Primary Cu6Sn5 Phase in Liquid Sn-Based Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. H.; Cao, H. J.; Yang, H. F.; Li, M. Y.; Yu, Y. X.

    2016-11-01

    A hexagonal-rod growth mechanism is proposed to describe the growth behavior of the primary Cu6Sn5 phase in liquid Sn-based solder. After Sn-6.5 at.%Cu solder had been maintained at 250°C for 10 h, a large number of hexagonal-rod-type Cu6Sn5 grains were found to have separated within it. Our observations show that these hexagonal rods had side facets in the { 10overline{1} 0}_{η } family and round ends close to the {0002}η family. Moreover, the nucleation of the hexagonal rods was studied, and the corresponding growth kinetics found to be governed by a Cu-supply-controlled mechanism rather than an interfacial-reaction-controlled or Cu-diffusion-limited mechanism. More importantly, the anisotropic growth of the Cu6Sn5 phase was confirmed to be the dominant reason for production of these primary hexagonal rods with high aspect ratio. This may represent an avenue for synthesis of nanosized Cu6Sn5 single crystals for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, our Cu6Sn5 hexagonal-rod growth mechanism may provide insight into morphological and kinetic studies on interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains and similar intermetallics.

  16. Hematoporphyrin derivative binding and photosensitization in human glioblastoma cells: comparison of exponential and plateau phase cells.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, R; Joshi, P G; Joshi, N B

    1994-11-01

    Plateau phase glioblastoma (U 87MG) cells were found more photosensitive than the exponentially growing cells. In both phases of growth, the photosensitivity showed further enhancement on incubating the cells with HpD for longer duration. Plateau phase cells accumulated more HpD than exponential phase cells for shorter duration of incubation with HpD, however, for longer duration of incubation, the amount of drug uptake was almost the same in both phases of growth. Fluorescence spectra of cell bound HpD showed a difference in spectral intensity distribution in exponential and plateau phase cells. In exponential phase cells, the fluorescence maximum of cell bound HpD was at 615 nm whereas in plateau phase cells the same was at 636 nm. PMID:7896304

  17. A three-dimensional phase field model coupled with lattice kinetics solver for modeling crystal growth in furnaces with accelerated crucible rotation and traveling magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Guang; Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie

    2014-11-01

    In this study, which builds on other related work, we present a new three-dimensional numerical model for crystal growth in a vertical solidification system. This model accounts for buoyancy, accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT), and traveling magnetic field (TMF) induced convective flow and their effect on crystal growth and the chemical component's transport process. The evolution of the crystal growth interface is simulated using the phase field method. A semi-implicit lattice kinetics solver based on the Boltzmann equation is employed to model the unsteady incompressible flow. A one-way coupled concentration transport model is used to simulate the component fraction variation in both the liquid and solid phases, which can be used to check the quality of the crystal growth.

  18. Decoherence and Exponential Law: A Solvable Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascazio, Saverio; Namiki, Mikio

    1996-01-01

    We analyze a modified version of the 'AgBr' Hamiltonian, solve exactly the equations of motion in terms of SU(2) coherent states, and study the weak-coupling, macroscopic limit of the model, obtaining an exponential behavior at all times. The asymptotic dominance of the exponential behavior is representative of a purely stochastic evolution and can be derived quantum mechanically in the so-called van Hove's limit (which is a weak-coupling, macroscopic limit). At the same time, a temporal behavior of the exponential type, yielding a 'probability dissipation' is closely related to dephasing ('decoherence') effects and one can expect a close connection with a dissipative and irreversible behavior. We stress the central relevance of the problem of dissipation to the quantum measurement theory and to the general topic of decoherence.

  19. Modeling aftershocks as a stretched exponential relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2015-11-01

    The decay rate of aftershocks has been modeled as a power law since the pioneering work of Omori in the late nineteenth century. Although other expressions have been proposed in recent decades to describe the temporal behavior of aftershocks, the number of model comparisons remains limited. After reviewing the aftershock models published from the late nineteenth century until today, I solely compare the power law, pure exponential and stretched exponential expressions defined in their simplest forms. By applying statistical methods recommended recently in applied mathematics, I show that all aftershock sequences tested in three regional earthquake catalogs (Southern and Northern California, Taiwan) and with three declustering techniques (nearest-neighbor, second-order moment, window methods) follow a stretched exponential instead of a power law. These results infer that aftershocks are due to a simple relaxation process, in accordance with most other relaxation processes observed in Nature.

  20. Method for exponentiating in cryptographic systems

    DOEpatents

    Brickell, Ernest F.; Gordon, Daniel M.; McCurley, Kevin S.

    1994-01-01

    An improved cryptographic method utilizing exponentiation is provided which has the advantage of reducing the number of multiplications required to determine the legitimacy of a message or user. The basic method comprises the steps of selecting a key from a preapproved group of integer keys g; exponentiating the key by an integer value e, where e represents a digital signature, to generate a value g.sup.e ; transmitting the value g.sup.e to a remote facility by a communications network; receiving the value g.sup.e at the remote facility; and verifying the digital signature as originating from the legitimate user. The exponentiating step comprises the steps of initializing a plurality of memory locations with a plurality of values g.sup.xi ; computi The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Company.

  1. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Coloma Ribera, R. Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-08-07

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO{sub 2} films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  2. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, R. W. E.; Yakshin, A. E.; Bijkerk, F.

