Science.gov

Sample records for exposure induces angiogenesis

  1. Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Krock, Bryan L.; Skuli, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The vascular network delivers oxygen (O2) and nutrients to all cells within the body. It is therefore not surprising that O2 availability serves as a primary regulator of this complex organ. Most transcriptional responses to low O2 are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), highly conserved transcription factors that control the expression of numerous angiogenic, metabolic, and cell cycle genes. Accordingly, the HIF pathway is currently viewed as a master regulator of angiogenesis. HIF modulation could provide therapeutic benefit for a wide array of pathologies, including cancer, ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, wound healing, and neovascular eye diseases. Hypoxia promotes vessel growth by upregulating multiple pro-angiogenic pathways that mediate key aspects of endothelial, stromal, and vascular support cell biology. Interestingly, recent studies show that hypoxia influences additional aspects of angiogenesis, including vessel patterning, maturation, and function. Through extensive research, the integral role of hypoxia and HIF signaling in human disease is becoming increasingly clear. Consequently, a thorough understanding of how hypoxia regulates angiogenesis through an ever-expanding number of pathways in multiple cell types will be essential for the identification of new therapeutic targets and modalities. PMID:22866203

  2. Angiogenesis is repressed by ethanol exposure during chick embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang; Zhong, Shan; Zhang, Shi-yao; Ma, Zheng-lai; Chen, Jian-long; Lu, Wen-hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Lu, Da-xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-05-01

    It is now known that excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol syndrome to develop. However, it is not known whether excess ethanol exposure could directly affect angiogenesis in the embryo or angiogenesis being indirectly affected because of ethanol-induced fetal alcohol syndrome. Using the chick yolk sac membrane (YSM) model, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure dramatically inhibited angiogenesis in the YSM of 9-day-old chick embryos, in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the anti-angiogenesis effect of ethanol could be seen in the developing vessel plexus (at the same extra-embryonic regions) during earlier stages of embryo development. The anti-angiogenic effect of ethanol was found associated with excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production; as glutathione peroxidase activity increased while superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 activities decreased in the YSMs. We further validated this observation by exposing chick embryos to 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (a ROS inducer) and obtained a similar anti-angiogenesis effect as ethanol treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the experimental YSMs revealed that expression of angiogenesis-related genes, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hypoxia-inducible factor, were all repressed following ethanol and 2,2'-azobis-amidinopropane dihydrochloride treatment. In summary, our results suggest that excess ethanol exposure inhibits embryonic angiogenesis through promoting superfluous ROS production during embryo development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Human peripheral blood eosinophils induce angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Puxeddu, Ilaria; Alian, Akram; Piliponsky, Adrian Martin; Ribatti, Domenico; Panet, Amos; Levi-Schaffer, Francesca

    2005-03-01

    Eosinophils play a crucial role in allergic reactions and asthma. They are also involved in responses against parasites, in autoimmune and neoplastic diseases, and in fibroses. There is increasing evidence that angiogenesis plays an important role in these processes. Since eosinophils are known to produce angiogenic mediators, we have hypothesized a direct contribution of these cells to angiogenesis. The effect of human peripheral blood eosinophil sonicates on rat aortic endothelial cell proliferation (in vitro), rat aorta sprouting (ex vivo) and angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (in vivo) have been investigated. To determine whether eosinophil-derived vascular endothelial growth factor influences the eosinophil pro-angiogenic activity, eosinophil sonicates were incubated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies and then added to the chorioallantoic membrane. Vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA expression and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor density on the endothelial cells were also evaluated. Eosinophils were found to enhance endothelial cell proliferation and to induce a strong angiogenic response both in the aorta rings and in the chorioallantoic membrane assays. Pre-incubation of eosinophil sonicates with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibodies partially reduced the angiogenic response of these cells in the chorioallantoic membrane. Eosinophils also increased vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA production on endothelial cells. Eosinophils are able to induce angiogenesis and this effect is partially mediated by their pre-formed vascular endothelial growth factor. This strongly suggests an important role of eosinophils in angiogenesis-associated diseases such as asthma.

  4. Neomycin inhibits angiogenin-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, G F

    1998-08-18

    A class of angiogenesis inhibitor has emerged from our mechanistic study of the action of angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor. Neomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, inhibits nuclear translocation of human angiogenin in human endothelial cells, an essential step for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis. The phospholipase C-inhibiting activity of neomycin appears to be involved, because U-73122, another phospholipase C inhibitor, has a similar effect. In contrast, genistein, oxophenylarsine, and staurosporine, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, phosphotyrosine phosphatase, and protein kinase C, respectively, do not inhibit nuclear translocation of angiogenin. Neomycin inhibits angiogenin-induced proliferation of human endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. At 50 microM, neomycin abolishes angiogenin-induced proliferation but does not affect the basal level of proliferation and cell viability. Other aminoglycoside antibiotics, including gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, amikacin, and paromomycin, have no effect on angiogenin-induced cell proliferation. Most importantly, neomycin completely inhibits angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane at a dose as low as 20 ng per egg. These results suggest that neomycin and its analogs are a class of agents that may be developed for anti-angiogenin therapy.

  5. Neomycin inhibits angiogenin-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guo-fu

    1998-01-01

    A class of angiogenesis inhibitor has emerged from our mechanistic study of the action of angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor. Neomycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic, inhibits nuclear translocation of human angiogenin in human endothelial cells, an essential step for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis. The phospholipase C-inhibiting activity of neomycin appears to be involved, because U-73122, another phospholipase C inhibitor, has a similar effect. In contrast, genistein, oxophenylarsine, and staurosporine, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, phosphotyrosine phosphatase, and protein kinase C, respectively, do not inhibit nuclear translocation of angiogenin. Neomycin inhibits angiogenin-induced proliferation of human endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. At 50 μM, neomycin abolishes angiogenin-induced proliferation but does not affect the basal level of proliferation and cell viability. Other aminoglycoside antibiotics, including gentamicin, streptomycin, kanamycin, amikacin, and paromomycin, have no effect on angiogenin-induced cell proliferation. Most importantly, neomycin completely inhibits angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane at a dose as low as 20 ng per egg. These results suggest that neomycin and its analogs are a class of agents that may be developed for anti-angiogenin therapy. PMID:9707554

  6. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis: good and evil.

    PubMed

    Krock, Bryan L; Skuli, Nicolas; Simon, M Celeste

    2011-12-01

    The vascular network delivers oxygen (O(2)) and nutrients to all cells within the body. It is therefore not surprising that O(2) availability serves as a primary regulator of this complex organ. Most transcriptional responses to low O(2) are mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), highly conserved transcription factors that control the expression of numerous angiogenic, metabolic, and cell cycle genes. Accordingly, the HIF pathway is currently viewed as a master regulator of angiogenesis. HIF modulation could provide therapeutic benefit for a wide array of pathologies, including cancer, ischemic heart disease, peripheral artery disease, wound healing, and neovascular eye diseases. Hypoxia promotes vessel growth by upregulating multiple pro-angiogenic pathways that mediate key aspects of endothelial, stromal, and vascular support cell biology. Interestingly, recent studies show that hypoxia influences additional aspects of angiogenesis, including vessel patterning, maturation, and function. Through extensive research, the integral role of hypoxia and HIF signaling in human disease is becoming increasingly clear. Consequently, a thorough understanding of how hypoxia regulates angiogenesis through an ever-expanding number of pathways in multiple cell types will be essential for the identification of new therapeutic targets and modalities.

  7. Amelioration of Dalton's lymphoma-induced angiogenesis by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Rani; Rawat, Kavita; Kumari, Anupma; Shrivastava, Anju

    2017-06-01

    For tumor to grow beyond 1-2 mm(3) size, tumor recruits new blood vessels referred as angiogenesis; therefore, targeting angiogenesis can be a promising strategy to suppress cancer progression. In this study, in order to develop a good angiogenesis model, we investigated effect of Dalton's lymphoma on angiogenesis and further monitored the role of melatonin on regulation of angiogenesis. To evaluate angiogenesis, endothelial cells were isolated from main thoracic aorta and cultured in vitro in the presence or absence of Dalton's lymphoma supplemented with or without melatonin to monitor their role on its proliferation and migration, a hallmark of angiogenesis. Chick chorioallantoic membrane as well as mice mesentery which allows in vivo studies of tumor angiogenesis and testing of anti-angiogenic molecules was used to validate the in vitro analysis. To further extend our understanding about the regulation of the angiogenesis, we evaluated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor in Dalton's lymphoma cells and mesentery by semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Dalton's lymphoma ascites induced significant increase in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and sprouting of the tertiary branching in chorioallantoic membrane and mesentery of Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice, whereas melatonin treatment led to their inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Semiquantitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of melatonin-treated Dalton's lymphoma cells and mesentery tissue clearly demonstrated restoration of angiogenesis-related genes tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 and reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor messenger RNA expression. Taken together, our results

  8. Immunostimulatory DNA inhibits allergen-induced peribronchial angiogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook Young; Cho, Jae Youn; Miller, Marina; McElwain, Kirsti; McElwain, Shauna; Sriramarao, Pragada; Raz, Eyal; Broide, David H

    2006-03-01

    Airway remodeling in asthma is associated with angiogenesis. We have examined whether immunostimulatory sequences of DNA (ISSs) inhibit allergen-induced airway angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic cytokines in a mouse model of airway remodeling. Mice sensitized to ovalbumin were challenged repetitively with ovalbumin for three months to develop airway remodeling and angiogenesis. Levels of angiogenesis were compared in ISS-treated and control mice. Mice challenged with ovalbumin developed significantly increased levels of peribronchial angiogenesis (increase in the number of CD31+ peribronchial small blood vessels) and an increase in the peribronchial vascular area as assessed by image analysis. Ovalbumin-induced peribronchial angiogenesis was associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and an increase in the number of peribronchial cells expressing VEGF. Treatment of mice with ISS before repetitive ovalbumin challenge significantly reduced the levels of peribronchial angiogenesis as well as the levels of bronchoalveolar lavage VEGF and the number of peribronchial cells expressing VEGF. ISS is unlikely to act directly on endothelial cells to inhibit angiogenesis because lung endothelial cells did not express Toll receptor 9, the receptor for ISS as assessed by RT-PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that ISS inhibited macrophage expression of VEGF. The ability of ISS to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo is likely to be mediated by several mechanisms, including ISS reducing the number of peribronchial inflammatory cells that express VEGF, ISS inhibiting expression of TH2 cytokines such as IL-13 that promote VEGF expression, and direct effects of ISS on macrophages to inhibit VEGF expression.

  9. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of inflammation-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Szade, Agata; Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Florczyk, Urszula; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-03-01

    Blood vessel formation is a fundamental process for the development of organism and tissue regeneration. Of importance, angiogenesis occurring during postnatal development is usually connected with inflammation. Here, we review how molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying inflammatory reactions regulate angiogenesis. Inflamed tissues are characterized by hypoxic conditions and immune cell infiltration. In this review, we describe an interplay of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF1 and HIF2, as well as NF-κB and nitric oxide in the regulation of angiogenesis. The mobilization of macrophages and the differential role of M1 and M2 macrophage subsets in angiogenesis are also discussed. Next, we present the current knowledge about microRNA regulation of inflammation in the context of new blood vessel formation. Finally, we describe how the mechanisms involved in inflammation influence tumor angiogenesis. We underlay and discuss the role of NF-E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway as crucial in the regulation of inflammation-induced angiogenesis.

  10. Expression of Hyaluronidase by Tumor Cells Induces Angiogenesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dacai; Pearlman, Eric; Diaconu, Eugenia; Guo, Kun; Mori, Hiroshi; Haqqi, Tariq; Markowitz, Sanford; Willson, James; Sy, Man-Sun

    1996-07-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is important for the maintenance of tissue architecture. Depolymerization of hyaluronic acid may facilitate tumor invasion. In addition, oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid have been reported to induce angiogenesis. We report here that a hyaluronidase similar to the one on human sperm is expressed by metastatic human melanoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma cell lines and by tumor biopsies from patients with colorectal carcinomas, but not by tissues from normal colon. Moreover, angiogenesis is induced by hyaluronidase+ tumor cells but not hyaluronidase- tumor cells and can be blocked by an inhibitor of hyaluronidase. Tumor cells thus use hyaluronidase as one of the ``molecular saboteurs'' to depolymerize hyaluronic acid to facilitate invasion. As a consequence, breakdown products of hyaluronic acid can further promote tumor establishment by inducing angiogenesis. Hyaluronidase on tumor cells may provide a target for anti-neoplastic drugs.

  11. Expression of hyaluronidase by tumor cells induces angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D; Pearlman, E; Diaconu, E; Guo, K; Mori, H; Haqqi, T; Markowitz, S; Willson, J; Sy, M S

    1996-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a proteoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is important for the maintenance of tissue architecture. Depolymerization of hyaluronic acid may facilitate tumor invasion. In addition, oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid have been reported to induce angiogenesis. We report here that a hyaluronidase similar to the one on human sperm is expressed by metastatic human melanoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma cell lines and by tumor biopsies from patients with colorectal carcinomas, but not by tissues from normal colon. Moreover, angiogenesis is induced by hyaluronidase+ tumor cells but not hyaluronidase- tumor cells and can be blocked by an inhibitor of hyaluronidase. Tumor cells thus use hyaluronidase as one of the "molecular saboteurs" to depolymerize hyaluronic acid to facilitate invasion. As a consequence, breakdown products of hyaluronic acid can further promote tumor establishment by inducing angiogenesis. Hyaluronidase on tumor cells may provide a target for anti-neoplastic drugs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8755562

  12. 20-HETE contributes to ischemia-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Joseph, Gregory; Zhang, Frank F; Nguyen, Huyen; Jiang, Houli; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Falck, John R; Yang, Jing; Schwartzman, Michal L; Guo, Austin M

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is an important adaptation for recovery from peripheral ischemia. Here, we determined whether 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) contributes to ischemia-induced angiogenesis and assessed its underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms using a mouse hindlimb-ischemia angiogenesis model. Hindlimb blood flow was measured by Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging and microvessel density was determined by CD31 and tomato lectin staining. We found that systemic and local administration of a 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor, DDMS, or a 20-HETE antagonist, 6,15-20-HEDGE significantly reduced blood flow recovery and microvessel formation in response to ischemia. 20-HETE production, measured by LC/MS/MS, was markedly increased in ischemic muscles (91±11 vs. 8±2pg/mg in controls), which was associated with prominent upregulation of the 20-HETE synthase, CYP4A12. Immunofluorescence co-localized increased CYP4A12 expression in response to ischemia to CD31-positive EC in the ischemic hindlimb microvessels. We further showed that ischemia increased HIF-1α, VEGF, and VEGFR2 expression in gracilis muscles and that these increases were negated by DDMS and 6,15-20-HEDGE. Lastly, we showed that ERK1/2 of MAPK is a component of 20-HETE regulated ischemic angiogenesis. Taken together, these data indicate that 20-HETE is a critical contributor of ischemia-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hybrid modeling of tumor-induced angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Capasso, V.; Alvaro, M.; Carretero, M.

    2014-12-01

    When modeling of tumor-driven angiogenesis, a major source of analytical and computational complexity is the strong coupling between the kinetic parameters of the relevant stochastic branching-and-growth of the capillary network, and the family of interacting underlying fields. To reduce this complexity, we take advantage of the system intrinsic multiscale structure: we describe the stochastic dynamics of the cells at the vessel tip at their natural mesoscale, whereas we describe the deterministic dynamics of the underlying fields at a larger macroscale. Here, we set up a conceptual stochastic model including branching, elongation, and anastomosis of vessels and derive a mean field approximation for their densities. This leads to a deterministic integropartial differential system that describes the formation of the stochastic vessel network. We discuss the proper capillary injecting boundary conditions and include the results of relevant numerical simulations.

  14. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Induces Angiogenesis in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesano, R.; Vassalli, J.-D.; Baird, A.; Guillemin, R.; Orci, L.

    1986-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are potent mitogens for vascular and capillary endothelial cells in vitro and can stimulate the formation of blood capillaries (angiogenesis) in vivo. A crucial event in this process is the invasion of the perivascular extracellular matrix by sprouting endothelial cells. Using a recently developed in vitro model of angiogenesis, we show here that highly purified basic pituitary FGF can induce capillary endothelial cells to invade a three-dimensional collagen matrix and to organize themselves to form characteristic tubules that resemble blood capillaries. We also show that basic FGF concomitantly stimulates endothelial cells to produce a urokinase-type plasminogen activator, a protease that has been implicated in the neovascular response. The results demonstrate that basic FGF can stimulate processes that are characteristic of angiogenesis in vivo, including endothelial cell migration, invasion, and production of plasminogen activator.

  15. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene impairs decidualization and decidual angiogenesis in mice during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyan; Shen, Cha; Liu, Xueqing; He, Junlin; Ding, Yubin; Gao, Rufei; Mu, Xinyi; Geng, Yanqing; Wang, Yingxiong; Chen, Xuemei

    2017-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a ubiquitous environmental persistent organic pollutant and a well-known endocrine disruptor. BaP exposure could alter the steroid balance in females. Endometrium decidualization and decidual angiogenesis are critical events for embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance during early pregnancy and are modulated by steroids. However, the effect of BaP on decidualization is not clear. This study aimed to explore the effects of BaP on decidualization and decidual angiogenesis in pregnant mice. The result showed that the uteri in the BaP-treated groups were smaller and exhibited an uneven size compared with those in the control group. Artificial decidualization was detected in the uteri of the controls, but weakened decidualization response was observed in the BaP-treated groups. BaP significantly reduced the levels of estradiol, progesterone, and their cognate receptors ER and PR, respectively. The expression of several decidualization-related factors, including FOXO1, HoxA10, and BMP2, were altered after BaP treatment. BaP reduced the expression of cluster designation 34 (CD34), which indicated that the decidual angiogenesis was inhibited by BaP treatment. In addition, BaP induced the downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A. These data suggest that oral BaP ingestion compromised decidualization and decidual angiogenesis. Our results provide experimental data for the maternal reproductive toxicity of BaP during early pregnancy, which is very important for a comprehensive risk assessment of BaP on human reproductive health.

  16. Fucoidan inhibits angiogenesis induced by multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fen; Luo, Guoping; Xiao, Qing; Chen, Liping; Luo, Xiaohua; Lv, Jinglong; Chen, Lixue

    2016-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable hematological neoplasms. Our previous studies showed that Fucoidan possessed anti-myeloma effect by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting invasion of myeloma cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Fucoidan on angiogenesis induced by human myeloma cells and elucidated its possible mechanisms. Multiple myeloma cells were treated with Fucoidan at different concentrations, then the conditioned medium (CM) was collected. The levels of VEGF in the CM were tested by ELISA. The results showed that Fucoidan significantly decreased VEGF secretion by RPMI-8226 and U266 cells. The tube formation assay and migration test on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to examine the effect of Fucoidan on angiogenesis induced by human myeloma cells. The results showed that Fucoidan decreased HUVECs formed tube structures and inhibited HUVECs migration, and suppressed the angiogenic ability of multiple myeloma RPMI-8226 and U266 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The study also showed that Fucoidan downregulated the expression of several kinds of proteins, which may be correlated with the reduction of angiogenesis induced by myeloma cells. Moreover, results were compared from normoxic and hypoxic conditions, they showed that Fucoidan had anti-angiogenic activity. Furthermore, in a multiple myeloma xenograft mouse model, it indicated that Fucoidan negatively affected tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Fucoidan was able to interfere with angiogenesis of multiple myeloma cells both in vitro and in vivo and may have a substantial potential in the treatment of MM.

  17. Enriched environment induces angiogenesis and improves neural function outcomes in rat stroke model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kewei; Wu, Yi; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Hongyu; Liu, Gang; Guo, Zhenzhen; Li, Fang; Jia, Jie; Kuang, Shenyi; Hu, Ruiping

    2014-12-15

    Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury has neuroprotective benefits in animal models, including enhancing functional recovery after ischemic stroke. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of EE on the improvement of damaged neural function and the induction of angiogenesis. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Neurological status scores were used to evaluate neural function on postoperative days 2, 7, and 14. A beam-walking task was used to test the recovery of motor behavior on postoperative days 2, 5, 10, and 15. We also used a Morris water maze task to examine whether EE protected learning and memory performance. The specific marker of angiogenesis of CD31 was examined by western blot. Angiogenesis around the peri-infarction region was assayed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) after 14 days of EE exposure starting 24h after ischemia. Neurological status scores of animals in the EE group were significantly higher than those in the standard housing condition (SC) control group from the seventh day after ischemic. EE accelerated the recovery of motor coordination and integration and also improved learning and memory performance after cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, EE increased CD31 levels and promoted angiogenesis of cortex in the peri-infarction region compared to the SC group. Neural function outcomes are positively correlated with post-ischemia angiogenesis. These findings suggest that EE plays an important role in the recovery of damaged neural function via regulation of angiogenesis after ischemia.

  18. GFAT1 phosphorylation by AMPK promotes VEGF-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zibrova, Darya; Vandermoere, Franck; Göransson, Olga; Peggie, Mark; Mariño, Karina V; Knierim, Anne; Spengler, Katrin; Weigert, Cora; Viollet, Benoit; Morrice, Nicholas A; Sakamoto, Kei; Heller, Regine

    2017-03-07

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in endothelial cells regulates energy homeostasis, stress protection and angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using a label-free phosphoproteomic analysis, we identified glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase 1 (GFAT1) as an AMPK substrate. GFAT1 is the rate-limiting enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) and as such controls the modification of proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that AMPK controls O-GlcNAc levels and function of endothelial cells via GFAT1 phosphorylation using biochemical, pharmacological, genetic and in vitro angiogenesis approaches. Activation of AMPK in primary human endothelial cells by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) or by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) led to GFAT1 phosphorylation at serine 243. This effect was not seen when AMPK was down-regulated by siRNA. Upon AMPK activation, diminished GFAT activity and reduced O-GlcNAc levels were observed in endothelial cells containing wild-type (WT)-GFAT1 but not in cells expressing non-phosphorylatable S243A-GFAT1. Pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated down-regulation of GFAT1 potentiated VEGF-induced sprouting, indicating that GFAT1 acts as a negative regulator of angiogenesis. In cells expressing S243A-GFAT1, VEGF-induced sprouting was reduced, suggesting that VEGF relieves the inhibitory action of GFAT1/HBP on angiogenesis via AMPK-mediated GFAT1 phosphorylation. Activation of GFAT1/HBP by high glucose led to impairment of vascular sprouting, whereas GFAT1 inhibition improved sprouting even if glucose level was high. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of HBP in angiogenesis. They suggest that targeting AMPK in endothelium might help to ameliorate hyperglycaemia-induced vascular dysfunction associated with metabolic disorders.

  19. Aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Yesildal, F; Aydin, F N; Deveci, S; Tekin, S; Aydin, I; Mammadov, R; Fermanli, O; Avcu, F; Acikel, C H; Ozgurtas, T

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of generating new blood vessels from preexisting vessels and is considered essential in many pathological conditions. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of aspartame on angiogenesis in vivo chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and wound-healing models as well as in vitro 2,3-bis-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and tube formation assays. In CAM assay, aspartame increased angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, aspartame has significantly increased vessel proliferation (p < 0.001). In addition, in vivo rat model of skin wound-healing study showed that aspartame group had better healing than control group, and this was statistically significant at p < 0.05. There was a slight proliferative effect of aspartame on human umbilical vein endothelial cells on XTT assay in vitro, but it was not statistically significant; and there was no antiangiogenic effect of aspartame on tube formation assay in vitro. These results provide evidence that aspartame induces angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo; so regular use may have undesirable effect on susceptible cases. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. DNA containing CpG motifs induces angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Mei; Klinman, Dennis M.; Gierynska, Malgorzata; Rouse, Barry T.

    2002-06-01

    New blood vessel formation in the cornea is an essential step in the pathogenesis of a blinding immunoinflammatory reaction caused by ocular infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). By using a murine corneal micropocket assay, we found that HSV DNA (which contains a significant excess of potentially bioactive "CpG" motifs when compared with mammalian DNA) induces angiogenesis. Moreover, synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs attract inflammatory cells and stimulate the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which in turn triggers new blood vessel formation. In vitro, CpG DNA induces the J774A.1 murine macrophage cell line to produce VEGF. In vivo CpG-induced angiogenesis was blocked by the administration of anti-mVEGF Ab or the inclusion of "neutralizing" oligodeoxynucleotides that specifically oppose the stimulatory activity of CpG DNA. These findings establish that DNA containing bioactive CpG motifs induces angiogenesis, and suggest that CpG motifs in HSV DNA may contribute to the blinding lesions of stromal keratitis.

  1. Astaxanthin induces angiogenesis through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yangyang; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Wanglin; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether astaxanthin contributes to induce angiogenesis and its mechanisms. To this end, we examined the role of astaxanthin on human brain microvascular endothelial cell line (HBMEC) and rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC) proliferation, invasion and tube formation in vitro. For study of mechanism, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor IWR-1-endo was used. HMBECs and RASMCs proliferation were tested by cell counting. Scratch adhesion test was used to assess the ability of invasion. A matrigel tube formation assay was performed to test capillary tube formation ability. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation in HMBECs and RASMCs were tested by Western blot. Our data suggested that astaxanthin induces angiogenesis by increasing proliferation, invasion and tube formation in vitro. Wnt and β-catenin expression were increased by astaxanthin and counteracted by IWR-1-endo in HMBECs and RASMCs. Tube formation was increased by astaxanthin and counteracted by IWR-1-endo. It may be suggested that astaxanthin induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programmed Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Phosphorylated HDAC4 in Stroke-Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Zhou, Xiang; Li, Qing; Zhou, Shu-Min; Hu, Bin; Hu, Guo-Wen; Niu, Xin; Guo, Shang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Acetylation or deacetylation of chromatin proteins and transcription factors is part of a complex signaling system that is involved in the control of neurological disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) exert protective effects in attenuating neuronal injury after ischemic insults. Class IIa HDAC4 is highly expressed in the brain, and neuronal activity depends on the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC4. However, little is known about HDAC4 and its roles in ischemic stroke. In this study, we report that phosphorylation of HDAC4 was remarkably upregulated after stroke and blockade of HDAC4 phosphorylation with GÖ6976 repressed stroke-induced angiogenesis. Phosphorylation of HDAC4 was also increased in endothelial cells hypoxia model and suppression of HDAC4 phosphorylation inhibited the tube formation and migration of endothelial cells in vitro. Furthermore, in addition to the inhibition of angiogenesis, blockade of HDAC4 phosphorylation suppressed the expression of genes downstream of HIF-VEGF signaling in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that phosphorylated HDAC4 may serve as an important regulator in stroke-induced angiogenesis. The protective mechanism of phosphorylated HDAC4 is associated with HIF-VEGF signaling, implicating a novel therapeutic target in stroke. PMID:28127553

  3. Angiogenesis is induced by airway smooth muscle strain.

    PubMed

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Zucker, Stanley; Lin, Richard Z; Vaday, Gayle G; Panettieri, Reynold A; Foda, Hussein D

    2007-10-01

    Angiogenesis is an important feature of airway remodeling in both chronic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airways in those conditions are exposed to excessive mechanical strain during periods of acute exacerbations. We recently reported that mechanical strain of human airway smooth muscle (HASM) led to an increase in their proliferation and migration. Sustained growth in airway smooth muscle in vivo requires an increase in the nutritional supply to these muscles, hence angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that cyclic mechanical strain of HASM produces factors promoting angiogenic events in the surrounding vascular endothelial cells. Our results show: 1) a significant increase in human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) proliferation, migration, and tube formation following incubation in conditioned media (CM) from HASM cells exposed to mechanical strain; 2) mechanical strain of HASM cells induced VEGF expression and release; 3) VEGF neutralizing antibodies inhibited the proliferation, migration, and tube formations of HMVEC-L induced by the strained airway smooth muscle CM; 4) mechanical strain of HASM induced a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) mRNA and protein, a transcription factor required for VEGF gene transcription; and 5) mechanical strain of HASM induced HIF-1alpha/VEGF through dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and ERK pathways. In conclusion, exposing HASM cells to mechanical strain induces signal transduction pathway through PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK pathways that lead to an increase in HIF-1alpha, a transcription factor required for VEGF expression. VEGF release by mechanical strain of HASM may contribute to the angiogenesis seen with repeated exacerbation of asthma and COPD.

  4. Investigating the effect of excess caffeine exposure on placental angiogenesis using chicken 'functional' placental blood vessel network.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng-Lai; Wang, Guang; Lu, Wen-Hui; Cheng, Xin; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-02-01

    It is now known that over-consumption of caffeine by pregnant mothers could have detrimental effects on normal fetal development. However, it remains obscure how caffeine's harmful effect impacts directly or indirectly on the developing embryo/fetus through damaging placenta development. In this study, we demonstrated the morphological similarities between the yolk sac and chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of chick embryos and the villi of the mammalian placenta. Using the chick yolk sac and the CAM as a model, we found that 5-15 µmol per egg of caffeine exposure inhibited angiogenesis. Under the same condition, cell proliferation in extraembryonic mesoderm was reduced while apoptosis was enhanced. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that caffeine treatment down-regulated VEGF, VEGFR2, PIGF, IGF2 and NRP1 expression, but up-regulated Ang1 and Ang2 expression. We performed in situ hybridization to show VE-cadherin expression and as to demonstrate the blood vessels in the CAM and yolk sac membranes. This distribution of the VE-cadherin(+) blood vessels was determined to be reduced after caffeine treatment. Furthermore, MDA activity was induced after caffeine exposure, but GSH-PX activity was inhibited after caffeine exposure; SOD activity was unchanged as compared with the control. In summary, our results suggest that caffeine exposure could negatively impact on angiogenesis in the chick yolk sac and CAM by targeting angiogenesis-related genes. Some of these genes are also involved in regulating excess ROS generation. The results implied that the negative impact of caffeine on fetal development was partly attributed to impaired placental angiogenesis.

  5. Glycaemic variability affects ischaemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, Federico; Pitocco, Dario; Straface, Giuseppe; Zaccardi, Francesco; de Cristofaro, Raimondo; Rizzo, Paola; Lancellotti, Stefano; Arena, Vincenzo; Stigliano, Egidio; Musella, Tittania; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Flex, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of GV (glycaemic variability) in diabetic vascular complications and to explore the molecular pathways modulated by glycaemic 'swings'. We developed a murine model. A total of 30 diabetic mice received once daily basal insulin administration plus two oral boluses of glucose solution (GV group, named 'V') and 30 diabetic mice received once daily basal insulin plus two oral boluses of saline solution (stable hyperglycaemia group, named 'S') for a period of 30 days. Glycaemia was measured eight times daily to detect GV. Finally, postischaemic vascularization, induced by hindlimb ischaemia 30 days after diabetes onset, was evaluated. We found that GV was significantly different between S and V groups, whereas no significant difference in the mean glycaemic values was detected. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging and histological analyses revealed that the ischaemia-induced angiogenesis was significantly impaired in V mice compared with S group, after ischaemic injury. In addition, immunostaining and Western blot analyses revealed that impaired angiogenic response in V mice occurred in association with reduced VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) production and decreased eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) and Akt (also called protein kinase B) phosphorylation. In conclusion, we describe a murine model of GV. GV causes an impairment of ischaemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetes, likely to be independent of changes in average blood glucose levels, and this impaired collateral vessel formation is associated with an alteration of the VEGF pathway.

  6. Arterial Baroreflex Dysfunction Impairs Ischemia‐Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Changning; Huang, Zhen‐Hao; Song, Shu‐Wei; Shi, Yi‐Qin; Cheng, Xian Wu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Lu, Wei; Su, Ding‐Feng; Duan, Jun‐Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelium‐derived acetylcholine (eACh) plays an important role in the regulation of vascular actions in response to hypoxia, whereas arterial baroreflex (ABR) dysfunction impairs the eACh system. We investigated the effects of ABR dysfunction on ischemia‐induced angiogenesis in animal models of hindlimb ischemia with a special focus on eACh/nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) signaling activation. Methods and Results Male Sprague‐Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups that received (1) sham operation (control group), (2) sinoaortic denervation (SAD)‐induced ABR dysfunction (SAD group), or (3) SAD rats on diet with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor pyridostigmine (30 mg/kg per day, SAD+Pyr group). After 4 weeks of the SAD intervention, unilateral limb ischemia was surgically induced in all animals. At postoperative day 14, SAD rats exhibited impaired angiogenic action (skin temperature and capillary density) and decreased angiogenic factor expressions (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and hypoxic inducible factor [HIF]‐1α) in ischemic muscles. These changes were restored by acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Rats with ABR dysfunction had lower eACh levels than did control rats, and this effect was recovered in SAD+Pyr rats. In α7‐nAChR knockout mice, pyridostigmine improved ischemia‐induced angiogenic responses and increased the levels of VEGF and HIF‐1α. Moreover, nicotinic receptor blocker inhibited VEGF expression and VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation (p‐VEGFR2) induced by ACh analog. Conclusions Thus, ABR dysfunction appears to impair ischemia‐induced angiogenesis through the reduction of eACh/α7‐nAChR‐dependent and ‐independent HIF‐1α/VEGF‐VEGFR2 signaling activation. PMID:24820655

  7. Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Angiogenesis in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells via the ROS/miR-199a-5p/HIF-1α/COX-2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Wang, Min; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Qiudan; Xu, Shaohua; Xu, Qing; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Environmental and occupational exposure to arsenic is a major public health concern. Although it has been identified as a human carcinogen, the molecular mechanism underlying the arsenic-induced carcinogenesis is not well understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine the role and mechanisms of miRNAs in arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Methods: We utilized an in vitro model in which human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells were transformed through long-term exposure to arsenic. A human xenograft tumor model was established to assess tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Tube formation assay and chorioallantoic membranes assay were used to assess tumor angiogenesis. Results: We found that miR-199a-5p expression levels were more than 100-fold lower in arsenic-transformed cells than parental cells. Re-expression of miR-199a-5p impaired arsenic-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth through its direct targets HIF-1α and COX-2. We further showed that arsenic induced COX-2 expression through HIF-1 regulation at the transcriptional level. In addition, we demonstrated that reactive oxygen species are an upstream event of miR-199a-5p/ HIF-1α/COX-2 pathway in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis. Conclusion: The findings establish critical roles of miR-199a-5p and its downstream targets HIF-1/COX-2 in arsenic-induced tumor growth and angiogenesis. Citation: He J, Wang M, Jiang Y, Chen Q, Xu S, Xu Q, Jiang BH, Liu LZ. 2014. Chronic arsenic exposure and angiogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells via the ROS/miR-199a-5p/HIF-1α/COX-2 Pathway. Environ Health Perspect 122:255–261; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307545 PMID:24413338

  8. Tumor-induced remote ECM network orientation steers angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Balcioglu, Hayri E.; van de Water, Bob; Danen, Erik H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we use automated sequential microprinting of tumor and endothelial cells in extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds to study its mechanical aspects. Quantitative reflection microscopy shows that tumor spheroids induce radial orientation of the surrounding collagen fiber network up to a distance of five times their radius. Across a panel of ~20 different human tumor cell lines, remote collagen orientation is correlated with local tumor cell migration behavior. Tumor induced collagen orientation requires contractility but is remarkably resistant to depletion of collagen-binding integrins. Microvascular endothelial cells undergo directional migration towards tumor spheroids once they are within the tumor-oriented collagen fiber network. Laser ablation experiments indicate that an intact physical connection of the oriented network with the tumor spheroid is required for mechanical sensing by the endothelial cells. Together our findings indicate that, in conjunction with described activities of soluble angiogenic factors, remote physical manipulation of the ECM network by the tumor can help to steer angiogenesis. PMID:26931404

  9. Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Rok; Moon, Hyo-Eun; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2002-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a typical hypervascular tumor. Generally, hepatocellular carcinoma is developed through liver cirrhosis induced by chronic liver injury. This chronic injury leads to changes in the cellular property of the liver and subsequently causes fibrogenesis to demolish normal liver blood system. The catastrophe of the normal liver blood system leads to the shortage of blood circulation in the liver and causes hypoxia. Moreover, the increased cellularity due to highly proliferative tumor cells also induces local hypoxia inside hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypoxia can stimulate angiogenesis to support tumor growth by induction of angiogenic factors. Thus hypoxia may be a major cause of hypervasculature of hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently it has been reported that several hypoxia-regulatory factors are closely involved in angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. The stability and function of these factors can be regulated by interaction with other protein factors and consequently modulate the expression of angiogenic factors depending on oxygen tension. Therefore induction mechanism of hypoxia and the role of hypoxia-regulatory factors could provide new insights into hepatocarcinogenesis and the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Nitric oxide mediates bleomycin-induced angiogenesis and pulmonary fibrosis via regulation of VEGF.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M; Wright, Clayton A; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogenic mediator VEGF using anti-VEGF antibody CBO-P11 significantly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Bleomycin-induced nitric oxide (NO) was observed to be the key upstream regulator of VEGF via the PI3k/Akt pathway. VEGF regulated other important angiogenic proteins including PAI-1 and IL-8 in response to bleomycin exposure. Inhibition of NO and VEGF activity significantly mitigated bleomycin-induced angiogenic and fibrogenic responses. NO and VEGF are key mediators of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and could serve as important targets against this debilitating disease. Overall, our data suggests an important role for angiogenic mediators in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  11. Nitric Oxide Mediates Bleomycin-Induced Angiogenesis and Pulmonary Fibrosis via Regulation of VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V.; Ramesh, Vani; Castro, Carlos A.; Kaushik, Vivek; Kulkarni, Yogesh M.; Wright, Clayton A.; Venkatadri, Rajkumar; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive lung disease hallmarked by increased fibroblast proliferation, amplified levels of extracellular matrix deposition and increased angiogenesis. Although dysregulation of angiogenic mediators has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis, the specific rate-limiting angiogenic markers involved and their role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. We demonstrate that bleomycin treatment induces angiogenesis, and inhibition of the central angiogenic mediator VEGF using anti-VEGF antibody CBO-P11 significantly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Bleomycin-induced nitric oxide (NO) was observed to be the key upstream regulator of VEGF via the PI3k/Akt pathway. VEGF regulated other important angiogenic proteins including PAI-1 and IL-8 in response to bleomycin exposure. Inhibition of NO and VEGF activity significantly mitigated bleomycin-induced angiogenic and fibrogenic responses. NO and VEGF are key mediators of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and could serve as important targets against this debilitating disease. Overall, our data suggests an important role for angiogenic mediators in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:25919965

  12. Curcumin and turmeric attenuate arsenic-induced angiogenesis in ovo.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Panayotis; Varman, Aarthi; Simpson-Durand, Cindy; Thorpe, Jessica; Ramalingam, Satish; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Houchen, Courtney; Ihnat, Michael; Anant, Shrikant; Ramanujam, Rama P

    2010-01-01

    Trivalent arsenic [As(III)] is currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of chronic and acute leukemias. However, As(III) has also demonstrated damaging effects on human health, including development of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Further, As(III) is a potent angiogenic agent. In this context, curcumin, an active ingredient in the dietary agent turmeric, has demonstrated potent antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, and antiangiogenic properties. In this report, we have shown that both curcumin and turmeric inhibit expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells exposed to As(III). Further, in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay model, treatment with low As(III) concentrations results in extensive increase in blood vessel density, which, however, is reduced in the presence of curcumin or turmeric. Collectively, the findings reported here strongly suggest that turmeric and curcumin can dramatically attenuate the process of angiogenesis induced by low As(III) concentrations.

  13. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  14. Suppressing Angiogenesis Regulates the Irradiation-induced Stimulation on Osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling; Zhu, Guoying; Wang, Jianping; Sun, Ruilian; He, Feilong; Zhai, Jianglong

    2017-09-23

    Ionizing radiation-induced bone loss is a potential health concern in radiotherapy, occupational exposure and astronauts. Although impaired bone vasculature and reduced proliferation of bone-forming osteoblasts has been implicated in this process, it has not been clearly characterized that whether radiation affects the growth of bone-resorbing osteoclasts. The molecular crosstalk between different cell populations in the skeletal system has not yet been elucidated in detail, especially between the increased bone resorption at early stage of post-irradiation and bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs). In order to further understand the mechanisms involved in radiation-induced bone loss at the cellular level, we assessed the effects of irradiation on angiogenesis of BM-EPCs and osteoclastogenesis of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and crosstalk between these cell populations. We herein found significantly dysfunction of BM-EPCs in response to irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy, including inhibited proliferation, migration, tube-forming abilities and downregulated expression of pro-angiogenesis vascular endothelial growth factors A (VEGF A). Meanwhile, we observed that irradiation promoted osteoclastogenesis of RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells directly or indirectly. These results provide quantitative evidences of irradiation induced osteoclastogenesis at a cellular level, and strongly suggest the involvement of osteoclastogenesis, angiogenesis and crosstalk between bone marrow cells in the radiation-induced bone loss. This study may provide new insights for the early diagnosis and intervention of bone loss post-irradiation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Tungsten Carbide-Cobalt Nanoparticles Induce Reactive Oxygen Species, AKT, ERK, AP-1, NF-κB, VEGF, and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling-Zhi; Ding, Min; Zheng, Jenny Z; Zhu, Yingxue; Fenderson, Bruce A; Li, Bingyun; Yu, Jing J; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2015-07-01

    Powder mixtures of tungsten carbide and metallic cobalt (WC-Co) are widely used in various products. Nanoparticles are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nm or smaller. WC-Co is known to be associated with lung injury and diseases. Angiogenesis is a key process during vasculature, carcinogenesis, recovery of injury, and inflammatory diseases. However, the cellular effects of WC-Co nanoparticles on angiogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated angiogenic response and relative mechanisms after exposure to WC-Co nanoparticles. Our results showed that WC-Co nanoparticles at 5 μg/cm(2) induced ROS production which activated AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in lung epithelial cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS) staining and immunoblotting; WC-Co treatment also increased transcriptional activation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VEGF by reporter assay. Further studies demonstrated that ROS are upstream molecules of AKT and ERK signaling pathways; the activation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VEGF was through ROS generation, AKT and ERK1/2 activation. In addition, WC-Co nanoparticles affected the cells to induce angiogenesis by chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. These results illustrate that exposure to WC-Co nanoparticles induces angiogenic response by activating ROS, AKT, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and the downstream molecules and elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms during this process. This information may be useful for preventing potential damage from nanoparticle exposure in the future.

  16. Peritoneal dialysis fluid-induced angiogenesis in rat mesentery is increased by lactate in the presence or absence of glucose.

    PubMed

    Albrektsson, Ann; Bazargani, Farhan; Wieslander, Anders; Braide, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis may be an important mechanism behind the functional deterioration of the peritoneum leading to ultrafiltration failure in peritoneal dialysis. The present study was designed to compare the angiogenic properties of lactate-, bicarbonate-, and pyruvate-buffered fluids, evaluated separately with and without glucose. Five different fluids (lactate and bicarbonate with and without 2.5% glucose and pyruvate without glucose) were studied for 5 weeks of twice-daily injections in rats. The respective buffers (40 mmol/l) were adjusted to pH 7.2, and sodium, chloride, calcium, and magnesium were present at standard concentrations. The mesenteric window model, based on observation of the translucent peritoneal sections of the small intestine mesentery, was used for immunohistochemical imaging of microvessels (RECA-1 antigen) and macrophages (ED1 and ED2 antigens). All fluids induced angiogenesis as compared with untreated controls. The lactate-buffered fluids induced larger vascularized zones than did their bicarbonate- and pyruvate-buffered counterparts. Angiogenesis was accompanied by a local recruitment of ED1 macrophages from blood. Addition of glucose to the lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered fluids did not seem to alter their pro-angiogenic properties. In conclusion, intraperitoneal exposure to lactate buffer, compared with bicarbonate, stimulates angiogenesis in the presence or absence of glucose.

  17. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces indirect angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G D; Aukerman, S L; Whitehead, R A; Knighton, D R

    1993-01-01

    The cytokine macrophage colony-stimulating factor was implanted in the rabbit cornea over a wide dose range (1 ng to 100 microg) to assay its angiogenic activity in vivo. Neovascularization occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and maximum angiogenesis occurred only with 100 microg. Histologic analysis revealed that the corneas were free of inflammation at the lower doses, but had slight inflammation at 50 and 100 microg. Nonspecific esterase staining of frozen sections and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the inflammatory cells were predominantly macrophages, with very few neutrophils present. This association of capillary formation with inflammation suggests an indirect mechanism of angiogenesis. The lack of neutrophils within the inflammatory cell infiltrate demonstrates that indirect angiogenesis can proceed without the local presence of neutrophils. This distinguishes macrophage colony-stimulating factor from other indirect-acting angiogenesis factors that have been identified to date.

  18. Taurine protects methamphetamine-induced developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Xue; Hu, Zhengtao; Hu, Chunyan; Bu, Qian; Yan, Guangyan; Deng, Pengchi; Lv, Lei; Wu, Dan; Deng, Yi; Zhao, Jinxuan; Zhu, Ruiming; Li, Yan; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Youzhi; Yang, Hanshuo; Zhao, Yinglan; Cen, Xiaobo

    2012-05-01

    Investigations have characterized addictive drug-induced developmental cardiovascular malformation in human, non-human primate and rodent. However, the underlying mechanism of malformation caused by drugs during pregnancy is still largely unknown, and preventive and therapeutic measures have been lacking. Using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, we profiled the metabolites from human embryo endothelial cells exposed to methamphetamine (METH) and quantified a total of 226 peaks. We identified 11 metabolites modified robustly and found that taurine markedly increased. We then validated the hypothesis that this dramatic increase in taurine could attribute to its effect in inhibiting METH-induced developmental angiogenesis defect. Taurine supplement showed a more significant potential than other metabolites in protecting against METH-induced injury in endothelial cells. Taurine strongly attenuated METH-induced inhibition of proliferation and migration in endothelial cells. Furthermore, death rate and vessel abnormality of zebrafish embryos treated with METH were greatly reversed by taurine. In addition, taurine supplement caused a rapid decrease in reactive oxygen species generation and strongly attenuated the excitable arise of antioxidase activities in the beginning of METH exposure prophase. Dysregulations of NF-κB, p-ERK as well as Bax, which reflect apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and oxidative stress in vascular endothelium, were blocked by taurine. Our results provide the first evidence that taurine prevents METH-caused developmental angiogenesis defect through antioxidant mechanism. Taurine could serve as a potential therapeutic or preventive intervention of developmental vascular malformation for the pregnant women with drug use. Highlights: ► Metabonomics findings. ► Abnormal development. ► Dysregulations of key proteins.

  19. mTORC2 MEDIATES CXCL12-INDUCED ANGIOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Mary E.; Hatch, Michaela M.S.; Wu, Nan; Muawad, Steven A.; Hughes, Christopher C.W.

    2016-01-01

    The chemokine CXCL12, through its receptor CXCR4, positively regulates angiogenesis by promoting endothelial cell (EC) migration and tube formation. However, the relevant downstream signaling pathways in EC have not been defined. Similarly, the upstream activators of mTORC2 signaling in EC are also poorly defined. Here we demonstrate for the first time that CXCL12 regulation of angiogenesis requires mTORC2 but not mTORC1. We find that CXCR4 signaling activates mTORC2 as indicated by phosphorylation of serine 473 on Akt, and does so through a G-protein- and PI3K-dependent pathway. Significantly, independent disruption of the mTOR complexes by drugs or multiple independent siRNAs reveals that mTORC2, but not mTORC1, is required for microvascular sprouting in a 3D in vitro angiogenesis model. Importantly, in a mouse model both tumor angiogenesis and tumor volume are significantly reduced only when mTORC2 is inhibited. Finally, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), which is a key regulator of glycolytic flux, is required for microvascular sprouting in vitro, and its expression is reduced in vivo when mTORC2 is targeted. Taken together, these findings identify mTORC2 as a critical signaling nexus downstream of CXCL12/CXCR4 that represents a potential link between mTORC2, metabolic regulation and angiogenesis. PMID:27106789

  20. Oroxylin A, a classical natural product, shows a novel inhibitory effect on angiogenesis induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiuming; Chen, Yan; Sun, Yajing; Lin, Biqi; Qin, Yansu; Hui, Hui; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Lu, Na; Guo, Qinglong

    2012-01-01

    There is an obvious relationship among angiogenesis and inflammation. From previous study, we learn that oroxylin A possesses anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in ovo. It also has an inhibitory effect on inflammation. But whether oroxylin A suppresses the inflammation-induced angiogenesis is still unknown. Our present study focuses on the role of oroxylin A in targeting LPS-induced angiogenesis, inflammatory and related pathways. The effects of oroxylin A on angiogenesis were investigated by transwell assay, tube formation assay, rat aortic ring assay and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Western blotting analysis was used to detect the expression of certain proteins. We found that oroxylin A inhibited LPS-induced migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as well as microvessel sprouting from rat aotric ring in vitro and the angiogenesis of chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model in ovo. The results also indicated that oroxylin A could inhibit the expression of LPS acceptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the activities of its downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including reducing expressions of the phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK. Moreover, oroxylin A prevented NF-κB dimers from translocating to the nucleus. Taken together, oroxylin A can suppress the angiogenesis induced by LPS and it may affect the LPS/TLR4 signaling pathway.

  1. Characterization of zofenoprilat as an inducer of functional angiogenesis through increased H2S availability

    PubMed Central

    Terzuoli, E; Monti, M; Vellecco, V; Bucci, M; Cirino, G; Ziche, M; Morbidelli, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous volatile mediator with pleiotropic functions, promotes vasorelaxation, exerts anti-inflammatory actions and regulates angiogenesis. Previously, the SH-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), zofenopril, was identified as being effective in preserving endothelial function and inducing angiogenesis among ACEIs. Based on the H2S donor property of its active metabolite zofenoprilat, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether zofenoprilat-induced angiogenesis was due to increased H2S availability. Experimental Approach HUVECs were used for in vitro studies of angiogenesis, whereas the Matrigel plug assay was used for in vivo assessments. Key Results Zofenoprilat-treated HUVECs showed an increase in all functional features of the angiogenic process in vitro. As zofenoprilat induced the expression of CSE (cystathionine-γ-lyase) and the continuous production of H2S, CSE inhibition or silencing blocked the ability of zofenoprilat to induce angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms underlying H2S/zofenoprilat-induced angiogenesis were dependent on Akt, eNOS and ERK1/2 cascades. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, the molecular target that mediates part of the vascular functions of H2S, were shown to be involved in the upstream activation of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, the up-regulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 was dependent on CSE-derived H2S response to H2S and KATP activation. Conclusions and Implications Zofenoprilat induced a constant production of H2S that stimulated the angiogenic process through a KATP channel/Akt/eNOS/ERK1/2 pathway. Thus, zofenopril can be considered as a pro-angiogenic drug acting through H2S release and production, useful in cardiovascular pathologies where vascular functions need to be re-established and functional angiogenesis induced. PMID:25631232

  2. Photoperiod-induced differential expression of angiogenesis genes in testes of adult Peromyscus leucopus.

    PubMed

    Pyter, Leah M; Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Nelson, Randy J

    2005-02-01

    Non-pathological angiogenesis in adults is rare and is largely thought to be restricted to wound healing and female reproductive cycles. Adult male rodents, however, display seasonal angiogenesis to support seasonal changes in reproductive tissue morphology. Non-tropical rodents use photoperiod (day length) to determine the time of year. During short days, the reproductive system undergoes involution and mating behaviours stop, adaptations which presumably allow energy resources to be shifted to processes necessary for winter survival. We compared the patterns of gene expression involved in angiogenesis in testes of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) following 7, 14, 21 or 34 weeks of long or short day lengths. Short days decreased body mass, reproductive tract mass and seminiferous tubule diameter. Potential genes involved in seasonal angiogenesis were screened by hybridizing testicular RNA from each group to angiogenesis-specific microarrays. Genes that were > or =6-fold different between long- and short-day testes (i.e. hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha(Hif1alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), transforming growth factor beta receptor 3 (Tgfbetar3) and tumour necrosis factor (Tnf )) were sequenced and expression differences were compared throughout gonadal regression and recrudescence using quantitative RT-PCR. Our results suggest that short days trigger expression of Hif1alpha, Serpine1, and Tgfbetar3 to inhibit angiogenesis or promote apoptosis during testicular regression, and also trigger expression of Tnf to promote angiogenesis during testicular recrudescence.

  3. Ethanol Enhances Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro Induced by Low-Dose Arsenic in Colon Cancer Cells Through Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Health effects due to environmental exposure to arsenic are a major global health concern. Arsenic has been known to induce carcinogenesis and enhance tumor development via complex and unclear mechanism. Ethanol is also a well-established risk factor for many malignancies. However, little is known about the effects of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol in tumor development. In this study, we investigate the signaling and angiogenic effect of coexposure of arsenic and ethanol on different colon cancer cell lines. Results show that ethanol markedly enhanced arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in vitro. These responses are related to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, NADPH oxidase activation, and upregulation of PI3K/Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) signaling. We have also found that ethanol increases the arsenic-induced expression and secretion of angiogenic signaling molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor, which further confirmed the above observation. Antioxidant enzymes inhibited arsenic/ethanol-induced tumor angiogenesis, demonstrating that the responsive signaling pathways of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol are related to ROS generation. We conclude that ethanol is able to enhance arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer cells via the HIF-1α pathway. These results indicate that alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration in the investigation of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis in arsenic-exposed populations. PMID:22872060

  4. Ethanol enhances tumor angiogenesis in vitro induced by low-dose arsenic in colon cancer cells through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Son, Young-Ok; Ding, Songze; Wang, Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Lin, Qinchen; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-12-01

    Health effects due to environmental exposure to arsenic are a major global health concern. Arsenic has been known to induce carcinogenesis and enhance tumor development via complex and unclear mechanism. Ethanol is also a well-established risk factor for many malignancies. However, little is known about the effects of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol in tumor development. In this study, we investigate the signaling and angiogenic effect of coexposure of arsenic and ethanol on different colon cancer cell lines. Results show that ethanol markedly enhanced arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in vitro. These responses are related to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, NADPH oxidase activation, and upregulation of PI3K/Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) signaling. We have also found that ethanol increases the arsenic-induced expression and secretion of angiogenic signaling molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor, which further confirmed the above observation. Antioxidant enzymes inhibited arsenic/ethanol-induced tumor angiogenesis, demonstrating that the responsive signaling pathways of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol are related to ROS generation. We conclude that ethanol is able to enhance arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer cells via the HIF-1α pathway. These results indicate that alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration in the investigation of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis in arsenic-exposed populations.

  5. Inducible HGF-secreting Human Umbilical Cord Blood-derived MSCs Produced via TALEN-mediated Genome Editing Promoted Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Min; Yum, Soo-Young; Choi, Young-Jin; Son, YeonSung; Lee, DaBin; Kang, InSung; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jang, Goo; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote therapeutic angiogenesis to cure serious vascular disorders. However, their survival period and cytokine-secretory capacity are limited. Although hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can accelerate the rate of angiogenesis, recombinant HGF is limited because of its very short half-life (<3–5 minutes). Thus, continuous treatment with HGF is required to obtain an effective therapeutic response. To overcome these limitations, we produced genome-edited MSCs that secreted HGF upon drug-specific induction. The inducible HGF expression cassette was integrated into a safe harbor site in an MSC chromosome using the TALEN system, resulting in the production of TetOn-HGF/human umbilical cord blood-derived (hUCB)-MSCs. Functional assessment of the TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs showed that they had enhanced mobility upon the induction of HGF expression. Moreover, long-term exposure by doxycycline (Dox)-treated TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs enhanced the anti-apoptotic responses of genome-edited MSCs subjected to oxidative stress and improved the tube-formation ability. Furthermore, TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs encapsulated by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-alginate microgel induced to express HGF improved in vivo angiogenesis in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model. This study showed that the inducible HGF-expressing hUCB-MSCs are competent to continuously express and secrete HGF in a controlled manner. Thus, the MSCs that express HGF in an inducible manner are a useful therapeutic modality for the treatment of vascular diseases requiring angiogenesis. PMID:27434585

  6. Inducible HGF-secreting Human Umbilical Cord Blood-derived MSCs Produced via TALEN-mediated Genome Editing Promoted Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Cho, Hyun-Min; Yum, Soo-Young; Choi, Young-Jin; Son, YeonSung; Lee, DaBin; Kang, InSung; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jang, Goo; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2016-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote therapeutic angiogenesis to cure serious vascular disorders. However, their survival period and cytokine-secretory capacity are limited. Although hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can accelerate the rate of angiogenesis, recombinant HGF is limited because of its very short half-life (<3-5 minutes). Thus, continuous treatment with HGF is required to obtain an effective therapeutic response. To overcome these limitations, we produced genome-edited MSCs that secreted HGF upon drug-specific induction. The inducible HGF expression cassette was integrated into a safe harbor site in an MSC chromosome using the TALEN system, resulting in the production of TetOn-HGF/human umbilical cord blood-derived (hUCB)-MSCs. Functional assessment of the TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs showed that they had enhanced mobility upon the induction of HGF expression. Moreover, long-term exposure by doxycycline (Dox)-treated TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs enhanced the anti-apoptotic responses of genome-edited MSCs subjected to oxidative stress and improved the tube-formation ability. Furthermore, TetOn-HGF/hUCB-MSCs encapsulated by arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-alginate microgel induced to express HGF improved in vivo angiogenesis in a mouse hindlimb ischemia model. This study showed that the inducible HGF-expressing hUCB-MSCs are competent to continuously express and secrete HGF in a controlled manner. Thus, the MSCs that express HGF in an inducible manner are a useful therapeutic modality for the treatment of vascular diseases requiring angiogenesis.

  7. N-CAM exhibits a regulatory function in pathological angiogenesis in oxygen induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders; Wolfhagen Sand, Fredrik; Gerhardt, Holger; Semb, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity are diseases caused by pathological angiogenesis in the retina as a consequence of local hypoxia. The underlying mechanism for epiretinal neovascularization (tuft formation), which contributes to blindness, has yet to be identified. Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is expressed by Müller cells and astrocytes, which are in close contact with the retinal vasculature, during normal developmental angiogenesis. Notably, during oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) N-CAM accumulated on astrocytes surrounding the epiretinal tufts. Here, we show that N-CAM ablation results in reduced vascular tuft formation due to reduced endothelial cell proliferation despite an elevation in VEGFA mRNA expression, whereas retinal developmental angiogenesis was unaffected. We conclude that N-CAM exhibits a regulatory function in pathological angiogenesis in OIR. This is a novel finding that can be of clinical relevance in diseases associated with proliferative vasculopathy.

  8. N-CAM Exhibits a Regulatory Function in Pathological Angiogenesis in Oxygen Induced Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders; Wolfhagen Sand, Fredrik; Gerhardt, Holger; Semb, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity are diseases caused by pathological angiogenesis in the retina as a consequence of local hypoxia. The underlying mechanism for epiretinal neovascularization (tuft formation), which contributes to blindness, has yet to be identified. Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) is expressed by Müller cells and astrocytes, which are in close contact with the retinal vasculature, during normal developmental angiogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Notably, during oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) N-CAM accumulated on astrocytes surrounding the epiretinal tufts. Here, we show that N-CAM ablation results in reduced vascular tuft formation due to reduced endothelial cell proliferation despite an elevation in VEGFA mRNA expression, whereas retinal developmental angiogenesis was unaffected. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that N-CAM exhibits a regulatory function in pathological angiogenesis in OIR. This is a novel finding that can be of clinical relevance in diseases associated with proliferative vasculopathy. PMID:22043302

  9. Ursolic acid-loaded chitosan nanoparticles induce potent anti-angiogenesis in tumor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hua; Pi, Jiang; Yang, Fen; Wu, Chaomin; Cheng, Xueli; Bai, Haihua; Huang, Dan; Jiang, Jinhuan; Cai, Jiye; Chen, Zheng W

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis provides necessary nutrients and oxygen for tumor growth and metastasis; thus, every stage of angiogenesis process is the potential target for cancer therapies. Ursolic acid (UA) is reported to decrease tumor burden through anti-angiogenesis pathway, but its poor water solubility greatly limits its efficiency and clinical application. Here, a simple method for preparing UA-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CH-UA-NPs) with anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor activity was demonstrated. In vitro, CH-UA-NPs could significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). After uptake by HUVECs, CH-UA-NPs were mainly localized in lysosomes and mitochondria, but not nuclei. CH-UA-NPs induced the destruction of lysosome membrane integrity, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and reorganization of cell cytoskeleton. All these changes led to the apoptosis or necrosis in HUVECs. In vivo, CH-UA-NPs could inhibit the angiogenesis in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and H22 xenograft model. Notably, comparing with free UA, such synthesized CH-UA-NPs could save about tenfold of UA doses, implying that this could significantly decrease the side effects induced by high doses of UA in biological organism. Our data showed that CH-UA-NPs and this nanoparticle-based drug delivery system could be as a potential drug candidate for anti-angiogenesis treatment.

  10. 4-Hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic Acid Lactone Induces Angiogenesis through Several Different Molecular Pathways.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junhong; Linetsky, Mikhail; Yu, Annabelle O; Zhang, Liang; Howell, Scott J; Folkwein, Heather J; Wang, Hua; Salomon, Robert G

    2016-12-19

    Oxidative stress and angiogenesis have been implicated not only in normal phenomena such as tissue healing and remodeling but also in many pathological processes. However, the relationships between oxidative stress and angiogenesis still remain unclear, although oxidative stress has been convincingly demonstrated to influence the progression of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. The retina is particularly susceptible to oxidative stress because of its intensive oxygenation and high abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acyls. In particular, it has high levels of docosahexanoates, whose oxidative fragmentation produces 4-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-heptenoic acid lactone (HOHA-lactone). Previously, we found that HOHA-lactone is a major precursor of 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) derivatives, which are tightly linked to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). CEPs promote the pathological angiogenesis of late-stage AMD. We now report additional mechanisms by which HOHA-lactone promotes angiogenesis. Using cultured ARPE-19 cells, we observed that HOHA-lactone induces secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is correlated to increases in reactive oxygen species and decreases in intracellular glutathione (GSH). Wound healing and tube formation assays provided, for the first time, in vitro evidence that HOHA-lactone induces the release of VEGF from ARPE-19 cells, which promotes angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in culture. Thus, HOHA-lactone can stimulate vascular growth through a VEGF-dependent pathway. In addition, results from MTT and wound healing assays as well as tube formation experiments showed that GSH-conjugated metabolites of HOHA-lactone stimulate HUVEC proliferation and promote angiogenesis in vitro. Previous studies demonstrated that HOHA-lactone, through its CEP derivatives, promotes angiogenesis in a novel Toll-like receptor 2-dependent manner that is independent of the VEGF receptor or VEGF

  11. Chitosan-based hydrogels do not induce angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Raheleh; Burns, Alan J; de Bruijn, Joost D

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the angiogenic potential of chitosan-glycerol phosphate (GP)-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) binder for injectable bone tissue engineering applications. The angiogenic response of chitosan-GP-HEC combined with and without human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was examined using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Chitosan-GP-HEC gel did not show any angiogenic potential, whereas the presence of hMSCs gave rise to an enhanced angiogenic response when placed on the CAM for 3 days. Quantitatively, significantly more blood vessel formation was observed for the stem cell-containing group as compared to all other groups (p < 0.05), except for the b-FGF-positive control. The results indicate that the chitosan-GP-HEC binder does not contribute to enhanced angiogenesis and that the presence of hMSCs enhances angiogenesis. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Cardamonin Regulates miR-21 Expression and Suppresses Angiogenesis Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Tian, Sha-Sha; Lu, Jin-Jian; Ding, Xing-Hong; Qian, Chao-Dong; Ding, Bin; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Jin, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Cardamonin has promising potential in cancer prevention and therapy by interacting with proteins and modifying the expressions and activities, including factors of cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. In our precious study, we have demonstrated that cardamonin suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF-) induced angiogenesis as evaluated in the mouse aortic ring assay. It is also known that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in angiogenesis. Herein, we hypothesized whether antiangiogenesis effect of cardamonin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) triggered by VEGF was associated with miRNAs. We found that cardamonin reduced the miR-21 expression induced by VEGF in HUVECs. Treatment with miR-21 mimics abolished the effects of cardamonin on VEGF-induced cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in HUVECs. However, treatment with miR-21 inhibitors presented the opposite effects, indicating the vital role of miR-21 in this process. Our study provides a new insight of the preliminary mechanism of anti-VEGF-induced angiogenesis by cardamonin in HUVECs. PMID:26266258

  13. Propolis suppresses tumor angiogenesis by inducing apoptosis in tube-forming endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Toshiro; Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Tomomi; Sakamoto, Miwa; Kaji, Kazuhiko

    2008-09-01

    We have reported that propolis suppresses tumor-induced angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, but antiangiogenic mechanism of propolis at cellular level remains unclear. In this study, we observed that propolis not only inhibited tube formation but also induced apoptosis of endothelial cells. These results suggest that propolis exerts its antiangiogenic effects at least in part through induction of apoptosis.

  14. Developmental timing of sodium perchlorate exposure alters angiogenesis, thyroid follicle proliferation and sexual maturation in stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Furin, Christoff G.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Postlethwait, John H.; Buck, C. Loren; Cresko, William A.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate, a common aquatic contaminant, is well known to disrupt homeostasis of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. This study utilizes the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) fish to determine if perchlorate exposure during certain windows of development has morphological effects on thyroid and gonads. Fish were moved from untreated water to perchlorate-contaminated water (30 and 100 mg/L) starting at 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 42, 154 and 305 days post fertilization until approximately one year old. A reciprocal treatment (fish in contaminated water switched to untreated water) was conducted on the same schedule. Perchlorate exposure increased angiogenesis and follicle proliferation in thyroid tissue, delayed gonadal maturity, and skewed sex ratios towards males; effects depended on concentration and timing of exposure. This study demonstrates that perchlorate exposure beginning during the first 42 days of development has profound effects on stickleback reproductive and thyroid tissues, and by implication can impact population dynamics. Long-term exposure studies that assess contaminant effects at various stages of development provide novel information to characterize risk to aquatic organisms, to facilitate management of resources, and to determine sensitive developmental windows for further study of underlying mechanisms. PMID:25865142

  15. Activation of VEGF and FGF induced angiogenesis under influence of low level laser radiation in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparyan, Levon; Brill, Grigory; Makela, Anu

    2006-02-01

    One of the feasible explanations for long-term treatment effects of laser therapy of diseases connected with tissue ischemia and altered blood circulation is activation of angiogenesis after low level laser irradiation. The aim of the current study was to investigate if laser irradiation can enhance vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) induced angiogenesis in vitro. The study was conducted on rat thoracic aortal rings. Samples of group 1 served as control, samples of groups 2 and 3 were incubated with VEGF or FGF, group 4 samples were irradiated with laser (660 nm, 20 mW) during 10 min, samples of groups 5 and 6 were incubated with VEGF or FGF accordingly and received 10 min of laser irradiation. In the control group no noticeable angiogenesis occurred. The application of VEGF activated angiogenesis: the area covered by new vessels was 1,3+/-0,24 mm2 and the maximal length of vessels was 0,93+/-0,11 mm. Laser light irradiation (group 4) activated angiogenesis (1,9+/-0,29 mm2 and 0,75+/-0,10 mm). The combined influence of laser light and VEGF on angiogenesis (group 5) was significantly stronger (p <0,001), than each of the factors separately (6,98+/-0,88 mm2 and 1,7+/-0,23 mm). Application of FGF also activated angiogenesis: the area covered by new vessels was 2,76+/-0,22 mm2 and the maximal length of vessels was 1,19+/-0,12 mm. Combined influence of laser light and FGF on angiogenesis (group 6) was again significantly stronger (p <0,001), than each of the factors separately (5,43+/-0,28 mm2 and 1,99+/-0,10 mm). Studies show that laser irradiation can intensify effects of growth factors in vitro.

  16. The tetrapeptide Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Yi-Yong; Lee, Dong-Keon; So, Ju-Hoon; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Choe, Jongseon; Won, Moo-Ho; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2015-08-07

    Kringle 5, derived from plasminogen, is highly capable of inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, we have designed and synthesized 10 tetrapeptides, based on the amino acid properties of the core tetrapeptide Lys-Leu-Tyr-Asp (KLYD) originating from anti-angiogenic kringle 5 of human plasminogen. Of these, Arg-Leu-Tyr-Glu (RLYE) effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation, with an IC{sub 50} of 0.06–0.08 nM, which was about ten-fold lower than that of the control peptide KLYD (0.79 nM), as well as suppressed developmental angiogenesis in a zebrafish model. Furthermore, this peptide effectively inhibited the cellular events that precede angiogenesis, such as ERK and eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide production, in endothelial cells stimulated with VEGF. Collectively, these data demonstrate that RLYE is a potent anti-angiogenic peptide that targets the VEGF signaling pathway. - Highlights: • The tetrapeptide RLYE inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro. • RLYE also suppressed neovascularization in a zebrafish model. • Its effect was correlated with inhibition of VEGF-induced ERK and eNOS activation. • RLYE may be used as a therapeutic drug for angiogenesis-related diseases.

