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Sample records for express higher levels

  1. Higher-order JWKB expressions for the energy levels and the wavefunction at the origin

    SciTech Connect

    Pasupathy, J.; Singh, V.

    1980-09-01

    An exact quantization condition is derived for the energy levels of a particle in a radial potential assumed finite at the origin. This is used to derive corrections to the semiclassical JWKB quantization condition. The normalization integral of the wavefunction is further related to the energy derivative of wavefunction at origin and use this expression to derive the corrections to the semiclassical JWKB expressions for the wavefunction at origin. An application to upsilon leptonic decay width is also given.

  2. Newly paired zebra finches have higher dopamine levels and immediate early gene Fos expression in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sunayana B; Dias, Brian G; Crews, David; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Most birds are socially monogamous, yet little is known about the neural pathways underlying avian monogamy. Recent studies have implicated dopamine as playing a role in courtship and affiliation in a socially monogamous songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). In the present study, we sought to understand the specific contribution to pair formation in zebra finches of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway that projects from the midbrain ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. We observed that paired birds had higher levels of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the ventral medial striatum, where the nucleus accumbens is situated, than unpaired birds. Additionally, we found that the percentage of dopaminergic neurons expressing immediate early gene Fos, a marker of neuronal activity, was higher in the ventral tegmental area of paired birds than in that of unpaired birds. These data are consistent with a role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway in pair formation in zebra finches, suggesting the possibility of a conserved neural mechanism of monogamy in birds and mammals.

  3. Higher expression of several interferon-stimulated genes in HIV-1-infected females after adjusting for the level of viral replication.

    PubMed

    Chang, J Judy; Woods, Matt; Lindsay, Robert J; Doyle, Erin H; Griesbeck, Morgane; Chan, Ellen S; Robbins, Gregory K; Bosch, Ronald J; Altfeld, Marcus

    2013-09-01

    Clinical studies have shown faster disease progression and stronger immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected females when compared with males for the same level of HIV-1 replication. Here we determine whether the elevated levels of HIV-1-induced interferon-alpha (IFN-α) production observed in females are associated with higher interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression levels in T cells, hence suggesting type-I IFN as a mechanism for the higher HIV-1-associated immune activation observed. T-cell and dendritic cell populations were isolated from treatment-naive chronically HIV-1-infected individuals enrolled in the Adult Clinical Trials Group 384 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The expression of 98 genes involved in Toll-like receptor and type I IFN signaling pathways were quantified using Nanostring technology. Several ISGs were significantly correlated with HIV-1 viral load and/or CD4(+) T-cell count. Higher expression levels of a subset of these ISGs were observed in cells derived from females as compared to males after adjusting for viral load and were correlated to higher levels of T-cell activation. These data show that higher IFN-α production is associated with higher ex vivo expression of several ISGs in females. This might contribute to higher levels of immune activation and the observed faster HIV-1 disease progression in females for a given level of viral replication.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  5. Higher Level Thinking Skills through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of drama in the classroom provides concrete opportunities to explore such higher-level thinking abilities as synthesis, evaluation, and divergent thinking. Suggested activities for use with upper elementary and secondary students involve pantomime, verbal improvisation, expressing emotions, and developing characters. (JDD)

  6. Macrophages From Irradiated Tumors Express Higher Levels of iNOS, Arginase-I and COX-2, and Promote Tumor Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.-S.; Chen, F.-H.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, H.-L.; Jung, Shih-Ming; Wu, C.-J.; Lee, C.-C.; McBride, William H.; Chiang, C.-S.; Hong, J.-H. . E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of single and fractionated doses of radiation on tumors and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and to elucidate the potential of TAMs to influence tumor growth. Methods and Materials: A murine prostate cell line, TRAMP-C1, was grown in C57Bl/6J mice to 4-mm tumor diameter and irradiated with either 25 Gy in a single dose, or 60 Gy in 15 fractions. The tumors were removed at the indicated times and assessed for a variety of markers related to TAM content, activation status, and function. Results: In tumors receiving a single radiation dose, arginase (Arg-I), and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression increased as a small transient wave within 24 h and a larger persistent wave starting after 3 days. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was elevated only after 3 days and continued to increase up to 3 weeks. After fractionated irradiation, Arg-1 and COX-2 mRNA levels increased within 5 days, whereas iNOS was increased only after 10 fractions of irradiation had been given. Increased levels of Arg-I, COX-2, and, to a lesser extent, iNOS protein were found to associate with TAMs 1-2 weeks after tumor irradiation. Function of TAMs were compared by mixing them with TRAMP-C1 cells and injecting them into mice; TRAMP-C1 cells mixed with TAMs from irradiated tumors appeared earlier and grew significantly faster than those mixed with TAMs from unirradiated tumors or TRAMP-C1 alone. Conclusions: Tumor-associated macrophages in the postirradiated tumor microenvironment express higher levels of Arg-1, COX-2, and iNOS, and promote early tumor growth in vivo.

  7. A Higher Risk of Acute Rejection of Human Kidney Allografts Can Be Predicted from the Level of CD45RC Expressed by the Recipients’ CD8 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ordonez, Laurence; Bernard, Isabelle; Chabod, Marianne; Augusto, Jean-François; Lauwers-Cances, Valerie; Cristini, Christelle; Cuturi, Maria-Cristina; Subra, Jean-François; Saoudi, Abdelhadi

    2013-01-01

    Although transplantation is the common treatment for end-stage renal failure, allograft rejection and marked morbidity from the use of immunosuppressive drugs remain important limitations. A major challenge in the field is to identify easy, reliable and noninvasive biomarkers allowing the prediction of deleterious alloreactive immune responses and the tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy in individuals according to the rejection risk. In this study, we first established that the expression of the RC isoform of the CD45 molecule (CD45RC) on CD4 and CD8 T cells from healthy individuals identifies functionally distinct alloreactive T cell subsets that behave differently in terms of proliferation and cytokine secretion. We then investigated whether the frequency of the recipients CD45RC T cell subsets before transplantation would predict acute graft rejection in a cohort of 89 patients who had undergone their first kidney transplantation. We showed that patients exhibiting more than 54.7% of CD8 CD45RChigh T cells before transplantation had a 6 fold increased risk of acute kidney graft rejection. In contrast, the proportions of CD4 CD45RC T cells were not predictive. Thus, a higher risk of acute rejection of human kidney allografts can be predicted from the level of CD45RC expressed by the recipients’ CD8 T cells. PMID:23894540

  8. Photosynthetic gene expression in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Berry, James O; Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Zielinski, Amy M; Mure, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Within the chloroplasts of higher plants and algae, photosynthesis converts light into biological energy, fueling the assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide into biologically useful molecules. Two major steps, photosynthetic electron transport and the Calvin-Benson cycle, require many gene products encoded from chloroplast as well as nuclear genomes. The expression of genes in both cellular compartments is highly dynamic and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Light is the primary environmental determinant of photosynthetic gene expression. Working through photoreceptors such as phytochrome, light regulates photosynthetic genes at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Other processes that affect photosynthetic gene expression include photosynthetic activity, development, and biotic and abiotic stress. Anterograde (from nucleus to chloroplast) and retrograde (from chloroplast to nucleus) signaling insures the highly coordinated expression of the many photosynthetic genes between these different compartments. Anterograde signaling incorporates nuclear-encoded transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators, such as sigma factors and RNA-binding proteins, respectively. Retrograde signaling utilizes photosynthetic processes such as photosynthetic electron transport and redox signaling to influence the expression of photosynthetic genes in the nucleus. The basic C3 photosynthetic pathway serves as the default form used by most of the plant species on earth. High temperature and water stress associated with arid environments have led to the development of specialized C4 and CAM photosynthesis, which evolved as modifications of the basic default expression program. The goal of this article is to explain and summarize the many gene expression and regulatory processes that work together to support photosynthetic function in plants.

  9. Higher level twisted Zhu algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ekeren, Jethro

    2011-05-01

    The study of twisted representations of graded vertex algebras is important for understanding orbifold models in conformal field theory. In this paper, we consider the general setup of a vertex algebra V, graded by Γ /{Z} for some subgroup Γ of {R} containing {Z}, and with a Hamiltonian operator H having real (but not necessarily integer) eigenvalues. We construct the directed system of twisted level p Zhu algebras operatorname{Zhu}_{p, Γ }(V), and we prove the following theorems: For each p, there is a bijection between the irreducible operatorname{Zhu}_{p, Γ }(V)-modules and the irreducible Γ-twisted positive energy V-modules, and V is (Γ, H)-rational if and only if all its Zhu algebras operatorname{Zhu}_{p, Γ }(V) are finite dimensional and semisimple. The main novelty is the removal of the assumption of integer eigenvalues for H. We provide an explicit description of the level p Zhu algebras of a universal enveloping vertex algebra, in particular of the Virasoro vertex algebra operatorname{Vir}^c and the universal affine Kac-Moody vertex algebra V^k({g}) at non-critical level. We also compute the inverse limits of these directed systems of algebras.

  10. Acute Lymphoid Leukemia Cells with Greater Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) Expression Exhibit Higher Levels of Metalloproteinase Activity and Are More Aggressive In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Chiao; Mildenstein, Kurt; Hunter, Kordell; Tkachenko, Olena; Mullen, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Ly6a/Sca-1) is a gene that is expressed in activated lymphocytes, hematopoietic stem cells and stem cells of a variety of tissues in mice. Despite decades of study its functions remain poorly defined. These studies explored the impact of expression of this stem cell associated gene in acute lymphoid leukemia. Higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 expression led to more aggressive leukemia growth in vivo and earlier death of hosts. Leukemias expressing higher levels of Ly6a/Sca-1 exhibited higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases. The results suggest the hypothesis that the more aggressive behavior of Ly6a/Sca-1 expressing leukemias is due at least in part to greater capacity to degrade microenvironmental stroma and invade tissues. PMID:24586463

  11. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Sobolev, Anatoli P; Goyal, Ravinder K; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L; Handa, Avtar K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotypexmulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit.

  12. A field-grown transgenic tomato line expressing higher levels of polyamines reveals legume cover crop mulch-specific perturbations in fruit phenotype at the levels of metabolite profiles, gene expression, and agronomic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Neelam, Anil; Cassol, Tatiana; Mehta, Roshni A.; Abdul-Baki, Aref A.; Sobolev, Anatoli P.; Goyal, Ravinder K.; Abbott, Judith; Segre, Anna L.; Handa, Avtar K.; Mattoo, Autar K.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic modification of crop plants to introduce desirable traits such as nutritional enhancement, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced crop productivity is increasingly seen as a promising technology for sustainable agriculture and boosting food production in the world. Independently, cultural practices that utilize alternative agriculture strategies including organic cultivation subscribe to sustainable agriculture by limiting chemical usage and reduced tillage. How the two together affect fruit metabolism or plant growth in the field or whether they are compatible has not yet been tested. Fruit-specific yeast S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (ySAMdc) line 579HO, and a control line 556AZ were grown in leguminous hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) (HV) mulch and conventional black polyethylene (BP) mulch, and their fruit analysed. Significant genotype×mulch-dependent interactions on fruit phenotype were exemplified by differential profiles of 20 fruit metabolites such as amino acids, sugars, and organic acids. Expression patterns of the ySAMdc transgene, and tomato SAMdc, E8, PEPC, and ICDHc genes were compared between the two lines as a function of growth on either BP or HV mulch. HV mulch significantly stimulated the accumulation of asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, choline, and citrate concomitant with a decrease in glucose in the 556AZ fruits during ripening as compared to BP. It enables a metabolic system in tomato somewhat akin to the one in higher polyamine-accumulating transgenic fruit that have higher phytonutrient content. Finally, synergism was found between HV mulch and transgenic tomato in up-regulating N:C indicator genes PEPC and ICDHc in the fruit. PMID:18469323

  13. Web life: Confused at a Higher Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    This two-person blog owes its name to Enrico Fermi, who supposedly informed a visiting lecturer that although he used to be confused about the lecture topic, "having listened to your lecture, I am still confused. But on a higher level".

  14. Higher level string resonances in four dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wan-Zhe; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2012-03-01

    We study higher level Regge resonances of open superstrings, focusing on the universal part of the Neveu-Schwarz sector common to all D-brane realizations of the standard model. For Regge states with masses far above the fundamental string scale, we discuss the spin-dependence of their decay rates into massless gauge bosons. Extending our previous work on lowest level string excitations, we study the second mass level at which spins range from 0 to 3. We construct the respective vertex operators and compute the amplitudes involving one massive particle and two or three gauge bosons. To illustrate the use of Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relations in superstring theory, we build the four-gluon amplitude from on-shell amplitudes involving string resonances and gauge bosons.

  15. An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.

  16. Higher-level simulations of turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferziger, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The fundamentals of large eddy simulation are considered and the approaches to it are compared. Subgrid scale models and the development of models for the Reynolds-averaged equations are discussed as well as the use of full simulation in testing these models. Numerical methods used in simulating large eddies, the simulation of homogeneous flows, and results from full and large scale eddy simulations of such flows are examined. Free shear flows are considered with emphasis on the mixing layer and wake simulation. Wall-bounded flow (channel flow) and recent work on the boundary layer are also discussed. Applications of large eddy simulation and full simulation in meteorological and environmental contexts are included along with a look at the direction in which work is proceeding and what can be expected from higher-level simulation in the future.

  17. Discrete coherent states for higher Landau levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, L. D.; Balazs, P.; de Gosson, M.; Mouayn, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the quantum dynamics of a charged particle evolving under the action of a constant homogeneous magnetic field, with emphasis on the discrete subgroups of the Heisenberg group (in the Euclidean case) and of the SL(2 , R) group (in the Hyperbolic case). We investigate completeness properties of discrete coherent states associated with higher order Euclidean and hyperbolic Landau levels, partially extending classic results of Perelomov and of Bargmann, Butera, Girardello and Klauder. In the Euclidean case, our results follow from identifying the completeness problem with known results from the theory of Gabor frames. The results for the hyperbolic setting follow by using a combination of methods from coherent states, time-scale analysis and the theory of Fuchsian groups and their associated automorphic forms.

  18. Higher expression of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein k in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fushi; Shen, Alex; Shanas, Reneé; Bhattacharyya, Achyut; Lian, Fangru; Hostetter, Galen; Shi, Jiaqi

    2010-10-01

    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is an essential RNA and DNA binding protein involved in gene expression and signal transduction. The role of hnRNP K in cancer is relatively understudied. However, several cellular functions strongly indicate that hnRNP K is involved in tumorigenesis. Oncogenes c-Src, c-myc, and eIF4E are regulated by hnRNP K. We have shown an increased cytoplasmic hnRNP K in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we investigated the altered expression of hnRNP K protein and its correlation with p-ERK in melanoma using human melanoma cell lines and tissue microarray. The protein levels of hnRNP K and p-ERK in 8 human melanoma cell lines and a melanoma progression tissue microarray containing 80 melanoma, 23 dysplastic nevi, and 14 benign nevi specimens were analyzed using Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. hnRNP K was knocked down by siRNA, and its effect on melanoma cells was assessed. We showed a higher hnRNP K protein level in both melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue specimens, which correlated with a higher c-myc expression. An increase in the cytoplasmic hnRNP K and eIF4E protein levels in melanoma cells is also seen. p-ERK level was also higher in dysplastic nevi and melanoma tissues, but did not correlate with hnRNP K protein level. We then demonstrated that knocking down of hnRNP K by siRNA inhibited melanoma cell growth and colony formation, as well as c-myc expression. hnRNP K expression correlated with melanoma and may play a role in melanoma tumorigenesis.

  19. Evaluation of expressions involving higher order derivations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The local geometric properties of a nonlinear control system defined by vector fields E(sub 1),..., E(sub M) are determined by the algebraic properties of the iterated Lie brackets of the E(sub j)'s. The problem of rewriting expressions is examined involving the E(sub j)'s in terms of the D(sub mu)'s in such a way as to handle effectively any cancellation occurring due to commuting of the D(sub mu)'s. A data structure is introduced which allows us to organize the computation to take advantage of the symmetries in the expression and reduce the operation count.

  20. NEWS: Help for the higher level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    January 2000 saw the instigation of a network of subject centres to promote high quality learning and teaching practices in universities and colleges throughout the UK. A total of £30m has been committed over five years by the four funding bodies for UK higher education to this Learning and Teaching Support Network (LTSN). The network will consist of 24 subject centres, each hosted by a university or college, plus a Generic Learning and Teaching Centre based in York (as part of the new Institute for Learning and Teaching). The latter centre will give advice on issues that affect higher education as a whole - such as the use of information technology. Among the tasks for the subject centres will be: the collation and promotion of information on good practice; the promotion of computing and IT approaches to teaching, learning and assessment; the provision of opportunities for professional development; and the maintenance of working relationships with professional bodies both in the UK and internationally. The subject centre for the Physical Sciences will be at the University of Hull (contact Dr Tina Overton, tel: 01482 465 453) with Engineering at Loughborough, Materials at Liverpool, Medicine at Newcastle, Mathematics, Statistics and Operational Research at Birmingham. The first annual conference of the Institute for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education is planned for 27 - 29 June at the College of Ripon and York St John. More details of this and the other events organized by the Institute can be obtained from ILT, Genesis 3, Innovation Way, York Science Park, Heslington, York YO10 5DQ (tel: 01904 434222, enquiries@ilt.ac.uk or www.ilt.ac.uk ).

  1. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  2. Influence of HLA-C Expression Level on HIV Control

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Richard; Qi, Ying; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chen, Haoyan; Gao, Xiaojiang; Thomas, Rasmi; Yuki, Yuko; Del Prete, Greg Q.; Goulder, Philip; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brumme, Chanson J.; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Nelson, George; Bosch, Ronald; Heckerman, David; Stein, Judy L.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Moody, M. Anthony; Denny, Thomas N.; Zeng, Xue; Fang, Jingyuan; Moffett, Ashley; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Goedert, James J.; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; McLaren, Paul; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce; Michael, Nelson L.; Weintrob, Amy; Wolinsky, Steven; Liao, Wilson; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A variant upstream of human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C) shows the most significant genome-wide effect on HIV control in European Americans and is also associated with the level of HLA-C expression. We characterized the differential cell surface expression levels of all common HLA-C allotypes and tested directly for effects of HLA-C expression on outcomes of HIV infection in 5243 individuals. Increasing HLA-C expression was associated with protection against multiple outcomes independently of individual HLA allelic effects in both African and European Americans, regardless of their distinct HLA-C frequencies and linkage relationships with HLA-B and HLA-A. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. In contrast, high HLA-C expression had a deleterious effect in Crohn’s disease, suggesting a broader influence of HLA expression levels in human disease. PMID:23559252

  3. Higher LPA2 and LPA6 mRNA Levels in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Are Associated with Poorer Differentiation, Microvascular Invasion and Earlier Recurrence with Higher Serum Autotaxin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hitoshi; Kurano, Makoto; Sato, Masaya; Kudo, Hiroki; Maki, Harufumi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) commonly develops in patients with liver fibrosis; in these patients, the blood levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX) increase with the liver fibrosis stage. We aimed to examine the potential relevance of ATX and LPA in HCC. Fifty-eight HCC patients who underwent surgical treatment were consecutively enrolled in the study. Among the LPA receptors in HCC, higher LPA2 mRNA levels correlated with poorer differentiation, and higher LPA6 mRNA levels correlated with microvascular invasion, which suggested a higher malignant potential of HCC with increased LPA2 and LPA6 expression. In patients with primary HCC, neither LPA2 nor LPA6 mRNA levels were associated with recurrence. However, when serum ATX levels were combined for analysis as a surrogate for plasma LPA levels, the cumulative intra-hepatic recurrence rate was higher in patients in whom both serum ATX levels and LPA2 or LPA6 mRNA levels were higher than the median. However, the mRNA level of phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1ɑ, another LPA-generating enzyme, in HCC patients was not associated with pathological findings or recurrence, even in combination with the expression of LPA receptors. Higher LPA2 mRNA levels were associated with poorer differentiation, and higher LPA6 levels were associated with microvascular invasion in HCC; both became a risk factor for recurrence after surgical treatment when combined with increased serum ATX levels. ATX and LPA receptors merit consideration as therapeutic targets of HCC. PMID:27583415

  4. Seeking a Higher Level of Arts Integration across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiropoulou-Zormpala, Marina

    2016-01-01

    To seek a higher level of arts integration across the education curriculum, I investigated designs of teaching through arts activities that would motivate educators to adopt the spirit of "aesthetic teaching." Two different designs were tested, with the second as a continuation of the first. Each ascribes a different educational role to…

  5. Seeking a Higher Level of Arts Integration across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiropoulou-Zormpala, Marina

    2016-01-01

    To seek a higher level of arts integration across the education curriculum, I investigated designs of teaching through arts activities that would motivate educators to adopt the spirit of "aesthetic teaching." Two different designs were tested, with the second as a continuation of the first. Each ascribes a different educational role to…

  6. The Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures in State-Level Higher Education Lobbying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkum, Kurt Richard

    2009-01-01

    Lobbying and lobbyists are integral components of federal and state public policymaking for higher education at the federal and state levels. While the actions and goals of lobbyists appear to be straightforward, the lobbying tactics selected by lobbyists vary for different situations and in different contexts (Browne, 1985; Cook, 1998; Gladieux &…

  7. Sexual differences of imprinted genes' expression levels.

    PubMed

    Faisal, Mohammad; Kim, Hana; Kim, Joomyeong

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, genomic imprinting has evolved as a dosage-controlling mechanism for a subset of genes that play critical roles in their unusual reproduction scheme involving viviparity and placentation. As such, many imprinted genes are highly expressed in sex-specific reproductive organs. In the current study, we sought to test whether imprinted genes are differentially expressed between the two sexes. According to the results, the expression levels of the following genes differ between the two sexes of mice: Peg3, Zim1, Igf2, H19 and Zac1. The expression levels of these imprinted genes are usually greater in males than in females. This bias is most obvious in the developing brains of 14.5-dpc embryos, but also detected in the brains of postnatal-stage mice. However, this sexual bias is not obvious in 10.5-dpc embryos, a developmental stage before the sexual differentiation. Thus, the sexual bias observed in the imprinted genes is most likely attributable by gonadal hormones rather than by sex chromosome complement. Overall, the results indicate that several imprinted genes are sexually different in terms of their expression levels, and further suggest that the transcriptional regulation of these imprinted genes may be influenced by unknown mechanisms associated with sexual differentiation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Designing multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels.