    2015-08-01

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a gradual decrease in diffusion rates was observed with oxide growth, with the activation energy increasing from about 2.1 to 2.4 eV. Further exploration of the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion process revealed that oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium joins the class of materials that obey the Meyer-Neldel rule.

  3. A method for nonlinear exponential regression analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junkin, B. G.

    1971-01-01

    A computer-oriented technique is presented for performing a nonlinear exponential regression analysis on decay-type experimental data. The technique involves the least squares procedure wherein the nonlinear problem is linearized by expansion in a Taylor series. A linear curve fitting procedure for determining the initial nominal estimates for the unknown exponential model parameters is included as an integral part of the technique. A correction matrix was derived and then applied to the nominal estimate to produce an improved set of model parameters. The solution cycle is repeated until some predetermined criterion is satisfied.

  4. Growth of InAs Quantum Dots on GaAs (511)A Substrates: The Competition between Thermal Dynamics and Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wen, Lei; Gao, Fangliang; Zhang, Shuguang; Li, Guoqiang

    2016-08-01

    The growth process of InAs quantum dots grown on GaAs (511)A substrates has been studied by atomic force microscopy. According to the atomic force microscopy studies for quantum dots grown with varying InAs coverage, a noncoherent nucleation of quantum dots is observed. Moreover, due to the long migration length of In atoms, the Ostwald ripening process is aggravated, resulting in the bad uniformity of InAs quantum dots on GaAs (511)A. In order to improve the uniformity of nucleation, the growth rate is increased. By studying the effects of increased growth rates on the growth of InAs quantum dots, it is found that the uniformity of InAs quantum dots is greatly improved as the growth rates increase to 0.14 ML s(-1) . However, as the growth rates increase further, the uniformity of InAs quantum dots becomes dual-mode, which can be attributed to the competition between Ostwald ripening and strain relaxation processes. The results in this work provide insights regarding the competition between thermal dynamical barriers and the growth kinetics in the growth of InAs quantum dots, and give guidance to improve the size uniformity of InAs quantum dots on (N11)A substrates.

  5. Graphical Models via Univariate Exponential Family Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eunho; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Allen, Genevera I.; Liu, Zhandong

    2016-01-01

    Undirected graphical models, or Markov networks, are a popular class of statistical models, used in a wide variety of applications. Popular instances of this class include Gaussian graphical models and Ising models. In many settings, however, it might not be clear which subclass of graphical models to use, particularly for non-Gaussian and non-categorical data. In this paper, we consider a general sub-class of graphical models where the node-wise conditional distributions arise from exponential families. This allows us to derive multivariate graphical model distributions from univariate exponential family distributions, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and exponential distributions. Our key contributions include a class of M-estimators to fit these graphical model distributions; and rigorous statistical analysis showing that these M-estimators recover the true graphical model structure exactly, with high probability. We provide examples of genomic and proteomic networks learned via instances of our class of graphical models derived from Poisson and exponential distributions. PMID:27570498

  6. Intersection of the Exponential and Logarithmic Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boukas, Andreas; Valahas, Theodoros

    2009-01-01

    The study of the number of intersection points of y = a[superscript x] and y = log[subscript a]x can be an interesting topic to present in a single-variable calculus class. In this article, the authors present a classroom presentation outline involving the basic algebra and the elementary calculus of the exponential and logarithmic functions. The…

  7. Exponential asymptotics of the Voigt functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    We obtain the asymptotic expansion of the Voigt functionss K( x, y) and L( x, y) for large (real) values of the variables x and y, paying particular attention to the exponentially small contributions. A Stokes phenomenon is encountered as with x > 0 fixed. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of these new expansions.

  8. Kovalevskaya exponents of systems with exponential interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Emel'yanov, K V; Tsygvintsev, A V

    2000-10-31

    The Kovalevskaya exponents are calculated for a class of systems generalizing Toda chains: systems with exponential interaction. It is shown that the known cases of algebraic integrability have no direct analogues in the case of spaces with pseudo-Euclidean metrics because the full-parameter expansions of the general solution contain complex powers of the independent variable.

  9. Kovalevskaya exponents of systems with exponential interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanov, K. V.; Tsygvintsev, A. V.

    2000-10-01

    The Kovalevskaya exponents are calculated for a class of systems generalizing Toda chains: systems with exponential interaction. It is shown that the known cases of algebraic integrability have no direct analogues in the case of spaces with pseudo-Euclidean metrics because the full-parameter expansions of the general solution contain complex powers of the independent variable.

  10. Study of the effect of temperature, irradiance and salinity on growth and yessotoxin production by the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum in culture by using a kinetic and factorial approach.

    PubMed

    Paz, Beatriz; Vázquez, José A; Riobó, Pilar; Franco, José M

    2006-10-01

    A complete first order orthogonal plan was used to optimize the growth and the production of yessotoxin (YTX) by the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum in culture by controlling salinity, temperature and irradiance. Initially, an approach to the kinetic data of cellular density and YTX production for each one of the experimental design conditions was performed. The P. reticulatum growth and YTX production were fitted to logistical equations and to a first-order kinetic model, respectively. The parameters obtained from this adjustment were used as dependent variables for the formulation of the empirical equations of the factorial design tested. The results showed that in practically all the cases for both, P. reticulatum growth and YTX production, irradiance is the primary independent variable and has a positive effect in the range 50-90 micromol photons m(-2) s(-1). Additionally, in certain specific cases, temperature reveals significant positive effects when maintained between 15 and 23 degrees C and salinity in the range of 20-34 displays negative effects. Despite the narrow ranges used in the work, results showed the suitability of factorial analysis to evaluate the optimal conditions for growth and yessotoxin production by the dinoflagellate P. reticulatum.