  17. Twist1 induces CCL2 and recruits macrophages to promote angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Low-Marchelli, Janine M; Ardi, Veronica C; Vizcarra, Edward A; van Rooijen, Nico; Quigley, James P; Yang, Jing

    2013-01-15

    The transcription factor Twist1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and extracellular matrix degradation to promote tumor metastasis. Although Twist1 also plays a role in embryonic vascular development and tumor angiogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are not as well understood. Here, we report a novel function for Twist1 in modifying the tumor microenvironment to promote progression. We found that expression of Twist1 in human mammary epithelial cells potently promoted angiogenesis. Surprisingly, Twist1 expression did not increase the secretion of the common proangiogenic factors VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor but rather induced expression of the macrophage chemoattractant CCL2. Attenuation of endogenous Twist1 in vivo blocked macrophage recruitment and angiogenesis, whereas exogenous CCL2 rescued the ability of tumor cells lacking Twist1 to attract macrophages and promote angiogenesis. Macrophage recruitment also was essential for the ability of Twist1-expressing cells to elicit a strong angiogenic response. Together, our findings show that how Twist1 recruits stromal macrophages through CCL2 induction to promote angiogenesis and tumor progression. As Twist1 expression has been associated with poor survival in many human cancers, this finding suggests that anti-CCL2 therapy may offer a rational strategy to treat Twist1-positive metastatic cancers.

  18. Heparanase and Syndecan-4 Are Involved in Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan-Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Oualid; Guyot, Erwan; Marinval, Nicolas; Chevalier, Fabien; Maillard, Loïc; Gadi, Latifa; Laguillier-Morizot, Christelle; Oudar, Olivier; Sutton, Angela; Charnaux, Nathalie; Hlawaty, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Induction of angiogenesis is a potential treatment for chronic ischemia. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF), the sulfated polysaccharide from brown seaweeds, has been shown to promote revascularization in a rat limb ischemia, increasing angiogenesis in vivo. We investigated the potential role of two heparan sulfate (HS) metabolism enzymes, exostosin-2 (EXT2) and heparanase (HPSE), and of two HS-membrane proteoglycans, syndecan-1 and -4 (SDC-1 and SDC-4), in LMWF induced angiogenesis. Our results showed that LMWF increases human vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and angiogenesis in vitro. We report that the expression and activity of the HS-degrading HPSE was increased after LMWF treatment. The phenotypic tests of LMWF-treated and EXT2- or HPSE-siRNA-transfected cells indicated that EXT2 or HPSE expression significantly affect the proangiogenic potential of LMWF. In addition, LMWF increased SDC-1, but decreased SDC-4 expressions. The effect of LMWF depends on SDC-4 expression. Silencing EXT2 or HPSE leads to an increased expression of SDC-4, providing the evidence that EXT2 and HPSE regulate the SDC-4 expression. Altogether, these data indicate that EXT2, HPSE, and SDC-4 are involved in the proangiogenic effects of LMWF, suggesting that the HS metabolism changes linked to LMWF-induced angiogenesis offer the opportunity for new therapeutic strategies of ischemic diseases. PMID:26516869

  19. Cell and molecular mechanisms of insulin-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Petreaca, Melissa; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessel from pre-existing vessels, is a key process in the formation of the granulation tissue during wound healing. The appropriate development of new blood vessels, along with their subsequent maturation and differentiation, establishes the foundation for functional wound neovasculature. We performed studies in vivo and used a variety of cellular and molecular approaches in vitro to show that insulin stimulates angiogenesis and to elucidate the signalling mechanisms by which this protein stimulates microvessel development. Mice skin injected with insulin shows longer vessels with more branches, along with increased numbers of associated α-smooth muscle actin-expressing cells, suggesting the appropriate differentiation and maturation of the new vessels. We also found that insulin stimulates human microvascular endothelial cell migration and tube formation, and that these effects occur independently of VEGF/VEGFR signalling, but are dependent upon the insulin receptor itself. Downstream signalling pathways involve PI3K, Akt, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and Rac1; inhibition of these pathways results in elimination of endothelial cell migration and tube formation and significantly decreases the development of microvessels. Our findings strongly suggest that insulin is a good candidate for the treatment of ischaemic wounds and other conditions in which blood vessel development is impaired. PMID:19602055

  20. Embryonic atrazine exposure alters zebrafish and human miRNAs associated with angiogenesis, cancer, and neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Schlotman, Kelly E; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded RNA that regulate post-transcriptional control of mRNA translation. Knowledge on the role of these critical regulators in toxicological responses in increasing, but is still limited. Atrazine is a herbicide used throughout the Midwestern US that is reported to frequently contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3 parts per billion. Atrazine is a suspected endocrine disrupting chemical and studies have begun to investigate the genetic mechanisms of toxicity; however, studies investigating epigenetic mechanisms are limited. In this study both zebrafish and human miRNAs were significantly altered in response to an embryonic atrazine exposure of 0.3, 3, or 30 ppb in zebrafish. Altered miRNAs are known to play a role in angiogenesis, cancer, or neuronal development, differentiation, and maturation. Targeted analysis of altered human miRNAs with genes previously identified to be altered by atrazine exposure revealed several targets linked to cell cycle and cell signaling. Further analysis of hsa-miRNA-126-3p, which had altered expression in all three atrazine treatments at 72 hpf, revealed alterations also occurred at 60 hpf in the 30 ppb treatment group. Results from this study indicate miRNA deregulation in zebrafish and human miRNAs following an embryonic atrazine exposure in zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intramuscular Injection of Angiogenic Gene with Bubble Liposomes Followed by Ultrasound Exposure to Improve Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negishi, Yoichi; Matsuo, Keiko; Endo-Takahashi, Yoko; Suzuki, Kentaro; Matsuki, Yuuki; Takagi, Norio; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Aramaki, Yukihiko

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasound (US) in combination with microbubbles has recently engendered much attention as a safe method of gene delivery. Previously, we have developed polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-modified liposomes entrapping echo-contrast gas. We have called the liposomes "Bubble liposomes" (BLs). In this study, to assess the feasibility and the effectiveness of BLs for angiogenic gene delivery in clinical use, we tried to deliver bFGF (an angiogenic factor) expressing plasmid DNA into a mouse hindlimb ischemia model by the combination of BLs and US exposure. After femoral artery ligation, the hindlimb of ischemic mice were treated with BLs and US-mediated intramuscular gene transfer of bFGF expressing plasmid DNA. After the treatment, blood flow was determined over 2 weeks using laser doppler blood flow meter. As a result, the blood flow in the treated groups with BLs and US-mediated the gene transfer was quickly measured, and compared to other treatment groups (non-treated, bFGF alone, or bFGF+US). Furthermore, the number of CD31 positive cells was higher in the treatment groups with BLs and US-mediated the gene transfer than in other treatment groups. These results suggest that intramuscular injection of bFGF as an angiogenic gene with Bubble liposomes followed by ultrasound exposure improved angiogenesis in the ischemic muscle. Thus, gene transfer into the ischemic muscle by the combination of BLs and US exposure is an effective means of angiogenic gene therapy.

  2. The GPR 55 agonist, L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol, mediates ovarian carcinoma cell-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Nicole A; Yang, Jiang; Trauger, Sunia A; Nakayama, Hironao; Huang, Lan; Strunk, Dirk; Moses, Marsha A; Klagsbrun, Michael; Bischoff, Joyce; Graier, Wolfgang F

    2015-08-01

    Highly vascularized ovarian carcinoma secretes the putative endocannabinoid and GPR55 agonist, L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), into the circulation. We aimed to assess the involvement of this agonist and its receptor in ovarian cancer angiogenesis. Secretion of LPI by three ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, OVCAR-5 and COV-362) was tested by mass spectrometry. Involvement of cancer cell-derived LPI on angiogenesis was tested in the in vivo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay along with the assessment of the effect of LPI on proliferation, network formation, and migration of neonatal and adult human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs). Engagement of GPR55 was verified by using its pharmacological inhibitor CID16020046 and diminution of GPR55 expression by four different target-specific siRNAs. To study underlying signal transduction, Western blot analysis was performed. Ovarian carcinoma cell-derived LPI stimulated angiogenesis in the CAM assay. Applied LPI stimulated proliferation, network formation, and migration of neonatal ECFCs in vitro and angiogenesis in the in vivo CAM. The pharmacological GPR55 inhibitor CID16020046 inhibited LPI-stimulated ECFC proliferation, network formation and migration in vitro as well as ovarian carcinoma cell- and LPI-induced angiogenesis in vivo. Four target-specific siRNAs against GPR55 prevented these effects of LPI on angiogenesis. These pro-angiogenic effects of LPI were transduced by GPR55-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinase. We conclude that inhibiting the pro-angiogenic LPI/GPR55 pathway appears a promising target against angiogenesis in ovarian carcinoma. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Dickkopf-1 induces angiogenesis via VEGF receptor 2 regulation independent of the Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hyemi; Lee, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Seung Up

    2017-08-29

    Tumor angiogenesis is essential for invasive tumor growth and metastasis. Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), an antagonist of Wnt signaling, participates in tumor development and progression. We evaluated whether DKK-1 stimulation induces angiogenesis and the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated with recombinant DKK-1 (rDDK-1) or conditioned medium from a culture of DKK-1-transfected 293 cells. Following stimulation, the expression levels of angiogenesis-related factors and EnMT related markers were determined by immunoblot assays. In addition, the effects of exogenous DKK-1 on angiogenesis and EnMT were assessed by tube-formation, cell invasion, and wound-healing assays. Human hepatoma cells, such as Hep3B and Huh-7, showed high levels of DKK-1 expression, whereas 293 cells and HUVECs showed little or no DKK-1 expression. Increased endothelial cell tube formation and invasiveness were observed in HUVECs treated with concentrated conditioned medium from DKK-1-overexpressing 293 cells or rDKK-1. DKK-1-stimulated HUVECs also exhibited increased motility in wound-healing assays. Furthermore, the expression levels of angiogenesis-related factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and vascular endothelial-cadherin, were increased in DKK-1-stimulated HUVECs. The expression of EnMT markers, such as vimentin and Twist, was also increased in DKK-1-stimulated HUVECs. However, no significant change in β-catenin or GSK3β expression was observed. Our in vitro data suggest that DKK-1 can enhance angiogenesis and EnMT by HUVECs independent of the Wnt signaling pathway. Modulation of DKK-1 expression may facilitate development of novel strategies to control tumor angiogenesis and metastasis.

  4. Cooperative effect of roscovitine and irradiation targets angiogenesis and induces vascular destabilization in human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maggiorella, L; Aubel, C; Haton, C; Milliat, F; Connault, E; Opolon, P; Deutsch, E; Bourhis, J

    2009-02-01

    Angiogenesis is considered as an essential process for tumour development and invasion. Previously, we demonstrated that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition by roscovitine induces a radiosensitization and a synergistic antitumoral effect in human carcinoma but its effect on the microenvironment and tumour angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of the combination roscovitine and ionizing radiation (IR) on normal cells in vitro and on tumour angiogenesis in MDA-MB 231 tumour xenografts. We observed that the combination roscovitine and IR induced a marked reduction of angiogenic hot spot and microvascular density in comparison with IR or roscovitine treatments alone. The Ang-2/Tie-2 ratio was increased in presence of reduced vascular endothelial growth factor level suggesting vessel destabilization. In vitro, no radiosensitization effect of roscovitine was found in endothelial, fibroblast, and keratinocyte cells. IR potentiated the antiproliferative effect of roscovitine without inducing apoptosis in endothelial cells. Roscovitine decreased IR-stimulated vascular endothelial growth factor secretion of MDA-MB 231 and endothelial cells. A reduction in the endothelial cells invasion and the capillary-like tube formation in Matrigel were observed following the combination roscovitine and IR. This combined treatment targets angiogenesis resulting in microvessel destabilization without inducing normal cell toxicity.

  5. Angiotensin II and VEGF are involved in angiogenesis induced by short-term exercise training.

    PubMed

    Amaral, S L; Papanek, P E; Greene, A S

    2001-09-01

    Results from our laboratory have suggested a pathway involving angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in angiogenesis induced by electrical stimulation. The present study investigated if similar mechanisms underlie the angiogenesis induced by short-term exercise training. Seven days before training and throughout the training period, male Sprague-Dawley rats received either captopril or losartan in their drinking water. Rats underwent a 3-day treadmill training protocol. The tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles were harvested under anesthesia and lightly fixed in formalin (vessel density) or frozen in liquid nitrogen (VEGF expression). In controls, treadmill training resulted in a significant increase in vessel density in all muscles studied. However, the angiogenesis induced by exercise was completely blocked by either losartan or captopril. Western blot analysis showed that VEGF expression was increased in the exercised control group, and both losartan and captopril blocked this increase. The role of VEGF was directly confirmed using a VEGF-neutralizing antibody. These results confirm the role of angiotensin II and VEGF in angiogenesis induced by exercise.

  6. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Izuta, Hiroshi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Araki, Yoko; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2009-11-17

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ), bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis > bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases.

  7. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ), bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. Results RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis >> bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Conclusion Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases. PMID:19917137

  8. KR-31831, benzopyran derivative, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis of HUVECs through suppressing KDR expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Shi-Young; Seo, Eun-Hee; Song, Hyun Seok; Jung, Seung-Youn; Lee, Young-Kyoung; Yi, Kyu-Yang; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Kim, Yung-Jin

    2008-06-01

    Angiogenesis is important in the development and progression of cancer, therefore the therapeutic approach based on anti-angiogenesis may represent a promising therapeutic option. KR-31831 is a novel anti-ischemic agent. Previously, we reported the anti-angiogenic activity of KR-31831. In the present study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-angiogenic activity of KR-31831. We show that KR-31831 inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation and tube formation via release of intracellular Ca2+ and phosphorylation of extra-cellular regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, the expression of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2, known as Flk-1 or KDR) was reduced by the treatment of KR-31831. These results suggest that KR-31831 may have inhibitory effects on tumor angiogenesis through down-regulation of KDR expression.

  9. LPS induces HUVEC angiogenesis in vitro through miR-146a-mediated TGF-β1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yize; Zhu, Huayu; Wei, Xu; Li, Heng; Yu, Zhicao; Zhang, Hongmei; Liu, Wenchao

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process for tissue growth and embryo development. However, inflammation, abnormal wound healing, vascular diseases, and tumor development and progression can result from inappropriate angiogenesis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can activate various cells and alter endothelium function and angiogenesis. This study investigated the underlying molecular events involved in LPS-induced angiogenesis and revealed a novel strategy for controlling abnormal angiogenesis. LPS treatment promoted wound healing and tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures and induced their expression of miR-146a. miR-146a was previously shown to regulate angiogenesis in HUVECs. Knockdown of miR-146a expression antagonized LPS-induced angiogenesis in vitro. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses predicted TGF-β1 as a target gene for miR-146a, which was confirmed by aluciferase reporter assay. Expression of miR-146a in HUVECs resulted in downregulation of TGF-β1 in HUVECs, whereas a miR-146a inhibitor upregulated the expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β1 downstream proteins, such as phosphoraylation-Smad2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). Furthermore, the TGF-β1 signaling inhibitor SB431542 impaired the ability of miR-146a knockdown to suppress LPS-induced angiogenesis. Thus, LPS-induced angiogenesis of HUVECs functions through miR-146a upregulation and TGF-β1 inhibition. This study suggests that knockdown of miR-146a could activate TGF-β1 signaling to inhibit angiogenesis as a potential therapy for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:28337286

  10. Interleukin-19 induces angiogenesis in the absence of hypoxia by direct and indirect immune mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kako, Farah; Gabunia, Khatuna; Ray, Mitali; Kelemen, Sheri E.; England, Ross N.; Kako, Bashar; Scalia, Rosario G.

    2016-01-01

    Neovascularization and inflammation are independent biological processes but are linked in response to injury. The role of inflammation-dampening cytokines in the regulation of angiogenesis remains to be clarified. The purpose of this work was to test the hypothesis that IL-19 can induce angiogenesis in the absence of tissue hypoxia and to identify potential mechanisms. Using the aortic ring model of angiogenesis, we found significantly reduced sprouting capacity in aortic rings from IL-19−/− compared with wild-type mice. Using an in vivo assay, we found that IL-19−/− mice respond to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) significantly less than wild-type mice and demonstrate decreased capillary formation in Matrigel plugs. IL-19 signals through the IL-20 receptor complex, and IL-19 induces IL-20 receptor subunit expression in aortic rings and cultured human vascular smooth muscle cells, but not endothelial cells, in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-dependent mechanism. IL-19 activates STAT3, and IL-19 angiogenic activity in aortic rings is STAT3-dependent. Using a quantitative RT-PCR screening assay, we determined that IL-19 has direct proangiogenic effects on aortic rings by inducing angiogenic gene expression. M2 macrophages participate in angiogenesis, and IL-19 has indirect angiogenic effects, as IL-19-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages secrete proangiogenic factors that induce greater sprouting of aortic rings than unstimulated controls. Using a quantitative RT-PCR screen, we determined that IL-19 induces expression of angiogenic cytokines in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Together, these data suggest that IL-19 can promote angiogenesis in the absence of hypoxia by at least two distinct mechanisms: 1) direct effects on vascular cells and 2) indirect effects by stimulation of macrophages. PMID:27053520

  11. Targeting Slit-Roundabout signaling inhibits tumor angiogenesis in chemical-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jing; Zhao, Yuan; Han, Bing; Ma, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Ding-Ming; Mao, Jian-Wen; Tang, Fu-Tian; Li, Wei-Dong; Yang, Yang; Wang, Rui; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2008-03-01

    Slit is a secreted protein known to function through the Roundabout (Robo) receptor as a repellent for axon guidance and neuronal migration, and as an inhibitor in leukocyte chemotaxis. We have previously shown that Slit2 is also secreted by a variety of human cancer cells whereby it acts as a chemoattractant to vascular endothelial cells for tumor angiogenesis. We used a blocking antibody to investigate the role of Slit-Robo signaling in tumor angiogenesis during oral carcinogenesis. In this report we undertook a multistage model of 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene-induced squamous cell carcinoma in the hamster buccal pouch. R5, a monoclonal antibody against the first immunoglobulin domain of Robo1, was used to study whether R5 blocks the Slit-Robo interaction and furthermore inhibits tumor angiogenesis and growth in our model. In addition, the expression of Slit2, von Willebrand factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were examined using human tissue of oral cheek mucosa with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data showed that Slit2 was expressed minimally in normal and hyperplastic mucosa, moderately in dysplastic mucosa, and highly in neoplastic mucosa obtained from hamster buccal pouch. We also found that increased Slit2 expression was associated with higher tumor angiogenesis, as reflected by increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression and microvessel density. A similar Slit2 expression profile was found in human tissue. Importantly, interruption of the Slit2-Robo interaction using R5 inhibited tumor angiogenesis and growth in our in vivo model, which indicates that Slit2-mediated tumor angiogenesis is a critical process underlying the carcinogenesis of chemical-induced squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, targeting Slit-Robo signaling may offer a novel antiangiogenesis approach for oral cancer therapy.

  12. Treatment of hypertension and renal injury induced by the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib: preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Lankhorst, Stephanie; Kappers, Mariëtte H W; van Esch, Joep H M; Smedts, Frank M M; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Baelde, Hans J; Danser, A H Jan; van den Meiracker, Anton H

    2014-12-01

    Common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibition are hypertension and renal injury. To determine the most optimal way to prevent these adverse effects and to explore their interdependency, the following drugs were investigated in unrestrained Wistar Kyoto rats exposed to the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib: the dual endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan; the calcium channel blocker amlodipine; the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril; and the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor sildenafil. Mean arterial pressure was monitored telemetrically. After 8 days, rats were euthanized and blood samples and kidneys were collected. In addition, 24-hour urine samples were collected. After sunitinib start, mean arterial pressure increased rapidly by ≈30 mm Hg. Coadministration of macitentan or amlodipine largely prevented this rise, whereas captopril or sildenafil did not. Macitentan, captopril, and sildenafil diminished the sunitinib-induced proteinuria and endothelinuria and glomerular intraepithelial protein deposition, whereas amlodipine did not. Changes in proteinuria and endothelinuria were unrelated. We conclude that in our experimental model, dual endothelin receptor antagonism and calcium channel blockade are suitable to prevent angiogenesis inhibition-induced hypertension, whereas dual endothelin receptor antagonism, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition can prevent angiogenesis inhibition-induced proteinuria. Moreover, the variable response of hypertension and renal injury to different antihypertensive agents suggests that these side effects are, at least in part, unrelated.

  13. Cleavage of galectin-3 by matrix metalloproteases induces angiogenesis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Wang, Yi; Raz, Tirza; Tait, Larry; Balan, Vitaly; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-3 cleavage is related to progression of human breast and prostate cancer and is partly responsible for tumor growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis resistance in mouse models. A functional polymorphism in galectin-3 gene, determining its susceptibility to cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2/-9 is related to racial disparity in breast cancer incidence in Asian and Caucasian women. The purpose of our study is to evaluate (i) if cleavage of galectin-3 could be related to angiogenesis during the progression of human breast cancer, (ii) the role of cleaved galectin-3 in induction of angiogenesis and (iii) determination of the galectin-3 domain responsible for induction of angiogenic response. Galectin-3 null breast cancer cells BT-459 were transfected with either cleavable full-length galectin-3 or its fragmented peptides. Chemotaxis, chemoinvasion, heterotypic aggregation, epithelial-endothelial cell interactions and angiogenesis were compared to noncleavable galectin-3. BT-549-H64 cells harboring cleavable galectin-3 exhibited increased chemotaxis, invasion and interactions with endothelial cells resulting in angiogenesis and 3D morphogenesis compared to BT-549-P64 cells harboring noncleavable galectin-3. BT-549-H64 cells induced increased migration and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in migrating endothelial cells. Endothelial cells cocultured with BT-549 cells transfected with galectin-3 peptides indicate that amino acids 1–62 and 33–250 stimulate migration and morphogenesis of endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of blood vessel density and galectin-3 cleavage in a breast cancer progression tissue array support the in vitro findings. We conclude that the cleavage of the N terminus of galectin-3 followed by its release in the tumor microenvironment in part leads to breast cancer angiogenesis and progression. PMID:20162566

  14. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential

    PubMed Central

    Adini, Irit; Adini, Avner; Bazinet, Lauren; Watnick, Randolph S.; Bielenberg, Diane R.; D’Amato, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of certain angiogenesis-dependent diseases is higher in Caucasians than in African Americans. Angiogenesis is amplified in wound healing and cornea models in albino C57 mice compared with black C57 mice. Moreover, mouse and human melanocytes with low pigmentation stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration in vitro more than melanocytes with high pigmentation. This effect is due, in part, to the secretion of an angiogenic protein called fibromodulin (FMOD) from lowly pigmented melanocytes. Herein, we expand upon the mechanism contributing to increased angiogenesis in lighter skin and report that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted by nonpigmented mouse melanocytes by 5- to 10-fold more than pigmented melanocytes. MCP-1 protein stimulates EC proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic studies determine that FMOD is upstream of MCP-1 and promotes its secretion from both melanocytes and activated ECs via stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mice injected with FMOD-neutralizing antibodies show 2.3-fold decreased levels of circulating MCP-1. Human studies confirmed that, on average, Caucasians have 2-fold higher serum levels of MCP-1 than African Americans. Taken together, this study implicates the FMOD/MCP-1 pathway in the regulation of angiogenesis by local melanocytes and suggests that melanogenic activity may protect against aberrant angiogenic diseases.—Adini, I., Adini, A., Bazinet, L., Watnick, R. S., Bielenberg, D. R., and D’Amato, R. J. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential. PMID:25406462

  15. Preventing diet-induced obesity in mice by adipose tissue transformation and angiogenesis using targeted nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yuan; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Langer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity, which is recognized by the American Medical Association as a disease, has nearly doubled since 1980, and obesity-related comorbidities have become a major threat to human health. Given that adipose tissue expansion and transformation require active growth of new blood vasculature, angiogenesis offers a potential target for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders. Here we construct two peptide-functionalized nanoparticle (NP) platforms to deliver either Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activator rosiglitazone (Rosi) or prostaglandin E2 analog (16,16-dimethyl PGE2) to adipose tissue vasculature. These NPs were engineered through self-assembly of a biodegradable triblock polymer composed of end-to-end linkages between poly(lactic-coglycolic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) and an endothelial-targeted peptide. In this system, released Rosi promotes both transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown-like adipose tissue and angiogenesis, which facilitates the homing of targeted NPs to adipose angiogenic vessels, thereby amplifying their delivery. We show that i.v. administration of these NPs can target WAT vasculature, stimulate the angiogenesis that is required for the transformation of adipose tissue, and transform WAT into brown-like adipose tissue, by the up-regulation of angiogenesis and brown adipose tissue markers. In a diet-induced obese mouse model, these angiogenesis-targeted NPs have inhibited body weight gain and modulated several serological markers including cholesterol, triglyceride, and insulin, compared with the control group. These findings suggest that angiogenesis-targeting moieties with angiogenic stimulator-loaded NPs could be incorporated into effective therapeutic regimens for clinical treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases. PMID:27140638

  16. Putative CD133+ melanoma cancer stem cells induce initial angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zimmerer, Rüdiger M; Matthiesen, Peter; Kreher, Fritjof; Kampmann, Andreas; Spalthoff, Simon; Jehn, Philipp; Bittermann, Gido; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Tavassol, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis, and is regulated by a complex network of various types of cells, chemokines, and stimulating factors. In contrast to sprouting angiogenesis, tumor angiogenesis is also influenced by hypoxia, inflammation, and the attraction of bone-marrow-derived cells. Recently, cancer stem cells have been reported to mimic vascularization by differentiating into endothelial cells and inducing vessel formation. In this study, the influence of cancer stem cells on initial angiogenesis was evaluated for the metastatic melanoma cell line D10. Following flow cytometry, CD133+ and CD133- cells were isolated using magnetic cell separation and different cell fractions were transferred to porcine gelatin sponges, which were implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of immunocompromised mice. Angiogenesis was analyzed based on microvessel density over a 10-day period using in vivo fluorescence microscopy, and the results were verified using immunohistology. CD133+ D10 cells showed a significant induction of early angiogenesis in vivo, contrary to CD133- D10 cells, unsorted D10 cells, and negative control. Neovascularization was confirmed by visualizing endothelial cells by immunohistology using an anti-CD31 antibody. Because CD133+ cells are rare in clinical specimens and hardly amenable to functional assays, the D10 cell line provides a suitable model to study the angiogenic potential of putative cancer stem cells and the leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the dorsal skinfold chamber in vivo. This cancer stem cell model might be useful in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents targeting tumors.

  17. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yan-qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; He, Xiao-dong; Jun, Li; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Ju; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-15

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis – possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. - Highlights: ●We demonstrated that DMPP inhibited the growth of glioma cells on chick CAM. ●DMPP did not significantly affect the proliferation and survival of U87 cells. ●We revealed that DMPP suppressed vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in chick embryo. ●Angiogenesis in chick CAM was inhibited by DMPP via most probably Ang-1 and HIF-2α. ●DMPP could be potentially developed as an anti-tumor drug in the future.

  18. Inhibition of hyperglycemia-induced angiogenesis and breast cancer tumor growth by systemic injection of microRNA-467 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Krukovets, Irene; Legerski, Matthew; Sul, Pavel; Stenina-Adognravi, Olga

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis in multiple tissues is a key characteristic of the vascular complications of diabetes. However, angiogenesis may be increased in one tissue but decreased in another in the same patient at the same time point in the disease. The mechanisms of aberrant angiogenesis in diabetes are not understood. There are no selective therapeutic approaches to target increased neovascularization without affecting physiologic angiogenesis and angiogenesis in ischemic tissues. We recently reported a novel miRNA-dependent pathway that up-regulates angiogenesis in response to hyperglycemia in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. The goal of the work described herein was to test whether systemic administration of an antagonist of miR-467 would prevent hyperglycemia-induced local angiogenesis in a tissue-specific manner. We examined the effect of the antagonist on hyperglycemia-induced tumor growth and angiogenesis and on skin wound healing in mouse models of diabetes. Our data demonstrated that the systemic injection of the antagonist prevented hyperglycemia-induced angiogenesis and growth of mouse and human breast cancer tumors, where the miR-467 pathway was active in hyperglycemia. In tissues where the miR-467-dependent mechanism was not activated by hyperglycemia, there was no effect of the antagonist: the systemic injection did not affect skin wound healing or the growth of prostate tumors. The data show that systemic administration of the miR-467 antagonist could be a breakthrough approach in the treatment and prevention of diabetes-associated breast cancer in a tissue-specific manner without affecting physiologic angiogenesis and angiogenesis in ischemic tissues.

  19. LOX-1 plays an important role in ischemia-induced angiogenesis of limbs.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Takeru; Aoyama, Takuma; Yokoyama, Chiharu; Hayakawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Toshiki; Nishigaki, Kazuhiko; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    LOX-1, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1, is a single transmembrane receptor mainly expressed on endothelial cells. LOX-1 mediates the uptake of oxidized LDL, an early step in atherosclerosis; however, little is known about whether LOX-1 is involved in angiogenesis during tissue ischemia. Therefore, we examined the role of LOX-1 in ischemia-induced angiogenesis in the hindlimbs of LOX-1 knockout (KO) mice. Angiogenesis was evaluated in a surgically induced hindlimb ischemia model using laser Doppler blood flowmetry (LDBF) and histological capillary density (CD) and arteriole density (AD). After right hindlimb ischemia, the ischemic/nonischemic hindlimb blood flow ratio was persistently lower in LOX-1 KO mice than in wild-type (WT) mice. CD and AD were significantly smaller in LOX-1 KO mice than in WT mice on postoperative day 14. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of macrophages infiltrating ischemic tissues was significantly smaller in LOX-1 KO mice than in WT mice. The number of infiltrated macrophages expressing VEGF was also significantly smaller in LOX-1 KO mice than in WT mice. Western blot analysis and ROS production assay revealed that LOX- KO mice show significant decrease in Nox2 expression, ROS production and HIF-1α expression, the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 subunit as well as expression of redox-sensitive vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and LOX-1 itself in ischemic muscles, which is supposed to be required for macrophage infiltration expressing angiogenic factor VEGF. Reduction of VEGF expression successively suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS, which accelerated angiogenesis, in the ischemic leg of LOX-1 KO mice. Our findings indicate that LOX-1 plays an important role in ischemia-induced angiogenesis by 1) Nox2-ROS-NF-κB activation, 2) upregulated expression of adhesion molecules: VCAM-1 and LOX-1 and 3) promoting macrophage infiltration, which expresses angiogenic

  20. Role and Mechanism of Arsenic in Regulating Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Richard L.; Jing, Yi; Peiper, Stephen C.; Jiang, Bing-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a wide spread carcinogen associated with several kinds of cancers including skin, lung, bladder, and liver cancers. Lung is one of the major targets of arsenic exposure. Angiogenesis is the pivotal process during carcinogenesis and chronic pulmonary diseases, but the role and mechanism of arsenic in regulating angiogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this study we show that short time exposure of arsenic induces angiogenesis in both human immortalized lung epithelial cells BEAS-2B and adenocarcinoma cells A549. To study the molecular mechanism of arsenic-inducing angiogenesis, we find that arsenic induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which activates AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and increases the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Inhibition of ROS production suppresses angiogenesis by decreasing AKT and ERK activation and HIF-1 expression. Inhibition of ROS, AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways is sufficient to attenuate arsenic-inducing angiogenesis. HIF-1 and VEGF are downstream effectors of AKT and ERK1/2 that are required for arsenic-inducing angiogenesis. These results shed light on the mechanism of arsenic in regulating angiogenesis, and are helpful to develop mechanism-based intervention to prevent arsenic-induced carcinogenesis and angiogenesis in the future. PMID:21687637

  1. Flavonoids from the leaves of Carya cathayensis Sarg. inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sha-Sha; Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Xue-Xin; Jin, Bo; Lu, Jin-Jian; Ding, Zhi-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The total flavonoids (TFs) were isolated from the leaves of Carya cathayensis Sarg. (LCC), a well-known Chinese medicinal herb commercially cultivated in Tianmu Mountain district, a cross area of Zhejiang and Anhui provinces in China. Five flavonoids, i.e. cardamonin, pinostrobin chalcone (PC), wogonin, chrysin, and pinocembrin were the main components of the TFs. The TFs and these pure compounds suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis as detected in the mouse aortic ring assay, and cardamonin showed the best effect among them. To further elucidate the mechanisms for suppressing angiogenesis of these flavonoids, assays of VEGF-induced proliferation and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were performed. The TFs, cardamonin, pinocembrin, and chrysin obviously suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. However, PC and wogonin not only slightly inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation but also remarkably suppressed those of migration in HUVECs. Our further study showed that cardamonin decreased the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT induced by VEGF with a dose-dependent manner in HUVECs. Our findings indicate that the TFs and these pure flavonoids may become potential preventive and/or therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related diseases.

  2. Chronic cocaine induces HIF-VEGF pathway activation along with angiogenesis in the brain.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Clare, Kevin; Zhang, Qiujia; Volkow, Nora D; Du, Congwu

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine induces vasoconstriction in cerebral vessels, which with repeated use can result in transient ischemic attacks and cerebral strokes. However, the neuroadaptations that follow cocaine's vasoconstricting effects are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic cocaine exposure (2 and 4 weeks) on markers of vascular function and morphology in the rat brain. For this purpose we measured nitric oxide (NO) concentration in plasma, brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1), HIF-1α, and VEGF expression in different brain regions, i.e., middle prefrontal cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum, using ELISA or Western blot. Additionally, microvascular density in these brain regions was measured using immunofluorescence microscopy. We showed that chronic cocaine significantly affected NOS1, HIF-1α and VEGF expression, in a region- and cocaine treatment-time- dependent manner. Cerebral microvascular density increased significantly in parallel to these neurochemical changes. Furthermore, significant correlations were detected between VEGF expression and microvascular density in cortical regions (middle prefrontal cortex and somatosensory cortex), but not in striatal regions (nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum). These results suggest that following chronic cocaine use, as cerebral ischemia developed, NOS1, the regulatory protein to counteract blood vessel constriction, was upregulated; meanwhile, the HIF-VEGF pathway was activated to increase microvascular density (i.e., angiogenesis) and thus restore local blood flow and oxygen supply. These physiological responses were triggered presumably as an adaptation to minimize ischemic injury caused by cocaine. Therefore, effectively promoting such physiological responses may provide novel and effective therapeutic solutions to treat cocaine-induced cerebral ischemia and stroke.

  3. [Effect of Qige Powder on Angiogenesis Induced by Esophageal Cancer Cell Line Eca-9706].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ling; Wu, Yao-song; Yin, Su-gai; Wang, Hui-hui; Chen, Yu-long

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect Qige powder on esophageal cancer angiogenesis. Inhibitive effect of Qige powder ethanol extract on proliferation of Esophageal cancer cell line Eca-9706 was detected by MTT assay. The Eca-9706 cells conditioned medium in Qige powder IC50 concentration were collected. Angiogenesis, as well as proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells were observed by Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model(CAM), MTT assay, the migration and tube formation assay. VEGF and IL-6 contents in culture medium supernatant of Eca-9706 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were detected by ELISA. Qige powder ethanol extract could inhibit the proliferation of Eca-9706 cells, with a certain dose-effect relationship, IC50 value was 96 µg/mL. Eca-9706 cells conditioned medium could significantly increase the CAM generating total vessel area, human umbilical vein endothelial cells proliferation,migration and tube formation, while the Eca-9706 cell conditioned medium of Qige powder ethanol extract could reduce CAM angiogenesis, human umbilical vein endothelial cells proliferation and tube formation, but increase endothelial cells migration. Qige powder ethanol extract could reduce endothelial cells secreting VEGF and IL-6 while increase Eca-9706 cells secreting. Qige powder ethanol extract can inhibit angiogenesis, endothelial cell proliferation, and tube formation induced by Eca-9706 cells, while reduce VEGF and IL-6 secretion of endothelial cells.

  4. Dimethyl phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) induces glioma regression by inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Yan-Qing; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yu; He, Xiao-Dong; Jun, Li; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Ju; Wang, Li-Jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2014-01-15

    1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenyl piperazine iodide (DMPP) is a synthetic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist that could reduce airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that DMPP could dramatically inhibit glioma size maintained on the chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). We first performed MTT and BrdU incorporation experiments on U87 glioma cells in vitro to understand the mechanism involved. We established that DMPP did not significantly affect U87 cell proliferation and survival. We speculated that DMPP directly caused the tumor to regress by affecting the vasculature in and around the implanted tumor on our chick CAM model. Hence, we conducted detailed analysis of DMPP's inhibitory effects on angiogenesis. Three vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in vivo models were used in the study which included (1) early chick blood islands formation, (2) chick yolk-sac membrane (YSW) and (3) CAM models. The results revealed that DMPP directly suppressed all developmental stages involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis - possibly by acting through Ang-1 and HIF-2α signaling. In sum, our results show that DMPP could induce glioma regression grown on CAM by inhibiting vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Therapeutic concentrations of digitoxin inhibit endothelial focal adhesion kinase and angiogenesis induced by different growth factors.

    PubMed

    Trenti, Annalisa; Zulato, Elisabetta; Pasqualini, Lorenza; Indraccolo, Stefano; Bolego, Chiara; Trevisi, Lucia

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac glycosides are Na(+) /K(+) -ATPases inhibitors used to treat congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. Epidemiological studies indicate that patients on digitalis therapy are more protected from cancer. Evidence of a selective cytotoxicity against cancer cells has suggested their potential use as anticancer drugs. The effect on angiogenesis of clinically used cardiac glycosides has not been extensively explored. We studied the effect of digoxin, digitoxin and ouabain on early events of the angiogenic process in HUVECs. We determined HUVEC viability, proliferation, migration and differentiation into capillary tube-like structures. We also tested drug activity using an in vivo angiogenesis model. Activation of protein tyrosine kinase 2 (FAK) and signalling proteins associated with the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase signalosome was determined by Western blotting. Digitoxin and ouabain (1-100 nM) inhibited HUVEC migration, concentration-dependently, without affecting cell viability, while digoxin induced apoptosis at the same concentrations. Digitoxin antagonized growth factor-induced migration and tubularization at concentrations (1-25 nM) within its plasma therapeutic range. The anti-angiogenic effect of digitoxin was confirmed also by in vivo studies. Digitoxin induced Src, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation but did not affect FAK autophosphorylation at Tyr(397) . However, it significantly inhibited growth factor-induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr(576/577) . Therapeutic concentrations of digitoxin inhibited angiogenesis and FAK activation by several pro-angiogenic stimuli. These novel findings suggest a potential repositioning of digitoxin as a broad-spectrum anti-angiogenic drug for diseases where pathological angiogenesis is involved. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Notch signaling regulates tumor-induced angiogenesis in SPARC-overexpressed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Gorantla, Bharathi; Bhoopathi, Praveen; Chetty, Chandramu; Gogineni, Venkateswara Rao; Sailaja, GS; Gondi, Christopher S.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite existing aggressive treatment modalities, the prognosis for advanced stage neuroblastoma remains poor with significant long-term illness in disease survivors. Advance stage disease features are associated with tumor vascularity, and as such, angiogenesis inhibitors may prove useful along with current therapies. The matricellular protein, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), is known to inhibit proliferation and migration of endothelial cells stimulated by growth factors. Here, we sought to determine the effect of SPARC on neuroblastoma tumor cell-induced angiogenesis and to decipher the molecular mechanisms involved in angiogenesis inhibition. Conditioned medium from SPARC-overexpressed neuroblastoma cells (pSPARC-CM) inhibited endothelial tube formation, cell proliferation, induced programmed cell death and suppressed expression of pro-angiogenic molecules such as VEGF, FGF, PDGF, and MMP-9 in endothelial cells. Further analyses revealed that pSPARC-CM-suppressed expression of growth factors was mediated by inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway, and cells cultured on conditioned medium from tumor cells that overexpress both Notch intracellular domain (NICD-CM) and SPARC resumed the pSPARC-CM-suppressed capillary tube formation and growth factor expression in vitro. Further, SPARC overexpression in neuroblastoma cells inhibited neo-vascularization in vivo in a mouse dorsal air sac model. Furthermore, SPARC overexpression-induced endothelial cell death was observed by co-localization studies with TUNEL assay and an endothelial marker, CD31, in xenograft tumor sections from SPARC-overexpressed mice. Our data collectively suggest that SPARC overexpression induces endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22956186

  7. Endostatin Prevents Dietary-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Yang; Lu, Xin-an; Liu, Guanghua; Fu, Yan; Luo, Yongzhang

    2015-07-01

    Endostatin is a well-known angiogenesis inhibitor. Although angiogenesis has been considered as a potential therapeutic target of obesity, the inhibitory effect of endostatin on adipogenesis and dietary-induced obesity has never been demonstrated. Adipogenesis plays a critical role in controlling adipocyte cell number, body weight, and metabolic profile in a homeostatic state. Here we reveal that endostatin inhibits adipogenesis and dietary-induced obesity. The antiadipogenic mechanism of endostatin lies in its interaction with Sam68 RNA-binding protein in the nuclei of preadipocytes. This interaction competitively impairs the binding of Sam68 to intron 5 of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), causing an error in mTOR transcript. This consequently decreases the expression of mTOR, results in decreased activities of the mTOR complex 1 pathway, and leads to defects in adipogenesis. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the antiangiogenic function of endostatin also contributes to its obesity-inhibitory activity. Through the combined functions on adipogenesis and angiogenesis, endostatin prevents dietary-induced obesity and its related metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. Thus, our findings reveal that endostatin has a potential application for antiobesity therapy and the prevention of obesity-related metabolic syndromes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. A Model for Breast Cancer-Induced Angiogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    Terman BI, Carrion ME, Kovacs E, Rasmussen BA, Eddy RL, Shows TB. Identification of a new endothelial cell growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase...Jensen, H. M., Chen, I., DeVault, M. R., and Lewis , A. E. Angio- Cancer Res. Treat., 11: 241-248, 1988. genesis induced by "normal" human breast

  9. A Model for Breast Cancer-Induced Angiogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    M ., Roesel, J. L ., Benz, rally) regulated. For instance, our data show that PD-ECGF C., Mueller, H., Matter, A., Zuber, M ., Luescher, K., Litschgi, M ...Harris, A. L ., and Bicknell, R. 2. Heffelfimger, S. C., Yassin, R., Miller, M . A., and Lower, E. Vascu- Thymidine phosphorylase is angiogenic and promotes... Gullino , P. M . Neovascularization induced by breast precancerous? Arch. Pathol. Lab, Med., 110: 171-173, 1985. intraocular xenografts of normal

  10. Myricetin inhibits UVB-induced angiogenesis by regulating PI-3 kinase in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Keun; Lee, Ki Won; Byun, Sanguine; Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2010-01-01

    Myricetin is one of the principal phytochemicals in onions, berries and red wine. Previous studies showed that myricetin exhibits potent anticancer and chemopreventive effects. The present study examined the effect of myricetin on ultraviolet (UV) B-induced angiogenesis in an SKH-1 hairless mouse skin tumorigenesis model. Topical treatment with myricetin inhibited repetitive UVB-induced neovascularization in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin. The induction of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-13 expression by chronic UVB irradiation was significantly suppressed by myricetin treatment. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses revealed that myricetin inhibited UVB-induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α expression in mouse skin. Western blot analysis and kinase assay data revealed that myricetin suppressed UVB-induced phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity and subsequently attenuated the UVB-induced phosphorylation of Akt/p70S6K in mouse skin lysates. A pull-down assay revealed the direct binding of PI-3 kinase and myricetin in mouse skin lysates. Our results indicate that myricetin suppresses UVB-induced angiogenesis by regulating PI-3 kinase activity in vivo in mouse skin. PMID:20008033

  11. Satellite cell-mediated angiogenesis in vitro coincides with a functional hypoxia-inducible factor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rhoads, R. P.; Johnson, R. M.; Rathbone, C. R.; Liu, X.; Temm-Grove, C.; Sheehan, S. M.; Hoying, J. B.; Allen, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle regeneration involves the coordination of myogenesis and revascularization to restore proper muscle function. Myogenesis is driven by resident stem cells termed satellite cells (SC), whereas angiogenesis arises from endothelial cells and perivascular cells of preexisting vascular segments and the collateral vasculature. Communication between myogenic and angiogenic cells seems plausible, especially given the number of growth factors produced by SC. To characterize these interactions, we developed an in vitro coculture model composed of rat skeletal muscle SC and microvascular fragments (MVF). In this system, isolated epididymal MVF suspended in collagen gel are cultured over a rat SC monolayer culture. In the presence of SC, MVF exhibit greater indices of angiogenesis than MVF cultured alone. A positive dose-dependent effect of SC conditioned medium (CM) on MVF growth was observed, suggesting that SC secrete soluble-acting growth factor(s). Next, we specifically blocked VEGF action in SC CM, and this was sufficient to abolish satellite cell-induced angiogenesis. Finally, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a transcriptional regulator of VEGF gene expression, was found to be expressed in cultured SC and in putative SC in sections of in vivo stretch-injured rat muscle. Hypoxic culture conditions increased SC HIF-1α activity, which was positively associated with SC VEGF gene expression and protein levels. Collectively, these initial observations suggest that a heretofore unexplored aspect of satellite cell physiology is the initiation of a proangiogenic program. PMID:19386789

  12. Satellite cell-mediated angiogenesis in vitro coincides with a functional hypoxia-inducible factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, R P; Johnson, R M; Rathbone, C R; Liu, X; Temm-Grove, C; Sheehan, S M; Hoying, J B; Allen, R E

    2009-06-01

    Muscle regeneration involves the coordination of myogenesis and revascularization to restore proper muscle function. Myogenesis is driven by resident stem cells termed satellite cells (SC), whereas angiogenesis arises from endothelial cells and perivascular cells of preexisting vascular segments and the collateral vasculature. Communication between myogenic and angiogenic cells seems plausible, especially given the number of growth factors produced by SC. To characterize these interactions, we developed an in vitro coculture model composed of rat skeletal muscle SC and microvascular fragments (MVF). In this system, isolated epididymal MVF suspended in collagen gel are cultured over a rat SC monolayer culture. In the presence of SC, MVF exhibit greater indices of angiogenesis than MVF cultured alone. A positive dose-dependent effect of SC conditioned medium (CM) on MVF growth was observed, suggesting that SC secrete soluble-acting growth factor(s). Next, we specifically blocked VEGF action in SC CM, and this was sufficient to abolish satellite cell-induced angiogenesis. Finally, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a transcriptional regulator of VEGF gene expression, was found to be expressed in cultured SC and in putative SC in sections of in vivo stretch-injured rat muscle. Hypoxic culture conditions increased SC HIF-1alpha activity, which was positively associated with SC VEGF gene expression and protein levels. Collectively, these initial observations suggest that a heretofore unexplored aspect of satellite cell physiology is the initiation of a proangiogenic program.

  13. Paeonol Oxime Inhibits bFGF-Induced Angiogenesis and Reduces VEGF Levels in Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ihn; Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun-Ok; Zhu, Shudong; Chen, Chang-Yan; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously reported the anti-angiogenic activity of paeonol isolated from Moutan Cortex. In the present study, we investigated the negative effect of paeonol oxime (PO, a paeonol derivative) on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-mediated angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) (including tumor angiogenesis) and pro-survival activity in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell line. Methodology/Principal Findings We showed that PO (IC50  = 17.3 µg/ml) significantly inhibited bFGF-induced cell proliferation, which was achieved with higher concentrations of paeonol (IC50 over 200 µg). The treatment with PO blocked bFGF-stimulated migration and in vitro capillary differentiation (tube formation) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PO was able to disrupt neovascularization in vivo. Interestingly, PO (25 µg/ml) decreased the cell viability of HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells but not that of HUVECs. The treatment with PO at 12.5 µg/ml reduced the levels of phosphorylated AKT and VEGF expression (intracellular and extracelluar) in HT-1080 cells. Consistently, immunefluorescence imaging analysis revealed that PO treatment attenuated AKT phosphorylation in HT-1080 cells. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results suggest that PO inhibits bFGF-induced angiogenesis in HUVECs and decreased the levels of PI3K, phospho-AKT and VEGF in HT-1080 cells. PMID:20808805

  14. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis links EMT-induced cancer stemness to tumor initiation.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, Anna; Gruber, Dorothea C; Pisarsky, Laura; Heck, Chantal; Kunita, Akiko; Yilmaz, Mahmut; Meyer-Schaller, Nathalie; Cornille, Karen; Hopfer, Ulrike; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Christofori, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) underlies malignant tumor progression and metastatic spread by enabling cancer cells to depart from the primary tumor, invade surrounding tissue, and disseminate to distant organs. EMT also enriches for cancer stem cells (CSC) and increases the capacity of cancer cells to initiate and propagate tumors upon transplantation into immune-deficient mice, a major hallmark of CSCs. However, the molecular mechanisms promoting the tumorigenicity of cancer cells undergoing an EMT and of CSCs have remained widely elusive. We here report that EMT confers efficient tumorigenicity to murine breast cancer cells by the upregulated expression of the proangiogenic factor VEGF-A and by increased tumor angiogenesis. On the basis of these data, we propose a novel interpretation of the features of CSCs with EMT-induced, VEGF-A-mediated angiogenesis as the connecting mechanism between cancer cell stemness and tumor initiation.

  15. Tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, F.

    1985-01-01

    Tumours induce the growth of host blood vessels to support their proliferation. This process of angiogenesis is evoked by specific chemical signals. Recognition of these angiogenic factors has led to experimental methods for cancer diagnosis and for inhibiting malignant growth by specifically blocking neovascularisation. The clinical potential of these techniques is discussed. PMID:2413796

  16. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: focus on the cancer hallmark of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiwei; Brooks, Samira A; Dormoy, Valérian; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Massfelder, Thierry; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Xia, Menghang; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Brown, Dustin G; Prudhomme, Kalan R; Colacci, Annamaria; Hamid, Roslida A; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K; Lowe, Leroy; Jensen, Lasse; Bisson, William H; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    One of the important 'hallmarks' of cancer is angiogenesis, which is the process of formation of new blood vessels that are necessary for tumor expansion, invasion and metastasis. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis is well balanced and controlled by endogenous proangiogenic factors and antiangiogenic factors. However, factors produced by cancer cells, cancer stem cells and other cell types in the tumor stroma can disrupt the balance so that the tumor microenvironment favors tumor angiogenesis. These factors include vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial tissue factor and other membrane bound receptors that mediate multiple intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Though environmental exposures to certain chemicals have been found to initiate and promote tumor development, the role of these exposures (particularly to low doses of multiple substances), is largely unknown in relation to tumor angiogenesis. This review summarizes the evidence of the role of environmental chemical bioactivity and exposure in tumor angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. We identify a number of ubiquitous (prototypical) chemicals with disruptive potential that may warrant further investigation given their selectivity for high-throughput screening assay targets associated with proangiogenic pathways. We also consider the cross-hallmark relationships of a number of important angiogenic pathway targets with other cancer hallmarks and we make recommendations for future research. Understanding of the role of low-dose exposure of chemicals with disruptive potential could help us refine our approach to cancer risk assessment, and may ultimately aid in preventing cancer by reducing or eliminating exposures to synergistic mixtures of chemicals with carcinogenic potential.

  17. Role of Autophagy in Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis of RF/6A Cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Du, Junhui; Chang, Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Autophagy plays a role in the pathogenesis of tumor angiogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. The autophagy level in mammalian cells was found to increase in the state of hypoxia or ischemia reperfusion. However, the role of autophagy in ocular angiogenesis has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of autophagy on hypoxia-induced choroidal and retinal angiogenesis in vitro using a rhesus macaque choroid-retinal endothelial (RF/6A) cell line. RF/6A cells were cultured and randomly divided into three groups according to the different culture media: control, hypoxia model[adding 125μMcobalt chloride (CoCl2) to the culture medium], and hypoxia with an autophagy inhibition group [pretreatment with 5 mmol/L 3-methyladenine (3-MA) for 1.5 h and then adding125μmol/LCoCl2 to the culture medium]. The impact of 3-MA's effect on the level of autophagy proteins (Beclin-1 and LC3) was tested by Western blot analysis. The cell proliferation was assessed using the chromogenicmethylthiazol tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye after 24 and 48 hours. Cell migration was investigated by wound assay. The tube formation was measured on Matrigel. Under chemical hypoxia conditions, Beclin-1 and LC3 levels increased and this change can be inhibited by 3-MA. Cell viability was decreased in cells treated with CoCl2 for 24 and 48 h compared with the control, and pretreatment with 3-MA slightly promoted CoCl2-inhibited cell proliferation. Cell migration and tube formation were increased in cells treated with CoCl2 for 24 and 48 h compared with the control. Pretreatment with 3-MA significantly inhibited CoCl2-induced cell migration and tube formation. Hypoxia-induced autophagy decreased the cell viability and increased the cell migration and tube formation of RF/6A cells. 3-MA can inhibit hypoxia-induced angiogenesis of RF/6A cells in vitro. The present study suggests that autophagy plays a role in retinal and choroidal angiogenesis and the autophagy inhibitor

  18. Blockade of advanced glycation end-product formation restores ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamarat, Radia; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Huijberts, Maya; Benessiano, Joelle; Ebrahimian, Teni G.; Duriez, Micheline; Wautier, Marie-Paule; Wautier, Jean Luc; Lévy, Bernard I.

    2003-01-01

    We hypothesized that formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) associated with diabetes reduces matrix degradation by metalloproteinases (MMPs) and contributes to the impairment of ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Mice were treated or not with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and streptozotocin plus aminoguanidine (AGEs formation blocker, 50 mg/kg). After 8 weeks of treatment, hindlimb ischemia was induced by right femoral artery ligature. Plasma AGE levels were strongly elevated in diabetic mice when compared with control mice (579 ± 21 versus 47 ± 4 pmol/ml, respectively; P < 0.01). Treatment with aminoguanidine reduced AGE plasma levels when compared with untreated diabetic mice (P < 0.001). After 28 days of ischemia, ischemic/nonischemic leg angiographic score, capillary density, and laser Doppler skin-perfusion ratios were 1.4-, 1.5-, and 1.4-fold decreased in diabetic mice in reference to controls (P < 0.01). Treatment with aminoguanidine completely normalized ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice. We next analyzed the role of proteolysis in AGE formation-induced hampered neovascularization process. After 3 days of ischemia, MMP-2 activity and MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein levels were increased in untreated and aminoguanidine-treated diabetic mice when compared with controls (P < 0.05). Despite this activation of the MMP pathway, collagenolysis was decreased in untreated diabetic mice. Conversely, treatment of diabetic mice with aminoguanidine restored collagenolysis toward levels found in control mice. In conclusion, blockade of AGE formation by aminoguanidine normalizes impaired ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice. This effect is probably mediated by restoration of matrix degradation processes that are disturbed as a result of AGE accumulation. PMID:12805564

  19. Blockade of advanced glycation end-product formation restores ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tamarat, Radia; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Huijberts, Maya; Benessiano, Joelle; Ebrahimian, Teni G; Duriez, Micheline; Wautier, Marie-Paule; Wautier, Jean Luc; Lévy, Bernard I

    2003-07-08

    We hypothesized that formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) associated with diabetes reduces matrix degradation by metalloproteinases (MMPs) and contributes to the impairment of ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Mice were treated or not with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and streptozotocin plus aminoguanidine (AGEs formation blocker, 50 mg/kg). After 8 weeks of treatment, hindlimb ischemia was induced by right femoral artery ligature. Plasma AGE levels were strongly elevated in diabetic mice when compared with control mice (579 +/- 21 versus 47 +/- 4 pmol/ml, respectively; P < 0.01). Treatment with aminoguanidine reduced AGE plasma levels when compared with untreated diabetic mice (P < 0.001). After 28 days of ischemia, ischemic/nonischemic leg angiographic score, capillary density, and laser Doppler skin-perfusion ratios were 1.4-, 1.5-, and 1.4-fold decreased in diabetic mice in reference to controls (P < 0.01). Treatment with aminoguanidine completely normalized ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice. We next analyzed the role of proteolysis in AGE formation-induced hampered neovascularization process. After 3 days of ischemia, MMP-2 activity and MMP-3 and MMP-13 protein levels were increased in untreated and aminoguanidine-treated diabetic mice when compared with controls (P < 0.05). Despite this activation of the MMP pathway, collagenolysis was decreased in untreated diabetic mice. Conversely, treatment of diabetic mice with aminoguanidine restored collagenolysis toward levels found in control mice. In conclusion, blockade of AGE formation by aminoguanidine normalizes impaired ischemia-induced angiogenesis in diabetic mice. This effect is probably mediated by restoration of matrix degradation processes that are disturbed as a result of AGE accumulation.

  20. Suppression of Akt-HIF-1α signaling axis by diacetyl atractylodiol inhibits hypoxia-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sik-Won; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Jin Hwan; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Hyun Young; Park, Kie-In; Kim, Sun-Lim; Shin, Hye Kyoung; Seo, Woo Duck

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α is a key regulator associated with tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. HIF-1α regulation under hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. Here, we demonstrate that diacetyl atractylodiol (DAA) from Atractylodes japonica (A. japonica) is a potent HIF-1α inhibitor that inhibits the Akt signaling pathway. DAA dose-dependently inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and downregulated Akt signaling without affecting the stability of HIF-1α protein. Furthermore, DAA prevented hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis based on in vitro tube formation and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Therefore, DAA might be useful for treatment of hypoxia-related tumorigenesis, including angiogenesis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 508-513] PMID:27439603

  1. Role of Jagged1-Hey1 Signal in Angiotensin II-induced Impairment of Myocardial Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ai-Li; He, Tao; Shao, Yi-Bing; Chi, Yi-Fan; Dai, Hong-Yan; Wang, Yan; Xu, Li; Yang, Xuan; Ding, Hua-Min; Cai, Shang-Lang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a major contributor to the development of heart failure. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie this process remain elusive. Inadequate angiogenesis in the myocardium leads to a transition from cardiac hypertrophy to dysfunction, and our previous study showed that Ang II significantly impaired the angiogenesis response. The current study was designed to examine the role of Jagged1-Notch signaling in the effect of Ang II during impaired angiogenesis and cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Ang II was subcutaneously infused into 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice at a dose of 200 ng·kg−1·min−1 for 2 weeks using Alzet micro-osmotic pumps. N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT), a γ-secretase inhibitor, was injected subcutaneously during Ang II infusion at a dose of 10.0 mg·kg−1·d−1. Forty mice were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): control group; Ang II group, treated with Ang II; DAPT group, treated with DAPT; and Ang II + DAPT group, treated with both Ang II and DAPT. At the end of experiments, myocardial (left ventricle [LV]) tissue from each experimental group was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance test followed by the least significant difference method or independent samples t-test. Results: Ang II treatment significantly induced cardiac hypertrophy and impaired the angiogenesis response compared to controls, as shown by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemistry for CD31, a vascular marker (P < 0.05 for both). Meanwhile, Jagged1 protein was significantly increased, but gene expression for both Jag1 and Hey1 was decreased in the LV following Ang II treatment, compared to that in controls (relative ratio for Jag1 gene: 0.45 ± 0.13 vs. 0.84 ± 0.15; relative ratio for Hey1 gene: 0.51 ± 0.08 vs. 0.91 ± 0.09; P < 0

  2. Role of microRNA-214 in ginsenoside-Rg1-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai-Sheung; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Mak, Nai-Ki; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2009-11-05

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional gene modulators. Ginsenoside-Rg1, one of the active components of ginseng, has been confirmed as an angiogenesis inducer. Using miRNA microarray analysis, a total of 17 (including miR-214) and 5 miRNAs were found to be down- or up-regulated by Rg1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), respectively. Since miR-214 is closely related to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and hence angiogenesis, its expression was further validated by qRT-PCR. We also investigated the role of miR-214 on eNOS expression and in tubulogenesis and motility of HUVEC by transfection of specific miRNA inhibitor or precursor. Our results suggested that Rg1 can down-regulate miR-214 expression in HUVEC, leading to an increase in eNOS expression, and in vitro cell migration and tube formation which can possibly promote angiogenesis. These results signify a new understanding towards how a simple natural compound can affect physiological changes through modulation of miRNA expression.

  3. Insulin induces the expression of FGF2 but does not synergize with it during angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Krishnapati, Lakshmi Surekha; Ghaskadbi, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular and ischemic diseases are often associated with diabetes mellitus and develop due to occlusion of blood vessels leading to the blockage and insufficient blood supply to the target organs. Current therapeutic strategies for treating these pathologies include growth factor-, gene- and stem cell-based therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) have been used in clinical trials to induce blood vessels. On the other hand, increased levels of both these growth factors have been observed with intense insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus patients further leading to increased risk of retinopathy. This suggests the presence of a possible crosstalk between insulin, FGF and VEGF pathways during angiogenesis. In the present work, we report the likely absence of synergistic effect between insulin and FGF-2. This was initially observed at morphological and histological levels using chick embryonic chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and confirmed by analyzing the expression of angiogenesis regulatory genes by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Absence of combinatorial effect between insulin, FGF-2 and VEGF during angiogenesis was also demonstrated using CAM assay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Interleukin-12 and interleukin-18 synergistically induce murine tumor regression which involves inhibition of angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, C M; Salhany, K E; Wysocka, M; Aruga, E; Kurzawa, H; Chang, A E; Hunter, C A; Fox, J C; Trinchieri, G; Lee, W M

    1998-01-01

    The antitumor effect and mechanisms activated by murine IL-12 and IL-18, cytokines that induce IFN-gamma production, were studied using engineered SCK murine mammary carcinoma cells. In syngeneic A/J mice, SCK cells expressing mIL-12 or mIL-18 were less tumorigenic and formed tumors more slowly than control cells. Neither SCK.12 nor SCK.18 cells protected significantly against tumorigenesis by distant SCK cells. However, inoculation of the two cell types together synergistically protected 70% of mice from concurrently injected distant SCK cells and 30% of mice from SCK cells established 3 d earlier. Antibody neutralization studies revealed that the antitumor effects of secreted mIL-12 and mIL-18 required IFN-gamma. Interestingly, half the survivors of SCK.12 and/or SCK.18 cells developed protective immunity suggesting that anti-SCK immunity is unlikely to be responsible for protection. Instead, angiogenesis inhibition, assayed by Matrigel implants, appeared to be a property of both SCK.12 and SCK.18 cells and the two cell types together produced significantly greater systemic inhibition of angiogenesis. This suggests that inhibition of tumor angiogenesis is an important part of the systemic antitumor effect produced by mIL-12 and mIL-18. PMID:9502787

  5. Ig-like domain 6 of VCAM-1 is a potential therapeutic target in TNFα-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taek-Keun; Park, Chang Sik; Na, Hee-Jun; Lee, Kangseung; Yoon, Aerin; Chung, Junho; Lee, Sukmook

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced angiogenesis plays important roles in the progression of various diseases, including cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the relevance and role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in angiogenesis have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, VCAM-1 knockdown shows VCAM-1 involvement in TNFα-induced angiogenesis. Through competitive blocking experiments with VCAM-1 Ig-like domain 6 (VCAM-1-D6) protein, we identified VCAM-1-D6 as a key domain regulating TNFα-induced vascular tube formation. We demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody specific to VCAM-1-D6 suppressed TNFα-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation and TNFα-induced vessel sprouting in rat aortas. We also found that the antibody insignificantly affected endothelial cell viability, morphology and activation. Finally, the antibody specifically blocked VCAM-1-mediated cell–cell contacts by directly inhibiting VCAM-1-D6-mediated interaction between VCAM-1 molecules. These findings suggest that VCAM-1-D6 may be a potential novel therapeutic target in TNFα-induced angiogenesis and that antibody-based modulation of VCAM-1-D6 may be an effective strategy to suppress TNFα-induced angiogenesis. PMID:28209985

  6. Ig-like domain 6 of VCAM-1 is a potential therapeutic target in TNFα-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taek-Keun; Park, Chang Sik; Na, Hee-Jun; Lee, Kangseung; Yoon, Aerin; Chung, Junho; Lee, Sukmook

    2017-02-17

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-induced angiogenesis plays important roles in the progression of various diseases, including cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the relevance and role of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in angiogenesis have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, VCAM-1 knockdown shows VCAM-1 involvement in TNFα-induced angiogenesis. Through competitive blocking experiments with VCAM-1 Ig-like domain 6 (VCAM-1-D6) protein, we identified VCAM-1-D6 as a key domain regulating TNFα-induced vascular tube formation. We demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody specific to VCAM-1-D6 suppressed TNFα-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation and TNFα-induced vessel sprouting in rat aortas. We also found that the antibody insignificantly affected endothelial cell viability, morphology and activation. Finally, the antibody specifically blocked VCAM-1-mediated cell-cell contacts by directly inhibiting VCAM-1-D6-mediated interaction between VCAM-1 molecules. These findings suggest that VCAM-1-D6 may be a potential novel therapeutic target in TNFα-induced angiogenesis and that antibody-based modulation of VCAM-1-D6 may be an effective strategy to suppress TNFα-induced angiogenesis.

  7. Nrf2 promotes reparative angiogenesis through regulation of NADPH oxidase-2 in oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanhong; Gong, Junsong; Xu, Zhenhua; Duh, Elia J

    2016-10-01

    Revascularization of ischemic tissue is a highly desirable outcome in multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and ischemic retinopathies. Oxidative stress and inflammation are both known to play a role in suppressing reparative angiogenesis in ischemic disease models including oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), but the regulatory molecules governing these pathophysiologic processes in retinal ischemia are largely unknown. Nrf2 is a major stress-response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulating ischemic angiogenesis in the retina and other tissue beds. Using Nrf2-deficient mice, we investigated the effects of Nrf2 in regulating revascularization and modulating the retinal tissue milieu during ischemia. Strikingly, Nrf2's beneficial effect on reparative angiogenesis only became manifested in the later phase of ischemia in OIR, from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P17. This was temporally associated with a reduction in both oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in wild-type compared to Nrf2(-/-) mice. Nrf2(-/-) retinas exhibited an increase in VEGF but also induction of anti-angiogenic Dll4/Notch signaling. NADPH oxidase (NOX), and especially NOX2, is a major pathogenic molecule and a particularly important contributor to oxidative stress in multiple retinal disease processes. Nrf2(-/-) mice exhibited a significant exacerbation of NOX2 induction in OIR that manifested in the later phases of ischemia. Pharmacologic inhibition of NADPH oxidase abrogated the adverse effect of Nrf2 deficiency on reparative angiogenesis. Taken together, this suggests that Nrf2 is an important regulator of the retinal milieu during tissue ischemia, and that the Nrf2/NOX2 balance may play a critical role in determining the fate of ischemic revascularization.

  8. Dual roles of protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa in coordinating angiogenesis induced by pro-angiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ping-Hui; Chen, Gang; Mason, Malcolm; Jiang, Wen G.; Ye, Lin

    2017-01-01

    A potential role may be played by receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPRK) in angiogenesis due to its critical function in coordinating intracellular signal transduction from various receptors reliant on tyrosine phosphorylation. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of PTPRK in the cellular functions of vascular endothelial cells (HECV) and its role in angiogenesis using in vitro assays and a PTPRK knockdown vascular endothelial cell model. PTPRK knockdown in HECV cells (HECVPTPRKkd) resulted in a decrease of cell proliferation and cell-matrix adhesion; however, increased cell spreading and motility were seen. Reduced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin protein levels were seen in the PTPRK knockdown cells which may contribute to the inhibitory effect on adhesion. HECVPTPRKkd cells were more responsive to the treatment of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in their migration compared with the untreated control and cells treated with VEGF. Moreover, elevated c-Src and Akt1 were seen in the PTPRK knockdown cells. The FGF-promoted cell migration was remarkably suppressed by an addition of PLCγ inhibitor compared with other small inhibitors. Knockdown of PTPRK suppressed the ability of HECV cells to form tubules and also impaired the tubule formation that was induced by FGF and conditioned medium of cancer cells. Taken together, it suggests that PTPRK plays dual roles in coordinating angiogenesis. It plays a positive role in cell proliferation, adhesion and tubule formation, but suppresses cell migration, in particular, the FGF-promoted migration. PTPRK bears potential to be targeted for the prevention of tumour associated angiogenesis. PMID:28259897

  9. Oestrogen-induced angiogenesis and implantation contribute to the development of parasitic myomas after laparoscopic morcellation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ben-Shian; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Wang, Peng-Hui; Li, Hsin-Yang; Chou, Teh-Ying; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2016-10-06

    Iatrogenic parasitic myomas (PMs), caused by intra-corporeal power morcellation during laparoscopy is gradually increasing. However, the pathogenesis and medical treatment of PMs remain largely unelucidated. Laparoscopically-induced PM xenografted mouse model was conducted by xenografting human uterine myoma fragments into the abdominal cavity of SCID mice and hormonal manipulation was performed using this mouse model to demonstrate the role of oestrogen in the development of implanted PMs. Immunohistochemistry of oestrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), vimentin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), microvessel density (MVD) and Ki-67 index was performed and compared. In the patient with PMs, ERα, PR, angiogenesis and proliferative property expression were upregulated in PM lesions compared to uterine myomas. In the laparoscopically-induced PM mouse model, implanted myomas had more steroid receptor expressions, angiogenesis and proliferative property compared with pre-xenografted or non-implanted myoma. Depletion of oestrogen in the ovariectomized (OVX) mice decreased laparoscopically-induced PM implantations. In comparison, the implantations of PMs were increased with additional E2 supplement. Hormonal manipulation in the PM mouse model, including AI, GnRHa and SERM groups, were compared and AI significantly decreased the implantations, steroid receptor, angiogenesis, cell density, and proliferative index of PMs compared with control group. Furthermore, GnRHa significantly decreased VEGF and MVD expressions compared with control group. These data highlight the crucial role of oestrogen in the development of laparoscopically-induced PMs and suggest that hormone manipulation may be a potential therapeutic agent. This protocol was approved by the Human and Animal Institutional Review Board of Taipei Veterans General Hospital ( VGHIRB No 2014-10-002C on Nov. 17(th), 2014; IACUC 2014-119 on Aug. 22(nd), 2014).