    PubMed

    Su, Whei Ming; Osisek, Paul J; Montgomery, Cynthia; Pellar, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    In the midst of a nursing faculty shortage, many academic institutions hire clinicians who are not formally prepared for an academic role. These novice faculty face an immediate need to develop teaching skills. One area in particular is test construction. To address this need, the authors describe how faculty from one course designed multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels and simultaneously achieved congruence with critical-thinking learning objectives defined by the course.

  9. Levels of Structural Integration and Facial Expressions of Negative Emotions.

    PubMed

    Bock, Astrid; Huber, Eva; Benecke, Cord

    2016-09-01

    For a clinically relevant understanding of facial displays of patients with mental disorders it is crucial to go beyond merely counting frequencies of facial expressions, but include the contextual information of the expression. We assume that patients with different levels of structural integration differ in the contextual embedding of their negative facial expressions of emotions. Facial affective behaviour of 80 female participants during an OPD interview was analysed using FACS (Facial Action Coding System) and the RFE coding system (Referencesof- Facial-Expression coding system; Bock et al. 2015).Using the RFE coding system, 2192 negative facial expressions of emotions were attributed to different references (e.g., interactive, self-related, object-related) by relying on contextual variables. Pure frequency of negative facial affect was not related to level of structural integration. Negative facial expressions of emotions directed towards the interviewer (interactive reference), as well as negative facial expressions directed towards the displayer's whole self were associated with lower levels of structural integration. In contrast, negative facial affects directed to single aspects of the self, to single aspects of objects, or to external situations were associated with higher levels of structural integration. The differentiation of references of facial affective behavior allows a deeper understanding of the connection between facial displays and structural levels of psychic integration.

  10. The timecourse of higher-level face aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Clifford, Colin W G; Leopold, David A

    2007-08-01

    Perceptual aftereffects for simple visual attributes processed early in the cortical hierarchy increase logarithmically with adapting duration and decay exponentially with test duration. This classic timecourse has been reported recently for a face identity aftereffect [Leopold, D. A., Rhodes, G., Müller, K.-M., & Jeffery, L. (2005). The dynamics of visual adaptation to faces. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 272, 897-904], suggesting that the dynamics of visual adaptation may be similar throughout the visual system. An alternative interpretation, however, is that the classic timecourse is a flow-on effect of adaptation of a low-level, retinotopic component of the face identity aftereffect. Here, we examined the timecourse of the higher-level (size-invariant) components of two face aftereffects, the face identity aftereffect and the figural face aftereffect. Both showed the classic pattern of logarithmic build-up and exponential decay. These results indicate that the classic timecourse of face aftereffects is not a flow-on effect of low-level retinotopic adaptation, and support the hypothesis that dynamics of visual adaptation are similar at higher and lower levels of the cortical visual hierarchy. They also reinforce the perceptual nature of face aftereffects, ruling out demand characteristics and other post-perceptual factors as plausible accounts.

  11. Bimodal expression level polymorphisms in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Nagano, Atsushi J.; Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Okuyama, Yudai; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2012-01-01

    Differences in gene expression are termed expression level polymorphisms (ELPs). Here, we propose a new ELP class, bimodal ELPs (bELPs), as a criterion to screen for genes that are responsible for natural phenotypic variation and/or that are targeted by balancing selection. bELP genes are characterized by two expression level modes. Genomic scans based on nucleotide sequences are not ideal for identifying genes targeted for selection. A critical concern is that several genes can be present in the selection-targeted regions identified by such scans. This situation indicates the importance of integrating genomic sequence data and other information, such as gene expression data. Comparative transcriptomics is useful for determining evolutionarily and ecologically important polymorphisms. In a genome-wide expression screen of 34 accessions, we identified 344 Arabidopsis thaliana genes exhibiting bELPs. Population genetic analysis revealed that bELP genes had high nucleotide diversities and long linkage disequilibriums. The highest nucleotide diversity (11-fold greater than the genomic mean) was found in the At1g23780 gene, which encodes a putative F-box protein. We observed a clear association between the expression mode and sequence type of the At1g23780 gene. Our results suggest that bELPs will be useful for the screening and functional analysis of genes responsible for phenotypic polymorphisms. Such a “multi-omics” approach has the potential to facilitate the scanning of genes relevant to balanced polymorphisms not only in A. thaliana, but also in other model and non-model organisms. PMID:22751308

  12. Light gazpachos contain higher phytochemical levels than conventional gazpachos.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2013-08-01

    Light gazpachos in comparison with conventional alternatives are interesting because of their low percentage of fat and high content of bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. An hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to identify those metabolites that have the greatest impact on the overall metabolic profile in light gazpachos as compared to conventional alternatives. Individual polyphenols were quantified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Data obtained revealed that light gazpachos displayed a higher significant phytochemical content than conventionally produced alternatives. The compounds found in significantly higher (p < 0.05) amounts in light versus conventional gazpachos were: caffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acids, caffeic and caffeic acid hexosides, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ferulic and ferulic acid hexosides, naringenin-7-O-glucoside, naringenin, rutin and quercetin. Light gazpachos may play a crucial role in terms of health benefits (lower fat and higher bioactive compound intake). Higher consumption levels of phenolic compounds, which are greater in light products, along with caloric restriction and physical activity may be helpful in preventing obesity.

  13. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparison of Artificial Subtle Expressions with Human-like Expressions on Expressing Confidence Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takanori; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Yamada, Seiji; Funakoshi, Kotaro; Nakano, Mikio

    Expressing the confidence level of a system's suggestions by using speech sounds is an important cue to users of the system for perceiving how likely it is for the suggestions to be correct. We assume that expressing confidence levels by using human-like expressions would cause users to have a poorer impression of the systems than if artificial subtle expressions (ASEs) were used when the quality of the presented information does not match the expressed confidence level. We confirmed that this assumption was correct by conducting a psychological experiment.

  15. Higher Level Visual Cortex Represents Retinotopic, Not Spatiotopic, Object Location

    PubMed Central

    Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The crux of vision is to identify objects and determine their locations in the environment. Although initial visual representations are necessarily retinotopic (eye centered), interaction with the real world requires spatiotopic (absolute) location information. We asked whether higher level human visual cortex—important for stable object recognition and action—contains information about retinotopic and/or spatiotopic object position. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging multivariate pattern analysis techniques, we found information about both object category and object location in each of the ventral, dorsal, and early visual regions tested, replicating previous reports. By manipulating fixation position and stimulus position, we then tested whether these location representations were retinotopic or spatiotopic. Crucially, all location information was purely retinotopic. This pattern persisted when location information was irrelevant to the task, and even when spatiotopic (not retinotopic) stimulus position was explicitly emphasized. We also conducted a “searchlight” analysis across our entire scanned volume to explore additional cortex but again found predominantly retinotopic representations. The lack of explicit spatiotopic representations suggests that spatiotopic object position may instead be computed indirectly and continually reconstructed with each eye movement. Thus, despite our subjective impression that visual information is spatiotopic, even in higher level visual cortex, object location continues to be represented in retinotopic coordinates. PMID:22190434

  16. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Robin MD; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf RP; Cardillo, Marcel; Liu, Fu-Guo Robert; Purvis, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Background The higher-level phylogeny of placental mammals has long been a phylogenetic Gordian knot, with disagreement about both the precise contents of, and relationships between, the extant orders. A recent MRP supertree that favoured 'outdated' hypotheses (notably, monophyly of both Artiodactyla and Lipotyphla) has been heavily criticised for including low-quality and redundant data. We apply a stringent data selection protocol designed to minimise these problems to a much-expanded data set of morphological, molecular and combined source trees, to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. Results The supertree is well-resolved and supports both polyphyly of Lipotyphla and paraphyly of Artiodactyla with respect to Cetacea. The existence of four 'superorders' – Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires – is also supported. The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular) phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more comprehensive, being the first phylogeny to include all 113 extant families without making a priori assumptions of suprafamilial monophyly. Subsidiary analyses reveal that the data selection protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. Conclusion The supertree should provide a useful framework for hypothesis testing in phylogenetic comparative biology, and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results demonstrate the importance of minimising poor and redundant data when constructing supertrees. PMID:17101039

  17. Heterophils isolated from chickens resistant to extra-intestinal Salmonella enteritidis infection express higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA following infection than heterophils from susceptible chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Pamela J.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Kaiser, Pete; Pevzner, Igal Y.; Kogut, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental (A > B) broilers and F1 reciprocal crosses (D > C). Our objectives were to (1) determine if in vitro variations translate to differences in resistance to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and (2) quantitate cytokine mRNA in heterophils from SE-infected chicks. One-day-old chicks were challenged and organs were cultured for SE. Chicks with efficient heterophils (A and D) were less susceptible to SE compared to chicks with inefficient heterophils (B and C). Heterophils were isolated from SE-infected chicks and cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was up-regulated in heterophils from SE-resistant chicks compared to susceptible chicks. This is the first report to quantitate cytokine mRNA in heterophils from SE-infected chicks. These data show a relationship between in vitro heterophil function, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression, and increased resistance to SE in 1-day-old chicks. PMID:15635959

  18. Higher brain BDNF gene expression is associated with slower cognitive decline in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lei; Boyle, Patricia A.; Schneider, Julie A.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We tested whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression levels are associated with cognitive decline in older adults. Methods: Five hundred thirty-five older participants underwent annual cognitive assessments and brain autopsy at death. BDNF gene expression was measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Linear mixed models were used to examine whether BDNF expression was associated with cognitive decline adjusting for age, sex, and education. An interaction term was added to determine whether this association varied with clinical diagnosis proximate to death (no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or dementia). Finally, we examined the extent to which the association of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology with cognitive decline varied by BDNF expression. Results: Higher brain BDNF expression was associated with slower cognitive decline (p < 0.001); cognitive decline was about 50% slower with the 90th percentile BDNF expression vs 10th. This association was strongest in individuals with dementia. The level of BDNF expression was lower in individuals with pathologic AD (p = 0.006), but was not associated with macroscopic infarcts, Lewy body disease, or hippocampal sclerosis. BDNF expression remained associated with cognitive decline in a model adjusting for age, sex, education, and neuropathologies (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the effect of AD pathology on cognitive decline varied by BDNF expression such that the effect was strongest for high levels of AD pathology (p = 0.015); thus, in individuals with high AD pathology (90th percentile), cognitive decline was about 40% slower with the 90th percentile BDNF expression vs 10th. Conclusions: Higher brain BDNF expression is associated with slower cognitive decline and may also reduce the deleterious effects of AD pathology on cognitive decline. PMID:26819457

  19. Higher brain BDNF gene expression is associated with slower cognitive decline in older adults.

    PubMed

    Buchman, Aron S; Yu, Lei; Boyle, Patricia A; Schneider, Julie A; De Jager, Philip L; Bennett, David A

    2016-02-23

    We tested whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression levels are associated with cognitive decline in older adults. Five hundred thirty-five older participants underwent annual cognitive assessments and brain autopsy at death. BDNF gene expression was measured in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Linear mixed models were used to examine whether BDNF expression was associated with cognitive decline adjusting for age, sex, and education. An interaction term was added to determine whether this association varied with clinical diagnosis proximate to death (no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment, or dementia). Finally, we examined the extent to which the association of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology with cognitive decline varied by BDNF expression. Higher brain BDNF expression was associated with slower cognitive decline (p < 0.001); cognitive decline was about 50% slower with the 90th percentile BDNF expression vs 10th. This association was strongest in individuals with dementia. The level of BDNF expression was lower in individuals with pathologic AD (p = 0.006), but was not associated with macroscopic infarcts, Lewy body disease, or hippocampal sclerosis. BDNF expression remained associated with cognitive decline in a model adjusting for age, sex, education, and neuropathologies (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the effect of AD pathology on cognitive decline varied by BDNF expression such that the effect was strongest for high levels of AD pathology (p = 0.015); thus, in individuals with high AD pathology (90th percentile), cognitive decline was about 40% slower with the 90th percentile BDNF expression vs 10th. Higher brain BDNF expression is associated with slower cognitive decline and may also reduce the deleterious effects of AD pathology on cognitive decline. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Cognition = life: Implications for higher-level cognition.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    1995-12-01

    Any global consideration of the theme 'Evolution and Cognition' requires a clear definition of what we mean by the term 'cognition'. In contemporary cognitive science, there are two distinct paradigms with contrasting definitions of cognition. The computational theory of mind is based on the syntaxical manipulation of symbolic representations; this paradigm is objectivist because the postulate of a unique independent reality is necessary as a referential basis for semantic grounding of the symbols. The alternative 'constructivist' paradigm is based on the biological metaphor 'cognition = life' and programmatically follows the evolution of cognition from bacteria to civilized humans; it is non-objectivist. There is a definite tendency to consider that the computational theory is appropriate for 'high-level' human cognition, whereas the constructivist approach is appropriate for 'low-level' cognition. This article argues against such a division of labour, since the issue of objectivism is a watershed which continues to demarcate the computational and constructivist paradigms in their respective approaches to higher-level cognition.

  1. Higher-level crustacean phylogeny: consensus and conflicting hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current hypotheses of higher-level crustacean phylogeny in order to assist and help focus further research. It concentrates on hypotheses proposed or debated in the recent literature based on morphological, molecular and combined evidence phylogenetic analyses. It can be concluded that crustacean phylogeny remains essentially unresolved. Conflict is rife, irrespective of whether one compares different morphological studies, molecular studies, or both. Using the number of recently proposed alternative sister group hypotheses for each of the major tetraconatan taxa as a rough estimate of phylogenetic uncertainty, it can be concluded that the phylogenetic position of Malacostraca remains the most problematic, closely followed by Branchiopoda, Cephalocarida, Remipedia, Ostracoda, Branchiura, Copepoda and Hexapoda. Future progress will depend upon a broader taxon sampling in molecular analyses, and the further exploration of new molecular phylogenetic markers. However, the need for continued revision and expansion of morphological datasets remains undiminished given the conspicuous lack of agreement between molecules and morphology for positioning several taxa. In view of the unparalleled morphological diversity of Crustacea, and the likely nesting of Hexapoda somewhere within Crustacea, working out a detailed phylogeny of Tetraconata is a crucial step towards understanding arthropod body plan evolution.

  2. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  3. Review of Alternative State-Level Higher Education Governance Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

    As part of the educational planning process, the Oregon State Board of Higher Education requested this review of alternative models for the Oregon University System (OUS). Staff of the Board of Higher Education synthesized existing literature on the variety of U.S. higher education governance structures, including newer models such as the public…

  4. Calcium regulates caveolin-1 expression at the transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Kan, Qi-Ming; Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Sato, Toshinori; Yamagata, Sadako; Yamagata, Tatsuya

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caveolin-1 expression is regulated by calcium signaling at the transcriptional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inhibitor of or siRNA to L-type calcium channel suppressed caveolin-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclosporine A or an NFAT inhibitor markedly reduced caveolin-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caveolin-1 regulation by calcium signaling is observed in several mouse cell lines. -- Abstract: Caveolin-1, an indispensable component of caveolae serving as a transformation suppressor protein, is highly expressed in poorly metastatic mouse osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells while highly metastatic FBJ-LL cells express low levels of caveolin-1. Calcium concentration is higher in FBJ-S1 cells than in FBJ-LL cells; therefore, we investigated the possibility that calcium signaling positively regulates caveolin-1 in mouse FBJ-S1 cells. When cells were treated with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), or INCA-6 (a nuclear factor of activated T-cells [NFAT] inhibitor), caveolin-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels decreased. RNA silencing of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C resulted in suppression of caveolin-1 expression. This novel caveolin-1 regulation pathway was also identified in mouse NIH 3T3 cells and Lewis lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that caveolin-1 is positively regulated at the transcriptional level through a novel calcium signaling pathway mediated by L-type calcium channel/Ca{sup 2+}/calcineurin/NFAT.

  5. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  6. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  7. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  8. Quadrupole mass spectrometer driver with higher signal levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Driving a quadrapole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  9. Leveling Device Design based on a higher deceleration mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, J. P.; Chen, P.; Chang, H.; Wang, C. C.; Lin, P. P.

    2016-12-01

    The design of the locking device in leveling system is an important issue for any kind of the field instruments, especially for the deep-sea instruments, like ocean bottom seismograph (OBS). Because of the unpredicted or uncertain seafloor bathymetry, the free-drop of OBS deployment needs the precise leveling system to calibrate the instrument to be horizontal or the specific angle. Therefore, the good/ well designs of the leveling system and the keeping/ locking of the leveling system are the first priority in the relevant instrument developing. According to the past experiments, the systematic angle error usually appears on the moment of the locking/ breaking action in leveling system which is based on gravitational force driven type. Thus, the high quality and standard of the breaking mechanisms are used to reduce the error. It also raises the expensive producing costs of the leveling system. In this study, we use the mechanical specialty of the worm, worm wheel and high reduction gearbox motor together to drive instrument platform. In this design, the platform can drive and lock at the same time. The combination of high precision leveling sensors and DC or stepper motor controllers can increase the precision in leveling device. This device has been tested on the Taiwan self-developed OBS and obtained the great results.