  11. Cell proliferation kinetics and radiation response in 9L tumor spheroids

    SciTech Connect

    Sweigert, S.E.

    1984-05-01

    Cell kinetic parameters, including population doubling-time, cell cycle time, and growth fraction, were measured in 9L gliosarcoma spheroids. These parameters were studied as the spheroids grew from 50 ..mu..m to over 900 ..mu..m in diameter. Experiments relating the cell kinetic parameters to the radiation response of 9L spheroids were also carried out. The major findings were that the average cell cycle time (T/sub c/), is considerably longer in large spheroids than in exponentially-growing monolayers, the radiosensitivity of noncycling (but still viable) cells in spheroids is not significantly different from that of cycling spheroid cells, and the radiation-induced division delay is approximately twice as long in spheroid cells as in monolayer cells given equal radiation doses. The cell loss factor for spheroids of various sizes was calculated, by using the measured kinetic parameters in the basic equations for growth of a cell population. 157 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Predicting kinetic nanocrystal shapes through multi-scale theory and simulation: Polyvinylpyrrolidone-mediated growth of Ag nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankura, Tonnam; Qi, Xin; Zhou, Ya; Fichthorn, Kristen A.

    2016-10-01

    In the shape-controlled synthesis of colloidal Ag nanocrystals, structure-directing agents, particularly polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), are known to be a key additive in making nanostructures with well-defined shapes. Although many Ag nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized using PVP, the mechanism by which PVP actuates shape control remains elusive. Here, we present a multi-scale theoretical framework for kinetic Wulff shape predictions that accounts for the chemical environment, which we used to probe the kinetic influence of the adsorbed PVP film. Within this framework, we use umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the potential of mean force and diffusion coefficient profiles of Ag atom deposition onto Ag(100) and Ag(111) in ethylene glycol solution with surface-adsorbed PVP. We use these profiles to calculate the mean-first passage times and implement extensive Brownian dynamics simulations, which allows the kinetic effects to be quantitatively evaluated. Our results show that PVP films can regulate the flux of Ag atoms to be greater towards Ag(111) than Ag(100). PVP's preferential binding towards Ag(100) over Ag(111) gives PVP its flux-regulating capabilities through the lower free-energy barrier of Ag atoms to cross the lower-density PVP film on Ag(111) and enhanced Ag trapping by the extended PVP film on Ag(111). Under kinetic control, {100}-faceted nanocrystals will be formed when the Ag flux is greater towards Ag(111). The predicted kinetic Wulff shapes are in agreement with the analogous experimental system.

  13. Simulating Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  14. Influence of thallium and salicylic acid impurities as well as of the solution stoichiometry on the growth kinetics of prismatic ADP crystal faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, A. P.; Babenko, G. N.; Puzikov, V. M.; Roshal, A. D.; Iurchenko, A. N.

    2015-04-01

    The absorption and photoluminescence spectra of the solutions and crystals of ADP in the presence of dopant molecules (pH 3.5) and/or anion (pH 5.2) of salicylic acid and Tl+ cation are studied. Dissociation of salicylic acid at the first stage is accompanied with the formation of salicylate complexes with thallium phototautomer. It is shown that the dopants are incorporated into the crystal, irrespectively of one another, in accordance with their distribution coefficients. The influence of the process of the impurity co-doping on the growth kinetics of the prismatic (100) ADP faces depends on the stoichiometry of the solution. The neutral H2Sal dopant monomers (pH 3.5) increase σd and diminish the growth rate. The HSal- dopant monoanions (pH 5.2) reduce the amount of σd and raise the growth rate. Tl+ ions in the solution increase σd and decrease the growth rate irrespectively of the pH. The influence of the HSal-/Tl+ co-dopant (pH 5.2) on σd is almost 1.5 times lower than the one of the H2Sal/Tl+ co-dopant (pH 3.5); both co-dopants reduce the growth rate. The crystal growth is realized via moving macrosteps.

  15. Face-by-face growth of sucrose crystals from aqueous solutions in the presence of raffinose. I. Experiments and kinetic-adsorption model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgualdino, G.; Aquilano, D.; Cincotti, A.; Pastero, L.; Vaccari, G.

    2006-06-01

    Experimental growth kinetics of {1 0 0}, {1 0 1¯}, {1 1 0} and {1¯ 1¯ 0}, the four most important F (flat) forms of sucrose crystal, has been investigated within a range of low supersaturations ( 0.040⩽σ⩽0.080) and under varying raffinose concentrations (0.0 ⩽Craff⩽8.0% H 2O). The comparison with growth isotherms determined in pure solution confirms that raffinose dramatically slows down the growth rates of the first three forms, which still go on growing by the screw dislocation mechanism. Further, dead zones occur for both the {1 0 1¯} and {1 1 0} forms. On the contrary the {1¯ 1¯ 0} form is weakly affected, at least up to Craff≈3% H 2O, owing to the low structural compatibility between its surface sites and the adsorbed raffinose molecules. Both Cabrera-Vermilyea and Kubota-Mullin models, associated with Langmuir-type equilibrium isotherms, are tested to find the more suitable description of the kinetic behaviour in the presence of raffinose. The Kubota-Mullin model resulting the better one, we concluded that adsorption occurs at kink sites of all the interested forms. The predictive power of α h k l , the effectiveness coefficient of this model, is outlined as well. Finally, the disagreements between the model predictions and the experimental behaviour of the {1 0 0} form are attributed to the peculiar structure of its surface.