  10. Kallistatin protects against bleomycin-induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting angiogenesis and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiao; Xie, Xiaolan; Zeng, Shulan; Li, Zhaofa; Xu, Xianxiang; Yang, Huiyong; Qiu, Fei; Lin, Junsheng; Diao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis and vascular remodeling are the main features of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Kallistatin is an anti-angiogenic peptide with known effects on endothelial cells. This study aimed to demonstrate that kallistatin has beneficial effects on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model by inhibiting angiogenesis. Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups: (A) Saline only (SA)-as the negative control, (B) BLM only (BLM)-as the model group, (C) BLM and 0.1 mg/kg kallistatin (L-Kal), (D) BLM and 0.5 mg/kg kallistatin (M-Kal), and (E) BLM and 2.5 mg/kg kallistatin (H-Kal). Fibrillar collagen was quantified by Masson’s trichrome and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth-muscle-actin (α-SMA) and microvascular density (MVD) were measured by immunohistochemistry. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assayed by Western immunoblotting or ELISA. Daily administration of kallistatin attenuated fibrosis in BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, as shown by histology. During inflammation from BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, kallistatin reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Kallistatin also inhibited VEGF expression and phosphorylation of VEGFR2 (Flk-1). In vitro, kallistatin blocked tube formation by inhibiting Flk-1 and GSK-3β phosphorylation. The results demonstrated that continuous administration of kallistatin attenuated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved survival of BLM rats. Reducing pulmonary fibrosis was achieved by partial inhibition of pulmonary inflammation and angiogenesis. PMID:28386328

  11. Interleukin-33 induces urokinase in human endothelial cells--possible impact on angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Stojkovic, S; Kaun, C; Heinz, M; Krychtiuk, K A; Rauscher, S; Lemberger, C E; de Martin, R; Gröger, M; Petzelbauer, P; Huk, I; Huber, K; Wojta, J; Demyanets, S

    2014-06-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) plays a pivotal role in extracellular proteolysis and is thought to be critically involved in the modulation of angiogenesis. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, which is thought to act as danger signal that is released from cells after injury. IL-33 is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases and previously was shown to induce angiogenesis and inflammatory activation of endothelial cells. We investigated the impact of IL-33 on u-PA in endothelial cells as a new possible function for IL-33. We could demonstrate that IL-33 upregulated u-PA mRNA expression and protein production in human coronary artery and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner via interaction with its receptor ST2 and activation of the nuclear factor-κB pathway but independent of autocrine IL-1-induced effects. The hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor simvastatin abrogated the IL-33-induced increase in u-PA, thus providing further evidence for pleiotropic effects of statins. IL-33 induced u-PA-dependent capillary-like tube formation and vessel sprouting. In human carotid atherosclerotic plaques (n = 16), u-PA mRNA positively correlated with IL-33 mRNA expression (r = 0.780, P < 0.001). Furthermore, IL-33 and u-PA protein were detected in endothelial cells in these samples using fluorescence immunohistochemistry. We hypothesize that IL-33, representing a danger signal that is released after tissue damage, in addition to its role in the inflammatory activation of endothelial cells, is involved in u-PA-driven angiogenesis, a process that has been shown before to be linked to inflammation in various pathologies. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. VAP-1-mediated M2 macrophage infiltration underlies IL-1β- but not VEGF-A-induced lymph- and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Shintaro; Noda, Kousuke; Zandi, Souska; Sun, Dawei; Taher, Mahdi; Schering, Alexander; Xie, Fang; Mashima, Yukihiko; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali

    2011-04-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) contributes to inflammatory and angiogenic diseases, including cancer and age-related macular degeneration. It is expressed in blood vessels and contributes to inflammatory leukocyte recruitment. The cytokines IL-1β and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) modulate angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and leukocyte infiltration. The lymphatic endothelium expresses intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1, which facilitate leukocyte transmigration into the lymphatic vessels. However, whether lymphatics express VAP-1 and whether they contribute to cytokine-dependent lymph- and angiogenesis are unknown. We investigated the role of VAP-1 in IL-1β- and VEGF-A-induced lymph- and angiogenesis using the established corneal micropocket assay. IL-1β increased VAP-1 expression in the inflamed cornea. Our in vivo molecular imaging revealed significantly higher VAP-1 expression in neovasculature than in the preexisting vessels. VAP-1 was expressed in blood but not lymphatic vessels in vivo. IL-1β-induced M2 macrophage infiltration and lymph- and angiogenesis were blocked by VAP-1 inhibition. In contrast, VEGF-A-induced lymph- and angiogenesis were unaffected by VAP-1 inhibition. Our results indicate a key role for VAP-1 in lymph- and angiogenesis-related macrophage recruitment. VAP-1 might become a new target for treatment of inflammatory lymph- and angiogenic diseases, including cancer.

  13. Eriocalyxin B, a natural diterpenoid, inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis and diminished angiogenesis-dependent breast tumor growth by suppressing VEGFR-2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xunian; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Liu, Minghua; Zuo, Zhili; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Li, Mingyue; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Sun, Handong; Pu, Jianxin; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2016-01-01

    Eriocalyxin B (EriB), a natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid isolated from the plant Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora, has emerged as a promising anticancer agent. The effects of EriB on angiogenesis were explored in the present study. Here we demonstrated that the subintestinal vein formation was significantly inhibited by EriB treatment (10, 15 μM) in zebrafish embryos, which was resulted from the alteration of various angiogenic genes as shown in transcriptome profiling. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, EriB treatment (50, 100 nM) could significantly block vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation, tube formation, cell migration and cell invasion. Furthermore, EriB also caused G1 phase cell cycle arrest which was correlated with the down-regulation of the cyclin D1 and CDK4 leading to the inhibition of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein expression. Investigation of the signal transduction revealed that EriB inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 via the interaction with the ATP-binding sites according to the molecular docking simulations. The suppression of VEGFR-2 downstream signal transduction cascades was also observed. EriB was showed to inhibit new blood vessel formation in Matrigel plug model and mouse 4T1 breast tumor model. EriB (5 mg/kg/day) treatment was able to decrease tumor vascularization and suppress tumor growth and angiogenesis. Taken together, our findings suggested that EriB is a novel inhibitor of angiogenesis through modulating VEGFR-2 signaling pathway, which could be developed as a promising anti-angiogenic agent for treatment of angiogenesis-related human diseases, such as cancer. PMID:27756875

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase (G6PI) Mediates Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ying; Yu, Shan-Shan; Zong, Ming; Fan, Sha-Sha; Lu, Tian-Bao; Gong, Ru-Han; Sun, Li-Shan; Fan, Lie-Ying

    2017-01-01

    The higher level of Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) has been found in both synovial tissue and synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, while the function of G6PI in RA remains unclear. Herein we found the enrichment of G6PI in microvascular endothelial cells of synovial tissue in RA patients, where a 3% O2 hypoxia environment has been identified. In order to determine the correlation between the high G6PI level and the low oxygen concentration in RA, a hypoxia condition (~3% O2) in vitro was applied to mimic the RA environment in vivo. Hypoxia promoted cellular proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs), and induced cell migration and angiogenic tube formation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs), which were accompanied with the increased expression of G6PI and HIF-1α. Through application of G6PI loss-of-function assays, we confirmed the requirement of G6PI expression for those hypoxia-induced phenotype in RA. In addition, we demonstrated for the first time that G6PI plays key roles in regulating VEGF secretion from RASFs to regulate the hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in RA. Taken together, we demonstrated a novel pathway regulating hypoxia-induced angiogenesis in RA mediated by G6PI. PMID:28067317

  15. Treatment with Sildenafil and Donepezil Improves Angiogenesis in Experimentally Induced Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ioana M.; Bolfa, Pompei; Mironiuc, Aurel I.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the role of sildenafil (an antagonist of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5)) and donepezil (a specific and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (Ach)) in increasing ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Method. Critical limb ischemia was induced by ligation of the common femoral artery followed by ligation of the common iliac artery. The operated animals were divided into 3 groups: receiving sildenafil, receiving donepezil, and surgery alone; the contralateral lower limb was used as a negative control. The results were controlled based on clinical score and Doppler ultrasound. Gastrocnemius muscle samples were taken from all animals, both from the ischemic and nonischemic limb and were used for histopathological and immunohistochemical examination for the evaluation of the number of nuclei/field, endothelial cells (CD31), dividing cells (Ki-67), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR-3). Results. An increasing tendency of the number of nuclei/field with time was observed both in the case of sildenafil and donepezil treatment. The formation of new capillaries (the angiogenesis process) was more strongly influenced by donepezil treatment compared to sildenafil or no treatment. This treatment significantly influenced the capillary/fiber ratio, which was increased compared to untreated ligated animals. Sildenafil treatment led to a gradual increase in the number of dividing cells, which was significantly compared to the negative control group and compared to the ligation control group. The same effect (increase in the number of Ki-67 positive cells) was more obvious in the case of donepezil treatment. Conclusion. Donepezil treatment has a better effect in ligation-induced ischemia compared to sildenafil, promoting angiogenesis in the first place, and also arteriogenesis. PMID:28243607

  16. Platelet activating factor produced in vitro by Kaposi's sarcoma cells induces and sustains in vivo angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bussolino, F; Arese, M; Montrucchio, G; Barra, L; Primo, L; Benelli, R; Sanavio, F; Aglietta, M; Ghigo, D; Rola-Pleszczynski, M R

    1995-01-01

    Imbalance in the network of soluble mediators may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). In this study, we demonstrated that KS cells grown in vitro produced and in part released platelet activating factor (PAF), a powerful lipid mediator of inflammation and cell-to-cell communication. IL-1, TNF, and thrombin enhanced the synthesis of PAF. PAF receptor mRNA and specific, high affinity binding site for PAF were present in KS cells. Nanomolar concentration of PAF stimulated the chemotaxis and chemokinesis of KS cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. The migration response to PAF was inhibited by WEB 2170, a hetrazepinoic PAF receptor antagonist. Because neoangiogenesis is essential for the growth and progression of KS and since PAF can activate vascular endothelial cells, we examined the potential role of PAF as an instrumental mediator of angiogenesis associated with KS. Conditioned medium (CM) from KS cells (KS-CM) or KS cells themselves induced angiogenesis and macrophage recruitment in a murine model in which Matrigel was injected subcutaneously. These effects were inhibited by treating mice with WEB 2170. Synthetic PAF or natural PAF extracted from plasma of patients with classical KS also induced angiogenesis, which in turn was inhibited by WEB 2170. The action of PAF was amplified by expression of other angiogenic factors and chemokines: these included basic and acidic fibroblast growth factor, placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and its specific receptor flk-1, hepatocyte growth factor, KC, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Treatment with WEB 2170 abolished the expression of the transcripts of these molecules within Matrigel containing KS-CM. These results indicate that PAF may cooperate with other angiogenic molecules and chemokines in inducing vascular development in KS. Images PMID:7543496

  17. Regulation of exercise-induced fiber type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Akhtar, Yasir N.; Lira, Vitor A.

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle exhibits superb plasticity in response to changes in functional demands. Chronic increases of skeletal muscle contractile activity, such as endurance exercise, lead to a variety of physiological and biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle, including mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and fiber type transformation. These adaptive changes are the basis for the improvement of physical performance and other health benefits. This review focuses on recent findings in genetically engineered animal models designed to elucidate the mechanisms and functions of various signal transduction pathways and gene expression programs in exercise-induced skeletal muscle adaptations. PMID:21030673

  18. Comparative Evaluation of TRAIL, FGF-2 and VEGF-A-Induced Angiogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cartland, Siân P.; Genner, Scott W.; Zahoor, Amna; Kavurma, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been implicated in angiogenesis; the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vessel bed. Our aim was to compare pro-angiogenic responses of TRAIL, vascular endothelial growth-factor-A (VEGF-A) and fibroblast growth-factor-2 (FGF-2) either separately (10 ng/mL) or in combination, followed by the assessment of proliferation, migration and tubule formation using human microvascular endothelial-1 (HMEC-1) cells in vitro. Angiogenesis was also measured in vivo using the Matrigel plug assay. TRAIL and FGF-2 significantly augmented HMEC-1 cell proliferation and migration, with combination treatment having an enhanced effect on cell migration only. In contrast, VEGF-A did not stimulate HMEC-1 migration at 10 ng/mL. Tubule formation was induced by all three factors, with TRAIL more effective compared to VEGF-A, but not FGF-2. TRAIL at 400 ng/mL, but not VEGF-A, promoted CD31-positive staining into the Matrigel plug. However, FGF-2 was superior, stimulating cell infiltration and angiogenesis better than TRAIL and VEGF-A in vivo. These findings demonstrate that each growth factor is more effective at different processes of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Understanding how these molecules stimulate different processes relating to angiogenesis may help identify new strategies and treatments aimed at inhibiting or promoting dysregulated angiogenesis in people. PMID:27918462

  19. Injectable gelatin derivative hydrogels with sustained vascular endothelial growth factor release for induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Tiejun; Ding, Chen; Ma, Chi; Sun, Hongchen; Li, Shirong; Liu, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Injectable biomaterials are attractive for soft tissue regeneration because they are handled in a minimally invasive manner and can easily adapt to complex defects. However, inadequate vascularization of the injectable constructs has long been a barrier, leading to necrosis or volume reduction after implantation. In this work, we developed a three-step process to synthesize injectable gelatin-derived hydrogels that are capable of controlling growth factor delivery to induce angiogenesis. In our approach, tyramine was first introduced into gelatin chains to provide enzymatical crosslinking points for gel formation after injection. Next, heparin, a polysaccharide with binding domains to many growth factors, was covalently linked to the tyramine-modified gelatin. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was incorporated into the gelatin derivative by binding with the heparin in the gelatin derivative, and an injectable gel with controlled VEGF release was formed by an enzymatic catalytic reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The gelation time, mechanical properties and degradation of the gel was readily tailored by the gelatin concentration and the ratio of H2O2/HRP. Binding VEGF to heparin stabilizes this growth factor, protects it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation, and subsequently prolongs the sustained release. An in vitro release study and bioactivity assay indicated that the VEGF was released in a sustained manner with high bioactivity for over 3 weeks. Furthermore, a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and animal experiments were performed to evaluate in vivo bioactivity of the VEGF released from the hydrogels. After 5 days of incubation on CAM, the number of blood vessels surrounding the heparin-modified hydrogels was 2.4-fold increase than that of the control group. Deeper and denser cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the heparin-modified gelatin/VEGF gels were observed than in the controls

  20. Adenoviral Mediated Gene Transfer of IGF-1 Enhances Wound Healing and Induces Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, S.; LeSaint, M.; Bhattacharya, S. S.; Moles, C.; Dhamija, Y.; Kidd, M.; Le, L.D.; King, A.; Shaaban, A.; Crombleholme, T. M.; Bollyky, P.; Keswani, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic wounds are characterized by a wound healing and neovascularization deficit. Strategies to increase neovascularization can significantly improve chronic wound healing. Insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) is reported to be a keratinocyte mitogen and is believed to induce angiogenesis via a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) dependent pathway. Using a novel ex vivo human dermal wound model and a diabetic impaired wound healing murine model, we hypothesized that adenoviral over expression of IGF-1 (Ad-IGF-1) will enhance wound healing and induce angiogenesis through a VEGF dependent pathway. Methods Ex vivo: 6 mm full thickness punch biopsies were obtained from normal human skin, and 3 mm full thickness wounds were created at the center. Skin explants were maintained at air liquid interface. Db/db murine model: 8 mm full thickness dorsal wounds in diabetic (db/db) mice were created. Treatment groups in both human ex vivo and in vivo db/db wound models include 1×108 PFU of Ad-IGF-1 or Ad-LacZ, and PBS (n=4–5/group). Cytotoxicity (LDH) was quantified at days 3, 5 and 7 for the human ex vivo wound model. Epithelial gap closure (H&E; Trichrome), VEGF expression (ELISA) and capillary density (CD 31+ CAPS/HPF) were analyzed at day 7. Results In the human ex vivo organ culture, the adenoviral vectors did not demonstrate any significant difference in cytotoxicity compared to PBS. Ad-IGF-1 over expression significantly increases basal keratinocyte migration, with no significant effect on epithelial gap closure. There was a significant increase in capillary density in the Ad-IGF-1 wounds. However, there was no effect on VEGF levels in Ad-IGF-1 samples compared to controls. In db/db wounds, Ad-IGF-1 over expression significantly improves epithelial gap closure and granulation tissue with a dense cellular infiltrate compared to controls. Ad-IGF-1 also increases capillary density, again with no significant difference in VEGF levels in the wounds compared

  1. Injectable gelatin derivative hydrogels with sustained vascular endothelial growth factor release for induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Tiejun; Ding, Chen; Ma, Chi; Sun, Hongchen; Li, Shirong; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Injectable biomaterials are attractive for soft tissue regeneration because they are handled in a minimally invasive manner and can easily adapt to complex defects. However, inadequate vascularization of the injectable constructs has long been a barrier, leading to necrosis or volume reduction after implantation. In this work, we developed a three-step process to synthesize injectable gelatin-derived hydrogels that are capable of controlling growth factor delivery to induce angiogenesis. In our approach, tyramine was first introduced into gelatin chains to provide enzymatic crosslinking points for gel formation after injection. Next, heparin, a polysaccharide with binding domains to many growth factors, was covalently linked to the tyramine-modified gelatin. Finally, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was incorporated into the gelatin derivative by binding with the heparin in the gelatin derivative, and an injectable gel with controlled VEGF release was formed by an enzymatic catalytic reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The gelation time, mechanical properties and degradation of the gel was readily tailored by the gelatin concentration and the ratio of H2O2/HRP. Binding VEGF to heparin stabilizes this growth factor, protects it from denaturation and proteolytic degradation and subsequently prolongs the sustained release. An in vitro release study and bioactivity assay indicated that the VEGF was released in a sustained manner with high bioactivity for over 3 weeks. Furthermore, a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and animal experiments were performed to evaluate in vivo bioactivity of the VEGF released from the hydrogels. After 5 days of incubation on CAM, the number of blood vessels surrounding the heparin-modified hydrogels was increased by 2.4-fold compared with that of the control group. Deeper and denser cell infiltration and angiogenesis in the heparin-modified gelatin/VEGF gels were observed compared to

  2. VEGF111b, a new member of VEGFxxxb isoforms and induced by mitomycin C, inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Fang; Li, Xiuli; Kong, Jian; Pan, Bing; Sun, Min; Zheng, Lemin; Yao, Yuanqing

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •We discovered a new member of VEGFxxxb family-VEGF111b. •We found VEGF111b mRNA and protein can be induced by mitomycin C. •We confirmed VEGF111b over-expression inhibits angiogenesis. •VEGF111b inhibits angiogenesis through inhibiting VEGF-R2/PI3K/Akt and VEGF-R2/ERK1/2 phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) stimulating angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and progression. The conventional VEGF-A isoforms have been considered as pro-angiogenic factors. Another family of VEGF-A isoforms generated by alternative splicing, termed VEGFxxxb isoforms, has anti-angiogenic property, exemplified by VEGF165b. Here, we identify a new number of VEGFxxx family-VEGF111b induced by mitomycin C, although not detected in mitomycin C-unexposed ovarian cancer cells. SKOV3 cells were transfected with pcDNA{sub 3.1} empty vector, pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF111b or pcDNA{sub 3.1}-VEGF165b to collect conditioned mediums respectively. VEGF111b overexpression inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cell by inhibiting VEGF-R2 phosphorylation and its downstream signaling, similar to VEGF165b but slightly lower than VEGF165b. The anti-angiogenic property depends on the six amino acids of exon 8b of the VEGFxxxb isoforms. Our results show that VEGF111b is a novel potent anti-angiogenic agent that can target the VEGF-R2 and its signaling pathway to inhibit ovarian tumor growth.

  3. Antiangiogenic effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor in ischemia-induced angiogenesis in mice hindlimb.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Tamarat, Radia; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Icchiki, Toshihiro; Ebrahimian, Teni; Iglarz, Marc; Besnard, Sandrine; Duriez, Micheline; Inagami, Tadashi; Lévy, Bernard I

    2002-05-31

    This study examined the potential role of angiotensin type 2 (AT(2)) receptor on angiogenesis in a model of surgically induced hindlimb ischemia. Ischemia was produced by femoral artery ligature in both wild-type and AT(2) gene-deleted mice (Agtr2(-)/Y). After 28 days, angiogenesis was quantitated by microangiography, capillary density measurement, and laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), Bax, and Bcl-2 were determined by Western blot analysis in hindlimbs. The AT(2) mRNA level (assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR) was increased in the ischemic hindlimb of wild-type mice. Angiographic vessel density and laser Doppler perfusion data showed significant improvement in ischemic/nonischemic leg ratio, 1.9- and 1.7-fold, respectively, in Agtr2(-)/Y mice compared with controls. In ischemic leg of Agtr2(-)/Y mice, revascularization was associated with an increase in the antiapoptotic protein content, Bcl-2 (211% of basal), and a decrease (60% of basal) in the number of cell death, determined by TUNEL method. Angiotensin II treatment (0.3 mg/kg per day) raised angiogenic score, blood perfusion, and both VEGF and eNOS protein content in ischemic leg of wild-type control but did not modulate the enhanced angiogenic response observed in untreated Agtr2(-)/Y mice. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that VEGF was mainly localized to myocyte, whereas eNOS-positive staining was mainly observed in the capillary of ischemic leg of both wild-type and AT(2)-deficient mice. This study demonstrates for the first time that the AT(2) receptor subtype may negatively modulate ischemia-induced angiogenesis through an activation of the apoptotic process.

  4. High-fat feeding induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle and activates angiogenic pathways in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Silvennoinen, Mika; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Vuento, Mikael; Hulmi, Juha J; Torvinen, Sira; Lehti, Maarit; Kivelä, Riikka; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2013-04-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) increases fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that this leads to increased oxygen demand and thus to increased capillarization. We determined the effects of high-fat diet on capillarization and angiogenic factors in skeletal muscles of mice that were either active or sedentary. Fifty-eight C57BL/6 J mice were divided into four groups: low-fat diet sedentary (LFS), low-fat diet active (LFA), high-fat diet sedentary (HFS), and high-fat diet active (HFA). The mice in active groups were housed in cages with running wheels and the sedentary mice were housed in similar cages without running wheels. After 19 weeks HFS, LFA and HFA had higher capillary density and capillary-to-fiber-ratio in quadriceps femoris muscles than LFS. Capillarization was similar in HFS and HFA. To reveal possible mechanisms of HFD induced angiogenesis, we measured protein and mRNA levels of angiogenic factors VEGF-A, HIF-1α, PGC-1α and ERRα. VEGF-A protein levels were higher in muscles of HFS, LFA and HFA compared to LFS. However, no significant differences were observed between HFA and HFS. Protein levels of HIF-1α, PGC-1α, and ERRα were similar in all groups. However, the mRNA expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A was up-regulated in capillaries but not in muscle fibers of HFS. The sedentary and active mice groups had similar mRNA expression levels of angiogenesis regulators studied. We conclude that high-fat feeding induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle and up-regulates the gene expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A in capillaries.

  5. Elevated Slit2 Activity Impairs VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Tumor Neovascularization in EphA2-deficient Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Youngblood, Victoria; Wang, Shan; Song, Wenqiang; Walter, Debra; Hwang, Yoonha; Chen, Jin; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenic remodeling during embryonic development and in adult tissue homeostasis is orchestrated by cooperative signaling between several distinct molecular pathways, which are often exploited by tumors. Indeed, tumors upregulate pro-angiogenic molecules while simultaneously suppressing angiostatic pathways in order to recruit blood vessels for growth, survival, and metastatic spread. Understanding how cancers exploit pro- and anti-angiogenic signals is a key step in developing new, molecularly targeted anti-angiogenic therapies. While EphA2, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is required for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis, the mechanism through which these pathways intersect remains unclear. Slit2 expression is elevated in EphA2-deficient endothelium, and here it is reported that inhibiting Slit activity rescues VEGF-induced angiogenesis in cell culture and in vivo, as well as VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis, in EphA2-deficient endothelial cells and animals. Moreover, blocking Slit activity or Slit2 expression in EphA2-deficient endothelial cells restores VEGF-induced activation of Src and Rac, both of which are required for VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. These data suggest that EphA2 suppression of Slit2 expression and Slit angiostatic activity enables VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible mechanism for impaired endothelial responses to VEGF in the absence of EphA2 function. PMID:25504371

  6. NADPH oxidase-4 mediates protection against chronic load-induced stress in mouse hearts by enhancing angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Brewer, Alison C.; Schröder, Katrin; Santos, Celio X. C.; Grieve, David J.; Wang, Minshu; Anilkumar, Narayana; Yu, Bin; Dong, Xuebin; Walker, Simon J.; Brandes, Ralf P.; Shah, Ajay M.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac failure occurs when the heart fails to adapt to chronic stresses. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling is implicated in cardiac stress responses, but the role of different ROS sources remains unclear. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) facilitates cardiac adaptation to chronic stress. Unlike other Nox proteins, Nox4 activity is regulated mainly by its expression level, which increases in cardiomyocytes under stresses such as pressure overload or hypoxia. To investigate the functional role of Nox4 during the cardiac response to stress, we generated mice with a genetic deletion of Nox4 or a cardiomyocyte-targeted overexpression of Nox4. Basal cardiac function was normal in both models, but Nox4-null animals developed exaggerated contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy, and cardiac dilatation during exposure to chronic overload whereas Nox4-transgenic mice were protected. Investigation of mechanisms underlying this protective effect revealed a significant Nox4-dependent preservation of myocardial capillary density after pressure overload. Nox4 enhanced stress-induced activation of cardiomyocyte hypoxia inducible factor 1 and the release of vascular endothelial growth factor, resulting in increased paracrine angiogenic activity. These data indicate that cardiomyocyte Nox4 is a unique inducible regulator of myocardial angiogenesis, a key determinant of cardiac adaptation to overload stress. Our results also have wider relevance to the use of nonspecific antioxidant approaches in cardiac disease and may provide an explanation for the failure of such strategies in many settings. PMID:20921387

  7. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 regulates endothelial lumen formation during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Popson, Stephanie A.; Ziegler, Mary E.; Chen, Xiaofang; Holderfield, Matthew T.; Shaaban, Cameron I.; Fong, Ashley H.; Welch-Reardon, Katrina M.; Papkoff, Jackie; Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well established that angiogenesis is a complex and coordinated multi-step process. However, there remains a lack of information about the genes that regulate individual stages of vessel formation. Here, we aimed to define the role of human interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) during blood vessel formation. Approach and Results We identified IFITM1 in a microarray screen for genes differentially regulated by endothelial cells (ECs) during an in vitro angiogenesis assay and found that IFITM1 expression was strongly induced as ECs sprouted and formed lumens. We showed by immunohistochemistry that human IFITM1 was expressed by stable blood vessels in multiple organs. siRNA-mediated knockdown of IFITM1 expression spared EC sprouting but completely disrupted lumen formation, both in vitro and in an in vivo xeno-transplant model. ECs lacking IFITM1 underwent early stages of lumenogenesis (i.e. intracellular vacuole formation) but failed to mature or expand lumens. Coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed occludin as an IFITM1 binding partner in ECs and immunocytochemistry showed a lack of occludin at endothelial tight junctions in the absence of IFITM1. Finally, time-lapse video microscopy revealed that IFITM1 is required for the formation of stable cell-cell contacts during endothelial lumen formation. Conclusions IFITM1 is essential for the formation of functional blood vessels and stabilizes EC-EC interactions during endothelial lumen formation by regulating tight junction assembly. PMID:24603679

  8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced angiogenesis depends on in situ platelet-activating factor biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell growth in vitro, is angiogenic in vivo. Therefore, it was suggested that the angiogenic properties of this agent might be consequent to the production of secondary mediators. Since TNF-alpha stimulates the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) by monocytes and endothelial cells, we investigated the possible involvement of PAF in the angiogenic effect of TNF-alpha. Angiogenesis was studied in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model the angiogenesis induced by TNF-alpha was shown to be inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF receptor antagonist. Moreover, in mice injected with TNF-alpha, PAF was detected within the Matrigel, 6 and 24 h after TNF-alpha injection. The synthesis of PAF within the Matrigel was concomitant with the early migration of endothelial cells and infiltration of monocytes. No infiltration of lymphocytes or polymorphonuclear leukocytes was observed. Synthetic PAF as well as PAF extracted and purified from mice challenged with TNF-alpha induced a rapid angiogenic response, inhibited by WEB 2170. These results suggest that the angiogenic effect of TNF-alpha is, at least in part, mediated by PAF synthesized from monocytes and/or endothelial cells infiltrating the Matrigel plug. PMID:7516414

  9. Hypercholesterolemia induces angiogenesis and accelerates growth of breast tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Kristine; Coticchia, Christine M; Curatolo, Adam S; Schaffner, Carl P; Zurakowski, David; Solomon, Keith R; Moses, Marsha A

    2014-07-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are linked to an increased prevalence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. A common feature of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and a Western diet rich in saturated fat is a high level of circulating cholesterol. Epidemiological reports investigating the relationship between high circulating cholesterol levels, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and breast cancer are conflicting. Here, we modeled this complex condition in a well-controlled, preclinical animal model using innovative isocaloric diets. Female severe combined immunodeficient mice were fed a low-fat/no-cholesterol diet and then randomized to four isocaloric diet groups: low-fat/no-cholesterol diet, with or without ezetimibe (cholesterol-lowering drug), and high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, with or without ezetimibe. Mice were implanted orthotopically with MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast tumors from animals fed the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet exhibited the fastest progression. Significant differences in serum cholesterol level between groups were achieved and maintained throughout the study; however, no differences were observed in intratumoral cholesterol levels. To determine the mechanism of cholesterol-induced tumor progression, we analyzed tumor proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis and found a significantly greater percentage of proliferating cells from mice fed the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Tumors from hypercholesterolemic animals displayed significantly less apoptosis compared with the other groups. Tumors from high-fat/high-cholesterol mice had significantly higher microvessel density compared with tumors from the other groups. These results demonstrate that hypercholesterolemia induces angiogenesis and accelerates breast tumor growth in vivo.

  10. Angiogenesis in ischaemic and hypertrophic hearts induced by long-term bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Brown, M D; Davies, M K; Hudlicka, O

    2005-01-01

    Angiogenesis and improved left ventricular function as a consequence of long-term bradycardia were first demonstrated in normal hearts, either electrically paced (rabbits, pigs) or treated with a selective sinus blocking drug alinidine (rats). Here we review the evidence that chronic heart rate reduction can have similar effects in the heart with compromised vascular supply, due to either hypertensive or haemodynamic overload hypertrophy (rats, rabbits) or ischaemic damage (rats, rabbits, pigs). Bradycardia induced over several weeks increased capillarity in all hypertrophied hearts, and in border and remote left ventricular myocardium of infarcted hearts. In some, but not all cases, coronary blood flow was improved by heart rate reduction, suggesting enlargement of the resistance vasculature in some circumstances. Cardiac or left ventricular function indices, which were depressed by hypertrophy or ischaemic damage, were preserved or even enhanced by chronic heart rate reduction. The expansion of the capillary bed in the vascularly compromised heart induced by bradycardia may be stimulated by mechanical stretch of the endothelium and/or VEGF activated by chamber dilation and myocyte stretch. The increased number of capillaries and more homogeneous distribution of capillary perfusion would support the better pump function, even in the absence of higher coronary flow. The beneficial impact of chronic heart rate reduction on myocardial angiogenesis and function in cardiac hypertrophy and infarction may be major factor in the success of beta-blockers in treatment of human heart failure.

  11. Hypoxia induced CCL28 promotes angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma by targeting CCR3 on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guichun; Tao, Leilei; Shen, Sunan; Chen, Longbang

    2016-06-02

    Tumor hypoxia is one of the important features of lung adenocarcinoma. Chemokines might mediate the effects caused by tumor hypoxia. As confirmed in tumor tissue and serum of patients, CC chemokine 28 (CCL28) was the only hypoxia induced chemokine in lung adenocarcinoma cells. CCL28 could promote tube formation, migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition, angiogenesis was promoted by CCL28 in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and matrigel implanted in dorsal back of athymic nude mice (CByJ.Cg-Foxn1(nu)/J). Tumors formed by lung adenocarcinoma cells with high expression of CCL28 grew faster and had a higher vascular density, whereas tumor formation rate of lung adenocarcinoma cells with CCL28 expression knockdown was quite low and had a lower vascular density. CCR3, receptor of CCL28, was highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells in lung adenocarcinoma when examining by immunohistochemistry. Further signaling pathways in endothelial cells, modulated by CCL28, were analyzed by Phosphorylation Antibody Array. CCL28/CCR3 signaling pathway could bypass that of VEGF/VEGFR on the levels of PI3K-Akt, p38 MAPK and PLC gamma. The effects could be neutralized by antibody against CCR3. In conclusion, CCL28, as a chemokine induced by tumor hypoxia, could promote angiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma through targeting CCR3 on microvascular endothelial cells.

  12. Effectiveness of 2-methoxyestradiol in alleviating angiogenesis induced by intracranial venous hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Zhou, Liangfu; Zhu, Wei; Mao, Ying; Chen, Liang

    2016-09-01

    OBJECT Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are complex intracranial vascular malformations that can lead to hemorrhage. The authors recently found that chronic local hypoperfusion seems to be the main cause of angiogenesis in the dura mater, which leads to the formation of DAVFs. As a natural derivative of estradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) has an antiangiogenic effect and can be used safely in patients with advanced carcinoid tumors. This study was conducted to examine the antiangiogenic effects of 2-ME on a rat DAVF model. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 72) were used in the experiments. Intracranial venous hypertension was induced for modeling, and 2-ME was used in the early or late stage for treatment. The effects were examined by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. RESULTS 2-Methoxyestradiol significantly reduced angiogenesis in the dura in early- and late-intervention treatment groups, as proven by the results of immunohistochemical staining, Western blotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, and microvessel density counts. The antiangiogenic effect even lasted for up to 2 weeks after 2-ME cessation. CONCLUSIONS These data collectively suggest that 2-ME can reduce the angiogenic effect caused by venous hypertension in a rat DAVF model, mainly by suppressing the inhibitor of differentiation 1 (ID-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) pathways.

  13. Nitric oxide mediates angiogenesis induced in vivo by platelet-activating factor and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Montrucchio, G.; Lupia, E.; de Martino, A.; Battaglia, E.; Arese, M.; Tizzani, A.; Bussolino, F.; Camussi, G.

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the role of an endogenous production of nitric oxide (NO) in the in vitro migration of endothelial cells and in the in vivo angiogenic response elicited by platelet-activating factor (PAF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The NO synthase inhibitor, N omega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), but not its enantiomer D-NAME, prevented chemotaxis of endothelial cells induced in vitro by PAF and by TNF. The motogenic activity of TNF was also inhibited by WEB 2170, a specific PAF-receptor antagonist. In contrast, chemotaxis induced by bFGF was not prevented by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. Angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a murine model in which Matrigel was used as a vehicle for the delivery of mediators. In this model, the angiogenesis induced by PAF and TNF was inhibited by WEB 2170 and L-NAME but not by D-NAME. In contrast, angiogenesis induced by bFGF was not affected by L-NAME or by WEB 2170. TNF, but not bFGF, induced PAF synthesis within Matrigel. These results suggest that NO mediates the angiogenesis induced by PAF as well as that induced by TNF, which is dependent on the production of PAF. In contrast, the angiogenic effect of bFGF appears to be both PAF and NO independent. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9250168

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is required for activity-induced angiogenesis in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Haas, T L; Milkiewicz, M; Davis, S J; Zhou, A L; Egginton, S; Brown, M D; Madri, J A; Hudlicka, O

    2000-10-01

    Proteolysis of the capillary basement membrane is a hallmark of inflammation-mediated angiogenesis, but it is undetermined whether proteolysis plays a critical role in the process of activity-induced angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute the major class of proteases responsible for degradation of basement membrane proteins. We observed significant elevations of mRNA and protein levels of both MMP-2 and membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP (2.9 +/- 0.7- and 1.5 +/- 0.1-fold above control, respectively) after 3 days of chronic electrical stimulation of rat skeletal muscle. Inhibition of MMP activity via the inhibitor GM-6001 prevented the growth of new capillaries as assessed by the capillary-to-fiber ratio (1.34 +/- 0.08 in GM-6001-treated muscles compared with 1.69 +/- 0.03 in control 7-day-stimulated muscles). This inhibition correlated with a significant reduction in the number of capillaries with observable breaks in the basement membrane, as assessed by electron microscopy (0.27 +/- 0.27% in GM-6001-treated muscles compared with 3.72 +/- 0.65% in control stimulated muscles). Proliferation of capillary-associated cells was significantly elevated by 2 days and remained elevated throughout 14 days of stimulation. Capillary-associated cell proliferation during muscle stimulation was not affected by MMP inhibition (80.3 +/- 9.3 nuclei in control and 63.5 +/- 8.5 nuclei in GM-6001-treated animals). We conclude that MMP proteolysis of capillary basement membrane proteins is a critical component of physiological angiogenesis, and we postulate that capillary-associated proliferation precedes and occurs independently of endothelial cell sprout formation.

  15. Tocopherol induced angiogenesis in placental vascular network in late pregnant ewes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tocopherols have biphasic, proangiogenic and antiangiogenic therapeutic effects. The objective of this clinical trial was to clarify tocopherol's placental angiogenic potential in late pregnant ewes following oral supplementation. Methods Eighteen pregnant ewes during late gestation were selected for this study. Ewes were given oral supplementation of 500 mg of alpha-tocopherol (aT; N = 6) or 1000 mg of gamma-tocopherol (gT; N = 7) or placebo (CON; N = 5) once daily from 107 to 137 days post breeding. Serum was obtained at weekly intervals and tissue samples were obtained at the end of supplementation to: 1) evaluate tocopherol concentrations in serum, uterus and placentome; 2) evaluate relative mRNA expressions of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), Placental Growth Factor (PlGF), endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) and Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF) in uterus, caruncle and cotyledon; 3) analyze the morphometry of the placental vascular network. Results Supplementation of aT or gT resulted in increased concentrations in serum, placentome and uterus compared to control (P < 0.05). In aT group, mRNA expressions of PlGF, eNOS and HIF-1α in cotyledon were greater than the CON group. In gT group, mRNA expressions of VEGF, eNOS, HIF-1 alpha and HIF-2 alpha in caruncle and uterus, and HIF-1α in cotyledon, were greater than the CON group. Morphometry analysis revealed increased angiogenesis in the supplemented groups. Conclusion Daily oral supplementation of aT or gT increased angiogenesis in the placental vascular network in pregnant ewes during late gestation. Increase in placental angiogenesis may provide nutrients required for the development and growth of fetus during late pregnancy. PMID:20624307

  16. Low-dose exposure to bisphenol A in combination with fructose increases expression of genes regulating angiogenesis and vascular tone in juvenile Fischer 344 rat cardiac tissue

    PubMed Central

    Klint, Helén; Karimullina, Elina; Rönn, Monika; Lind, Lars; Lind, P. Monica

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological studies report associations between exposure to the high-volume chemical and endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) and cardiovascular disorders, but there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the mechanisms of action of BPA on the cardiovascular system. In the present study, effects on markers for cardiovascular function of exposure to BPA and fructose in vivo in rat cardiac tissues, and of BPA exposure in human cardiomyocytes in vitro, were investigated. Materials Juvenile female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 5, 50, and 500 μg BPA/kg bodyweight/day in their drinking water from 5 to 15 weeks of age, in combination with 5% fructose. Further, cultured human cardiomyocytes were exposed to 10 nM BPA to 1 × 104 nM BPA for six hours. Expression of markers for cardiovascular function and BPA target receptors was investigated using qRT-PCR. Results Exposure to 5 μg BPA/kg bodyweight/day plus fructose increased mRNA expression of Vegf, Vegfr2, eNos, and Ace1 in rat heart. Exposure of human cardiomyocytes to 1 × 104 nM BPA increased mRNA expression of eNOS and ACE1, as well as IL-8 and NFκβ known to regulate inflammatory response. Conclusions:. Low-dose exposure of juvenile rats to BPA and fructose induced up-regulation of expression of genes controlling angiogenesis and vascular tone in cardiac tissues. The observed effects of BPA in rat heart were in line with our present and previous studies of BPA in human endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. These findings may aid in understanding the mechanisms of the association between BPA exposure and cardiovascular disorders reported in epidemiological studies. PMID:27622962

  17. Cinnamic aldehyde suppresses hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression during tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woom-Yee; Choi, Jae-Sun; Kim, Ja-Eun; Jeong, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    During tumor progression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a critical role in tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth by regulating the transcription of several genes in response to a hypoxic environment and changes in growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of cinnamic aldehyde (CA) on tumor growth and angiogenesis and the mechanisms underlying CA's anti-angiogenic activities. We found that CA administration inhibits tumor growth and blocks tumor angiogenesis in BALB/c mice. In addition, CA treatment decreased HIF-1α protein expression and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mouse tumors and Renca cells exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Interestingly, CA treatment did not affect the stability of von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL)-associated HIF-1α and CA attenuated the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Collectively, these findings strongly indicate that the anti-angiogenic activity of CA is, at least in part, regulated by the mTOR pathway-mediated suppression of HIF-1α protein expression and these findings suggest that CA may be a potential drug for human cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lavendustin A.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, D E; Fan, T P

    1995-01-01

    1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding angiogenic factor which specifically acts on endothelial cells via distinct membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase receptors. Here we used the rat sponge implant model to test the hypothesis that the angiogenic activity of VEGF can be suppressed by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors. 2. Neovascular responses in subcutaneous sponge implants were determined by measurements of relative sponge blood flow by use of a 133Xe clearance technique, and confirmed by histological studies and morphometric analysis. 3. Daily local administration of 250 ng VEGF165 accelerated the rate of 133Xe clearance from the sponges and induced an intense neovascularisation. This VEGF165-induced angiogenesis was inhibited by daily co-administration of the selective PTK inhibitor, lavendustin A (10 micrograms), but not its negative control, lavendustin B (10 micrograms). Blood flow measurements and morphometric analysis of 8-day-old sponges showed that lavendustin A reduced the 133Xe clearance of VEGF165-treated sponges from 32.9 +/- 1.5% to 20.9 +/- 1.6% and the total fibrovascular growth area from 62.4 +/- 6.1% to 21.6 +/- 6.8% (n = 12, P < 0.05). 4. Co-injection of suramin (3 mg), an inhibitor of heparin-binding growth factors, also suppressed the VEGF165-elicited neovascular response. In contrast, neither lavendustin A nor suramin produced any effect on the basal sponge-induced angiogenesis. 5. When given alone, low doses of VEGF165 (25 ng) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 10 ng) did not modify the basal sponge-induced neovascularisation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 Figure 2 PMID:7533611

  19. Cancer angiogenesis induced by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is mediated by EZH2.

    PubMed

    He, Meilan; Zhang, Wei; Bakken, Thomas; Schutten, Melissa; Toth, Zsolt; Jung, Jae U; Gill, Parkash; Cannon, Mark; Gao, Shou-Jiang

    2012-07-15

    EZH2 is a component of the epigenetic regulator PRC2 that suppresses gene expression. Elevated expression of EZH2 is common in human cancers and is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. In this study, we show that EZH2 elevation is associated with epigenetic modifications of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), an oncogenic virus that promotes the development of Kaposi sarcoma and other malignancies that occur in patients with chronic HIV infections. KSHV induction of EZH2 expression was essential for KSHV-induced angiogenesis. High expression of EZH2 was observed in Kaposi sarcoma tumors. In cell culture, latent KSHV infection upregulated the expression of EZH2 in human endothelial cells through the expression of vFLIP and LANA, two KSHV-latent genes that activate the NF-κB pathway. KSHV-mediated upregulation of EZH2 was required for the induction of Ephrin-B2, an essential proangiogenic factor that drives endothelial cell tubule formation. Taken together, our findings indicate that KSHV regulates the host epigenetic modifier EZH2 to promote angiogenesis.

  20. Lysyl oxidase is involved in synovial hyperplasia and angiogenesis in rats with collagen‑induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Wan, Juan; Li, Qiuyan; Zhang, Mingzhu; Wan, Qiaofeng; Ji, Chen; Li, Haibo; Liu, Rongqing; Han, Mei

    2017-09-07

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) serves an important role in remodeling the extracellular matrix and angiogenesis in various types of cancer; however, whether LOX is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis remains unknown. In order to investigate this in the present study, β‑aminopropionitrile, an inhibitor of LOX, was injected intraperitoneally into rats with type II collagen‑induced arthritis (CIA). Subsequently, synovial hyperplasia was examined by hematoxyl in and eosin staining, and the microvascular density (MVD) and expression levels of LOX, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9 in the synovial membrane and fluid were determined by immunohistochemistry and ELISA, respectively. The enzyme activity of LOX was evaluated by the Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide method. The results demonstrated an increased amount of rough synovial membranes, higher MVD in these membranes and more synovial cell layers in CIA rats compared with in the control rats. In addition, higher enzymatic activity of LOX and higher expression levels of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9 were revealed in CIA rats compared with in the control rats. Notably, β‑aminopropionitrile inhibited paw swelling and the decreased the arthritis index, the MVD in the synovial membranes and the expression levels of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9. Furthermore, the expression level of LOX in the synovial membranes was positively associated with the MVD and the expression levels of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9, suggesting that LOX promotes synovial hyperplasia and angiogenesis and that LOX may be a potential therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis.

  1. Protective effect of salidroside against bone loss via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α pathway-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Qu, Ye; Jin, Xin; Guo, Xiao Qin; Wang, Yue; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Li, Ling Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α plays a critical role in coupling angiogenesis with osteogenesis during bone development and regeneration. Salidroside (SAL) has shown anti-hypoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, the possible roles of SAL in the prevention of hypoxia-induced osteoporosis have remained unknown. Two osteoblast cell lines, MG-63 and ROB, were employed to evaluate the effects of SAL on cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Rats subjected to ovariectomy-induced bone loss were treated with SAL in vivo. Our results showed that pre-treatment with SAL markedly attenuated the hypoxia-induced reductions in cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation and mineralization. SAL down-regulated HIF-1α expression and inhibited its translocation; however, SAL increased its transcriptional activity and, consequently, up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In vivo studies further demonstrated that SAL caused decreases in the mineral, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and BGP concentrations in the blood of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Moreover, SAL improved the trabecular bone microarchitecture and increased bone mineral density in the distal femur. Additionally, SAL administration partially ameliorated this hypoxia via the HIF-1α-VEGF signalling pathway. Our results indicate that SAL prevents bone loss by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis and that these effects are associated with the activation of HIF-1α signalling. PMID:27558909

  2. Assessing the carcinogenic potential of low-dose exposures to chemical mixtures in the environment: focus on the cancer hallmark of tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhiwei; Brooks, Samira A.; Dormoy, Valérian; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Massfelder, Thierry; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Xia, Menghang; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Al-Temaimi, Rabeah; Amedei, Amedeo; Brown, Dustin G.; Prudhomme, Kalan R.; Colacci, Annamaria; Hamid, Roslida A.; Mondello, Chiara; Raju, Jayadev; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Woodrick, Jordan; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Singh, Neetu; Vaccari, Monica; Roy, Rabindra; Forte, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Salem, Hosni K.; Lowe, Leroy; Jensen, Lasse; Bisson, William H.; Kleinstreuer, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    One of the important ‘hallmarks’ of cancer is angiogenesis, which is the process of formation of new blood vessels that are necessary for tumor expansion, invasion and metastasis. Under normal physiological conditions, angiogenesis is well balanced and controlled by endogenous proangiogenic factors and antiangiogenic factors. However, factors produced by cancer cells, cancer stem cells and other cell types in the tumor stroma can disrupt the balance so that the tumor microenvironment favors tumor angiogenesis. These factors include vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial tissue factor and other membrane bound receptors that mediate multiple intracellular signaling pathways that contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Though environmental exposures to certain chemicals have been found to initiate and promote tumor development, the role of these exposures (particularly to low doses of multiple substances), is largely unknown in relation to tumor angiogenesis. This review summarizes the evidence of the role of environmental chemical bioactivity and exposure in tumor angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. We identify a number of ubiquitous (prototypical) chemicals with disruptive potential that may warrant further investigation given their selectivity for high-throughput screening assay targets associated with proangiogenic pathways. We also consider the cross-hallmark relationships of a number of important angiogenic pathway targets with other cancer hallmarks and we make recommendations for future research. Understanding of the role of low-dose exposure of chemicals with disruptive potential could help us refine our approach to cancer risk assessment, and may ultimately aid in preventing cancer by reducing or eliminating exposures to synergistic mixtures of chemicals with carcinogenic potential. PMID:26106137

  3. Wogonin inhibits LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Song, Xiuming; Huang, Yujie; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Mi; Li, Zhiyu; You, Qidong; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2014-08-15

    Wogonin has been shown to have anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effects. However, whether wogonin inhibits LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of wogonin on inhibiting LPS-induced tumor angiogenesis and further probed the underlying mechanisms. ELISA results revealed that wogonin could suppress LPS-induced VEGF secretion from tumor cells. Transwell assay, tube formation assay, rat aortic ring assay and CAM model were used to evaluate the effect of wogonin on angiogenesis induced by MCF-7 cell (treated with LPS) in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effect of wogonin on angiogenesis in LPS-treated MCF-7 cells was then confirmed by the above in vitro and in vivo assays. The study of the molecular mechanism showed that wogonin could suppress PI3K/Akt signaling activation. Moreover, wogonin inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and its binding to DNA. The result of real-time PCR and luciferase reporter assay suggested that VEGF expression was down-regulated by wogonin primarily at the transcriptional level. IGF-1 and p65 expression plasmid were used to activate PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways, and to observe the effect of wogonin on the simualtion of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling. Taken together, the result suggested that wogonin was a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis and provided a new insight into the mechanisms of wogonin against cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pien Tze Huang Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis via HIF-1α/VEGF-A Pathway in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Yuchen; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis plays an important role in the development and metastasis of solid tumors and is highly regulated by HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. Therefore, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling represents a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. As a traditional Chinese medicine formula, Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer in China and Southeast Asia. Previously, we reported that PZH inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) growth both in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the antitumor mechanisms of PZH, in the present study we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and colorectal carcinoma HCT-8 cells to evaluate the effects of PZH on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH could inhibit hypoxia-induced migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells in a dose-dependent manner, although the low concentrations of PZH had no effect on HUVEC viability. Moreover, PZH inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1α signaling and the expression of VEGF-A and/or VEGFR2 in both HCT-8 and HUVEC cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that PZH can inhibit hypoxia-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. PMID:25649293

  5. Pien Tze Huang Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Angiogenesis via HIF-1 α /VEGF-A Pathway in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyu; Zhang, Yuchen; Shen, Aling; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lin, Wei; Sferra, Thomas J; Peng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced angiogenesis plays an important role in the development and metastasis of solid tumors and is highly regulated by HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway. Therefore, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A signaling represents a promising strategy for anticancer treatment. As a traditional Chinese medicine formula, Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer in China and Southeast Asia. Previously, we reported that PZH inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) growth both in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the antitumor mechanisms of PZH, in the present study we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and colorectal carcinoma HCT-8 cells to evaluate the effects of PZH on hypoxia-induced angiogenesis and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that PZH could inhibit hypoxia-induced migration and tube formation of HUVEC cells in a dose-dependent manner, although the low concentrations of PZH had no effect on HUVEC viability. Moreover, PZH inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1α signaling and the expression of VEGF-A and/or VEGFR2 in both HCT-8 and HUVEC cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that PZH can inhibit hypoxia-induced tumor angiogenesis via suppression of HIF-1α/VEGF-A pathway.

  6. Galectin-3 disruption impaired tumoral angiogenesis by reducing VEGF secretion from TGFβ1-induced macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Camila Maria Longo; Andrade, Luciana Nogueira Sousa; Teixeira, Verônica Rodrigues; Costa, Fabrício Falconi; Melo, Camila Morais; dos Santos, Sofia Nascimento; Nonogaki, Suely; Liu, Fu-Tong; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Chammas, Roger

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the role of galectin-3 in tumor angiogenesis associated with tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and tumor parenchyma, the galectin-3 expression was reconstituted in Tm1 melanoma cell line that lacks this protein. Galectin-3-expressing cells (Tm1G3) and mock-vector transfected cells (Tm1N3) were injected into wild-type (WT) and galectin-3 knockout (KO) C57Bl/6 mice. Tumors originated from Tm1G3 were larger in tumor volume with enlarged functional vessels, decreased necrotic areas, and increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels. Galectin-3-nonexpressing-cells injected into WT and KO showed increased levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and, in WT animals this feature was also accompanied by increased VEGFR2 expression and its phosphorylation. In KO animals, tumors derived from galectin-3-expressing cells were infiltrated by CD68+-cells, whereas in tumors derived from galectin-3-nonexpressing-cells, CD68+ cells failed to infiltrate tumors and accumulated in the periphery of the tumor mass. In vitro studies showed that Tm1G3 secreted more VEGF than Tm1N3 cells. In the latter case, TGFβ1 induced VEGF production. Basal secretion of VEGF was higher in WT-bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) than in KO-BMDM. TGFβ1 induced secretion of VEGF only in WT-BMDM. Tm1G3-induced tumors had the Arginase I mRNA increased, which upregulated alternative macrophage (M2)/TAM induction. M2 stimuli, such as interleukin-4 (IL4) and TGFβ1, increased Arginase I protein levels and galectin-3 expression in WT- BMDM, but not in cells from KO mice. Hence, we report that galectin-3 disruption in tumor stroma and parenchyma decreases angiogenesis through interfering with the responses of macrophages to the interdependent VEGF and TGFβ1 signaling pathways. PMID:24421272

  7. MicroRNA-181b and microRNA-9 mediate arsenic-induced angiogenesis via NRP1.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Han, Zhongji; Hu, Yi; Song, Ge; Hao, Chanjuan; Xia, Hongfei; Ma, Xu

    2012-02-01

    Environmental exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds has been reported to have serious health effects on humans. Recent studies reported that arsenic targets endothelial cells lining blood vessels, and endothelial cell activation or dysfunction, may underlie the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced diseases and developmental toxicity. It has been reported that microRNAs (miRNAs) may act as an angiogenic switch by regulating related genes. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that arsenite-regulated miRNAs play pivotal roles in arsenic-induced toxicity. Fertilized eggs were injected via the yolk sac with 100  nM sodium arsenite at Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stages 6, 9, and 12, and harvested at HH stage 18. To identify the individual miRNAs and mRNAs that may regulate the genetic network, the expression profiles of chick embryos were analyzed by microarray analysis. Microarray analyses revealed that the expression of a set of miRNAs changed after arsenite administration, especially miRNA-9, 181b, 124, 10b, and 125b, which exhibited a massive decrease in expression. Integrative analyses of the microarray data revealed that several miRNAs, including miR-9 and miR-181b, might target several key genes involved in arsenic-induced developmental toxicity. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) as a target of mir-9 and mir-181b. Data from the transwell migration assay and the tube-formation assay indicated that miR-9 and mir-181b inhibited the arsenic-induced EA.hy926 cell migration and tube formation by targeting NRP1. Our study demonstrates that the environmental toxin, sodium arsenite, induced angiogenesis by altering the expression of miRNAs and their cognate mRNA targets.

  8. Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene Exposure on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Angiogenesis, Metastasis, and NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Qian; Li, Junyang; Huang, Chao; Qiu, Hongling; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a common environmental and foodborne pollutant. Although the carcinogenicity of high-dose B[a]P has been extensively reported, the effects of long-term B[a]P exposure at lower environmental doses on cancer development are less understood. Objectives We investigated the impact of B[a]P on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression at various levels of exposure and identified a potential intervention target. Methods We used a model based on human HCC cells exposed to various concentrations of B[a]P (i.e., 0.01, 1, or 100 nM) for 1 month to examine the effects of B[a]P on cell growth, migration, invasion, and angiogenicity. A bioluminescent murine model was established to assess tumor metastasis in vivo. Results Chronic B[a]P exposure did not alter HCC cell growth but promoted cell migration and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. There was an negative association between B[a]P exposure and the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, B[a]P-treated HCC cells recruited vascular endothelial cells and promoted tumor angiogenesis, possibly through elevating vascular endothelial growth factor secretion. Furthermore, the NF-κB pathway may be an adverse outcome pathway associated with the cumulative effects of B[a]P on HCC metastasis. Conclusions These findings a) indicate that B[a]P has effects on HCC progression; b) identify a possible adverse outcome pathway; and c) contribute to a better understanding of the adverse effects of chronic exposure of B[a]P to human health. Citation Ba Q, Li J, Huang C, Qiu H, Li J, Chu R, Zhang W, Xie D, Wu Y, Wang H. 2015. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene exposure on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell angiogenesis, metastasis, and NF-κB signaling. Environ Health Perspect 123:246–254; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408524 PMID:25325763

  9. Angiogenesis and liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Recent data indicate that hepatic angiogenesis, regardless of the etiology, takes place in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) that are characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. Because anti-angiogenic therapy has been found to be efficient in the prevention of fibrosis in experimental models of CLDs, it is suggested that blocking angiogenesis could be a promising therapeutic option in patients with advanced fibrosis. Consequently, efforts are being directed to revealing the mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during the progression of liver fibrosis. Literature evidences indicate that hepatic angiogenesis and fibrosis are closely related in both clinical and experimental conditions. Hypoxia is a major inducer of angiogenesis together with inflammation and hepatic stellate cells. These profibrogenic cells stand at the intersection between inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis and play also a pivotal role in angiogenesis. This review mainly focuses to give a clear view on the relevant features that communicate angiogenesis with progression of fibrosis in CLDs towards the-end point of cirrhosis that may be translated into future therapies. The pathogenesis of hepatic angiogenesis associated with portal hypertension, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease are also discussed to emphasize the various mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during liver fibrogenesis. PMID:25848465

  10. Hypercholesterolemia Induces Angiogenesis and Accelerates Growth of Breast Tumors in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Pelton, Kristine; Coticchia, Christine M.; Curatolo, Adam S.; Schaffner, Carl P.; Zurakowski, David; Solomon, Keith R.; Moses, Marsha A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are linked to an increased prevalence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. A common feature of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and a Western diet rich in saturated fat is a high level of circulating cholesterol. Epidemiological reports investigating the relationship between high circulating cholesterol levels, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and breast cancer are conflicting. Here, we modeled this complex condition in a well-controlled, preclinical animal model using innovative isocaloric diets. Female severe combined immunodeficient mice were fed a low-fat/no-cholesterol diet and then randomized to four isocaloric diet groups: low-fat/no-cholesterol diet, with or without ezetimibe (cholesterol-lowering drug), and high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, with or without ezetimibe. Mice were implanted orthotopically with MDA-MB-231 cells. Breast tumors from animals fed the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet exhibited the fastest progression. Significant differences in serum cholesterol level between groups were achieved and maintained throughout the study; however, no differences were observed in intratumoral cholesterol levels. To determine the mechanism of cholesterol-induced tumor progression, we analyzed tumor proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis and found a significantly greater percentage of proliferating cells from mice fed the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Tumors from hypercholesterolemic animals displayed significantly less apoptosis compared with the other groups. Tumors from high-fat/high-cholesterol mice had significantly higher microvessel density compared with tumors from the other groups. These results demonstrate that hypercholesterolemia induces angiogenesis and accelerates breast tumor growth in vivo. PMID:24952430

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Induced by Enriched Environment Enhances Angiogenesis and Motor Function in Chronic Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Hwal; Kim, Myung-Sun; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched environment (EE) on promoting angiogenesis and neurobehavioral function in an animal model of chronic hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. HI brain damage was induced in seven day-old CD-1® mice by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O2 for 90 min). At six weeks of age, the mice were randomly assigned to either EE or standard cages (SC) for two months. Rotarod, forelimb-use asymmetry, and grip strength tests were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function. In order to identify angiogenic growth factors regulated by EE, an array-based multiplex ELISA assay was used to measure the expression in frontal cortex, striatum, and cerebellum. Among the growth factors, the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was confirmed using western blotting. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were also evaluated using immunohistochemistry. As a result, mice exposed to EE showed significant improvements in rotarod and ladder walking performances compared to SC controls. The level of FGF-2 was significantly higher in the frontal cortex of EE mice at 8 weeks after treatment in multiplex ELISA and western blot. On the other hand, FGF-2 in the striatum significantly increased at 2 weeks after exposure to EE earlier than in the frontal cortex. Expression of activin A was similarly upregulated as FGF-2 expression pattern. Particularly, all animals treated with FGF-2 neutralizing antibody abolished the beneficial effect of EE on motor performance relative to mice not given anti-FGF-2. Immunohistochemistry showed that densities of α-SMA+ and PECAM-1+ cells in frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus were significantly increased following EE, suggesting the histological findings exhibit a similar pattern to the upregulation of FGF-2 in the brain. In conclusion, EE enhances endogenous angiogenesis and neurobehavioral functions mediated by

  12. Topical Rapamycin Suppresses the Angiogenesis Pathways Induced by Pulsed Dye Laser: Molecular Mechanisms of Inhibition of Regeneration and Revascularization of Photocoagulated Cutaneous Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbin; Jia, Wangcun; Sun, Victor; Mihm, Martin C.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the most effective treatment for port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks. However, regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels may result in poor therapeutic outcome. We have recently shown that rapamycin (RPM), an angiogenesis inhibitor, can reduce the regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels. Herein, we attempt to further elucidate the molecular pathophysiology on the inhibition of the regeneration and revascularization of photocoagulated blood vessels by topical RPM in an animal model. Materials and Methods Two separate skin areas on each hamster were irradiated by PDL. After PDL exposure, topical RPM was applied daily to one of the randomly selected test sites. PDL, PDL + RPM and normal skin test sites were biopsied on day 3 after PDL exposure. The total ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein were extracted from biopsied skin samples and quantified. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblot were subsequently performed to quantify the mRNA and protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6). The phosphorylation levels of S6 and AKT were also evaluated by immunoblot. Results The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, and S6 significantly increased after PDL exposure as compared to the normal hamster skin. Topical application of 1% RPM suppressed the PDL-induced increase in mRNA and protein levels of those genes on day 3 post-PDL exposure. The phosphorylation levels of S6 and AKT increased after PDL exposure but the increases were suppressed by the topical application of RPM. Conclusion The increase in expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and S6 after PDL-exposure suggests that angiogenesis pathways play very active roles in the process of skin blood vessel regeneration and revascularization. Topical application of 1% RPM can suppress the

  13. Chemopreventive apigenin controls UVB-induced cutaneous proliferation and angiogenesis through HuR and thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Mirzoeva, Salida; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bridgeman, Bryan B; Fitchev, Philip; Cornwell, Mona L; Crawford, Susan E; Pelling, Jill C; Volpert, Olga V

    2014-11-30

    Plant flavonoid apigenin prevents and inhibits UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the skin and has strong anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Here we identify mechanisms, by which apigenin controls these oncogenic events. We show that apigenin acts, at least in part, via endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). TSP1 expression by the epidermal keratinocytes is potently inhibited by UVB. It inhibits cutaneous angiogenesis and UVB-induced carcinogenesis. We show that apigenin restores TSP1 in epidermal keratinocytes subjected to UVB and normalizes proliferation and angiogenesis in UVB-exposed skin. Importantly, reconstituting TSP1 anti-angiogenic function in UVB-irradiated skin with a short bioactive peptide mimetic representing exclusively its anti-angiogenic domain reproduced the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of apigenin. Cox-2 and HIF-1α are important mediators of angiogenesis. Both apigenin and TSP1 peptide mimetic attenuated their induction by UVB. Finally we identified the molecular mechanism, whereby apigenin did not affect TSP1 mRNA, but increased de novo protein synthesis. Knockdown studies implicated the RNA-binding protein HuR, which controls mRNA stability and translation. Apigenin increased HuR cytoplasmic localization and physical association with TSP1 mRNA causing de novo TSP1 synthesis. HuR cytoplasmic localization was, in turn, dependent on CHK2 kinase. Together, our data provide a new mechanism, by which apigenin controls UVB-induced carcinogenesis.

  14. Chemopreventive apigenin controls UVB-induced cutaneous proliferation and angiogenesis through HuR and thrombospondin-1

    PubMed Central

    Veliceasa, Dorina; Bridgeman, Bryan B.; Fitchev, Philip; Cornwell, Mona L.; Crawford, Susan E.; Pelling, Jill C.; Volpert, Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Plant flavonoid apigenin prevents and inhibits UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the skin and has strong anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties. Here we identify mechanisms, by which apigenin controls these oncogenic events. We show that apigenin acts, at least in part, via endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). TSP1 expression by the epidermal keratinocytes is potently inhibited by UVB. It inhibits cutaneous angiogenesis and UVB-induced carcinogenesis. We show that apigenin restores TSP1 in epidermal keratinocytes subjected to UVB and normalizes proliferation and angiogenesis in UVB-exposed skin. Importantly, reconstituting TSP1 anti-angiogenic function in UVB-irradiated skin with a short bioactive peptide mimetic representing exclusively its anti-angiogenic domain reproduced the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects of apigenin. Cox-2 and HIF-1α are important mediators of angiogenesis. Both apigenin and TSP1 peptide mimetic attenuated their induction by UVB. Finally we identified the molecular mechanism, whereby apigenin did not affect TSP1 mRNA, but increased de novo protein synthesis. Knockdown studies implicated the RNA-binding protein HuR, which controls mRNA stability and translation. Apigenin increased HuR cytoplasmic localization and physical association with TSP1 mRNA causing de novo TSP1 synthesis. HuR cytoplasmic localization was, in turn, dependent on CHK2 kinase. Together, our data provide a new mechanism, by which apigenin controls UVB-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:25526033

  15. COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib prevents chronic morphine-induced promotion of angiogenesis, tumour growth, metastasis and mortality, without compromising analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, M; Li, Y; Rogers, T; Poonawala, T; Griffin, R J; Song, C W; Gupta, K

    2007-01-01

    Morphine and its congener opioids are the main therapy for severe pain in cancer. However, chronic morphine treatment stimulates angiogenesis and tumour growth in mice. We examined if celecoxib (a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor) prevents morphine-induced tumour growth without compromising analgesia. The effect of chronic treatment with celecoxib (by gavage) and/or morphine (subcutaneously), or PBS on tumour prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), COX-2, angiogenesis, tumour growth, metastasis, pain behaviour and survival was determined in a highly invasive SCK breast cancer model in A/J mice. Two weeks of chronic morphine treatment at clinically relevant doses stimulates COX-2 and PGE2 (4.5-fold compared to vehicle alone) and angiogenesis in breast tumours in mice. This is accompanied by increased tumour weight (∼35%) and increased metastasis and reduced survival. Co-administration of celecoxib prevents these morphine-induced effects. In addition, morphine and celecoxib together provided better analgesia than either agent alone. Celecoxib prevents morphine-induced stimulation of COX-2, PGE2, angiogenesis, tumour growth, metastasis and mortality without compromising analgesia in a murine breast cancer model. In fact, the combination provided significantly better analgesia than with morphine or celecoxib alone. Clinical trials of this combination for analgesia in chronic and severe pain in cancer are warranted. PMID:17971769

  16. Fetal kidney stem cells ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure and promote renal angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether fetal kidney stem cells (fKSC) ameliorate cisplatin induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats and promote renal angiogenesis. METHODS: The fKSC were isolated from rat fetuses of gestation day 16 and expanded in vitro up to 3rd passage. They were characterized for the expression of mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, respectively. The in vitro differentiation of fKSC towards epithelial lineage was evaluated by the treatment with specific induction medium and their angiogenic potential by matrigel induced tube formation assay. To study the effect of fKSC in ARF, fKSC labeled with PKH26 were infused in rats with cisplatin induced ARF and, the blood and renal tissues of the rats were collected at different time points. Blood biochemical parameters were studied to evaluate renal function. Renal tissues were evaluated for renal architecture, renal cell proliferation and angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry, renal cell apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling assay and early expression of angiogenic molecules viz. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by western blot. RESULTS: The fKSC expressed mesenchymal markers viz. CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105 as well as renal progenitor markers viz. Wt1, Pax2 and Six2. They exhibited a potential to form CD31 and Von Willebrand factor expressing capillary-like structures and could be differentiated into cytokeratin (CK)18 and CK19 positive epithelial cells. Administration of fKSC in rats with ARF as compared to administration of saline alone, resulted in a significant improvement in renal function and histology on day 3 (2.33 ± 0.33 vs 3.50 ± 0.34, P < 0.05) and on day 7 (0.83 ± 0.16 vs 2.00 ± 0.25, P < 0.05). The infused PKH26 labeled fKSC were observed to engraft in damaged renal tubules and showed increased proliferation and reduced

  17. Human Cytomegalovirus Secretome Contains Factors That Induce Angiogenesis and Wound Healing

    SciTech Connect

    Dumortier, Jerome; Streblow, Daniel N.; Moses, Ashlee V.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Kreklywich, Craig N.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Orloff, Susan L.; Nelson, Jay

    2008-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is implicated in the acceleration of a number of vascular diseases including transplant vascular sclerosis (TVS), the lesion associated with chronic rejection (CR) of solid organ transplants. Although the virus persists in the allograft throughout the course of disease, few cells are directly infected by CMV. This observation is in contrast to the global effects that CMV has on the acceleration of TVS/CR, suggesting that CMV infection indirectly promotes the vascular disease process. Recent transcriptome analysis of CMV-infected heart allografts indicates that the virus induces cytokines and growth factors associated with angiogenesis (AG) and wound healing (WH), suggesting that CMV may accelerate TVS/CR through the induction and secretion of AG/WH factors from infected cells. We analyzed virus-free supernatants from HCMV-infected cells (HCMV secretomes) for growth factors, by mass spectrometry and immunoassays, and found that the HCMV secretome contains over 1,000 cellular proteins, many of which are involved in AG/WH. Importantly, functional assays demonstrated that CMV but not herpes simplex virus secretomes not only induce AG/WH but also promote neovessel stabilization and endothelial cell survival for 2 weeks. These findings suggest that CMV acceleration of TVS occurs through virus-induced growth factors and cytokines in the CMV secretome.