  10. Charting the course for nurses' achievement of higher education levels.

    PubMed

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol; Katigbak, Carina; Djukic, Maja; Fatehi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    To improve patient outcomes and meet the challenges of the U.S. health care system, the Institute of Medicine recommends higher educational attainment for the nursing workforce. Characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) who pursue additional education are poorly understood, and this information is critical to planning long-term strategies for U.S. nursing education. To identify factors predicting enrollment and completion of an additional degree among those with an associate or bachelor's as their pre-RN licensure degree, we performed logistic regression analysis on data from an ongoing nationally representative panel study following the career trajectories of newly licensed RNs. For associate degree RNs, predictors of obtaining a bachelor's degree are the following: being Black, living in a rural area, nonnursing work experience, higher positive affectivity, higher work motivation, working in the intensive care unit, and working the day shift. For bachelor's RNs, predictors of completing a master's degree are the following: being Black, nonnursing work experience, holding more than one job, working the day shift, working voluntary overtime, lower intent to stay at current employer, and higher work motivation. Mobilizing the nurse workforce toward higher education requires integrated efforts from policy makers, philanthropists, employers, and educators to mitigate the barriers to continuing education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher level trigger systems for the HERA-B experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dam, M.; Dippel, R.; Erhan, S.

    1998-08-01

    The HERA-B experiment is designed for observation of CP violation in the B-meson system at the HERA machine in DESY. The data acquisition and triggering system must cope with a half million detector channels, a 40 MHz interaction rate and a signal to background ratio of 10{sup {minus}10}. A highly selective multi-level trigger and high bandwidth data acquisition system has been designed and is currently being implemented. The second-level event buffer and mid-level trigger switch will be built from DSP boards carrying SHARC processors. The second and third level trigger code will run on a farm of 100--200 Pentium processors under Linux. The switch to the 4th level trigger farm will be based on Fast-Ethernet.

  12. Mitochondria from females exhibit higher antioxidant gene expression and lower oxidative damage than males.

    PubMed

    Borrás, Consuelo; Sastre, Juan; García-Sala, David; Lloret, Ana; Pallardó, Federico V; Viña, José

    2003-03-01

    We have investigated the differential mitochondrial oxidative stress between males and females to understand the molecular mechanisms enabling females to live longer than males. Mitochondria are a major source of free radicals in cells. Those from female rats generate half the amount of peroxides than those of males. This does not occur in ovariectomized animals. Estrogen replacement therapy prevents the effect of ovariectomy. Mitochondria from females have higher levels of reduced glutathione than those from males. Those from ovariectomized rats have similar levels to males, and estrogen therapy prevents the fall in glutathione levels that occurs in ovariectomized animals. Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in males is 4-fold higher than that in females. This is due to higher expression and activities of Mn-superoxide dismutase and of glutathione peroxidase in females, which behave as double transgenics overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, conferring protection against free-radical-mediated damage in aging. Moreover, 16S rRNA expression, which decreases significantly with aging, is four times higher in mitochondria from females than in those from males of the same chronological age. The facts reported here provide molecular evidence to explain the different life span in males and females.

  13. Citizen Engagement for Starlight~ Taking it to a higher level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Audrey Ann

    2015-08-01

    It is clearly evident that the time has come to dramatically increase the level of global citizen engagement for starlight restoration and light pollution abatement.Examining what has worked for other sucessful global campaigns, we'll share a leadership training corp program including a master power point that will be a living document, a truly global collaborative effort by light pollution abatement advocate groups and individuals that will be inclusive and responsive to the needs of current and future leaders... so that they may take activism to the next level... and starlight to the greatest level seen in decades. We can do this if we work together.

  14. Reaching Higher Ground: Parental Outreach Programs at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Celina; Marquez, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    In this follow-up study to "College Knowledge: What Latino Parents Need to Know and Why They Don't Know It," [see ED469295], the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute examines how postsecondary institutions are mobilizing to address the need for college information among Latino parents. The primary objective of "Reaching Higher Ground" is to profile in…

  15. Assessing Higher Level Learning: Developing Rubrics for Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochford, Linda; Borchert, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Case study analyses allow students to demonstrate proficiency in executing authentic tasks in marketing and management, facilitating faculty evaluation of higher order learning outcomes. Effective and consistent assessment of case analyses depends in large part on the development of sound rubrics. The authors explored the process of rubric…

  16. Assessing Higher Level Learning: Developing Rubrics for Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochford, Linda; Borchert, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Case study analyses allow students to demonstrate proficiency in executing authentic tasks in marketing and management, facilitating faculty evaluation of higher order learning outcomes. Effective and consistent assessment of case analyses depends in large part on the development of sound rubrics. The authors explored the process of rubric…

  17. E11, Romans theory and higher level duality relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter

    2017-02-01

    From the underlying nonlinear realisation, we compute the complete E11 invariant equations of motion in eleven dimensions, at the linearised level, up to and including level four in the fields. Thus, we include the metric, the three and six forms, the dual graviton and three fields at level four. The fields are linked by a set of duality equations, which are first-order in derivatives and transform into each other under the E11 symmetries. From these duality relations, we deduce second-order equations of motion, including those for the usual supergravity fields. As a result the on-shell degrees of freedom are those of the eleven-dimensional supergravity. We also show that the level four fields provide an eleven-dimensional origin of Romans theory and lead to a novel duality relation.

  18. Decreased expression of Klotho in cardiac atria biopsy samples from patients at higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, Giovanni; Pasini, Evasio; Scarabelli, Tiziano M; Romano, Claudia; Agrawal, Pratik R; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Knight, Richard; Saravolatz, Louis; Narula, Jagat; Ferrari-Vivaldi, Mario; Flati, Vincenzo; Assanelli, Deodato; Dioguardi, Francesco S

    2016-01-01

    Background Klotho proteins (α- and β) are membrane-based circulating proteins that regulate cell metabolism, as well as the lifespan modulating activity of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). Recent data has shown that higher plasma circulating Klotho levels reduce cardiovascular risk, suggesting Klotho has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, although so far it has been identified in various organs, it is unknown whether cardiomyocytes express Klotho and FGFs, and whether high cardiovascular risk could affect cardiac expression of Klotho, FGFs and other molecules. Methods We selected 20 patients with an estimated 10-year high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 age-matched control subjects with an estimated 10-year low risk undergone cardiac surgery for reasons other than coronary artery by-pass. In myocardial biopsies, we evaluated by immuno-histochemistry whether Klotho and FGFs were expressed in cardiomyocytes, and whether higher cardiovascular risk influenced the expression of other molecules involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Only cardiomyocytes of patients with a higher cardiovascular risk showed lower expression of Klotho, but higher expressions of FGFs. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was associated with increased expression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticular stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that Klotho proteins are expressed in human cardiomyocytes and that cardiac expression of Klotho is down-regulated in higher cardiovascular risk patients, while expression of stress-related molecules were significantly increased. PMID:27781061

  19. System-Level and Strategic Indicators for Monitoring Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi, Ed.; Kaiser, Frans, Ed.

    Papers in this collection result from the work carried out in the context of an Invitational Roundtable on System-Level Indicators for Higher/Tertiary Education organized by the European Centre for Higher Education (UNESCO-CEPES) and the Research Institute for Higher Education of Hiroshima University, Japan. Section 1, "The Roundtable--An…

  20. Putative transmembrane transporter modulates higher-level aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Chan, Yick-Bun; Kravitz, Edward A

    2017-02-28

    By selection of winners of dyadic fights for 35 generations, we have generated a hyperaggressive Bully line of flies that almost always win fights against the parental wild-type Canton-S stock. Maintenance of the Bully phenotype is temperature dependent during development, with the phenotype lost when flies are reared at 19 °C. No similar effect is seen with the parent line. This difference allowed us to carry out RNA-seq experiments and identify a limited number of genes that are differentially expressed by twofold or greater in the Bullies; one of these was a putative transmembrane transporter, CG13646, which showed consistent and reproducible twofold down-regulation in Bullies. We examined the causal effect of this gene on the phenotype with a mutant line for CG13646, and with an RNAi approach. In all cases, reduction in expression of CG13646 by approximately half led to a hyperaggressive phenotype partially resembling that seen in the Bully flies. This gene is a member of a very interesting family of solute carrier proteins (SLCs), some of which have been suggested as being involved in glutamine/glutamate and GABA cycles of metabolism in excitatory and inhibitory nerve terminals in mammalian systems.

  1. Putative transmembrane transporter modulates higher-level aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Budhaditya; Chan, Yick-Bun; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    By selection of winners of dyadic fights for 35 generations, we have generated a hyperaggressive Bully line of flies that almost always win fights against the parental wild-type Canton-S stock. Maintenance of the Bully phenotype is temperature dependent during development, with the phenotype lost when flies are reared at 19 °C. No similar effect is seen with the parent line. This difference allowed us to carry out RNA-seq experiments and identify a limited number of genes that are differentially expressed by twofold or greater in the Bullies; one of these was a putative transmembrane transporter, CG13646, which showed consistent and reproducible twofold down-regulation in Bullies. We examined the causal effect of this gene on the phenotype with a mutant line for CG13646, and with an RNAi approach. In all cases, reduction in expression of CG13646 by approximately half led to a hyperaggressive phenotype partially resembling that seen in the Bully flies. This gene is a member of a very interesting family of solute carrier proteins (SLCs), some of which have been suggested as being involved in glutamine/glutamate and GABA cycles of metabolism in excitatory and inhibitory nerve terminals in mammalian systems. PMID:28193893

  2. The higher you climb: Dark side personality and job level.

    PubMed

    Gøtzsche-Astrup, Oluf; Jakobsen, Joan; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the idea that there are dark side personality differences in the profiles of people at different levels in organizations. This study replicates and extends existing leadership research by focusing on self-defeating behavioral tendencies. A Danish consultancy provided data on 264 adults based on assessment reports. This paper explored linear and quadratic relationships between personality and de facto job level. More senior managers scored high on Cluster B/Moving Against Others scales of Bold, Colorful and Imaginative, and low on Cautious and Dutiful. These Danish data are compared to data from Great Britain and New Zealand which show very similar findings. Practice should take into account that dark side personality traits associated with an assertive, sometimes hostile, interpersonal orientation, predict leadership level up to a point.

  3. Higher Level Thinking, Writing, and Democracy among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In my work on the college's Committee on Multiculturalism and Ethnic Studies, I found that much of the written work done in our community college was based on lower level cognition, requiring none of the assessment or exploration that is emblematic of critical thought in a democracy. Most of the assignments asked students simply to recite…

  4. Higher Level Thinking, Writing, and Democracy among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In my work on the college's Committee on Multiculturalism and Ethnic Studies, I found that much of the written work done in our community college was based on lower level cognition, requiring none of the assessment or exploration that is emblematic of critical thought in a democracy. Most of the assignments asked students simply to recite…

  5. Development of Visual Literacy Levels Scale in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Rumiye; Nalinci, Gülbin Zeren

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale determining the visual literacy levels of university students. After reviewing the relevant literature a 75 item draft scale was prepared. The scale was applied to 3rd and 4th year students of Education Faculty of Amasya University. Non-functional items have been excluded from the scale as a result of…

  6. Higher expression of somatic repair genes in long-lived ant queens than workers

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Eric R.; Privman, Eyal; Keller, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why organisms senesce is a fundamental question in biology. One common explanation is that senescence results from an increase in macromolecular damage with age. The tremendous variation in lifespan between genetically identical queen and worker ants, ranging over an order of magnitude, provides a unique system to study how investment into processes of somatic maintenance and macromolecular repair influence lifespan. Here we use RNAseq to compare patterns of expression of genes involved in DNA and protein repair of age-matched queens and workers. There was no difference between queens and workers in 1-day-old individuals, but the level of expression of these genes increased with age and this up-regulation was greater in queens than in workers, resulting in significantly queen-biased expression in 2-month-old individuals in both legs and brains. Overall, these differences are consistent with the hypothesis that higher longevity is associated with increased investment into somatic repair. PMID:27617474

  7. Interpretant Levels Presented by Higher Education Students about the Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, Daniel Trevisan; Laburú, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the initial interpretant levels of the seasons of the year presented by students in a physics discipline of undergraduate course of a biological sciences degree at a state university of the south of Brazil. This study is qualitative, it analyzes textual oral representations and images about that astronomical phenomenon. It found that all students showed similar interpretant levels than those without any instruction, focusing their explanation of this concept in the variation of the distance between Earth and the Sun and indeterminate/confused representations. Another important result was the absence of a scientifically correct conception of the subject. The data from this study are in agreement with several studies on the weak training of science teachers in astronomy, and emphasizes the importance of both a re-structuration of the initial training of these future teachers, as well as the continuous teacher training of the working professional ones.

  8. Bcl-2 Allows Effector and Memory CD8+ T Cells To Tolerate Higher Expression of Bim

    PubMed Central

    Kurtulus, Sema; Tripathi, Pulak; Moreno-Fernandez, Maria E.; Sholl, Allyson; Katz, Jonathan D.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Hildeman, David A.

    2014-01-01

    As acute infections resolve, most effector CD8+ T cells die, whereas some persist and become memory T cells. Recent work showed that subsets of effector CD8+ T cells, identified by reciprocal expression of killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) and CD127, have different lifespans. Similar to previous reports, we found that effector CD8+ T cells reported to have a longer lifespan (i.e., KLRG1lowCD127high) have increased levels of Bcl-2 compared with their shorter-lived KLRG1highCD127low counterparts. Surprisingly, we found that these effector KLRG1lowCD127high CD8+ T cells also had increased levels of Bim compared with KLRG1highCD127low cells. Similar effects were observed in memory cells, in which CD8+ central memory T cells expressed higher levels of Bim and Bcl-2 than did CD8+ effector memory T cells. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we found that survival of both subsets of effector and memory CD8+ T cells required Bcl-2 to combat the proapoptotic activity of Bim. Interestingly, inhibition or absence of Bcl-2 led to significantly decreased expression of Bim in surviving effector and memory T cells. In addition, manipulation of Bcl-2 levels by IL-7 or IL-15 also affected expression of Bim in effector CD8+ T cells. Finally, we found that Bim levels were significantly increased in effector CD8+ T cells lacking Bax and Bak. Together, these data indicate that cells having the highest levels of Bim are selected against during contraction of the response and that Bcl-2 determines the level of Bim that effector and memory T cells can tolerate. PMID:21451108

  9. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research. PMID:24670764

  10. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Alistair R R; Kawaji, Hideya; Rehli, Michael; Baillie, J Kenneth; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Haberle, Vanja; Lassmann, Timo; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Lizio, Marina; Itoh, Masayoshi; Andersson, Robin; Mungall, Christopher J; Meehan, Terrence F; Schmeier, Sebastian; Bertin, Nicolas; Jørgensen, Mette; Dimont, Emmanuel; Arner, Erik; Schmidl, Christian; Schaefer, Ulf; Medvedeva, Yulia A; Plessy, Charles; Vitezic, Morana; Severin, Jessica; Semple, Colin A; Ishizu, Yuri; Young, Robert S; Francescatto, Margherita; Alam, Intikhab; Albanese, Davide; Altschuler, Gabriel M; Arakawa, Takahiro; Archer, John A C; Arner, Peter; Babina, Magda; Rennie, Sarah; Balwierz, Piotr J; Beckhouse, Anthony G; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Blake, Judith A; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, A Maxwell; Califano, Andrea; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Carbajo, Daniel; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans C; Dalla, Emiliano; Davis, Carrie A; Detmar, Michael; Diehl, Alexander D; Dohi, Taeko; Drabløs, Finn; Edge, Albert S B; Edinger, Matthias; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary C; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Favorov, Alexander V; Fisher, Malcolm E; Frith, Martin C; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furino, Masaaki; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B; Gibson, Andrew P; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Yuki; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Herlyn, Meenhard; Hitchens, Kelly J; Ho Sui, Shannan J; Hofmann, Oliver M; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Furni; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Jankovic, Boris R; Jia, Hui; Joshi, Anagha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kasianov, Artem S; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kempfle, Judith S; Kenna, Tony J; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, S Peter; Knox, Alan J; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kwon, Andrew T; Laros, Jeroen F J; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilje, Berit; Lipovich, Leonard; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Mar, Jessica C; Marchand, Benoit; Mathelier, Anthony; Mejhert, Niklas; Meynert, Alison; Mizuno, Yosuke; de Lima Morais, David A; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; van Nimwegen, Erik; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Noma, Shohei; Noazaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohimiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Persson, Helena; Piazza, Silvano; Prendergast, James G D; Rackham, Owen J L; Ramilowski, Jordan A; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Rye, Morten B; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sato, Hiroki; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schneider, Claudio; Schultes, Erik A; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G; Schwegmann, Anita; Sengstag, Thierry; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay W; Simon, Christophe; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaai; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Naoko; Swoboda, Rolf K; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Tagami, Michihira; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Thompson, Mark; Toyodo, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Elvind; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M; Verado, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Vorontsov, Ilya E; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine A; Winteringham, Louise N; Wolvetang, Ernst; Wood, Emily J; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Zabierowski, Susan E; Zhang, Peter G; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia; Summers, Kim M; Suzuki, Harukazu; Daub, Carsten O; Kawai, Jun; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Freeman, Tom C; Lenhard, Boris; Bajic, Vladimir B; Taylor, Martin S; Makeev, Vsevolod J; Sandelin, Albin; Hume, David A; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2014-03-27

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly 'housekeeping', whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  11. Higher urine desmosine levels are associated with mortality in patients with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Dana E.; Starcher, Barry; Eisner, Mark D.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Hayden, Doug L.; Church, Gwynne D.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Desmosine is a stable breakdown product of elastin that can be reliably measured in urine samples. We tested the hypothesis that higher baseline urine desmosine would be associated with higher mortality in 579 of 861 patients included in the recent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trial of lower tidal volume ventilation (1). We also correlated urine desmosine levels with indexes of disease severity. Finally, we assessed whether urine desmosine was lower in patients who received lower tidal volumes. Desmosine was measured by radioimmunoassay in urine samples from days 0, 1, and 3 of the study. The data were expressed as a ratio of urine desmosine to urine creatinine to control for renal dilution. The results show that higher baseline (day 0) urine desmosine-to-creatinine concentration was associated with a higher risk of death on adjusted analysis (odds ratio 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.82, P = 0.03). Urine desmosine increased in both ventilator groups from day 0 to day 3, but the average rise was higher in the 12-ml/kg predicted body weight group compared with the 6-ml/kg predicted body weight group (P = 0.053, repeated-measures model). In conclusion, patients with acute lung injury ventilated with lower tidal volumes have lower urine desmosine levels, a finding that may reflect reduced extracellular matrix breakdown. These results illustrate the value of evaluating urinary biological markers that may have prognostic and pathogenetic significance in acute lung injury. PMID:16698854

  12. Analysis of baseline gene expression levels from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The use of gene expression profiling to predict chemical mode of action would be enhanced by better characterization of variance due to individual, environmental, and technical factors. Meta-analysis of microarray data from untreated or vehicle-treated animals within the control arm of toxicogenomics studies has yielded useful information on baseline fluctuations in gene expression. A dataset of control animal microarray expression data was assembled by a working group of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's Technical Committee on the Application of Genomics in Mechanism Based Risk Assessment in order to provide a public resource for assessments of variability in baseline gene expression. Data from over 500 Affymetrix microarrays from control rat liver and kidney were collected from 16 different institutions. Thirty-five biological and technical factors were obtained for each animal, describing a wide range of study characteristics, and a subset were evaluated in detail for their contribution to total variability using multivariate statistical and graphical techniques. The study factors that emerged as key sources of variability included gender, organ section, strain, and fasting state. These and other study factors were identified as key descriptors that should be included in the minimal information about a toxicogenomics study needed for interpretation of results by an independent source. Genes that are the most and least variable, gender-selectiv

  13. A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Michael A.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Orrell, Thomas M.; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C.; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D.; Kirk, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a consensus classification of life to embrace the more than 1.6 million species already provided by more than 3,000 taxonomists’ expert opinions in a unified and coherent, hierarchically ranked system known as the Catalogue of Life (CoL). The intent of this collaborative effort is to provide a hierarchical classification serving not only the needs of the CoL’s database providers but also the diverse public-domain user community, most of whom are familiar with the Linnaean conceptual system of ordering taxon relationships. This classification is neither phylogenetic nor evolutionary but instead represents a consensus view that accommodates taxonomic choices and practical compromises among diverse expert opinions, public usages, and conflicting evidence about the boundaries between taxa and the ranks of major taxa, including kingdoms. Certain key issues, some not fully resolved, are addressed in particular. Beyond its immediate use as a management tool for the CoL and ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), it is immediately valuable as a reference for taxonomic and biodiversity research, as a tool for societal communication, and as a classificatory “backbone” for biodiversity databases, museum collections, libraries, and textbooks. Such a modern comprehensive hierarchy has not previously existed at this level of specificity. PMID:25923521

  14. A higher level classification of all living organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Michael A; Gordon, Dennis P; Orrell, Thomas M; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D; Kirk, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    We present a consensus classification of life to embrace the more than 1.6 million species already provided by more than 3,000 taxonomists' expert opinions in a unified and coherent, hierarchically ranked system known as the Catalogue of Life (CoL). The intent of this collaborative effort is to provide a hierarchical classification serving not only the needs of the CoL's database providers but also the diverse public-domain user community, most of whom are familiar with the Linnaean conceptual system of ordering taxon relationships. This classification is neither phylogenetic nor evolutionary but instead represents a consensus view that accommodates taxonomic choices and practical compromises among diverse expert opinions, public usages, and conflicting evidence about the boundaries between taxa and the ranks of major taxa, including kingdoms. Certain key issues, some not fully resolved, are addressed in particular. Beyond its immediate use as a management tool for the CoL and ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), it is immediately valuable as a reference for taxonomic and biodiversity research, as a tool for societal communication, and as a classificatory "backbone" for biodiversity databases, museum collections, libraries, and textbooks. Such a modern comprehensive hierarchy has not previously existed at this level of specificity.