  16. Exponential Boundary Observers for Pressurized Water Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermine Som, Idellette Judith; Cocquempot, Vincent; Aitouche, Abdel

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with state estimation on a pressurized water pipe modeled by nonlinear coupled distributed hyperbolic equations for non-conservative laws with three known boundary measures. Our objective is to estimate the fourth boundary variable, which will be useful for leakage detection. Two approaches are studied. Firstly, the distributed hyperbolic equations are discretized through a finite-difference scheme. By using the Lipschitz property of the nonlinear term and a Lyapunov function, the exponential stability of the estimation error is proven by solving Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs). Secondly, the distributed hyperbolic system is preserved for state estimation. After state transformations, a Luenberger-like PDE boundary observer based on backstepping mathematical tools is proposed. An exponential Lyapunov function is used to prove the stability of the resulted estimation error. The performance of the two observers are shown on a water pipe prototype simulated example.

  17. Exponential integration algorithms applied to viscoplasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.; Walker, Kevin P.

    1991-01-01

    Four, linear, exponential, integration algorithms (two implicit, one explicit, and one predictor/corrector) are applied to a viscoplastic model to assess their capabilities. Viscoplasticity comprises a system of coupled, nonlinear, stiff, first order, ordinary differential equations which are a challenge to integrate by any means. Two of the algorithms (the predictor/corrector and one of the implicits) give outstanding results, even for very large time steps.

  18. Exponential Decay of Correlations Implies Area Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Horodecki, Michał

    2015-01-01

    We prove that a finite correlation length, i.e., exponential decay of correlations, implies an area law for the entanglement entropy of quantum states defined on a line. The entropy bound is exponential in the correlation length of the state, thus reproducing as a particular case Hastings's proof of an area law for groundstates of 1D gapped Hamiltonians. As a consequence, we show that 1D quantum states with exponential decay of correlations have an efficient classical approximate description as a matrix product state of polynomial bond dimension, thus giving an equivalence between injective matrix product states and states with a finite correlation length. The result can be seen as a rigorous justification, in one dimension, of the intuition that states with exponential decay of correlations, usually associated with non-critical phases of matter, are simple to describe. It also has implications for quantum computing: it shows that unless a pure state quantum computation involves states with long-range correlations, decaying at most algebraically with the distance, it can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof relies on several previous tools from quantum information theory—including entanglement distillation protocols achieving the hashing bound, properties of single-shot smooth entropies, and the quantum substate theorem—and also on some newly developed ones. In particular we derive a new bound on correlations established by local random measurements, and we give a generalization to the max-entropy of a result of Hastings concerning the saturation of mutual information in multiparticle systems. The proof can also be interpreted as providing a limitation on the phenomenon of data hiding in quantum states.

  19. Method for exponentiating in cryptographic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brickell, E.F.; Gordon, D.M.; McCurley, K.S.

    1992-12-31

    An improved cryptographic method utilizing exponentiation is provided which has the advantage of reducing the number of multiplications required to determine the legitimacy of a message or user. The basic method comprises the steps of selecting a key from a pre-approved group of integer keys g; exponentiating the key by an integer value e, where e represents a digital signature, to generate a value g{sup e}; transmitting the value g{sup e} to a remote facility by a communications network; receiving the value g{sup e} at the remote facility; and verifying the digital signature as originating from the legitimate user. The exponentiating step comprises the steps of initializing a plurality of memory locations with a plurality of values g{sup xi}, computing a{sub i} representations for a integer base b, where a{sub i} represents the weighing factor of the ith digit of the integer e; computing the individual values of c{sub d} according to the rule: c{sub d}={product}a{sub i}=d g{sup x {sub i}}; and computing the product of {product}{sup h}/{sub d=1} c{sub d}{sup d} from the stored values of from the plurality of memory locations so as to determine a value for g{sup e}.

  20. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially-locally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roeck, W.; Schütz, M.

    2015-06-01

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, "local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate]." This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835-871 (2012)], relying on the "spectral flow technique" or "quasi-adiabatic continuation" [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique "bulk ground state" or "topological quantum order." We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate.

  1. Influence of temperature on the controlled growth kinetics and superstructural phase formation of indium on a reconstructed Si (113) 3 × 2 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna TC, Shibin; Deshmukh, Rahul; Singh Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Goswami, Lalit; Govind

    2014-03-01

    The kinetics of growth, thermal stability and superstructural phase formation of the indium atom on a reconstructed Si (113) 3 × 2 surface at room temperature (RT), as well as at high substrate temperature (HT), is discussed. It was observed that at a very low flux rate of 0.08 ML min-1, In-adsorption at RT follows the Frank-van der Merwe (FM) growth mode, while for HT (>200 °C), In-islands (the Volmer-Weber-growth mode) were formed. The residual thermal desorption (RTD) analysis revealed the anomalous behaviour of temperature-driven layering to the clustering rearrangement of In atoms on the Si (113) surface for RT- and 200 °C-grown systems. The RTD study also demonstrates the effect of temperature on growth kinetics as well as on the multilayer/monolayer desorption pathway. The calculated bilayer desorption energy was found to be different for RT- (T B, 0.48 eV) and HT- (T B, 1.57 eV) grown In/Si(113) systems, while the monolayer desorption energy (T M, 2.56 eV) was the same in both the cases. Various coverage-dependent superstructural phases, such as Si(113) 3 × 2 + 3 × 1, 3 × 1, 3 × 2 + 1 × 3 and 1 × 1, have been observed during the RT- and HT-growth of In on the Si (113) surface. A complete phase diagram of In/Si(113) is deduced which depicts the evolution of novel phases as a function of substrate temperature and coverage.