  18. Oligo-guanosine nucleotide induces neuropilin-1 internalization in endothelial cells and inhibits angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Narazaki, Masashi; Segarra, Marta; Hou, Xu; Tanaka, Toshio; Li, Xuri

    2010-01-01

    Ligand interaction with cognate cell-surface receptor often promotes receptor internalization, protecting cells from prolonged or excessive signaling from extracellular ligands. Compounds that induce internalization of surface receptors prevent ligand binding to cognate cell-surface receptors serving as inhibitors. Here, we show that synthetic polyriboguanosine (poly G) and oligo-deoxyriboguanosine (oligo G) reduce endothelial levels of surface neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a receptor shared by semaphorin 3A and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which plays critical roles in angiogenesis. Oligo G also reduces levels of cell-surface scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), but not levels of NRP2, gp130, CD31, VEGFR-1, or VEGFR-2. Poly or oligo A, T, and C do not promote NRP1 or SREC-I internalization. We find that oligo G binds to NRP1 with high affinity (Kd:1.3 ± 0.16nM), bridges the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of SREC-I, and induces coordinate internalization of NRP1 and SREC-I. In vitro, oligo G blocks the binding and function of VEGF165 in endothelial cells. In vivo, intravitreal administration of oligo G reduces choroidal neovascularization in mice. These results demonstrate that synthetic oligo G is an inhibitor of pathologic angiogenenesis that reduces cell-surface levels and function of NRP1 acting as an internalization inducer. PMID:20606164

  19. Human cytomegalovirus secretome contains factors that induce angiogenesis and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, Jerome; Streblow, Daniel N; Moses, Ashlee V; Jacobs, Jon M; Kreklywich, Craig N; Camp, David; Smith, Richard D; Orloff, Susan L; Nelson, Jay A

    2008-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is implicated in the acceleration of a number of vascular diseases including transplant vascular sclerosis (TVS), the lesion associated with chronic rejection (CR) of solid organ transplants. Although the virus persists in the allograft throughout the course of disease, few cells are directly infected by CMV. This observation is in contrast to the global effects that CMV has on the acceleration of TVS/CR, suggesting that CMV infection indirectly promotes the vascular disease process. Recent transcriptome analysis of CMV-infected heart allografts indicates that the virus induces cytokines and growth factors associated with angiogenesis (AG) and wound healing (WH), suggesting that CMV may accelerate TVS/CR through the induction and secretion of AG/WH factors from infected cells. We analyzed virus-free supernatants from HCMV-infected cells (HCMV secretomes) for growth factors, by mass spectrometry and immunoassays, and found that the HCMV secretome contains over 1,000 cellular proteins, many of which are involved in AG/WH. Importantly, functional assays demonstrated that CMV but not herpes simplex virus secretomes not only induce AG/WH but also promote neovessel stabilization and endothelial cell survival for 2 weeks. These findings suggest that CMV acceleration of TVS occurs through virus-induced growth factors and cytokines in the CMV secretome.

  20. Human Cytomegalovirus Secretome Contains Factors That Induce Angiogenesis and Wound Healing▿

    PubMed Central

    Dumortier, Jerome; Streblow, Daniel N.; Moses, Ashlee V.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Kreklywich, Craig N.; Camp, David; Smith, Richard D.; Orloff, Susan L.; Nelson, Jay A.

    2008-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is implicated in the acceleration of a number of vascular diseases including transplant vascular sclerosis (TVS), the lesion associated with chronic rejection (CR) of solid organ transplants. Although the virus persists in the allograft throughout the course of disease, few cells are directly infected by CMV. This observation is in contrast to the global effects that CMV has on the acceleration of TVS/CR, suggesting that CMV infection indirectly promotes the vascular disease process. Recent transcriptome analysis of CMV-infected heart allografts indicates that the virus induces cytokines and growth factors associated with angiogenesis (AG) and wound healing (WH), suggesting that CMV may accelerate TVS/CR through the induction and secretion of AG/WH factors from infected cells. We analyzed virus-free supernatants from HCMV-infected cells (HCMV secretomes) for growth factors, by mass spectrometry and immunoassays, and found that the HCMV secretome contains over 1,000 cellular proteins, many of which are involved in AG/WH. Importantly, functional assays demonstrated that CMV but not herpes simplex virus secretomes not only induce AG/WH but also promote neovessel stabilization and endothelial cell survival for 2 weeks. These findings suggest that CMV acceleration of TVS occurs through virus-induced growth factors and cytokines in the CMV secretome. PMID:18448536

  1. Macrophage-induced angiogenesis is mediated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, S J; Polverini, P J; Shepard, H M; Wiseman, D M; Shively, V; Nuseir, N

    Macrophages are important in the induction of new blood vessel growth during wound repair, inflammation and tumour growth. We show here that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a secretory product of activated macrophages that is believed to mediate tumour cytotoxicity, is a potent inducer of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis). In vivo, TNF-alpha induces capillary blood vessel formation in the rat cornea and the developing chick chorioallantoic membrane at very low doses. In vitro, TNF-alpha stimulates chemotaxis of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells and induces cultures of these cells grown on type-1 collagen gels to form capillary-tube-like structures. The angiogenic activity produced by activated murine peritoneal macrophages is completely neutralized by a polyclonal antibody to TNF-alpha, suggesting immunological features are common to TNF-alpha and the protein responsible for macrophage-derived angiogenic activity. In inflammation and wound repair, TNF-alpha could augment repair by stimulating new blood vessel growth; in tumours, TNF-alpha might both stimulate tumour development by promoting vessel growth and participate in tumour destruction by direct cytotoxicity.

  2. Hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tong Qiangsong; Zheng Liduan; Li Bo; Wang Danming; Huang Chuanshu; Matuschak, George M.; Li Dechun . E-mail: dli2@slu.edu

    2006-11-01

    Our previous studies have indicated that hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF) has angiogenic properties in an in vivo matrigel plug model and HIMF upregulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse lungs and cultured lung epithelial cells. However, whether HIMF exerts angiogenic effects through modulating endothelial cell function remains unknown. In this study, mouse aortic rings cultured with recombinant HIMF protein resulted in enhanced vascular sprouting and increased endothelial cell spreading as confirmed by Dil-Ac-LDL uptake, von Willebrand factor and CD31 staining. In cultured mouse endothelial cell line SVEC 4-10, HIMF dose-dependently enhanced cell proliferation, in vitro migration and tubulogenesis, which was not attenuated by SU1498, a VEGFR2/Flk-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Moreover, HIMF stimulation resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, p38 and ERK1/2 kinases in SVEC 4-10 cells. Treatment of mouse aortic rings and SVEC 4-10 cells with LY294002, but not SB203580, PD098059 or U0126, abolished HIMF-induced vascular sprouting and angiogenic responses. In addition, transfection of a dominant-negative mutant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K), {delta}p85, blocked HIMF-induced phosphorylation of Akt, endothelial activation and tubulogenesis. These results indicate that HIMF enhances angiogenesis by promoting proliferation and migration of endothelial cells via activation of the PI-3K/Akt pathways.

  3. Macrophage-induced angiogenesis is mediated by tumour necrosis factor-α

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovich, S. Joseph; Polverini, Peter J.; Shepard, H. Michael; Wiseman, David M.; Shively, Vera; Nuseir, Nureddin

    1987-10-01

    Macrophages are important in the induction of new blood vessel growth during wound repair, inflammation and tumour growth1-4. We show here that tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a secretory product of activated macrophages that is believed to mediate tumour cytotoxicity5-9, is a potent inducer of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis). In vivo, TNF-α induces capillary blood vessel formation in the rat cornea and the developing chick chorioallantoic membrane at very low doses. In vitro, TNF-α stimulates chemotaxis of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells and induces cultures of these cells grown on type-1 collagen gels to form capillary-tube-like structures. The angiogenic activity produced by activated murine peritoneal macrophages is completely neutralized by a polyclonal antibody to TNF-α, suggesting immunological features are common to TNF-α and the protein responsible for macrophage-derived angiogenic activity. In inflammation and wound repair, TNF-α could augment repair by stimulating new blood vessel growth; in tumours, TNF-α might both stimulate tumour development by promoting vessel growth and participate in tumour destruction by direct cytotoxicity10-12.

  4. Fumagillin, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, induces Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takayuki; Uehara, Taeko; Osawa, Madori; Fukumoto, Hitomi; Mine, Sohtaro; Ueda, Keiji; Hasegawa, Hideki; Katano, Harutaka

    2015-08-07

    Kaposi sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma cells are infected with Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), predominantly in the latent form, and KSHV replication is observed rarely. Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of both Kaposi sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma. In this study, we found that fumagillin, a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, induced replication of KSHV in primary effusion lymphoma cell lines. The transcript and protein product of replication transcriptional activator (RTA) were induced by 1-10 μM fumagillin at 24 and 48 h, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that 10 μM fumagillin induced not only RTA expression but also other KSHV-encoded lytic proteins. A real-time PCR array detecting KSHV gene expression demonstrated that the expression profiles of KSHV induced by fumagillin were similar to those induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), but the amounts of each transcript were lower than those induced by TPA. Finally, real-time PCR demonstrated an increase in that viral DNA copy number per cell in fumagillin-stimulated primary effusion lymphoma cell lines, indicating replication of KSHV. In addition to TPA, 10 μM fumagillin resulted in growth inhibition of primary effusion lymphoma cell lines. These observations suggest that an angiogenesis inhibitor is an agent with potent effects on cell growth and KSHV reactivation in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. R-(-)-{beta}-O-methylsynephrine, a natural product, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nam Hee; Pham, Ngoc Bich; Quinn, Ronald J.; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} R-(-)-{beta}-O-methylsynephrine (OMe-Syn) is a natural compound isolated from a plant of the Rutaceae family. {yields} OMe-Syn possesses lead-like physicochemical properties, conferring good solubility. {yields} OMe-Syn effectively inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. {yields} OMe-Syn could be a novel basis for a small molecule targeting angiogenesis. -- Abstract: R-(-)-{beta}-O-methylsynephrine (OMe-Syn) is an active compound isolated from a plant of the Rutaceae family. We conducted cell proliferation assays on various cell lines and found that OMe-Syn more strongly inhibited the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) than that of other normal and cancer cell lines tested. In angiogenesis assays, it inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced invasion and tube formation of HUVECs with no toxicity. The anti-angiogenic activity of OMe-Syn was also validated in vivo using the chorioallantonic membrane (CAM) assay in growing chick embryos. Expression of the growth factors VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor was suppressed by OMe-Syn in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that this compound could be a novel basis for a small molecule targeting angiogenesis.

  6. Synthetic stigmasterol derivatives inhibit capillary tube formation, herpetic corneal neovascularization and tumor induced angiogenesis: Antiangiogenic stigmasterol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Flavia M; Lombardi, María Gabriela; Bueno, Carlos A; Berra, Alejandro; Sales, María Elena; Alché, Laura E

    2016-11-01

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in initiating and promoting several diseases, such as cancer and herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). Herein, we studied the inhibitory effect of two synthetic stigmasterol derivatives on capillary tube-like structures and on cell migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC): (22S,23S)-22,23-dihydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (compound 1) and (22S,23S)-3β-bromo-5α,22,23-trihydroxystigmastan-6-one (compound 2). We also studied their effect on VEGF expression in IL-6 stimulated macrophages and in LMM3 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we investigated the antiangiogenic activity of the compounds on corneal neovascularization in the murine model of HSK and in an experimental model of tumor-induced angiogenesis in mice. Both compounds inhibited capillary tube-like formation, but only compound 1 restrained cell migration. Compound 1, unlike compound 2, was able to reduce VEGF expression. Only compound 1 not only reduced the incidence and severity of corneal neovascularization, when administered at the onset of HSK, but it also restrained the development of neovascular response induced by tumor cells in mice skin. Our results show that compound 1 inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, compound 1 would be a promising drug in the treatment of those diseases where angiogenesis represents one of the main pathogenic events.

  7. Hypoxia inducible factor stabilization improves defective ischemia-induced angiogenesis in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Schellinger, Isabel N; Cordasic, Nada; Panesar, Julian; Buchholz, Björn; Jacobi, Johannes; Hartner, Andrea; Klanke, Bernd; Jakubiczka-Smorag, Joanna; Burzlaff, Nicolai; Heinze, Eva; Warnecke, Christina; Raaz, Uwe; Willam, Carsten; Tsao, Philip S; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Amann, Kerstin; Hilgers, Karl F

    2017-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased risk and worse prognosis of cardiovascular disease, including peripheral artery disease. An impaired angiogenic response to ischemia may contribute to poor outcomes of peripheral artery disease in patients with CKD. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) are master regulators of angiogenesis and therefore represent a promising target for therapeutic intervention. To test this we induced hind-limb ischemia in rats with CKD caused by 5/6 nephrectomy and administered two different treatments known to stabilize HIF protein in vivo: carbon monoxide and a pharmacological inhibitor of prolyl hydroxylation 2-(1-chloro-4- hydroxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido) acetate (ICA). Expression levels of pro-angiogenic HIF target genes (Vegf, Vegf-r1, Vegf-r2, Ho-1) were measured by qRT-PCR. Capillary density was measured by CD31 immunofluorescence staining and HIF expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Capillary density in ischemic skeletal muscle was significantly lower in CKD animals compared to sham controls. Rats with CKD showed significantly lower expression of HIF and all measured pro-angiogenic HIF target genes, including VEGF. Both HIF stabilizing treatments rescued HIF target gene expression in animals with CKD and led to significantly higher ischemia-induced capillary sprouting compared to untreated controls. ICA was effective regardless of whether it was administered before or after induction of ischemia and led to a HIF expression in skeletal muscle. Thus, impaired ischemia-induced angiogenesis in rats with CKD can be improved by HIF stabilization, even if started after onset of ischemia.

  8. Adiponectin induces CXCL1 secretion from cancer cells and promotes tumor angiogenesis by inducing stromal fibroblast senescence.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lun; Xu, Shengyuan; Piao, Chunmei; Qiu, Shulan; Li, Huihua; Du, Jie

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine with proliferative and pro-angiogenic effects that regulates many biological processes, including immunity, insulin resistance, and inflammation. The oncogenic role of adiponectin has been implicated in several cancer types. Stromal cells within tumor contribute tumor growth and angiogenesis; however, it is not clear that how adiponectin regulates stromal cell-mediated tumorigenesis. In this study, using the tumor xenograft models, we demonstrated that tumor development was severely impaired in mouse subcutaneous cancer tissue and metastasis tumor tissue in adiponectin knockout mice. Our results indicated adiponectin deficiency resulted in decrease of blood vessel and stromal senescent fibroblasts in subcutaneous and metastasis tumor tissue. These observations were confirmed in vitro, in which co-cultured tumor cells and fibroblasts treated with adiponectin promoted ECs tube formation. A secretion of CXCL1 by adiponectin-treated tumor cells was observed during the process of inducing stromal fibroblast senescence. Furthermore, stromal cells senescence was through p53 and p16 pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that adiponectin promotes stromal cell senescence within invasive colon cancer contributing to angiogenesis and tumor growth in part through the production of CXCL1 and may serve as a therapeutic target for tumor patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Soliton driven angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carretero, M.; Terragni, F.; Birnir, B.

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenesis is a multiscale process by which blood vessels grow from existing ones and carry oxygen to distant organs. Angiogenesis is essential for normal organ growth and wounded tissue repair but it may also be induced by tumours to amplify their own growth. Mathematical and computational models contribute to understanding angiogenesis and developing anti-angiogenic drugs, but most work only involves numerical simulations and analysis has lagged. A recent stochastic model of tumour-induced angiogenesis including blood vessel branching, elongation, and anastomosis captures some of its intrinsic multiscale structures, yet allows one to extract a deterministic integropartial differential description of the vessel tip density. Here we find that the latter advances chemotactically towards the tumour driven by a soliton (similar to the famous Korteweg-de Vries soliton) whose shape and velocity change slowly. Analysing these collective coordinates paves the way for controlling angiogenesis through the soliton, the engine that drives this process.

  10. Role of B61, the Ligand for the Eck Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, in TNF- α-Induced Angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Akhilesh; Shao, Haining; Marks, Rory M.; Polverini, Peter J.; Dixit, Vishva M.

    1995-04-01

    B61, a cytokine-inducible endothelial gene product, is the ligand for the Eck receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK). Expression of a B61-immunoglobulin chimera showed that B61 could act as an angiogenic factor in vivo and a chemoattractant for endothelial cells in vitro. The Eck RPTK was activated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) through induction of B61, and an antibody to B61 attenuated angiogenesis induced by TNF-α but not by basic fibroblast growth factor. This finding suggests the existence of an autocrine or paracrine loop involving activation of the Eck RPTK by its inducible ligand B61 after an inflammatory stimulus, the net effect of which would be to promote angiogenesis, a hallmark of chronic inflammation.

  11. Involvement of αvβ3 integrin in gremlin-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Cosetta; Mitola, Stefania; Corsini, Michela; Presta, Marco

    2013-01-01

    α(v)β(3) integrin modulates pro-angiogenic endothelial cell (EC) responses following vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) engagement. The bone morphogenic protein antagonist gremlin is a novel non-canonical VEGFR2 ligand that promotes the acquisition of a pro-angiogenic phenotype in ECs. Here we investigated the role of α(v)β(3) and extracellular matrix components on EC activation induced by gremlin. Gremlin triggers VEGFR2 phosphorylation and cell motility in ECs adherent to the α(v)β(3) ligand fibrinogen but not in ECs adherent to type-I collagen or fibronectin. Also, gremlin and VEGF-A stimulate the formation of VEGFR2/α(v)β(3) integrin complexes as shown by co-immunoprecipitation experiments and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis of β(3)-ECFP/VEGFR2-EYFP co-transfected ECs. Accordingly, anti-β(3) antibodies block the angiogenic activity exerted by gremlin or VEGF-A in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. The results demonstrate a non-redundant role for α(v)β(3) in gremlin-induced angiogenesis and emphasize its contribution to the formation of functional multi-molecular VEGFR2 complexes responsible for the neovascularization events triggered by canonical and non-canonical pro-angiogenic VEGFR2 ligands.

  12. One-day treatment of small molecule 8-bromo-cyclic AMP analogue induces cell-based VEGF production for in vitro angiogenesis and osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kevin W-H; Kan, Ho Man; Gagnon, Keith A; Laurencin, Cato T

    2016-10-01

    Small molecule-based regenerative engineering is emerging as a promising strategy for regenerating bone tissue. Small molecule cAMP analogues have been proposed as novel biofactors for bone repair and regeneration and, while promising, the effect that these small molecules have on angiogenesis, a critical requirement for successful bone regeneration, is still unclear. Our previous research demonstrated that the small molecule cAMP analogue 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) was able to promote initial osteoblast adhesion on a polymeric scaffold via cAMP signalling cascades. Here, we report that 8-Br-cAMP is capable of inducing in vitro cell-based VEGF production for angiogenesis promotion. We first demonstrated that treating osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells with 8-Br-cAMP for 1 day significantly increased VEGF production and secretion. We then demonstrated that 8-Br-cAMP-induced cell-secreted VEGF is biologically active and may promote angiogenesis, as evidenced by increased human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) migration and tubule formation. In addition, treatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with 8-Br-cAMP for as short as a single day resulted in enhanced ALP activity as well as matrix mineralization, demonstrating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. A short-term 8-Br-cAMP treatment also addresses the concern of non-specific cytotoxicity, as our data indicate that a 1-day 8-Br-cAMP treatment scheme supports cellular proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells as well as HUVECs. While the major concern associated with small molecule drugs is the risk of non-specific cytotoxicity, the short exposure treatment outlined in this paper provides a very promising strategy to mitigate the risk associated with small molecules. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  14. PEP-1-CAT-Transduced Mesenchymal Stem Cells Acquire an Enhanced Viability and Promote Ischemia-Induced Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jia-Ning; Tang, Jun-Ming; Yang, Jian-Ye; Guo, Ling-Yun; Zheng, Fei; Kong, Xia; Huang, Yong-Zhang; Chen, Shi-You

    2012-01-01

    Objective Poor survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) compromised the efficacy of stem cell therapy for ischemic diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of PEP-1-CAT transduction in MSC survival and its effect on ischemia-induced angiogenesis. Methods MSC apoptosis was evaluated by DAPI staining and quantified by Annexin V and PI double staining and Flow Cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activities were simultaneously measured. MSC mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed with JC-1 staining. MSC survival in rat muscles with gender-mismatched transplantation of the MSC after lower limb ischemia was assessed by detecting SRY expression. MSC apoptosis in ischemic area was determined by TUNEL assay. The effect of PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC on angiogenesis in vivo was determined in the lower limb ischemia model. Results PEP-1-CAT transduction decreased MSC apoptosis rate while down-regulating MDA content and blocking LDH release as compared to the treatment with H2O2 or CAT. However, SOD activity was up-regulated in PEP-1-CAT-transduced cells. Consistent with its effect on MSC apoptosis, PEP-1-CAT restored H2O2-attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential. Mechanistically, PEP-1-CAT blocked H2O2-induced down-regulation of PI3K/Akt activity, an essential signaling pathway regulating MSC apoptosis. In vivo, the viability of MSC implanted into ischemic area in lower limb ischemia rat model was increased by four-fold when transduced with PEP-1-CAT. Importantly, PEP-1-CAT-transduced MSC significantly enhanced ischemia-induced angiogenesis by up-regulating VEGF expression. Conclusions PEP-1-CAT-transduction was able to increase MSC viability by regulating PI3K/Akt activity, which stimulated ischemia-induced angiogenesis. PMID:23285080

  15. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and AKT. MMP-2 activation was also significantly increased. Specific inhibitors of p38 (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited tube formation and wound healing, while an ERK inhibitor (PD98059) did not. MMP-2 activation and AKT phosphorylation were also attenuated and associated with the suppression of p38 and JNK phosphorylation, but not with that of ERK. These results indicate that fucoidan, in the presence of FGF-2, induces angiogenesis through AKT/MMP-2 signalling by activating p38 and JNK. These findings provide basic molecular information on the effect of fucoidan on angiogenesis in the presence of FGF-2.

  16. D-Amino acid oxidase-induced oxidative stress, 3-bromopyruvate and citrate inhibit angiogenesis, exhibiting potent anticancer effects.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Yorita, K; Chung, S P; Tran, D H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-10-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for cancer growth and metastasis. Steps of angiogenesis are energy consuming, while vascular endothelial cells are highly glycolytic. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor and this enhances its aggressiveness. D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a promising therapeutic protein that induces oxidative stress upon acting on its substrates. Oxidative stress-energy depletion (OSED) therapy was recently reported (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther, 19, 1-18, 2012). OSED combines DAO-induced oxidative stress with energy depletion caused by glycolytic inhibitors such as 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a hexokinase II inhibitor that depleted ATP in cancer cells and induced production of hydrogen peroxide. 3BP disturbs the Warburg effect and antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate (El Sayed et al., J Bioenerg Biomembr, 44, 61-79, 2012). Citrate is a natural organic acid capable of inhibiting glycolysis by targeting phosphofructokinase. Here, we report that DAO, 3BP and citrate significantly inhibited angiogenesis, decreased the number of vascular branching points and shortened the length of vascular tubules. OSED delayed the growth of C6/DAO glioma cells. 3BP combined with citrate delayed the growth of C6 glioma cells and decreased significantly the number and size of C6 glioma colonies in soft agar. Human GBM cells (U373MG) were resistant to chemotherapy e.g. cisplatin and cytosine arabinoside, while 3BP was effective in decreasing the viability and disturbing the morphology of U373MG cells.

  17. BRN-103, a novel nicotinamide derivative, inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis and proliferation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Eun; Yoo, Min-Sang; Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Jae Yeol; Kim, Je Hak; Kim, Ji Han; Lee, Joon Kwang; Kim, Gyu Il; Park, Yong; Chi, Yong Ha; Paik, Soo Heui; Lee, Joo Han; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2011-11-01

    Anti-angiogenesis is regarded as an effective strategy for cancer treatment, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in the regulations of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. In the present study, the authors synthesized five novel nicotinamide derivatives which structurally mimic the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib and evaluated their anti-angiogenic effects. Transwell migration assays revealed that 2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl) amino-N-(3-chlorophenyl) nicotinamide (BRN-103), among the five derivatives most potently inhibited VEGF-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition, BRN-103 dose-dependently inhibited VEGF-induced migration, proliferation, and capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs and vessel sprouting from mouse aortic rings. To understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for these activities, the authors examined the effect of BRN-103 on VEGF signaling pathways in HUVECs. BRN-103 was found to suppress the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGR2) and the activations of AKT and eNOS. Taken together, these results suggest that BRN-103 inhibits VEGF-mediated angiogenesis signaling in human endothelial cells.

  18. Estradiol triggers sonic-hedgehog-induced angiogenesis during peripheral nerve regeneration by downregulating hedgehog-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Haruki; Ii, Masaaki; Jujo, Kentaro; Renault, Marie-Ange; Thorne, Tina; Clarke, Trevor; Ito, Aiko; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Klyachko, Ekaterina; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Losordo, Douglas

    2012-04-01

    Both estradiol (E2) and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) contribute to angiogenesis and nerve regeneration. Here, we investigated whether E2 improves the recovery of injured nerves by downregulating the Shh inhibitor hedgehog-interacting protein (HIP) and increasing Shh-induced angiogenesis. Mice were treated with local injections of E2 or placebo one week before nerve-crush injury; 28 days after injury, nerve conduction velocity, exercise duration, and vascularity were significantly greater in E2-treated mice than in placebo-treated mice. E2 treatment was also associated with higher mRNA levels of Shh, the Shh receptor Patched-1, and the Shh transcriptional target Gli1, but with lower levels of HIP. The E2-induced enhancement of nerve vascularity was abolished by the Shh inhibitor cyclopamine, and the effect of E2 treatment on Shh, Gli1, and HIP mRNA expression was abolished by the E2 inhibitor ICI. Gli-luciferase activity in human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) increased more after treatment with E2 and Shh than after treatment with E2 alone, and E2 treatment reduced HIP expression in HUVECs and Schwann cells without altering Shh expression. Collectively, these findings suggest that E2 improves nerve recovery, at least in part, by reducing HIP expression, which subsequently leads to an increase in Shh signaling and Shh-induced angiogenesis.

  19. Inorganic phosphate induces cancer cell mediated angiogenesis dependent on forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2) regulated osteopontin expression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiming; McKinnon, Kelly E; Ha, Shin Woo; Beck, George R

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies in both rodents and humans suggest that elevated serum phosphorus, in the context of normal renal function, potentiates, or exacerbates pathologies associates with cardiovascular disease, bone metabolism, and cancer. Our recent microarray studies identified the potent stimulation of pro-angiogenic genes such as forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2), osteopontin, and Vegfα, among others in response to elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi). Increased angiogenesis and neovascularization are important events in tumor growth and the progression to malignancy and FOXC2 has recently been identified as a potential transcriptional regulator of these processes. In this study we addressed the possibility that a high Pi environment would increase the angiogenic potential of cancer cells through a mechanism requiring FOXC2. Our studies utilized lung and breast cancer cell lines in combination with the human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) vessel formation model to better understand the mechanism(s) by which a high Pi environment might alter cancer progression. Exposure of cancer cells to elevated Pi stimulated expression of FOXC2 and conditioned medium from the Pi-stimulated cancer cells stimulated migration and tube formation in the HUVEC model. Mechanistically, we define the requirement of FOXC2 for Pi-induced osteopontin (OPN) expression and secretion from cancer cells as necessary for the angiogenic response. These studies reveal for the first time that cancer cells grown in a high Pi environment promote migration of endothelial cells and tube formation and in so doing identify a novel potential therapeutic target to reduce tumor progression.

  20. Interleukin-1β induces fibroblast growth factor 2 expression and subsequently promotes endothelial progenitor cell angiogenesis in chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Szu-Yu; Huang, Chun-Yin; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Wang, Shih-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Arthritis is a process of chronic inflammation that results in joint damage. IL (interleukin)-1β is an inflammatory cytokine that acts as a key mediator of cartilage degradation, and is abundantly expressed in arthritis. Neovascularization is one of the pathological characteristics of arthritis. However, the role of IL-1β in the angiogenesis of chondrocytes remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that stimulating chondrocytes (ATDC5) with IL-1β increased the expression of FGF (fibroblast growth factor)-2, a potent angiogenic inducer, and then promoted EPC (endothelial progenitor cell) tube formation and migration. In addition, FGF-2-neutralizing antibody abolished ATDC5-conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro, as well as its angiogenic effects in the CAM (chick chorioallantoic membrane) assay and Matrigel plug nude mice model in vivo. IHC (immunohistochemistry) staining from a CIA (collagen-induced arthritis) mouse model also demonstrates that arthritis increased the expression of IL-1β and FGF-2, as well as EPC homing in articular cartilage. Moreover, IL-1β-induced FGF-2 expression via IL-1RI (type-1 IL-1 receptor), ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase), p38 and NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) pathway has been demonstrated. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that IL-1β promotes FGF-2 expression in chondrocytes through the ROS/AMPK/p38/NF-κB signalling pathway and subsequently increases EPC angiogenesis. Therefore IL-1β serves as a link between inflammation and angiogenesis during arthritis. PMID:26811540

  1. VEGF-A165 potently induces human blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis and wound healing in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Chetan Lakshmana; Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

    2013-01-01

    Several mitogens such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been implicated in mammalian vascular proliferation and repair. However, the molecular mediators of human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) development and specialization are unknown. Primary human endoneurial endothelial cells (pHEndECs) were expanded in vitro and specific mitogen receptors detected by western blot. pHEndECs were cultured with basal medium containing different mitogen concentrations with or without heparin. Non-radioactive cell proliferation, Matrigel™-induced angiogenesis and sterile micropipette injury wound healing assays were performed. Proliferation rates, number and total length of induced microvessels and rate of endothelial cell monolayer wound healing were determined and compared to basal conditions. VEGF-A165 in the presence of heparin, was the most potent inducer of pHEndEC proliferation, angiogenesis and wound healing in vitro. 1.31 nM VEGF-A165 induced ~110% increase in cell proliferation relative to basal conditions (~51% without heparin). 2.62 pM VEGF-A165 induced a 3-fold increase in mean number of microvessels and 3.9-fold increase in total capillary length/field relative to basal conditions. In addition, 0.26 nM VEGF-A165 induced ~1.3-fold increased average rate of endothelial wound healing 4–18 hours after endothelial monolayer injury, mediated by increased cell migration. VEGF-A165 was the only mitogen capable of complete wound closure, occurring within 30 hours following injury via increased cell proliferation. This study demonstrates that VEGF-A165, in the presence of heparin, is a potent inducer of pHEndEC proliferation, angiogenesis and wound healing in vitro. VEGF-A165 may be an important mitogen necessary for human BNB development and recovery in response to peripheral nerve injury. PMID:23712256

  2. Coronary Serum Obtained After Myocardial Infarction Induces Angiogenesis and Microvascular Obstruction Repair. Role of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1A.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Navarro, César; Hueso, Luisa; Miñana, Gema; Núñez, Julio; Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; Sanz, María Jesús; Cànoves, Joaquin; Chorro, Francisco J; Piqueras, Laura; Bodí, Vicente

    2017-07-24

    Microvascular obstruction (MVO) exerts deleterious effects following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated coronary angiogenesis induced by coronary serum and the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1A (HIF-1A) in MVO repair. Myocardial infarction was induced in swine by transitory 90-minute coronary occlusion. The pigs were divided into a control group and 4 AMI groups: no reperfusion, 1minute, 1 week and 1 month after reperfusion. Microvascular obstruction and microvessel density were quantified. The proangiogenic effect of coronary serum drawn from coronary sinus on endothelial cells was evaluated using an in vitro tubulogenesis assay. Circulating and myocardial HIF-1A levels and the effect of in vitro blockade of HIF-1A was assessed. Compared with control myocardium, microvessel density decreased at 90-minute ischemia, and MVO first occurred at 1minute after reperfusion. Both peaked at 1 week and almost completely resolved at 1 month. Coronary serum exerted a neoangiogenic effect on coronary endothelial cells in vitro, peaking at ischemia and 1minute postreperfusion (32 ± 4 and 41 ± 9 tubes vs control: 3 ± 3 tubes; P < .01). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1A increased in serum during ischemia (5-minute ischemia: 273 ± 52 pg/mL vs control: 148 ± 48 pg/mL; P < .01) being present on microvessels of all AMI groups (no reperfusion: 67% ± 5% vs control: 15% ± 17%; P < .01). In vitro blockade of HIF-1A reduced the angiogenic response induced by serum. Coronary serum represents a potent neoangiogenic stimulus even before reperfusion; HIF-1A might be crucial. Coronary neoangiogenesis induced by coronary serum can contribute to understanding the pathophysiology of AMI. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces human endothelial VEGF and MMP-2 production via transcription factor ZNF580: Novel insights into angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hui-Yan; Wei, Shu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Cheng; Xu, Peng-Xiao; Zhang, Wen-Cheng

    2010-05-07

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-induced migration and proliferation of endothelial cells are critical for angiogenesis. C2H2-zinc finger (ZNF) proteins usually play an essential role in altering gene expression and regulating the angiogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a novel human C2H2-zinc finger gene ZNF580 (Gene ID: 51157) is involved in the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells stimulated by S1P. Our study shows that EAhy926 endothelial cells express S1P1, S1P3 and S1P5 receptors. Furthermore, S1P upregulates both ZNF580 mRNA and protein levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. SB203580, the specific inhibitor of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway, blocks the S1P-induced upregulation of ZNF580. Moreover, overexpression/downexpression of ZNF580 in EAhy926 cells leads to the enhancement/decrease of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression as well as the migration and proliferation of EAhy926 endothelial cells. These results elucidate the important role that ZNF580 plays in the process of migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, which provides a foundation for a novel approach to regulate angiogenesis.

  4. Myocyte enhancer factor 2D promotes colorectal cancer angiogenesis downstream of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Junyu; Sun, Hui; Su, Li; Liu, Limei; Shan, Juanjuan; Shen, Junjie; Yang, Zhi; Chen, Jun; Zhong, Xing; Ávila, Matías A; Yan, Xiaochu; Liu, Chungang; Qian, Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) is involved in many aspects of cancer progression, including cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. However, little is known about the role of MEF2D in tumor angiogenesis. Using clinical specimens, colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and a mouse model in the present study, we found that MEF2D expression was positively correlated with CD31-positive microvascular density in CRC tissues. MEF2D promoted tumor angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo and induced the expression of proangiogenic cytokines in CRC cells. MEF2D was found to be a downstream effector of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in the induction of tumor angiogenesis. HIF-1α transactivates MEF2D expression by binding to the MEF2D gene promoter. These results demonstrate that the HIF-1α/MEF2D axis can serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gene Transfer of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain 2 Inhibits Hypoxia-inducible Angiogenesis in a Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Takei, Anna; Ekström, Malena; Mammadzada, Parviz; Aronsson, Monica; Yu, Ma; Kvanta, Anders; André, Helder

    2017-01-01

    Cellular responses to hypoxia are mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In normoxia, HIF-α proteins are regulated by a family of dioxygenases, through prolyl and asparagyl hydroxylation, culminating in proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inactivation. In hypoxia, the dioxygenases become inactive and allow formation of HIF transcription factor, responsible for upregulation of hypoxia genes. In ocular neoangiogenic diseases, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), hypoxia seems pivotal. Here, we investigate the effects of HIF regulatory proteins on the hypoxia pathway in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, critically involved in nAMD pathogenesis. Our data indicates that, in ARPE-19 cells, prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)2 is the most potent negative-regulator of the HIF pathway. The negative effects of PHD2 on the hypoxia pathway were associated with decreased HIF-1α protein levels, and concomitant decrease in angiogenic factors. ARPE-19 cells stably expressing PHD2 impaired angiogenesis in vitro by wound healing, tubulogenesis, and sprouting assays, as well as in vivo by iris-induced angiogenesis. Gene transfer of PHD2 in vivo resulted in mitigation of HIF-mediated angiogenesis in a mouse model of nAMD. These results may have implications for the clinical treatment of nAMD patients, particularly regarding the use of gene therapy to negatively regulate neoangiogenesis. PMID:28186209

  6. Gene Transfer of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain 2 Inhibits Hypoxia-inducible Angiogenesis in a Model of Choroidal Neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Takei, Anna; Ekström, Malena; Mammadzada, Parviz; Aronsson, Monica; Yu, Ma; Kvanta, Anders; André, Helder

    2017-02-10

    Cellular responses to hypoxia are mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF). In normoxia, HIF-α proteins are regulated by a family of dioxygenases, through prolyl and asparagyl hydroxylation, culminating in proteasomal degradation and transcriptional inactivation. In hypoxia, the dioxygenases become inactive and allow formation of HIF transcription factor, responsible for upregulation of hypoxia genes. In ocular neoangiogenic diseases, such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), hypoxia seems pivotal. Here, we investigate the effects of HIF regulatory proteins on the hypoxia pathway in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, critically involved in nAMD pathogenesis. Our data indicates that, in ARPE-19 cells, prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)2 is the most potent negative-regulator of the HIF pathway. The negative effects of PHD2 on the hypoxia pathway were associated with decreased HIF-1α protein levels, and concomitant decrease in angiogenic factors. ARPE-19 cells stably expressing PHD2 impaired angiogenesis in vitro by wound healing, tubulogenesis, and sprouting assays, as well as in vivo by iris-induced angiogenesis. Gene transfer of PHD2 in vivo resulted in mitigation of HIF-mediated angiogenesis in a mouse model of nAMD. These results may have implications for the clinical treatment of nAMD patients, particularly regarding the use of gene therapy to negatively regulate neoangiogenesis.

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit colon cancer-induced angiogenesis through suppressing the expression of VEGF and Ang1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuangsheng; Yang, Ninggang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Gao, Jing; Huang, Tao; Hu, Lamei; Zhao, Jin; Li, Yongquan; Li, Caili; Zhang, Xiaosu

    2012-12-01

    Tumor cells trigger angiogenesis through overexpression of various angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin 1 (Ang1). Therefore, inhibition of the expression of both VEGF and Ang1, the initial step of tumor angiogenesis, is a promising strategy for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) are widely consumed dietary supplements that have antitumor activity. Due to their polymeric structure, GSPs are poorly absorbed along the gastrointestinal tract and can reach the colon at high concentrations, allowing these chemicals to act as chemopreventive agents for colon cancer. In the present study, we found that GSPs inhibited colon tumor-induced angiogenesis and, thus, the growth of colon tumor xenografts on the chick chorioallantoic membranes. The mechanisms of their action were related to inhibiting the expression of both VEGF and Ang1 through scavenging reactive oxygen species. Previous studies have demonstrated that the chemopreventive effects of GSPs on colon cancer are associated with their growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects. Our results demonstrate another mechanism by which GSPs inhibit colon tumor growth, which will be helpful for developing GSPs as a pharmacologically safe angiopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  8. Numerical simulation of blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumor microcirculation based on tumor-induced angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gaiping; Wu, Jie; Xu, Shixiong; Collins, M. W.; Long, Quan; König, Carola S.; Jiang, Yuping; Wang, Jian; Padhani, A. R.

    2007-10-01

    A coupled intravascular transvascular interstitial fluid flow model is developed to study the distributions of blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumor microcirculation based on a tumor-induced microvascular network. This is generated from a 2D nine-point discrete mathematical model of tumor angiogenesis and contains two parent vessels. Blood flow through the microvascular network and interstitial fluid flow in tumor tissues are performed by the extended Poiseuille’s law and Darcy’s law, respectively, transvascular flow is described by Starling’s law; effects of the vascular permeability and the interstitial hydraulic conductivity are also considered. The simulation results predict the heterogeneous blood supply, interstitial hypertension and low convection on the inside of the tumor, which are consistent with physiological observed facts. These results may provide beneficial information for anti-angiogenesis treatment of tumor and further clinical research.

  9. Shock wave treatment induces angiogenesis and mobilizes endogenous CD31/CD34-positive endothelial cells in a hindlimb ischemia model: implications for angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tepeköylü, Can; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Albrecht-Schgoer, Karin; Theurl, Markus; Schaden, Wolfgang; Ke, Huei-Jin; Yang, Yaju; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Grimm, Michael; Wang, Ching-Jen; Holfeld, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    Shock waves have been shown to induce recruitment of intravenously injected endothelial progenitor cells to ischemic hind limbs in rats. We hypothesized that shock wave treatment as sole therapy would induce angiogenesis in this ischemia model and would lead to mobilization of endogenous endothelial (progenitor) cells. A total of 18 rats, aged 5 weeks old, were subdivided into 3 groups: sham (n = 6), ischemic muscle with shock wave treatment (shock wave treatment group, n = 6), and without shock wave treatment (control, n = 6). Hind limb ischemia was induced by ligation of the femoral artery. Three weeks later, shock wave treatment (300 impulses at 0.1 mJ/mm(2)) was applied to the adductor muscle; the controls were left untreated. Muscle samples were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction for angiogenic factors and chemoattractants for endothelial progenitor cell mobilization. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of the peripheral blood was performed for CD31/CD34-positive cells. Perfusion was measured using laser Doppler imaging. Functional improvement was evaluated by walking analysis. Angiogenic factors/endothelial progenitor cell chemoattractants, stromal cell-derived factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor, were increased in the treatment group, as shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction, indicating the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of the peripheral blood revealed high numbers of CD31/CD34-positive cells in the treatment group. Greater numbers of capillaries were found in the treated muscles. Blood perfusion increased markedly in the treatment group and led to functional restoration, as shown by the results from the walking analysis. Shock wave therapy therefore could develop into a feasible alternative to stem cell therapy in regenerative medicine, in particular for ischemic heart and limb disease. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic

  10. Oxidized LDL-induced angiogenesis involves sphingosine 1-phosphate: prevention by anti-S1P antibody

    PubMed Central

    Camaré, Caroline; Trayssac, Magali; Garmy-Susini, Barbara; Mucher, Elodie; Sabbadini, Roger; Salvayre, Robert; Negre-Salvayre, Anne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neovascularization occurring in atherosclerotic lesions may promote plaque expansion, intraplaque haemorrhage and rupture. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are atherogenic, but their angiogenic effect is controversial; both angiogenic and anti-angiogenic effects have been reported. The angiogenic mechanism of oxLDL is partly understood, but the role of the angiogenic sphingolipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), in this process is not known. Thus, we investigated whether S1P is involved in the oxLDL-induced angiogenesis and whether an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody can prevent this effect. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Angiogenesis was assessed by capillary tube formation by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) cultured on Matrigel and in vivo by the Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice. KEY RESULTS Human oxLDL exhibited a biphasic angiogenic effect on HMEC-1; low concentrations were angiogenic, higher concentrations were cytotoxic. The angiogenic response to oxLDL was blocked by the sphingosine kinase (SPHK) inhibitor, dimethylsphingosine, by SPHK1-siRNA and by an anti-S1P monoclonal antibody. Moreover, inhibition of oxLDL uptake and subsequent redox signalling by anti-CD36 and anti-LOX-1 receptor antibodies and by N-acetylcysteine, respectively, blocked SPHK1 activation and tube formation. In vivo, in the Matrigel plug assay, low concentrations of human oxLDL or murine oxVLDL also triggered angiogenesis, which was prevented by i.p. injection of the anti-S1P antibody. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS These data highlight the role of S1P in angiogenesis induced by oxLDL both in HMEC-1 cultured on Matrigel and in vivo in the Matrigel plug model in mice, and demonstrate that the anti-S1P antibody effectively blocks the angiogenic effect of oxLDL. PMID:25176316

  11. CCN1 Promotes VEGF Production in Osteoblasts and Induces Endothelial Progenitor Cell Angiogenesis by Inhibiting miR-126 Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Yu; Su, Chen-Ming; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Huang, Chien-Chung; Wang, Shih-Wei; Liu, Shih-Chia; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from preexisting vasculature. The perpetuation of angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of various disease states including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Cysteine-rich 61 (Cyr61 or CCN1) is an important proinflammatory cytokine in RA. Here, we investigated the role of CCN1 in angiogenesis associated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production and osteoblasts. We found higher expression of CCN1 and VEGF in synovial fluid from RA patients compared with healthy controls. CCN1 induced VEGF expression in osteoblasts and increased endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) angiogenesis by inhibiting miR-126 via the protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α) signaling pathway. CCN1 knockdown inhibited angiogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo models. Inhibition of CCN1 expression with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) ameliorated articular swelling, cartilage erosion, and angiogenesis in the ankle joint of mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Our study is the first to describe how CCN1 promotes VEGF expression in osteoblasts and increased EPCs angiogenesis in RA disease. CCN1 may serve as a potential target for RA treatment. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. MiR-590-5p Inhibits Oxidized- LDL Induced Angiogenesis by Targeting LOX-1

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yao; Zhang, Zhigao; Cao, Yongxiang; Mehta, Jawahar L.; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is, at least in part, responsible for angiogenesis in atherosclerotic regions. This effect of ox-LDL has been shown to be mediated through a specific receptor LOX-1. Here we describe the effect of miR-590-5p on ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo settings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with miR-590-5p mimic or inhibitor followed by treatment with ox-LDL. In other experiments, Marigel plugs were inserted in the mice subcutaneous space. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that miR-590-5p mimic (100 nM) inhibited the ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis (capillary tube formation, cell proliferation and migration as well as pro-angiogenic signals- ROS, MAPKs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion-related proteins). Of note, miR-590-5p inhibitor (200 nM) had the opposite effects. The inhibitory effect of miR-590-5p on angiogenesis was mediated by inhibition of LOX-1 at translational level. The inhibition of LOX-1 by miR-590-5p was confirmed by luciferase assay. In conclusion, we show that MiR-590-5p inhibits angiogenesis by targeting LOX-1 and suppressing redox-sensitive signals. PMID:26932825

  13. Mo polyoxometalate nanoparticles inhibit tumor growth and vascular endothelial growth factor induced angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Ying; Qin, Xiuying; Zhou, Yanhui; Zhou, Yunshan; Liu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Tumor growth depends on angiogenesis, which can furnish the oxygen and nutrients that proliferate tumor cells. Thus, blocking angiogenesis can be an effective strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this work, three typical nanoparticles based on polyoxometalates (POMs) have been prepared; we investigated their capability as antitumor and anti-angiogenesis agents. We found that Mo POM nanoparticles, especially complex 3, inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) through cellular reactive oxygen species levels’ elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential damage. Complex 3 also suppressed the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro and chicken chorioallantoic membrane development ex vivo. Furthermore, western blot analysis of cell signaling molecules indicated that Mo POMs blocked the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways in endothelial cells. Using transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated their cellular uptake and localization within the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells. These results indicate that, owing to the extraordinary physical and chemical properties, Mo POM nanoparticles can significantly inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, which makes them potential drug candidates in anticancer and anti-angiogenesis therapies.

  14. MiR-590-5p Inhibits Oxidized- LDL Induced Angiogenesis by Targeting LOX-1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yao; Zhang, Zhigao; Cao, Yongxiang; Mehta, Jawahar L; Li, Jun

    2016-03-02

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is, at least in part, responsible for angiogenesis in atherosclerotic regions. This effect of ox-LDL has been shown to be mediated through a specific receptor LOX-1. Here we describe the effect of miR-590-5p on ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis in in vitro and in vivo settings. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with miR-590-5p mimic or inhibitor followed by treatment with ox-LDL. In other experiments, Marigel plugs were inserted in the mice subcutaneous space. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that miR-590-5p mimic (100 nM) inhibited the ox-LDL-mediated angiogenesis (capillary tube formation, cell proliferation and migration as well as pro-angiogenic signals- ROS, MAPKs, pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion-related proteins). Of note, miR-590-5p inhibitor (200 nM) had the opposite effects. The inhibitory effect of miR-590-5p on angiogenesis was mediated by inhibition of LOX-1 at translational level. The inhibition of LOX-1 by miR-590-5p was confirmed by luciferase assay. In conclusion, we show that MiR-590-5p inhibits angiogenesis by targeting LOX-1 and suppressing redox-sensitive signals.

  15. Melanocyte pigmentation inversely correlates with MCP-1 production and angiogenesis-inducing potential.

    PubMed

    Adini, Irit; Adini, Avner; Bazinet, Lauren; Watnick, Randolph S; Bielenberg, Diane R; D'Amato, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of certain angiogenesis-dependent diseases is higher in Caucasians than in African Americans. Angiogenesis is amplified in wound healing and cornea models in albino C57 mice compared with black C57 mice. Moreover, mouse and human melanocytes with low pigmentation stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration in vitro more than melanocytes with high pigmentation. This effect is due, in part, to the secretion of an angiogenic protein called fibromodulin (FMOD) from lowly pigmented melanocytes. Herein, we expand upon the mechanism contributing to increased angiogenesis in lighter skin and report that monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) is secreted by nonpigmented mouse melanocytes by 5- to 10-fold more than pigmented melanocytes. MCP-1 protein stimulates EC proliferation and migration in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic studies determine that FMOD is upstream of MCP-1 and promotes its secretion from both melanocytes and activated ECs via stimulation of NF-κB activity. Mice injected with FMOD-neutralizing antibodies show 2.3-fold decreased levels of circulating MCP-1. Human studies confirmed that, on average, Caucasians have 2-fold higher serum levels of MCP-1 than African Americans. Taken together, this study implicates the FMOD/MCP-1 pathway in the regulation of angiogenesis by local melanocytes and suggests that melanogenic activity may protect against aberrant angiogenic diseases. © FASEB.

  16. Angiogenesis impairment in diabetes: role of methylglyoxal-induced receptor for advanced glycation endproducts, autophagy and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Yu, Shujie; Zhang, Hua; Xu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes impairs physiological angiogenesis by molecular mechanisms that are not fully understood. Methylglyoxal (MGO), a metabolite of glycolysis, is increased in patients with diabetes. This study defined the role of MGO in angiogenesis impairment and tested the mechanism in diabetic animals. Endothelial cells and mouse aortas were subjected to Western blot analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) protein levels and angiogenesis evaluation by endothelial cell tube formation/migration and aortic ring assays. Incubation with MGO reduced VEGFR2 protein, but not mRNA, levels in a time and dose dependent manner. Genetic knockdown of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) attenuated the reduction of VEGFR2. Overexpression of Glyoxalase 1, the enzyme that detoxifies MGO, reduced the MGO-protein adducts and prevented VEGFR2 reduction. The VEGFR2 reduction was associated with impaired angiogenesis. Suppression of autophagy either by inhibitors or siRNA, but not of the proteasome and caspase, normalized both the VEGFR2 protein levels and angiogenesis. Conversely, induction of autophagy either by rapamycin or overexpression of LC3 and Beclin-1 reduced VEGFR2 and angiogenesis. MGO increased endothelial LC3B and Beclin-1, markers of autophagy, which were accompanied by an increase of both autophagic flux (LC3 punctae) and co-immunoprecipitation of VEGFR2 with LC3. Pharmacological or genetic suppression of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) generation not only blocked the autophagy but also reversed the reduction of VEGFR2 and angiogenesis. Like MGO-treated aortas from normglycemic C57BL/6J mice, aortas from diabetic db/db and Akita mice presented reductions of angiogenesis or VEGFR2. Administration of either autophagy inhibitor ex vivo or superoxide scavenger in vivo abolished the reductions. Taken together, MGO reduces endothelial angiogenesis through RAGE-mediated, ONOO(-)dependent and autophagy-induced VEGFR2 degradation, which may represent

  17. Changes in angiogenesis and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α protein expression in relapsed/refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Minoia, Carla; Quero, Carmela; Asselti, Mariaconsilia; Galise, Ida; Marzano, Alessia L; Iacobazzi, Angela; Rana, Antonio; Merchionne, Francesca; Serratì, Simona; De Tullio, Giacoma; Quintana, Giovanni; Casiello, Michela; Maiorano, Eugenio; Simone, Giovanni; Zito, Francesco A; Iacopino, Pasquale; Guarini, Attilio

    2013-12-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, also termed HIF1A) might contribute to this process. Currently, there is no direct evidence that the clinical progression of indolent NHL is associated with angiogenesis, and the expression of HIF-1α at recurrence is unknown. Matched lymph node biopsies at diagnosis and recurrence of relapsed/refractory indolent NHL patients were analysed by immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis. We observed an increased vascular network and HIF-1α protein expression in the second biopsy, providing direct evidence that angiogenesis is an essential process for disease progression.

  18. Hsp90 inhibitor celastrol reinstates growth plate angiogenesis in thiram-induced tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Fazul; Shahzad, Muhammad; Liu, Jingying; Li, Kun; Han, Zhaoqing; Zhang, Ding; Iqbal, Muhammad Kashif; Li, Jiakui

    2016-01-01

    Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is an important long bone defect of broiler chickens that disturbs the proximal growth plate and is characterized by non-vascularized cartilage, a distended growth plate and lameness. Celastrol, a medicinal root extract from the plant Tripterygium wilfordii, is reported widely as a well-known heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor. Recently, Hsp90 inhibition in chondrocyte differentiation and growth-plate vascularization were effective in restoring the morphology of the growth plate. The present study was aimed at investigating Hsp90 inhibition in TD using celastrol. The broiler chicks were divided into three groups; Control; TD induced (40 mg/kg thiram) and celastrol treatment. Hsp90, vascular endothelial growth factor and Flk-1 expressions were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and the protein levels of Hsp90 were measured by Western blot analysis. Antioxidant enzymes were determined to assess the liver damage caused by thiram and the protective effects of the medicine were evaluated by levels of serum biomarkers. The expression levels of Hsp90 and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA transcripts were increased while Flk-1 receptor was decreased in TD-affected chicks. Celastrol therapy inhibited Hsp90 mRNA and protein levels and up-regulated the expressions of receptor Flk-1 in TD-affected tibial growth plates significantly (P < 0.05) in addition to rectifying the damaging effects of thiram on the liver by decreasing the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and malondialdehyde and correcting the oxidative imbalance. In conclusion, administering celastrol to dyschondroplastic chicks prevented un-vascularized growth plate, lameness and reinstated angiogenesis. Celastrol may be efficacious for the treatment of TD through the inhibition of Hsp90 expression and limiting the liver damage caused by thiram in broiler chickens.

  19. Paris saponin II inhibits human ovarian cancer cell-induced angiogenesis by modulating NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Zou, Juan; Zhu, Hongmei; Liu, Shanling; Wang, He; Bai, Peng; Xiao, Xue

    2015-05-01

    The clinical applications of Rhizoma paridis in traditional Chinese medicine are well known. However, the therapeutic potential of Rhizoma paridis and its active component such as Paris saponin I (polyphyllin D) and Paris saponin II (PSII) (formosanin C) in cancer treatments have not yet been fully explored. Recent studies have demonstrated that PSII and chemoagents exhibit comparable inhibitory affects against human ovarian cancer cell growth. Since NF-κB, a ubiquitous transcription factor that plays an important role in cancer biology, is often associated with gynecological cancers, in the present study, we evaluated the possibility that PSII modulates NF-κB activity and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis and elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. We assessed the effects of PSII on NF-κB activity in SKOV3 tumor cells and on tumor cell induced-angiogenesis using standardized angiogenesis in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays, western blot analysis and kinase assay. We also assessed the effect of the super-engineered repressor of IĸBα and its effect, in combination with PSII treatment on tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenograft athymic mouse models of ovarian cancer (SKOV3 and SKOV3/mutant IĸBα cells) using color Doppler ultrasound and traditional immunohistochemistry. We showed that PSII suppressed NF-κB activation as a result of the reduction in IKKβ kinase activity on its substrate IκBα and the expression of IKKβ. Compromising NF-κB activation reduced the expression of NF-κB-downstream targets such as VEGF, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Such inhibitory effects at molecular levels appear to compromise tumor growth and angiogenesis. Most importantly, the combination of PSII treatment and constitutive repression of IĸBα activity exhibited marked inhibitory effects against human ovarian cancer cell growth in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. For the first time, we provide evidence showing that PSII potently inhibits angiogenesis

  20. l-DOPA as a small molecule surrogate to promote angiogenesis and prevent dexamethasone-induced ischemia.

    PubMed

    Price, Claire F; Burgess, Diane J; Kastellorizios, Michail

    2016-08-10

    The foreign body response to implantable biosensors has been successfully countered through the use of corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone. However, while controlling inflammation, dexamethasone also decreases angiogenesis, which may lead to delayed analyte readings. The concurrent application of VEGF with dexamethasone increases angiogenesis, but VEGF has physical stability issues and is not cost-effective. The use of l-DOPA, a small molecule drug shown to up-regulate VEGF in the Parkinsonian brain, can potentially resolve these issues by substituting for VEGF. In this work, l-DOPA was used for the first time as a pro-angiogenic agent to counteract dexamethasone-induced ischemia. Angiogenesis was modeled using the CAM assay and changes in blood vessel formation were recorded with both manual and digital techniques. As expected, dexamethasone reduced blood vessel formation in the CAM. Application of l-DOPA, on the other hand, increased blood vessel formation when dexamethasone and l-DOPA were administered simultaneously. This novel finding suggests the utility of l-DOPA in the field of implantable medical devices, such as biosensors, as well as tissue engineering applications where both a vascularized tissue environment and control of tissue response is desired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anthelmintic drug ivermectin inhibits angiogenesis, growth and survival of glioblastoma through inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Fang, Shanshan; Sun, Qiushi; Liu, Bo

    2016-11-18

    Glioblastoma is one of the most vascular brain tumour and highly resistant to current therapy. Targeting both glioblastoma cells and angiogenesis may present an effective therapeutic strategy for glioblastoma. In our work, we show that an anthelmintic drug, ivermectin, is active against glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and also targets angiogenesis. Ivermectin significantly inhibits growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in U87 and T98G glioblastoma cells. It induces apoptosis in these cells through a caspase-dependent manner. Ivermectin significantly suppresses the growth of two independent glioblastoma xenograft mouse models. In addition, ivermectin effectively targets angiogenesis through inhibiting capillary network formation, proliferation and survival in human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC). Mechanistically, ivermectin decreases mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential, ATP levels and increases mitochondrial superoxide in U87, T98G and HBMEC cells exposed to ivermectin. The inhibitory effects of ivermectin are significantly reversed in mitochondria-deficient cells or cells treated with antioxidants, further confirming that ivermectin acts through mitochondrial respiration inhibition and induction of oxidative stress. Importantly, we show that ivermectin suppresses phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and ribosomal S6 in glioblastoma and HBMEC cells, suggesting its inhibitory role in deactivating Akt/mTOR pathway. Altogether, our work demonstrates that ivermectin is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for glioblastoma. Our work also highlights the therapeutic value of targeting mitochondrial metabolism in glioblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Hoi-Hin; Chan, Lai-Sheung; Poon, Po-Ying; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Wong, Ricky Ngok-Shun

    2015-09-15

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}), one of the most abundant active components of ginseng, has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound in different models. There is increasing evidence implicating microRNAs (miRNAs), a group of non-coding RNAs, as important regulators of angiogenesis, but the role of microRNAs in Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenesis has not been fully explored. In this report, we found that stimulating endothelial cells with Rg{sub 1} could reduce miR-23a expression. In silico experiments predicted hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), a well-established mediator of angiogenesis, as the target of miR-23a. Transfection of the miR-23a precursor or inhibitor oligonucleotides validated the inverse relationship of miR-23a and MET expression. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-23a and the MET mRNA 3′-UTR. Intriguingly, ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} was found to increase MET protein expression in a time-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1}-induced angiogenic activities were indeed mediated through the down-regulation of miR-23a and subsequent up-regulation of MET protein expression, as confirmed by gain- and loss-of-function angiogenic experiments. In summary, our results demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} could induce angiogenesis by the inverse regulation of MET tyrosine kinase receptor expression through miR-23a. This study has broadened our understanding of the non-genomic effects of ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1,} and provided molecular evidence that warrant further development of natural compound as novel angiogenesis-promoting therapy. - Highlights: • Therapeutic angiogenesis has been implicated in ischemic diseases and wound healing. • Ginsenoside-Rg{sub 1} (Rg{sub 1}) has been demonstrated as an angiogenesis-stimulating compound. • We found that Rg{sub 1} induces angiogenesis by

  3. Nasal administration of interleukin-33 induces airways angiogenesis and expression of multiple angiogenic factors in a murine asthma surrogate.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shan; Li, Yan; Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Zhe; Yi, Dawei; Huang, Qiong; Corrigan, Chris J; Wang, Wei; Quangeng, Zhang; Ying, Sun

    2016-05-01

    The T-helper cell type 2-promoting cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) has been implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Angiogenesis is a feature of airways remodelling in asthma. We hypothesized that IL-33 induces airways angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors in an established murine surrogate of asthma. In the present study, BALB/c mice were subjected to serial intranasal challenge with IL-33 alone for up to 70 days. In parallel, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized mice were subjected to serial intranasal challenge with OVA or normal saline to serve as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of expression of von Willebrand factor and erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene, both blood vessel markers, and angiogenic factors angiogenin, insulin-like growth factor-1, endothelin-1, epidermal growth factor and amphiregulin was performed in lung sections ex vivo. An established in-house assay was used to test whether IL-33 was able to induce microvessel formation by human vascular endothelial cells. Results showed that serial intranasal challenge of mice with IL-33 or OVA resulted in proliferation of peribronchial von Willebrand factor-positive blood vessels to a degree closely related to the total expression of the angiogenic factors amphiregulin, angiogenin, endothelin-1, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. IL-33 also induced microvessel formation by human endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent fashion in vitro. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that IL-33 has the capacity to induce angiogenesis at least partly by increasing local expression of multiple angiogenic factors in an allergen-independent murine asthma surrogate, and consequently that IL-33 or its receptor is a potential novel molecular target for asthma therapy.

  4. Linoleic acid enhances angiogenesis through suppression of angiostatin induced by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, N; Matsuoka, T; Yashiro, M; Hirakawa, K; Olden, K; Roberts, J D

    2011-01-01

    Background: The intake of dietary fatty acids is highly correlated with the risk of various cancers. Linoleic acid (LA) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fat in the western diet, but the mechanism(s) by fatty acids such as LA modulate cancer cells is unclear. In this study, we examined the role of LA in various steps in gastric cancer progression. Methods: The difference in gene expression between LA-treated and untreated OCUM-2MD3 gastric carcinoma cells was examined by mRNA differential display. The involvement of candidate genes was examined by oligo- and plasmid-mediated RNA interference. Biological functions of several of these genes were examined using in vitro assays for invasion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell viability, and matrix digestion. Angiogenesis in vivo was measured by CD-31 immunohistochemistry and microvessel density scoring. Results: LA enhanced the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) mRNA and protein expression, which are controlled by PAI-1 mRNA-binding protein. LA-stimulated invasion depended on PAI-1. LA also enhanced angiogenesis by suppression of angiostatin, also through PAI-1. LA did not alter cell growth in culture, but increased dietary LA-enhanced tumour growth in an animal model. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that dietary LA impacts multiple steps in cancer invasion and angiogenesis, and that reducing LA in the diet may help slow cancer progression. PMID:22015554

  5. Intramyocardial delivery of VEGF165 via a novel biodegradable hydrogel induces angiogenesis and improves cardiac function after rat myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongling; Jiang, Xuejun; Li, Xiaoyan; Hu, Miaoyang; Wan, Weiguo; Wen, Ying; He, Yiyu; Zheng, Xiaoxin

    2016-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an independent mitogen, has been reported to induce angiogenesis and thus attenuates the damage induced by myocardial infarction (MI). VEGF165 is the most abundant and predominant isoform of VEGF. This study investigates whether this effect could be strengthened by local intramyocardial injection of VEGF165 along with a novel biodegradable Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm hydrogel and ascertains its possible mechanism of action. Rat models of myocardial infarction were induced by coronary artery ligation. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), Dex-PCL-HEMA/PNIPAAm hydrogel (Gel group), phosphate-buffered saline containing VEGF165 (VP group), and hydrogel containing VEGF165 (VPG group) were injected into a peri-infarcted area of cardiac tissue immediately after myocardial infarction, respectively. The sham group was thoracic but without myocardial infarction. The injection of VEGF165 along with a hydrogel induced angiogenesis, reduced collagen content and MI area, inhibited cell apoptosis, increased the level of VEGF165 protein and the expression of flk-1 and flt-1, and improved cardiac function compared with the injection of either alone after MI in rats. The results suggest that injection of VEGF165 along with a hydrogel acquires more cardioprotective effects than either alone in rat with MI by sustained release of VEGF165, then may enhance the feedback between VEGF and its receptors flk-1 and flt-1.