  15. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees.

    PubMed

    Yanci, J; Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, J A

    2016-06-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests.

  16. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  17. DNA replication timing influences gene expression level

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are replicated in a reproducible temporal order; however, the physiological significance is poorly understood. We compared replication timing in divergent yeast species and identified genomic features with conserved replication times. Histone genes were among the earliest replicating loci in all species. We specifically delayed the replication of HTA1-HTB1 and discovered that this halved the expression of these histone genes. Finally, we showed that histone and cell cycle genes in general are exempt from Rtt109-dependent dosage compensation, suggesting the existence of pathways excluding specific loci from dosage compensation mechanisms. Thus, we have uncovered one of the first physiological requirements for regulated replication time and demonstrated a direct link between replication timing and gene expression. PMID:28539386

  18. Could Low Vitamin D Levels at Birth Mean Higher MS Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162317.html Could Low Vitamin D Levels at Birth Mean Higher MS Risk? Perhaps, ... HealthDay News) -- Newborns with low levels of vitamin D may have higher odds of developing multiple sclerosis ( ...

  19. High VEGFR1/2 expression levels are predictors of poor survival in patients with cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yun-Zhi; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jian-Ping; Hu, Jing; Li, Wei-Wei; Li, Pei; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study to evaluate the prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 and 2 (VEGFR1/2) expression levels and to correlate these levels with clinicopathological parameters in patients with cervical cancer. Forty-two patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIB–IVB cervical cancer were analyzed between January 2011 and December 2012. RNA expression levels of VEGFR1/2 were assessed by branched DNA-liquidchip technology and immunohistochemistry. Associations between RNA expression levels, important clinicopathological parameters, and patient survival were statistically evaluated. Higher VEGFR1/2 expression levels were predictive of poor overall survival (P = 0.009 and P = 0.024, respectively). Patients with higher VEGFR1 expression levels were associated with poorer progression-free survival than those with lower VEGFR1 expression levels (P = 0.043). In addition, patients with higher VEGFR1 expression levels were more likely to develop distant metastases than those with lower VEGFR1 expression levels (P = 0.049). Higher VEGFR2 expression levels were associated with larger tumor size (P = 0.037). VEGFR1/2 expression levels were prognostic factors for patients with cervical cancer. Higher VEGFR1/2 expression levels were also predictive of poor overall survival. PMID:28072723

  20. Comprehensive analysis of Arabidopsis expression level polymorphisms with simple inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Plantegenet, Stephanie; Weber, Johann; Goldstein, Darlene R; Zeller, Georg; Nussbaumer, Cindy; Thomas, Jérôme; Weigel, Detlef; Harshman, Keith; Hardtke, Christian S

    2009-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, gene expression level polymorphisms (ELPs) between natural accessions that exhibit simple, single locus inheritance are promising quantitative trait locus (QTL) candidates to explain phenotypic variability. It is assumed that such ELPs overwhelmingly represent regulatory element polymorphisms. However, comprehensive genome-wide analyses linking expression level, regulatory sequence and gene structure variation are missing, preventing definite verification of this assumption. Here, we analyzed ELPs observed between the Eil-0 and Lc-0 accessions. Compared with non-variable controls, 5′ regulatory sequence variation in the corresponding genes is indeed increased. However, ∼42% of all the ELP genes also carry major transcription unit deletions in one parent as revealed by genome tiling arrays, representing a >4-fold enrichment over controls. Within the subset of ELPs with simple inheritance, this proportion is even higher and deletions are generally more severe. Similar results were obtained from analyses of the Bay-0 and Sha accessions, using alternative technical approaches. Collectively, our results suggest that drastic structural changes are a major cause for ELPs with simple inheritance, corroborating experimentally observed indel preponderance in cloned Arabidopsis QTL. PMID:19225455

  1. 48 CFR 46.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Examples of higher-level quality standards are ISO 9001, 9002, or 9003; ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001-2000; ANSI/ASQC... quality requirements. (a) Requiring compliance with higher-level quality standards is appropriate in... personnel, finds it is in the Government's interest to require that higher-level quality standards be...

  2. 48 CFR 46.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Examples of higher-level quality standards are ISO 9001, 9002, or 9003; ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001-2000; ANSI/ASQC... quality requirements. (a) Requiring compliance with higher-level quality standards is appropriate in... personnel, finds it is in the Government's interest to require that higher-level quality standards be...

  3. 48 CFR 246.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quality requirements. 246.202-4 Section 246.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Requirements 246.202-4 Higher-level contract quality requirements. (1) Higher-level contract quality requirements are used in addition to a standard inspection requirement. (2) Higher-level contract quality...

  4. 78 FR 72620 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... RIN 9000-AM65 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirements AGENCY... Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to clarify when to use higher-level quality standards in solicitations and contracts, and to update the examples of higher-level quality standards by revising obsolete standards and...

  5. Lower- and higher-level models of right hemisphere language. A selective survey.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The models advanced to explain right hemisphere (RH) language function can be divided into two main types. According to the older (lower-level) models, RH language reflects the ontogenesis of conceptual and semantic-lexical development; the more recent models, on the other hand, suggest that the RH plays an important role in the use of higher-level language functions, such as metaphors, to convey complex, abstract concepts. The hypothesis that the RH may be preferentially involved in processing the semantic-lexical components of language was advanced by Zaidel in splitbrain patients and his model was confirmed by neuropsychological investigations, proving that right brain-damaged patients show selective semanticlexical disorders. The possible links between lower and higher levels of RH language are discussed, as is the hypothesis that the RH may have privileged access to the figurative aspects of novel metaphorical expressions, whereas conventionalization of metaphorical meaning could be a bilaterally-mediated process involving abstract semantic-lexical codes.

  6. Lower- and higher-level models of right hemisphere language. A selective survey

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Summary The models advanced to explain right hemisphere (RH) language function can be divided into two main types. According to the older (lower-level) models, RH language reflects the ontogenesis of conceptual and semantic-lexical development; the more recent models, on the other hand, suggest that the RH plays an important role in the use of higher-level language functions, such as metaphors, to convey complex, abstract concepts. The hypothesis that the RH may be preferentially involved in processing the semantic-lexical components of language was advanced by Zaidel in split-brain patients and his model was confirmed by neuropsychological investigations, proving that right brain-damaged patients show selective semantic-lexical disorders. The possible links between lower and higher levels of RH language are discussed, as is the hypothesis that the RH may have privileged access to the figurative aspects of novel metaphorical expressions, whereas conventionalization of metaphorical meaning could be a bilaterally-mediated process involving abstract semantic-lexical codes. PMID:27358218

  7. Synthetic pillows contain higher levels of cat and dog allergen than feather pillows.

    PubMed

    Custovic, A; Hallam, C; Woodcock, H; Simpson, B; Houghton, N; Simpson, A; Woodcock, A

    2000-05-01

    The use of non-feather pillows has increased over the last few decades. Recently, we found significantly higher levels of dust mite allergens in synthetic pillows than in feather ones. This study investigated the levels of pet allergens in feather and synthetic pillows. Dust samples were collected from 14 pairs of pillows (consisting of one synthetic fibre-filled and one feather-filled). Each pair of pillows had been on the same bed for at least 2 years. The pillows were vacuumed for 1 min on each side through a 355-microm diameter mesh onto a 5-microm vinyl filter, producing a sample of fine dust. Samples were extracted, and cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergens determined using monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results were expressed both as total amount of allergen recovered and concentration of allergen per unit weight (ng/g). Total levels of pet allergens were significantly higher in the synthetic pillows (Fel d 1: 6.7-fold difference [95% CI 1.5-29.7], p=0.01; Can f 1: 8-fold difference [95% CI 1.6-39.5], p=0.01). Similarly, when the results were expressed as ng/g, synthetic pillows contained significantly more allergens than feather pillows (Fel d 1: 3.7-fold difference [95% CI 1.3-10.1], p=0.01); Can f 1: 4.4-fold difference [95% CI 1.5-13.2], p=0.01). We have therefore demonstrated that synthetic pillows contain significantly more pet allergens than feather pillows, supporting the view that tightly woven encasements surrounding feather pillows act as a barrier for allergens.

  8. Motor Axon Synapses on Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels of Aspartate than Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Dannette S.; Griffith, Ronald W.; Romer, Shannon H.; Alvarez, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw cell dendrites. The results show that 71% to 80% of motor axon synaptic boutons on Renshaw cells contained aspartate immunolabeling two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling. Moreover, VAChT-IR synapses on Renshaw cells contained, on average, aspartate immunolabeling at 2.5 to 2.8 times above the average neuropil level. In contrast, glutamate enrichment was lower; 21% to 44% of VAChT-IR synapses showed glutamate-IR two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling and average glutamate immunogold density was 1.7 to 2.0 times the neuropil level. The results were not influenced by antibody affinities because glutamate antibodies detected glutamate-enriched brain homogenates more efficiently than aspartate antibodies detecting aspartate-enriched brain homogenates. Furthermore, synaptic boutons with ultrastructural features of Type I excitatory synapses were always labeled by glutamate antibodies at higher density than motor axon synapses. We conclude that motor axon synapses co-express aspartate and glutamate, but aspartate is concentrated at higher levels than glutamate. PMID:24816812

  9. Motor axon synapses on renshaw cells contain higher levels of aspartate than glutamate.

    PubMed

    Richards, Dannette S; Griffith, Ronald W; Romer, Shannon H; Alvarez, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw cell dendrites. The results show that 71% to 80% of motor axon synaptic boutons on Renshaw cells contained aspartate immunolabeling two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling. Moreover, VAChT-IR synapses on Renshaw cells contained, on average, aspartate immunolabeling at 2.5 to 2.8 times above the average neuropil level. In contrast, glutamate enrichment was lower; 21% to 44% of VAChT-IR synapses showed glutamate-IR two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling and average glutamate immunogold density was 1.7 to 2.0 times the neuropil level. The results were not influenced by antibody affinities because glutamate antibodies detected glutamate-enriched brain homogenates more efficiently than aspartate antibodies detecting aspartate-enriched brain homogenates. Furthermore, synaptic boutons with ultrastructural features of Type I excitatory synapses were always labeled by glutamate antibodies at higher density than motor axon synapses. We conclude that motor axon synapses co-express aspartate and glutamate, but aspartate is concentrated at higher levels than glutamate.

  10. Correlation between liver cancer pain and the HIF-1 and VEGF expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Geng; Feng, Gui-Yin; Guo, Yan-Ru; Liang, Dong-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Hai-Lun

    2017-01-01

    A possible correlation between liver cancer pain and the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression levels was examined. From January, 2015 to January, 2016, 30 patients suffering from liver cancer with pain, 30 patients with liver cancer without pain and 30 hepatitis patients with pain were enrolled in the study. Pain level was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), the expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA were determined by RT-PCR and the expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF proteins were examined by ELISA. Before intervention, the VAS in the hepatitis group was significantly higher than that of the liver cancer pain group. However, after intervention the VAS in the two groups was reduced. HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA expression levels in the liver cancer pain group were significantly higher than those in the liver cancer group before and after intervention. The expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA in the hepatitis group were the lowest. The expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA in the liver cancer pain group considerably increased after intervention. The expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF mRNA in the other two groups showed no changes before or after intervention. Before and after the intervention, VAS in the liver cancer pain group was positively correlated to the expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF. Thus, pain occurrence and the pain level in liver cancer patients were correlated with the expression levels of HIF-1 and VEGF. As the regular three-step medicine analgesic ladder is ineffective in these cases, verification of HIF-1 and VEGF expression levels may be considered the new target for pain release. PMID:28123525

  11. Obese patients have higher circulating protein levels of dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Teuffel, Pauline; Hofmann, Tobias; Buße, Petra; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F

    2014-11-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a protease with broad distribution involved in various homeostatic processes such as immune defense, psychoneuroendocrine functions and nutrition. While DPPIV protein levels were investigated in patients with hyporectic disorders, less is known under conditions of obesity. Therefore, we investigated DPPIV across a broad range of body mass index (BMI). Blood samples from hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2)), anorexia nervosa (BMI <17.5 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI 30-40, 40-50 and >50 kg/m(2), n = 15/group) were tested cross-sectionally and DPPIV concentration and total enzyme activity and the DPPIV targets, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) were measured. DPPIV protein expression was detected in human plasma indicated by a strong band at the expected size of 110 kDa and another major band at 50 kDa, likely representing a fragment comprised of two heavy chains. Obese patients had higher DPPIV protein levels compared to normal weight and anorexics (+50%, p<0.05) resulting in a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.34, p = 0.004). DPPIV serum activity was similar in all groups (p>0.05), while the concentration/activity ratio was higher in obese patients (p<0.05). Plasma PP levels were highest in anorexic patients (∼ 2-fold increase compared to other groups, p<0.05), whereas GLP-1 did not differ among groups (p<0.05). Taken together, circulating DPPIV protein levels depend on body weight with increased levels in obese resulting in an increased concentration/activity ratio. Since DPPIV deactivates food intake-inhibitory hormones like PP, an increased DPPIV concentration/activity ratio might contribute to reduced food intake-inhibitory signaling under conditions of obesity.

  12. The Neuromuscular Qualities of Higher- and Lower-Level Mixed-Martial-Arts Competitors.

    PubMed

    James, Lachlan P; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether the maximal strength, impulse, and power characteristics of competitive mixed-martial-arts (MMA) athletes differ according to competition level. Twenty-nine male semiprofessional and amateur MMA competitors were stratified into either higher-level (HL) or lower-level (LL) performers on the basis of competition grade and success. The 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) squat was used to assess lower-body dynamic strength, and a spectrum of impulse, power, force, and velocity variables were evaluated during an incremental-load jump squat. In addition, participants performed an isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and 1RM bench press to determine whole-body isometric force and upper-body dynamic strength capabilities, respectively. All force and power variables were expressed relative to body mass (BM). The HL competitors produced significantly superior values across a multitude of measures. These included 1RM squat strength (1.84 ± 0.23 vs 1.56 ± 0.24 kg BM; P = .003), in addition to performance in the incremental-load jump squat that revealed greater peak power (P = .005-.002), force (P = .002-.004), and velocity (P = .002-.03) at each load. Higher measures of impulse (P = .01-.04) were noted in a number of conditions. Average power (P = .002-.02) and velocity (P = .01-.04) at all loads in addition to a series of rate-dependent measures were also superior in the HL group (P = .005-.02). The HL competitors' 1RM bench-press values approached significantly greater levels (P = .056) than the LL group's, but IMTP performance did not differ between groups. Maximal lower-body neuromuscular capabilities are key attributes distinguishing HL from LL MMA competitors. This information can be used to inform evidenced-based training and performance-monitoring practices.

  13. GEMS: Gifted Education Module System. Higher Level Thinking in the Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hilarie; And Others

    The curriculum, designed for use with gifted students at the junior high level, presents units of instruction which emphasize the higher level thinking skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. An introductory section explains each of the three higher level skills and presents tasks illustrating each one. Four units are presented, complete…

  14. Predictors of Placement in Lower Level versus Higher Level High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archbald, Doug; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth N.

    2012-01-01

    Educators and researchers have long been interested in determinants of access to honors level and college prep courses in high school. Factors influencing access to upper level mathematics courses are particularly important because of the hierarchical and sequential nature of this subject and because students who finish high school with only lower…

  15. Autoregressive Higher-Order Hidden Markov Models: Exploiting Local Chromosomal Dependencies in the Analysis of Tumor Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael; Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil; Friedrich, Betty; Klink, Barbara; Deutsch, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Changes in gene expression programs play a central role in cancer. Chromosomal aberrations such as deletions, duplications and translocations of DNA segments can lead to highly significant positive correlations of gene expression levels of neighboring genes. This should be utilized to improve the analysis of tumor expression profiles. Here, we develop a novel model class of autoregressive higher-order Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) that carefully exploit local data-dependent chromosomal dependencies to improve the identification of differentially expressed genes in tumor. Autoregressive higher-order HMMs overcome generally existing limitations of standard first-order HMMs in the modeling of dependencies between genes in close chromosomal proximity by the simultaneous usage of higher-order state-transitions and autoregressive emissions as novel model features. We apply autoregressive higher-order HMMs to the analysis of breast cancer and glioma gene expression data and perform in-depth model evaluation studies. We find that autoregressive higher-order HMMs clearly improve the identification of overexpressed genes with underlying gene copy number duplications in breast cancer in comparison to mixture models, standard first- and higher-order HMMs, and other related methods. The performance benefit is attributed to the simultaneous usage of higher-order state-transitions in combination with autoregressive emissions. This benefit could not be reached by using each of these two features independently. We also find that autoregressive higher-order HMMs are better able to identify differentially expressed genes in tumors independent of the underlying gene copy number status in comparison to the majority of related methods. This is further supported by the identification of well-known and of previously unreported hotspots of differential expression in glioblastomas demonstrating the efficacy of autoregressive higher-order HMMs for the analysis of individual tumor expression

  16. The Level of Expressed Emotion Scale: A Useful Measure of Expressed Emotion in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelis, Sharon M.; Rae, Gordon; Liddell, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that self-report measures of expressed emotion (EE) may be employed as a proxy measure of environmental stress in the home. The appropriateness of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale as a measure of perceived expressed emotion was examined in a sample of adolescents. Participants were 239 male and 422 female adolescents…

  17. Pathway level analysis of gene expression using singular value decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Tomfohr, John; Lu, Jun; Kepler, Thomas B

    2005-01-01

    Background A promising direction in the analysis of gene expression focuses on the changes in expression of specific predefined sets of genes that are known in advance to be related (e.g., genes coding for proteins involved in cellular pathways or complexes). Such an analysis can reveal features that are not easily visible from the variations in the individual genes and can lead to a picture of expression that is more biologically transparent and accessible to interpretation. In this article, we present a new method of this kind that operates by quantifying the level of 'activity' of each pathway in different samples. The activity levels, which are derived from singular value decompositions, form the basis for statistical comparisons and other applications. Results We demonstrate our approach using expression data from a study of type 2 diabetes and another of the influence of cigarette smoke on gene expression in airway epithelia. A number of interesting pathways are identified in comparisons between smokers and non-smokers including ones related to nicotine metabolism, mucus production, and glutathione metabolism. A comparison with results from the related approach, 'gene-set enrichment analysis', is also provided. Conclusion Our method offers a flexible basis for identifying differentially expressed pathways from gene expression data. The results of a pathway-based analysis can be complementary to those obtained from one more focused on individual genes. A web program PLAGE (Pathway Level Analysis of Gene Expression) for performing the kinds of analyses described here is accessible at . PMID:16156896

  18. Sequence determinants of prokaryotic gene expression level under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Heng; Yang, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Pan; He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2014-11-01

    Prokaryotic gene expression is environment-dependent and temperature plays an important role in shaping the gene expression profile. Revealing the regulation mechanisms of gene expression pertaining to temperature has attracted tremendous efforts in recent years particularly owning to the yielding of transcriptome and proteome data by high-throughput techniques. However, most of the previous works concentrated on the characterization of the gene expression profile of individual organism and little effort has been made to disclose the commonality among organisms, especially for the gene sequence features. In this report, we collected the transcriptome and proteome data measured under heat stress condition from recently published literature and studied the sequence determinants for the expression level of heat-responsive genes on multiple layers. Our results showed that there indeed exist commonness and consistent patterns of the sequence features among organisms for the differentially expressed genes under heat stress condition. Some features are attributed to the requirement of thermostability while some are dominated by gene function. The revealed sequence determinants of bacterial gene expression level under heat stress complement the knowledge about the regulation factors of prokaryotic gene expression responding to the change of environmental conditions. Furthermore, comparisons to thermophilic adaption have been performed to reveal the similarity and dissimilarity of the sequence determinants for the response to heat stress and for the adaption to high habitat temperature, which elucidates the complex landscape of gene expression related to the same physical factor of temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. TIGIT expression levels on human NK cells correlate with functional heterogeneity among healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Hou, Hongyan; Wu, Shiji; Tang, Qing; Liu, Weiyong; Huang, Min; Yin, Botao; Huang, Jing; Mao, Lie; Lu, Yanfang; Sun, Ziyong

    2015-10-01

    Human NK cells display extensive phenotypic and functional heterogeneity among healthy individuals, but the mechanism responsible for this variation is still largely unknown. Here, we show that a novel immune receptor, T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), is expressed preferentially on human NK cells but shows wide variation in its expression levels among healthy individuals. We found that the TIGIT expression level is related to the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of NK cells, and that NK cells from healthy individuals can be divided into three categories according to TIGIT expression. NK cells with low levels of TIGIT expression show higher cytokine secretion capability, degranulation activity, and cytotoxic potential than NK cells with high levels of TIGIT expression. Blockade of the TIGIT pathway significantly increased NK-cell function, particularly in NK cells with high levels of TIGIT expression. We further observed that the TIGIT expression level was inversely correlated with the IFN-γ secretion capability of NK cells in patients with cancers and autoimmune diseases. Importantly, we propose a novel mechanism that links TIGIT expression with NK-cell functional heterogeneity, and this mechanism might partially explain why individuals have different susceptibilities to infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer.