  2. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  3. Benchmarking Exponential Growth of Educational Reform: The Sustainability Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ray

    2009-01-01

    After decades of reform efforts in public school systems in the United States, there is minimal student achievement progress to measure. This article addresses the ongoing challenges and complexities of the sustainability of educational reform through a review of the literature and the proposal of a Sustainability Index as a metric to benchmark…

  4. Exponential growth using the internet and your web site.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Robert

    2010-02-01

    Developing a successful Internet strategy can help attract new patients and take your practice to the next level. Today, as the Internet has evolved, it is more important than ever, especially as your competitors are likely pursuing more aggressive strategies themselves. There are several important components involved, and maximizing your efforts with each can help create a comprehensive and sound strategy that achieves significant results. Behind such a strategy you will find a strong focus in many areas, including Web site development, search engine optimization, link building, content creation, blogs, video, choosing a vendor, patient conversion, Web 2.0, social networking, reputation management, and more. Understanding each of these areas, and the efforts required to tackle each effectively, can help you ensure that your own Internet strategy is functioning well and reaching its true potential. PMID:20119902

  5. On the origin of exponential galaxy discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Aaron A.

    2009-06-01

    One of the most important unresolved issues for galaxy formation theory is to understand the origin of exponential galaxy discs. We use a disc galaxy evolution model to investigate whether galaxies with exponential surface brightness profiles can be produced in a cosmologically motivated framework for disc galaxy formation. Our model follows the accretion, cooling and ejection of baryonic mass, as a function of radius, inside growing dark matter haloes. The surface density profile of the disc is determined by detailed angular momentum conservation, starting from the distribution of specific angular momentum as found in cosmological simulations. Exponential and quasi-exponential discs can be produced by our model through a combination of supernova-driven galactic outflows (which preferentially remove low angular momentum material), intrinsic variation in the angular momentum distribution of the halo gas and the inefficiency of star formation at large radii. We use observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) New York University Value Added Catalog (NYU-VAGC) to show that the median Sérsic index of late-type galaxies is a strong function of stellar mass. For blue galaxies, low-mass galaxies have n ~= 1.3, while high-mass galaxies have n ~= 4, with a transition mass of Mstar ~= 2.5 × 1010Msolar. Our model with energy-driven outflows correctly reproduces this trend, whereas our models with momentum-driven outflows and no outflows overpredict the Sérsic indices in low-mass galaxies. We show that the observed fraction of `bulge-less' exponential galaxies is a strong function of stellar mass. For Milky Way mass galaxies (Vrot ~= 220kms-1, Mstar ~= 1011Msolar), less than 0.1 per cent of blue galaxies are bulge-less, whereas for M33 mass galaxies (Vrot ~= 120kms-1, Mstar ~= 1010Msolar) bulge-less and quasi-bulge-less galaxies are more common, with 45 per cent of blue galaxies having the Sérsic index n < 1.5. These results suggest that the difficulty of

  6. Effect of herbicide resistance endowing Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly ACCase gene mutations on ACCase kinetics and growth traits in Lolium rigidum

    PubMed Central

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M.; Yu, Qin; Han, Heping; Powles, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of herbicide resistance evolution in plants depends on fitness traits endowed by alleles in both the presence and absence (resistance cost) of herbicide selection. The effect of two Lolium rigidum spontaneous homozygous target-site resistance-endowing mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly) on both ACCase activity and various plant growth traits have been investigated here. Relative growth rate (RGR) and components (net assimilation rate, leaf area ratio), resource allocation to different organs, and growth responses in competition with a wheat crop were assessed. Unlike plants carrying the Ile-1781-Leu resistance mutation, plants homozygous for the Asp-2078-Gly mutation exhibited a significantly lower RGR (30%), which translated into lower allocation of biomass to roots, shoots, and leaves, and poor responses to plant competition. Both the negligible and significant growth reductions associated, respectively, with the Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly resistance mutations correlated with their impact on ACCase activity. Whereas the Ile-1781-Leu mutation showed no pleiotropic effects on ACCase kinetics, the Asp-2078-Gly mutation led to a significant reduction in ACCase activity. The impaired growth traits are discussed in the context of resistance costs and the effects of each resistance allele on ACCase activity. Similar effects of these two particular ACCase mutations on the ACCase activity of Alopecurus myosuroides were also confirmed. PMID:26019257

  7. Effect of herbicide resistance endowing Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly ACCase gene mutations on ACCase kinetics and growth traits in Lolium rigidum.