  6. BET Bromodomain Suppression Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability by Blocking VEGFR2-mediated Activation of PAK1 and eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingcheng; Qiu, Qian; Xiao, Youjun; Zeng, Shan; Zhan, Mingying; Shi, Maohua; Zou, Yaoyao; Ye, Yujin; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan; Xu, Hanshi

    2016-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicate the important role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) of chromatin adaptors in regulating tumor growth and inflammatory response. However, whether BET proteins have a role in angiogenesis and endothelial permeability is unclear. In this study, we observed that treatment with JQ1, a specific BET inhibitor, suppressed in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo angiogenesis in a Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy neovascularization. JQ1 attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER in HUVECs and prevented Evans blue dye leakage in the VEGF-induced Miles assay in athymic Balb/c nude mice. BET inhibition with JQ1 or shRNA for Brd2 or Brd4 suppressed VEGF-induced migration, proliferation, and stress fiber formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, BET inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and PAK1, as well as eNOS activation in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Inhibition with VEGFR2 and PAK1 also reduced migration and proliferation, and attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER. Thus, our observations suggest the important role of BET bromodomain in regulating VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Strategies that target the BET bromodomain may provide a new therapeutic approach for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:27044328

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) Induces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Expression in the Endothelial Cells of Forming Capillaries: An Autocrine Mechanism Contributing to Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Seghezzi, Graziano; Patel, Sundeep; Ren, Christine J.; Gualandris, Anna; Pintucci, Giuseppe; Robbins, Edith S.; Shapiro, Richard L.; Galloway, Aubrey C.; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Mignatti, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    FGF-2 and VEGF are potent angiogenesis inducers in vivo and in vitro. Here we show that FGF-2 induces VEGF expression in vascular endothelial cells through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Addition of recombinant FGF-2 to cultured endothelial cells or upregulation of endogenous FGF-2 results in increased VEGF expression. Neutralizing monoclonal antibody to VEGF inhibits FGF-2–induced endothelial cell proliferation. Endogenous 18-kD FGF-2 production upregulates VEGF expression through extracellular interaction with cell membrane receptors; high-Mr FGF-2 (22–24-kD) acts via intracellular mechanism(s). During angiogenesis induced by FGF-2 in the mouse cornea, the endothelial cells of forming capillaries express VEGF mRNA and protein. Systemic administration of neutralizing VEGF antibody dramatically reduces FGF-2-induced angiogenesis. Because occasional fibroblasts or other cell types present in the corneal stroma show no significant expression of VEGF mRNA, these findings demonstrate that endothelial cell-derived VEGF is an important autocrine mediator of FGF-2-induced angiogenesis. Thus, angiogenesis in vivo can be modulated by a novel mechanism that involves the autocrine action of vascular endothelial cell-derived FGF-2 and VEGF. PMID:9647657

  8. Role of Delta-like 4 in Jagged1-induced tumour angiogenesis and tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Oon, Chern Ein; Bridges, Esther; Sheldon, Helen; Sainson, Richard C.A.; Jubb, Adrian; Turley, Helen; Leek, Russell; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L.; Li, Ji-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Delta-like 4 (DLL4) and Jagged1 (JAG1) are two key Notch ligands implicated in tumour angiogenesis. They were shown to have opposite effects on mouse retinal and adult regenerative angiogenesis. In tumours, both ligands are upregulated but their relative effects and interactions in tumour biology, particularly in tumour response to therapeutic intervention are unclear. Here we demonstrate that DLL4 and JAG1 displayed equal potency in stimulating Notch target genes in HMEC-1 endothelial cells but had opposing effects on sprouting angiogenesis in vitro. Mouse DLL4 or JAG1 expressed in glioblastoma cells decreased tumour cell proliferation in vitro but promoted tumour growth in vivo. mDLL4-expressing tumours showed fewer but larger vessels whereas mJAG1-tumours produced more vessels. In both tumour types pericyte coverage was decreased but the vessels were more perfused. Both ligands increased tumour resistance towards anti-VEGF therapy but the resistance was higher in mDLL4-tumours versus mJAG1-tumours. However, their sensitivity to the therapy was restored by blocking Notch signalling with dibenzazepine. Importantly, anti-DLL4 antibody blocked the effect of JAG1 on tumour growth and increased vessel branching in vivo. The mechanism behind the differential responsiveness was due to a positive feedback loop for DLL4-Notch signalling, rendering DLL4 more dominant in activating Notch signalling in the tumour microenvironment. We concluded that DLL4 and JAG1 promote tumour growth by modulating tumour angiogenesis via different mechanisms. JAG1 is not antagonistic but utilises DLL4 in tumour angiogenesis. The results suggest that anti-JAG1 therapy should be explored in conjunction with anti-DLL4 treatment in developing anti-Notch therapies in clinics. PMID:28445154

  9. Pathological hypertrophy reverses β2-adrenergic receptor-induced angiogenesis in mouse heart

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Jennings, Nicole L; Sim, Kenneth; Chang, Lisa; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Kiriazis, Helen; Lee, Ying Ying; Nguyen, My-Nhan; Woodcock, Elizabeth A; Zhang, You-Yi; El-Osta, Assam; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    β-adrenergic activation and angiogenesis are pivotal for myocardial function but the link between both events remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the cardiac angiogenesis profile in a mouse model with cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of β2-adrenoceptors (β2-TG), and the effect of cardiac pressure overload. β2-TG mice had heightened cardiac angiogenesis, which was essential for maintenance of the hypercontractile phenotype seen in this model. Relative to controls, cardiomyocytes of β2-TGs showed upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), heightened phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB), and increased recruitment of phospho-CREB, CREB-binding protein (CBP), and p300 to the VEGF promoter. However, when hearts were subjected to pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), angiogenic signaling in β2-TGs was inhibited within 1 week after TAC. β2-TG hearts, but not controls, exposed to pressure overload for 1–2 weeks showed significant increases from baseline in phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKIIδ) and protein expression of p53, reduction in CREB phosphorylation, and reduced abundance of phospho-CREB, p300 and CBP recruited to the CREB-responsive element (CRE) site of VEGF promoter. These changes were associated with reduction in both VEGF expression and capillary density. While non-TG mice with TAC developed compensatory hypertrophy, (2-TGs exhibited exaggerated hypertrophic growth at week-1 post-TAC, followed by LV dilatation and reduced fractional shortening measured by serial echocardiography. In conclusion, angiogenesis was enhanced by the cardiomyocyte (2AR/CREB/VEGF signaling pathway. Pressure overload rapidly inhibited this signaling, likely as a consequence of activated CaMKII and p53, leading to impaired angiogenesis and functional decompensation. PMID:25780088

  10. PEDF and 34-mer inhibit angiogenesis in the heart by inducing tip cells apoptosis via up-regulating PPAR-γ to increase surface FasL.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wei, Tengteng; Jiang, Xia; Li, Zhimin; Cui, Huazhu; Pan, Jiajun; Zhuang, Wei; Sun, Teng; Liu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Zhongming; Dong, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) is a potent anti-angiogenic factor whose effects are partially mediated through the induction of endothelial cell apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanism for PEDF and the functional PEDF peptides 34-mer and 44-mer to inhibit angiogenesis in the heart has not been fully established. In the present study, by constructing adult Sprague-Dawley rat models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in vitro myocardial angiogenesis, we showed that PEDF and 34-mer markedly inhibits angiogenesis by selectively inducing tip cells apoptosis rather than quiescent cells. Peptide 44-mer on the other hand exhibits no such effects. Next, we identified Fas death pathway as essential downstream regulators of PEDF and 34-mer activities in inhibiting angiogenesis. By using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) siRNA and PPAR-γ inhibitor, GW9662, we found the effects of PEDF and 34-mer were extensively blocked. These data suggest that PEDF and 34-mer inhibit angiogenesis via inducing tip cells apoptosis at least by means of up-regulating PPAR-γ to increase surface FasL in the ischemic heart, which might be a novel mechanism to understanding cardiac angiogenesis after AMI.

  11. PGE2 induces angiogenesis via MT1-MMP-mediated activation of the TGFbeta/Alk5 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Alfranca, Arántzazu; López-Oliva, Juan Manuel; Genís, Laura; López-Maderuelo, Dolores; Mirones, Isabel; Salvado, Dolores; Quesada, Antonio J; Arroyo, Alicia G; Redondo, Juan Miguel

    2008-08-15

    The development of a new vascular network is essential for the onset and progression of many pathophysiologic processes. Cyclooxygenase-2 displays a proangiogenic activity in in vitro and in vivo models, mediated principally through its metabolite prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Here, we provide evidence for a novel signaling route through which PGE(2) activates the Alk5-Smad3 pathway in endothelial cells. PGE(2) induces Alk5-dependent Smad3 nuclear translocation and DNA binding, and the activation of this pathway involves the release of active TGFbeta from its latent form through a process mediated by the metalloproteinase MT1-MMP, whose membrane clustering is promoted by PGE(2). MT1-MMP-dependent transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling through Alk5 is also required for PGE(2)-induced endothelial cord formation in vitro, and Alk5 kinase activity is required for PGE(2)-induced neovascularization in vivo. These findings identify a novel signaling pathway linking PGE(2) and TGFbeta, 2 effectors involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis, and reveal potential targets for the treatment of angiogenesis-related disorders.

  12. Low energy shock wave therapy induces angiogenesis in acute hind-limb ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Blunder, Stefan; Lobenwein, Daniela; Kirchmair, Elke; Dietl, Marion; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Lener, Daniela; Theurl, Markus; Paulus, Patrick; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Grimm, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Low energy shock waves have been shown to induce angiogenesis, improve left ventricular ejection fraction and decrease angina symptoms in patients suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. Whether there is as well an effect in acute ischemia was not yet investigated. Hind-limb ischemia was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 wild-type mice by excision of the left femoral artery. Animals were randomly divided in a treatment group (SWT, 300 shock waves at 0.1 mJ/mm2, 5 Hz) and untreated controls (CTR), n = 10 per group. The treatment group received shock wave therapy immediately after surgery. Higher gene expression and protein levels of angiogenic factors VEGF-A and PlGF, as well as their receptors Flt-1 and KDR have been found. This resulted in significantly more vessels per high-power field in SWT compared to controls. Improvement of blood perfusion in treatment animals was confirmed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Receptor tyrosine kinase profiler revealed significant phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 as an underlying mechanism of action. The effect of VEGF signaling was abolished upon incubation with a VEGFR2 inhibitor indicating that the effect is indeed VEGFR 2 dependent. Low energy shock wave treatment induces angiogenesis in acute ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 stimulation and shows the same promising effects as known from chronic myocardial ischemia. It may therefore develop as an adjunct to the treatment armentarium of acute muscle ischemia in limbs and myocardium.

  13. Berberine reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits metastasis and tumor-induced angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Su, Mei-Yu; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related death in patients, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for cancer metastasis, which is a multistep complicated process that includes local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. When cancer cells metastasize, angiogenesis is also required for metastatic dissemination, given that an increase in vascular density will allow easier access of tumor cells to circulation, and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. Berberine has several anti-inflammation and anticancer biologic effects. In this study, we provided molecular evidence that is associated with the antimetastatic effect of berberine by showing a nearly complete inhibition on invasion (P < 0.001) of highly metastatic SiHa cells via reduced transcriptional activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Berberine reversed transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT and caused upregulation of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and inhibited mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and snail-1. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific small interfering RNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in SiHa cells. Berberine also reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that berberine treatment reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis by oral gavage, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggested that berberine could reduce metastasis and angiogenesis of cervical cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment of metastasis control.

  14. Two functional epitopes of pigment epithelial-derived factor block angiogenesis and induce differentiation in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Filleur, Stephanie; Volz, Karl; Nelius, Thomas; Mirochnik, Yelena; Huang, Hanhua; Zaichuk, Tetiana A; Aymerich, Maria S; Becerra, Sofia P; Yap, Ronald; Veliceasa, Dorina; Shroff, Emelyn H; Volpert, Olga V

    2005-06-15

    Pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF), an angiogenesis inhibitor with neurotrophic properties, balances angiogenesis in the eye and blocks tumor progression. Its neurotrophic function and the ability to block vascular leakage is replicated by the PEDF 44-mer peptide (residues 58-101). We analyzed PEDFs' three-dimensional structure and identified a potential receptor-binding surface. Seeking PEDF-based antiangiogenic agents we generated and tested peptides representing the middle and lower regions of this surface. We identified previously unknown antiangiogenic epitopes consisting of the 34-mer (residues 24-57) and a shorter proximal peptide (TGA, residues 16-26) with the critical stretch L19VEEED24 and a fragment within the 44-mer (ERT, residues 78-94), which retained neurotrophic activity. The 34-mer and TGA, but not the 44-mer reproduced PEDF angioinhibitory signals hinged on c-jun-NH2-kinase-dependent nuclear factor of activated T cell deactivation and caused apoptosis. Conversely, the ERT, but not the 34-mer/TGA induced neuronal differentiation. For the 44-mer/ERT, we showed a novel ability to cause neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells. PEDF and the peptides bound endothelial and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Bound peptides were displaced by PEDF, but not by each other, suggesting multiple receptors. PEDF and its active fragments blocked tumor formation when conditionally expressed by PC-3 cells. The 34- and 44-mer used distinct mechanisms: the 34-mer acted on endothelial cells, blocked angiogenesis, and induced apoptosis whereas 44-mer prompted neuroendocrine differentiation in cancer cells. Our results map active regions for the two PEDF functions, signaling via distinct receptors, identify candidate peptides, and provide their mechanism of action for future development of PEDF-based tumor therapies.

  15. An approach to architecture 3D scaffold with interconnective microchannel networks inducing angiogenesis for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiaoxia; Wang, Yuanliang; Qian, Zhiyong; Hu, Chenbo

    2011-11-01

    The angiogenesis of 3D scaffold is one of the major current limitations in clinical practice tissue engineering. The new strategy of construction 3D scaffold with microchannel circulation network may improve angiogenesis. In this study, 3D poly(D: ,L: -lactic acid) scaffolds with controllable microchannel structures were fabricated using sacrificial sugar structures. Melt drawing sugar-fiber network produced by a modified filament spiral winding method was used to form the microchannel with adjustable diameters and porosity. This fabrication process was rapid, inexpensive, and highly scalable. The porosity, microchannel diameter, interconnectivity and surface topographies of the scaffold were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated by compression tests. The mean porosity values of the scaffolds were in the 65-78% and the scaffold exhibited microchannel structure with diameter in the 100-200 μm range. The results showed that the scaffolds exhibited an adequate porosity, interconnective microchannel network, and mechanical properties. The cell culture studies with endothelial cells (ECs) demonstrated that the scaffold allowed cells to proliferate and penetrate into the volume of the entire scaffold. Overall, these findings suggest that the fabrication process offers significant advantages and flexibility in generating a variety of non-cytotoxic tissue engineering scaffolds with controllable distributions of porosity and physical properties that could provide the necessary physical cues for ECs and further improve angiogenesis for tissue engineering.

  16. Nymphaeol-A Isolated from Okinawan Propolis Suppresses Angiogenesis and Induces Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis via Inactivation of Survival Signals.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Ikumi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Ushida, Motoko; Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Toshiro; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2013-01-01

    Propolis, a resinous substance that honeybees collect to protect their beehive from enemies, is reported to have various biological activities. In our screening program to search for antiangiogenic compounds from propolis, the ethanol extracts of Okinawan propolis (EEOP) showed significant antiangiogenic activities in a tube formation assay with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro at 3.13  μ g/mL and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo at 25  μ g/egg. To elucidate the active compounds of EEOP and their mode of action, we isolated some prenylated flavonoids from EEOP and found that nymphaeol-A had the strongest antiangiogenic activity among them. Nymphaeol-A significantly reduced in vivo neovessel formation in the CAM assay at 25  μ g/egg. At the molecular level, nymphaeol-A markedly inactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), whose molecular activations signal new vessel formation in HUVECs. In addition, nymphaeol-A dose- and time-dependently induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in tube-forming HUVECs. Taken together, nymphaeol-A was shown to inhibit angiogenesis at least in part via inactivation of MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling and induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Okinawan propolis and its major component, nymphaeol-A, may be useful agents for preventing tumor-induced angiogenesis.

  17. Toll-like receptor 2 induced angiogenesis and invasion is mediated through the Tie2 signalling pathway in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Saber, Tajvur; Veale, Douglas J; Balogh, Emese; McCormick, Jennifer; NicAnUltaigh, Sinead; Connolly, Mary; Fearon, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical early event in inflammatory arthritis, facilitating leukocyte migration into the synovium resulting in invasion and destruction of articular cartilage and bone. This study investigates the effect of TLR2 on angiogenesis, EC adhesion and invasion using microvascular endothelial cells and RA whole tissue synovial explants ex-vivo. Microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and RA synovial explants ex vivo were cultured with the TLR2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (1 µg/ml). Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), Tie2 and TLR2 expression in RA synovial tissue was assessed by immunohistology. HMVEC tube formation was assessed using Matrigel matrix assays. Ang2 was measured by ELISA. ICAM-1 cell surface expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Cell migration was assessed by wound repair scratch assays. ECM invasion, MMP-2 and -9 expression were assessed using transwell invasion chambers and zymography. To examine if the angiopoietin/Tie2 signalling pathway mediates TLR2 induced EC tube formation, invasion and migration assays were performed in the presence of a specific neutralising anti-Tie2mAb (10 ug/ml) and matched IgG isotype control Ab (10 ug/ml). Ang2 and Tie2 were localised to RA synovial blood vessels, and TLR2 was localised to RA synovial blood vessels, sub-lining infiltrates and the lining layer. Pam3CSK4 significantly increased angiogenic tube formation (p<0.05), and upregulated Ang2 production in HMVEC (p<0.05) and RA synovial explants (p<0.05). Pam3CSK4 induced cell surface expression of ICAM-1, from basal level of 149±54 (MFI) to 617±103 (p<0.01). TLR-2 activation induced an 8.8±2.8 fold increase in cell invasion compared to control (p<0.05). Pam3CSK4 also induced HMVEC cell migration and induced MMP-2 and -9 from RA synovial explants. Neutralisation of the Ang2 receptor, Tie2 significantly inhibited Pam3CSK4-induced EC tube formation and invasion (p<0.05). TLR2 activation promotes angiogenesis, cell adhesion and invasion, effects that are in part mediated

  18. Triple point-mutants of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α accelerate in vivo angiogenesis in bone defect regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Liu, Danping; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Guoxian; Xu, Na

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the functions of triple point-mutants of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) in angiogenesis in bone defect regions under normoxic conditions. 1. Triple point-mutations (in amino acids 402, 564, and 803) in the HIF1α coding sequence (CDS) were induced by polymerase chain reaction. The triple mutant HIF1α (402/564/803) was inserted into the adenovirus pAdEasy-1 system for complete viral packaging and titer measurements. 2. For the in vitro experiment, rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were divided into four experimental groups. The efficiency of infection was observed by the expression of human renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP). The HIF1α mRNA, protein and VEGF protein expression levels in infected cells in each experimental group were measured. 3. As in the in vivo experiment, the MSCs were divided into four groups and infected with the viral solutions from each complementary in vitro group and cultured under normoxic conditions. The MSCs were used as seed cells and transplanted into an apatite-wollastonite magnetic bioactive glass-ceramic (AW MGC) vector to construct artificial tissue-engineering scaffolds that were then implanted into the in vivo rabbit radial bone defect model. The animals from each group were killed 8 weeks after the surgery, and the tissues from the implantation region were harvested for the evaluation of the angiogenesis. 1. The 402,564, and 803 amino acids in CDS area were point mutated into alanine; three types of recombinant adenovirus were successfully constructed, packaged, and characterized. 2. The expression levels of HIF1α mRNA in A and B groups were significantly higher than those in the C and D groups (P < 0.05). The HIF1α and VEGF protein expression levels in A group were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P < 0.05). 3. There was prominent angiogenesis in bone defect regions in group A animals. 1. Triple point-mutants of HIF1α efficiently

  19. YKL-40-Induced Inhibition of miR-590-3p Promotes Interleukin-18 Expression and Angiogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Te-Mao; Liu, Shan-Chi; Huang, Ya-Hsin; Huang, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    YKL-40, also known as human cartilage glycoprotein-39 or chitinase-3-like-1, is a pro-inflammatory protein that is highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Angiogenesis is a critical step in the pathogenesis of RA, promoting the infiltration of inflammatory cells into joints and providing oxygen and nutrients to RA pannus. In this study, we examined the effects of YKL-40 in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), and the stimulation of angiogenesis and accumulation of osteoblasts. We observed that YKL-40 induces IL-18 production in osteoblasts and thereby stimulates angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We found that this process occurs through the suppression of miR-590-3p via the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. YKL-40 inhibition reduced angiogenesis in in vivo models of angiogenesis: the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and Matrigel plug models. We report that YKL-40 stimulates IL-18 expression in osteoblasts and facilitates EPC angiogenesis. PMID:28448439

  20. YKL-40-Induced Inhibition of miR-590-3p Promotes Interleukin-18 Expression and Angiogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Te-Mao; Liu, Shan-Chi; Huang, Ya-Hsin; Huang, Chien-Chung; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-04-27

    YKL-40, also known as human cartilage glycoprotein-39 or chitinase-3-like-1, is a pro-inflammatory protein that is highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Angiogenesis is a critical step in the pathogenesis of RA, promoting the infiltration of inflammatory cells into joints and providing oxygen and nutrients to RA pannus. In this study, we examined the effects of YKL-40 in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), and the stimulation of angiogenesis and accumulation of osteoblasts. We observed that YKL-40 induces IL-18 production in osteoblasts and thereby stimulates angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). We found that this process occurs through the suppression of miR-590-3p via the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. YKL-40 inhibition reduced angiogenesis in in vivo models of angiogenesis: the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and Matrigel plug models. We report that YKL-40 stimulates IL-18 expression in osteoblasts and facilitates EPC angiogenesis.

  1. Angiogenesis Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... of anticancer agents that target the VEGF pathway. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 2009; 6(8):465–477. [ ... mechanisms involved in the toxicity of angiogenesis inhibition. Nature Reviews Cancer 2007; 7(6):475–485. [PubMed ...

  2. Cissus quadrangularis attenuates the adjuvant induced arthritis by down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine and inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Singh, Surender; Arunraja, S

    2015-12-04

    In traditional medicine, Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a chief ingredient of many formulation for the treatment of inflammatory and bone disorders.. The study was carried out to investigate the anti-arthritic activity of C. quadrangularis hydroalcoholic extract (CQHE) and to explore the plausible mechanism of action. Arthritis was induced by sub plantar administration of formaldehyde (2% v/v) and 0.1ml of complete Freund's adjuvant. Joint swelling was measured on days 8, 9 and 10 in formaldehyde-induced arthritis and on 3, 7, 14 and 21 days in adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) respectively. Serum and ankle joints of AIA rats were used for estimation of serum TNF-α level, oxidative stress markers and synovial expression of proinflammatory cytokines/cytokine receptor (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-R1), angiogenesis marker (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3& 9). An acute and 28-day oral toxicity was carried out to evaluate the safety of the test drug. CQHE produced a dose dependent inhibition of joint swelling in both formaldehyde-induced and adjuvant induced arthritis. CQHE treatment also reduced serum TNF-α level, oxidative stress and synovial expression of inflammatory and angiogenesis marker. In sub acute toxicity study of CQHE, chronic administration of CQHE did not produce any physiological and pathological changes as compared to normal rats. Our study demonstrated the anti-arthritic potential of C. quadrangularis and it validates its traditional use for the treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 5-Methoxyleoligin, a Lignan from Edelweiss, Stimulates CYP26B1-Dependent Angiogenesis In Vitro and Induces Arteriogenesis in Infarcted Rat Hearts In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Barbara; Kern, Johann; Wiedemann, Dominik; Schwaiger, Stefan; Türkcan, Adrian; Ploner, Christian; Trockenbacher, Alexander; Aumayr, Klaus; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Laufer, Günther; Stuppner, Hermann; Untergasser, Gerold; Bernhard, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Insufficient angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in cardiac tissue after myocardial infarction (MI) is a significant factor hampering the functional recovery of the heart. To overcome this problem we screened for compounds capable of stimulating angiogenesis, and herein investigate the most active molecule, 5-Methoxyleoligin (5ML), in detail. Methods and Results 5ML potently stimulated endothelial tube formation, angiogenic sprouting, and angiogenesis in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Further, microarray- and knock down- based analyses revealed that 5ML induces angiogenesis by upregulation of CYP26B1. In an in vivo rat MI model 5ML potently increased the number of arterioles in the peri-infarction and infarction area, reduced myocardial muscle loss, and led to a significant increase in LV function (plus 21% 28 days after MI). Conclusion The present study shows that 5ML induces CYP26B1-dependent angiogenesis in vitro, and arteriogenesis in vivo. Whether or not CYP26B1 is relevant for in vivo arteriogenesis is not clear at the moment. Importantly, 5ML-induced arteriogenesis in vivo makes the compound even more interesting for a post MI therapy. 5ML may constitute the first low molecular weight compound leading to an improvement of myocardial function after MI. PMID:23554885

  4. The syndecan-4/protein kinase Cα pathway mediates prostaglandin E2-induced extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) activation in endothelial cells and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Corti, Federico; Finetti, Federica; Ziche, Marina; Simons, Michael

    2013-05-03

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is regarded as the main mediator of inflammatory symptoms. In addition, it also plays an important role in tumor growth and angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the mechanism of PGE2-induced angiogenic response. We show that in the absence of proteoglycan syndecan-4 (Sdc4), PGE2-induced ERK activation is decreased significantly, as is endothelial cell migration and cord formation in a two-dimensional Matrigel assay. In vivo, PGE2-induced angiogenesis is reduced dramatically in Sdc4(-/-) mice. The mechanism was traced to Sdc4-dependent activation of protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Transduction of an Sdc4 S183E mutant (a cytoplasmic domain mutation that blocks Sdc4-dependent PKCα activation) into Sdc4(-/-) endothelial cells was not able to rescue the loss of PGE2-induced ERK activation, whereas a transduction with full-length Sdc4 resulted in full rescue. Furthermore, PGE2-induced angiogenesis was also reduced in PKCα(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PGE2-induced activation of angiogenesis is mediated via syndecan-4-dependent activation of PKCα.

  5. Thrombin impairs human endometrial endothelial angiogenesis; implications for progestin-only contraceptive-induced abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, John P; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A; Semerci, Nihan; Huang, S Joseph; Arlier, Sefa; Larsen, Kellie; Fadda, Paolo; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-06-01

    Progestin-only contraceptives induce abnormal uterine bleeding, accompanied by prothrombin leakage from dilated endometrial microvessels and increased thrombin generation by human endometrial stromal cell (HESC)-expressed tissue factor. Initial studies of the thrombin-treated HESC secretome identified elevated levels of cleaved chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), impairing pericyte-endothelial interactions. Thus, we investigated direct and CSPG4-mediated effects of thrombin in eliciting abnormal uterine bleeding by disrupting endometrial angiogenesis. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluated conditioned medium supernatant and cell lysates from control versus thrombin-treated HESCs. Pre- and post-Depo medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)-administered endometria were immunostained for CSPG4. Proliferation, apoptosis and tube formation were assessed in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs) incubated with recombinant human (rh)-CSPG4 or thrombin or both. Thrombin induced CSPG4 protein expression in cultured HESCs as detected by mass spectrometry and ELISA (p<.02, n=3). Compared to pre-DMPA endometria (n=5), stromal cells in post-DMPA endometria (n=5) displayed stronger CSPG4 immunostaining. In HEEC cultures (n=3), total tube-formed mesh area was significantly higher in rh-CSPG4 versus control (p<.05). However, thrombin disrupted HEEC tube formation by a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of angiogenic parameters (p<.05), whereas CSPG4 co-treatment did not reverse these thrombin-mediated effects. These results suggest that disruption of HEEC tube formation by thrombin induces aberrant angiogenesis and abnormal uterine bleeding in DMPA users. Mass spectrometry analysis identified several HESC-secreted proteins regulated by thrombin. Therapeutic agents blocking angiogenic effects of thrombin in HESCs can prevent or minimize progestin

  6. Transforming growth factor beta 1-induced changes in cell migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Application of TGF beta 1 (10-100 ng) to the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) for 72 h resulted in a dose-dependent, gross angiogenic response. The vascular effects induced by TGF beta 1 were qualitatively different than those induced by maximal doses of basic FGF (bFGF) (500 ng). While TGF beta 1 induced the formation of large blood vessels by 72 h, bFGF induced primarily small blood vessels. Histologic analysis revealed that TGF beta 1 stimulated pleiotropic cellular responses in the CAM. Increases in fibroblast and epithelial cell density in the area of TGF beta 1 delivery were observed as early as 4 h after TGF beta 1 treatment. By 8 h, these cell types also demonstrated altered morphology and marked inhibition of proliferation as evidenced by 3H- thymidine labeling. Thus, the TGF beta 1-stimulated accumulation of these cell types was the result of cellular chemotaxis from peripheral areas into the area of TGF beta 1 delivery. Microscopic angiogenesis in the form of capillary sprouts and increased endothelial cell density first became evident at 16 h. By 24 h, capillary cords appeared within the mesenchyme of the CAM, extending towards the point of TGF beta 1 delivery. 3H-thymidine labeling revealed that the growth of these capillary cords was due to endothelial cell proliferation. Finally, perivascular mononuclear inflammation did not become evident until 48 h of treatment, and its presence correlated spatially and temporally with the gross and histological remodelling of newly formed capillary cords into larger blood vessels. In summary, these data suggest that, in the chicken CAM, TGF beta 1 initiates a sequence of cellular responses that results in growth inhibition, cellular accumulation through migration, and microvascular angiogenesis. PMID:1696268

  7. The effect of deferoxamine on angiogenesis and bone repair in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of rabbit femoral heads.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Fan, Lihong; Yu, Zefeng; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined whether local deferoxamine (DFO) administration can promote angiogenesis and bone repair in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Steroid-induced ONFH was induced in 65 mature male New Zealand white rabbits by methylprednisolone in combination with lipopolysaccharide. Six weeks later, the rabbits received no treatment (model group, N = 15), bilateral core decompression (CD group, N = 20) or CD in combination with local DFO administration (DFO group, N = 20). Six weeks after the surgery, vascularization in the femoral head was evaluated by ink artery infusion angiography and immunohistochemical staining for von Willebrand Factor (vWF). Bone repair was assessed by histologic analysis and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyze the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and osteocalcin (OCN). Ink artery infusion angiography and microvessel analysis by immuohistochemical staining for vWF showed more blood vessels in the DFO group than other groups. The expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, BMP-2, and OCN, indicated by immunohistochemical staining, was higher in the DFO group compared with other groups. Micro-CT scanning results indicated that the DFO group had larger volume of newly formed bone than the CD group. This work indicated that local DFO administration improved angiogenesis and bone repair of early stage ONFH in rabbit model, and it may offer an efficient, economic, and simple therapy for early stage ONFH.

  8. Stochastic model of tumor-induced angiogenesis: Ensemble averages and deterministic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terragni, F.; Carretero, M.; Capasso, V.; Bonilla, L. L.

    2016-02-01

    A recent conceptual model of tumor-driven angiogenesis including branching, elongation, and anastomosis of blood vessels captures some of the intrinsic multiscale structures of this complex system, yet allowing one to extract a deterministic integro-partial-differential description of the vessel tip density [Phys. Rev. E 90, 062716 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.062716]. Here we solve the stochastic model, show that ensemble averages over many realizations correspond to the deterministic equations, and fit the anastomosis rate coefficient so that the total number of vessel tips evolves similarly in the deterministic and ensemble-averaged stochastic descriptions.

  9. Nicotine and pathological angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Cooke, John P

    2012-11-27

    This paper describes the role of endothelial nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in diseases where pathological angiogenesis plays a role. An extensive review of the literature was performed, focusing on studies that investigated the effect of nicotine upon angiogenesis. Nicotine induces pathological angiogenesis at clinically relevant concentrations (i.e. at tissue and plasma concentrations similar to those of a light to moderate smoker). Nicotine promotes endothelial cell migration, proliferation, survival, tube formation and nitric oxide (NO) production in vitro, mimicking the effect of other angiogenic growth factors. These in vitro findings indicate that there may be an angiogenic component to the pathophysiology of major tobacco related diseases such as carcinoma, atherosclerosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Indeed, nicotine stimulates pathological angiogenesis in pre-clinical models of these disorders. Subsequently, it has been demonstrated that nicotine stimulates nAChRs on the endothelium to induce angiogenic processes, that these nAChRs are largely of the α7 homomeric type, and that there are synergistic interactions between the nAChRs and angiogenic growth factor receptors at the phosphoproteomic and genomic levels. These findings are of potential clinical relevance, and provide mechanistic insights into tobacco-related disease. Furthermore, these findings may lead to novel therapies for diseases characterized by insufficient or inappropriate angiogenesis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. LDL suppresses angiogenesis through disruption of the HIF pathway via NF-κB inhibition which is reversed by the proteasome inhibitor BSc2118

    PubMed Central

    Doeppner, Thorsten R.; Niu, Feng; Li, Qiaochuan; Yang, Yanping; Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Hagemann, Nina; Li, Wei; Hermann, Dirk M.; Dai, Yun; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Fengyan

    2015-01-01

    Since disturbance of angiogenesis predisposes to ischemic injuries, attempts to promote angiogenesis have been made to improve clinical outcomes of patients with many ischemic disorders. While hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) stimulate vascular remodeling and angiogenesis, hyperlipidemia impairs angiogenesis in response to various pro-angiogenic factors. However, it remains uncertain how HIFs regulate angiogenesis under hyperlipidemia. Here, we report that exposure to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) suppressed in vitro angiogenesis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Whereas LDL exposure diminished expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α induced by hypoxia, it inhibited DMOG- and TNFα-induced HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression in normoxia. Notably, in both hypoxia and normoxia, LDL markedly reduced expression of HIF-1β, a constitutively stable HIF subunit, an event associated with NF-κB inactivation. Moreover, knockdown of HIF-1β down-regulated HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression, in association with increased HIF-1α hydroxylation and 20S proteasome activity after LDL exposure. Significantly, the proteasome inhibitor BSc2118 prevented angiogenesis attenuation by LDL through restoring expression of HIFs. Together, these findings argue that HIF-1β might act as a novel cross-link between the HIF and NF-κB pathways in suppression of angiogenesis by LDL, while proteasome inhibitors might promote angiogenesis by reactivating this signaling cascade under hyperlipidemia. PMID:26388611

  11. LDL suppresses angiogenesis through disruption of the HIF pathway via NF-κB inhibition which is reversed by the proteasome inhibitor BSc2118.

    PubMed

    Yao, Gang; Zhang, Qi; Doeppner, Thorsten R; Niu, Feng; Li, Qiaochuan; Yang, Yanping; Kuckelkorn, Ulrike; Hagemann, Nina; Li, Wei; Hermann, Dirk M; Dai, Yun; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Fengyan

    2015-10-06

    Since disturbance of angiogenesis predisposes to ischemic injuries, attempts to promote angiogenesis have been made to improve clinical outcomes of patients with many ischemic disorders. While hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) stimulate vascular remodeling and angiogenesis, hyperlipidemia impairs angiogenesis in response to various pro-angiogenic factors. However, it remains uncertain how HIFs regulate angiogenesis under hyperlipidemia. Here, we report that exposure to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) suppressed in vitro angiogenesis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Whereas LDL exposure diminished expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α induced by hypoxia, it inhibited DMOG- and TNFα-induced HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression in normoxia. Notably, in both hypoxia and normoxia, LDL markedly reduced expression of HIF-1β, a constitutively stable HIF subunit, an event associated with NF-κB inactivation. Moreover, knockdown of HIF-1β down-regulated HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression, in association with increased HIF-1α hydroxylation and 20S proteasome activity after LDL exposure. Significantly, the proteasome inhibitor BSc2118 prevented angiogenesis attenuation by LDL through restoring expression of HIFs. Together, these findings argue that HIF-1β might act as a novel cross-link between the HIF and NF-κB pathways in suppression of angiogenesis by LDL, while proteasome inhibitors might promote angiogenesis by reactivating this signaling cascade under hyperlipidemia.

  12. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC. PMID:27050277

  13. Scopolin isolated from Erycibe obtusifolia Benth stems suppresses adjuvant-induced rat arthritis by inhibiting inflammation and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Dai, Yue; Gao, Xinghua; Xia, Yufeng

    2009-07-01

    Despite scopolin is a main coumarin constituent in the stems of Erycibe obtusifolia Benth, a herb drug that has long been utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, little information is available about the pharmacological activities of this compound. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-rheumatic effects of scopolin in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats, and explore the underlying mechanisms of action in views of anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties in the synovial tissues. Scopolin (50, 100 mg/kg), injected intraperitoneally for 10 days from the onset of secondary response, significantly inhibited both inoculated and non-inoculated paw swelling as well as articular index scores in AIA. Meanwhile, the mean body weight of rats treated with scopolin was higher than that of model group. Rats treated with high dose of scopolin (100 mg/kg) preserved a nearly normal histological architecture of the joints and showed a significant reduction of the new blood vessels in the synovial tissues. Additionally, scopolin could reduce IL-6, VEGF and FGF-2 expressions in rat synovial tissues. In conclusion, scopolin can reduce the clinical symptoms of rat AIA by inhibiting inflammation and angiogenesis, and this compound may be a potent agent for angiogenesis related diseases and can serve as a structural base for screening more potent synthetic analogs.

  14. Demonstration of inhibitory effect of oral shark cartilage on basic fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    González, R P; Soares, F S; Farias, R F; Pessoa, C; Leyva, A; de Barros Viana, G S; Moraes, M O

    2001-02-01

    Several angiogenic inhibitors have been obtained from shark cartilage, some of these are currently in clinical trials for assessment of safety and therapeutic efficacy in humans. Still, shark cartilage taken orally is commonly used in alternative and complimentary medicine for various ailments including serious diseases such as cancer. However, only few studies of oral shark cartilage have demonstrated pharmacological effects in experimental animals or patients, to indicate safe doses with sufficient bioavailability. In the present study we demonstrated the antiangiogenic properties of oral shark cartilage in the rabbit cornea model. Slow-release, polymethylmetacrylate pellets containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were surgically implanted in the rabbit cornea to stimulate neovascularization scored by stereo microscopy. Powdered shark cartilage (PSC; commercial product) was tested orally along with a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of this cartilage product which was tested by local application. Animals were treated with oral dosages of 100 mg/kg PSC or 200 mg/kg thalidomide as positive control. Pellets containing WSF (50, 100 or 200 microg/pellet) or bFGF-inhibitor pentosan polysulfate were implanted adjacent to the bFGF pellet. Oral shark cartilage inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis, as did oral thalidomide, in this in vivo model. WSF and pentosan polysulfate was shown to block neovascularization in the cornea when applied locally. This study demonstrates that in the rabbit, oral shark cartilage appears to produce systemic levels of angiogenesis inhibitors that can exert their effect at the cornea.

  15. Migration-inducing gene 7 promotes tumorigenesis and angiogenesis and independently predicts poor prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bihui; Yin, Mingzhu; Li, Xia; Cao, Guosheng; Qi, Jin; Lou, Ge; Sheng, Shijie; Kou, Junping; Chen, Kang; Yu, Boyang

    2016-05-10

    Epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) cause more mortality than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. New therapeutic approaches to reduce EOC mortality have been largely unsuccessful due to the poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying EOC proliferation and metastasis. Progress in EOC treatment is further hampered by a lack of reliable prognostic biomarkers for early risk assessment. In this study, we identify that Migration-Inducting Gene 7 (MIG-7) is specifically induced in human EOC tissues but not normal ovaries or ovarian cyst. Ovarian MIG-7 expression strongly correlated with EOC progression. Elevated MIG-7 level at the time of primary cytoreductive surgery was a strong and independent predictor of poor survival of EOC patients. Cell and murine xenograft models showed that MIG-7 was required for EOC proliferation and invasion, and MIG-7 enhanced EOC-associated angiogenesis by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Inhibiting MIG-7 by RNA interference in grafted EOC cells retarded tumor growth, angiogenesis and improved host survival, and suppressing MIG-7 expression with a small molecule inhibitor D-39 identified from the medicinal plant Liriope muscari mitigated EOC growth and invasion and specifically abrogated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Our data not only reveal a critical function of MIG-7 in EOC growth and metastasis and support MIG-7 as an independent prognostic biomarker for EOC, but also demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of MIG-7 is likely beneficial in the treatment of EOC.

  16. Adrenomedullin promotes angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer through upregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Xu, Yang; Ma, Jian; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a multi-functional peptide related to many kinds of tumors. This study was aimed to investigate the role of ADM on angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and its possible mechanism. The expressions of ADM, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and CD34 were examined by immunohistochemistry staining. The relationship among ADM, HIF-1α, VEGF and micro-vessel density (MVD) was assessed in 56 EOC tissues. CAOV3 cells were stably transfected with pcDNA-ADM (plasmid overexpressing ADM gene) or pRNA-shADM (small interfering RNA for ADM gene). Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF. The MTT, transwell migration assay and in vitro tube formation analysis were used to evaluate the proliferation, migration, and tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) which were pretreated with ADM or ADM receptor antagonist ADM22-52. Our findings showed that ADM expression was positively correlated with the expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF or MVD in EOC. ADM upregulated expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in CAOV3 cells. ADM promoted HUVECs proliferation, migration and tube formation. In conclusion, ADM was an upstream molecule of HIF-1α/VEGF and it promoted angiogenesis through upregulating HIF-1α/VEGF in EOC. PMID:28091613

  17. miR-101 is down-regulated in glioblastoma resulting in EZH2-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Michiel; Nilsson, Jonas; Mir, Shahryar E.; van der Stoop, Petra M.; Hulleman, Esther; Niers, Johanna M.; de Witt Hamer, Phillip C.; Marquez, Victor E.; Cloos, Jacqueline; Krichevsky, Anna M.; Noske, David P.; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Würdinger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor with dismal prognosis. GBM patients have a median survival of less than 2 years. GBM is characterized by fast cell proliferation, infiltrative migration, and by the induction of angiogenesis. MicroRNAs and polycomb group (PcG) proteins have emerged as important regulators of gene expression. Methods: Here we determined that miR-101 is down-regulated in GBM, resulting in overexpression of the miR-101 target PcG protein EZH2, a histone methyltransferase affecting gene expression profiles in an epigenetic manner. Results: Inhibition of EZH2 in vitro by pre-miR-101, EZH2 siRNA, or small molecule DZNep, attenuated GBM cell growth, migration/invasion, and GBM-induced endothelial tubule formation. In addition, for each biological process we identified ontology-associated transcripts that significantly correlate with EZH2 expression. Inhibition of EZH2 in vivo by systemic DZNep administration in a U87-Fluc-mCherry GBM xenograft mouse imaging model resulted in reduced tumor growth. Conclusion: Our results indicate that EZH2 has a versatile function in GBM progression and that its overexpression is at least partly due to decreased miR-101 expression. Inhibition of EZH2 may be a potential therapeutic strategy to target GBM proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. PMID:21321380

  18. Lack of JunD promotes pressure overload-induced apoptosis, hypertrophic growth, and angiogenesis in the heart.

    PubMed

    Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Hilfiker, Andres; Kaminski, Karol; Schaefer, Arnd; Park, Joon-Keun; Michel, Kim; Quint, Anja; Yaniv, Moshe; Weitzman, Jonathan B; Drexler, Helmut

    2005-09-06

    The Jun family of activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factors (c-Jun, JunB, and JunD) is involved in fundamental biological processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, tumor angiogenesis, and hypertrophy. The role of individual AP-1 transcription factors in the stressed heart is not clear. In the present study we analyzed the role of JunD in survival, hypertrophy, and angiogenesis in the pressure-overloaded mouse heart after thoracic aortic constriction. Mice lacking JunD (knockout [KO]) showed increased mortality and enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and fibrosis associated with increased levels of hypoxia-induced factor-1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p53, and Bax protein and reduced levels of Bcl-2 protein after 7 days of severe pressure overload compared with wild-type (WT) siblings. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in surviving KO mice was enhanced compared with that in WT mice. Chronic moderate pressure overload for 12 weeks caused enhanced left ventricular hypertrophy in KO mice, and survival and interstitial fibrosis were comparable with WT mice. Cardiac function, 12 weeks after operation, was comparable among shams and pressure-overloaded mice of both genotypes. In addition, KO mice exposed to chronic pressure overload showed higher cardiac capillary density associated with increased protein levels of VEGF. Thus, JunD limits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and protects the pressure-overloaded heart from cardiac apoptosis. These beneficial effects of JunD, however, are associated with antiangiogenic properties.

  19. VEGF-Induced Expression of miR-17–92 Cluster in Endothelial Cells Is Mediated by ERK/ELK1 Activation and Regulates Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro-Jorganes, Aránzazu; Lee, Monica Y.; Araldi, Elisa; Landskroner-Eiger, Shira; Fernández-Fuertes, Marta; Sahraei, Mahnaz; Quiles del Rey, Maria; van Solingen, Coen; Yu, Jun; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Several lines of evidence indicate that the regulation of microRNA (miRNA) levels by different stimuli may contribute to the modulation of stimulus-induced responses. The miR-17–92 cluster has been linked to tumor development and angiogenesis, but its role in vascular endothelial growth factor–induced endothelial cell (EC) functions is unclear and its regulation is unknown. Objective: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which VEGF regulates the expression of miR-17–92 cluster in ECs and determine its contribution to the regulation of endothelial angiogenic functions, both in vitro and in vivo. This was done by analyzing the effect of postnatal inactivation of miR-17–92 cluster in the endothelium (miR-17–92 iEC-KO mice) on developmental retinal angiogenesis, VEGF-induced ear angiogenesis, and tumor angiogenesis. Methods and Results: Here, we show that Erk/Elk1 activation on VEGF stimulation of ECs is responsible for Elk-1-mediated transcription activation (chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis) of the miR-17–92 cluster. Furthermore, we demonstrate that VEGF-mediated upregulation of the miR-17–92 cluster in vitro is necessary for EC proliferation and angiogenic sprouting. Finally, we provide genetic evidence that miR-17–92 iEC-KO mice have blunted physiological retinal angiogenesis during development and diminished VEGF-induced ear angiogenesis and tumor angiogenesis. Computational analysis and rescue experiments show that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is a target of the miR-17–92 cluster and is a crucial mediator of miR-17-92–induced EC proliferation. However, the angiogenic transcriptional program is reduced when miR-17–92 is inhibited. Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicate that VEGF-induced miR-17–92 cluster expression contributes to the angiogenic switch of ECs and participates in the regulation of angiogenesis. PMID:26472816

  20. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 promotes granuloma formation by sustaining a mycobacteria-induced angiogenesis programme

    PubMed Central

    Torraca, Vincenzo; Tulotta, Claudia; Snaar-Jagalska, B. Ewa; Meijer, Annemarie H.

    2017-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 plays a critical role in chemotaxis and leukocyte differentiation. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that links this receptor to angiogenesis. Using the well-established zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum model for tuberculosis, angiogenesis was recently found to be important for the development of cellular aggregates called granulomas that contain the mycobacteria and are the hallmark of tuberculosis disease. Here, we found that initiation of the granuloma-associated proangiogenic programme requires CXCR4 signalling. The nascent granulomas in cxcr4b-deficient zebrafish embryos were poorly vascularised, which in turn also delayed bacterial growth. Suppressed infection expansion in cxcr4b mutants could not be attributed to an overall deficient recruitment of leukocytes or to different intramacrophage bacterial growth rate, as cxcr4b mutants displayed similar microbicidal capabilities against initial mycobacterial infection and the cellular composition of granulomatous lesions was similar to wildtype siblings. Expression of vegfaa was upregulated to a similar extent in cxcr4b mutants and wildtypes, suggesting that the granuloma vascularisation phenotype of cxcr4b mutants is independent of vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:28332618

  1. Chrysin suppresses IL-6-induced angiogenesis via down-regulation of JAK1/STAT3 and VEGF: an in vitro and in ovo approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Mei; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Wang, Bao-Wei; Chang, Hang; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2010-06-09

    Chrysin, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, possesses many biologic properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of chrysin on IL-6-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in ovo. Chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, an in ovo angiogenesis assay, showed chrysin significantly suppressed IL-6-induced neovascularization. Furthermore, chrysin significantly suppressed human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and tube formation. The signaling pathway involved in chrysin-related antiangiogenesis was also investigated. The data indicated that chrysin is able to down-regulate the expression of glycoprotein 130 (gp130), soluble IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), phosphorylated JAK1 and STAT3, and VEGF in HUVECs. The IL-6-induced binding of STAT3 was significantly suppressed by chrysin. Moreover, chrysin did not further suppress VEGF expression with STAT3 knocked down. Taken together, the results show that chrysin suppresses IL-6-induced angiogenesis through modulation of the sIL-6R/gp130/JAK1/STAT3/VEGF signaling pathway. Chrysin may provide new therapeutic potential for IL-6-induced pathological angiogenesis.

  2. Low Energy Shock Wave Therapy Induces Angiogenesis in Acute Hind-Limb Ischemia via VEGF Receptor 2 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Blunder, Stefan; Lobenwein, Daniela; Kirchmair, Elke; Dietl, Marion; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Lener, Daniela; Theurl, Markus; Paulus, Patrick; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Grimm, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Low energy shock waves have been shown to induce angiogenesis, improve left ventricular ejection fraction and decrease angina symptoms in patients suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. Whether there is as well an effect in acute ischemia was not yet investigated. Methods Hind-limb ischemia was induced in 10–12 weeks old male C57/Bl6 wild-type mice by excision of the left femoral artery. Animals were randomly divided in a treatment group (SWT, 300 shock waves at 0.1 mJ/mm2, 5 Hz) and untreated controls (CTR), n = 10 per group. The treatment group received shock wave therapy immediately after surgery. Results Higher gene expression and protein levels of angiogenic factors VEGF-A and PlGF, as well as their receptors Flt-1 and KDR have been found. This resulted in significantly more vessels per high-power field in SWT compared to controls. Improvement of blood perfusion in treatment animals was confirmed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Receptor tyrosine kinase profiler revealed significant phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 as an underlying mechanism of action. The effect of VEGF signaling was abolished upon incubation with a VEGFR2 inhibitor indicating that the effect is indeed VEGFR 2 dependent. Conclusions Low energy shock wave treatment induces angiogenesis in acute ischemia via VEGF receptor 2 stimulation and shows the same promising effects as known from chronic myocardial ischemia. It may therefore develop as an adjunct to the treatment armentarium of acute muscle ischemia in limbs and myocardium. PMID:25093816

  3. Effects of Tetrahydrocurcumin on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Cervical Cancer Cell-Induced Angiogenesis in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Changtam, Chatchawan

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the important in vivo metabolites of curcumin, inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Its effects on angiogenesis in cervical cancer- (CaSki-) implanted nude mice and its mechanisms on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were investigated. Female BALB/c nude mice were divided into control (CON) and CaSki-implanted groups (CaSki group). One month after the injection with cervical cancer cells, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. The microvascular density (MVD) was evaluated using the CD31 expression. VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. The MVD in CaSki + vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the CON + vehicle group. Interestingly, when treated with THC at all doses, the CaSki group showed a significant smaller number of the MVD. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expressions, but they were downregulated when mice were treated with THC at all doses. THC demonstrated an inhibitory effect against tumor angiogenesis in CaSki-implanted nude mice model. This effect is likely to be mediated by the downregulation of HIF-1-α, VEGF expression, and its receptor. THC could be developed into a promising agent for cancer therapy in the future. PMID:25789317

  4. Effects of tetrahydrocurcumin on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cervical cancer cell-induced angiogenesis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Changtam, Chatchawan

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the important in vivo metabolites of curcumin, inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Its effects on angiogenesis in cervical cancer- (CaSki-) implanted nude mice and its mechanisms on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were investigated. Female BALB/c nude mice were divided into control (CON) and CaSki-implanted groups (CaSki group). One month after the injection with cervical cancer cells, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. The microvascular density (MVD) was evaluated using the CD31 expression. VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. The MVD in CaSki + vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the CON + vehicle group. Interestingly, when treated with THC at all doses, the CaSki group showed a significant smaller number of the MVD. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expressions, but they were downregulated when mice were treated with THC at all doses. THC demonstrated an inhibitory effect against tumor angiogenesis in CaSki-implanted nude mice model. This effect is likely to be mediated by the downregulation of HIF-1-α, VEGF expression, and its receptor. THC could be developed into a promising agent for cancer therapy in the future.

  5. Peptide-matrix-mediated gene transfer of an oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor-1α variant for local induction of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, Diana; Hall, Heike; Wechsler, Sandra; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) constitutes a target in therapeutic angiogenesis. HIF-1α functions as a sensor of hypoxia and induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which then induces angiogenesis. To explore the potential of HIF-1α gene therapy in stimulating wound healing, we delivered a gene encoding a stabilized form of HIF-1α, lacking the oxygen-sensitive degradation domain, namely HIF-1αΔODD, by using a previously characterized peptide-based gene delivery vector in fibrin as a surgical matrix. The peptide vector consisted of multiple domains: (i) A cysteine-flanked lysine hexamer provided DNA interactions that were stable extracellularly but destabilized intracellularly after reduction of the formed disulfide bonds. This DNA-binding domain was fused to either (ii) a fibrin-binding peptide for entrapment within the matrix or (iii) a nuclear localization sequence for efficient nuclear targeting. The HIF-1αΔODD gene was expressed and translocated to the nucleus under normoxic conditions, leading to up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 mRNA and protein levels in vitro. When the peptide-DNA nanoparticles entrapped in fibrin matrices were applied to full-thickness dermal wounds in the mouse (10 μg per wound in 30 μl of fibrin), angiogenesis was increased comparably strongly to that induced by VEGF-A165 protein (1.25 μg per wound in 30 μl of fibrin). However, the maturity of the vessels induced by HIF-1αΔODD was significantly higher than that induced by VEGF-A165 protein, as shown by stabilization of the neovessels with smooth muscle. Nonviral, local administration of this potent angiogenesis-inducing gene by using this peptide vector represents a powerful approach in tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:16477043

  6. Peptide-matrix-mediated gene transfer of an oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha variant for local induction of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trentin, Diana; Hall, Heike; Wechsler, Sandra; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2006-02-21

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) constitutes a target in therapeutic angiogenesis. HIF-1alpha functions as a sensor of hypoxia and induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which then induces angiogenesis. To explore the potential of HIF-1alpha gene therapy in stimulating wound healing, we delivered a gene encoding a stabilized form of HIF-1alpha, lacking the oxygen-sensitive degradation domain, namely HIF-1alpha deltaODD, by using a previously characterized peptide-based gene delivery vector in fibrin as a surgical matrix. The peptide vector consisted of multiple domains: (i) A cysteine-flanked lysine hexamer provided DNA interactions that were stable extracellularly but destabilized intracellularly after reduction of the formed disulfide bonds. This DNA-binding domain was fused to either (ii) a fibrin-binding peptide for entrapment within the matrix or (iii) a nuclear localization sequence for efficient nuclear targeting. The HIF-1alpha deltaODD gene was expressed and translocated to the nucleus under normoxic conditions, leading to up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 mRNA and protein levels in vitro. When the peptide-DNA nanoparticles entrapped in fibrin matrices were applied to full-thickness dermal wounds in the mouse (10 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin), angiogenesis was increased comparably strongly to that induced by VEGF-A165 protein (1.25 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin). However, the maturity of the vessels induced by HIF-1alpha deltaODD was significantly higher than that induced by VEGF-A165 protein, as shown by stabilization of the neovessels with smooth muscle. Nonviral, local administration of this potent angiogenesis-inducing gene by using this peptide vector represents a powerful approach in tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis.

  7. How phototherapy affects angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Mary

    2007-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for normal growth, tissue repair and regeneration. Its stimulation accelerates repair and regeneration including wound healing where these processes are delayed. Its inhibition can reduce the rate of growth of solid tumors. Phototherapy can accelerate the resolution of acute inflammation with the result that the proliferative phase of tissue repair, when angiogenesis occurs, begins earlier than in sham-irradiated controls. Evidence that angiogenesis is enhanced in dermal repair, tendon repair and bone regeneration in rodents is presented. The cellular mechanisms that control angiogenesis involve the interaction of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes and other cells in response, for example, to changes in the availability of oxygen in the local environment. Pericytes and macrophages modulate endothelial cell proliferation; pericytes guide endothelial cell migration. The stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro following exposure to red (660 nm) and infrared (820 nm) radiation, 15 mW, at 2-8 J/cm2 is presented. 1J/cm2 was ineffective. 820 nm irradiation, 15 mW, at 8 J/cm2 was observed to inhibit pericyte proliferation in vitro. Indirect effects on endothelial cell and pericyte proliferation followed stimulation of soluble mediator production by macrophages following exposure to red and infrared radiation. The potential clinical significance of the results obtained is discussed and the necessity of clinical trials emphasized.

  8. Long non-coding RNA taurine upregulated 1 enhances tumor-induced angiogenesis through inhibiting microRNA-299 in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cai, H; Liu, X; Zheng, J; Xue, Y; Ma, J; Li, Z; Xi, Z; Li, Z; Bao, M; Liu, Y

    2017-01-19

    Angiogenesis is one of the critical biological elements affecting the development and progression of cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators and aberrantly expressed in various types of human cancer. Our previous studies indicated that lncRNA taurine upregulated 1 (TUG1) implicated in the regulation of blood-tumor barrier permeability; however, its role in glioblastoma angiogenesis still unclear. Here we demonstrated that TUG1 was up-expressed in human glioblastoma tissues and glioblastoma cell lines. Knockdown of TUG1 remarkably suppressed tumor-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation as well as reducing spheroid-based angiogenesis ability in vitro, which are the critical steps for tumor angiogenesis. Besides, knockdown of TUG1 significantly increased the expression of mircroRNA-299 (miR-299), which was down-expressed in glioblastoma tissues and glioblastoma cell lines. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that TUG1 influenced tumor angiogenesis via directly binding to the miR-299 and there was a reciprocal repression between TUG1 and miR-299 in the same RNA-induced silencing complex. Moreover, knockdown of TUG1 reduced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), which was defined as a functional downstream target of miR-299. In addition, knockdown of TUG1, shown in the in vivo studies, has effects on suppressing tumor growth, reducing tumor microvessel density and decreasing the VEGFA expression by upregulating miR-299 in xenograft glioblastoma model. Overall, the results demonstrated that TUG1 enhances tumor-induced angiogenesis and VEGF expression through inhibiting miR-299. Also, the inhibition of TUG1 could provide a novel therapeutic target for glioblastoma treatment.

  9. Blockade of the intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel inhibits the angiogenesis induced by epidermal growth factor in the treatment of corneal alkali burn.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huike; Li, Xiaodong; Ma, Jing; Lv, Xiaohong; Zhao, Shu; Lang, Wen; Zhang, Yafang

    2013-05-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is used to treat alkali-burned corneas. However, EGF-induced corneal angiogenesis, which is currently untreatable, is a side effect of this therapy. We therefore explored the role of the intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (KCa3.1) in EGF-induced angiogenesis and tested whether KCa3.1 blockade can suppress EGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. The proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) in response to EGF, the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the KCa3.1 inhibitor TRAM-34 were analyzed in vitro via MTT, cell counting, scratch and tube formation assays. The protein and mRNA levels of KCa3.1, phosphorylated-ERK (P-ERK), total-ERK (T-ERK), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), vimentin and MMP-2 were assessed via western blotting and RT-PCR. KCa3.1 and vimentin expression were also detected through immunofluorescence staining. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell cycle. Further, an in vivo murine alkali-burned cornea model was developed and treated with EGF and TRAM-34 eye drops to analyze the effect of these treatments on corneal healing and angiogenesis. The corneas were also analyzed by histological staining. The in vitro results showed that EGF induces the upregulation of KCa3.1 and P-ERK in HUVECs and that this upregulation is suppressed by PD98059. EGF stimulates proliferation, migration and tube formation in HUVECs, and this effect can be suppressed by TRAM-34. TRAM-34 also arrests HUVECs in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and downregulates CDK4, vimentin and MMP-2 in these cells. The in vivo results indicated that TRAM-34 suppresses EGF-induced corneal angiogenesis without affecting EGF-induced corneal wound healing. In summary, the upregulation of KCa3.1 may be crucial for EGF-induced angiogenesis through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Thus, KCa3.1 may be a potential target for the treatment of EGF-induced corneal angiogenesis.

  10. Fluocinolone inhibits VEGF expression via glucocorticoid receptor in human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells and TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM).

    PubMed

    Ayalasomayajula, Surya P; Ashton, Paul; Kompella, Uday B

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether fluocinolone inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) and TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The dose-dependent effect of fluocinolone (0.0001-1 microM) on VEGF secretion, VEGF mRNA expression, and cytotoxicity was determined in confluent monolayers of ARPE-19 cells using ELISA, RT-PCR, and MTT assay, respectively. The effect of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (RU486) on fluocinolone-mediated VEGF expression was determined. The effect of fluocinolone in inhibiting TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis was determined using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. The dose-dependent effect of fluocinolone (0.0001-1 microM) in inhibiting 1% serum-stimulated ARPE-19 cell proliferation was determined using BrdU labeling assay. At concentrations devoid of cytotoxicity, fluocinolone inhibited VEGF secretion as well as mRNA expression in ARPE-19 cells. RU486 (1 microM) treatment prevented inhibition of VEGF secretion and VEGF mRNA expression by fluocinolone (0.1 microM). Fluocinolone (50 ng/egg) inhibited angiogenesis induced by TNF-alpha. The ARPE-19 cell proliferation was inhibited by fluocinolone in a dose-dependent manner. Fluocinolone inhibited VEGF expression in ARPE-19 cells via its glucocorticoid receptor activity. In addition, fluocinolone inhibited proliferation of ARPE-19 cells and TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis in chorioallantoic membranes.

  11. Pancreatic carcinogenesis: apoptosis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Shinya; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Ken; Fujioka, Hikaru; Miyashita, Kosei

    2004-04-01

    Apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes that are altered during carcinogenesis. Both apoptosis and angiogenesis may play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Despite numerous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer, its prognosis remains dismal and a new therapeutic approach is much needed. Recent research has revealed that apoptosis and angiogenesis are closely interrelated. Several reports show that a tumor suppresser gene that is expressed in pancreatic carcinoma and related to malignant potential can induce apoptosis and also inhibit angiogenesis. At present, it is generally accepted that tumor growth in cancers, including pancreatic cancer, depends on angiogenesis. We have identified 2 new angiogenesis inhibitors from a conditioned medium of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (BxPC-3): antiangiogenic antithrombin III (aaAT-III) and vitamin D binding protein-macrophage activating factor (DBP-maf). These molecules were able to regress tumors in severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) mice, demonstrating potent inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. Moreover, the angiogenesis inhibitors induced tumor dormancy in the animal model. These results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy using angiogenesis inhibitors may become a new strategy for treatment of pancreatic cancer in the near future.

  12. Simple surface coating of electrospun poly-L-lactic acid scaffolds to induce angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gigliobianco, Giulia; Chong, Chuh K; MacNeil, Sheila

    2015-07-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs often fail due to poor integration with the patient's tissues. Specifically, they fail to be neovascularised, leading to the death and loss of the implanted tissues. Thus, there is a need to produce angiogenic materials to improve tissue integration. We describe the development of a layer-by-layer approach to coat electrospun scaffolds to help promote angiogenesis into these biomaterials once implanted. Electrospun poly-L-lactic acid was coated comparing two different techniques - one using alternative layers of polyethyleneImine (PEI) and polyacrylic Acid (PAC) and one with alternative layers of PEI and heparin for a total of seven layers in both cases. Both scaffolds were then coated with heparin as the final layer. The scaffold coated with alternate PEI and PAC showed a clear ability to bind the most heparin. This scaffold was then studied further for its ability to bind vascular endothelial growth factor, which was confirmed using an ELISA. The scaffold coated with seven alternate layers of PEI and PAC and heparin was then implanted in a chick chorionic allantoic membrane (CAM) assay. After a period of 7 days in the CAM, the coated scaffold showed strong angiogenic activity. In contrast, the uncoated scaffolds did not promote angiogenesis. We conclude that this approach to functionalising scaffolds is effective within a clinically relevant time period (7 days in an in-vivo angiogenic model) and suggest this will be useful for improving integration of scaffolds once implanted. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Can angiogenesis induced by chronic electrical stimulation enhance latissimus dorsi muscle flap survival for application in cardiomyoplasty?

    PubMed

    Overgoor, Max L E; Carroll, Sean M; Papanicolau, George; Carroll, Camilla M A; Ustüner, Tuncay E T; Stremel, Richard W; Anderson, Gary L; Franken, Ralph J P M; Kon, Moshe; Barker, John H

    2003-01-01

    In cardiomyoplasty, the latissimus dorsi muscle is lifted on its primary neurovascular pedicle and wrapped around a failing heart. After 2 weeks, it is trained for 6 weeks using chronic electrical stimulation, which transforms the latissimus dorsi muscle into a fatigue-resistant muscle that can contract in synchrony with the beating heart without tiring. In over 600 cardiomyoplasty procedures performed clinically to date, the outcomes have varied. Given the data obtained in animal experiments, the authors believe these variable outcomes are attributable to distal latissimus dorsi muscle flap necrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the chronic electrical stimulation training used to transform the latissimus dorsi muscle into fatigue-resistant muscle could also be used to induce angiogenesis, increase perfusion, and thus protect the latissimus dorsi muscle flap from distal necrosis. After 14 days of chronic electrical stimulation (10 Hz, 330 microsec, 4 to 6 V continuous, 8 hours/day) of the right or left latissimus dorsi muscle (randomly selected) in 11 rats, both latissimus dorsi muscles were lifted on their thoracodorsal pedicles and returned to their anatomical beds. Four days later, the resulting amount of distal flap necrosis was measured. Also, at predetermined time intervals throughout the experiment, muscle surface blood perfusion was measured using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. Finally, latissimus dorsi muscles were excised in four additional stimulated rats, to measure angiogenesis (capillary-to-fiber ratio), fiber type (oxidative or glycolytic), and fiber size using histologic specimens. The authors found that chronic electrical stimulation (1) significantly (p < 0.05) increased angiogenesis (mean capillary-to-fiber ratio) by 82 percent and blood perfusion by 36 percent; (2) did not reduce the amount of distal flap necrosis compared with nonchronic electrical stimulation controls (29 +/- 5.3 percent versus 26.6 +/- 5

  14. A new anti-angiogenic small molecule, G0811, inhibits angiogenesis via targeting hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α signal transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •G0811 suppresses HIF-1α expression without cell toxicity. •G0811 exhibits anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. •G0811 provides a new molecular scaffold for the development of therapeutics targeting angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α stabilization, which in turn contributes to adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. We have identified a new small molecule, G0811, as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that targets HIF-1α signal transduction. G0811 suppressed HIF-1α stability in cancer cells and inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis, as validated by tube formation, chemoinvasion, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. In addition, G0811 effectively decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of target genes of HIF-1α. However, G0811 did not exhibit anti-proliferative activities or toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at effective doses. These results demonstrate that G0811 could be a new angiogenesis inhibitor that acts by targeting HIF-1α signal transduction pathway.

  15. Angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation is necessary for angiogenesis but is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Kang, Dong-Ku; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Chang, Soo-Ik . E-mail: sichang@cbnu.ac.kr

    2007-01-12

    Angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor, binds to endothelial cells and is endocytosed and rapidly translocated to and concentrated in the nucleolus where it binds to DNA. In this study, we report that angiogenin induces transient phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells. LY294002 inhibits the angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation and also angiogenin-induced cell migration in vitro as well as angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in vivo without affecting nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells. These results suggest that cross-talk between angiogenin and protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathways is essential for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and that angiogenin-induced PKB/Akt activation is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells.

  16. YC-1 [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] inhibits endothelial cell functions induced by angiogenic factors in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shiow-Lin; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Peng, Chieh-Yu; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Fong-Chi; Chang, Jau-Hsiang; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lee, Fang-Yu; Teng, Che-Ming

    2005-07-01

    Angiogenesis is a process that involves endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, and inhibition of these processes has implications for angiogenesis-mediated disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiangiogenic efficacy of YC-1 [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole] in well characterized in vitro and in vivo systems. YC-1 inhibited the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a dose-dependent manner to induce proliferation, migration, and tube formation in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells; these outcomes were evaluated using [3H]thymidine incorporation, transwell chamber, and Matrigel-coated slide assays, respectively. YC-1 inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt phosphorylation as well as protein kinase C alpha translocation using Western blot analysis. The effect of YC-1 on angiogenesis in vivo was evaluated using the mouse Matrigel implant model. YC-1 administered orally in doses of 1 to 100 mg/kg/day inhibited VEGF- and bFGF-induced neovascularization in a dose-dependent manner over 7 days. These results indicate that YC-1 has antiangiogenic activity at very low doses. Moreover, in transplantable murine tumor models, YC-1 administered orally displayed a high degree of antitumor activity (treatment-to-control life span ratio > 175%) without cytotoxicity. YC-1 may be useful for treating angiogenesis-dependent human diseases such as cancer.

  17. A hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-3α splicing variant, HIF-3α4 impairs angiogenesis in hypervascular malignant meningiomas with epigenetically silenced HIF-3α4

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Hitoshi; Natsume, Atsushi; Iwami, Kenichiro; Ohka, Fumiharu; Kuchimaru, Takahiro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Ito, Kengo; Saito, Kiyoshi; Sugita, Sachi; Hoshino, Tsuneyoshi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► HIF-3α4 is silenced by DNA methylation in meningiomas. ► Induction of HIF-3α4 impaired angiogenesis in meningiomas. ► Induction of HIF-3α4 impaired proliferation and oxygen-dependent metabolism. -- Abstract: Hypoxia inducible factor is a dominant regulator of adaptive cellular responses to hypoxia and controls the expression of a large number of genes regulating angiogenesis as well as metabolism, cell survival, apoptosis, and other cellular functions in an oxygen level-dependent manner. When a neoplasm is able to induce angiogenesis, tumor progression occurs more rapidly because of the nutrients provided by the neovasculature. Meningioma is one of the most hypervascular brain tumors, making anti-angiogenic therapy an attractive novel therapy for these tumors. HIF-3α has been conventionally regarded as a dominant-negative regulator of HIF-1α, and although alternative HIF-3α splicing variants are extensively reported, their specific functions have not yet been determined. In this study, we found that the transcription of HIF-3α4 was silenced by the promoter DNA methylation in meningiomas, and inducible HIF-3α4 impaired angiogenesis, proliferation, and metabolism/oxidation in hypervascular meningiomas. Thus, HIF-3α4 could be a potential molecular target in meningiomas.