  20. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  1. Analysis of gelsolin expression pattern in developing chicken embryo reveals high GSN expression level in tissues of neural crest origin.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Antonina Joanna; Morosan-Puopolo, Gabriela; Makowiecka, Aleksandra; Malicka-Błaszkiewicz, Maria; Nowak, Dorota; Brand-Saberi, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Gelsolin is one of the most intensively studied actin-binding proteins. However, in the literature comprehensive studies of GSN expression during development have not been performed yet in all model organisms. In zebrafish, gelsolin is a dorsalizing factor that modulates bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathways, whereas knockout of the gelsolin coding gene, GSN is not lethal in murine model. To study the role of gelsolin in development of higher vertebrates, it is crucial to estimate GSN expression pattern during development. Here, we examined GSN expression in the developing chicken embryo. We applied numerous methods to track GSN expression in developing embryos at mRNA and protein level. We noted a characteristic GSN expression pattern. Although GSN transcripts were present in several cell types starting from early developmental stages, a relatively high GSN expression was observed in eye, brain vesicles, midbrain, neural tube, heart tube, and splanchnic mesoderm. In older embryos, we observed a high GSN expression in the cranial ganglia and dorsal root ganglia. A detailed analysis of 10-day-old chicken embryos revealed high amounts of gelsolin especially within the head region: in the olfactory and optic systems, meninges, nerves, muscles, presumptive pituitary gland, and pericytes, but not oligodendrocytes in the brain. Obtained results suggest that GSN is expressed at high levels in some tissues of ectodermal origin including all neural crest derivatives. Additionally, we describe that silencing of GSN expression in brain vesicles leads to altered morphology of the mesencephalon. This implies gelsolin is crucial for chicken brain development.

  2. A Paradox in Individual Versus National Mental Health Vulnerability: Are Higher Resource Levels Associated With Higher Disorder Prevalence?

    PubMed

    Dückers, Michel L A; Brewin, Chris R

    2016-12-01

    An earlier study (Dückers, Alisic, & Brewin, 2016) found that countries with greater social and economic resources were characterized by a higher lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we present a similar analysis of national population survey data to examine this vulnerability paradox in relation to other disorders. We predicted the lifetime prevalence of any mental health disorder (i.e., anxiety, mood, substance, and externalizing disorders) in 17 countries based on trauma exposure and country vulnerability data. A substantial proportion of variance in all disorder categories, 32.9% to 53.9%, could be explained by trauma exposure. Explained variance increased by 5 and up to 40 percentage points after adding the variable of vulnerability to the equation. Higher exposure and lower vulnerability levels were accompanied by a higher prevalence in any mental disorder, with the largest effect size in mood disorders (R(2) = .76). The interaction between exposure and vulnerability did not explain significant additional variance as it did for PTSD. Because a PTSD diagnosis links psychological, physical, and functional symptoms explicitly to trauma exposure, this might mean that populations in less-vulnerable countries are more likely to attribute health complaints to exposure. The results of this study suggest that country-level data can help to better explain the multilayered mechanisms of resilience and vulnerability in the context of trauma. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. 48 CFR 46.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... quality requirements. 46.202-4 Section 46.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 46.202-4 Higher-level contract quality requirements. (a) Requiring compliance with higher-level quality standards is appropriate in...

  4. 48 CFR 52.246-11 - Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement. 52.246-11 Section 52.246-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... with the higher-level quality standard selected below. Title Number Date Tailoring (End of clause) ...

  5. Role of Distance Education in the Expansion of Female Education Higher Level in Pakistan: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sufiana K.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper investigated the role of distance education in the expansion of educational facilities for females at higher levels of education in Pakistan. The findings of the study report that distance education is playing a vital role in the expansion of female education at higher level as such females who, due to some personal or social…

  6. 48 CFR 46.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Examples of higher-level quality standards are ISO 9001, 9002, or 9003; ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001-2000; ANSI/ASQC... quality requirements. 46.202-4 Section 46.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 46.202-4 Higher-level...

  7. 48 CFR 46.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Examples of higher-level quality standards are ISO 9001, 9002, or 9003; ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q9001-2000; ANSI/ASQC... quality requirements. 46.202-4 Section 46.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 46.202-4 Higher-level...

  8. 48 CFR 52.246-11 - Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Quality Requirement. 52.246-11 Section 52.246-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.246-11 Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement. As prescribed in 46.311, insert the following clause: Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement (FEB 1999) The Contractor shall comply...

  9. 48 CFR 46.311 - Higher-level contract quality requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quality requirement. 46.311 Section 46.311 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... requirement. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-11, Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement, in solicitations and contracts when the inclusion of a higher-level contract quality requirement...

  10. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  11. Multi-domain, Higher Order Level Set Scheme for 3D Image Segmentation on the GPU.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2010-06-13

    Level set method based segmentation provides an efficient tool for topological and geometrical shape handling. Conventional level set surfaces are only C(0) continuous since the level set evolution involves linear interpolation to compute derivatives. Bajaj et al. present a higher order method to evaluate level set surfaces that are C(2) continuous, but are slow due to high computational burden. In this paper, we provide a higher order GPU based solver for fast and efficient segmentation of large volumetric images. We also extend the higher order method to multi-domain segmentation. Our streaming solver is efficient in memory usage.

  12. Expression levels of microRNA-375 in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Shiduo; Zhou, Jian; He, Songbing; Zhu, Dongming; Zhang, Zixiang; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Yi; Li, Dechun

    2013-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs of endogenous origin that have been increasingly shown to have altered expressions in various cancer types. The expression levels of miR-375 have not been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer. In this study, total RNA was extracted from 44 pairs of pancreatic cancer tissues and non-tumor adjacent tissues, as well as from four pancreatic cancer cell lines, Panc-1, SW1990, BxpC3 and Patu8988. Following polyadenylation and reverse transcription, the expression levels of miR-375 were determined by real-time PCR and the difference in expression was calculated using the 2(-ΔΔCt) method. The correlation between the expression levels of miR-375 and clinicopathological characteristics of pancreatic cancer was also assessed. miR-375 expression was frequently downregulated in the pancreatic cancer tissues compared to their non-tumor counterparts (P<0.05; paired t-test). Moreover, a significantly low expression of miR-375 was found in the pancreatic cancer cell lines (Panc-1, P=0.016; SW1990, P=0.016; BxPC3, P=0.018; Patu8988, P=0.017; paired t-test). However, no significant correlations were observed between the low expression of miR-375 and parameters including gender, age, tumor size, tumor location and histological grade (P>0.05). The low expression of miR-375 was correlated with pT stage, lymph node metastases and pTNM stage (P<0.05) (non-parametric test; Mann-Whitney U test between 2 groups and Kruskal-Wallis H test for ≥3 groups). In conclusion, miR-375 is potentially involved in the carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancers and serves as is a potential biomarker for pancreatic cancer.

  13. Materials for high-density electronic packaging and interconnections in the higher packaging levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, C. A.

    1989-03-01

    This paper concentrates on the materials requirements anticipated for future packaging strategies of electronic components beyond the 1st level package. This includes Wafer Scale Integration (Level 0), hybrid assembly of bare chips in multichip modules (Level 1.5), printed wiring board (PWB) assembly, including surface mount (Level 2), and higher levels (connectors, mother boards, and cables). Furthermore, high-performance digital VLSI logic packaging only is addressed, to the exclusion of memory, analog, and power circuitry (except power supplies).

  14. Prognostic correlation between MTA2 expression level and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weijun; Hu, Wei; Yang, Haihua; Ying, Ting; Tian, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Association of MTA2 expression with presence, development, metastasis and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) was investigated. 90 CRC-related cases with follow-up information were made into tissue microarrays according to the paired principle of cancer tissues and the adjacent tissues. Subsequently, the expression of MAT2 was detected with immunohistochemical analysis and SPSS software was finally utilized to analyze the relationships between experimental data and clinical indicatives. Expression of MTA2 in CRC tissues were notably higher than their adjacent tissues (P < 0.001) and showed significant positive correlation with tumor grade (r(2) > 0, P < 0.01). Moreover, survival analysis indicated that MTA2 expression in cancer tissues, serving as an independent correlation factor, was significantly correlated with poor prognosis (P = 0.004). MTA2 is a crucial biomarker that is closely related with prognosis of CRC and also a potential molecular target for evaluating the prognosis and treatment of CRC.

  15. Translational signatures and mRNA levels are highly correlated in human stably expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Line, Sergio R P; Liu, Xiaoming; de Souza, Ana Paula; Yu, Fuli

    2013-04-19

    Gene expression is one of the most relevant biological processes of living cells. Due to the relative small population sizes, it is predicted that human gene sequences are not strongly influenced by selection towards expression efficiency. One of the major problems in estimating to what extent gene characteristics can be selected to maximize expression efficiency is the wide variation that exists in RNA and protein levels among physiological states and different tissues. Analyses of datasets of stably expressed genes (i.e. with consistent expression between physiological states and tissues) would provide more accurate and reliable measurements of associations between variations of a specific gene characteristic and expression, and how distinct gene features work to optimize gene expression. Using a dataset of human genes with consistent expression between physiological states we selected gene sequence signatures related to translation that can predict about 42% of mRNA variation. The prediction can be increased to 51% when selecting genes that are stably expressed in more than 1 tissue. These genes are enriched for translation and ribosome biosynthesis processes and have higher translation efficiency scores, smaller coding sequences and 3' UTR sizes and lower folding energies when compared to other datasets. Additionally, the amino acid frequencies weighted by expression showed higher correlations with isoacceptor tRNA gene copy number, and smaller absolute correlation values with biosynthetic costs. Our results indicate that human gene sequence characteristics related to transcription and translation processes can co-evolve in an integrated manner in order to optimize gene expression.

  16. HER2 over-expressing high grade endometrial cancer expresses high levels of p95HER2 variant

    PubMed Central

    Growdon, Whitfield B.; Groeneweg, Jolijn; Byron, Virginia; DiGloria, Celeste; Borger, Darrell R.; Tambouret, Rosemary; Foster, Rosemary; Chenna, Ahmed; Sperinde, Jeff; Winslow, John; Rueda, Bo R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Subsets of high grade endometrial cancer (EnCa) over-express HER2 (ERBB2), yet clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any anti-tumor activity utilizing trastuzumab, an approved platform for HER2 positive breast cancer (BrCa). A truncated p95HER2 variant lacking the trastuzumab binding site may confer resistance. The objective of this investigation was to characterize the expression of the p95HER2 truncated variant in EnCa. Materials and Methods With institutional approval, 86 high grade EnCa tumors were identified with tumor specimens from surgeries performed between 2000-2011. Clinical data were collected and all specimens underwent tumor genotyping, HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC, HercepTest®), HER2 fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), along with total HER2 (H2T) and p95HER2 assessment with VeraTag® testing. Regression models were used to compare a cohort of 86 breast tumors selected for equivalent HER2 protein expression. Results We identified 44 high grade endometrioid and 42 uterine serous carcinomas (USC). IHC identified high HER2 expression (2+ or 3+) in 59% of the tumors. HER2 gene amplification was observed in 16 tumors (12 USC, 4 endometrioid). Both HER2 gene amplification and protein expression correlated with H2T values. High p95HER2 expression above 2.8 RF/mm2 was observed in 53% (n = 54) with significant correlation with H2T levels. When matched to a cohort of 107 breast tumors based on HercepTest HER2 expression, high grade EnCa presented with higher p95 levels (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These data demonstrate that compared to BrCa, high grade EnCa expresses higher levels of p95HER2 possibly providing rationale for the trastuzumab resistance observed in EnCa. PMID:25602714

  17. Gene expression levels in normal human lymphoblasts with variable sensitivities to arsenite: Identification of GGT1 and NFKBIE expression levels as possible biomarkers of susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Komissarova, Elena V.; Li Ping; Uddin, Ahmed N.; Chen, Xuyan; Nadas, Arthur; Rossman, Toby G.

    2008-01-15

    Drinking arsenic-contaminated water is associated with increased risk of neoplasias of the skin, lung, bladder and possibly other sites, as well as other diseases. Earlier, we showed that human lymphoblast lines from different normal unexposed donors showed variable sensitivities to the toxic effects of arsenite. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to compare the basal gene expression profiles between two arsenite-resistant (GM02707, GM00893) and two arsenite-sensitive lymphoblast lines (GM00546, GM00607). A number of genes were differentially expressed in arsenite-sensitive and arsenite-resistant cells. Among these, {gamma}-glutamyltranspeptidase 1 (GGT1) and NF{kappa}B inhibitor-epsilon (NFKBIE) showed higher expression levels in arsenite-resistant cells. RT-PCR analysis with gene-specific primers confirmed these results. Reduction of GGT1 expression level in arsenite-resistant lymphoblasts with GGT1-specific siRNA resulted in increased cell sensitivity to arsenite. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that expression levels of GGT1 and possibly NFKBIE might be useful as biomarkers of genetic susceptibility to arsenite. Expression microarrays can thus be exploited for identifying additional biomarkers of susceptibility to arsenite and to other toxicants.

  18. High level of ezrin mRNA expression in an osteosarcoma biopsy sample with lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Wakako; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Mori, Takeshi; Yanai, Tomoko; Hayakawa, Akira; Akisue, Toshihiro; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Matsuo, Masafumi

    2007-07-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) remains a life-threatening malignancy and its molecular character is not fully understood. Ezrin is a cytoskeleton linker protein involved in regulating the growth and metastatic capacity of cancer cells. However, the correlation between ezrin mRNA expression and clinical severity has not yet been examined in OS biopsy samples. Furthermore, recent evidence has demonstrated that the level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) expression is increased in human cancers of various origins, but this has not yet been examined in OS cells. To clarify the correlation between the clinical severity and the levels of ezrin and GAPDH mRNA expression, we quantified these mRNA levels in 4 pediatric OS biopsy samples using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Among these 4 samples, ezrin mRNA expression was approximately 5-fold higher in a case with lung metastasis compared with the other cases without metastasis, suggesting an association between the ezrin mRNA expression level and metastasis. On the other hand, the GAPDH mRNA expression level was not related to the clinical severity. This is the first report to demonstrate a high level of ezrin mRNA expression in an OS biopsy sample with lung metastasis.

  19. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was markedly higher than fibroadenoma, and associated with expression of ARHI, p53 and ER in infiltrating duct carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei-Xu; Li, Jia; Luo, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Chang; Li, Hui; Li, Li-Liang; Xu, Hong-Fei; Shen, Yi-Wen; Xue, Ai-Min; Zhao, Zi-Qin

    2013-03-01

    Jumonji Domain Containing 2A (JMJD2A) may be a cancer-associated gene involved in human breast cancer. With a view to investigating expression of JMJD2A in human breast cancer and benign lesion tissues as well as relationship between JMJD2A and tumor related proteins, histological and immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma and fibroadenoma for JMJD2A and immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma for tumor related proteins (ARHI, p53, ER, PR and CerbB-2) were performed. Histological examination validated the clinical diagnosis. The JMJD2A positive rate of infiltrating duct carcinoma was significantly higher than fibroadenoma by immunohistochemical analysis. The mean optical density of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by western blot. JMJD2A mRNA level in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by quantitative real-time PCR. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from immunohistochemical results respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from quantitative real-time PCR results respectively. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher, and associated with ARHI, p53 and ER. The results may take JMJD2A as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in human breast cancer.

  20. Affective State Level Recognition in Naturalistic Facial and Vocal Expressions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hongying; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    Naturalistic affective expressions change at a rate much slower than the typical rate at which video or audio is recorded. This increases the probability that consecutive recorded instants of expressions represent the same affective content. In this paper, we exploit such a relationship to improve the recognition performance of continuous naturalistic affective expressions. Using datasets of naturalistic affective expressions (AVEC 2011 audio and video dataset, PAINFUL video dataset) continuously labeled over time and over different dimensions, we analyze the transitions between levels of those dimensions (e.g., transitions in pain intensity level). We use an information theory approach to show that the transitions occur very slowly and hence suggest modeling them as first-order Markov models. The dimension levels are considered to be the hidden states in the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) framework. Their discrete transition and emission matrices are trained by using the labels provided with the training set. The recognition problem is converted into a best path-finding problem to obtain the best hidden states sequence in HMMs. This is a key difference from previous use of HMMs as classifiers. Modeling of the transitions between dimension levels is integrated in a multistage approach, where the first level performs a mapping between the affective expression features and a soft decision value (e.g., an affective dimension level), and further classification stages are modeled as HMMs that refine that mapping by taking into account the temporal relationships between the output decision labels. The experimental results for each of the unimodal datasets show overall performance to be significantly above that of a standard classification system that does not take into account temporal relationships. In particular, the results on the AVEC 2011 audio dataset outperform all other systems presented at the international competition.