    PubMed

    Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Yu, Qin; Han, Heping; Powles, Stephen B

    2015-08-01

    The rate of herbicide resistance evolution in plants depends on fitness traits endowed by alleles in both the presence and absence (resistance cost) of herbicide selection. The effect of two Lolium rigidum spontaneous homozygous target-site resistance-endowing mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly) on both ACCase activity and various plant growth traits have been investigated here. Relative growth rate (RGR) and components (net assimilation rate, leaf area ratio), resource allocation to different organs, and growth responses in competition with a wheat crop were assessed. Unlike plants carrying the Ile-1781-Leu resistance mutation, plants homozygous for the Asp-2078-Gly mutation exhibited a significantly lower RGR (30%), which translated into lower allocation of biomass to roots, shoots, and leaves, and poor responses to plant competition. Both the negligible and significant growth reductions associated, respectively, with the Ile-1781-Leu and Asp-2078-Gly resistance mutations correlated with their impact on ACCase activity. Whereas the Ile-1781-Leu mutation showed no pleiotropic effects on ACCase kinetics, the Asp-2078-Gly mutation led to a significant reduction in ACCase activity. The impaired growth traits are discussed in the context of resistance costs and the effects of each resistance allele on ACCase activity. Similar effects of these two particular ACCase mutations on the ACCase activity of Alopecurus myosuroides were also confirmed.

  8. Growth kinetics of AlN and GaN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on R-plane sapphire substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, R.; Moustakas, T. D.; Ozcan, A. S.; Ludwig, K. F.; Zhou, L.; Smith, David J.

    2010-08-15

    This paper reports the growth by molecular beam epitaxy of AlN and GaN thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates. Contrary to previous findings that GaN grows with its (1120) A-plane parallel to the (1102) R-plane of sapphire, our results indicate that the crystallographic orientation of the III-nitride films is strongly dependent on the kinetic conditions of growth for the GaN or AlN buffer layers. Thus, group III-rich conditions for growth of either GaN or AlN buffers result in nitride films having (1120) planes parallel to the sapphire surface, and basal-plane stacking faults parallel to the growth direction. The growth of these buffers under N-rich conditions instead leads to nitride films with (1126) planes parallel to the sapphire surface, with inclined c-plane stacking faults that often terminate threading dislocations. Moreover, electron microscope observations indicate that slight miscut ({approx}0.5 deg. ) of the R-plane sapphire substrate almost completely suppresses the formation of twinning defects in the (1126) GaN films.

  9. Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv

    2004-03-01

    Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).

  10. High temperature materials synthesis without heat: Oxide layer growth on electronic materials using high-kinetic-energy atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffbauer, M.A.; Cross, J.B.; Archuleta, F.A.

    1996-04-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors examined thin-film materials-synthesis processes in which chemical reactions are initiated using high-kinetic-energy neutral atomic species instead of high temperatures. The research is aimed at producing device-quality insulating oxide layers on semiconductor materials. Thick, uniform, and fully oxidized insulating layers of unprecedented quality are formed on gallium arsenide by exposure of wafer substrates to a high kinetic-energy ({approximately}3eV) neutral atomic-oxygen beam. The nonthermal oxidation process does not disrupt the crystalline order of the substrate and no detectable elemental arsenic is produced at the oxide/gallium arsenide interface.

  11. The sympathetic nervous system promotes carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis in rats by suppressing apoptosis and enhancing the growth kinetics of regenerating hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, K; Nakashima, M; Naito, S; Akiyama, Y; Ohtsuru, A; Hamanaka, Y; Hsu, C T; Ito, M; Sekine, I

    2001-02-01

    Norepinephrine is considered to possess potent anti-apoptotic action in regenerating hepatocytes. To clarify the role of the sympathetic nervous system in apoptosis that occurs in chronic liver damage and following the promotion of liver cirrhosis, we studied a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury model, using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), and chemically sympathectomized WKY. At 24 h after CCl4 administration. acute damage, characterized by vacuolated hepatocytes in the centrilobular zone, was greater in SHR than in WKY. This vacuolated change in WKY hepatocytes was significantly reduced by chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). After 48 h, the acute damage was dramatically improved in each animal, without significant differences between the three groups. In chronic damage after weekly repetition of CCl4 treatment for 4 weeks, fibrosis was evident in SHR, while in the other groups there was only scant fibrosis in the centrilobular zone. After 8 weeks' repetition of CCl4, liver cirrhosis was seen only in SHR. The incidence of apoptotic cells in areas of both acute and chronic damage in WKY, detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-dUTP nick end labeling, was significantly increased in comparison with that in SHR, and was further increased by 6-OHDA pretreatment. In contrast, there was significantly greater enhancement of the growth of hepatocytes in SHR than in WKY in both acute and chronic damage. Moreover. hepatocyte growth kinetics in WKY was significantly inhibited after sympathectomy in acute injury, as evidenced by immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In vitro, the amount of hepatocellular apoptosis induced by transforming growth factor-beta1 was significantly decreased by incubation with norepinephrine. These findings suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of the sympathetic nervous system increases cell growth kinetics and promotes liver cirrhosis in this

  12. An experimental model of COD abatement in MBBR based on biofilm growth dynamic and on substrates' removal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Alessio; De Rosa, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the performance of a lab-scale Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) under different operating conditions was analysed. Moreover, the dependence of the reaction rates both from the concentration and biodegradability of substrates and from the biofilm surface density, by means of several batch kinetic tests, was investigated. The reactor controls exhibited an increasing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal, reaching maximum yields (close to 90%) for influent loadings of up to12.5 gCOD/m(2)d. From this value, the pilot plant performance decreased to yields of only about 55% for influent loadings greater than 16 gCOD/m(2)d. In response to the influent loading increase, the biofilm surface density exhibited a logistic growing trend until reaching a maximum amount of total attached solids of about 9.5 g/m(2). The kinetic test results indicated that the COD removal rates for rapidly biodegradable, rapidly hydrolysable and slowly biodegradable substrates were not affected by the organic matter concentrations. Instead, first-order kinetics were detected with respect to biofilm surface density. The experimental results permitted the formulation of a mathematical model to predict the MBBR organic matter removal efficiency. The validity of the model was successfully tested in the lab-scale plant.