  18. Sense p16 and Antisense uPAR Bicistronic Construct Inhibits Angiogenesis and Induces Glioma Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Nalabothula, Narasimharao; Lakka, Sajani S.; Dinh, Dzung H.; Gujrati, Meena; Olivero, William C.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade gliomas comprise the most malignant type of primary brain tumor and are relatively frequent in adults. Recent studies have indicated that the loss of p16, an inhibitor of CDK4, promotes the acquisition of malignant characteristics in gliomas. A correlation between overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and glioblastoma invasion has also been established. Moreover, uPAR/integrin binding has been shown to initiate or potentiate integrin signaling through focal adhesion kinase and/or src kinases. Our previous studies demonstrated that downregulation of uPAR expression and restoration of p16 regress glioma growth in nude mice and downregulate αvβ3 integrin receptor expression. Here, we show the effect of a bicistronic construct on αvβ5 integrin receptor expression, angiogenesis and the biochemical pathway that causes glioma cell death. The U251 glioblastoma and a glioblastoma xenograft cell line transduced with a recombinant replication-defective adenovirus vector containing the cDNA of wild-type p16 and antisense RNA of uPAR significantly inhibited human mammary epithelial cell capillary formation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Inactivation of anti-apoptotic molecules such as Akt, PARP, activation of caspases and accumulation of heteroduplex chromosomal DNA in pre-G1 phase of the cell cycle was demonstrated by western blotting, caspase activity assay and FACS analysis. Nuclear DNA fragmentation upon induction of apoptosis was scored using the TUNEL assay. Significant downregulation of αvβ5 integrin receptor expression was also confirmed by FACS analysis, immunoprecipitation and RT-PCR. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the sense p16 and anti-sense uPAR bicistronic construct significantly inhibits angiogenesis, induces apoptosis by deregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulates αvβ5 integrin receptor expression. PMID:17273768

  19. Hypoxia-induced miR-181b enhances angiogenesis of retinoblastoma cells by targeting PDCD10 and GATA6.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaofang; Ge, Shengfang; Jia, Renbing; Zhou, Yixiong; Song, Xin; Zhang, He; Fan, Xianqun

    2015-06-01

    Previous findings showed that miR-181b is upregulated under hypoxic conditions in retinoblastoma cells. Since hypoxia is a common feature of retinoblastoma that affects tumor progression as well as tumor therapy, in the present study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of miR-181b under hypoxic conditions, and examined the role of miR-181b in retinoblastoma responses to hypoxia (chemoresistance and angiogenesis) and possible downstream genes. The level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and miR-181b was detected to examine the link between them. Tube formation and cell cytotoxicity assays were used to clarify the effects of miR-181b on hypoxic responses of retinoblastoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict potential targets of miR-181b and western blotting was used to verify these targets. The results showed a significantly increased expression of HIF-1α in hypoxia-treated retinoblastoma cells. Downregulation of HIF-1α using a small-interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown technology did not decrease the expression of miR-181b. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies, miR-181b was demonstrated to significantly stimulate the ability of capillary tube formation of endothelial cells. Programmed cell death-10 (PDCD10) and GATA binding protein 6 (GATA6) were identified as the target genes of miR‑181b. To the best of our knowledge, results of the present study provide the first evidence that miR-181b was upregulated by hypoxia in retinoblastoma in an HIF-1α-independent manner. miR-181b increased tumor angiogenesis of retinoblastoma cells. Additionally, miR-181b exerts its angiogenic function, at least in part, by inhibiting PDCD10 and GATA6. Thus, it is a new potentially useful therapeutic target for retinoblastoma.

  20. BJ-1108, a 6-Amino-2,4,5-Trimethylpyridin-3-ol Analog, Inhibits Serotonin-Induced Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth through PI3K/NOX Pathway.

    PubMed

    Banskota, Suhrid; Gautam, Jaya; Regmi, Sushil C; Gurung, Pallavi; Park, Myo-Hyeon; Kim, Seung Joo; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2016-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) induces proliferation of cancer cells and vascular cells. In addition to 5-HT production by several cancer cells including gastrointestinal and breast cancer, a significant level of 5-HT is released from activated platelets in the thrombotic environment of tumors, suggesting that inhibition of 5-HT signaling may constitute a new target for antiangiogenic anticancer drug discovery. In the current study we clearly demonstrate that 5-HT-induced angiogenesis was mediated through the 5-HT1 receptor-linked Gβγ/Src/PI3K pathway, but not through the MAPK/ERK/p38 pathway. In addition, 5-HT induced production of NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS). In an effort to develop new molecularly targeted anticancer agents against 5-HT action in tumor growth, we demonstrate that BJ-1108, a derivative of 6-amino-2,4,5-trimethylpyridin-3-ol, significantly inhibited 5-HT-induced angiogenesis. In addition, BJ-1108 induced a significant reduction in the size and weight of excised tumors in breast cancer cell-inoculated CAM assay, showing proportionate suppression of tumor growth along with inhibition of angiogenesis. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), BJ-1108 significantly suppressed 5-HT-induced ROS generation and phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt but not of Src. Unlike NOX inhibitors, BJ-1108, which showed better antioxidant activity than vitamin C, barely suppressed superoxide anion induced by mevalonate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate which directly activates NOX without help from other signaling molecules in HUVECs, implying that the anti-angiogenic action of BJ-1108 was not mediated through direct action on NOX activation, or free radical scavenging activity. In conclusion, BJ-1108 inhibited 5-HT-induced angiogenesis through PI3K/NOX signaling but not through Src, ERK, or p38.

  1. ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by Nox4, Nox2, and mitochondria in VEGF signaling and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mee; Kim, Seok-Jo; Tatsunami, Ryosuke; Yamamura, Hisao; Fukai, Tohru; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko

    2017-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidase (NOX) and mitochondria play a critical role in growth factor-induced switch from a quiescent to an angiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). However, how highly diffusible ROS produced from different sources can coordinate to stimulate VEGF signaling and drive the angiogenic process remains unknown. Using the cytosol- and mitochondria-targeted redox-sensitive RoGFP biosensors with real-time imaging, here we show that VEGF stimulation in human ECs rapidly increases cytosolic RoGFP oxidation within 1 min, followed by mitochondrial RoGFP oxidation within 5 min, which continues at least for 60 min. Silencing of Nox4 or Nox2 or overexpression of mitochondria-targeted catalase significantly inhibits VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2-pY), EC migration and proliferation at the similar extent. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or overexpression of Nox4, which produces H2O2, increases mitochondrial ROS (mtROS), which is prevented by Nox2 siRNA, suggesting that Nox2 senses Nox4-derived H2O2 to promote mtROS production. Mechanistically, H2O2 increases S36 phosphorylation of p66Shc, a key mtROS regulator, which is inhibited by siNox2, but not by siNox4. Moreover, Nox2 or Nox4 knockdown or overexpression of S36 phosphorylation-defective mutant p66Shc(S36A) inhibits VEGF-induced mtROS, VEGFR2-pY, EC migration, and proliferation. In summary, Nox4-derived H2O2 in part activates Nox2 to increase mtROS via pSer36-p66Shc, thereby enhancing VEGFR2 signaling and angiogenesis in ECs. This may represent a novel feed-forward mechanism of ROS-induced ROS release orchestrated by the Nox4/Nox2/pSer36-p66Shc/mtROS axis, which drives sustained activation of angiogenesis signaling program. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. NBBA, a synthetic small molecule, inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced angiogenesis by suppressing the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jung, Hye Jin; Shibasaki, Futoshi; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2010-01-15

    Nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) is a crucial transcription factor that contributes to cancer development by regulating a number of genes involved in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Here, we describe (Z)-N-(3-(7-nitro-3-oxobenzo[d][1,2]selenazol-2(3H)-yl)benzylidene) propan-2-amine oxide (NBBA) as a new anti-angiogenic small molecule that targets NF-{kappa}B activity. NBBA showed stronger growth inhibition on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) than on the cancer cell lines we tested. Moreover, NBBA inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha})-induced tube formation and invasion of HUVECs. In addition, NBBA suppressed the neovascularization of chorioallantonic membrane from growing chick embryos in vivo. To address the mode of action of the compound, the effect of NBBA on TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B transcription activity was investigated. NBBA suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation, which resulted in suppression of transcription of NF-{kappa}B and its target genes, including interleukin-8, interleukin-1{alpha}, and epidermal growth factor. Collectively, these results demonstrated that NBBA is a new anti-angiogenic small molecule that targets the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway.

  3. Multimodal therapy for synergic inhibition of tumour cell invasion and tumour-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) are highly invasive tumours with frequent local and distant recurrence. Metastasis formation requires degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is fulfilled by membrane-associated proteases such as the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). WX-UK1 is a competitive active site inhibitor of the protease function of uPA that impairs on the capacity of tumour cells to invade in vitro. Methods In the present study, effects of combinations of WX-UK1 with matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMP, galardin®) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, celecoxib®) inhibitors on tumour cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis induction were evaluated. Matrigel invasion chambers and a spheroid co-cultivation model with human fibroblast served to determine the invasive potential of both FaDu (SCCHN) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma) cells, each treated with combinations of Celecoxib®, Galardin®, and WX-UK1. Results Blocking of single protease systems resulted in a significant 50% reduction of tumour cell invasion using WX-UK1, while the triple combination was even more effective with 80% reduction of invasion. Additionally, a sprouting assay with HUVEC was used to test the anti-angiogenetic potential of the triple combination, resulting in a 40% decrease in the sprouting rate. Conclusions A combined approach targeting different families of proteases and cyclooxygenases represents a promising adjuvant therapy. PMID:20222943

  4. Multimodal therapy for synergic inhibition of tumour cell invasion and tumour-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Pamela; Ramp, Diana; Mack, Brigitte; Zahler, Stefan; Berghaus, Alexander; Muehlenweg, Bernd; Gires, Olivier; Schmitz, Suna

    2010-03-11

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) are highly invasive tumours with frequent local and distant recurrence. Metastasis formation requires degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is fulfilled by membrane-associated proteases such as the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). WX-UK1 is a competitive active site inhibitor of the protease function of uPA that impairs on the capacity of tumour cells to invade in vitro. In the present study, effects of combinations of WX-UK1 with matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMP, galardin) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, celecoxib) inhibitors on tumour cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis induction were evaluated. Matrigel invasion chambers and a spheroid co-cultivation model with human fibroblast served to determine the invasive potential of both FaDu (SCCHN) and HeLa (cervical carcinoma) cells, each treated with combinations of Celecoxib, Galardin, and WX-UK1. Blocking of single protease systems resulted in a significant 50% reduction of tumour cell invasion using WX-UK1, while the triple combination was even more effective with 80% reduction of invasion. Additionally, a sprouting assay with HUVEC was used to test the anti-angiogenetic potential of the triple combination, resulting in a 40% decrease in the sprouting rate. A combined approach targeting different families of proteases and cyclooxygenases represents a promising adjuvant therapy.

  5. Green tea catechins inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro through suppression of VE-cadherin phosphorylation and inactivation of Akt molecule.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng-Yao; Nguyen, Nhan; Meydani, Mohsen

    2003-10-10

    Studies have indicated that the consumption of green tea is associated with a reduced risk of developing certain forms of cancer and angiogenesis. The mechanism of inhibition of angiogenesis by green tea or its catechins, however, has not been well-established. Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, an adhesive molecule located at the site of intercellular contact, is involved in cell-cell recognition during vascular morphogenesis. The extracellular domain of VE-cadherin mediates initial cell adhesion, whereas the cytosolic tail binding with beta-catenin is required for interaction with the cytoskeleton and junctional strength. Therefore, the cadherin-catenin adhesion system is implicated in cell recognition, differentiation, growth and migration of capillary endothelium. Using tube formation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) in culture as an in vitro model of angiogenesis, we reported that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced tube formation is inhibited by anti-VE-cadherin antibody and dose-dependently by green tea catechins. We also demonstrated here that inhibition of tube formation by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), one of the green tea catechins, is in part mediated through suppression of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation and inhibition of Akt activation during VEGF-induced tube formation. These findings indicate that VE-cadherin and Akt, known downstream proteins in VEGFR-2-mediated cascade, are the new-targeted proteins by which green tea catechins inhibit angiogenesis.

  6. Arginase inhibition enhances angiogenesis in endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bhatta, Anil; Toque, Haroldo A; Rojas, Modesto; Yao, Lin; Xu, Zhimin; Patel, Chintan; Caldwell, Ruth B; Caldwell, R William

    2015-03-01

    Hypoxia-induced arginase elevation plays an essential role in several vascular diseases but influence of arginase on hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis is completely unknown. In this study, in vitro network formation in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) was examined after exposure to hypoxia for 24h with or without arginase inhibition. Arginase activity, protein levels of the two arginase isoforms, eNOS, and VEGF as well as production of NO and ROS were examined to determine the involvement of arginase in hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis. Hypoxia elevated arginase activity and arginase 2 expression but reduced active p-eNOS(Ser1177) and NO levels in BAEC. In addition, both VEGF protein levels and endothelial elongation and network formation were reduced with continued hypoxia, whereas ROS levels increased and NO levels decreased. Arginase inhibition limited ROS, restored NO formation and VEGF expression, and prevented the reduction of angiogenesis. These results suggest a fundamental role of arginase activity in regulating angiogenic function.

  7. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF1120 ameliorates inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis in CCl4-induced liver fibrogenesis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk Akcora, Büsra; Storm, Gert; Prakash, Jai; Bansal, Ruchi

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis, a progressive chronic disease mainly caused by hepatitis viral infections, alcohol abuse or metabolic syndrome leading to liver dysfunction and is the growing cause of mortality worldwide. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF1120 (Nintedanib) has been evaluated in clinical trials for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma, but has not been explored for liver fibrosis yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of BIBF1120 in liver fibrogenesis. The effects of BIBF1120 were evaluated in TGFβ-activated mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, LX2 cells, primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and CCl4-induced liver fibrogenesis mouse model. Fibroblasts-conditioned medium studies were performed to assess the paracrine effects on macrophages and endothelial cells. In-vitro in TGFβ-activated fibroblasts, BIBF1120 significantly inhibited expression of major fibrotic parameters, wound-healing and contractility. In vivo in CCl4-induced acute liver injury model, post-disease BIBF1120 administration significantly attenuated collagen accumulation and HSC activation. Interestingly, BIBF1120 drastically inhibited intrahepatic inflammation and angiogenesis. To further elucidate the mechanism of action, 3T3-conditioned medium studies demonstrated increased 3T3-mediated macrophage chemotaxis and endothelial cells tube formation and activation, which was significantly decreased by BIBF1120. These results suggests that BIBF1120 can be a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:28291245

  8. Exenatide suppresses 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in diabetic mice: Effect on tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Mona K; Mohamed, Magda I

    2016-08-01

    Colon cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, which results from interactions of different factors. It is frequently a pathological consequence of persistent inflammation. Diabetes affects several cancers and is positively correlated with the incidence of colon cancer. This study aimed to study the effect of exenatide in ameliorating inflammation, angiogenesis and cell proliferation in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colorectal carcinoma in diabetic mice. Mice were randomly allocated into six groups, 8 mice each. Group 1: vehicle control group. Group 2: diabetic control group. Group 3: DMH control group: diabetic mice treated with DMH (20mg/kg/week,s.c.) for 15 week. Group 4: DMH-cisplatin group: mice received cisplatin (4mg/kg/week, i.p.). Groups 5 & 6: DMH-exenatide (10 and 20μg/kg) group: mice received exenatide (10 or 20μg/kg/day,s.c.), respectively. The present results highlighted an increase in angiogenic markers and cell proliferation in the DMH-diabetic group in comparison with the control group with greater expression of endothelial marker (CD34) and Ki-67 in colon tissue. Monotherapy with cisplatin or exenatide (10 and 20μg/kg) downregulated these markers to different extents. The current results provided evidence that exenatide represents a promising chemopreventive effect against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in diabetic mice, at least in part, attributed to its anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative mechanisms.

  9. Ectopic norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and restores normal retinal angiogenesis in Norrie disease mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, Andreas; Scholz, Michael; Goldwich, Andreas; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Hudl, Kristiane; Ohlmann, Anne V; Zrenner, Eberhart; Berger, Wolfgang; Cvekl, Ales; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R

    2005-02-16

    Norrie disease is an X-linked retinal dysplasia that presents with congenital blindness, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation. Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene (NDP), is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. Norrie disease (Ndp(y/-)) mutant mice that are deficient in norrin develop blindness, show a distinct failure in retinal angiogenesis, and completely lack the deep capillary layers of the retina. We show here that the transgenic expression of ectopic norrin under control of a lens-specific promoter restores the formation of a normal retinal vascular network in Ndp(y/-) mutant mice. The improvement in structure correlates with restoration of neuronal function in the retina. In addition, lenses of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show significantly more capillaries in the hyaloid vasculature that surrounds the lens during development. In vitro, lenses of transgenic mice in coculture with microvascular endothelial cells induce proliferation of the cells. Transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show more bromodeoxyuridine-labeled retinal progenitor cells at embryonic day 14.5 and thicker retinas at postnatal life than wild-type littermates, indicating a putative direct neurotrophic effect of norrin. These data provide direct evidence that norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and that pharmacologic modulation of norrin might be used for treatment of the vascular abnormalities associated with Norrie disease or other vascular disorders of the retina.

  10. CARP, a cardiac ankyrin repeat protein, is up-regulated during wound healing and induces angiogenesis in experimental granulation tissue.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubin; Reitmaier, Birgit; Regenbogen, Johannes; Slowey, R Michael; Opalenik, Susan R; Wolf, Eckhard; Goppelt, Andreas; Davidson, Jeffrey M

    2005-01-01

    Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP) was identified by subtractive hybridization as one of a group of genes that are rapidly modulated by acute wounding of mouse skin. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that CARP was strongly induced during the first day after wounding (157.1-fold), and the high level persisted for up to 14 days. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that CARP was expressed in skeletal muscle, vessel wall, hair follicle, inflammatory cells, and epidermis in the wound area. To examine the effects of CARP on wound healing, we developed an adenoviral CARP vector to treat subcutaneously implanted sponges in either rats or Flk-1(LacZ) knock-in mice. Four days after infection, CARP-infected sponges in rats showed a remarkable increase in the vascular component in granulation tissue as compared to Ad-LacZ controls. This result was confirmed by CD34 immunostaining. By 7 days post-infection of sponge implants in Flk-1(LacZ) knock-in mice, granulation tissue showed many more LacZ-positive cells in Ad-CARP-infected sponges than in virus controls. Ad-CARP treatment also induced neovascularization and increased blood perfusion in rabbit excisional wounds in and ischemic rat wounds. These findings indicate that CARP could play a unique role in therapeutic angiogenesis during wound healing.

  11. Aminoimidazole Carboxamide Ribonucleotide (AICAR) Inhibits the Growth of Retinoblastoma In Vivo by Decreasing Angiogenesis and Inducing Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Theodoropoulou, Sofia; Brodowska, Katarzyna; Kayama, Maki; Morizane, Yuki; Miller, Joan W.; Gragoudas, Evangelos S.; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2013-01-01

    5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an analog of AMP is widely used as an activator of AMP-kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates the responses of the cell to energy change. Recently, we showed that AICAR-induced AMPK activation inhibits the growth of retinoblastoma cells in vitro by decreasing cyclins and by inducing apoptosis and S-phase arrest. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMPK activator AICAR on the growth of retinoblastoma in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection of AICAR resulted in 48% growth inhibition of Y79 retinoblastoma cell tumors in mice. Tumors isolated from mice treated with AICAR had decreased expression of Ki67 and increased apoptotic cells (TUNEL positive) compared with the control. In addition, AICAR treatment suppressed significantly tumor vessel density and macrophage infiltration. We also showed that AICAR administration resulted in AMPK activation and mTOR pathway inhibition. Paradoxically observed down-regulation of p21, which indicates that p21 may have a novel function of an oncogene in retinoblastoma tumor. Our results indicate that AICAR treatment inhibited the growth of retinoblastoma tumor in vivo via AMPK/mTORC1 pathway and by apoptogenic, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenesis mechanism. AICAR is a promising novel non-chemotherapeutic drug that may be effective as an adjuvant in treating Retinoblastoma. PMID:23300996

  12. Angiogenesis Assays.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis.

  13. Clinical biomarkers of angiogenesis inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Aaron P.; Citrin, Deborah E.; Camphausen, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction An expanding understanding of the importance of angiogenesis in oncology and the development of numerous angiogenesis inhibitors are driving the search for biomarkers of angiogenesis. We review currently available candidate biomarkers and surrogate markers of anti-angiogenic agent effect. Discussion A number of invasive, minimally invasive, and non-invasive tools are described with their potential benefits and limitations. Diverse markers can evaluate tumor tissue or biological fluids, or specialized imaging modalities. Conclusions The inclusion of these markers into clinical trials may provide insight into appropriate dosing for desired biological effects, appropriate timing of additional therapy, prediction of individual response to an agent, insight into the interaction of chemotherapy and radiation following exposure to these agents, and perhaps most importantly, a better understanding of the complex nature of angiogenesis in human tumors. While many markers have potential for clinical use, it is not yet clear which marker or combination of markers will prove most useful. PMID:18414993

  14. Angiogenesis Induced by Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5A (STAT5A) Is Dependent on Autocrine Activity of Proliferin*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinhai; Qiao, Dianhua; Meyer, Kristy; Pier, Thomas; Keles, Sunduz; Friedl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Multiple secreted factors induce the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). The signal transduction events that orchestrate the numerous cellular activities required for angiogenesis remain incompletely understood. We have shown previously that STAT5 plays a pivotal role in angiogenesis induced by FGF2 and FGF8b. To delineate the signaling pathway downstream of STAT5, we expressed constitutively active (CA) or dominant-negative (DN) mutant STAT5A in mouse brain endothelial cells (EC). We found that the conditioned medium from CA-STAT5A but not from dominant-negative STAT5A overexpressing EC is sufficient to induce EC invasion and tube formation, indicating that STAT5A regulates the secretion of autocrine proangiogenic factors. Conversely, CA-STAT5A-induced conditioned medium had no effect on EC proliferation. Using a comparative genome-wide transcription array screen, we identified the prolactin family member proliferin (PLF1 and PLF4) as a candidate autocrine factor. The CA-STAT5A-dependent transcription and secretion of PLF by EC was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CA-STAT5A binds to the PLF1 promoter region, suggesting a direct transcriptional regulation. Knockdown of PLF expression by shRNA or by blocking of PLF activity with neutralizing antibodies removed the CA-STAT5A-dependent proangiogenic activity from the conditioned medium of EC. Similarly, the ability of concentrated conditioned medium from CA-STAT5A transfected EC to induce angiogenesis in Matrigel plugs in vivo was abolished when PLF was depleted from the medium. These observations demonstrate a FGF/STAT5/PLF signaling cascade in EC and implicate PLF as autocrine regulator of EC invasion and tube formation. PMID:22199350

  15. The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure by promoting angiogenesis and antioxidant response.

    PubMed

    Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Sainz, Julie; Nakamura, Kazuto; Takaoka, Minoru; Enomoto, Soichiro; Iwata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kimie; Sahara, Makoto; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Sata, Masataka

    2012-03-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), expressed in microvascular endothelial cells in the heart, has been suggested to regulate several tissue defense mechanisms. This study was performed to elucidate its role in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Pressure overload was induced in 8- to 12-week-old wild-type and Abcg2-/- mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Abcg2-/- mice showed exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling after TAC compared with wild-type mice. In the early phase after TAC, functional impairment in angiogenesis and antioxidant response in myocardium was found in Abcg2-/- mice. In vitro experiments demonstrated that ABCG2 regulates transport of glutathione, an important endogenous antioxidant, from microvascular endothelial cells. Besides, glutathione transported from microvascular endothelial cells in ABCG2-dependent manner ameliorated oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In vivo, glutathione levels in plasma and the heart were increased in wild-type mice but not in Abcg2-/- mice after TAC. Treatment with the superoxide dismutase mimetic ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy in Abcg2-/- mice after TAC to the same extent as that in wild-type mice, although cardiac dysfunction with impaired angiogenesis was observed in Abcg2-/- mice. ABCG2 protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure by promoting angiogenesis and antioxidant response.

  16. Dickkopf‑related protein 1 induces angiogenesis by upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor in the synovial fibroblasts of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Li, Wei; Li, Ying-Jie; Fang, Wei; Long, Xing

    2015-10-01

    Angiogenesis has an important role in the progression of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The aim of the present study was to explore the association between dickkopf‑related protein 1 (DKK‑1) and angiogenesis in TMD. The expression levels of DKK‑1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were quantified by an ELISA assay of the synovial fluid from patients with TMD. The correlation between DKK‑1 and VEGF was analyzed by Pearson correlation test. Synovial fibroblasts were isolated from patients with TMD and were subsequently treated with recombinant human DKK‑1, anti‑DKK‑1 antibody, hypoxia inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α), or small interfering RNA (siRNA). The expression levels of DKK‑1, HIF‑1α, and VEGF were subsequently quantified. The present study also investigated the effects of DKK‑1 on the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Increased expression levels of DKK‑1 were concordant with increased expression levels of VEGF in the synovial fluid from patients with TMD. In the synovial fibroblasts, DKK‑1 increased the expression levels of VEGF, and promoted HIF‑1α nuclear localization. In addition, DKK‑1 induced HUVEC migration, and HIF‑1α siRNA inhibited DKK‑1‑induced cell migration. The results of the present study indicate that DKK‑1 is associated with angiogenesis in the synovial fluid of patients with TMD. Furthermore, HIF‑1α may be associated with DKK‑1‑induced HUVEC activation.

  17. Synergistic effects of methylnaltrexone with 5-fluorouracil and bevacizumab on inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Patrick A; Garcia, Joe G N; Moss, Jonathan

    2008-06-01

    Many patients with cancer receive combinations of drug treatments that include 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and bevacizumab. Therapeutic doses of 5-FU are often associated with unwanted side effects, and bevacizumab is costly. Therefore, we explored potential agents that can reduce the therapeutic concentration of these drugs. Our data indicate that methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripheral antagonist of the mu-opioid receptor, exerts a synergistic effect with 5-FU and bevacizumab on inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration, two key components in cancer-associated angiogenesis. MNTX inhibited EC proliferation with an IC(50) of approximately 100 nmol/L. Adding 100 nmol/L MNTX to EC shifted the IC(50) of 5-FU from approximately 5 micromol/L to approximately 7 nmol/L. Further, adding 50 ng/mL MNTX shifted the IC(50) of bevacizumab on inhibition of EC migration from approximately 25 to approximately 6 ng/mL. These synergistic effects were not observed with naltrexone, a tertiary mu-opioid receptor antagonist. On a mechanistic level, we observed that treatment of human EC with MNTX, but not naltrexone, increased receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu activity, which was independent of mu-opioid receptor expression. Silencing receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase mu expression (small interfering RNA) in human EC inhibited both synergy between MNTX and bevacizumab or 5-FU and increased VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Src and p190 RhoGAP with enhanced activation of Akt and the actin cytoskeletal regulatory protein, RhoA, whereas silencing Src, Akt, or RhoA blocked VEGF-induced angiogenic events. Therefore, addition of MNTX could potentially lower the therapeutic doses of 5-FU and bevacizumab, which could improve index.

  18. Inhibition of Breast Cancer-Induced Angiogenesis by a Diverged Homeobox Gene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Dickkopf homolog 1 ( DKK1 ) Signal transduction -8.0 0.0002 NM_002852 Pentaxin-related gene, rapidly induced by IL-1 beta (PTX3) Immune response -9.2...Dickkopf homologue 1 ( DKK1 ) Signal transduction 8.0 0.0002 NM_002852 Pentaxin-related gene, rapidly induced by IL-1 h (PTX3) Immune response 9.2 0.0142

  19. Quantitative Shotgun Proteomics of HD Induced Corneal Injury and Angiogenesis (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    Thermo-Finnigan LTQ XL High Performance Linear Ion Trap - Collision Induced Dissociation (CID) for generating peptide fragmentation - Pulsed Q...Quantitation CID Sequence Analysis Ratio 114:117 1.05:1.00 Quantitative Proteomics with Pulsed Q Dissociation and Collision Induced Dissociation Clearance... Dissociation (PQD) for generating more fragments and extending the low mass range Separate Layers / Lyse cells Digest Proteins Label with iTRAQ and

  20. Comparison of the effects of bevacizumab and ranibizumab injection on corneal angiogenesis in an alkali burn induced model

    PubMed Central

    Dursun, Ayhan; Arici, Mustafa Kemal; Dursun, Feyza; Ozec, Ayse Vural; Toker, Mustafa Ilker; Erdogan, Haydar; Topalkara, Aysen

    2012-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of bevacizumab and ranibizumab on corneal neovascularization in an alkali burn-induced model of corneal angiogenesis. METHODS Fifteen Wistar albino rats were divided randomly into 3 groups after chemical cauterization of the cornea. The first group received a single dose of 0.1mL saline solution as a control group whereas second and third groups received a single dose of 2.5mg bevacizumab or 1mg ranibizumab by subconjunctival injection, respectively. After three weeks, the rat corneas were evaluated by biomicroscopy and corneal photographs were taken. The percentage of neovascularization area, length of the longest new vessel, corneal edema and corneal opacity scores were assessed. RESULTS The analysis of digital photographs showed that the percentage of neovascularization area to the total corneal area, the length of the longest new vessel, corneal edema and opacity scores were significantly lower in both study groups compared to the control group (P<0.05). Additionally, the percentage of corneal neovascularization area, the length of the longest new vessel and corneal opacity score were less with bevacizumab than ranibizumab. CONCLUSION Subconjunctival bevacizumab and ranibizumab treatments may be effective methods in reducing corneal neovascularization. Furthermore, bevacizumab is more effective than ranibizumab in the inhibition of corneal neovascularization. PMID:22937503

  1. Astrocytic adaptation during cerebral angiogenesis follows the new vessel formation induced through chronic hypoxia in adult mouse cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masamoto, Kazuto; Kanno, Iwao

    2014-03-01

    We examined longitudinal changes of the neuro-glia-vascular unit during cerebral angiogenesis induced through chronic hypoxia in the adult mouse cortex. Tie2-GFP mice in which the vascular endothelial cells expressed green fluorescent proteins (GFP) were exposed to chronic hypoxia, while the spatiotemporal developments of the cortical capillary sprouts and the neighboring astrocytic remodeling were characterized with repeated two-photon microscopy. The capillary sprouts appeared at early phases of the hypoxia adaptation (1-2 weeks), while the morphological changes of the astrocytic soma and processes were not detected in this phase. In the later phases of the hypoxia adaptation (> 2 weeks), the capillary sprouts created a new connection with existing capillaries, and its neighboring astrocytes extended their processes to the newly-formed vessels. The findings show that morphological adaptation of the astrocytes follow the capillary development during the hypoxia adaptation, which indicate that the newly-formed vessels provoke cellular interactions with the neighboring astrocytes to strengthen the functional blood-brain barrier.

  2. [Advance in prevention and treatment of ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease through increased therapeutic angiogenesis induced by traditional Chinese medicine].

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Li, Lei; Hou, Jin-Cai; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2015-01-01

    Remaining organic and functional damage of ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease is always a main trouble puzzling the clinicians. After the discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), researchers realize that postnatal angiogenesis is an important biological process, which play a key role to repair the ischemia tissue and improve the function. So a new concept which names therapeutic angiogenesis supply a new treament way for the ischemia cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated rich experience on treating the ischemia disease, studies found that many Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, howerer the mechanisms were not the same, they mainly manifest in regular the secretion of angiogenic factors, increase the proliferation and differentiation etc. In this paper, we review recent studies, summary the Chinese medicine prescriptions and effective ingredients which can increase the therapeutic angiogenesis, and analyze the differernt pathway. We view to provide reference for the later researchers.

  3. Over-Expression of PDGFR-β Promotes PDGF-Induced Proliferation, Migration, and Angiogenesis of EPCs through PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Jinkun; Qin, Zhexue; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Kui; Lu, Wei; Liu, Jie; Huang, Lan

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play critical roles in postnatal neovascularization and re-endothelialization following vascular injury. Here we evaluated whether the over-expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) can enhance the PDGF-BB-stimulated biological functions of EPCs through the PDGFR-β/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. We first confirmed the expression of endogenous PDGFR-β and its plasma membrane localization in spleen-derived EPCs. We then demonstrated that the PDGFR-β over-expression in EPCs enhanced the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs. Using AG1295 (a PDGFR kinase inhibitor), LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), and sc-221226 (an Akt inhibitor), we further showed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway participates in the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of EPCs. In addition, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is required for PDGFR-β over-expression to enhance these PDGF-BB-induced phenotypes. PMID:22355314

  4. Brazilian Propolis Suppresses Angiogenesis by Inducing Apoptosis in Tube-Forming Endothelial Cells through Inactivation of Survival Signal ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Kobayashi, Tomomi; Eguchi, Ryoji; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Kaji, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that propolis suppresses tumor-induced angiogenesis through tube formation inhibition and apoptosis induction in endothelial cells. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such angiogenesis suppression by propolis have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Brazilian propolis (EEBP) on two major survival signals, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt, and to elucidate whether changes in these signals were actually involved in antiangiogenic effects of the propolis. Detection by western blotting revealed that EEBP suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition by U0126 demonstrated that ERK1/2 inactivation alone was enough to inhibit tube formation and induce apoptosis. It was also shown that EEBP and U0126 similarly induced activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and lamin A/C, all of which are molecular markers of apoptosis. These results indicate that inhibition of survival signal ERK1/2, and subsequent induction of apoptosis, is a critical mechanism of angiogenesis suppression by EEBP. PMID:19351710

  5. Deletion of neuropeptide Y (NPY) 2 receptor in mice results in blockage of NPY-induced angiogenesis and delayed wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, A Jonas; Cao, Renhai; Bjorndahl, Meit; Nystrom, Susanne; Jonsson-Rylander, Ann-Cathrine; Hassani, Hessameh; Hallberg, Bengt; Nordlander, Margareta; Cao, Yihai

    2003-05-13

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-aa peptide, is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral tissues. Whereas physiological roles of NPY as a hormoneneurotransmitter have been well studied, little is known about its other peripheral functions. Here, we report that NPY acts as a potent angiogenic factor in vivo using the mouse corneal micropocket and the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Unlike vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), microvessels induced by NPY had distinct vascular tree-like structures showing vasodilation. This angiogenic pattern was similar to that induced by fibroblast growth factor-2, and the angiogenic response was dose-dependent. In the developing chick embryo, NPY stimulated vascular sprouting from preexisting blood vessels. When [Leu(31)Pro(34)]NPY, a NPY-based analogue lacking high affinity for the NPY Y(2) receptor but capable of stimulating both Y(1) and Y(5) receptors, was used in the corneal model, no angiogenic response could be detected. In addition, NPY failed to induce angiogenesis in Y(2) receptor-null mice, suggesting that this NPY receptor subtype was mediating the angiogenic signal. In support of this finding, the Y(2) receptor, but not Y(1), Y(4), or Y(5) receptors, was found to be widely expressed in newly formed blood vessels. Further, a delay of skin wound healing with reduced neovascularization was found in Y(2) receptor-null mice. These data demonstrate that NPY may play an important role in the regulation of angiogenesis and angiogenesis-dependent tissue repair.

  6. Brazilian Propolis Suppresses Angiogenesis by Inducing Apoptosis in Tube-Forming Endothelial Cells through Inactivation of Survival Signal ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Kobayashi, Tomomi; Eguchi, Ryoji; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Fujimori, Yoshihiro; Nakano, Takashi; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Kaji, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that propolis suppresses tumor-induced angiogenesis through tube formation inhibition and apoptosis induction in endothelial cells. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such angiogenesis suppression by propolis have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of Brazilian propolis (EEBP) on two major survival signals, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt, and to elucidate whether changes in these signals were actually involved in antiangiogenic effects of the propolis. Detection by western blotting revealed that EEBP suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition by U0126 demonstrated that ERK1/2 inactivation alone was enough to inhibit tube formation and induce apoptosis. It was also shown that EEBP and U0126 similarly induced activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and lamin A/C, all of which are molecular markers of apoptosis. These results indicate that inhibition of survival signal ERK1/2, and subsequent induction of apoptosis, is a critical mechanism of angiogenesis suppression by EEBP.

  7. The dineolignan from Saururus chinensis, manassantin B, inhibits tumor-induced angiogenesis via downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases 9 in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaojie; Lu, Hong; Liu, Rong; Chen, Bin; Wang, Shan; Ma, Junchao; Fu, Jianjiang

    2014-08-01

    Manassantin B (MB) is a neolignan isolated from Saururus chinensis that exhibits a range of activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antitumor activity. MB was recently found to affect cell adhesion and expression of several adhesion molecules. Based on the important roles of these adhesion molecules in angiogenesis, we evaluated a possible role for MB in tumor-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs). In the present study, we found that MB blocked tumor-induced tube formation of ECs and significantly inhibited the invasion of ECs through the reconstituted basement membrane. MB suppressed the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and downregulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 9. Western blotting showed reduction of RUNX2 activation by MB. RUNX2 transcription factor assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that the interaction between RUNX2 and target sequences in the matrix metalloproteinases 9 promoters was inhibited by MB. Our findings suggested that the inhibitory effects of MB on tumor-induced angiogenesis were caused by matrix metalloproteinases 9 inhibition, which was associated with the downregulation of RUNX2 transcriptional activity.

  8. Suppression of NHE1 by small interfering RNA inhibits HIF-1α-induced angiogenesis in vitro via modulation of calpain activity.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xian-Gang; Chen, Qing-Wei; Li, Xing-Sheng; Zheng, Min-Ming; Ke, Da-Zhi; Deng, Wei; Li, Gui-Qiong; Jiang, Jin; Wu, Zhi-Qin; Wang, Li; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yan; Cao, Guang-Yi

    2011-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) orchestrates angiogenesis under hypoxic conditions mainly due to increased expression of such target genes as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Na+/H+exchanger-1 (NHE1), a potential HIF target gene product, plays a pivotal role in proliferation, survival, migration, adhesion and so on. However, it is unknown whether NHE1 is involved in HIF-1α-induced angiogenesis. This present study demonstrated that the expression of NHE1 was much higher in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with adenovirus encoding HIF-1α (rAd-HIF) than with vacuum adenovirus (vAd). HIF-1α also increased the expression of VEGF, the expression and activity of calpains, and the intracellular pH. Moreover, small interfering RNA targeting NHE1 (NHE1 siRNA) dramatically decreased the expression of NHE1 and thus lowered the intracellular pH, and it also attenuated the protein expression of calpain-2 but not calpain-1, resulting in the lower calpain activity. Furthermore, HIF-1α enhanced the proliferation, migration and Matrigel tube formation, which were inhibited by NHE1 siRNA. Finally, the inhibitory effect of NHE1 siRNA was reversed by VEGF and the reversibility of the later was abrogated by the calpain inhibitor ALLM. In conclusion, the findings have revealed that NHE1 might participate in HIF-1-induced angiogenesis due, at least in part, to the alteration of the calpain activity, suggesting that NHE1 as well as calpains might represent a potential target of controlling angiogenesis in response to the hypoxic stress under various pathological conditions.

  9. Cetuximab May Inhibit Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis Induced by Ionizing Radiation: A Preclinical Rationale for Maintenance Treatment After Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pueyo, Gemma; Mesia, Ricard; Figueras, Agnes; Lozano, Alicia; Baro, Marta; Vazquez, Silvia; Capella, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Background. The benefits of radiotherapy and cetuximab have encouraged evaluation of cetuximab after radiotherapy. The aims of this study were to preclinically evaluate the efficacy of cetuximab maintenance after radiotherapy and eventually determine its mechanisms of action. Methods. The A431 human carcinoma cell line was treated in culture with fractionated radiotherapy and cetuximab. The surviving cells were injected s.c. into nude mice to mimic microscopic residual disease. The animals were randomized to receive either cetuximab or saline solution. Tumor growth, cell proliferation (Ki-67), microvessel density (MVD), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and transforming growth factor (TGF-α) mRNA transcription, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion were measured. Results. Tumors from irradiated cells had a faster growth rate, higher Ki-67 index, and greater angiogenesis than tumors from untreated cells. This aggressive phenotype was associated with in vitro radiation-induced extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK)-1/2 and Akt activation, greater EGFR and TGF-α transcription, and augmented VEGF secretion, all of which were inhibited by cetuximab. In cetuximab-treated mice with tumors arising from irradiated cells, time to volume was longer by a factor of 3.52, whereas the Ki-67 index and MVD were 1.57 and 1.49 times lower, respectively, a larger enhancement than seen in tumors from untreated cells. These findings suggest that cells surviving radiation may express factors that promote cell survival and induce an aggressive phenotype that may potentially be blocked by cetuximab maintenance therapy. Conclusions. These results support the clinical evaluation of adjuvant therapy with cetuximab after radiotherapy in EGFR-dependent carcinomas. PMID:20798193

  10. Signal transduction induced in endothelial cells by growth factor receptors involved in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Erhard; Schweighofer, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Summary New vessel formation during development and in the adult is triggered by concerted signals of largely endothelial-specific receptors for ligands of the VEGF, angiopoietin and ephrin families. The signals and genes induced by these receptors operate in the context of additional signals transduced by non-endothelial specific growth factor receptors, inflammatory cytokine receptors as well as adhesion molecules. We summarize here available data on characteristic signaling of the VEGF receptor-2 and the current state of knowledge regarding the additional different receptor tyrosine kinases of the VEGF, Tie and Ephrin receptor families. Furthermore, the potential cross-talk with signals induced by other growth factors and inflammatory cytokines as well as the modulation by VE-cadherin is discussed. PMID:17334501

  11. Mast Cell Proteases 6 and 7 Stimulate Angiogenesis by Inducing Endothelial Cells to Release Angiogenic Factors

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Devandir Antonio; Borges, Antonio Carlos; Santana, Ana Carolina; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell proteases are thought to be involved with tumor progression and neo-vascularization. However, their exact role is still unclear. The present study was undertaken to further elucidate the function of specific subtypes of recombinant mouse mast cell proteases (rmMCP-6 and 7) in neo-vascularization. SVEC4-10 cells were cultured on Geltrex® with either rmMCP-6 or 7 and tube formation was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the capacity of these proteases to induce the release of angiogenic factors and pro and anti-angiogenic proteins was analyzed. Both rmMCP-6 and 7 were able to stimulate tube formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that incubation with the proteases induced SVEC4-10 cells to invade the gel matrix. However, the expression and activity of metalloproteases were not altered by incubation with the mast cell proteases. Furthermore, rmMCP-6 and rmMCP-7 were able to induce the differential release of angiogenic factors from the SVEC4-10 cells. rmMCP-7 was more efficient in stimulating tube formation and release of angiogenic factors than rmMCP-6. These results suggest that the subtypes of proteases released by mast cells may influence endothelial cells during in vivo neo-vascularization. PMID:26633538

  12. Cell-cycle-dependent drug-resistant quiescent cancer cells induce tumor angiogenesis after chemotherapy as visualized by real-time FUCCI imaging.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Urata, Yasuo; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-04

    We previously demonstrated that quiescent cancer cells in a tumor are resistant to conventional chemotherapy as visualized with a fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI). We also showed that proliferating cancer cells exist in a tumor only near nascent vessels or on the tumor surface as visualized with FUCCI and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing tumor vessels. In the present study, we show the relationship between cell-cycle phase and chemotherapy-induced tumor angiogenesis using in vivo FUCCI real-time imaging of the cell cycle and nestin-driven GFP to detect nascent blood vessels. We observed that chemotherapy-treated tumors, consisting of mostly of quiescent cancer cells after treatment, had much more and deeper tumor vessels than untreated tumors. These newly-vascularized cancer cells regrew rapidly after chemotherapy. In contrast, formerly quiescent cancer cells decoyed to S/G2 phase by a telomerase-dependent adenovirus did not induce tumor angiogenesis. The present results further demonstrate the importance of the cancer-cell position in the cell cycle in order that chemotherapy be effective and not have the opposite effect of stimulating tumor angiogenesis and progression.

  13. Direct binding of recombinant plasminogen kringle 1-3 to angiogenin inhibits angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in the chick embryo CAM.

    PubMed

    Youn, Mi-Ran; Park, Mee-Hee; Choi, Chang-Ki; Ahn, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Hong, Yong-Kil; Joe, Young Ae; Kim, Jong-Soo; You, Weon-Kyoo; Lee, Hyo-Sil; Chung, Soo-Il; Chang, Soo-Ik

    2006-05-12

    Angiogenin is one of the most potent angiogenesis-inducing proteins. Angiostatin is one of the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors, and it contains the first four kringle domains of plasminogen (K1-4). Recombinant human plasminogen kringle 1-3 (rK1-3) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The binding of t-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid with the purified kringle 1-3 was determined by changes in intrinsic fluorescence. rK1-3 exhibits comparable ligand-binding properties as native human plasminogen kringle 1-3. The purified rK1-3 inhibits neovascularization in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Interaction of angiogenin with rK1-3 was examined by immunological binding assay and surface plasmon resonance kinetic analysis, and the equilibrium dissociation constants for the complex, Kd, are 0.89 and 0.18 microM, respectively. rK1-3 inhibits angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in the chick embryo CAM in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that rK1-3 directly binds to angiogenin and thus rK1-3 inhibits the angiogenic activity of angiogenin.

  14. Uncoupled angiogenesis and osteogenesis in nicotine-compromised bone healing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Zheng, Li Wu; Sham, Mai Har; Cheung, Lim Kwong

    2010-06-01

    Nicotine is the main chemical component responsible for tobacco addiction. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nicotine on angiogenesis and osteogenesis and the associated expression of angiogenic and osteogenic mediators during bone healing. Forty-eight adult New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to a nicotine group and a control group. Nicotine pellets (1.5 g, 60-day time release) or placebo pellets were implanted in the neck subcutaneous tissue. The nicotine or placebo exposure time for all the animals was 7 weeks. Unilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis was performed. Eight animals in each group were euthanized on day 5, day 11 of active distraction, and week 1 of consolidation, respectively. The mandibular samples were subjected to radiographic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction examinations. Nicotine exposure upregulated the expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor and enhanced angiogenesis but inhibited the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and impaired bone healing. The results indicate that nicotine decouples angiogenesis and osteogenesis in this rabbit model of distraction osteogenesis, and the enhanced angiogenesis cannot compensate for the adverse effects of nicotine on bone healing.

  15. Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta/SMAD signal by MiR-155 is involved in arsenic trioxide-induced anti-angiogenesis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hui; Li, Yuan; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Xingxing; Zhang, Jianping; Shen, Jian; Yang, Xiaojun

    2014-12-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Current practices for treatment of prostate cancer are less than satisfactory because of metastasis and recurrence, which are primarily attributed to angiogenesis. Hence, anti-angiogenesis treatment is becoming a promising new approach for prostate cancer therapy. In addition to treating acute promyelocytic leukemia, arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) suppresses other solid tumors, including prostate cancer. However, the effects of As2 O3 on angiogenesis in prostate cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, As2 O3 attenuated angiogenic ability through microRNA-155 (miR-155)-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/SMAD signal pathway in human prostate cancer PC-3 and LNCaP cells in vitro and in vivo. Briefly, As2 O3 inhibited the activations/expressions of both TGFβ-induced and endogenous SMAD2/3. Furthermore, As2 O3 improved the expression of miR-155 via DNA-demethylation. MiR-155, which targeted the SMAD2-3'UTR, decreased the expression and function of SMAD2. Knockdown of miR-155 abolished the As2 O3 -induced inhibitions of the TGF-β/SMAD2 signaling, the vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and angiogenesis. Through understanding a novel mechanism whereby As2 O3 inhibits angiogenic potential of prostate cancer cells, our study would help in the development of As2 O3 as a potential chemopreventive agent when used alone or in combination with other current anticancer drugs.

  16. Cystatin C as a potential therapeutic mediator against Parkinson's disease via VEGF-induced angiogenesis and enhanced neuronal autophagy in neurovascular units.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Chen, Zhaoyu; Wei, Xiaobo; Chen, Zhigang; Fu, Yongmei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Dan; Wang, Rui; Jenner, Peter; Lu, Jia-Hong; Li, Min; Zhang, Zhuohua; Tang, Beisha; Jin, Kunlin; Wang, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Cystatin C (CYS C, Cst3) is an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor that plays neuroprotective roles in neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to explore the association of CYS C with Parkinson's disease (PD) models and investigate its involvement in the role of neurovascular units (NVUs) in PD neuro-pathogenesis. We used A53T α-synuclein (SNCA) transgenic mice and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned DAergic PC12 cells as experimental PD models to investigate the mechanisms behind this association. The injections of CYS C were administered to the right substantia nigra (SN) of A53T SNCA transgenic mice to measure the effects of CYS C in transgenic A53T SNCA mice. To explore the angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro, we used the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and tube formation (TF) assay. We found that CYS C has a neuroprotective effect in this in vivo PD model. We observed increased VEGF, NURR1 and autophagy markers LC3B and decreased SNCA and apoptosis marker cleaved CASP3 in different brain regions of CYS C-treated A53T SNCA transgenic mice. In vitro, we observed that CYS C-induced VEGF, a secreted protein, attenuated 6-OHDA-lesioned DAergic PC12 cell degeneration by regulating p-PKC-α/p-ERK1/2-Nurr1 signaling and inducing autophagy. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis was markedly enhanced in the conditioned media of 6-OHDA-lesioned PC12 cells with CYS C-overexpression, whereas blockage of autophagy in CYS C-overexpressing PC12 cells significantly downregulated VEGF expression and the associated angiogenesis. Our data indicate that CYS C displays dual neuronal-vascular functions, promoting PC12 cell survival and angiogenesis via regulating the level of secreted VEGF in NVUs. Our study provides evidence that may aid in the development of an alternative approach for the treatment of PD through modulation of CYS C-mediated neuronal-vascular pathways.

  17. Angiogenesis induced by prenatal ischemia predisposes to periventricular hemorrhage during postnatal mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Cigdem; Hong, Caron; Carusillo, Brianna; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Three risk factors are associated with hemorrhagic forms of encephalopathy of prematurity (EP): (i) prematurity, (ii) in utero ischemia (IUI) or perinatal ischemia, and (iii) mechanical ventilation. We hypothesized that IUI would induce an angiogenic response marked by activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), the latter degrading vascular basement membrane and increasing vulnerability to raised intravenous pressure during positive pressure mechanical ventilation. METHODS We studied a rat model of hemorrhagic-EP characterized by periventricular hemorrhages in which a 20-min episode of IUI is induced at E19, pups are born naturally at E21–22, and on P0, are subjected to a 20-min episode of positive pressure mechanical ventilation. Tissues were studied by H&E staining, immunolabeling, immunoblot and zymography. RESULTS Mechanical ventilation of rat pups 2–3 days after 20-min IUI caused widespread hemorrhages in periventricular tissues. IUI resulted in upregulation of VEGF and MMP-9. Zymography confirmed significantly elevated gelatinase activity. MMP-9 activation was accompanied by severe loss of MMP-9 substrates, collagen IV and laminin, in microvessels in periventricular areas. CONCLUSION Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive pressure mechanical ventilation of the newborn in the context of recent prenatal ischemia/hypoxia can predispose to periventricular hemorrhages. PMID:25665055

  18. A Role for p38 MAPK in Head and Neck Cancer Cell Growth and Tumor-Induced Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Leelahavanichkul, Kantima; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Basile, John R.; Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently gained a remarkable understanding of the mutational landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the nature of the dysregulated signaling networks contributing to HNSCC progression is still poorly defined. Here, we have focused on the role of the family of mitogen activated kinases (MAPKs), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK in HNSCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of a large collection of human HNSCC tissues revealed that the levels of the phosphorylated active form of ERK1/2 and JNK were elevated in less than 33% and 16% of the cases, respectively. Strikingly, however, high levels of active phospho-p38 were observed in most (79%) of hundreds of tissues analyzed. We explored the biological role of p38 in HNSCC cell lines using three independent approaches: treatment with a specific p38 inhibitor, SB-203580; a retro-inhibition strategy consisting in the use of SB-203580 combined with the expression of an inhibitor-insensitive mutant form of p38α; and short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting p38α. We found that specific blockade of p38 signaling significantly inhibited the proliferation of HNSCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, we observed that p38 inhibition in HNSCC cancer cells reduces cancer growth in tumor xenografts and a remarkable decrease in intratumoral blood and lymphatic vessels. We conclude that p38α functions as a positive regulator of HNSCC in the context of the tumor microenvironment, controlling cancer cell growth as well as tumor-induced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24216180

  19. Salinity-Induced Anti-Angiogenesis Activities and Structural Changes of the Polysaccharides from Cultured Cordyceps Militaris

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the 13C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of α and β glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable 34S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future. PMID:25203294

  20. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor NS-2028 reduces vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis and permeability.

    PubMed

    Morbidelli, Lucia; Pyriochou, Anastasia; Filippi, Sandra; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Roussos, Charis; Zhou, Zongmin; Loutrari, Heleni; Waltenberger, Johannes; Stössel, Anne; Giannis, Athanassios; Ziche, Marina; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated permeability and angiogenesis. However, effector molecules that operate downstream of NO in this pathway remain poorly characterized. Herein, we determined the effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibition on VEGF responses in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of endothelial cells (EC) with VEGF stimulated eNOS phosphorylation and cGMP accumulation; pretreatment with the sGC inhibitor 4H-8-bromo-1,2,4-oxadiazolo(3,4-d)benz(b)(1,4)oxazin-1-one (NS-2028) blunted cGMP levels without affecting VEGF-receptor phosphorylation. Incubation of cells with NS-2028 blocked the mitogenic effects of VEGF. In addition, cells in which sGC was inhibited exhibited no migration and sprouting in response to VEGF. To study the mechanisms through which NS-2028 inhibits EC migration, we determined the effects of alterations in cGMP levels on p38 MAPK. Initially, we observed that inhibition of sGC attenuated VEGF-stimulated activation of p38. In contrast, the addition of 8-Br-cGMP to EC stimulated p38 phosphorylation. The addition of cGMP elevating agents (BAY 41-2272, DETA NO and YC-1) enhanced EC migration. To test whether sGC also mediated the angiogenic effects of VEGF in vivo, we used the rabbit cornea assay. Animals receiving NS-2028 orally displayed a reduced angiogenic response to VEGF. As increased vascular permeability occurs prior to new blood vessel formation, we determined the effect of NS-2028 in vascular leakage. Using a modified Miles assay, we observed that NS-2028 attenuated VEGF-induced permeability. Overall, we provide evidence that sGC mediates the angiogenic and permeability-promoting activities of VEGF, indicating the significance of sGC as a downstream effector of VEGF-triggered responses.

  1. Salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities and structural changes of the polysaccharides from cultured Cordyceps Militaris.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Qiu, Peiju; Zhou, Zijing; Tang, Yang; Zhao, Yue; Zheng, Sha; Xu, Chenchen; Zhang, Xiuli; Yin, Pinghe; Jiang, Xiaolu; Lu, Hong; Yu, Guangli; Zhang, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps is a rare and exotic mushroom that grows out of the head of a mummified caterpillar. Many companies are cultivating Cordyceps to meet the increased demand for its medicinal applications. However, the structures and functions of polysaccharides, one of the pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps, are difficult to reproduce in vitro. We hypothesized that mimicking the salty environment inside caterpillar bodies might make the cultured fungus synthesize polysaccharides with similar structures and functions to that of wild Cordyceps. By adding either sodium sulfate or sodium chloride into growth media, we observed the salinity-induced anti-angiogenesis activities of the polysaccharides purified from the cultured C. Militaris. To correlate the activities with the polysaccharide structures, we performed the (13)C-NMR analysis and observed profound structural changes including different proportions of α and β glycosidic bonds and appearances of uronic acid signals in the polysaccharides purified from the culture after the salts were added. By coupling the techniques of stable (34)S-sulfate isotope labeling, aniline- and D5-aniline tagging, and stable isotope facilitated uronic acid-reduction with LC-MS analysis, our data revealed for the first time the existence of covalently linked sulfate and the presence of polygalacuronic acids in the polysaccharides purified from the salt added C. Militaris culture. Our data showed that culturing C. Militaris with added salts changed the biosynthetic scheme and resulted in novel polysaccharide structures and functions. These findings might be insightful in terms of how to make C. Militaris cultures to reach or to exceed the potency of wild Cordyceps in future.

  2. Bevacizumab-Induced Inhibition of Angiogenesis Promotes a More Homogeneous Intratumoral Distribution of Paclitaxel, Improving the Antitumor Response.

    PubMed

    Cesca, Marta; Morosi, Lavinia; Berndt, Alexander; Fuso Nerini, Ilaria; Frapolli, Roberta; Richter, Petra; Decio, Alessandra; Dirsch, Olaf; Micotti, Edoardo; Giordano, Silvia; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Davoli, Enrico; Zucchetti, Massimo; Giavazzi, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor activity of angiogenesis inhibitors is reinforced in combination with chemotherapy. It is debated whether this potentiation is related to a better drug delivery to the tumor due to the antiangiogenic effects on tumor vessel phenotype and functionality. We addressed this question by combining bevacizumab with paclitaxel on A2780-1A9 ovarian carcinoma and HT-29 colon carcinoma transplanted ectopically in the subcutis of nude mice and on A2780-1A9 and IGROV1 ovarian carcinoma transplanted orthotopically in the bursa of the mouse ovary. Paclitaxel concentrations together with its distribution by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) were measured to determine the drug in different areas of the tumor, which was immunostained to depict vessel morphology and tumor proliferation. Bevacizumab modified the vessel bed, assessed by CD31 staining and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and potentiated the antitumor activity of paclitaxel in all the models. Although tumor paclitaxel concentrations were lower after bevacizumab, the drug distributed more homogeneously, particularly in vascularized, non-necrotic areas, and was cleared more slowly than controls. This happened specifically in tumor tissue, as there was no change in paclitaxel pharmacokinetics or drug distribution in normal tissues. In addition, the drug concentration and distribution were not influenced by the site of tumor growth, as A2780-1A9 and IGROV1 growing in the ovary gave results similar to the tumor growing subcutaneously. We suggest that the changes in the tumor microenvironment architecture induced by bevacizumab, together with the better distribution of paclitaxel, may explain the significant antitumor potentiation by the combination.

  3. Survivin expression promotes VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis via PI3K/Akt enhanced β-catenin/Tcf-Lef dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Jaime G; Rodríguez, Diego A; Valenzuela, Manuel; Calderon, Claudia; Urzúa, Ulises; Munroe, David; Rosas, Carlos; Lemus, David; Díaz, Natalia; Wright, Mathew C; Leyton, Lisette; Tapia, Julio C; Quest, Andrew Fg

    2014-09-09

    Early in cancer development, tumour cells express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a secreted molecule that is important in all stages of angiogenesis, an essential process that provides nutrients and oxygen to the nascent tumor and thereby enhances tumor-cell survival and facilitates growth. Survivin, another protein involved in angiogenesis, is strongly expressed in most human cancers, where it promotes tumor survival by reducing apoptosis as well as favoring endothelial cell proliferation and migration. The mechanisms by which cancer cells induce VEGF expression and angiogenesis upon survivin up-regulation remain to be fully established. Since the PI3K/Akt signalling and β-catenin-Tcf/Lef dependent transcription have been implicated in the expression of many cancer-related genes, including survivin and VEGF, we evaluated whether survivin may favor VEGF expression, release from tumor cells and induction of angiogenesis in a PI3K/Akt-β-catenin-Tcf/Lef-dependent manner. Here, we provide evidence linking survivin expression in tumor cells to increased β-catenin protein levels, β-catenin-Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity and expression of several target genes of this pathway, including survivin and VEGF, which accumulates in the culture medium. Alternatively, survivin downregulation reduced β-catenin protein levels and β-catenin-Tcf/Lef transcriptional activity. Also, using inhibitors of PI3K and the expression of dominant negative Akt, we show that survivin acts upstream in an amplification loop to promote VEGF expression. Moreover, survivin knock-down in B16F10 murine melanoma cells diminished the number of blood vessels and reduced VEGF expression in tumors formed in C57BL/6 mice. Finally, in the chick chorioallantoid membrane assay, survivin expression in tumor cells enhanced VEGF liberation and blood vessel formation. Importantly, the presence of neutralizing anti-VEGF antibodies precluded survivin-enhanced angiogenesis in this assay. These

  4. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Hua; Lu, Ta-Jung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  5. Non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma induces angiogenesis through reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Friedman, Gary; Fridman, Alexander; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2012-01-01

    Vascularization plays a key role in processes such as wound healing and tissue engineering. Non-thermal plasma, which primarily produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), has recently emerged as an efficient tool in medical applications including blood coagulation, sterilization and malignant cell apoptosis. Liquids and porcine aortic endothelial cells were treated with a non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma in vitro. Plasma treatment of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and serum-free medium increased ROS concentration in a dose-dependent manner, with a higher concentration observed in serum-free medium compared with PBS. Species concentration inside cells peaked 1 h after treatment, followed by a decrease 3 h post treatment. Endothelial cells treated with a plasma dose of 4.2 J cm–2 had 1.7 times more cells than untreated samples 5 days after plasma treatment. The 4.2 J cm–2 plasma dose increased two-dimensional migration distance by 40 per cent compared with untreated control, while the number of cells that migrated through a three-dimensional collagen gel increased by 15 per cent. Tube formation was also enhanced by plasma treatment, with tube lengths in plasma-treated samples measuring 2.6 times longer than control samples. A fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) neutralizing antibody and ROS scavengers abrogated these angiogenic effects. These data indicate that plasma enhanced proliferation, migration and tube formation is due to FGF-2 release induced by plasma-produced ROS. Non-thermal plasma may be used as a potential tool for applying ROS in precise doses to enhance vascularization. PMID:21653568

  6. Selective Activation of the Prostaglandin E2 Circuit in Chronic Injury-Induced Pathologic Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liclican, Elvira L.; Nguyen, Van; Sullivan, Aaron B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a prevalent and established mediator of inflammation and pain in numerous tissues and diseases. Distribution and expression of the four PGE2 receptors (EP1-EP4) can dictate whether PGE2 exerts an anti-inflammatory or a proinflammatory and/or a proangiogenic effect. The role and mechanism of endogenous PGE2 in the cornea, and the regulation of EP expression during a dynamic and complex inflammatory/reparative response remain to be clearly defined. Methods. Chronic or acute self-resolving inflammation was induced in mice by corneal suture or epithelial abrasion, respectively. Reepithelialization was monitored by fluorescein staining and neovascularization quantified by CD31/PECAM-1 immunofluorescence. PGE2 formation was analyzed by lipidomics and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration quantified by myeloperoxidase activity. Expression of EPs and inflammatory/angiogenic mediators was assessed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Mice eyes were treated with PGE2 (100 ng topically, three times a day) for up to 7 days. Results. COX-2, EP-2, and EP-4 expression was upregulated with chronic inflammation that correlated with increased corneal PGE2 formation and marked neovascularization. In contrast, acute abrasion injury did not alter PGE2 or EP levels. PGE2 treatment amplified PMN infiltration and the angiogenic response to chronic inflammation but did not affect wound healing or PMN infiltration after epithelial abrasion. Exacerbated inflammatory neovascularization with PGE2 treatment was independent of the VEGF circuit but was associated with a significant induction of the eotaxin-CCR3 axis. Conclusions. These findings place the corneal PGE2 circuit as an endogenous mediator of inflammatory neovascularization rather than general inflammation and demonstrate that chronic inflammation selectively regulates this circuit at the level of biosynthetic enzyme and receptor expression. PMID:20610836

  7. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation. PMID:27345502

  8. The ROS-mediated activation of STAT-3/VEGF signaling is involved in the 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced angiogenesis in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongmei; Shen, Zhaoxia; Liu, Jiao; Chen, Juan; Liu, Yun; Hu, Chunyan; Li, Zhong; Li, Yuan

    2016-12-15

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among females worldwide, and angiogenesis plays a crucial role in BC progression. 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is an endogenous selective estrogen receptor modulator, which promotes the growth and metastasis of BC. Here, we further found that, 27HC improved the angiogenic ability of BC in a VEGF-dependent manner. For the molecular mechanisms, on one hand, as an estrogen-like factor, 27HC enhanced the expression of VEGF by the classical ERα/VEGF signaling in ER-positive BC cells; on the other hand, in both ER-positive and ER-negative BC cells, 27HC enhanced the generation of ROS, which in turn activated the STAT-3/VEGF signaling in an ER independent manner. Either blocking the generation of ROS or knockdown of STAT-3 attenuated the 27HC-induced autocrine of VEGF and angiogenesis. These findings not only suggested a mechanism whereby 27HC enhanced the angiogenesis, but also helped to recognize the 27HC as a novel potential harmful factor in BC, especially in the menopause patients.

  9. Irisin Induces Angiogenesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells In Vitro and in Zebrafish Embryos In Vivo via Activation of the ERK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fei; Song, Haibo; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yuzhu; Mu, Qian; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Wen; Li, Liang; Li, Huanjie; Wang, Yunshan; Zhang, Mingxiang; Li, Shiwu; Yang, Lijun; Meng, Yan; Tang, Dongqi

    2015-01-01

    As a link between exercise and metabolism, irisin is assumed to be involved in increased total body energy expenditure, reduced body weight, and increased insulin sensitivity. Although our recent evidence supported the contribution of irisin to vascular endothelial cell (ECs) proliferation and apoptosis, further research of irisin involvement in the angiogenesis of ECs was not conclusive. In the current study, it was found that irisin promoted Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) angiogenesis via increasing migration and tube formation, and attenuated chemically-induced intersegmental vessel (ISV) angiogenic impairment in transgenic TG (fli1: GFP) zebrafish. It was further demonstrated that expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 were also up-regulated in endothelial cells. We also found that irisin activated extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Inhibition of ERK signaling by using U0126 decreased the pro-migration and pro-angiogenic effect of irisin on HUVEC. Also, U0126 inhibited the elevated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 when they were treated with irisin. In summary, these findings provided direct evidence that irisin may play a pivotal role in maintaining endothelium homeostasis by promoting endothelial cell angiogenesis via the ERK signaling pathway. PMID:26241478

  10. ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-β and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Andreas; Salway, Fiona; Dressman, Holly K; Kröner-Lux, Gabriele; Hafner, Mathias; Day, Philip JR; Marchuk, Douglas A; Garland, John

    2006-01-01

    Background TGF-β1 is an important angiogenic factor involved in the different aspects of angiogenesis and vessel maintenance. TGF-β signalling is mediated by the TβRII/ALK5 receptor complex activating the Smad2/Smad3 pathway. In endothelial cells TGF-β utilizes a second type I receptor, ALK1, activating the Smad1/Smad5 pathway. Consequently, a perturbance of ALK1, ALK5 or TβRII activity leads to vascular defects. Mutations in ALK1 cause the vascular disorder hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methods The identification of ALK1 and not ALK5 regulated genes in endothelial cells, might help to better understand the development of HHT. Therefore, the human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1 was infected with a recombinant constitutively active ALK1 adenovirus, and gene expression was studied by using gene arrays and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results After 24 hours, 34 genes were identified to be up-regulated by ALK1 signalling. Analysing ALK1 regulated gene expression after 4 hours revealed 13 genes to be up- and 2 to be down-regulated. Several of these genes, including IL-8, ET-1, ID1, HPTPη and TEAD4 are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. Evaluation of ALK1 regulated gene expression in different human endothelial cell types was not in complete agreement. Further on, disparity between constitutively active ALK1 and TGF-β1 induced gene expression in HMEC-1 cells and primary HUVECs was observed. Conclusion Gene array analysis identified 49 genes to be regulated by ALK1 signalling and at least 14 genes are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. There was substantial agreement between the gene array and quantitative real-time PCR data. The angiogenesis related genes might be potential HHT modifier genes. In addition, the results suggest endothelial cell type specific ALK1 and TGF-β signalling. PMID:16594992

  11. Curcumin inhibited HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis through regulating c-Met dependent PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Demin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wei; Tang, Xiali; Chen, Jun; Mou, Hao; Chen, Qing-yong

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis have emerged as two pivotal events in cancer progression. Curcumin has been extensively studied in preclinical models and clinical trials of cancer prevention due to its favorable toxicity profile. However, the possible involvement of curcumin in the EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer remains unclear. This study found that curcumin inhibited hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration and EMT-related morphological changes in A549 and PC-9 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with curcumin blocked HGF-induced c-Met phosphorylation and downstream activation of Akt, mTOR, and S6. These effects mimicked that of c-Met inhibitor SU11274 or PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 or mTOR inhibitor rapamycin treatment. c-Met gene overexpression analysis further demonstrated that curcumin suppressed lung cancer cell EMT by inhibiting c-Met/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we found that curcumin also significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and induced apoptosis and reduced migration and tube formation of HGF-treated HUVEC. Finally, in the experimental mouse model, we showed that curcumin inhibited HGF-stimulated tumor growth and induced an increase in E-cadherin expression and a decrease in vimentin, CD34, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Collectively, these findings indicated that curcumin could inhibit HGF-promoted EMT and angiogenesis by targeting c-Met and blocking PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. PMID:27525306

  12. Tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells induce angiogenesis through the synergistic action of CCL2 and CXCL16 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Chun; Lee, Jungwhoi; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Choi, Chulhee

    2014-01-24

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells can suppress innate and adaptive immunity, and the functional immunosuppressive characteristics of these cells can be modulated by the tumor microenvironment. Since Gr-1(+)CD11(+) cells are also involved in tumor-associated angiogenesis, we hypothesized that the angiogenic nature of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells could be regulated by the tumor milieu. To address this hypothesis, we imitated a tumor microenvironment by exposing Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells isolated from spleen of 4T1 mammary carcinoma-bearing mice to tumor-conditioned medium. Supernatants from tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly induced capillary-like tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to naive Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells. Incubation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells with tumor-conditioned medium induced production of pro-angiogenic chemokines CCL2 and CXCL16. Pretreatment with an anti-CCL2 antibody, but not an anti-CXCL16 antibody, suppressed the angiogenic effects of tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells on HUVECs. Simultaneous neutralization of CCL2 and CXCL16 significantly inhibited tube formation and migration of HUVECs compared to the sole neutralization against CCL2. Supernatants from tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HUVECs, and inhibition of the ERK pathway blocked angiogenic effects. ERK pathway activity was partially abrogated by neutralization of CCL2 and more suppressed by simultaneous neutralization of CCL2 and CXCL16. These results collectively indicate that CCL2 and CXCL16 chemokines produced by tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells synergistically induce angiogenesis in vitro by stimulating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, regulation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells in the tumor microenvironment may contribute to angiogenesis through the secretion of pro-angiogenic chemokines.