  1. The transgenic cloned pig population with integrated and controllable GH expression that has higher feed efficiency and meat production

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Jiaqing; Bai, Lijing; Mu, Yulian; Du, Yutao; Yang, Wenxian; Li, Yong; Sheng, Anzhi; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained expression of the GH gene has been shown to have detrimental effects on the health of animals. In the current study, transgenic founder pigs, with controllable pig growth hormone (pGH) expression, were cloned via the handmade cloning method (HMC), and pGH expression levels were examined at the cellular and organismal levels. The serum pGH levels in 3 founder male pigs were found to be significantly higher after induction with intramuscular injection of doxycycline (DOX) compared to baseline. A daily dose of DOX was administered via feed to these animals for a period of 65 to 155 days. The growth rate, feed efficiency and pGH serum concentration increased in the DOX-induced transgenic group compared with the other groups. 8 numbers of animals were euthanized and the dressing percentage, loin muscle and lean meat percentage were significantly higher in the DOX-induced F1 transgenic group compared with the other groups. In this study a large population of transgenic pigs, with integrated controllable expression of a transgene, was obtained. The transgenic pigs were healthy and normal in terms of reproductive capability. At the same time, feed efficiency was improved, production processes were accelerated and meat yield was increased. PMID:25959098

  2. The transgenic cloned pig population with integrated and controllable GH expression that has higher feed efficiency and meat production.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Jiaqing; Bai, Lijing; Mu, Yulian; Du, Yutao; Yang, Wenxian; Li, Yong; Sheng, Anzhi; Li, Kui

    2015-05-11

    Sustained expression of the GH gene has been shown to have detrimental effects on the health of animals. In the current study, transgenic founder pigs, with controllable pig growth hormone (pGH) expression, were cloned via the handmade cloning method (HMC), and pGH expression levels were examined at the cellular and organismal levels. The serum pGH levels in 3 founder male pigs were found to be significantly higher after induction with intramuscular injection of doxycycline (DOX) compared to baseline. A daily dose of DOX was administered via feed to these animals for a period of 65 to 155 days. The growth rate, feed efficiency and pGH serum concentration increased in the DOX-induced transgenic group compared with the other groups. 8 numbers of animals were euthanized and the dressing percentage, loin muscle and lean meat percentage were significantly higher in the DOX-induced F1 transgenic group compared with the other groups. In this study a large population of transgenic pigs, with integrated controllable expression of a transgene, was obtained. The transgenic pigs were healthy and normal in terms of reproductive capability. At the same time, feed efficiency was improved, production processes were accelerated and meat yield was increased.

  3. In plants, expression breadth and expression level distinctly and non-linearly correlate with gene structure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Compactness of highly/broadly expressed genes in human has been explained as selection for efficiency, regional mutation biases or genomic design. However, highly expressed genes in flowering plants were shown to be less compact than lowly expressed ones. On the other hand, opposite facts have also been documented that pollen-expressed Arabidopsis genes tend to contain shorter introns and highly expressed moss genes are compact. This issue is important because it provides a chance to compare the selectionism and the neutralism views about genome evolution. Furthermore, this issue also helps to understand the fates of introns, from the angle of gene expression. Results In this study, I used expression data covering more tissues and employ new analytical methods to reexamine the correlations between gene expression and gene structure for two flowering plants, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. It is shown that, different aspects of expression pattern correlate with different parts of gene sequences in distinct ways. In detail, expression level is significantly negatively correlated with gene size, especially the size of non-coding regions, whereas expression breadth correlates with non-coding structural parameters positively and with coding region parameters negatively. Furthermore, the relationships between expression level and structural parameters seem to be non-linear, with the extremes of structural parameters possibly scale as power-laws or logrithmic functions of expression levels. Conclusion In plants, highly expressed genes are compact, especially in the non-coding regions. Broadly expressed genes tend to contain longer non-coding sequences, which may be necessary for complex regulations. In combination with previous studies about other plants and about animals, some common scenarios about the correlation between gene expression and gene structure begin to emerge. Based on the functional relationships between extreme values of structural

  4. Assessing the Need for Higher Levels of Care Among Problem Gambling Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, David M; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-03-02

    Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be "probably" or "definitely" willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.

  5. Evolving entities: towards a unified framework for understanding diversity at the species and higher levels

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    Current approaches to studying the evolution of biodiversity differ in their treatment of species and higher level diversity patterns. Species are regarded as the fundamental evolutionarily significant units of biodiversity, both in theory and in practice, and extensive theory explains how they originate and evolve. However, most species are still delimited using qualitative methods that only relate indirectly to the underlying theory. In contrast, higher level patterns of diversity have been subjected to rigorous quantitative study (using phylogenetics), but theory that adequately explains the observed patterns has been lacking. Most evolutionary analyses of higher level diversity patterns have considered non-equilibrium explanations based on rates of diversification (i.e. exponentially growing clades), rather than equilibrium explanations normally used at the species level and below (i.e. constant population sizes). This paper argues that species level and higher level patterns of diversity can be considered within a common framework, based on equilibrium explanations. It shows how forces normally considered in the context of speciation, namely divergent selection and geographical isolation, can generate evolutionarily significant units of diversity above the level of reproductively isolated species. Prospects for the framework to answer some unresolved questions about higher level diversity patterns are discussed. PMID:20439282

  6. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  7. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  8. Effects of dietary roughage levels on the expression of adipogenic transcription factors in Wagyu steers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Kawakami, S-I; Nakanishi, N

    2009-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary roughage level would alter the expression levels of adipogenic transcription factors in adipose tissue of Japanese black (Wagyu) steers. Steers were fed whole crop rice silage at three levels: (1) high-roughage feeding group, fed 8kg silage and 5kg concentrate (HR); (2) middle roughage feeding group, fed 5kg silage and 6kg concentrate (MR); and (3) low roughage feeding group, fed 2kg silage and 7kg concentrate (LR) from 22 to 30months of age. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, there were no significant differences in the expression of the adipogenic transcription factors and adipocyte size among feeding groups. In mesenteric adipose tissue, the expression of C/EBPα in the LR and MR groups was significantly higher than that in the HR group. Adipocyte size in the mesenteric adipose tissue of the LR group was significantly larger than that of the HR group. In intermuscular adipose tissue, the expression of C/EBPβ-LAP in the LR group was significantly higher than that in the HR group, and the expression of C/EBPβ-LIP in the LR and MR groups was significantly higher than that in the HR group. Adipocyte size in the intermuscular adipose tissue of the LR and MR groups was significantly smaller than that of the HR group. These results suggest that dietary roughage revel affects the adipose tissue depot-specific differences in C/EBP family expression pattern and adipocyte cellularity in Wagyu steers.

  9. Teaching Strategies Adopted by Teachers at Higher Education Level in Kerala: A Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesa, M.; Nisha, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the special context of entrepreneurship, employability skill development, Higher Education 2.0 and the Kovalam Declaration 2016, the present article presents a brief review of genres of teaching strategies at higher education level and attempts to bring to the attention of the readers an account of the teaching strategies adopted by teachers at…

  10. Emerging Governance in State-Level Higher Education: Competing Pressures and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Brad Leon

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study considered reforms in state-level higher education governance in the United States. Many researchers have suggested the emergence of market-oriented models in higher education governance. This study explored the existence of market-oriented models as well as other reform models in two western states, Utah and Washington. …

  11. Map of the Field--Higher Education Research at the State Level. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.; Adams, Charles S.

    A map of the field of higher education at the state level is presented that defines theoretical and conceptual frameworks, approaches to analysis, research designs, and methodologies that have been used in the study of the relationships between state governments and institutions of higher education or of state policy structures and processes.…

  12. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  13. Neuropsychological Characteristics and Their Association with Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Kayoko; Matsui, Mie; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Little is known about the relationship between cognitive functions and higher-level functional capacity (e.g. intellectual activity, social role, and social participation) in Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to clarify neuropsychological characteristics and their association with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Methods Participants were 31 PD patients and 23 demographically matched healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests were conducted. One year later, a questionnaire survey evaluated higher-level functional capacity in daily living. Results The PD group scored significantly lower than the control group in all cognitive domains, particularly executive function and processing. Executive function, processing speed, language, and memory were significantly correlated with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Stepwise regression showed that only executive function (Trail Making Test-B), together with disease severity (HY stage), predicted the higher-level functional capacity. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between executive function and higher-level functional capacity in patients with PD. PMID:26273243

  14. Strategies for psbA gene expression in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants: from transcription to PSII repair.

    PubMed

    Mulo, Paula; Sakurai, Isamu; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-01-01

    The Photosystem (PS) II of cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants is prone to light-induced inactivation, the D1 protein being the primary target of such damage. As a consequence, the D1 protein, encoded by the psbA gene, is degraded and re-synthesized in a multistep process called PSII repair cycle. In cyanobacteria, a small gene family codes for the various, functionally distinct D1 isoforms. In these organisms, the regulation of the psbA gene expression occurs mainly at the level of transcription, but the expression is fine-tuned by regulation of translation elongation. In plants and green algae, the D1 protein is encoded by a single psbA gene located in the chloroplast genome. In chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the psbA gene expression is strongly regulated by mRNA processing, and particularly at the level of translation initiation. In chloroplasts of higher plants, translation elongation is the prevalent mechanism for regulation of the psbA gene expression. The pre-existing pool of psbA transcripts forms translation initiation complexes in plant chloroplasts even in darkness, while the D1 synthesis can be completed only in the light. Replacement of damaged D1 protein requires also the assistance by a number of auxiliary proteins, which are encoded by the nuclear genome in green algae and higher plants. Nevertheless, many of these chaperones are conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we describe the specific features and fundamental differences of the psbA gene expression and the regeneration of the PSII reaction center protein D1 in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Photosystem II. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Colorectal carcinomas with microsatellite instability display increased thymidylate synthase gene expression levels.

    PubMed

    Odin, Elisabeth; Wettergren, Yvonne; Nilsson, Staffan; Carlsson, Göran; Gustavsson, Bengt

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated whether patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who have tumors with high microsatellite instability (MSI; MSI-H) had an altered expression of the folate and methyl-group metabolism. The gene expression levels of thymidylate synthase (TS), reduced folate carrier (RFC-1), folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in mucosa and tumor were compared with patients with MSS. Furthermore, the influence of TS polymorphisms on TS gene expression levels and MSI-H was studied. The microsatellite status (MSI-H, low instability [MSI-L], or stable [MSS]) and TS polymorphisms were analyzed in genomic DNA from 181 patients with CRC. Gene expression levels of TS, RFC-1, FPGS, and MTHFR in mucosa and tumors were quantified and the difference in TS expression between tumor and mucosa was designated DeltaTS. Significantly higher gene expression levels of TS (P < .0001) were detected in patients with CRC with MSI-H compared with MSS/MSI-L tumors. Gene expression of TS and FPGS were significantly higher in right-sided MSI-H tumors compared with right-sided MSS/MSI-L tumors (P < .0001, P = .041, respectively). A significant correlation between DeltaTS and the number of unstable markers was found (P < .0001). An inverse association between age and TS expression was found in MSI tumors (r = -0.57; P = .0004) and also in right-sided tumors (r = -0.25, P = .011) regardless of MSI status. No relation was detected between MSI status and the TS polymorphisms or between the TS polymorphisms and TS expression. This study has revealed, for the first time, that age and the frequency of unstable MSI markers were factors that were linked to the variability in TS gene expression in tumors.

  16. Predicting Gene Expression Level from Relative Codon Usage Bias: An Application to Escherichia coli Genome

    PubMed Central

    Roymondal, Uttam; Das, Shibsankar; Sahoo, Satyabrata

    2009-01-01

    We present an expression measure of a gene, devised to predict the level of gene expression from relative codon bias (RCB). There are a number of measures currently in use that quantify codon usage in genes. Based on the hypothesis that gene expressivity and codon composition is strongly correlated, RCB has been defined to provide an intuitively meaningful measure of an extent of the codon preference in a gene. We outline a simple approach to assess the strength of RCB (RCBS) in genes as a guide to their likely expression levels and illustrate this with an analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli) genome. Our efforts to quantitatively predict gene expression levels in E. coli met with a high level of success. Surprisingly, we observe a strong correlation between RCBS and protein length indicating natural selection in favour of the shorter genes to be expressed at higher level. The agreement of our result with high protein abundances, microarray data and radioactive data demonstrates that the genomic expression profile available in our method can be applied in a meaningful way to the study of cell physiology and also for more detailed studies of particular genes of interest. PMID:19131380

  17. DNA Repair Gene Expression Levels as Indicators of Breast Cancer in the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    KAPPIL, MAYA A.; LIAO, YUYAN; TERRY, MARY BETH; SANTELLA, REGINA M.

    2017-01-01

    Aim The expression level of DNA repair-related genes and their association with breast cancer status among participants of the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry was investigated. Materials and Methods RNA from mononuclear cells in 194 sister sets (n=475 women) were assayed for ATM, BRCA1, MSH2, MUTYH and XPC gene expression levels and analyzed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results Individuals with decreased ATM and MSH2 expression had significantly higher odds for breast cancer compared to individuals with higher levels of expression (odds ratio (OR)=1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02, 1.18) and (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.21, 2.97), respectively. Upon stratifying the GEE model, reductions in ATM and MSH2 expression levels was heightened among women with an extended family history (FH) of breast cancer. Conclusion Reduced expression of ATM and MSH2 compromises DNA repair capacity and, thereby, increases breast cancer prevalence. PMID:27466510

  18. Gene Expression and Regulation of Higher Plants Under Soil Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Fu-Tai; Chu, Li-Ye; Shao, Hong-Bo; Liu, Zeng-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Higher plants not only provide human beings renewable food, building materials and energy, but also play the most important role in keeping a stable environment on earth. Plants differ from animals in many aspects, but the important is that plants are more easily influenced by environment than animals. Plants have a series of fine mechanisms for responding to environmental changes, which has been established during their long-period evolution and artificial domestication. The machinery related to molecular biology is the most important basis. The elucidation of it will extremely and purposefully promote the sustainable utilization of plant resources and make the best use of its current potential under different scales. This molecular mechanism at least includes drought signal recognition (input), signal transduction (many cascade biochemical reactions are involved in this process), signal output, signal responses and phenotype realization, which is a multi-dimension network system and contains many levels of gene expression and regulation. We will focus on the physiological and molecular adaptive machinery of plants under soil water stress and draw a possible blueprint for it. Meanwhile, the issues and perspectives are also discussed. We conclude that biological measures is the basic solution to solving various types of issues in relation to sustainable development and the plant measures is the eventual way. PMID:19949548

  19. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  20. Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development…

  1. Six Increasingly Higher Levels of Wellness Based on Holistic Principles and Risk Factor Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes program for achievement of higher wellness levels based on holistic principles and risk factor science. Levels focus on (1) heart disease risk factors and how to reverse them; (2) unconscious needs at conflict with one's conscious goals; (3) identity status, meaning to love and to be loved; (4) autogenics; and (5) full ego development…

  2. The Effect of Memory and Higher Level Cognitive Tests Upon Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Jean L.

    Repeated exposure to tests composed of memory items was compared to repeated exposure to tests including higher-level cognitive items and to tests composed of both item types. Other design factors were sex, ability level, subject matter sequence (science and social studies), and learning session. (A sample of 2008 eleventh-grade students…

  3. OBJECTIVE TESTS IN SCIENCE FOR THIRD LEVEL N.S.W. HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CULL, R.G.; AND OTHERS

    CONTAINED ARE QUESTIONS AND TESTS TO EVALUATE ACHIEVEMENT IN KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE THIRD LEVEL COURSE IN SCIENCE FOR THE HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE IN NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA. THE QUESTIONS ARE BASED ON THE OFFICIAL SYLLABUS OF THE BOARD OF SENIOR SCHOOL STUDIES. THE QUESTIONS REFLECT THE LEVELS OF UNDERSTANDING AS DEVELOPED BY…

  4. Understanding Entry-Level Courses in American Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Hopper-Moore, Greg; Fukuda, Erin; Phillips, Rachel; Rooseboom, Jennifer; Chadwick, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    "Understanding Entry-Level Courses in American Institutions of Higher Education" outlines a study conducted by Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) that empirically identifies the characteristics of work at the college- and career-readiness level in English/language arts, science, and social sciences courses. Using a previously…

  5. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  6. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Gene expression levels as endophenotypes in genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Zou, F.; Carrasquillo, M. M.; Pankratz, V. S.; Belbin, O.; Morgan, K.; Allen, M.; Wilcox, S. L.; Ma, L.; Walker, L. P.; Kouri, N.; Burgess, J. D.; Younkin, L. H.; Younkin, Samuel G.; Younkin, C. S.; Bisceglio, G. D.; Crook, J. E.; Dickson, D. W.; Petersen, R. C.; Graff-Radford, N.; Younkin, Steven G.; Ertekin-Taner, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is a common disorder with a substantial genetic component. We postulate that many disease susceptibility variants act by altering gene expression levels. Methods: We measured messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 12 LOAD candidate genes in the cerebella of 200 subjects with LOAD. Using the genotypes from our LOAD genome-wide association study for the cis-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 619) of these 12 LOAD candidate genes, we tested for associations with expression levels as endophenotypes. The strongest expression cis-SNP was tested for AD association in 7 independent case-control series (2,280 AD and 2,396 controls). Results: We identified 3 SNPs that associated significantly with IDE (insulin degrading enzyme) expression levels. A single copy of the minor allele for each significant SNP was associated with ∼twofold higher IDE expression levels. The most significant SNP, rs7910977, is 4.2 kb beyond the 3′ end of IDE. The association observed with this SNP was significant even at the genome-wide level (p = 2.7 × 10−8). Furthermore, the minor allele of rs7910977 associated significantly (p = 0.0046) with reduced LOAD risk (OR = 0.81 with a 95% CI of 0.70-0.94), as expected biologically from its association with elevated IDE expression. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that IDE is a late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) gene with variants that modify risk of LOAD by influencing IDE expression. They also suggest that the use of expression levels as endophenotypes in genome-wide association studies may provide a powerful approach for the identification of disease susceptibility alleles. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; CI = confidence interval; GWAS = genome-wide association study; LOAD = late-onset Alzheimer disease; mRNA = messenger RNA; OR = odds ratio; SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:20142614

  8. Promoter Sequence Determines the Relationship between Expression Level and Noise

    PubMed Central

    Sloot, Peter M. A.; Kaandorp, Jaap A.; Segal, Eran

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to accurately control gene expression levels in response to extracellular cues is limited by the inherently stochastic nature of transcriptional regulation. A change in transcription factor (TF) activity results in changes in the expression of its targets, but the way in which cell-to-cell variability in expression (noise) changes as a function of TF activity, and whether targets of the same TF behave similarly, is not known. Here, we measure expression and noise as a function of TF activity for 16 native targets of the transcription factor Zap1 that are regulated by it through diverse mechanisms. For most activated and repressed Zap1 targets, noise decreases as expression increases. Kinetic modeling suggests that this is due to two distinct Zap1-mediated mechanisms that both change the frequency of transcriptional bursts. Notably, we found that another mechanism of repression by Zap1, which is encoded in the promoter DNA, likely decreases the size of transcriptional bursts, producing a unique transcriptional state characterized by low expression and low noise. In addition, we find that further reduction in noise is achieved when a single TF both activates and represses a single target gene. Our results suggest a global principle whereby at low TF concentrations, the dominant source of differences in expression between promoters stems from differences in burst frequency, whereas at high TF concentrations differences in burst size dominate. Taken together, we show that the precise amount by which noise changes with expression is specific to the regulatory mechanism of transcription and translation that acts at each gene. PMID:23565060

  9. Evaluation of gene expression levels for cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Maia, M M; Meira-Strejevitch, C S; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; de Hippólito, D D C; Silva, V O; Brandão de Mattos, C C; Frederico, F B; Siqueira, R C; de Mattos, L C

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated levels for mRNA expression of 7 cytokines in ocular toxoplasmosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT Group, n = 23) and chronic toxoplasmosis individuals (CHR Group, n = 9) were isolated and stimulated in vitro with T. gondii antigen. Negative controls (NC) were constituted of 7 PBMC samples from individuals seronegative for toxoplasmosis. mRNA expression for cytokines was determined by qPCR. Results showed a significant increase in mRNA levels from antigen stimulated PBMCs derived from OT Group for expressing IL-6 (at P < .005 and P < .0005 for CHR and NC groups, respectively), IL-10 (at P < .0005 and P < .005 for CHR and NC groups, respectively) and TGF-β (at P < .005) for NC group. mRNA levels for TNF-α and IL-12 were also upregulated in patients with OT compared to CHR and NC individuals, although without statistical significance. Additionally, mRNA levels for IL-27 and IFN-γ in PBMC of patients with OT were upregulated in comparison with NC individuals. Differences between OT and NC groups were statistically significant at P < .05 and P < .0005, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Changes in polyphenols and expression levels of related genes in 'Duke' blueberries stored under high CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Harb, Jamil; Saleh, Omar; Kittemann, Dominikus; Neuwald, Daniel Alexandre; Hoffmann, Thomas; Reski, Ralf; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-07-30

    Blueberries are highly perishable fruits, and consequently, storage under high CO2 and low O2 levels is recommended to preserve the highly appreciated polyphenols. However, high CO2 levels might be detrimental for certain cultivars. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of storage conditions on various quality parameters, including polyphenol composition in 'Duke' berries. Results show that storage under 18 kPa CO2, coupled with 3 kPa O2, resulted in accelerated softening of berries, which was accompanied by lower levels compared to other conditions of hexosides and arabinosides of malvidin, petunidin, cyanidine, and delphinidin. However, this storage condition had no negative impact on chlorogenic acid levels. Expression data of key polyphenol-biosynthesis genes showed higher expression levels of all investigated genes at harvest time compared to all storage conditions. Of particular importance is the expression level of chalcone synthase (VcCHS), which is severely affected by storage at 18 kPa CO2.