  13. Growth kinetics of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound at liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects under temperature gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, N.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M.L.; Ma, H.T.; Dong, W.

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects during reflow at 250 °C and 280 °C on a hot plate was investigated. Being different from the symmetrical growth during isothermal aging, the interfacial IMCs showed clearly asymmetrical growth during reflow, i.e., the growth of Cu6Sn5 IMC at the cold end was significantly enhanced while that of Cu3Sn IMC was hindered especially at the hot end. It was found that the temperature gradient had caused the mass migration of Cu atoms from the hot end toward the cold end, resulting in sufficient Cu atomic flux for interfacial reaction at the cold end while inadequate Cu atomic flux at the hot end. The growth mechanism was considered as reaction/thermomigration-controlled at the cold end and grain boundary diffusion/thermomigration-controlled at the hot end. A growth model was established to explain the growth kinetics of the Cu6Sn5 IMC at both cold and hot ends. The molar heat of transport of Cu atoms in molten Sn was calculated as + 11.12 kJ/mol at 250 °C and + 14.65 kJ/mol at 280 °C. The corresponding driving force of thermomigration in molten Sn was estimated as 4.82 × 10−19 N and 6.80 × 10−19 N. PMID:26311323

  14. Growth kinetics of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound at liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects under temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, N.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M. L.; Ma, H. T.; Dong, W.

    2015-08-01

    The growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects during reflow at 250 °C and 280 °C on a hot plate was investigated. Being different from the symmetrical growth during isothermal aging, the interfacial IMCs showed clearly asymmetrical growth during reflow, i.e., the growth of Cu6Sn5 IMC at the cold end was significantly enhanced while that of Cu3Sn IMC was hindered especially at the hot end. It was found that the temperature gradient had caused the mass migration of Cu atoms from the hot end toward the cold end, resulting in sufficient Cu atomic flux for interfacial reaction at the cold end while inadequate Cu atomic flux at the hot end. The growth mechanism was considered as reaction/thermomigration-controlled at the cold end and grain boundary diffusion/thermomigration-controlled at the hot end. A growth model was established to explain the growth kinetics of the Cu6Sn5 IMC at both cold and hot ends. The molar heat of transport of Cu atoms in molten Sn was calculated as + 11.12 kJ/mol at 250 °C and + 14.65 kJ/mol at 280 °C. The corresponding driving force of thermomigration in molten Sn was estimated as 4.82 × 10-19 N and 6.80 × 10-19 N.

  15. Global Genome Response of Escherichia coli O157∶H7 Sakai during Dynamic Changes in Growth Kinetics Induced by an Abrupt Temperature Downshift

    PubMed Central

    King, Thea; Kocharunchitt, Chawalit; Gobius, Kari; Bowman, John P.; Ross, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157∶H7 is a mesophilic food-borne pathogen. We investigated the growth kinetics of E. coli O157∶H7 Sakai during an abrupt temperature downshift from 35°C to either 20°C, 17°C, 14°C or 10°C; as well as the molecular mechanisms enabling growth after cold stress upon an abrupt downshift from 35°C to 14°C in an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. All downshifts caused a lag period of growth before growth resumed at a rate typical of the post-shift temperature. Lag and generation time increased with the magnitude of the shift or with the final temperature, while relative lag time displayed little variation across the test range. Analysis of time-dependent molecular changes revealed, in keeping with a decreased growth rate at lower temperature, repression of genes and proteins involved in DNA replication, protein synthesis and carbohydrate catabolism. Consistent with cold-induced remodelling of the bacterial cell envelope, alterations occurred in the expression of genes and proteins involved in transport and binding. The RpoS regulon exhibited sustained induction confirming its importance in adaptation and growth at 14°C. The RpoE regulon was transiently induced, indicating a potential role for this extracytoplasmic stress response system in the early phase of low temperature adaptation during lag phase. Interestingly, genes previously reported to be amongst the most highly up-regulated under oxidative stress were consistently down-regulated. This comprehensive analysis provides insight into the molecular mechanisms operating during adaptation of E. coli to growth at low temperature and is relevant to its physiological state during chilling in foods, such as carcasses. PMID:24926786

  16. Applications of an exponential finite difference technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An exponential finite difference scheme first presented by Bhattacharya for one dimensional unsteady heat conduction problems in Cartesian coordinates was extended. The finite difference algorithm developed was used to solve the unsteady diffusion equation in one dimensional cylindrical coordinates and was applied to two and three dimensional conduction problems in Cartesian coordinates. Heat conduction involving variable thermal conductivity was also investigated. The method was used to solve nonlinear partial differential equations in one and two dimensional Cartesian coordinates. Predicted results are compared to exact solutions where available or to results obtained by other numerical methods.