  13. Functional role of inorganic trace elements in angiogenesis part III: (Ti, Li, Ce, As, Hg, Va, Nb and Pb).

    PubMed

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Orangi, Jafar; Asatourian, Armen; Sorenson, Christine M; Sheibani, Nader

    2016-02-01

    Many essential elements exist in nature with significant influence on human health. Angiogenesis is vital in developmental, repair, and regenerative processes, and its aberrant regulation contributes to pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the role of these elements in such a vital process. This is third in a series of reviews that serve as an overview of the role of inorganic elements in regulation of angiogenesis and vascular function. Here we will review the roles of titanium, lithium, cerium, arsenic, mercury, vanadium, niobium, and lead in these processes. The roles of other inorganic elements in angiogenesis were discussed in part I (N, Fe, Se, P, Au, and Ca) and part II (Cr, Si, Zn, Cu, and S) of these series. The methods of exposure, structure, mechanisms, and potential activities of these elements are briefly discussed. An electronic search was performed on the role of these elements in angiogenesis from January 2005 to April 2014. These elements can promote and/or inhibit angiogenesis through different mechanisms. The anti-angiogenic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles comes from the inhibition of angiogenic processes, and not from its toxicity. Lithium affects vasculogenesis but not angiogenesis. Nanoceria treatment inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Vanadium treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxic effects through interactions with DNA. The negative impact of mercury on endothelial cell migration and tube formation activities was dose and time dependent. Lead induced IL-8 production, which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis. Thus, understanding the impact of these elements on angiogenesis will help in development of new modalities to modulate angiogenesis under various conditions.

  14. Functional Role of Inorganic Trace Elements in in Angiogenesis Part III: (Ti, Li, Ce, As, Hg, Va, Nb and Pb)

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, M. A.; Orangi, J.; Asatourian, A.; Sorenson, C.M.; Sheibani, N.

    2016-01-01

    Many essential elements exist in nature with significant influence on human health. Angiogenesis is vital to developmental, repair, and regenerative processes, and its aberrant regulation contributes to pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Thus, it is of great importance to explore the role of these elements in such a vital process. This is third in a series of reviews that serve as an overview of the role of inorganic elements in regulation of angiogenesis and vascular function. Here we will review the roles of titanium, lithium, cerium, arsenic, mercury, vanadium, niobium, and lead in these processes. The roles of other inorganic elements in angiogenesis were discussed in part I and part II of these series. The methods of exposure, structure, mechanisms, and potential activities of these elements are briefly discussed. An electronic search was performed on the role of these elements in angiogenesis from January 2005-April 2014. These elements can promote and/or inhibit angiogenesis through different mechanisms. The anti-angiogenic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles comes from the inhibition of angiogenic processes, and not from its toxicity. Lithium affects vasculogenesis but not angiogenesis. Nanoceria treatment inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis. Vanadium treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced cytotoxic effects through interactions with DNA. The negative impact of Mercury on cell migration and tube formation activities was dose and time dependent. Lead induced IL-8 production, which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis. Thus, understanding the impact of these elements on angiogenesis will help in development of new modalities to modulate angiogenesis under various conditions. PMID:26638864

  15. Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/p38/Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1α Is Pivotal for Angiogenesis and Tumorigenesis of Malignantly Transformed Cells Induced by Hexavalent Chromium*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Park, Youn-hee; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Kondo, Kazuya; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-containing compounds are well established environmental carcinogens. Most mechanistic investigations of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis focus on oxidative stress and various cellular responses, leading to malignant cell transformation or the first stage of metal-induced carcinogenesis. The development of malignantly transformed cells into tumors that require angiogenesis is the second stage. This study focuses on the second stage, in particular, the role of EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. Our preliminary studies have shown that EGFR is constitutively activated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells, in lung tissue from Cr(VI)-exposed animals, and in lung tumor tissue from a non-smoking worker occupationally exposed to Cr(VI) for 19 years. Using in vitro and in vivo models, the present study has investigated the role of EGFR in angiogenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. The results show that Cr(VI)-transformed cells are angiogenic. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, pro-angiogenic protein matrix metalloproteinase 1, and VEGF are all highly expressed in Cr(VI)-transformed cells, in lung tissue from animals exposed to Cr(VI), and in lung tumor tissue from a non-smoking worker occupationally exposed to Cr(VI) for 19 years. p38 MAPK is also activated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells and in human lung tumor tissue. Inhibition of EGFR reduces p38 MAPK, resulting in decreased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, metalloproteinase 1, and VEGF, leading to suppressions of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Overall, the present study has demonstrated that EGFR plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. PMID:27226640

  16. Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/p38/Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1α Is Pivotal for Angiogenesis and Tumorigenesis of Malignantly Transformed Cells Induced by Hexavalent Chromium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Park, Youn-Hee; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Kondo, Kazuya; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2016-07-29

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-containing compounds are well established environmental carcinogens. Most mechanistic investigations of Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis focus on oxidative stress and various cellular responses, leading to malignant cell transformation or the first stage of metal-induced carcinogenesis. The development of malignantly transformed cells into tumors that require angiogenesis is the second stage. This study focuses on the second stage, in particular, the role of EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. Our preliminary studies have shown that EGFR is constitutively activated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells, in lung tissue from Cr(VI)-exposed animals, and in lung tumor tissue from a non-smoking worker occupationally exposed to Cr(VI) for 19 years. Using in vitro and in vivo models, the present study has investigated the role of EGFR in angiogenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells. The results show that Cr(VI)-transformed cells are angiogenic. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, pro-angiogenic protein matrix metalloproteinase 1, and VEGF are all highly expressed in Cr(VI)-transformed cells, in lung tissue from animals exposed to Cr(VI), and in lung tumor tissue from a non-smoking worker occupationally exposed to Cr(VI) for 19 years. p38 MAPK is also activated in Cr(VI)-transformed cells and in human lung tumor tissue. Inhibition of EGFR reduces p38 MAPK, resulting in decreased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, metalloproteinase 1, and VEGF, leading to suppressions of angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. Overall, the present study has demonstrated that EGFR plays an important role in angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of Cr(VI)-transformed cells.

  17. p38 MAPK activity is stimulated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 activation and is essential for shear stress-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gee, Eric; Milkiewicz, Malgorzata; Haas, Tara L

    2010-01-01

    Increased capillary shear stress induces angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, but the signaling mechanisms underlying this response are not known. We hypothesize that shear stress-dependent activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) causes p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which contribute to shear stress-induced angiogenesis. Skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cells were sheared (12 dynes/cm(2), 0.5-24 h). VEGFR2-Y1214 phosphorylation increased in response to elevated shear stress and VEGF stimulation. p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation increased at 2 h of shear stress but only p38 remained phosphorylated at 6 and 24 h of shear stress. VEGFR2 inhibition abrogated p38, but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. VEGF production was increased in response to shear stress at 6 h, and this increased production was abolished by p38 inhibition. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered prazosin (50 mg/L drinking water, 1, 2, 4, or 7 days) to induce chronically elevated capillary shear stress in skeletal muscle. In some experiments, mini-osmotic pumps were used to dispense p38 inhibitor SB203580 or its inactive analog SB202474, to the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of control and prazosin-treated rats. Immunostaining and Western blotting showed increases in p38 phosphorylation in capillaries from rats treated with prazosin for 2 days but returned to basal levels at 4 and 7 days. p38 inhibition abolished the increase in capillary to muscle fiber ratio seen after 7 days of prazosin treatment. Our data suggest that p38 activation is necessary for shear stress-dependent angiogenesis.

  18. Acute serum amyloid A induces migration, angiogenesis, and inflammation in synovial cells in vitro and in a human rheumatoid arthritis/SCID mouse chimera model.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mary; Marrelli, Alessandra; Blades, Mark; McCormick, Jennifer; Maderna, Paola; Godson, Catherine; Mullan, Ronan; FitzGerald, Oliver; Bresnihan, Barry; Pitzalis, Costantino; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    Serum amyloid A (A-SAA), an acute-phase protein with cytokine-like properties, is expressed at sites of inflammation. This study investigated the effects of A-SAA on chemokine-regulated migration and angiogenesis using rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cells and whole-tissue explants in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. A-SAA levels were measured by real-time PCR and ELISA. IL-8 and MCP-1 expression was examined in RA synovial fibroblasts, human microvascular endothelial cells, and RA synovial explants by ELISA. Neutrophil transendothelial cell migration, cell adhesion, invasion, and migration were examined using transwell leukocyte/monocyte migration assays, invasion assays, and adhesion assays with or without anti-MCP-1/anti-IL-8. NF-kappaB was examined using a specific inhibitor and Western blotting. An RA synovial/SCID mouse chimera model was used to examine the effects of A-SAA on cell migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis in vivo. High expression of A-SAA was demonstrated in RA patients (p < 0.05). A-SAA induced chemokine expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Blockade with anti-scavenger receptor class B member 1 and lipoxin A4 (A-SAA receptors) significantly reduced chemokine expression in RA synovial tissue explants (p < 0.05). A-SAA induced cell invasion, neutrophil-transendothelial cell migration, monocyte migration, and adhesion (all p < 0.05), effects that were blocked by anti-IL-8 or anti-MCP-1. A-SAA-induced chemokine expression was mediated through NF-kappaB in RA explants (p < 0.05). Finally, in the RA synovial/SCID mouse chimera model, we demonstrated for the first time in vivo that A-SAA directly induces monocyte migration from the murine circulation into RA synovial grafts, synovial cell proliferation, and angiogenesis (p < 0.05). A-SAA promotes cell migrational mechanisms and angiogenesis critical to RA pathogenesis.

  19. Ursolic acid inhibits tumor angiogenesis and induces apoptosis through mitochondrial-dependent pathway in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor.

    PubMed

    Saraswati, Sarita; Agrawal, S S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2013-11-25

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene naturally occurring in many plant foods. In the present study, we investigated anti-cancer activity of UA in vivo in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor. 15 × 10(6) EAC cells were implanted intraperitoneally (i.p., ascitic tumor) and subcutaneous (s.c., solid tumor) in Swiss albino mice. Mice with established tumors received UA i.p. at 25, 50 and 100mg/kg bw for 14 d in ascitic and 100mg/kg bw in solid tumor for 30 d. On day 15, blood samples were collected for hematological assessment of hemoglobin (Hb%), RBCs, WBCs and PCV. Tumor volume, cell viability, angiogenic, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory factors and antioxidant parameters were determined. Immunohistochemistry analysis for VEGF, iNOS, CD31, caspase-3 and Bax were also performed. UA significantly inhibited tumor growth, cell viability, in both ascites and solid tumor model in vivo (p<0.001). The anti-angiogenic effects were accompanied with decreased VEGF, iNOS, TNF-α and increased IL-12 levels. UA at 100mg/kg bw dose significantly increased SOD and CAT activity (p<0.01). GSH and TBARS were increased as compared to control group (p<0.001). Furthermore, UA increased total RBCs, WBCs as well as Hb% significantly (p<0.05) compared to cyclophosphamide (CP). Histopathological examination of tumor cells in the treated group demonstrated signs of apoptosis with chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage. Decreased peritoneal angiogenesis showed the anti-angiogenic potential. UA downregulated VEGF & iNOS expression whereas bax and caspase-3 expressions were upregulated suggesting drug induced tumor cell apoptosis through activating the pro-apoptotic bcl-2 family and caspase-3 and downregulation of VEGF. The present study sheds light on the potent antitumor property of the UA and can be extended further to develop therapeutic protocols for treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mice with increased angiogenesis and osteogenesis due to conditional activation of HIF pathway in osteoblasts are protected from ovariectomy induced bone loss.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qiang; Shen, Xing; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Guochun; Qi, Jin; Deng, Lianfu

    2012-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is characterized by a reduction in the numbers of sinusoidal and arterial capillaries in the bone marrow and reduced bone perfusion suggesting a role of vascular component in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Previous studies have shown that bone formation and angiogenesis are positively coupled through activation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1α) signaling pathway. Therefore, we hypothesized that mice with increased angiogenesis and osteogenesis due to activation of the HIF signaling pathway in osteoblasts, via osteoblast specific disruption of HIF degrading protein von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) (ΔVhl), are protected from ovariectomy induced bone loss. ΔVhl mice and control littermates were ovariectomized or sham operated and four weeks later bone quality was evaluated along with blood vessel formation. Trabecular and cortical bone volume was strikingly increased in ΔVhl mice along with blood vessel formation as compared to control littermates. In control mice, ovariectomy significantly decreased bone mineral density, deteriorated bone microarchitecture, and decreased mechanical strength compared to the sham operated control mice. This was accompanied with a significant decrease in blood vessel volume and expressions of HIF1α, HIF2α, and VEGF proteins at the distal femur in ovariectomized control mice. In contrast, ovariectomy in ΔVhl mice had absolutely no effect on either the blood vessel formation or the bone structural and mechanical quality parameters. These data indicate that activation of HIF signaling pathway in osteoblasts may prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and decrease in blood vessels in bone marrow.

  1. Repetitive extracorporeal shock wave applications are superior in inducing angiogenesis after full thickness burn compared to single application.

    PubMed

    Goertz, O; von der Lohe, L; Lauer, H; Khosrawipour, T; Ring, A; Daigeler, A; Lehnhardt, M; Kolbenschlag, J

    2014-11-01

    Burn wounds remain a challenge due to subsequent wound infection and septicemia, which can be prevented by acceleration of wound healing. The aim of the study was to analyze microcirculation and leukocyte endothelium interaction with particular focus on angiogenesis after full-thickness burn using three different repetitions of low energy shock waves. Full-thickness burns were inflicted to the ears of hairless mice (n=44; area: 1.6±0.05 mm2 (mean±SEM)). Mice were randomized into four groups: the control group received a burn injury but no shock waves; group A received ESWA (0.03 mJ/mm2) on day one after burn injury; group B received shock waves on day one and day three after burn injury; group C ESWA on day one, three and seven after burn injury. Intravital fluorescent microscopy was used to assess microcirculatory parameters, angiogenesis and leukocyte interaction. Values were obtained before burn (baseline value) immediately after and on days 1, 3, 7 and 12 after burn. Shock-wave treated groups showed significantly accelerated angiogenesis compared to the control group. The non-perfused area (NPA) is regarded as a parameter for angiogenesis and showed the following data on day 12 2.7±0.4% (group A, p=0.001), 1.4±0.5% (group B, p<0.001), 1.0±0.3% (group C, p<0.001), 6.1±0.9% (control group). Edema formation is positively correlated with the number of shock wave applications: day 12: group A: 173.2±9.8%, group B: 184.2±6.6%, group C: 201.1±6.9%, p=0.009 vs. control: 162.3±8.7% (all data: mean±SEM). According to our data shock waves positively impact the wound healing process following burn injury. Angiogenesis showed significantly improved activity after shock wave application. In all three treatment groups angiogenesis was higher compared to the control group. Within the ESWA groups, double applications showed better results than single application and three applications showed better results than single or double applications. Copyright © 2014

  2. Angiogenesis Is Induced and Wound Size Is Reduced by Electrical Stimulation in an Acute Wound Healing Model in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Ud-Din, Sara; Sebastian, Anil; Giddings, Pamela; Colthurst, James; Whiteside, Sigrid; Morris, Julie; Nuccitelli, Richard; Pullar, Christine; Baguneid, Mo; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is critical for wound healing. Insufficient angiogenesis can result in impaired wound healing and chronic wound formation. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance angiogenesis. We previously showed that ES enhanced angiogenesis in acute wounds at one time point (day 14). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of ES in affecting angiogenesis during the acute phase of cutaneous wound healing over multiple time points. We compared the angiogenic response to wounding in 40 healthy volunteers (divided into two groups and randomised), treated with ES (post-ES) and compared them to secondary intention wound healing (control). Biopsy time points monitored were days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14. Objective non-invasive measures and H&E analysis were performed in addition to immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). Wound volume was significantly reduced on D7, 10 and 14 post-ES (p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p<0.001 respectively), surface area was reduced on days 10 (p = 0.001) and 14 (p<0.001) and wound diameter reduced on days 10 (p = 0.009) and 14 (p = 0.002). Blood flow increased significantly post-ES on D10 (p = 0.002) and 14 (p = 0.001). Angiogenic markers were up-regulated following ES application; protein analysis by IHC showed an increase (p<0.05) in VEGF-A expression by ES treatment on days 7, 10 and 14 (39%, 27% and 35% respectively) and PLGF expression on days 3 and 7 (40% on both days), compared to normal healing. Similarly, WB demonstrated an increase (p<0.05) in PLGF on days 7 and 14 (51% and 35% respectively). WB studies showed a significant increase of 30% (p>0.05) on day 14 in VEGF-A expression post-ES compared to controls. Furthermore, organisation of granulation tissue was improved on day 14 post-ES. This randomised controlled trial has shown that ES enhanced wound healing by reduced wound dimensions and increased VEGF-A and PLGF expression in acute cutaneous wounds, which further substantiates the role of ES in up

  3. Dietary proteins and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Medina, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ana R

    2014-01-17

    Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  4. The hypoxia-inducible factor-responsive proteins semaphorin 4D and vascular endothelial growth factor promote tumor growth and angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Binmadi, Nada O.; Proia, Patrizia; Basile, John R.

    2012-08-15

    Growth and metastasis of solid tumors requires induction of angiogenesis to ensure the delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to rapidly dividing transformed cells. Through either mutations, hypoxia generated by cytoreductive therapies, or when a malignancy outgrows its blood supply, tumor cells undergo a change from an avascular to a neovascular phenotype, a transition mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcriptional regulators. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one example of a gene whose transcription is stimulated by HIF. VEGF plays a crucial role in promoting tumor growth and survival by stimulating new blood vessel growth in response to such stresses as chemotherapy or radiotherapy-induced hypoxia, and it therefore has become a tempting target for neutralizing antibodies in the treatment of advanced neoplasms. Emerging evidence has shown that the semaphorins, proteins originally associated with control of axonal growth and immunity, are regulated by changes in oxygen tension as well and may play a role in tumor-induced angiogenesis. Through the use of RNA interference, in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays and tumor xenograft experiments, we demonstrate that expression of semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D), which is under the control of the HIF-family of transcription factors, cooperates with VEGF to promote tumor growth and vascularity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We use blocking antibodies to show that targeting SEMA4D function along with VEGF could represent a novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OSCC and other solid tumors. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar to VEGF, SEMA4D promotes angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both VEGF and SEMA4D are produced by OSCC cells in a HIF-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These factors combine to elicit a robust pro-angiogenic phenotype in OSCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-SEMA4D

  5. NNC 55-0396, a T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor, inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Dongyoung; Park, Ju Yeol; Jung, Hye Jin; Cho, Yong-Hee; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Han, Jin; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial respiration is required for hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α stabilization, which is important for tumor cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Herein, small molecules that inhibit HIF-1α protein stability by targeting mitochondrial energy production were screened using the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and cell growth assay in galactose or glucose medium. NNC 55-0396, a T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, was selected as a hit from among 1,280 small molecules. NNC 55-0396 suppressed mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated HIF-1α expression as well as stabilization by inhibiting protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. NNC 55-0396 inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by suppressing HIF-1α stability. Moreover, NNC 55-0396 significantly suppressed glioblastoma tumor growth in a xenograft model. Thus, NNC 55-0396, a small molecule targeting T-type Ca(2+) channel, was identified by the systemic cell-based assay and was shown to have antiangiogenic activity via the suppression of HIF-1α signal transduction. These results provide new insights into the biological network between ion channel and HIF-1α signal transduction. HIF-1α overexpression has been demonstrated in hypoxic cancer cells. NNC 55-0396, a T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, inhibited HIF-1α expression via both proteasomal degradation and protein synthesis pathways. T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitors block angiogenesis by suppressing HIF-1α stability and synthesis. NNC 55-0396 could be a potential therapeutic drug candidate for cancer treatment.

  6. Combined treatment with bexarotene and rosuvastatin reduces angiotensin-II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm in apoE-/- mice and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, P; Navarro, A; Ferrando, C; Furio, E; Gonzalez-Navarro, H; Juez, M; Sanz, M J; Piqueras, L

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative vascular disease associated with angiogenesis. Bexarotene is a retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligand with anti-angiogenic activity. Statins also exert anti-angiogenic activity and activate PPARs. Because RXR ligands form permissive heterodimers with PPARs and a single anti-angiogenic drug may not be sufficient to combat the wide array of angiogenic factors produced during AAA, we evaluated the effect of combined low doses of bexarotene and rosuvastatin in a mouse model of AAA. Experimental Approach The effect of the combined treatment was investigated in a murine model of angiotensin II-induced AAA in apoE−/− mice. This combination therapy was also evaluated in in vivo (Matrigel plug assay) and in vitro (endothelial cell differentiation assay) models of angiogenesis as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. Key Results Co-treatment with bexarotene plus rosuvastatin reduced aneurysm formation, inflammation and neovascularization compared with each single treatment. In HUVEC, the combination of suboptimal concentrations of bexarotene and rosuvastatin inhibited angiotensin II-induced morphogenesis, proliferation and migration. These effects were accompanied by diminished production of pro-angiogenic chemokines (CXCL1, CCL2 or CCL5) and VEGF, and seemed to be mediated by RXRα/PPARα and RXRα/PPARγ activation. This combined therapy reduced the activation of members of the downstream PI3K pathway (Akt/mTOR and p70S6K1) in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions and Implications The combination of RXR agonists with statins at low doses synergistically interferes with the signalling pathways that modulate inflammation and angiogenesis and may constitute a new and safer therapeutic treatment for the control of AAA. PMID:25630951

  7. Influence of Exposure to Chronic Persistent Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on the Tumor Biology of Clear-Cell Renal-Cell Carcinoma. An Immunohistochemical and Morphometric Study of Angiogenesis and Vascular Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Saurí, Amparo; Valencia-Villa, Gerardo; Romanenko, Alina; Pérez, Jesús; García, Raúl; García, Heydi; Benavent, José; Sancho-Tello, María; Carda, Carmen; Llombart-Bosch, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Increased angiogenesis is related to boosted growth and malignancy in carcinomas. "Chronic Persistent Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation" (CPLDIR) exposure increases incidence and aggressive behavior of clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The aim was to study the biology of angiogenesis, including microvessel density (MVD), in human clear-cell renal-cell carcinomas (CCRCC) originating from a radio-contaminated geographical area (Ukraine) and to compare with similar tumors diagnosed in non-contaminated regions of Europe (Spain, Valencia) and Latin America (Colombia, Barranquilla). MVD was comparatively examined in 124 patients diagnosed with CCRCC from three geographical areas by means of digital micro-imaging and computerized analysis. Additionally, 50 adult normal kidneys were used for controls (autopsy kidneys from Valencia and Barranquilla). Furthermore, an immunohistochemical study of several vascular related growth factors was undertaken using a similar methodology. MVD as well as VEFG are the most discriminating factors associated with an aggressive behavior of CCRCC. Their expression increased in proportion to the level of exposure to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation in Ukrainian patients in the 25 years since the Chernobyl accident substantiated by comparison with the two control groups of renal carcinomas present in non-irradiated areas (Spain and Colombia). No major biological differences relating to angiogenesis appear to exist between the CCRCC diagnosed in two distant geographical areas of the world. HIF-1α expression was similar in all groups, with no statistical significance. Present findings demonstrate the existence of a significant relationship between MVD and VEGF in CCRCC: an increased expression of VEGF is associated with a high level of angiogenesis.

  8. PPARα Is Essential for Microparticle-Induced Differentiation of Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Benameur, Tarek; Tual-Chalot, Simon; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Martínez, María Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for neovascularization. We hypothesized that microparticles (MPs), small fragments generated from the plasma membrane, can activate angiogenic programming of EPCs. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the effects of MPs obtained from wild type (MPsPPARα+/+) and knock-out (MPsPPARα−/−) mice on EPC differentiation and angiogenesis. Bone marrow-derived cells were isolated from WT or KO mice and were cultured in the presence of MPsPPARα+/+ or MPsPPARα−/− obtained from blood of mice. Only MPsPPARα+/+ harboring PPARα significantly increased EPC, but not monocytic, differentiation. Bone marrow-derived cells treated with MPsPPARα+/+ displayed increased expression of pro-angiogenic genes and increased in vivo angiogenesis. MPsPPARα+/+ increased capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells that was associated with enhanced expressions of endothelial cell-specific markers. Finally, the effects of MPsPPARα+/+ were mediated by NF-κB-dependent mechanisms. Conclusions/Significance Our results underscore the obligatory role of PPARα carried by MPs for EPC differentiation and angiogenesis. PPARα-NF-κB-Akt pathways may play a pivotal stimulatory role for neovascularization, which may, at least in part, be mediated by bone marrow-derived EPCs. Improvement of EPC differentiation may represent a useful strategy during reparative neovascularization. PMID:20811625

  9. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis by scopoletin through interrupting the autophosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and its downstream signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Dai, Yue; Gao, Xing-Hua; Lu, Dan; Xia, Yu-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that scopoletin, the main bioactive constituent of Erycibe obtusifolia Benth stems, exerted anti-arthritic activity in vivo partly by preventing synovial angiogenesis. Herein we further investigated the anti-angiogenic potential and related mechanisms of this coumarin compound in vivo and in vitro. On chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model, scopoletin (10, 30, 100 nmol/egg) dose-dependently reduced the blood vessels that were quantified by counting the number of blood vessel branch points. In vitro, scopoletin at concentrations above 30 microM obviously inhibited the VEGF-induced tube formation, proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, scopoletin was shown to block VEGF-induced autophosphorylation of VEGFR2 but not VEGFR1, and down-regulate the following activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) as well as the production of nitric oxide (NO) in HUVECs. In sum, our findings further support that scopoletin is a candidate of angiogenesis inhibitors, and it functions by interrupting the autophosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the downstream signaling pathways. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of FGF-2-induced angiogenesis by scopoletin, a coumarin compound isolated from Erycibe obtusifolia Benth, and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Pan, Rong; Gao, XingHua; Lu, Dan; Xu, XianXiang; Xia, YuFeng; Dai, Yue

    2011-12-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that scopoletin, one of the main bioactive constituents of Erycibe obtusifolia Benth stems, exerts anti-arthritic activity in vivo partly by preventing synovial angiogenesis. The present study was performed to further investigate the anti-angiogenic potential of scopoletin, focusing on the mechanisms of action in vitro. In the aortic ring sprouting assay, scopoletin (10, 30 and 100 μM) significantly inhibited the growth of endothelial sprouts in a concentration-dependent manner. As to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), scopoletin could inhibit their proliferation, migration and tubule formation induced by FGF-2, especially the proliferation. It also remarkably decreased the expression of VEGF at mRNA and protein levels, and the phosphorylations of IKKα and IκB but not Akt, as well as the degradation of IκB caused by FGF-2 in HUVECs. These findings suggest that scopoletin is substantially able to attenuate FGF-2-induced angiogenesis, and it might act by directly preventing the stimulation action of FGF-2 and by indirectly decreasing the production of VEGF. Scopoletin down-regulated the VEGF expression through NF-κB rather than PI-3K/Akt signaling pathway. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic promotes angiogenesis in vitro via a heme oxygenase-1-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Dan; Wang Xin; Chang Qingshan; Hitron, Andrew; Zhang Zhuo; Xu Mei; Chen Gang; Luo Jia; Jiang Binghua; Fang Jing; Shi Xianglin

    2010-05-01

    Angiogenesis and vessel remodeling are fundamental to the pathogenesis of a number of diseases caused by environmental arsenic exposure, including tumorigenesis and cardiovascular diseases. Arsenic (AsIII) has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis and vascular remodeling in vivo. However, the exact molecular mechanisms accounting for arsenic-induced angiogenesis are not clear. The present study investigates the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in sodium arsenite-mediated angiogenesis in vitro. Transwell assay, three-dimensional Matrigel assay, RT-PCR, ELISA and immunoblotting were used to determine cell migration, vascular tube formation, mRNA and protein expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assay were applied to examine the DNA binding with protein and HO-1 transcriptional activity. Here, we report that low concentrations of arsenite (0.1-1 muM) stimulated cell migration and vascular tube formation in human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). Arsenite induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Knock down of HO-1 expression decreased arsenite-induced VEGF expression, cell migration, and tube formation. We showed that arsenite promoted dissociation of Bach1 (a transcriptional repressor) from the HO-1 enhancers and increased Nrf2 binding to these elements. Site directed mutagenesis assay identified that Bach1 cysteine residues 557 and 574 were essential for the induction of HO-1 gene in response to arsenite. These findings demonstrate a role for HO-1 in arsenite-mediated angiogenesis in vitro.

  12. Exosomes Secreted from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head by Promoting Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Qing; Niu, Xin; Hu, Bin; Chen, Shengbao; Song, Wenqi; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Local ischemia is the main pathological performance in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). There is currently no effective therapy to promote angiogenesis in the femoral head. Recent studies revealed that exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPS-MSC-Exos) have great therapeutic potential in ischemic tissues, but whether they could promote angiogenesis in ONFH has not been reported, and little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. Methods: iPS-MSC-Exos were intravenously injected to a steroid-induced rat osteonecrosis model. Samples of the femoral head were obtained 3 weeks after all the injections. The effects were assessed by measuring local angiogenesis and bone loss through histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, micro-CT and three-dimensional microangiography. The effects of exosomes on endothelial cells were studied through evaluations of proliferation, migration and tube-forming analyses. The expression levels of angiogenic related PI3K/Akt signaling pathway of endothelial cells were evaluated following stimulation of iPS-MSC-Exos. The promoting effects of exosomes were re-evaluated following blockade of PI3K/Akt. Results: The in vivo study revealed that administration of iPS-MSC-Exos significantly prevented bone loss, and increased microvessel density in the femoral head compared with control group. We found that iPS-MSC-Exos significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration and tube-forming capacities of endothelial cells in vitro. iPS-MSC-Exos could activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Moreover, the promoting effects of iPS-MSC-Exos were abolished after blockade of PI3K/Akt on endothelial cells. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that transplantation of iPS-MSC-Exos exerts a preventative effect on ONFH by promoting local angiogenesis and preventing bone loss. The promoting effect might be attributed to activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on

  13. Exosomes Secreted from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head by Promoting Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Qing; Niu, Xin; Hu, Bin; Chen, Shengbao; Song, Wenqi; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Changqing; Wang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Local ischemia is the main pathological performance in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). There is currently no effective therapy to promote angiogenesis in the femoral head. Recent studies revealed that exosomes secreted by induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (iPS-MSC-Exos) have great therapeutic potential in ischemic tissues, but whether they could promote angiogenesis in ONFH has not been reported, and little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. Methods: iPS-MSC-Exos were intravenously injected to a steroid-induced rat osteonecrosis model. Samples of the femoral head were obtained 3 weeks after all the injections. The effects were assessed by measuring local angiogenesis and bone loss through histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, micro-CT and three-dimensional microangiography. The effects of exosomes on endothelial cells were studied through evaluations of proliferation, migration and tube-forming analyses. The expression levels of angiogenic related PI3K/Akt signaling pathway of endothelial cells were evaluated following stimulation of iPS-MSC-Exos. The promoting effects of exosomes were re-evaluated following blockade of PI3K/Akt. Results: The in vivo study revealed that administration of iPS-MSC-Exos significantly prevented bone loss, and increased microvessel density in the femoral head compared with control group. We found that iPS-MSC-Exos significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration and tube-forming capacities of endothelial cells in vitro. iPS-MSC-Exos could activate PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Moreover, the promoting effects of iPS-MSC-Exos were abolished after blockade of PI3K/Akt on endothelial cells. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that transplantation of iPS-MSC-Exos exerts a preventative effect on ONFH by promoting local angiogenesis and preventing bone loss. The promoting effect might be attributed to activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on

  14. Vasohibin prevents arterial neointimal formation through angiogenesis inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Abe, Mayumi; Watanabe, Kazuhide; Shimizu, Kazue; Moriya, Takuya; Sato, Akira; Satomi, Susumu; Ohta, Hideki; Sonoda, Hikaru; Sato, Yasufumi . E-mail: y-sato@idac.tohoku.ac.jp

    2006-07-07

    Vasohibin is a VEGF-inducible angiogenesis inhibitor in vascular endothelium. Here we examined the presence of vasohibin in human arterial wall, and found it in endothelium of adventitial microvessels in atherosclerotic lesion. Adventitial angiogenesis is involved in the progression of neointimal formation. Even in the presence of endogenous angiogenesis inhibitors, pathological angiogenesis persists. However, the supplementation of exogenous angiogenesis inhibitors can prevent pathological angiogenesis. We evaluated the potential role of vasohibin in neointimal formation. Adenovirus-mediated human vasohibin gene transfer in mouse liver resulted in the release of vasohibin in plasma and exhibited anti-angiogenic effects at remote sites. This gene transfer inhibited adventitial angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration, and neointimal formation after cuff placement on mouse femoral artery. Vasohibin exhibited no direct effect on migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Thus, vasohibin has an activity to prevent neointimal formation by inhibiting adventitial angiogenesis.

  15. A new procedure for determining the genetic basis of a physiological process in a non-model species, illustrated by cold induced angiogenesis in the carp

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, John MJ; Buffa, Francesca M; Vorschmitt, Henrik; Egginton, Stuart; Bicknell, Roy

    2009-01-01

    Background Physiological processes occur in many species for which there is yet no sequenced genome and for which we would like to identify the genetic basis. For example, some species increase their vascular network to minimise the effects of reduced oxygen diffusion and increased blood viscosity associated with low temperatures. Since many angiogenic and endothelial genes have been discovered in man, functional homolog relationships between carp, zebrafish and human were used to predict the genetic basis of cold-induced angiogenesis in Cyprinus Carpio (carp). In this work, carp sequences were collected and built into contigs. Human-carp functional homolog relationships were derived via zebrafish using a new Conditional Stepped Reciprocal Best Hit (CSRBH) protocol. Data sources including publications, Gene Ontology and cDNA libraries were then used to predict the identity of known or potential angiogenic genes. Finally, re-analyses of cold carp microarray data identified carp genes up-regulated in response to low temperatures in heart and muscle. Results The CSRBH approach outperformed all other methods and attained 8,726 carp to human functional homolog relationships for 16,650 contiguous sequences. This represented 3,762 non-redundant genes and 908 of them were predicted to have a role in angiogenesis. The total number of up-regulated differentially expressed genes was 698 and 171 of them were putatively angiogenic. Of these, 5 genes representing the functional homologs NCL, RHOA, MMP9, GRN and MAPK1 are angiogenesis-related genes expressed in response to low temperature. Conclusion We show that CSRBH functional homologs relationships and re-analyses of gene expression data can be combined in a non-model species to predict genes of biological interest before a genome sequence is fully available. Programs to run these analyses locally are available from . PMID:19852815

  16. Angiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumour necrosis factor-α and hypoxia inducible factor-1α in canine renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yhee, J Y; Yu, C H; Kim, J H; Im, K S; Kim, N H; Brodersen, B W; Doster, A R; Sur, J-H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution and characteristics of microvessels in various histological types of canine renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study compared microvessel density (MVD) and distribution of blood vessels according to histological type and evaluated the presence of angiogenesis-related proteins. Nine archival samples of canine RCC were studied. MVD was calculated as the mean number of blood vessels per mm(2). The diameter of blood vessels was calculated by determining either the length of the long axis of blood vessels (diameter(max)) or the mean distance from the centre of each blood vessel to the tunica adventia (diameter(mean)). A significant difference in MVD was evident between RCCs and normal kidneys (46.6 ± 28.0 versus 8.4 ± 2.2 microvessels/mm(2)). Diameter(max) in canine RCCs (34.1 ± 14.7 μm) was also significantly different from normal canine kidney (23.2 ± 3.4 μm). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was expressed by tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was observed in vascular endothelial cells in both neoplastic and normal kidney. Although VEGF is involved in angiogenesis and correlates with tumour stage of development, no correlation was found between VEGF expression and MVD. Tumour-associated macrophages expressing TNF-α and hypoxia inducible factor 1α were identified in peritumoural tissue and may play an important role in angiogenesis.

  17. Magnetic nanofiber scaffold-induced stimulation of odontogenesis and pro-angiogenesis of human dental pulp cells through Wnt/MAPK/NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyung-Mun; Kang, Soo-Kyung; Singh, Rajendra K; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Park, Kyung-Ran; Yi, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Deok-Won; Kim, Hae-Won; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic biomaterials have recently gained great attention due to their some intriguing cell and tissue responses. However, little attention has been given to the fields of dental tissue regeneration. In this sense, we aim to investigate the effects of magnetic nanofiber scaffolds on the human dental pulp cell (HDPC) behaviors and to elucidate the underlying signaling mechanisms in the events. Magnetic nanofiber scaffolds incorporating magnetic nanoparticles at varying contents were prepared into nanofibrous matrices to cultivate cells. Cell growth by MTS assay, odontoblastic differentiation by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization, and the mRNA expression of differentiation-related genes of HDPCs, in vitro angiogenesis by migration and capillary tube formation in endothelial cells on the conditioned medium obtained from HDPSCs in the presence or absence of scaffolds. Western blot analysis and confocal immunofluorescene were used to asses signaling pathways. The growth of HDPCs was significantly enhanced on the magnetic scaffolds with respect to the non-magnetic counterpart. The odontogenic differentiation of cells was significantly up-regulated by the culture with magnetic scaffolds. Furthermore, the magnetic scaffolds promoted the HDPC-induced angiogenesis of endothelial cells. The expression of signaling molecules, Wnt3a, phosphorylated GSK-3β and nuclear β-catenin, was substantially stimulated by the magnetic scaffolds; in parallel, the MAPK and NF-κB were highly activated when cultured on the magnetic nanofiber scaffolds. This study is the first to demonstrate that magnetic nanofiber scaffolds stimulate HDPCs in the events of growth, odontogenic differentiation, and pro-angiogenesis, and the findings imply the novel scaffolds can be potentially useful as dentin-pulp regenerative matrices. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Angiogenesis and radiotherapy (vessels, anaemia, oxygen and radiosensitivity)].

    PubMed

    Lartigau, Eric

    2007-07-01

    Oxygen plays a direct role in cell death after exposure to ionizing radiations and tumour hypoxia, favoured by anaemia, is a factor of poor treatment response. Tumour phenotype is directly influenced by tissue oxygenation, inducing tumour cells adaptation to the environment and potential resistance to treatment. The correction of tumour hypoxia can increase treatment response. It is however difficult to directly correlate pO2 and vascularisation. Vessels from angiogenesis get endothelial cells but have lost the functions of normal vessels (receptors, muscles...). The role of angiogenesis has been demonstrated on initial tumour growth and on metastatic potential and regulation. Many pre clinical studies have demonstrated the benefit of combining anti angiogenic compounds and cytotoxic agents (chemotherapy drugs and ionizing radiations). Clinical studies are on going and new evaluation models of treatment response will be necessary.

  19. Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease siRNA Inhibits the Angiogenesis Induced by X-Ray Irradiation in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xianqing; Cun, Yanping; Li, Mengxia; Qing, Yi; Jin, Feng; Zhong, Zhaoyang; Dai, Nan; Qian, Chengyuan; Sui, Jiangdong; Wang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Radiotherapy is an important and effective treatment method for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nonetheless, radiotherapy can alter the expression of proangiogenic molecules and induce angiogenesis. Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) is a multifunctional protein, which has DNA repair and redox function. Our previous studies indicated APE1 is also a crucial angiogenic regulator. Thus, we investigated the effect of APE1 on radiation-induced angiogenesis in lung cancer and its underlying mechanism. Methods: Tumor specimens of 136 patients with NSCLC were obtained from 2003 to 2008. The APE1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, as well as microvessel density (MVD) were observed with immunohistochemistry in tumor samples. Human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were treated with Ad5/F35-APE1 siRNA and/or irradiation, and then the cells were used for APE1 analysis by Western blot and VEGF analysis by RT-PCR and ELISA. To elucidate the underline mechanism of APE1 on VEGF expression, HIF-1α protein level was determined by Western blot, and the DNA binding activity of HIF-1α was detected by EMSA. Transwell migration assay and capillary-like structure assay were used to observe the migration and capillary-like structure formation ability of human umbilical veins endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were co-cultured with Ad5/F35-APE1 siRNA and (or) irradiation treated A549 cells culture medium. Results: The high expression rates of APE1 and VEGF in NSCLC were 77.94% and 66.18%, respectively. The expressions of APE1 was significantly correlated with VEGF and MVD (r=0.369, r=0.387). APE1 and VEGF high expression were significantly associated with reduced disease free survival (DFS) time. The high expressions of APE1 and VEGF on A549 cells were concurrently induced by X-ray irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Silencing of APE1 by Ad5/F35-APE1 siRNA significantly decreased DNA binding activity of HIF-1α and suppressed the expression

  20. Aloe-emodin suppresses hypoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGF pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianming; Ke, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hongcheng; Ma, Na; Fu, Wei; Zhao, Manxi; Gao, Xiaoping; Hao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe-emodin (AE) has been reported to possess the antiangiogenic effect on laser induced choroidal neovascularization. AE inhibits the vessel formation in the zebrafish embryos. However, it is still unclear whether AE can alleviate neovascularization. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of AE on the hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization and the possible mechanisms. Methods: We established a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion model under chemical induced hypoxia by exposure of 150 µM CoCl2 to the ARPE-19 cells, then treated the cells with different concentrations of AE (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 µg/mL) or a special hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) inhibitor [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, YC-1, 1.0 µg/mL]. The cellular supernatants were collected 48 h later to measure the VEGFA concentrations by human VEGFA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, the mRNA expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2) by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the protein expressions of HIF-1α and PHD-2 by Western blots. For in vivo study, the rat pups with oxygen-induced retinopathy were treated with Conbercept ophthalmic injection (1.0 mg/kg) or AE (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) for five days, then the retinal avascular areas were assessed via visualization of the retinal vasculature with ADPase and hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stains. Results: AE inhibits the VEGFA secretion of ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia condition, decreases the mRNA expressions of VEGFA and PHD-2 and the protein expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and PHD-2 in vitro and prevents hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization in vivo.Conclusions: AE ameliorates retinal neovascularization throuth inhibition of the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. AE may be developed as a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  1. Aloe-emodin suppresses hypoxia-induced retinal angiogenesis via inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGF pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianming; Ke, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hongcheng; Ma, Na; Fu, Wei; Zhao, Manxi; Gao, Xiaoping; Hao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe-emodin (AE) has been reported to possess the antiangiogenic effect on laser induced choroidal neovascularization. AE inhibits the vessel formation in the zebrafish embryos. However, it is still unclear whether AE can alleviate neovascularization. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effect of AE on the hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization and the possible mechanisms. Methods: We established a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion model under chemical induced hypoxia by exposure of 150 µM CoCl2 to the ARPE-19 cells, then treated the cells with different concentrations of AE (0.2, 1.0 and 5.0 µg/mL) or a special hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) inhibitor [3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole, YC-1, 1.0 µg/mL]. The cellular supernatants were collected 48 h later to measure the VEGFA concentrations by human VEGFA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, the mRNA expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD-2) by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the protein expressions of HIF-1α and PHD-2 by Western blots. For in vivo study, the rat pups with oxygen-induced retinopathy were treated with Conbercept ophthalmic injection (1.0 mg/kg) or AE (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) for five days, then the retinal avascular areas were assessed via visualization of the retinal vasculature with ADPase and hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stains. Results: AE inhibits the VEGFA secretion of ARPE-19 cells under hypoxia condition, decreases the mRNA expressions of VEGFA and PHD-2 and the protein expressions of VEGFA, HIF-1α and PHD-2 in vitro and prevents hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization in vivo. Conclusions: AE ameliorates retinal neovascularization throuth inhibition of the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. AE may be developed as a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27877088

  2. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth by Eugenia jambolana, Musa paradisiaca, and Coccinia indica extracts.

    PubMed

    M, Harsha Raj; Ghosh, Debidas; Banerjee, Rita; Salimath, Bharathi P

    2017-12-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis and evasion of apoptosis are hallmarks of cancer. Accordingly, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic therapies are effective strategies for cancer treatment. Medicinal plants, namely, Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae), and Coccinia indica Wight & Arn. (Cucurbitaceae), have not been greatly investigated for their anticancer potential. We investigated the anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic efficacy of ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (NB) extracts of E. jambolana (seeds), EA extracts of M. paradisiaca (roots) and C. indica (leaves) with respect to mammary neoplasia. Effect of extracts (2-200 μg/mL) on cytotoxicity and MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis were evaluated by MTT, (3)[H]thymidine uptake and EC tube formation assays, respectively. In vivo tumour proliferation, VEGF secretion and angiogenesis were assessed using the Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) model followed by rat corneal micro-pocket and chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. Apoptosis induction was assessed by morphological and cell cycle analysis. EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca exhibited the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 25 and 60 μg/mL), inhibited cell proliferation (up to 81%), and tube formation (83% and 76%). In vivo treatment reduced body weight (50%); cell number (16.5- and 14.7-fold), secreted VEGF (∼90%), neoangiogenesis in rat cornea (2.5- and 1.5-fold) and CAM (3- and 1.6-fold) besides EAT cells accumulation in sub-G1 phase (20% and 18.38%), respectively. Considering the potent anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic properties, lead molecules from EA extracts of E. jambolana and M. paradisiaca can be developed into anticancer drugs.

  3. Pleiotrophin is a potential colorectal cancer prognostic factor that promotes VEGF expression and induces angiogenesis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying; Bai, Pei-Song; Nan, Ke-Jun; Sun, Hong; Chen, Nan-Zheng; Qi, Xiao-Gai

    2012-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is an important developmental secretory cytokine expressed in many types of cancer and involved in angiogenesis and tumor growth; however, the significance of PTN expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been established. Immunohistochemistry, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to detect PTN expression in CRC patients. The relationship between PTN expression and clinicopathological characteristics and survival time was statistically analyzed, and the relationship between PTN and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor angiogenesis was further analyzed. Of CRC tissues, 74.70% (62/83) stained positive, with a strong positive ratio of 60.24% (50/83). The expression of PTN in CRC tissues was much higher than in normal colorectal tissues. PTN serum levels in CRC patients (mean = 254.59 ± 261.76 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those of normal volunteers (mean = 115.23 ± 79.53 pg/ml; p < 0.001). PTN expression was related to CRC differentiation and TNM staging. High level of PTN is a predictor of a poor prognosis and high expression of PTN is accompanied by high expression of VEGF in CRC patients. Investigation of the relationship between PTN and VEGF revealed that PTN, through the PTN/RPTPβ/ζ signaling pathway, increased tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, leading to an increase in VEGF. Our study identifies PTN as an essential growth factor for CRC. PTN promotes VEGF expression and cooperates with VEGF in promoting CRC angiogenesis. PTN could serve as a prognostic factor for this cancer. Considering that PTN shows very limited expression in normal tissue, it may represent an attractive new target for CRC therapy.

  4. Expression of nerve growth factor and hypoxia inducible factor-1α and its correlation with angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-li; Liu, Jian; Zhu, Xiao-li; Xu, Wen-jia

    2014-06-01

    In order to investigate the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its correlation with angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 20 patients with NSCLC were examined. Twenty corresponding para-cancerous lung tissue specimens were obtained to serve as a control. The expression of NGF, HIF-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the NSCLC tissues was detected by using immunohistochemistry. The microvascular density (MVD) was determined by CD31 staining. The results showed that the expression levels of NGF, HIF-1α and VEGF in the NSCLC tissues were remarkably higher than those in the para-cancerous lung tissues (P<0.05). There was significant difference in the MVD between the NSCLC tissues (9.19±1.43) and para-cancerous lung tissues (2.23±1.19) (P<0.05). There were positive correlations between NGF and VEGF, between HIF-1α and VEGF, and between NGF and HIF-1α in NSCLC tissues, with the spearman correlation coefficient being 0.588, 0.519 and 0.588, respectively. In NSCLC tissues, the MVD had a positive correlation with the three factors (P<0.05). Theses results suggest that NGF and HIF-1α are synergically involved in the angiogenesis of NSCLC.

  5. Vascular Hyperpermeability, Angiogenesis, and Stroma Generation

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Janice A.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for more than half a century that the tumor microvasculature is hyperpermeable to plasma proteins. However, the identity of the leaky vessels and the consequences of vascular hyperpermeability have received little attention. This article places tumor vascular hyperpermeability in a broader context, relating it to (1) the low-level “basal” permeability of the normal vasculature; (2) the “acute,” short-term hyperpermeability induced by vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF-A) and other vascular permeabilizing agents; and (3) the “chronic” hyperpermeability associated with longer-term exposure to agents such as VPF/VEGF-A that accompanies many types of pathological angiogenesis. Leakage of plasma protein-rich fluids is important because it activates the clotting system, depositing an extravascular fibrin gel provisional matrix that serves as the first step in stroma generation. PMID:22355795

  6. Slit-Robo signaling in ocular angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haoyu; Zhang, Mingzhi; Tang, Shibo; London, Nyall R; Li, Dean Y; Zhang, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Slit-Robo signaling was firstly discovered as a major repellent pathway at the midline of the central nervous system. Intense investigation found that this pathway also plays an important role in other biological process including angiogenesis. Robo4 is the vascular endothelial cell specific member of Robo family. It was found that Slit-Robo signaling can inhibit endothelial cell migration, tube formation and vascular permeability. Slit-Robo signaling also plays an important role in embryonic and tumor angiogenesis. In animal model of ocular angiogenesis, addition of Slit inhibited laser induced choroidal neovascularization, oxygen induced retinopathy and VEGF induced retinal permeability in a Robo4 dependent manner. Recent data demonstrates that Robo1 and Robo4 form a heterodimer in endothelial cells, The role of this heterodimer in counteracting VEGF signaling is unknown. Further investigation is required to better understand Slit-Robo signaling and develop novel therapy for angiogenesis.

  7. Disparate effects of simvastatin on angiogenesis during hypoxia and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Daghini, Elena; Chade, Alejandro R.; Lavi, Ronit; Napoli, Claudio; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Studies have shown that some of statin's pleiotropic effects were achieved by either promotion or inhibition of angiogenesis, depending on the underlying disease. This study tested the hypothesis that the angiogenic potential of simvastatin is related to the microenvironmental conditions. Main methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were studied after exposure to hypoxia or the inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, with or without co-incubation with simvastatin (1μmol/L) and mevalonate. HUVEC angiogenesis was evaluated by tube formation, migration, and proliferation assays. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Akt, endothelium nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS), and oxidative stress were evaluated. Key findings HUVEC angiogenesis increased during hypoxia (tube length 14.7±0.5 vs. 7.8±0.6 mm, p<0.05) and further enhanced by simvastatin (19.3±1.1 mm, p<0.05 vs. hypoxia alone), which downregulated the expression of the HIF-1 inhibitor PHD2 and upregulated HIF-1α, VEGF, and Akt, without changing oxidative stress or eNOS. Incubation with TNF-α promoted HUVEC angiogenesis (7.4±0.2 vs. 6.5±0.2 mm, p<0.05) with increased oxidative stress. However, simvastatin inhibited this promotion (2.5±0.3 mm, p<0.001 vs. TNF-α alone) by decreasing oxidative stress, VEGF, Akt, and eNOS. Significance We conclude that at the same dosage, simvastatin can either promote or inhibit angiogenesis, possibly by activating upstream regulators of HIF-1α in hypoxia, but conversely interfering with angiogenic signaling downstream to inflammation. These opposing angiogenic effects should be considered in the therapeutic strategies with statins. PMID:18976673

  8. Suppressive effect of the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 on the development of carcinogen-induced hepatic nodules in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, T; Yamamoto, T; Kubo, S; Hirohashi, K; Kinoshita, H; Kaneda, K; Sakurai, M

    1998-02-01

    Tumor metastasis can be prevented by inhibiting angiogenesis. In the present study, we have demonstrated that the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470 also suppresses the development of primary hepatic nodules. Hepatocarcinogenesis was performed by the feeding of 2-acetylaminofluorene to hepatectomized rats during 8-14 weeks of age. Predominantly arterial-to-portal circulation and sinusoidal capillarization were determined by the staining of nodules with arterially infused ink and immunostaining for factor VIII-related antigen, respectively. Intraperitoneal administration of 30 mg/kg b.w. of TNP-470 twice a week significantly reduced the number of hepatic nodules. Among the nodules, hyperplastic nodules stained with ink, atypical hyperplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinoma, all of which possess structurally altered sinusoidal endothelial cells or capillary-type endothelial cells, were dramatically decreased in number. Suppression was observed equally in nodules of all sizes. TNP-470 was more effective when administered during 8-20 weeks than during 14-26 weeks. In contrast, ink-non-stained hyperplastic nodules, which have normal sinusoidal endothelial cells, were not affected at all. The present results indicate that TNP-470 suppresses the development of primary hepatic nodules whose microvessels are capillaries or transitional forms from sinusoids to capillaries.

  9. NOTCH3 Is Induced in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts and Promotes Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kayamori, Kou; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Sakamoto, Kei; Ohyama, Yoshio; Hirai, Hideaki; Yukimori, Akane; Ohata, Yae; Akashi, Takumi; Saitoh, Masao; Harada, Kiyoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Notch signaling is involved in many types of cancers, including oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). However, the role of Notch signaling in the tumor microenvironment is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of NOTCH3 signaling in cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in OSCCs. Immunohistochemical study of 93 human tongue OSCC cases indicated that about one third of OSCCs showed NOTCH3 expression in CAFs, and that this expression significantly correlated with tumor-size. In vitro study showed that OSCC cell lines, especially HO1-N-1 cells stimulated NOTCH3 expression in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) through direct cell-to-cell contact. Immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis using human OSCC samples demonstrated that NOTCH3 expression in CAFs significantly correlated with micro-vessel density in cancer stroma. In vitro angiogenesis assays involving co-culture of NHDFs with HO1-N-1 and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs), and NOTCH3 knockdown in NHDFs using siRNA, demonstrated that HO1-N-1 cells significantly promoted tube formation dependent on NOTCH3-expression in NHDFs. Moreover, NOTCH3 expression in CAFs was related to poor prognosis of the OSCC patients. This work provides a new insight into the role of Notch signaling in CAFs associated with tumor angiogenesis and the possibility of NOTCH3-targeted molecular therapy in OSCCs. PMID:27124156

  10. Increased vascular permeability, angiogenesis and wound healing induced by the serum of natural latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ricardo José; Maurício, Vanessa Beatriz; Teixeira, Larissa de Bortolli; Lachat, João José; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    Increases in vascular permeability and angiogenesis are crucial events to wound repair, tumoral growth and revascularization of tissues submitted to ischemia. An increased vascular permeability allows a variety of cytokines and growth factors to reach the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, the angiogenesis supply tissues with a wide variety of nutrients and is also important to metabolites clearance. It has been suggested that the natural latex from Hevea brasiliensis showed wound healing properties and angiogenic activity. Thus, the purpose of this work was to characterize its angiogenic activity and its effects on vascular permeability and wound healing. The serum fraction of the latex was separated from the rubber with reduction of the pH. The activity of the dialyzed serum fraction on the vascular permeability injected in subcutaneous tissue was assayed according Mile's method. The angiogenic activity was determined using a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and its effects on the wound-healing process was determined by the rabbit ear dermal ulcer model. The serum fraction showed evident angiogenic effect and it was effective in enhancing vascular permeability. In dermal ulcers, this material significantly accelerated wound healing. Moreover, the serum fraction boiled and treated with proteases lost these activities. These results are in accordance with the enhancement of wound healing observed in clinical trials carried out with a biomembrane prepared with the same natural latex.

  11. Retinoids induce fibroblast growth factor-2 production in endothelial cells via retinoic acid receptor alpha activation and stimulate angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gaetano, C; Catalano, A; Illi, B; Felici, A; Minucci, S; Palumbo, R; Facchiano, F; Mangoni, A; Mancarella, S; Mühlhauser, J; Capogrossi, M C

    2001-03-02

    The effect of retinoic acid (RA) on endothelial cells is still controversial and was examined in the present study. In bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs), all-trans RA (ATRA) and 9-cis RA (9CRA), but not 13-cis RA (13CRA), induced fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) production and exhibited a biphasic dose-dependent effect to enhance BAEC proliferation and differentiation into tubular structures on reconstituted basement membrane proteins (Matrigel); both processes were inhibited by FGF-2-neutralizing antibody. The pan RA receptor (RAR)-selective ligand (E)-4-[2-(5,5,8,8,-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphtalenyl)-1-propenyl] benzoic acid and the RARalpha-selective ligand 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphtyl)-ethenyl] benzoic acid stimulated the production of FGF-2, whereas the addition of the RARalpha-antagonist RO 41-5253 inhibited this effect. In BAECs, the forced expression of RARalpha, but not RARbeta or RARgamma, enhanced FGF-2 production, whereas the RARalpha-dominant negative, Delta403, blocked this effect. Furthermore, RARalpha overexpression directly stimulated BAEC differentiation on Matrigel and potentiated the effects of ATRA in this assay. Finally, ATRA-treated BAECs coinjected with Matrigel subcutaneously in mice induced neovascularization within the Matrigel plug, and ATRA also enhanced angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. In conclusion, RA can stimulate endothelial cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro via enhanced RARalpha-dependent FGF-2 production, and it can also induce angiogenesis in vivo. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.

  12. Erianin inhibits high glucose-induced retinal angiogenesis via blocking ERK1/2-regulated HIF-1α-VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zengyang; Zhang, Tianyu; Gong, Chenyuan; Sheng, Yuchen; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Lingyu; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-01-01

    Erianin is a natural compound found in Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious and common microvascular complication of diabetes. This study aims to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of erianin on retinal neoangiogenesis and its contribution to the amelioration of DR. Erianin blocked high glucose (HG)-induced tube formation and migration in choroid-retinal endothelial RF/6A cells. Erianin inhibited HG-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) translocation into nucleus and ERK1/2 activation in RF/6A and microglia BV-2 cells. MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 blocked HG-induced HIF-1α and ERK1/2 activation in both above two cells. In addition, erianin abrogated VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and also inhibited VEGF-induced activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and its downstream cRaf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways in RF/6A cells. Furthermore, erianin reduced the increased retinal vessels, VEGF expression and microglia activation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that erianin inhibits retinal neoangiogenesis by abrogating HG-induced VEGF expression by blocking ERK1/2-mediated HIF-1α activation in retinal endothelial and microglial cells, and further suppressing VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and its downstream signals in retinal endothelial cells. PMID:27678303

  13. Investigation of the anti-angiogenesis effects induced by deoxypodophyllotoxin-5-FU conjugate C069 against HUVE cells.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Rong; Guan, Xiao-Wen; Hui, Ling; Jin, Yong-Xin; Chen, Shi-Wu

    2017-02-15

    We have found that the deoxypodophyllotoxin-5-fluorouracil conjugate, 4'-O-demethyl-4-deoxyppodophyllotoxin-4'-yl 4-((6-(2-(5-fluorouracil-yl)acetamido) hexyl)amino)-4-oxobutanoate (C069), possessed superior cytotoxicities and less toxicity compared with etoposide. In this paper, the anti-angiogenic and vascular disrupting activities of C069 were examined with several in vitro and in vivo models. First, we demonstrated that C069 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, tube formation and disrupted the formed tube-like structures of HUVE cells, and inhibited angiogenesis in chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay. Furthermore, we found that C069 inhibited tube formation of HUVE cells by down-regulating the MMP-2, MMP-9, and phosphorylation of Akt and β-catenin. These results provided the initial evidence that C069 exerts potent anti-angiogenic and vascular disrupting effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy.

  15. Piecemeal Mechanism Combining Sprouting and Intussusceptive Angiogenesis in Intravenous Papillary Formation Induced by PGE2 and Glycerol.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; García, M Del Pino; Sáez, Francisco J; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Madrid, Juan F

    2017-10-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that in human intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH), vein wall vascularization occurs in association with myriad papillae, a large part of which formed in the vascularized vein wall. Previously, using an animal model, we observed that PGE2 and glycerol administration around the femoral vein originates intense vascularization of the vein wall from its intimal endothelial cells (ECs). This vascularization is similar to that in IPEH. The aim of this study is to assess the mechanism of papillary formation, using this model after demonstrating papillary development in neo-vascularized femoral vein walls. In semithin and ultrathin sections, the sequential vascular and papillary development was as follows: (a) activation of vein intimal ECs, (b) sprouting of intimal ECs towards the vein media layer and microvessel development, (c) interconnection between neighboring microvessels originated elementary loops, which encircled vein wall components and formed papillae. The encircling ECs formed the papillary cover, and the encircled component formed the core. The papillae showed a similar structure to that of folds and pillars in intussusceptive angiogenesis, and (d) origin of secondary and complex loop systems by interconnection of neighboring elementary loops and by splitting of papillae by new loops, with abundant papillary development. In conclusion, the results support a piecemeal angiogenic mechanism in papillary formation, with association of sprouting and intussusceptive types of angiogenesis. Further studies are needed to assess whether the intravascular papillae described in several pathologic processes, including vessel tumors, such as Dabska's tumor, retiform hemangioendothelioma, and angiosarcoma, follow a similar mechanism. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:1781-1792, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cadmium exposure induces hematuria in Korean adults

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seung Seok; Kim, Myounghee; Lee, Su Mi; Lee, Jung Pyo; Kim, Sejoong; Joo, Kwon Wook; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Kim, Dong Ki

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: Toxic heavy metals have adverse effects on human health. However, the risk of hematuria caused by heavy metal exposure has not been evaluated. Methods: Data from 4701 Korean adults were obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010). Blood levels of the toxic heavy metals cadmium, lead, and mercury were measured. Hematuria was defined as a result of ≥+1 on a urine dipstick test. The odds ratios (ORs) for hematuria were measured according to the blood heavy metal levels after adjusting for multiple variables. Results: Individuals with blood cadmium levels in the 3rd and 4th quartiles had a greater OR for hematuria than those in the 1st quartile group: 3rd quartile, 1.35 (1.019–1.777; P=0.037); 4th quartile, 1.52 (1.140–2.017; P=0.004). When blood cadmium was considered as a log-transformed continuous variable, the correlation between blood cadmium and hematuria was significant: OR, 1.97 (1.224–3.160; P{sub trend}=0.005). In contrast, no significant correlations between hematuria and blood lead or mercury were found in the multivariate analyses. Discussion: The present study shows that high cadmium exposure is associated with a risk of hematuria. -- Highlights: • A high level of blood cadmium is associated with a high risk of hematuria. • This correlation is independent of several confounding factors. • Blood levels of lead and mercury are not associated with risk of hematuria. • This is the first study on the correlation between cadmium exposure and hematuria risk.

  17. Carbamoylating Activity Associated with the Activation of the Antitumor Agent Laromustine Inhibits Angiogenesis by Inducing ASK1-Dependent Endothelial Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Praggastis, Alexandra; Li, Yonghao; Zhou, Huanjiao Jenny; He, Yun; Ghazvinian, Roxanne; Cincotta, Dylan J.; Rice, Kevin P.; Min, Wang

    2014-01-01

    The anticancer agent 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-2-[(methylamino)carbonyl]hydrazine (laromustine), upon decomposition in situ, yields methyl isocyanate and the chloroethylating species 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)hydrazine (90CE). 90CE has been shown to kill tumor cells via a proposed mechanism that involves interstrand DNA cross-linking. However, the role of methyl isocyanate in the antineoplastic function of laromustine has not been delineated. Herein, we show that 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-[(methylamino)carbonyl]hydrazine (101MDCE), an analog of laromustine that generates only methyl isocyanate, activates ASK1-JNK/p38 signaling in endothelial cells (EC). We have previously shown that ASK1 forms a complex with reduced thioredoxin (Trx1) in resting EC, and that the Cys residues in ASK1 and Trx1 are critical for their interaction. 101MDCE dissociated ASK1 from Trx1, but not from the phosphoserine-binding inhibitor 14-3-3, in whole cells and in cell lysates, consistent with the known ability of methyl isocyanate to carbamoylate free thiol groups of proteins. 101MDCE had no effect on the kinase activity of purified ASK1, JNK, or the catalytic activity of Trx1. However, 101MDCE, but not 90CE, significantly decreased the activity of Trx reductase-1 (TrxR1). We conclude that methyl isocyanate induces dissociation of ASK1 from Trx1 either directly by carbamoylating the critical Cys groups in the ASK1-Trx1 complex or indirectly by inhibiting TrxR1. Furthermore, 101MDCE (but not 90CE) induced EC death through a non-apoptotic (necroptotic) pathway leading to inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro. Our study has identified methyl isocyanates may contribute to the anticancer activity in part by interfering with tumor angiogenesis. PMID:25068797

  18. Prostate tumor-induced angiogenesis is blocked by exosomes derived from menstrual stem cells through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Alcayaga-Miranda, Francisca; González, Paz L.; Lopez-Verrilli, Alejandra; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Aguila-Díaz, Carolina; Contreras, Luis; Khoury, Maroun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete exosomes that are capable of modifying the tumor environment through different mechanisms including changes in the cancer-cell secretome. This activity depends on their cargo content that is largely defined by their cellular origin. Endometrial cells are fine regulators of the angiogenic process during the menstrual cycle that includes an angiostatic condition that is associated with the end of the cycle. Hence, we studied the angiogenic activity of menstrual stem cells (MenSCs)-secreted exosomes on prostate PC3 tumor cells. Our results showed that exosomes induce a reduction in VEGF secretion and NF-κB activity. Lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in exosomes-treated cells was detected by the DCF method, suggesting that the inhibition of the intracellular ROS impacts both NF-κB and VEGF pathways. We confirmed using tubule formation and plug transplantation assays that MenSCs-exosomes suppress the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors by the PC3 cells in a ROS-dependent manner. The inhibition of the tumor angiogenesis and, consequently, the tumor growth was also confirmed using a xenograft mouse model. Additionally, the anti-tumoral effect was associated with a reduction of tumor hemoglobin content, vascular density and inhibition of VEGF and HIF-1α expression. Importantly, we demonstrate that the exosomes anti-angiogenic effect is specific to the menstrual cell source, as bone marrow MSCs-derived exosomes showed an opposite effect on the VEGF and bFGF expression in tumor cells. Altogether, our results indicate that MenSCs-derived exosomes acts as blockers of the tumor-induced angiogenesis and therefore could be suitable for anti-cancer therapies. PMID:27286448

  19. Prostate tumor-induced angiogenesis is blocked by exosomes derived from menstrual stem cells through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Alcayaga-Miranda, Francisca; González, Paz L; Lopez-Verrilli, Alejandra; Varas-Godoy, Manuel; Aguila-Díaz, Carolina; Contreras, Luis; Khoury, Maroun

    2016-07-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete exosomes that are capable of modifying the tumor environment through different mechanisms including changes in the cancer-cell secretome. This activity depends on their cargo content that is largely defined by their cellular origin. Endometrial cells are fine regulators of the angiogenic process during the menstrual cycle that includes an angiostatic condition that is associated with the end of the cycle. Hence, we studied the angiogenic activity of menstrual stem cells (MenSCs)-secreted exosomes on prostate PC3 tumor cells. Our results showed that exosomes induce a reduction in VEGF secretion and NF-κB activity. Lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in exosomes-treated cells was detected by the DCF method, suggesting that the inhibition of the intracellular ROS impacts both NF-κB and VEGF pathways. We confirmed using tubule formation and plug transplantation assays that MenSCs-exosomes suppress the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors by the PC3 cells in a ROS-dependent manner. The inhibition of the tumor angiogenesis and, consequently, the tumor growth was also confirmed using a xenograft mouse model. Additionally, the anti-tumoral effect was associated with a reduction of tumor hemoglobin content, vascular density and inhibition of VEGF and HIF-1α expression. Importantly, we demonstrate that the exosomes anti-angiogenic effect is specific to the menstrual cell source, as bone marrow MSCs-derived exosomes showed an opposite effect on the VEGF and bFGF expression in tumor cells. Altogether, our results indicate that MenSCs-derived exosomes acts as blockers of the tumor-induced angiogenesis and therefore could be suitable for anti-cancer therapies.