  11. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  12. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  13. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala’a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials. PMID:26393650

  14. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host–parasitoid food chain

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Andrea; van Veen, F. J. Frank

    2016-01-01

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host–parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary–secondary–tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ15N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ15N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host–parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. PMID:26962141

  15. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Protein pheromone expression levels predict and respond to the formation of social dominance networks

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Adam C.; Cunningham, Christopher B.; Ruff, James S.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2015-01-01

    Communication signals are key regulators of social networks, and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odors of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behavior, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and predictive of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network formation and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analyzing expression levels before, during, and after competition for reproductive resources over three days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is predictive of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species. PMID:25867293

  17. Sex Differences in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Levels of IRF5 Drive Higher IFN-α Production in Women.

    PubMed

    Griesbeck, Morgane; Ziegler, Susanne; Laffont, Sophie; Smith, Nikaïa; Chauveau, Lise; Tomezsko, Phillip; Sharei, Armon; Kourjian, Georgio; Porichis, Filippos; Hart, Meghan; Palmer, Christine D; Sirignano, Michael; Beisel, Claudia; Hildebrandt, Heike; Cénac, Claire; Villani, Alexandra-Chloé; Diefenbach, Thomas J; Le Gall, Sylvie; Schwartz, Olivier; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe; Autran, Brigitte; Guéry, Jean-Charles; Chang, J Judy; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Increased IFN-α production contributes to the pathogenesis of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from females produce more IFN-α upon TLR7 stimulation than pDCs from males, yet the mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. In this article, we show that basal levels of IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 5 in pDCs were significantly higher in females compared with males and positively correlated with the percentage of IFN-α-secreting pDCs. Delivery of recombinant IRF5 protein into human primary pDCs increased TLR7-mediated IFN-α secretion. In mice, genetic ablation of the estrogen receptor 1 (Esr1) gene in the hematopoietic compartment or DC lineage reduced Irf5 mRNA expression in pDCs and IFN-α production. IRF5 mRNA levels furthermore correlated with ESR1 mRNA levels in human pDCs, consistent with IRF5 regulation at the transcriptional level by ESR1. Taken together, these data demonstrate a critical mechanism by which sex differences in basal pDC IRF5 expression lead to higher IFN-α production upon TLR7 stimulation in females and provide novel targets for the modulation of immune responses and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Using higher-level inquiry to improve spatial ability in an introductory geology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lacey A.

    Visuo-spatial skills, the ability to visually take in information and create a mental image are crucial for success in fields involving science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as well as fine arts. Unfortunately, due to a lack of curriculum focused on developing spatial skills, students enrolled in introductory college-level science courses tend to have difficulty with spatially-related activities. One of the best ways to engage students in science activities is through a learning and teaching strategy called inquiry. There are lower levels of inquiry wherein learning and problem-solving are guided by instructions and higher levels of inquiry wherein students have a greater degree of autonomy in learning and creating their own problem-solving strategy. A study involving 112 participants was conducted during the fall semester in 2014 at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in an 1040 Introductory Geology Lab to determine if a new, high-level, inquiry-based lab would increase participants' spatial skills more than the traditional, low-level inquiry lab. The study also evaluated whether a higher level of inquiry differentially affected low versus high spatial ability participants. Participants were evaluated using a spatial ability assessment, and pre- and post-tests. The results of this study show that for 3-D to 2-D visualization, the higher-level inquiry lab increased participants' spatial ability more than the lower-level inquiry lab. For spatial rotational skills, all participants' spatial ability scores improved, regardless of the level of inquiry to which they were exposed. Low and high spatial ability participants were not differentially affected. This study demonstrates that a lab designed with a higher level of inquiry can increase students' spatial ability more than a lab with a low level of inquiry. A lab with a higher level of inquiry helped all participants, regardless of their initial spatial ability level. These findings show that curriculum

  19. Storytelling in the digital world: achieving higher-level learning objectives.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Melissa R

    2012-01-01

    Nursing students are not passive media consumers but instead live in a technology ecosystem where digital is the language they speak. To prepare the next generation of nurses, educators must incorporate multiple technologies to improve higher-order learning. The author discusses the evolution and use of storytelling as part of the digital world and how digital stories can be aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy so that students achieve higher-level learning objectives.

  20. Higher-level Kac-Moody string models and their phenomenological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Font, Anamaría; Ibáñez, Luis E.; Quevedo, Fernando

    1990-12-01

    We present a systematic approach to string compactifications in which some of the gauge interactions are realized at higher Kac-Moody level. This can be realized in the current constructions of four-dimensional strings including symmetric and asymmetric compactifications. It is shown that there exist higher-level models which can be obtained from exactly marginal deformations of a level-one model, and a simple field theory interpretation is provided in terms of flat scalar field directions in the original level-one model. We then consider the phenomenological possibilities opened to four-dimensional higher-level string models. In particular we show how the levels associated to standard model interactions as well as the massless content of the theory are constrained by unitarity and the renormalization group equations. We also consider the prospects for string GUT models. Mechanisms like "missing partner" in SU(5) or "see-saw" neutrino in SO(10) are only possible for k ⩾ 5. For E 6 at any level only adjoints or fundamentals can be light. A generic feature of the unification models seem to be the existence of relatively light chiral multiplets transforming like (8, 1, 0) + (1, 3, 0) + (1, 1, 0) under SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1). The problems of neutrino masses and proton stability are reconsidered and a possible simultaneous solution involving a discrete gauge symmetry is suggested.

  1. Higher Grades and Repeated Recurrence of Hepatic Encephalopathy May Be Related to High Serum Manganese Levels.

    PubMed

    Kobtan, Abdelrahman A; El-Kalla, Ferial S; Soliman, Hanan H; Zakaria, Soha S; Goda, Mohamed A

    2016-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious complication of liver failure. Until now, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms are not fully determined. It has been demonstrated that manganese plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Therefore, we studied manganese levels in serum of cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy in relation to grading and recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. One hundred persons were enrolled in the study, 80 cirrhotic patients with or without encephalopathy and 20 healthy controls. Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed clinically and by laboratory findings. Serum manganese levels were measured in all participants. The grading of hepatic encephalopathy was significantly correlated to the severity of liver dysfunction. The mean serum manganese level was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls and in cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy than in those without encephalopathy. It was also significantly higher in patients with advanced grading of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum manganese level was positively correlated to number of recurrences of encephalopathy during a 6-month follow-up period. Serum manganese levels were able to predict recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy within 6 months following the episode. Serum manganese levels are positively correlated to the modified Child-Pugh score of cirrhosis as well as grading and number of recurrences of hepatic encephalopathy. Higher manganese levels seem to be related to worsening of the condition, and its measurement may be used as a predictor of repeated recurrences.

  2. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  3. The expression levels of the sirtuins in patients with BCC.

    PubMed

    Temel, Metin; Koç, Mustafa Nihat; Ulutaş, Saffet; Göğebakan, Bülent

    2016-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common tumor in humans. Reduced expression of sirtuins interferes with DNA repair, which may cause mutations and genomic instability, and eventually leads to tumor development. In the present study, we investigate the expression levels of SIRT genes in non-tumoral and tumor tissues of patients with BCC. A total of 27 patients (16 males, 11 females) with BCC were included in the study; the mean age was 65.40 ± 10.74 years and mean follow-up was 2.5 ± 0.5 years. There were multiple synchronous lesions in six patients, and the remaining 21 patients had a single lesion. Tumor and non-tumoral tissue samples were collected from all patients, and mRNA expression levels of SIRT1-7 (Sirt1.1, Sirt1.2, Sirt2, Sirt3, Sirt4, Sirt5, Sirt6, and Sirt7) were examined by real-time PCR. The results showed that expressions of SIRT1.1, SIRT1.2, SIRT4, SIRT5, SIRT6, and SIRT7 mRNAs were unchanged in tumor tissues of BCC patients compared with non-tumoral tissue samples. Importantly, the expressions of SIRT2 and SIRT3 mRNAs were significantly reduced in tumor tissue samples from BCC patients compared with non-tumoral tissues (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively). In light of the previous reports that have demonstrated a link between SIRT proteins and cancer, our findings suggest that SIRT2 and SIRT3 may plan important roles in BCC pathogenesis and could be candidate prognostic biomarkers for BCC.

  4. Substrates and inhibitors display different sensitivity to expression level of the dopamine transporter in heterologously expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nianhang; Reith, Maarten E A

    2007-04-01

    The use of heterologous expression systems for studying dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) function has provided important information corroborating and complementing in situ obtained knowledge. Preliminary experiments with human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) heterologously expressing varying amounts of DAT suggested fluctuations in the potency of cocaine in inhibiting DA uptake and led to the present systematic assessment of the impact of the density of DAT on its function. Transiently expressing intact HEK293 cells, transfected with increasing amounts of DAT cDNA, displayed increasing levels of surface DAT, binding of the cocaine analog [(3)H]2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([(3)H]CFT), and uptake of [(3)H]DA, [(3)H]N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([(3)H]MPP(+)), [(3)H]norepinephrine, and [(3)H]serotonin. However, the amount of DAT cDNA and the DAT expression level required to produce 50% of maximal activity was threefold higher for CFT binding than for DA uptake. Increased DAT expression was accompanied by weakened potency in inhibiting [(3)H]DA uptake for cocaine, CFT, benztropine, and its analog JHW025, GBR 12909 and mazindol; their potency in inhibiting [(3)H]CFT binding was unaffected. Inhibition of uptake by the substrates DA, m-tyramine, d-amphetamine, or MPP(+) was also unaffected. Increasing DAT in stably expressing HEK293 cells by stimulation of gene expression with sodium butyrate also decreased the uptake inhibitory potency of a number of the above blockers without affecting the interaction between substrates and DAT. The present results prompt discussion of models explaining how factors regulating DAT expression at the plasma membrane can regulate DAT function and pharmacology.

  5. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-08-14

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  6. Effects of porcine oocytes on the expression levels of transcripts encoding glycolytic enzymes in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yuta; Onuma, Asuka; Fujioka, Yoshie A; Emori, Chihiro; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Sugiura, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Oocytes play critical roles in regulating the expression of transcripts encoding the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in granulosa cells in mice, but whether this is the case in pigs or other mammals has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether porcine oocytes regulate the expression levels of these transcripts in granulosa cells in vitro. Porcine cumulus cells expressed higher levels of PFKP and LDHA transcripts than mural granulosa cells (MGCs). However, co-culturing with oocytes had no significant effect on the isolated cumulus cells. While murine oocytes promoted the expression of both Pfkp and Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs, porcine oocytes promoted the expression of only Pfkp, but not Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs. Neither murine nor porcine oocytes affected PFKP and LDHA expression by porcine MGCs. Moreover, in the presence of porcine follicular fluid, porcine oocytes maintained the expression of PFKP, but not LDHA by porcine cumulus cells. Therefore, porcine oocytes are capable of regulating the expression of PFKP but not LDHA in granulosa cells in coordination with unknown factor(s) present in the follicular fluid.

  7. The genetic architecture of gene expression levels in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang; Alberts, Susan C; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Primate evolution has been argued to result, in part, from changes in how genes are regulated. However, we still know little about gene regulation in natural primate populations. We conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based study of baboons from an intensively studied wild population. We performed complementary expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and allele-specific expression analyses, discovering substantial evidence for, and surprising power to detect, genetic effects on gene expression levels in the baboons. eQTL were most likely to be identified for lineage-specific, rapidly evolving genes; interestingly, genes with eQTL significantly overlapped between baboons and a comparable human eQTL data set. Our results suggest that genes vary in their tolerance of genetic perturbation, and that this property may be conserved across species. Further, they establish the feasibility of eQTL mapping using RNA-seq data alone, and represent an important step towards understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression in primates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04729.001 PMID:25714927

  8. Higher levels of aggression are observed in socially dominant toadfish treated with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M Danielle; Gonzalez, Alexander; Sloman, Katherine A

    2011-01-01

    The following study set out to test the hypothesis that acute treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, would result in a rise in circulating 5-HT levels and consequently a decrease in territorial aggression in the Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta. Size-matched pairs of toadfish were implanted intraperitoneally with the same dose of fluoxetine (0, 10 or 25 μg g⁻¹). After a social interaction between a pair of fish, circulating levels of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) and cortisol were measured and relative mRNA expression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the toadfish brain was determined using quantitative (real-time) PCR (qPCR). Behavioral endpoints such as the number of aggressive acts and swimming activity were also quantified so that dominant and subordinate fish could be identified. Fluoxetine treatment resulted in an increase in circulating levels of 5-HT, regardless of social status. Circulating cortisol concentrations were unaffected by fluoxetine, but were significantly higher in subordinate individuals when compared to dominant fish. Toadfish brain 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA expression was not affected by treatment or social status. Lastly and contrary to our predictions, fluoxetine treatment resulted in an increase in the number of aggressive acts made by dominant individuals, with no differences in the level of aggression or swimming activity of subordinate fish. This study is the first to describe elevated aggression in a teleost fish with elevated circulating levels of 5-HT.

  9. CD34 Over-Expression is Associated With Gliomas' Higher WHO Grade.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangyi; Guan, Jian; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Yang, Yi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Jun; Wei, Junji; Yao, Yong; Xu, Zhiqin; Dou, Wanchen; Lian, Wei; Su, Changbao; Ren, Zuyuan; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-02-01

    CD34 is a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein that was first identified on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. CD34 is known as an optimum marker for microvascular density studies and it is positively stained in pathological and physiologic vessels. The use of CD34 for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of neoplasms has been increasingly discussed. The implications and utilities of CD34 in WHO grades of gliomas and its prognosis have been reported rarely. Also, the WHO grades and prognosis researches remains unclear and controversial. A meta-analysis is the best choice for drawing a convincing conclusion. Several databases were searched. We carefully assess the relevant articles and standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated in terms of the relationship between CD34 expression levels with gliomas' WHO grades, patients' ages and gender. We used the Galbraith figure, the I test, and Cochran Q test to evaluate the heterogeneity of the included studies. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the pooled results' stability. A Contour-enhanced funnel plot evaluation was made to assess potential publication bias. Ethics review and approval was not necessary because the meta-analysis did not involve any direct human trials or animal experiments. There were 12 eligible studies, including 684 patients who were considered in the present meta-analysis. All of them were conducted in China. CD34 overexpression in glioma tissues was associated closely, according to the pooled SMD, with higher WHO grade (III + IV) (SMD -1.503, 95% CI -1.685 to -1.321; P = 0.000). There were no significant associations between CD34 and age (SMD -0.223, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.156; P = 0.248) and CD34 and gender (SMD -0.059, 95% CI -0.439, 0.321; P = 0.761). No publication bias was detected according to Contour-enhanced funnel plot. Our results suggested that CD34 overexpression is associated with higher WHO grades of gliomas. CD

  10. CD34 Over-Expression is Associated With Gliomas’ Higher WHO Grade

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyi; Guan, Jian; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Yang, Yi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Jun; Wei, Junji; Yao, Yong; Xu, Zhiqin; Dou, Wanchen; Lian, Wei; Su, Changbao; Ren, Zuyuan; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract CD34 is a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein that was first identified on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. CD34 is known as an optimum marker for microvascular density studies and it is positively stained in pathological and physiologic vessels. The use of CD34 for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of neoplasms has been increasingly discussed. The implications and utilities of CD34 in WHO grades of gliomas and its prognosis have been reported rarely. Also, the WHO grades and prognosis researches remains unclear and controversial. A meta-analysis is the best choice for drawing a convincing conclusion. Several databases were searched. We carefully assess the relevant articles and standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated in terms of the relationship between CD34 expression levels with gliomas’ WHO grades, patients’ ages and gender. We used the Galbraith figure, the I2 test, and Cochran Q test to evaluate the heterogeneity of the included studies. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the pooled results’ stability. A Contour-enhanced funnel plot evaluation was made to assess potential publication bias. Ethics review and approval was not necessary because the meta-analysis did not involve any direct human trials or animal experiments. There were 12 eligible studies, including 684 patients who were considered in the present meta-analysis. All of them were conducted in China. CD34 overexpression in glioma tissues was associated closely, according to the pooled SMD, with higher WHO grade (III + IV) (SMD -1.503, 95% CI -1.685 to -1.321; P = 0.000). There were no significant associations between CD34 and age (SMD -0.223, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.156; P = 0.248) and CD34 and gender (SMD -0.059, 95% CI -0.439, 0.321; P = 0.761). No publication bias was detected according to Contour-enhanced funnel plot. Our results suggested that CD34 overexpression is associated with higher WHO

  11. Localizing PRL-2 expression and determining the effects of dietary Mg(2+) on expression levels.

    PubMed

    Gungabeesoon, Jeremy; Tremblay, Michel L; Uetani, Noriko

    2016-07-01

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) is a group of protein tyrosine phosphatases that play a key role in cancer progression and metastasis. We previously showed that PRL-2 modulates intracellular Mg(2+) levels and sustains cancer phenotypes by binding to the Mg(2+) transporter CNNM3. However, the physiological functions of PRL-2 in animals remain largely unknown. To better understand which cell types are associated with PRL-2 function, we characterized its expression in mouse tissues using a PRL-2 β-galactosidase reporter mouse model. Our results demonstrated that PRL-2 was ubiquitously expressed, with the highest expression levels observed in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons, ependymal cells, cone and rod photoreceptor cells, endocardium, vascular and bronchial smooth muscle, and collecting ducts in the kidney. On the other hand, PRL-2 expression was undetectable or very low in the parenchymal cells of the liver and pancreas. Our results also indicated that PRL-2 is involved in cell-type-specific Mg(2+) homeostasis and that PRL-2 expression is potentially inversely regulated by dietary Mg(2+) levels.

  12. Plastid-expressed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes provide high level glyphosate tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ye, G N; Hajdukiewicz, P T; Broyles, D; Rodriguez, D; Xu, C W; Nehra, N; Staub, J M

    2001-02-01

    Plastid transformation (transplastomic) technology has several potential advantages for biotechnological applications including the use of unmodified prokaryotic genes for engineering, potential high-level gene expression and gene containment due to maternal inheritance in most crop plants. However, the efficacy of a plastid-encoded trait may change depending on plastid number and tissue type. We report a feasibility study in tobacco plastids to achieve high-level herbicide resistance in both vegetative tissues and reproductive organs. We chose to test glyphosate resistance via over-expression in plastids of tolerant forms of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Immunological, enzymatic and whole-plant assays were used to prove the efficacy of three different prokaryotic (Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Bacillus) EPSPS genes. Using the Agrobacterium strain CP4 EPSPS as a model we identified translational control sequences that direct a 10,000-fold range of protein accumulation (to >10% total soluble protein in leaves). Plastid-expressed EPSPS could provide very high levels of glyphosate resistance, although levels of resistance in vegetative and reproductive tissues differed depending on EPSPS accumulation levels, and correlated to the plastid abundance in these tissues. Paradoxically, higher levels of plastid-expressed EPSPS protein accumulation were apparently required for efficacy than from a similar nuclear-encoded gene. Nevertheless, the demonstration of high-level glyphosate tolerance in vegetative and reproductive organs using transplastomic technology provides a necessary step for transfer of this technology to other crop species.