  17. A Comparative Study of Growth Kinetics, In Vitro Differentiation Potential and Molecular Characterization of Fetal Adnexa Derived Caprine Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Somal, Anjali; Bhat, Irfan A.; B., Indu; Pandey, Sriti; Panda, Bibhudatta S. K.; Thakur, Nipuna; Sarkar, Mihir; Chandra, Vikash; Saikumar, G.; Sharma, G. Taru

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted with an objective of isolation, in vitro expansion, growth kinetics, molecular characterization and in vitro differentiation of fetal adnexa derived caprine mesenchymal stem cells. Mid-gestation gravid caprine uteri (2–3 months) were collected from abattoir to derive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from fetal adnexa {amniotic fluid (cAF), amniotic sac (cAS), Wharton’s jelly (cWJ) and cord blood (cCB)} and expanded in vitro. These cultured MSCs were used at the 3rd passage (P3) to study growth kinetics, localization as well as molecular expression of specific surface antigens, pluripotency markers and mesenchymal tri-lineage differentiation. In comparison to cAF and cAS MSCs, cWJ and cCB MSCs showed significantly (P<0.05) higher clonogenic potency, faster growth rate and low population doubling (PDT) time. All the four types of MSCs were positive for alkaline phosphatase (AP) and differentiated into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. These stem cells expressed MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) and pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, KLF, cMyc, FoxD3) but did not express CD34, a hematopoietic stem cell marker (HSC) as confirmed by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometric analysis. The relative mRNA expression of MSC surface antigens (CD73, CD90 and CD105) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ MSCs compared to the other cell lines. The mRNA expression of Oct4 was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ, whereas mRNA expression of KLF and cMyc was significantly (P<0.05) higher in cWJ and cAF than that of cAS and cCB. The comparative assessment revealed that cWJ MSCs outperformed MSCs from other sources of fetal adnexa in terms of growth kinetics, relative mRNA expression of surface antigens, pluripotency markers and tri-lineage differentiation potential, hence, these MSCs could be used as a preferred source for regenerative medicine. PMID:27257959

  18. Kinetic analysis of growth rate, ATP, and pigmentation suggests an energy-spilling function for the pigment prodigiosin of Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Haddix, Pryce L; Jones, Sarah; Patel, Pratik; Burnham, Sarah; Knights, Kaori; Powell, Joan N; LaForm, Amber

    2008-11-01

    Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative environmental bacterium and opportunistic pathogen. S. marcescens expresses prodigiosin, a bright red and cell-associated pigment which has no known biological function for producing cells. We present here a kinetic model relating cell, ATP, and prodigiosin concentration changes for S. marcescens during cultivation in batch culture. Cells were grown in a variety of complex broth media at temperatures which either promoted or essentially prevented pigmentation. High growth rates were accompanied by large decreases in cellular prodigiosin concentration; low growth rates were associated with rapid pigmentation. Prodigiosin was induced most strongly during limited growth as the population transitioned to stationary phase, suggesting a negative effect of this pigment on biomass production. Mathematically, the combined rate of formation of biomass and bioenergy (as ATP) was shown to be equivalent to the rate of prodigiosin production. Studies with cyanide inhibition of both oxidative phosphorylation and pigment production indicated that rates of biomass and net ATP synthesis were actually higher in the presence of cyanide, further suggesting a negative regulatory role for prodigiosin in cell and energy production under aerobic growth conditions. Considered in the context of the literature, these results suggest that prodigiosin reduces ATP production by a process termed energy spilling. This process may protect the cell by limiting production of reactive oxygen compounds. Other possible functions for prodigiosin as a mediator of cell death at population stationary phase are discussed.

  19. A Model for Self-Assembly of Carbon Nanotubes from Acetylene Based on Real-Time Studies of Vertically Aligned Growth Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Eres, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    Time-resolved optical reflectivity was used to study the kinetics in the early stages of vertically aligned carbon nanotube array growth from a molecular beam of acetylene. The molecular beam environment was used to suppress gas phase reaction pathways and limit the growth to surface reactions specific to the molecular structure of acetylene. The observed acetylene flux dependent induction delay and the threshold for vertically aligned growth are characteristic features of heterogeneous chain reactions. Propagation of chain reactions requires regeneration of the active sites that can occur only if catalytic activity is transferred from the metal catalyst film to surface carbon species. After the active site transformation, acetylene self-assembles into carbon structures of progressively increasing size such as chains, graphene fragments, and nanotubes. In this paper we show that a conceptual framework supported by ab initio density functional theory calculations in which active carbon species facilitate incorporation of new carbon readily explains recent results in vertically aligned nanotube growth that are puzzling in the context of the diffusion/precipitation model.

  20. Rounded stretched exponential for time relaxation functions.

    PubMed

    Powles, J G; Heyes, D M; Rickayzen, G; Evans, W A B

    2009-12-01

    A rounded stretched exponential function is introduced, C(t)=exp{(tau(0)/tau(E))(beta)[1-(1+(t/tau(0))(2))(beta/2)]}, where t is time, and tau(0) and tau(E) are two relaxation times. This expression can be used to represent the relaxation function of many real dynamical processes, as at long times, t>tau(0), the function converges to a stretched exponential with normalizing relaxation time, tau(E), yet its expansion is even or symmetric in time, which is a statistical mechanical requirement. This expression fits well the shear stress relaxation function for model soft soft-sphere fluids near coexistence, with tau(E)