  20. Long Non-Coding RNA MALAT1 Promotes Proliferation, Angiogenesis, and Immunosuppressive Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Inducing VEGF and IDO.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujun; Song, Yuxian; Liu, Fei; Liu, Dan; Miao, Huishuang; Ren, Jing; Xu, Jingjing; Ding, Liang; Hu, Yali; Wang, Zhiqun; Hou, Yayi; Zhao, Guangfeng

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play an important role in regulating angiogenesis and immune balance. The abnormal MSCs in proliferation and function were reported at maternal fetal interface in patients with pre-eclampsia (PE). Long non-coding RNA MALAT1 was known to regulate the function of trophoblast cells. However, it is not clear whether MALAT1 regulates MSCs to be related to PE. In the present study, we found that the expression of MALAT1 was significantly reduced in both umbilical cord tissues and MSCs in patients with severe PE. MALAT1 did not affect the phenotype and differentiation of MSCs. Of note, transfection with MALAT1 plasmid into MSCs drove the cell cycle into G2/M phase and inhibited cell apoptosis. The supernatants from MALAT1-overexpressed MSCs promoted the migration of MSCs, invasion of HTR-8/SVneo and tube formation of HUVEC, while si-MALAT1 had the opposite effects. Moreover, we found that MALAT1-induced VEGF mediated these effects of MALAT1 on MSCs. Furthermore, we found that MALAT1-overexpressed MSCs promoted M2 macrophage polarization and this effect was mediated by MALAT1-induced IDO expression, suggesting that MALAT1 may enhance the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs in vivo. In addition, we also investigated the factors that inhibit MALAT1 expression in PE and found that peroxide was a cause for MALAT1 downregulation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MALAT1 is an important endogenous regulator in the proliferation, angiogenesis, and immunosuppressive properties of MSCs, suggesting it may be involved in the pathogenesis of PE. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2780-2791, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Periodate-treated, non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene (NAC-HCPS) affects angiogenesis and inhibits subcutaneous induced tumour growth and metastasis to the lung

    PubMed Central

    Ono, K; Ishihara, M; Ishikawa, K; Ozeki, Y; Deguchi, H; Sato, M; Hashimoto, H; Saito, Y; Yura, H; Kurita, A; Maehara, T

    2002-01-01

    Periodate-treated, non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene consists of about ten periodate-oxidized, alkaline-degraded low molecular weight-heparin chains linked to a polystyrene core and has a markedly lower anti-coagulant activity than heparin. In this study, we evaluated the effect of non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene on tumour growth and metastasis. Non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene has a higher activity to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-165-, fibroblast growth factor-2- or hepatocyte growth factor-induced human microvascular endothelial cell growth than heparin, ten periodate-oxidized-heparin and ten periodate-oxidized-low molecular weight-heparin, which is probably due to the heparin-clustering effect of non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene. Non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene inhibited human microvascular endothelial cell, B16 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cell adhesion to Matrigel-coated plates. Non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene also showed strong inhibitory activities in the tubular formation of endothelial cells on Matrigel and B16-melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cell invasion in a Matrigel-coated chamber assay. In vivo studies showed that growth of subcutaneous induced tumours and lung metastasis of B16-melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells were more effectively inhibited by non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene than ten periodate-oxidized-heparin and ten periodate-oxidized-low molecular weight-heparin. Furthermore, non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene markedly reduced the number of CD34-positive vessels in subcutaneous Lewis lung cancer tumours, indicating a strong inhibition of angiogenesis. These results suggest that non-anticoagulant heparin-carrying polystyrene has an inhibitory activity on angiogenesis and tumour invasion and may be very useful in cancer therapy. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1803–1812. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600307 www

  2. PGC-1α plays a functional role in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis but not fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Tuoyu; Li, Ping; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Yin, Xinhe; Kwek, Jyeyi; Zhang, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Endurance exercise stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in skeletal muscle, and forced expression of PGC-1α changes muscle metabolism and exercise capacity in mice. However, it is unclear if PGC-1α is indispensible for endurance exercise-induced metabolic and contractile adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this study, we showed that endurance exercise-induced expression of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome oxidase IV and cytochrome c) and increases of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31)-positive endothelial cells in skeletal muscle, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation, were significantly attenuated in muscle-specific Pgc-1α knockout mice. Interestingly, voluntary running effectively restored the compromised mitochondrial integrity and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) protein expression in skeletal muscle in Pgc-1α knockout mice. Thus, PGC-1α plays a functional role in endurance exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle, and the improvement of mitochondrial morphology and antioxidant defense in response to endurance exercise may occur independently of PGC-1α function. We conclude that PGC-1α is required for complete skeletal muscle adaptations induced by endurance exercise in mice. PMID:20032509

  3. PGC-1alpha plays a functional role in exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis but not fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Geng, Tuoyu; Li, Ping; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Yin, Xinhe; Kwek, Jyeyi; Zhang, Mei; Yan, Zhen

    2010-03-01

    Endurance exercise stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) expression in skeletal muscle, and forced expression of PGC-1alpha changes muscle metabolism and exercise capacity in mice. However, it is unclear if PGC-1alpha is indispensible for endurance exercise-induced metabolic and contractile adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this study, we showed that endurance exercise-induced expression of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome oxidase IV and cytochrome c) and increases of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31)-positive endothelial cells in skeletal muscle, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation, were significantly attenuated in muscle-specific Pgc-1alpha knockout mice. Interestingly, voluntary running effectively restored the compromised mitochondrial integrity and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) protein expression in skeletal muscle in Pgc-1alpha knockout mice. Thus, PGC-1alpha plays a functional role in endurance exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle, and the improvement of mitochondrial morphology and antioxidant defense in response to endurance exercise may occur independently of PGC-1alpha function. We conclude that PGC-1alpha is required for complete skeletal muscle adaptations induced by endurance exercise in mice.

  4. The Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Lemon-Balm Leaves Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Regulating the Visceral Adipose-Tissue Function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongjun; Lee, Haerim; Lim, Jonghoon; Oh, Jaeho; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2017-04-17

    Similar to neoplastic tissues, growth and development of adipose tissue are thought to be angiogenesis-dependent. Since visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we hypothesized that angiogenesis inhibition would attenuate obesity-induced NAFLD. We fed C57BL/6J mice a low-fat diet (LFD, chow 10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or HFD supplemented with the lemon-balm extract ALS-L1023 (HFD-ALS) for 15 weeks. ALS-L1023 reduced endothelial cell-tube formation in vitro. HFD increased VAT angiogenesis and induced weight gains including body weight, VAT mass and visceral adipocyte size compared with LFD. However, HFD-ALS led to weight reductions without affecting calorie intake compared with HFD. HFD-ALS also reduced serum ALT and AST levels and improved lipid metabolism. HFD-ALS suppressed steatosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and accumulation of collagen in livers. HFD-ALS modulated hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation, fibrosis, antioxidation, and apoptosis. Concomitantly, analysis of VAT function revealed that HFD-ALS led to fewer CD68-positive macrophage numbers and lower expression of inflammatory cytokines compared with HFD. Our findings show that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 attenuates NAFLD by targeting VAT during obesity, suggesting that angiogenesis inhibitors could aid in the treatment and prevention of obesity-induced human NAFLD.

  5. The Angiogenesis Inhibitor ALS-L1023 from Lemon-Balm Leaves Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease through Regulating the Visceral Adipose-Tissue Function

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongjun; Lee, Haerim; Lim, Jonghoon; Oh, Jaeho; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2017-01-01

    Similar to neoplastic tissues, growth and development of adipose tissue are thought to be angiogenesis-dependent. Since visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), we hypothesized that angiogenesis inhibition would attenuate obesity-induced NAFLD. We fed C57BL/6J mice a low-fat diet (LFD, chow 10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) or HFD supplemented with the lemon-balm extract ALS-L1023 (HFD-ALS) for 15 weeks. ALS-L1023 reduced endothelial cell-tube formation in vitro. HFD increased VAT angiogenesis and induced weight gains including body weight, VAT mass and visceral adipocyte size compared with LFD. However, HFD-ALS led to weight reductions without affecting calorie intake compared with HFD. HFD-ALS also reduced serum ALT and AST levels and improved lipid metabolism. HFD-ALS suppressed steatosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and accumulation of collagen in livers. HFD-ALS modulated hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, inflammation, fibrosis, antioxidation, and apoptosis. Concomitantly, analysis of VAT function revealed that HFD-ALS led to fewer CD68-positive macrophage numbers and lower expression of inflammatory cytokines compared with HFD. Our findings show that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 attenuates NAFLD by targeting VAT during obesity, suggesting that angiogenesis inhibitors could aid in the treatment and prevention of obesity-induced human NAFLD. PMID:28420164

  6. Piperine, a dietary phytochemical, inhibits angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Doucette, Carolyn D.; Hilchie, Ashley L.; Liwski, Robert; Hoskin, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor progression. Piperine, a major alkaloid constituent of black pepper, has diverse physiological actions including killing of cancer cells; however, the effect of piperine on angiogenesis is not known. Here we show that piperine inhibited the proliferation and G1/S transition of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) without causing cell death. Piperine also inhibited HUVEC migration and tubule formation in vitro, as well as collagen-induced angiogenic activity by rat aorta explants and breast cancer cell-induced angiogenesis in chick embryos. Although piperine binds to and activates the cation channel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), its effects on endothelial cells did not involve TRPV1 since the antiproliferative effect of piperine was not affected by TRPV1-selective antagonists, nor did HUVECs express detectable TRPV1 mRNA. Importantly, piperine inhibited phosphorylation of Ser 473 and Thr 308 residues of Akt (protein kinase B), which is a key regulator of endothelial cell function and angiogenesis. Consistent with Akt inhibition as the basis of piperine’s action on HUVECs, inhibition of the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway with LY-294002 also inhibited HUVEC proliferation and collagen-induced angiogenesis. Taken together, these data support the further investigation of piperine as an angiogenesis inhibitor for use in cancer treatment. PMID:22902327

  7. Minimal Peroxide Exposure of Neuronal Cells Induces Multifaceted Adaptive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Wayne; Zhou, Yu; Park, Sung-Soo; Wang, Liyun; Mitchell, Nicholas; Stone, Matthew D.; Becker, Kevin G.; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative exposure of cells occurs naturally and may be associated with cellular damage and dysfunction. Protracted low level oxidative exposure can induce accumulated cell disruption, affecting multiple cellular functions. Accumulated oxidative exposure has also been proposed as one of the potential hallmarks of the physiological/pathophysiological aging process. We investigated the multifactorial effects of long-term minimal peroxide exposure upon SH-SY5Y neural cells to understand how they respond to the continued presence of oxidative stressors. We show that minimal protracted oxidative stresses induce complex molecular and physiological alterations in cell functionality. Upon chronic exposure to minimal doses of hydrogen peroxide, SH-SY5Y cells displayed a multifactorial response to the stressor. To fully appreciate the peroxide-mediated cellular effects, we assessed these adaptive effects at the genomic, proteomic and cellular signal processing level. Combined analyses of these multiple levels of investigation revealed a complex cellular adaptive response to the protracted peroxide exposure. This adaptive response involved changes in cytoskeletal structure, energy metabolic shifts towards glycolysis and selective alterations in transmembrane receptor activity. Our analyses of the global responses to chronic stressor exposure, at multiple biological levels, revealed a viable neural phenotype in-part reminiscent of aged or damaged neural tissue. Our paradigm indicates how cellular physiology can subtly change in different contexts and potentially aid the appreciation of stress response adaptations. PMID:21179406

  8. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor Prevents Steroid-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in Rabbits by Promoting Angiogenesis and Inhibiting Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lihong; Li, Jia; Yu, Zefeng; Dang, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kunzheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate(EDHB) on steroid-associated femoral head osteonecrosis(ONFH) in a rabbit model. New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (prevention group and model group), each containing 24 rabbits. Osteonecrosis was induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS) combined with methylprednisolone(MPS). The prevention group received an intraperitoneal injection of EDHB at 50 mg/kg body weight every other day starting three days before establishing rabbit models of osteonecrosis, for a total of nine doses. Osteonecrosis was verified by haematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expression of HIF-1α and VEGF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Angiogenesis, apoptosis and microstructural parameters were also analyzed. The rabbit models of osteonecrosis were successfully established and observed by HE staining. Histopathological observations indicated that EDHB reduced the rate of empty lacunae and the incidence of osteonecrosis. Immunohistochemical staining for HIF-1α and VEGF suggested that EDHB therapy inhibited degradation of HIF-1α and promoted expression of VEGF. Ink artery infusion angiography and microvessel density analysis revealed that there were more microvessels in the prevention group than in the model group. The TUNEL apoptosis assay suggested that EDHB intervention could reduce the number of apoptotic cells in avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Micro-CT scanning indicated that the treatment group had better microstructural parameters than the model group. EDHB prevents steroid-associated osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits by promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis of bone cells and hematopoietic tissue. PMID:25244080

  9. Interrelationships among angiogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis in the tumor microenvironment during N-methyl-N-nitrosourea androgen-induced prostate carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiming; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2002-10-01

    Proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes altered during carcinogenesis. Surrogate biomarkers of these processes represent potential intermediate endpoints for short-term intervention studies with preventive and therapeutic agents. We examined the interrelationships among these processes during prostate carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in male Wistar-Unilever rats. Immunohistochemical and digital image analysis techniques were used to evaluate the proliferation index, the apoptotic index and microvessel density (MVD) in tissue representing stages of prostate carcinogenesis. The proliferation index in the normal glandular epithelium of the prostate is lower than that observed in hyperplastic foci and atypical hyperplasia (P < 0.01) and is further increased in carcinoma (P < 0.01). Apoptosis in the normal prostate epithelium or hyperplastic lesions is lower than in adenocarcinoma (P < 0.01). In parallel to proliferation index, MVD increases as prostate cancer progresses. As tumors enlarge, we observed a predictable change in biomarker expression within the tumor microenvironment. We examined prostate tumors vertical line 1 cm in diameter and biomarker expression was quantified within the peripheral (outer 1-2 mm), central (perinecrotic) and intermediate (remaining) areas of each tumor. The proliferation index is higher (P < 0.01) in the intermediate area than either in the peripheral area or central area. Similarly, the vascular density in the intermediate area is higher (P < 0.01) than either in the peripheral or central area. The apoptotic index is higher (P < 0.05) in the central perinecrotic core than that in either the intermediate or the peripheral area. In conclusion, we observe that angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis are linked biological processes predictably altered temporally and spatially during prostate carcinogenesis in the MNU model. These biomarker changes are similar to those reported in

  10. Treponema pallidum (syphilis) antigen TpF1 induces angiogenesis through the activation of the IL-8 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pozzobon, Tommaso; Facchinello, Nicola; Bossi, Fleur; Capitani, Nagaja; Benagiano, Marisa; Di Benedetto, Giulietta; Zennaro, Cristina; West, Nicole; Codolo, Gaia; Bernardini, Marialina; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; D’Elios, Mario Milco; Pellegrini, Luca; Argenton, Francesco; de Bernard, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Over 10 million people every year become infected by Treponema pallidum and develop syphilis, a disease with broad symptomatology that, due to the difficulty to eradicate the pathogen from the highly vascularized secondary sites of infection, is still treated with injections of penicillin. Unlike most other bacterial pathogens, T. pallidum infection produces indeed a strong angiogenic response whose mechanism of activation, however, remains unknown. Here, we report that one of the major antigen of T. pallidum, the TpF1 protein, has growth factor-like activity on primary cultures of human endothelial cells and activates specific T cells able to promote tissue factor production. The growth factor-like activity is mediated by the secretion of IL-8 but not of VEGF, two known angiogenic factors. The pathogen’s factor signals IL-8 secretion through the activation of the CREB/NF-κB signalling pathway. These findings are recapitulated in an animal model, zebrafish, where we observed that TpF1 injection stimulates angiogenesis and IL-8, but not VEGF, secretion. This study suggests that the angiogenic response observed during secondary syphilis is triggered by TpF1 and that pharmacological therapies directed to inhibit IL-8 response in patients should be explored to treat this disease. PMID:26728351

  11. CC-chemokine class inhibition attenuates pathological angiogenesis while preserving physiological angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ridiandries, Anisyah; Tan, Joanne T M; Ravindran, Dhanya; Williams, Helen; Medbury, Heather J; Lindsay, Laura; Hawkins, Clare; Prosser, Hamish C G; Bursill, Christina A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing evidence shows that CC-chemokines promote inflammatory-driven angiogenesis, with little to no effect on hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis. Inhibition of the CC-chemokine class may therefore affect angiogenesis differently depending on the pathophysiological context. We compared the effect of CC-chemokine inhibition in inflammatory and physiological conditions. In vitro, the broad-spectrum CC-chemokine inhibitor "35K" inhibited inflammatory-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis, with more modest effects in hypoxia. In vivo, adenoviruses were used to overexpress 35K (Ad35K) and GFP (AdGFP, control virus). Plasma chemokine activity was suppressed by Ad35K in both models. In the periarterial femoral cuff model of inflammatory-driven angiogenesis, overexpression of 35K inhibited adventitial neovessel formation compared with control AdGFP-infused mice. In contrast, 35K preserved neovascularization in the hindlimb ischemia model and had no effect on physiological neovascularization in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Mechanistically, 2 key angiogenic proteins (VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) were conditionally regulated by 35K, such that expression was inhibited in inflammation but was unchanged in hypoxia. In conclusion, CC-chemokine inhibition by 35K suppresses inflammatory-driven angiogenesis while preserving physiological ischemia-mediated angiogenesis via conditional regulation of VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. CC-chemokine inhibition may be an alternative therapeutic strategy for suppressing diseases associated with inflammatory angiogenesis without inducing the side effects caused by global inhibition.- Ridiandries, A., Tan, J. T. M., Ravindran, D., Williams, H., Medbury, H. J., Lindsay, L., Hawkins, C., Prosser, H. C. G., Bursill, C. A. CC-chemokine class inhibition attenuates pathological angiogenesis while preserving physiological angiogenesis.

  12. Lebein, a snake venom disintegrin, suppresses human colon cancer cells proliferation and tumor-induced angiogenesis through cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction and inhibition of VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Zakraoui, Ons; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary; Aloui, Zohra; Othman, Houcemeddine; Grépin, Renaud; Haoues, Meriam; Essafi, Makram; Srairi-Abid, Najet; Gasmi, Ammar; Karoui, Habib; Pagès, Gilles; Essafi-Benkhadir, Khadija

    2017-01-01

    Lebein, is an heterodimeric disintegrin isolated from Macrovipera lebetina snake venom that was previously characterized as an inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study, we investigated the effect of Lebein on the p53-dependent growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. We found that Lebein significantly inhibited LS174 (p53wt), HCT116 (p53wt), and HT29 (p53mut) colon cancer cell viability by inducing cell cycle arrest through the modulation of expression levels of the tumor suppression factor p53, cell cycle regulating proteins cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, retinoblastoma (Rb), CDK1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. Interestingly, Lebein-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells was dependent on their p53 status. Thus, in LS174 cells, cell death was associated with PARP cleavage and the activation of caspases 3 and 8 while in HCT116 cells, Lebein induced caspase-independent apoptosis through increased expression of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). In LS174 cells, Lebein triggers the activation of the MAPK ERK1/2 pathway through induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It also decreased cell adhesion and migration to fibronectin through down regulation of α5β1 integrin. Moreover, Lebein significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis stimulators, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Neuropilin 1 (NRP1). It inhibited the VEGF-induced neovascularization process in the quail embryonic CAM system and blocked the development of human colon adenocarcinoma in nude mice. Overall, our work indicates that Lebein may be useful to design a new therapy against colon cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. PHD2 in tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, D A; Giaccia, A J

    2010-01-01

    Originally identified as the enzymes responsible for catalysing the oxidation of specific, conserved proline residues within hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), the additional roles for the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) proteins have remained elusive. Of the four identified PHD enzymes, PHD2 is considered to be the key oxygen sensor, as knockdown of PHD2 results in elevated HIF protein. Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of PHD2 in tumourigenesis. However, there is conflicting evidence as to the exact role of PHD2 in tumour angiogenesis. The divergence seems to be because of the contribution of stromal-derived PHD2, and in particular the involvement of endothelial cells, vs tumour-derived PHD2. This review summarises our current understanding of PHD2 and tumour angiogenesis, focusing on the influences of PHD2 on vascular normalisation and neovascularisation. PMID:20461086

  14. Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Solinas, M; Massi, P; Cantelmo, AR; Cattaneo, MG; Cammarota, R; Bartolini, D; Cinquina, V; Valenti, M; Vicentini, LM; Noonan, DM; Albini, A; Parolaro, D

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Several studies have demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic actions of cannabinoids on various tumours, together with their anti-angiogenic properties. The non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) effectively inhibits the growth of different types of tumours in vitro and in vivo and down-regulates some pro-angiogenic signals produced by glioma cells. As its anti-angiogenic properties have not been thoroughly investigated to date, and given its very favourable pharmacological and toxicological profile, here, we evaluated the ability of CBD to modulate tumour angiogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Firstly, we evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability – through [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis – and in vitro motility – both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound-healing assay. We next investigated CBD effects on different angiogenesis-related proteins released by HUVECs, using an angiogenesis array kit and an ELISA directed at MMP2. Then we evaluated its effects on in vitro angiogenesis in treated HUVECs invading a Matrigel layer and in HUVEC spheroids embedded into collagen gels, and further characterized its effects in vivo using a Matrigel sponge model of angiogenesis in C57/BL6 mice. KEY RESULTS CBD induced HUVEC cytostasis without inducing apoptosis, inhibited HUVEC migration, invasion and sprouting in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo in Matrigel sponges. These effects were associated with the down-modulation of several angiogenesis-related molecules. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study reveals that CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy. PMID:22624859

  15. Prenatal music exposure induces long-term neural effects.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Eino; Kujala, Teija; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural correlates induced by prenatal exposure to melodies using brains' event-related potentials (ERPs). During the last trimester of pregnancy, the mothers in the learning group played the 'Twinkle twinkle little star'-melody 5 times per week. After birth and again at the age of 4 months, we played the infants a modified melody in which some of the notes were changed while ERPs to unchanged and changed notes were recorded. The ERPs were also recorded from a control group, who received no prenatal stimulation. Both at birth and at the age of 4 months, infants in the learning group had stronger ERPs to the unchanged notes than the control group. Furthermore, the ERP amplitudes to the changed and unchanged notes at birth were correlated with the amount of prenatal exposure. Our results show that extensive prenatal exposure to a melody induces neural representations that last for several months.

  16. Prenatal Music Exposure Induces Long-Term Neural Effects

    PubMed Central

    Partanen, Eino; Kujala, Teija; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural correlates induced by prenatal exposure to melodies using brains' event-related potentials (ERPs). During the last trimester of pregnancy, the mothers in the learning group played the ‘Twinkle twinkle little star’ -melody 5 times per week. After birth and again at the age of 4 months, we played the infants a modified melody in which some of the notes were changed while ERPs to unchanged and changed notes were recorded. The ERPs were also recorded from a control group, who received no prenatal stimulation. Both at birth and at the age of 4 months, infants in the learning group had stronger ERPs to the unchanged notes than the control group. Furthermore, the ERP amplitudes to the changed and unchanged notes at birth were correlated with the amount of prenatal exposure. Our results show that extensive prenatal exposure to a melody induces neural representations that last for several months. PMID:24205353

  17. Platelets and angiogenesis in malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sierko, Ewa; Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z

    2004-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that platelets play an important role in the process of tumor angiogenesis. Thrombocytosis is a frequent finding in cancer patients (10-57%). Although the mechanisms underlying thrombocytosis are not yet fully elucidated, tumor-derived factors with thrombopoietin-like activity and growth factors, platelet-derived microparticles, and factors secreted from bone marrow endothelial cells, as well as growth factors released by megakaryocytes (acting via an autocrine loop), are postulated to influence this process. The progression of cancer is associated with hypercoagulability, which results from direct influences of tumor cells and diverse indirect mechanisms. Activated platelets serve as procoagulant surfaces amplifying the coagulation reactions. It is well known that hemostatic proteins are involved in different steps of the angiogenic process. Furthermore, platelets adhering to endothelium facilitate adhesion of mononuclear cells (which exert various proangiogenic activities) to endothelial cells and their transmigration to the extravascular space. It was also documented that platelets induce angiogenesis in vivo. Platelets are a rich source of proangiogenic factors. They also store and release angiogenesis inhibitors. In addition, platelets express surface growth factor receptors, which may regulate the process of angiogenesis. Platelets also contribute directly to the process of basement membrane and extracellular matrix proteolysis by releasing proteinases, or indirectly via inducing endothelial cells and tumor cells to release proteolytic enzymes, as well as through the proteolytic activities of platelet-derived growth factors. The multidirectional activities of platelets in the process of new blood vessel formation during tumor development and metastasis formation may create the possibility of introducing antiplatelet agents for antiangiogenic therapy in cancer patients. Thus far experimental studies employing inhibitors of

  18. Oncogenic epithelial cell-derived exosomes containing Rac1 and PAK2 induce angiogenesis in recipient endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Shashi K.; Greening, David W.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J.; Mathias, Rommel A.

    2016-01-01

    The metastatic cascade describes the escape of primary tumour cells to distant secondary sites. Cells at the leading tumour edge are thought to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to enhance their motility and invasion for spreading. Whether EMT cells directly promote tumour angiogenesis, and the role of exosomes (30-150 nm extracellular vesicles) remains largely unknown. We examined the functional effects of exosomes from MDCK cells, MDCK cells stably expressing YBX1 (MDCKYBX1, intermediate EMT), and Ras-transformed MDCK cells (21D1 cells, complete EMT). 2F-2B cell motility and tube formation (length and branching) was significantly increased following supplementation with MDCKYBX1 or 21D1 exosomes, but not MDCK exosomes. Next, Matrigel™ plugs containing exosome-supplemented 2F-2B cells were subcutaneously injected into mice. Systemic perfusion was only observed for plugs supplemented with MDCKYBX1 or 21D1 exosomes. Comparative proteomics revealed that 21D1 exosomes contained VEGF-associated proteins, while MDCKYBX1 exosomes were enriched with activated Rac1 and PAK2. To validate, 2F-2B cells and HUVECs were pre-treated with PAK inhibitors prior to exosome supplementation. PAK inhibition nullified the effects of MDCKYBX1 exosomes by reducing the tube length and branching to baseline levels. By contrast, the effects of 21D1 exosomes were not significantly decreased. Our results demonstrate for the first time that oncogenic cells undergoing EMT can communicate with endothelial cells via exosomes, and establish exosomal Rac1/PAK2 as angiogenic promoters that may function from early stages of the metastatic cascade. PMID:26919098

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta stimulation induces rapid cardiac growth and angiogenesis via direct activation of calcineurin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicole; Jehl-Piétri, Chantal; Lopez, Pascal; Murdaca, Joseph; Giordano, Christian; Schwartz, Chantal; Gounon, Pierre; Hatem, Stéphane N; Grimaldi, Paul; Wagner, Kay-Dietrich

    2009-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors. PPARbeta agonists were suggested as potential drugs for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, but effects of PPARbeta activation on cardiac growth and vascularization are unknown. Thus, we investigated the consequences of pharmacological PPARbeta activation on the heart and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Male C57/Bl6 mice were injected with the specific PPARbeta agonists GW0742 or GW501516, or vehicle. Cardiomyocyte size and vascularisation were determined at different time points. Expression differences were investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. In addition, the effects of PPARbeta stimulation were compared with hearts of mice undergoing long-term voluntary exercise or pharmacological PPARalpha activation. Five hours after GW0742 injection, we detected an enhanced angiogenesis compared with vehicle-injected controls. After 24 h, the heart-to-body weight ratios were higher in mice injected with either GW0742 or GW501516 vs. controls. The increased heart size was due to cardiomyocyte enlargement. No signs of pathological cardiac hypertrophy (i.e. apoptosis, fibrosis, or deteriorated cardiac function) could be detected. The effects are mediated via calcineurin A (CnA) activation as: (i) CnA was upregulated, (ii) GW0742 administration or co-transfection of PPARbeta significantly stimulated the activity of the CnA promoter, (iii) PPARbeta protein bound directly to the CnA promoter, (iv) the CnA target genes NFATc3, Hif-1alpha, and Cdk 9 were upregulated in response to PPARbeta stimulation, and (v) the inhibition of CnA activity by cyclosporine A abolished the hypertrophic and angiogenic responses to PPARbeta stimulation. Our data suggest PPARbeta pharmacological activation as a novel approach to increase cardiac vascularization and cardiac muscle mass.

  20. [Evaluation of rounded atelectasis induced by exposure to asbestos].

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Takumi; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Nishi, Hideyuki; Ozaki, Shinji

    2008-09-01

    We encountered 19 patients of rounded atelectasis induced by exposure to asbestos from 2000 to 2007. All patients were men whose ages arranged from 60 to 89 years with a mean of 74.2 years. Twenty rounded atelectasis were present in the right lung and 5 in the left lung. Five patients had 2 rounded atelectasis. In 21 rounded atelectasis were found in Segment 10 and while other 2 found in S1 and each in S5 and 9. Eleven patients were diagnosed with no symptoms through medical examinations. Other 8 patients complained of dyspnea, chest pain and cough. Thirteen patients complicated with benign asbestos pleurisy and only 3 patients accompanied asbestosis. Eighteen patients (95%) displayed pleural plaques and 15 patients with calcified plaques. Ten patients had been exposed to asbestos in the shipyards and 4 in construction works and other 5 patients had also exposed by occupational exposure to asbestos. The mean period of exposure to asbestos was 26.6 years and the mean latency periods from the first asbestos exposure to the diagnosis of rounded atelectasis were 51.6 years. An autopsied patient had 18,100 asbestos bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue which meant the heavy asbestos exposure. High incidence of pleural plaques and long period of latency from the first exposure to the appearance of rounded atelectasis in this study suggested that rounded atelectasis might appear less high-dose exposure to asbestos than former patients who were reported 6 years ago.

  1. In vivo topoisomerase I inhibition attenuates the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α target genes and decreases tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Eric; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Pencreach, Erwan; Maier, Armin; Neuville, Agnès; Schneider, Anne; Bachellier, Philippe; Rohr, Serge; Petitprez, Amélie; Poch, Olivier; Moras, Dino; Oudet, Pierre; Larsen, Annette K; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Guenot, Dominique

    2012-02-10

    Topoisomerase I is a privileged target for widely used anticancer agents such as irinotecan. Although these drugs are classically considered to be DNA-damaging agents, increasing evidence suggests that they might also influence the tumor environment. This study evaluates in vivo cellular and molecular modifications induced by irinotecan, a topoisomerase I-directed agent, in patient-derived colon tumors subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. Irinotecan was given intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg five times every 5 d, and expression profiles were evaluated at d 25 in tumors from treated and untreated animals. Unexpectedly, the in vivo antitumor activity of irinotecan was closely linked to a downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) target genes along with an inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation. The consequence was a decrease in tumor angiogenesis leading to tumor size stabilization. These results highlight the molecular basis for the antitumor activity of a widely used anticancer agent, and the method used opens the way for mechanistic studies of the in vivo activity of other anticancer therapies.

  2. In Vivo Topoisomerase I Inhibition Attenuates the Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Target Genes and Decreases Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Eric; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Pencreach, Erwan; Maier, Armin; Neuville, Agnès; Schneider, Anne; Bachellier, Philippe; Rohr, Serge; Petitprez, Amélie; Poch, Olivier; Moras, Dino; Oudet, Pierre; Larsen, Annette K; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Guenot, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerase I is a privileged target for widely used anticancer agents such as irinotecan. Although these drugs are classically considered to be DNA-damaging agents, increasing evidence suggests that they might also influence the tumor environment. This study evaluates in vivo cellular and molecular modifications induced by irinotecan, a topoisomerase I–directed agent, in patient-derived colon tumors subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. Irinotecan was given intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg five times every 5 d, and expression profiles were evaluated at d 25 in tumors from treated and untreated animals. Unexpectedly, the in vivo antitumor activity of irinotecan was closely linked to a downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) target genes along with an inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation. The consequence was a decrease in tumor angiogenesis leading to tumor size stabilization. These results highlight the molecular basis for the antitumor activity of a widely used anticancer agent, and the method used opens the way for mechanistic studies of the in vivo activity of other anticancer therapies. PMID:22033674

  3. Cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to EMP fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Internal current densities and electric fields induced in the human body during exposure to EMP fields are reviewed and used to predict resulting cell membrane potentials. Using several different approaches, membrane potentials of about 100 mV are predicted. These values are comparable to the static membrane potentials maintained by cells as a part of normal physiological function, but the EMP-induced potentials persist for only about 10 ns. Possible biological implications of EMP-induced membrane potentials including conformational changes and electroporation are discussed.

  4. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  5. Role of metformin in suppressing 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in diabetic and non-diabetic mice: effect on tumor angiogenesis and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zaafar, Dalia K; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    Several studies indicated that type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are associated with increased colon cancer risk. Recently, studies suggest that metformin can reduce cancer risk in diabetic or non-diabetic patients with unclear mechanisms. This work aimed to determine the effect of metformin on chemically-induced colon cancer in mice. Colon cancer was induced using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg/week, s.c.) for fifteen weeks. Experiment I: healthy mice were fed with basal diet for four weeks and then allocated into seven groups, (i) saline, (ii) DMH, (iii) oxaliplatin, (iv-v): metformin (100 or 200 mg/kg) and (vi-vii): oxaliplatin+metformin (100 or 200 mg/kg), respectively. Experiment II: type 2 diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of STZ (30 mg/kg) after four weeks of high-fat feeding and then mice were allocated into seven groups similar to those reported in experiment I. Examination of the colonic tissue at the end of the experiment highlighted an increase in angiogenic markers and cell proliferation and showed a greater immunostaining for insulin growth factor I receptors and CD34 in the colon of diabetic mice compared to non-diabetics. In general, metformin downregulated tumor angiogenesis and augmented the antitumor effect of oxaliplatin. Overall, the current results showed that metformin protected against DMH-induced colon cancer in non-diabetic and diabetic mice. This therapeutic effect was, at least in part, attributed to its anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative mechanisms.

  6. Evaluating tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Uh, Minji K; Kandel, Jessica; Kitajewski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of tumor angiogenesis in pancreatic cancers involves determining the status of tumor vasculature and hypoxia in the tumor. Describing the nature and extent of tumor angiogenesis involves evaluating the expression of endothelial and perivascular cells within the tumor, and the expression of angiogenesis-related genes in tumor vasculature. Here we describe the methodology for assessment of tumor vasculature in murine mouse models of cancer. Specifically, we provide methodology for the evaluation of tumor hypoxia, tumor vessel perfusion, and chromogenic and fluorescent immunohistochemistry applied to tumor vascular analysis.

  7. Exposure of Mice to Topical Bovine Thrombin Induces Systemic Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenecker, Jonathan G.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Lesher, Aaron P.; Day, Jarrod D.; Love, Stephanie D.; Hoffman, Maureane R.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Parker, William; Lawson, Jeffrey H.

    2001-01-01

    Bovine thrombin is used as an aid to hemostasis in medical and surgical procedures. At least 500,000 Americans are exposed to this therapeutic annually and reports suggest that exposure is associated with the development of autoreactive antibodies. To determine whether bovine thrombin can induce pathological autoimmunity we exposed nonautoimmune-prone galactose-α1-3-galactose-deficient mice to the two bovine thrombin preparations currently approved for use in the United States. We found that, like humans exposed to bovine thrombin, mice developed an immune response against the therapeutic and the xenogeneic carbohydrate galactose-α1-3-galactose, and some mice developed autoantibodies against clotting factors. Further, unexpectedly, a single exposure to this therapeutic also induced autoimmunity with features characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus including antibodies against nuclear antigens, native DNA, double-stranded DNA, and cardiolipin. High levels of these autoantibodies correlated with glomerulonephritis in all mice evaluated. This autoimmune syndrome was detected in mice 15 weeks after a secondary exposure to bovine thrombin and female mice were found to develop the syndrome at a significantly greater frequency than males. Thus, these studies indicate that exposure to bovine thrombin preparations can induce a pathological systemic autoimmune syndrome with lupus-like serology. PMID:11696457

  8. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p < 0.001) and returned to baseline by 180 min, whereas H(2)O(2) increased at 120 min and remained increased at 240 min (p = 0.001). No changes in exhaled NO and NO(2)/NO(3) were observed, while decreases in FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and FEV(1)/FVC (p < 0.001) were observed after exposure and returned to baseline by 180 min. A 1-h exposure to secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic Nicotine Exposure Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Walters, Elliot T.; Stout, Kristen A.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administrations cause persistent dopaminergic deficits resembling aspects of Parkinson’s disease. Many METH abusers smoke cigarettes and thus self-administer nicotine; yet few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on METH-induced dopaminergic deficits. This interaction is of interest because preclinical studies demonstrate that nicotine can be neuroprotective, perhaps owing to effects involving α4β2 and α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study revealed that oral nicotine exposure beginning in adolescence [postnatal day (PND) 40] through adulthood [PND 96] attenuated METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits when METH was administered at PND 89. This protection did not appear to be due to nicotine-induced alterations in METH pharmacokinetics. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure also protected when administered from PND 40 to PND 61 (with METH at PND 54), but this protective effect did not persist. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure did not protect when administered postadolescence (i.e., beginning at PND 61, with METH at PND 75). However, protection was engendered if the duration of nicotine exposure was extended to 39 days (with METH at PND 93). Autoradiographic analysis revealed that nicotine increased striatal α4β2 expression, as assessed using [125I]epibatidine. Both METH and nicotine decreased striatal α6β2 expression, as assessed using [125I]α-conotoxin MII. These findings indicate that nicotine protects against METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits, perhaps by affecting α4β2 and/or α6β2 expression, and that both age of onset and duration of nicotine exposure affect this protection. PMID:26391161

  10. Microparticles in angiogenesis: therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Martinez, M Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2011-06-24

    Considered during the past decades as cell dust, microparticles are now deemed true biomarkers and vectors of biological information between cells. Depending on their origin, the composition of microparticles varies and the subsequent message transported by them, such as proteins, mRNA, or miRNA, can differ. Recent studies have described microparticles as "cargos" of deleterious information in blood vessel wall under pathological situations such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, and metabolic syndrome. In addition, it has been reported that depending on their origin, microparticles also possess a therapeutic potential regarding angiogenesis. Microparticles can act directly through the interaction ligand/receptor or indirectly on angiogenesis by modulating soluble factor production involved in endothelial cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and adhesion; by reprogramming endothelial mature cells; and by inducing changes in levels, phenotype, and function of endothelial progenitor cells. This results in an increase in formation of in vitro capillary-like tubes and the generation of new vessels in vivo under ischemic conditions, for instance. Taking into consideration these properties of microparticles, recent evidence provides new basis to expand the possibility that microparticles might be used as therapeutic tools in pathologies associated with an alteration of angiogenesis.

  11. Radiation-induced taste aversion: effects of radiation exposure level and the exposure-taste interval

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, A.C.; Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion has been suggested to possibly play a role in the dietary difficulties observed in some radiotherapy patients. In rats, these aversions can still be formed even when the radiation exposure precedes the taste experience by several hours. This study was conducted to examine whether increasing the radiation exposure level could extend the range of the exposure-taste interval that would still support the formation of a taste aversion. Separate groups of rats received either a 100 or 300 R gamma-ray exposure followed 1, 3, 6, or 24 h later by a 10-min saccharin (0.1% w/v) presentation. A control group received a sham exposure followed 1 h later by a 10-min saccharin presentation. Twenty-four hours following the saccharin presentation all rats received a series of twelve 23-h two-bottle preference tests between saccharin and water. The results indicated that the duration of the exposure-taste interval plays an increasingly more important role in determining the initial extent of the aversion as the dose decreases. The course of recovery from taste aversion seems more affected by dose than by the temporal parameters of the conditioning trial.

  12. Early life stage trimethyltin exposure induces ADP-ribosylation factor expression and perturbs the vascular system in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Truong, Lisa; La Du, Jane; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lin, Kuanfei; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is an organotin contaminant, widely detected in aqueous environments, posing potential human and environmental risks. In this study, we utilized the zebrafish model to investigate the impact of transient TMT exposure on developmental progression, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular development. Embryos were waterborne exposed to a wide TMT concentration range from 8 to 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). The TMT concentration that led to mortality in 50% of the embryos (LC50) at 96 hpf was 8.2 μM; malformations in 50% of the embryos (EC50) was 2.8 μM. The predominant response observed in surviving embryos was pericardial edema. Additionally, using the Tg (fli1a: EGFP) y1 transgenic zebrafish line to non-invasively monitor vascular development, TMT exposure led to distinct disarrangements in the vascular system. The most susceptible developmental stage to TMT exposure was between 48–72 hpf. High density whole genome microarrays were used to identify the early transcriptional changes following TMT exposure from 48 to 60 hpf or 72 hpf. In total, 459 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold (P < 0.05) by TMT compared to control. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, it was revealed that the transcripts misregulated by TMT exposure were clustered in numerous categories including metabolic and cardiovascular disease, cellular function, cell death, molecular transport, and physiological development. In situ localization of highly elevated transcripts revealed intense staining of ADP-ribosylation factors arf3 and arf5 in the head, trunk, and tail regions. When arf5 expression was blocked by morpholinos, the zebrafish did not display the prototypical TMT-induced vascular deficits, indicating that the induction of arf5 was necessary for TMT-induced vascular toxicity. PMID:23000284

  13. Galectins in tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Griffioen, Arjan W.

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of solid tumors depends on the continuous ingrowth of new blood vessels out of pre-existing capillaries. Consequently, tumor neovascularization or tumor angiogenesis is considered a hallmark of cancer and an attractive target for cancer therapy. Tumor angiogenesis is mainly carried out by endothelial cells (EC), i.e., the cells lining the luminal vessel wall. These cells have to take on different functional activities in order to successfully make new tumor blood vessels. In the last decade it has become apparent that galectins are important regulators of tumor angiogenesis. In the present review we summarize the current knowledge regarding the role galectins in tumor angiogenesis focussing on the endothelial galectins, i.e., gal-1/-3/-8/-9. PMID:25405165

  14. MiR-206 inhibits HGF-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer via c-Met /PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-yong; Jiao, De-min; Wu, Yu-quan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Jian; Tang, Xia-li; Mou, Hao; Hu, Hui-zhen; Song, Jia; Yan, Jie; Wu, Li-jun; Chen, Jianyan; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-04-05

    MiR-206 is low expression in lung cancers and associated with cancer metastasis. However, the roles of miR-206 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis in lung cancer remain unknown. In this study, we find that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induces EMT, invasion and migration in A549 and 95D lung cancer cells, and these processes could be markedly inhibited by miR-206 overexpression. Moreover, we demonstrate that miR-206 directly targets c-Met and inhibits its downstream PI3k/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In contrast, miR-206 inhibitors promote the expression of c-Met and activate the PI3k/Akt/mTOR signaling, and this effect could be attenuated by the PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, c-Met overexpression assay further confirms the significant inhibitory effect of miR-206 on HGF-induced EMT, cell migration and invasion. Notably, we also find that miR-206 effectively inhibits HGF-induced tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the mechanism is also related to inhibition of PI3k/Akt/mTOR signaling. Finally, we reveal the inhibitory effect of miR-206 on EMT and angiogenesis in xenograft tumor mice model. Taken together, miR-206 inhibits HGF-induced EMT and angiogenesis in lung cancer by suppressing c-Met/PI3k/Akt/mTOR signaling. Therefore, miR-206 might be a potential target for the therapeutic strategy against EMT and angiogenesis of lung cancer.

  15. MicroRNA-212 negatively regulates starvation induced autophagy in prostate cancer cells by inhibiting SIRT1 and is a modulator of angiogenesis and cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Ramalinga, Malathi; Roy, Arpita; Srivastava, Anvesha; Bhattarai, Asmita; Harish, Varsha; Suy, Simeng; Collins, Sean; Kumar, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Among a number of non-coding RNAs, role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer cell proliferation, cancer initiation, development and metastasis have been extensively studied and miRNA based therapeutic approaches are being pursued. Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major health concern and several deregulated miRNAs have been described in PCa. miR-212 is differentially modulated in multiple cancers however its function remains elusive. In this study, we found that miR-212 is downregulated in PCa tissues when compared with benign adjacent regions (n = 40). Also, we observed reduced levels of circulatory miR-212 in serum from PCa patients (n = 40) when compared with healthy controls (n = 32). Elucidating the functional role of miR-212, we demonstrate that miR-212 negatively modulates starvation induced autophagy in PCa cells by targeting sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Overexpression of miR-212 also leads to inhibition of angiogenesis and cellular senescence. In conclusion, our study indicates a functional role of miR-212 in PCa and suggests the development of miR-212 based therapies. PMID:26439987

  16. Anti-tumor effect of cimetidine via inhibiting angiogenesis factors in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine-induced mouse and rat bladder carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Yoshitomo; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Miyake, Makito; Hiasa, Yoshio; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anti-tumor effect and mechanisms of cimetidine in N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced bladder carcinogenesis model. Sixty-three male BALB/c mice and 67 male Wister rats were treated with BBN and cimetidine to examine the anti-tumor effect of cimetidine. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived endothelial growth factor (PDECGF), and E-selectin were examined to compare their expression in the tumor tissues. In mice, the tumor growth was reduced by cimetidine (p=0.011). The expression of PDECGF was reduced in the cimetidine-treated group (p=0.016). In rats, treatment of cimetidine reduced tumor growth (p=0.0001). Moreover, the expression of VEGF and PDECGF was reduced (p=0.02 and <0.001, respectively). The expression of E-selectin did not correlate with the tumor growth in either mice or rats. In mice, long-term cimetidine treatment proved very effective for inhibiting the tumor growth, but in rats, BBN after treatment with cimetidine showed the least tumor growth-inhibitory effect. In conclusion, cimetidine may have an inhibitory effect on tumor growth in bladder carcinogenesis via reducing the expression of angiogenesis factors including VEGF and PDECGF.

  17. IRE1 signaling is essential for ischemia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression and contributes to angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Drogat, Benjamin; Auguste, Patrick; Nguyen, Duc Thang; Bouchecareilh, Marion; Pineau, Raphael; Nalbantoglu, Josephine; Kaufman, Randal J; Chevet, Eric; Bikfalvi, Andréas; Moenner, Michel

    2007-07-15

    In solid tumors, cancer cells subjected to ischemic conditions trigger distinct signaling pathways contributing to angiogenic stimulation and tumor development. Characteristic features of tumor ischemia include hypoxia and glucose deprivation, leading to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-dependent signaling pathways and to complex signaling events known as the unfolded protein response. Here, we show that the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor IRE1 is a common determinant linking hypoxia- and hypoglycemia-dependent responses to the up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Tumor cells expressing a dominant-negative IRE1 transgene as well as Ire1alpha-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts were unable to trigger VEGF-A up-regulation upon either oxygen or glucose deprivation. These data correlated with a reduction of tumor angiogenesis and growth in vivo. Our results therefore suggest an essential role for IRE1-dependent signaling pathways in response to ischemia and identify this protein as a potential therapeutic target to control both the angiogenic switch and tumor development.

  18. Exposure to diesel exhaust particulates induces cardiac dysfunction and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Jessica M.; Cryar, Kipp A.; El Hajj, Milad C.; El Hajj, Elia C.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in urban residents, predisposing them to the development of several cardiovascular stresses, including myocardial infarctions, arrhythmias, thrombosis, and heart failure. DEP contain a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We hypothesize that exposure to DEP elicits ventricular remodeling through the activation of the AHR pathway, leading to ventricular dilation and dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by nose-only nebulization to DEP (SRM 2975, 0.2 mg/ml) or vehicle for 20 min/day × 5 wk. DEP exposure resulted in eccentric left ventricular dilation (8% increased left ventricular internal diameter at diastole and 23% decreased left ventricular posterior wall thickness at diastole vs. vehicle), as shown by echocardiograph assessment. Histological analysis using Picrosirius red staining revealed that DEP reduced cardiac interstitial collagen (23% decrease vs. vehicle). Further assessment of cardiac function using a pressure-volume catheter indicated impaired diastolic function (85% increased end-diastolic pressure and 19% decreased Tau vs. vehicle) and contractility (57 and 48% decreased end-systolic pressure-volume relationship and maximum change in pressure over time vs. end-diastolic volume compared with vehicle, respectively) in the DEP-exposed animals. Exposure to DEP significantly increased cardiac expression of AHR (19% increase vs. vehicle). In addition, DEP significantly decreased the cardiac expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, the competitive pathway to the AHR, and vascular endothelial growth factor, a downstream mediator of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (26 and 47% decrease vs. vehicle, respectively). These findings indicate that exposure to DEP induced left ventricular dilation by loss of collagen through an AHR-dependent mechanism. PMID:23887904

  19. Prenatal exposure to nitrofen induces Fryns phenotype in mice.

    PubMed

    Acosta, J M; Chai, Y; Meara, J G; Bringas, P; Anderson, K D; Warburton, D

    2001-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to nitrofen is known to cause multiple malformations in mice. The reported malformations include lung hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, cardiovascular defects, skeletal malformations, cleft palate, and renal abnormalities. The authors present detailed findings of craniofacial defects after prenatal exposure to nitrofen, and propose that together with the previously reported malformations, nitrofen exposure induces a Fryns phenotype in mice. Fryns syndrome is a rare human genetic syndrome that is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lung hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, craniofacial malformations, skeletal malformations, cardiovascular malformations, and genitourinary malformations. Timed-pregnant Swiss Webster mice were gavage-fed 25 mg of nitrofen on day 8 of gestation. Control animals received olive oil. Osteogenesis and chondrogenesis were studied in fetuses recovered on day 17 after Alcian blue-Alizarin red staining. Approximately 26% of the nitrofen-exposed embryos had severe craniofacial defects, and there was generalized delay in chondrogenesis and osteogenesis throughout the skeleton. No such defects were noted in the control group. The authors propose that prenatal exposure to nitrofen induces a Fryns phenotype in mice, and thus speculate that nitrofen may target similar molecular mechanisms to those that lead to Fryns syndrome.

  20. Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Microbiota in Induced Sputum

    PubMed Central

    White, Allison G.; Watts, George S.; Lu, Zhenqiang; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M.; Lutz, Eric A.; Harber, Philip; Burgess, Jefferey L.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb) and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb). To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteriodetes (12%) were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%), Prevotellaceae (12%) and Veillonellacea (7%) being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota. PMID:24566055

  1. Environmental arsenic exposure and microbiota in induced sputum.

    PubMed

    White, Allison G; Watts, George S; Lu, Zhenqiang; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Lutz, Eric A; Harber, Philip; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2014-02-21

    Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with adverse respiratory outcomes, but it is unknown whether arsenic affects pulmonary microbiota. This exploratory study assessed the effect of exposure to arsenic in drinking water on bacterial diversity in the respiratory tract of non-smokers. Induced sputum was collected from 10 subjects with moderate mean household water arsenic concentration (21.1 ± 6.4 ppb) and 10 subjects with low household water arsenic (2.4 ± 0.8 ppb). To assess microbiota in sputum, the V6 hypervariable region amplicons of bacterial 16s rRNA genes were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Microbial community differences between arsenic exposure groups were evaluated using QIIME and Metastats. A total of 3,920,441 sequence reads, ranging from 37,935 to 508,787 per sample for 316 chips after QIIME quality filtering, were taxonomically classified into 142 individual genera and five phyla. Firmicutes (22%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteriodetes (12%) were the main phyla in all samples, with Neisseriaceae (15%), Prevotellaceae (12%) and Veillonellacea (7%) being most common at the genus level. Some genera, including Gemella, Lactobacillales, Streptococcus, Neisseria and Pasteurellaceae were elevated in the moderate arsenic exposure group, while Rothia, Prevotella, Prevotellaceae Fusobacterium and Neisseriaceae were decreased, although none of these differences was statistically significant. Future studies with more participants and a greater range of arsenic exposure are needed to further elucidate the effects of drinking water arsenic consumption on respiratory microbiota.

  2. Angiogenesis is inhibitory for mammalian digit regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ling; Yan, Mingquan; Simkin, Jennifer; Ketcham, Paulina D.; Leininger, Eric; Han, Manjong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The regenerating mouse digit tip is a unique model for investigating blastema formation and epimorphic regeneration in mammals. The blastema is characteristically avascular and we previously reported that blastema expression of a known anti‐angiogenic factor gene, Pedf, correlated with a successful regenerative response (Yu, L., Han, M., Yan, M., Lee, E. C., Lee, J. & Muneoka, K. (2010). BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice. Development, 137, 551–559). Here we show that during regeneration Vegfa transcripts are not detected in the blastema but are expressed at the onset of differentiation. Treating the amputation wound with vascular endothelial growth factor enhances angiogenesis but inhibits regeneration. We next tested bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), another known mediator of angiogenesis, and found that BMP9 is also a potent inhibitor of digit tip regeneration. BMP9 induces Vegfa expression in the digit stump suggesting that regenerative failure is mediated by enhanced angiogenesis. Finally, we show that BMP9 inhibition of regeneration is completely rescued by treatment with pigment epithelium‐derived factor. These studies show that precocious angiogenesis is inhibitory for regeneration, and provide compelling evidence that the regulation of angiogenesis is a critical factor in designing therapies aimed at stimulating mammalian regeneration. PMID:27499862

  3. Angiogenesis is inhibitory for mammalian digit regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Yan, Mingquan; Simkin, Jennifer; Ketcham, Paulina D; Leininger, Eric; Han, Manjong; Muneoka, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The regenerating mouse digit tip is a unique model for investigating blastema formation and epimorphic regeneration in mammals. The blastema is characteristically avascular and we previously reported that blastema expression of a known anti-angiogenic factor gene, Pedf, correlated with a successful regenerative response (Yu, L., Han, M., Yan, M., Lee, E. C., Lee, J. & Muneoka, K. (2010). BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice. Development, 137, 551-559). Here we show that during regeneration Vegfa transcripts are not detected in the blastema but are expressed at the onset of differentiation. Treating the amputation wound with vascular endothelial growth factor enhances angiogenesis but inhibits regeneration. We next tested bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), another known mediator of angiogenesis, and found that BMP9 is also a potent inhibitor of digit tip regeneration. BMP9 induces Vegfa expression in the digit stump suggesting that regenerative failure is mediated by enhanced angiogenesis. Finally, we show that BMP9 inhibition of regeneration is completely rescued by treatment with pigment epithelium-derived factor. These studies show that precocious angiogenesis is inhibitory for regeneration, and provide compelling evidence that the regulation of angiogenesis is a critical factor in designing therapies aimed at stimulating mammalian regeneration.

  4. Chronic intermittent hypoxia exposure-induced atherosclerosis: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Song, Dongmei; Fang, Guoqiang; Greenberg, Harly; Liu, Shu Fang

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in the USA and is recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Identification of atherosclerosis risk factor attributable to OSA may provide opportunity to develop preventive measures for cardiovascular risk reduction. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a prominent feature of OSA pathophysiology and may be a major mechanism linking OSA to arteriosclerosis. Animal studies demonstrated that CIH exposure facilitated high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced atherosclerosis, accelerated the progression of existing atherosclerosis, and induced atherosclerotic lesions in the absence of other atherosclerosis risk factors, demonstrating that CIH is an independent causal factor of atherosclerosis. Comparative studies revealed major differences between CIH-induced and the classic HCD-induced atherosclerosis. Systemically, CIH was a much weaker inducer of atherosclerosis. CIH and HCD differentially activated inflammatory pathways. Histologically, CIH-induced atherosclerotic plaques had no clear necrotic core, contained a large number of CD31+ endothelial cells, and had mainly elastin deposition, whereas HCD-induced plaques had typical necrotic cores and fibrous caps, contained few endothelial cells, and had mainly collagen deposition. Metabolically, CIH caused mild, but HCD caused more severe dyslipidemia. Mechanistically, CIH did not, but HCD did, cause macrophage foam cell formation. NF-κB p50 gene deletion augmented CIH-induced, but not HCD-induced atherosclerosis. These differences reflect the intrinsic differences between the two types of atherosclerosis in terms of pathological nature and underlying mechanisms and support the notion that CIH-induced atherosclerosis is a new paradigm that differs from the classic HCD-induced atherosclerosis.

  5. Enhanced angiogenesis in grafted skins by gene transfer of human hepatocyte growth factor using laser-induced stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Shunichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Obara, Minoru

    2007-02-01

    We delivered a therapeutic gene, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), to skin grafts of rats using laser-induced stress waves (LISWs) with the objective of enhancing their adhesion. The density and uniformity of neovascularities were enhanced significantly in the grafted skins that were transfected using LISWs, suggesting the efficacy of this method to improve the outcome of skin transplantation.

  6. Evening primrose oil and celecoxib inhibited pathological angiogenesis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in adjuvant-induced arthritis: novel role of angiopoietin-1.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, R M; Moustafa, Y M; El-Azab, M F

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by overproduction of inflammatory mediators along with undermined oxidative defensive mechanisms. Pathological angiogenesis was found to play a critical role in the progression of this disease. The current study was carried out to evaluate the anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects of evening primrose oil (EPO), rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA), either alone or in combination with aspirin or celecoxib, on adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis was induced by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of male albino rats. All treatments were administered orally from day 0 (EPO, 5 g/kg b.w.) or day 4 (celecoxib, 5 mg/kg; aspirin, 150 mg/kg) till day 27 after CFA injection. In the arthritic group, the results revealed significant decrease in the body weight and increase in ankle circumference, plasma angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels. Anti-oxidant status was suppressed as manifested by significant decline in reduced glutathione content along with decreased enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and increased lipid peroxidation. Oral administration of EPO exerted normalization of body weight, ANG-1, and TNF-α levels with restoration of activity as shown by reduced malondialdehyde levels. Moreover, histopathological examination demonstrated that EPO significantly reduced the synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cells invasion in joint tissues, an effect that was enhanced by combination with aspirin or celecoxib. The joint use of GLA-rich natural oils, which possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities, with traditional analgesics represents a promising strategy to restrain the progression of rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. PKA turnover by the REGγ-proteasome modulates FoxO1 cellular activity and VEGF-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Lai, Li; Zuo, Qiuhong; Dai, Fujun; Wu, Lin; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Qingxia; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jiang; Li, Lei; Lin, Qingxiang; Creighton, Chad J; Costello, Myra Grace; Huang, Shixia; Jia, Caifeng; Liao, Lujian; Luo, Honglin; Fu, Junjiang; Liu, Mingyao; Yi, Zhengfang; Xiao, Jianru; Li, Xiaotao

    2014-07-01

    The REGγ-proteasome serves as a short-cut for the destruction of certain intact mammalian proteins in the absence of ubiquitin- and ATP. The biological roles of the proteasome activator REGγ are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that REGγ controls degradation of protein kinase A catalytic subunit-α (PKAca) both in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs). Accumulation of PKAca in REGγ-deficient HUVECs or MEFs results in phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of the transcription factor FoxO1, indicating that REGγ is involved in preserving FoxO1 transcriptional activity. Consequently, VEGF-induced expression of the FoxO1 responsive genes, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin, was tightly controlled by REGγ in a PKA dependent manner. Functionally, REGγ is crucial for the migration of HUVECs. REGγ(-/-) mice display compromised VEGF-instigated neovascularization in cornea and aortic ring models. Implanted matrigel plugs containing VEGF in REGγ(-/-) mice induced fewer capillaries than in REGγ(+/+) littermates. Taken together, our study identifies REGγ as a novel angiogenic factor that plays an important role in VEGF-induced expression of VCAM-1 and E-Selectin by antagonizing PKA signaling. Identification of the REGγ-PKA-FoxO1 pathway in endothelial cells (ECs) provides another potential target for therapeutic intervention in vascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat Stress and Hormetin-Induced Hormesis in Human Cells: Effects on Aging, Wound Healing, Angiogenesis, and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Suresh I. S.; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Demirovic, Dino; Dymek, Barbara; Lima, Cristovao F.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulation of molecular damage and increased molecular heterogeneity are hallmarks of cellular aging. Mild stress-induced hormesis can be an effective way for reducing the accumulation of molecular damage, and thus slowing down aging from within. We have shown that repeated mild heat stress (RMHS) has anti-aging effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes undergoing aging in vitro. RMHS given to human cells increased the basal levels of various chaperones, reduced the accumulation of damaged proteins, stimulated proteasomal activities, increased the cellular resistance to other stresses, enhanced the levels of various antioxidant enzymes, enhanced the activity and amounts of sodium-potassium pump, and increased the phosphorylation-mediated activities of various stress kinases. We have now observed novel hormetic effects of mild heat stress on improving the wound healing capacity of skin fibroblasts and on enhancing the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells. We have also tested potential hormetins, such as curcumin and rosmarinic acid in bringing about their beneficial effects in human cells by inducing stress response pathways involving heat shock proteins and hemeoxygenase HO-1. These data further support the view that mild stress-induced hormesis can be applied for the modulation, intervention and prevention of aging and age-related impairments. PMID:19343114

  9. Fertilization Induces a Transient Exposure of Phosphatidylserine in Mouse Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Curia, Claudio A.; Ernesto, Juan I.; Stein, Paula; Busso, Dolores; Schultz, Richard M.; Cuasnicu, Patricia S.; Cohen, Débora J.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is normally localized to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and the requirement of PS translocation to the outer leaflet in cellular processes other than apoptosis has been demonstrated recently. In this work we investigated the occurrence of PS mobilization in mouse eggs, which express flippase Atp8a1 and scramblases Plscr1 and 3, as determined by RT-PCR; these enzyme are responsible for PS distribution in cell membranes. We find a dramatic increase in binding of flouresceinated-Annexin-V, which specifically binds to PS, following fertilization or parthenogenetic activation induced by SrCl2 treatment. This increase was not observed when eggs were first treated with BAPTA-AM, indicating that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration was required for PS exposure. Fluorescence was observed over the entire egg surface with the exception of the regions overlying the meiotic spindle and sperm entry site. PS exposure was also observed in activated eggs obtained from CaMKIIγ null females, which are unable to exit metaphase II arrest despite displaying Ca2+ spikes. In contrast, PS exposure was not observed in TPEN-activated eggs, which exit metaphase II arrest in the absence of Ca2+ release. PS exposure was also observed when eggs were activated with ethanol but not with a Ca2+ ionophore, suggesting that the Ca2+ source and concentration are relevant for PS exposure. Last, treatment with cytochalasin D, which disrupts microfilaments, or jasplakinolide, which stabilizes microfilaments, prior to egg activation showed that PS externalization is an actin-dependent process. Thus, the Ca2+ rise during egg activation results in a transient exposure of PS in fertilized eggs that is not associated with apoptosis. PMID:23951277

  10. PET Imaging of Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Angiogenesis is a highly-controlled process that is dependent on the intricate balance of both promoting and inhibiting factors, involved in various physiological and pathological processes. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis has resulted in the design of new and more effective therapeutic strategies. Due to insufficient sensitivity to detect therapeutic effects by using standard clinical endpoints or by looking for physiological improvement, a multitude of imaging techniques have been developed to assess tissue vasculature on the structural, functional and molecular level. Imaging is expected to provide a novel approach to noninvasively monitor angiogenesis, to optimize the dose of new antiangiogenic agents and to assess the efficacy of therapies directed at modulation of the angiogenic process. All these methods have been successfully used preclinically and will hopefully aid in antiangiogenic drug development in animal studies. In this review article, the application of PET in angiogenesis imaging at both functional and molecular level will be discussed. For PET imaging of angiogenesis related molecular markers, we emphasize integrin αvβ3, VEGF/VEGFR, and MMPs. PMID:20046926

  11. The activation of RhoC in vascular endothelial cells is required for the S1P receptor type 2-induced inhibition of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Del Galdo, Sabrina; Vettel, Christiane; Heringdorf, Dagmar Meyer Zu; Wieland, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a multifunctional phospholipid inducing a variety of cellular responses in endothelial cells (EC). S1P responses are mediated by five G protein coupled receptors of which three types (S1P1R-S1P3R) have been described to be of importance in vascular endothelial cells (EC). Whereas the S1P1R regulates endothelial barrier function by coupling to Gαi and the monomeric GTPase Rac1, the signaling pathways involved in the S1P-induced regulation of angiogenesis are ill defined. We therefore studied the sprouting of human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) in vitro and analyzed the activation of the RhoGTPases RhoA and RhoC. Physiological relevant concentrations of S1P (100-300nM) induce a moderate activation of RhoA and RhoC. Inhibition or siRNA-mediated depletion of the S1P2R preferentially decreased the activation of RhoC. Both manipulations caused an increase of sprouting in a spheroid based in vitro sprouting assay. Interestingly, a similar increase in sprouting was detected after effective siRNA-mediated knockdown of RhoC. In contrast, the depletion of RhoA had no influence on sprouting. Furthermore, suppression of the activity of G proteins of the Gα12/13 subfamily by adenoviral overexpression of the regulator of G protein signaling domain of LSC as well as siRNA-mediated knockdown of the Rho specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor leukemia associated RhoGEF (LARG) inhibited the S1P-induced activation of RhoC and concomitantly increased sprouting of HUVEC with similar efficacy. We conclude that the angiogenic sprouting of EC is suppressed via the S1P2R subtype. Thus, the increase in basal sprouting can be attributed to blocking of the inhibitory action of autocrine S1P stimulating the S1P2R. This inhibitory pathway involves the activation of RhoC via Gα12/13 and LARG, while the simultaneously occurring activation of RhoA is apparently dispensable here.

  12. Daphnetin inhibits TNF-α and VEGF-induced angiogenesis through inhibition of the IKKs/IκBα/NF-κB, Src/FAK/ERK1/2 and Akt signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Sunita, Priyashree; Jha, Shivesh; Pattanayak, Shakti Prasad

    2016-10-01

    Coumarins, identified as plant secondary metabolites possess diverse biological activities including anti-angiogenic properties. Daphnetin (DAP), a plant derived dihydroxylated derivative of coumarin has shown significant pharmacological properties such as anticancer, anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory. The present study was performed to investigate the anti-angiogenic potential of DAP, focusing on the mechanism of action. The in vivo anti-angiogenic potential of DAP was evaluated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced rat aortic ring (RAR) assay and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. For in vitro evaluation, wounding migration, transwell invasion, tube formation and apoptosis assays were performed on VEGF (8 ng/mL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The cellular mechanism of DAP was examined on TNFα (10 ng/mL) and VEGF-induced HUVECs by extracting the mRNA and protein levels using RT-qPCR and western blotting. Our data demonstrated that DAP inhibited the in vivo angiogenesis in the RAR and CAM assay. DAP also inhibited the different steps of angiogenesis, such as migration, invasion, and tube formation in HUVECs. DAP inhibited nuclear factor-κB signalling together including TNF-α induced IκBα degradation; phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKKα/β) and translocation of the NF-κB-p65 protein. Furthermore, western blotting revealed that DAP significantly down-regulated the VEGF-induced signalling such as c-Src, FAK, ERK1/2 and the related phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and VEGFR2 expressions. DAP reduced the elevated mRNA expression of iNOS, MMP2 and al