  13. Higher-level processes in the formation and application of associations during action understanding.

    PubMed

    Heil, Lieke; van Pelt, Stan; Kwisthout, Johan; van Rooij, Iris; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-04-01

    The associative account described in the target article provides a viable explanation for the origin of mirror neurons. We argue here that if mirror neurons develop purely by associative learning, then they cannot by themselves explain intentional action understanding. Higher-level processes seem to be involved in the formation of associations as well as in their application during action understanding.

  14. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

  15. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  16. Exploring the Impact of Higher Level Linguistic Representations on Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Gallon, Nichola

    2006-01-01

    Gathercole's (2006) comprehensive and interesting Keynote Article on the nature of the relations between nonword repetition and word learning highlights the complex number of interacting factors that affect this relation through development. In this Commentary we focus on the impact of higher level cognition, particularly linguistic…

  17. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  18. Implementing CLT at Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh: A Review of Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Md Shidur

    2015-01-01

    CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) was substituted for GTM (Grammar Translation Method) at higher secondary level in Bangladesh in 2001. This replacement of ELT method was a significant change in the English curriculum. This study aimed to determine that the mismanagement of the change is a prime cause of not getting expected CLT outcomes at…

  19. A Tracking Analysis of Compact Students within Level 1 of Their Higher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakely, Katrina; Saunders, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a tracking analysis of level 1 undergraduates who entered the University of Glamorgan through the Compact schools initiative. The Compact initiative aims to widen access to higher education by encouraging young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend a range of preparatory activities and by offering lower entry…

  20. Professional Values and Practice: The Essential Guide for Higher Level Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkinson, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This book concentrates on the more theoretical aspects of the Higher Level Teaching Assistant role: professionalism, relationships, statutory frameworks and knowing your limits. It offers guidance and support on fulfilling the standards and succeeding both inside and outside the classroom. The book is divided into the following chapters: (1)…

  1. Higher-Level Vocational Education and Training Qualifications: Their Importance in Today's Training Market. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, S.; Bateman, A.; Delaney, B.; Dyson, C.

    2007-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Higher-Level Vocational Education and Training Qualifications: Their Importance in Today's Training Market" [ED499709], and is an added resource for further information. This document contains information regarding: (1) The Australian Qualifications…

  2. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  3. Higher-Education Budgeting at the State Level: Concepts and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dennis P.

    New approaches to allocating state resources to colleges are discussed. Budgeting and resource allocation principles are considered that: (1) reflect the unique context of higher education; (2) are consistent with sound budgeting and management principles; and (3) represent institutional mechanisms applied at the state level rather than approaches…

  4. Spatial Skills as a Predictor of First Grade Girls' Use of Higher Level Arithmetic Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laski, Elida V.; Casey, Beth M.; Yu, Qingyi; Dulaney, Alana; Heyman, Miriam; Dearing, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Girls are more likely than boys to use counting strategies rather than higher-level mental strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Prior research suggests that dependence on counting strategies may have negative implications for girls' later math achievement. We investigated the relation between first-grade girls' verbal and spatial skills and…

  5. Spatial Skills as a Predictor of First Grade Girls' Use of Higher Level Arithmetic Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laski, Elida V.; Casey, Beth M.; Yu, Qingyi; Dulaney, Alana; Heyman, Miriam; Dearing, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Girls are more likely than boys to use counting strategies rather than higher-level mental strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Prior research suggests that dependence on counting strategies may have negative implications for girls' later math achievement. We investigated the relation between first-grade girls' verbal and spatial skills and…

  6. A Tracking Analysis of Compact Students within Level 1 of Their Higher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakely, Katrina; Saunders, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a tracking analysis of level 1 undergraduates who entered the University of Glamorgan through the Compact schools initiative. The Compact initiative aims to widen access to higher education by encouraging young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend a range of preparatory activities and by offering lower entry…

  7. Achieving Higher Levels of Success for A.D.H.D. Students Working in Collaborative Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph S. C.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores a new and innovative strategy for helping students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (A.D.H.D.) achieve higher levels of academic success when working in collaborative groups. Since the research indicates that students with this disorder often have difficulty in maintaining their concentration this strategy is…

  8. The Influence of Transformational Leadership on the Level of TQM Implementation in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argia, Hassan A. A.; Ismail, Aziah

    2013-01-01

    This current research paper investigates the role of transformational leadership on impacting the level of TQM implementation in the higher education sector. In addition, TQM, as a management philosophy, can be implemented successfully only when incorporated into the prevailing learning organization and adequate understanding of transformational…

  9. Investigating Student Choices in Performing Higher-Level Comprehension Tasks Using TED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Francesca; Marenzi, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The current paper describes a first experiment in the use of TED talks and open tagging exercises to train higher-level comprehension skills, and of automatic logging of the student's actions to investigate the student choices while performing analytical tasks. The experiment took advantage of an interactive learning platform--LearnWeb--that…

  10. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  11. Polymorphic GGC repeat differentially regulates human reelin gene expression levels.

    PubMed

    Persico, A M; Levitt, P; Pimenta, A F

    2006-10-01

    The human gene encoding Reelin (RELN), a pivotal protein in neurodevelopment, includes a polymorphic GGC repeat in its 5' untranslated region (UTR). CHO cells transfected with constructs encompassing the RELN 5'UTR with 4-to-13 GGC repeats upstream of the luciferase reporter gene show declining luciferase activity with increasing GGC repeat number (P < 0.005), as predicted by computer-based simulations. Conversely, RELN 5'UTR sequences boost reporter gene expression above control levels in neuronal SN56 and N2A cell lines, but 12- and 13-repeat alleles still yield 50-60% less luciferase activity compared to the more common 8- and 10-repeat alleles (P < 0.0001). RELN "long" GGC alleles significantly blunt gene expression and may, through this effect, confer vulnerability to human disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism.

  12. Expression levels of TWIST1 are associated with the clinicopathological stage of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    JIA, CUNDONG; LIANG, LIPING; YANG, LILI; ZHAO, FENG; BAI, JINGPING

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression level of TWIST1 in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (BNHL) and its association with the clinicopathological characteristics of BNHL. Expression levels of TWIST1 were analyzed in patients with BNHL (n=45) and lymphadenosis (n=21) using immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of TWIST1 in the peripheral blood were detected by fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The positive rate of TWIST1 expression in the BNHL tissue was 82.2%, which was significantly higher compared with the lymphadenosis tissue (5%; P<0.05). In addition, the protein expression level of TWIST1 in the BNHL tissue was higher compared with the lymphadenosis tissue. TWIST1 expression was also higher in stage III/IV BNHL tissues than in stage I/II tissues (P<0.05). The tissues were staged following the Ann Arbor system. Furthermore, the mRNA expression level of TWIST1 in the peripheral blood of the BNHL tissue (3.03±0.03) was higher compared with the lymphadenosis tissue, and the mRNA expression level of TWIST1 was higher in stage III/IV (4.41±0.12) tissues than in stage I/II BNHL (2.03±0.08) tissues. In conclusion, TWIST1 expression was higher in the tissue and peripheral blood of patients with BNHL when compared with those with lymphadenosis. Thus, TWIST1 expression was associated with the clinicopathological stage of BNHL. PMID:25289047

  13. Selenoprotein expression is regulated at multiple levels in prostate cells.

    PubMed

    Rebsch, Cheryl M; Penna, Frank J; Copeland, Paul R

    2006-12-01

    Selenium supplementation in a population with low basal blood selenium levels has been reported to decrease the incidence of several cancers including prostate cancer. Based on the clinical findings, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or more selenoproteins is responsible for the chemopreventive effect, although low molecular weight seleno-compounds have also been posited to selectively induce apoptosis in transformed cells. To address the effects of selenium supplementation on selenoprotein expression in prostate cells, we have undertaken an analysis of antioxidant selenoprotein expression as well as selenium toxicity in non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC-3). Our results show that two of the glutathione peroxidase family members (GPX1 and GPX4) are highly induced by supplemental selenium in prostate cancer cells but only slightly induced in RWPE-1 cells. In addition, GPX1 levels are dramatically lower in PC-3 cells as compared to RWPE-1 or LNCaP cells. GPX2 protein and mRNA, however, are only detectable in RWPE-1 cells. Of the three selenium compounds tested (sodium selenite, sodium selenate and selenomethionine), only sodium selenite shows toxicity in a physiological range of selenium concentrations. Notably and in contrast to previous studies, RWPE-1 cells were significantly more sensitive to selenite than either of the prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that selenoproteins and selenium metabolism are regulated at multiple levels in prostate cells.

  14. Carnitine and/or Acetylcarnitine Deficiency as a Cause of Higher Levels of Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Cecilia; Guevara, Natalia; Queijo, Cecilia; González, Raquel; Fagiolino, Pietro; Vázquez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Blood carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiencies are postulated in the literature as possible causes of higher ammonia levels. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of valproic acid, the age of the patients, or certain central nervous system pathologies can cause carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiency leading to increased ammonia levels. Three groups of patients were studied: (A) epileptic under phenytoin monotherapy (n = 31); (B) with bipolar disorder under valproic acid treatment (n = 28); (C) elderly (n = 41). Plasma valproic acid and blood carnitine and acyl carnitine profiles were determined using a validated HPLC and LC-MS/MS method, respectively. Blood ammonia concentration was determined using an enzymatic automated assay. Higher ammonia levels were encountered in patients under valproic acid treatment and in the elderly. This may be due to the lower carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine found in these patients. Patients with controlled seizures had normal carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels. Further studies are necessary in order to conclude if the uncontrolled bipolar disorder could be the cause of higher carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine levels.

  15. BMI mediates the association between low educational level and higher blood pressure during pregnancy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jwa, Seung Chik; Fujiwara, Takeo; Hata, Akira; Arata, Naoko; Sago, Haruhiko; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2013-04-25

    Research investigating the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy is limited and its underlying pathway is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediators of the association between educational level as an indicator of the SES and BP in early and mid-pregnancy among Japanese women. Nine hundred and twenty-three pregnant women in whom BP was measured before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Maternal educational levels were categorized into three groups: high (university or higher), mid (junior college), and low (junior high school, high school, or vocational training school). The low educational group had higher systolic (low vs. high, difference = 2.39 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 4.19) and diastolic BP levels (low vs. high, difference = 0.74 mmHg, 95% CI: -0.52 to 1.99) in early pregnancy. However, the same associations were not found after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). BP reduction was observed in mid-pregnancy in all three educational groups and there was no association between educational level and pregnancy-induced hypertension. In Japanese women, the low educational group showed higher BP during pregnancy than the mid or high educational groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI mediates the association between educational level and BP.

  16. BMI mediates the association between low educational level and higher blood pressure during pregnancy in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research investigating the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure (BP) during pregnancy is limited and its underlying pathway is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the mediators of the association between educational level as an indicator of the SES and BP in early and mid-pregnancy among Japanese women. Methods Nine hundred and twenty-three pregnant women in whom BP was measured before 16 weeks and at 20 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Maternal educational levels were categorized into three groups: high (university or higher), mid (junior college), and low (junior high school, high school, or vocational training school). Results The low educational group had higher systolic (low vs. high, difference = 2.39 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59 to 4.19) and diastolic BP levels (low vs. high, difference = 0.74 mmHg, 95% CI: –0.52 to 1.99) in early pregnancy. However, the same associations were not found after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). BP reduction was observed in mid-pregnancy in all three educational groups and there was no association between educational level and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Conclusion In Japanese women, the low educational group showed higher BP during pregnancy than the mid or high educational groups. Pre-pregnancy BMI mediates the association between educational level and BP. PMID:23617809

  17. Carnitine and/or Acetylcarnitine Deficiency as a Cause of Higher Levels of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Cecilia; Guevara, Natalia; Queijo, Cecilia; González, Raquel; Fagiolino, Pietro; Vázquez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Blood carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiencies are postulated in the literature as possible causes of higher ammonia levels. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of valproic acid, the age of the patients, or certain central nervous system pathologies can cause carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiency leading to increased ammonia levels. Three groups of patients were studied: (A) epileptic under phenytoin monotherapy (n = 31); (B) with bipolar disorder under valproic acid treatment (n = 28); (C) elderly (n = 41). Plasma valproic acid and blood carnitine and acyl carnitine profiles were determined using a validated HPLC and LC-MS/MS method, respectively. Blood ammonia concentration was determined using an enzymatic automated assay. Higher ammonia levels were encountered in patients under valproic acid treatment and in the elderly. This may be due to the lower carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine found in these patients. Patients with controlled seizures had normal carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels. Further studies are necessary in order to conclude if the uncontrolled bipolar disorder could be the cause of higher carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine levels. PMID:26998483

  18. Different Properties of Visual Relearning after Damage to Early Versus Higher-Level Visual Cortical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anasuya; DeMagistris, Margaret; Huxlin, Krystel R.

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of visual perceptual learning is emerging as an important rehabilitation tool following visual system damage. Specificity of visual learning for training stimulus and task attributes has been used in prior work to infer a differential contribution of higher-level versus lower-level visual cortical areas to this process. The present study used a controlled experimental paradigm in felines to examine whether relearning of motion discrimination and the specificity of such relearning are differently influenced by damage at lower versus higher levels of the visual cortical hierarchy. Cats with damage to either early visual areas 17, 18, and 19, or to higher-level, motion-processing lateral suprasylvian (LS) cortex were trained to perform visual tasks with controlled fixation. Animals with either type of lesion could relearn to discriminate the direction of motion of both drifting gratings and random dot stimuli in their impaired visual field. However, two factors emerged as critical for allowing transfer of learning to untrained motion stimuli: (1) an intact LS cortex and (2) more complex visual stimuli. Thus, while the hierarchical level of visual cortex damage did not seem to limit the ability to relearn motion discriminations, generalizability of relearning with a damaged visual system appeared to be influenced by both the areas damaged and the nature of the stimulus used during training. PMID:22514305

  19. Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Jung; Huang, Po-Chao; Lu, Shao-Chun; Li, Yi-Hwei; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lin, Bi-Fong; Chang, Sue-Joan; Chou, Hsu-Fang

    2002-02-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may result from a deficiency of folate, vitamin B-6 or vitamin B-12. Because vitamin B-12 deficiency is often associated with vegetarianism, this study was designed to examine the effect of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on B-vitamin status and plasma homocysteine levels. Female Buddhist lacto-vegetarians (n = 45; 31-45 y) and matched omnivores (n = 45) recruited in Hualien, Taiwan, were investigated. Taiwanese vegetarians consumed normal amount of folate, but only 21% of Taiwan Recommended Daily Nutrient Allowances (RDNA) values of vitamin B-12. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly higher levels of plasma folate (14.79 +/- 7.70 vs. 11.98 +/- 8.29 nmol/L), but lower levels of vitamin B-12 (207.7 +/- 127.1 vs. 403.5 +/- 138.9 pmol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivores (mean: 11.20 +/- 4.27 vs. 8.64 +/- 2.06 micromol/L; median: 10.5 vs. 8.5 micromol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine was inversely correlated with plasma folate and vitamin B-12 in the vegetarian group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma folate, vitamin B-12 and creatinine were independent determinants of homocysteine variation and contributed to 38.6% of homocysteine variation in the vegetarians. Compared with the omnivores, vegetarians also had significantly lower serum levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, alanine and arginine, but higher levels of glycine. In the vegetarian group, fasting plasma homocysteine correlated negatively with serum threonine, lysine, histidine, arginine and cystine, and these amino acids contributed to 38.7% of homocysteine variation. In conclusion, the Buddhist nuns who consumed a lacto-vegetarian diet had mildly elevated fasting plasma homocysteine levels presumably due to lower levels of plasma vitamin B-12.

  20. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is associated with a higher level of monocyte activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Berta; Guardo, Alberto C; Leal, Lorna; Leon, Agathe; Lucero, Constanza; Alvarez-Martinez, Míriam J; Martinez, Miguel J; Vila, Jordi; Martínez-Rebollar, María; González-Cordón, Ana; Gatell, Josep M; Plana, Montserrat; García, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Monotherapy with protease-inhibitors (MPI) may be an alternative to cART for HIV treatment. We assessed the impact of this strategy on immune activation, bacterial translocation and inflammation. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study comparing patients on successful MPI (n=40) with patients on cART (n=20). Activation, senescence, exhaustion and differentiation stage in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets, markers of monocyte activation, microbial translocation, inflammation, coagulation and low-level viremia were assessed. Results CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocyte subset parameters were not significantly different between both groups. Conversely, as compared with triple cART, MPI patients showed a higher proportion of activated monocytes (CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells, p=0.031), soluble markers of monocyte activation (sCD14 p=0.004, sCD163 p=0.002), microbial translocation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein; LBP p=0.07), inflammation (IL-6 p=0.04) and low-level viremia (p=0.035). In a multivariate model, a higher level of CD14+ CD16−CD163+ cells and sCD14, and presence of very low-level viremia were independently associated with MPI. Monocyte activation was independently associated with markers of inflammation (IL-6, p=0.006), microbial translocation (LBP, p=0.01) and low-level viremia (p=0.01). Conclusions Patients on MPI showed a higher level of monocyte activation than patients on standard therapy. Microbial translocation and low-level viremia were associated with the high level of monocyte activation observed in patients on MPI. The long-term clinical consequences of these findings should be assessed. PMID:25280865

  1. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee's susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions.

  2. Higher levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor but similar nerve growth factor in human milk in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Dangat, Kamini; Kilari, Anitha; Mehendale, Savita; Lalwani, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2013-05-01

    Children born to mothers with preeclampsia have consistently been suggested to be at risk for cognitive and behavioral disorders in later life. Breastfeeding is said to be associated with better neurodevelopment outcomes. Our earlier studies indicated higher levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in human milk in women with preeclampsia. DHA is known to regulate the expression of neurotrophins and together they play a vital role in neurodevelopment and cognitive performance. The present study examines the levels of maternal plasma and milk neurotrophins [(nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] in women with preeclampsia and compares them with normotensive women who served as controls. Singleton pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (n=72) and controls (n=102) were recruited for this study from Bharati Hospital, Pune. Plasma and milk samples were analyzed for NGF and BDNF levels using the Emax Immuno Assay System using promega kits. Maternal plasma NGF and BDNF levels were lower (p<0.01 for both) in women with preeclampsia as compared to the control women. Milk NGF levels were similar while milk BDNF levels were higher (p<0.05) in the preeclampsia group as compared to controls. Plasma NGF levels were positively correlated with milk NGF levels in the control group. Our results indicate the differential regulation of milk NGF and BDNF levels in women with preeclampsia. The present study suggests a role for both NGF and BDNF in human milk for postnatal brain development. Further studies need to examine the associations of DHA and BDNF in human milk with cognition at later ages.

  3. Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5α expression in PBMC.

    PubMed

    Aamer, Hadega A; Rajakumar, Premeela; Nyaundi, Julia; Murphey-Corb, Michael

    2014-05-23

    At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5α, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFNγ in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2-3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (≥6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5α and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5α levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7-10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5α appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5α observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic infection involving the transport of

  4. Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5α expression in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5α, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFNγ in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (≥6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5α and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5α levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7–10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5α appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5α observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic

  5. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  6. [Serum Protein Expression Level in 47 Patients with Megaloblastic Anemia and Its Clinical Significance].

    PubMed

    Ke, Yong

    2016-08-01

    To study the clinical significance of serum protein expression level in patients with megaloblastic anemia(MA). A total of 47 patients with MA were enrolled in this study between November 2013 and November 2015, and 50 healthy people in the same period were selected as controls. The levels of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), ferritin (FER), transferrin (TRF) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were compared between 2 groups, and the serum protein expression levels in different types of MA, varous anemia degrees of MA were analyzed. The leves of TP, Alb and FER in MA patients were significantly lower than those in control group, the levels of TRF and sTfR were statistically significantly higher than those in control group(P<0.05); the levels of TP, Alb and FER in the patients with mild anemia were significantly higher than those in the patients with moderate and severe anemia, the levels of TRF and sTfR were statistically significantly lower(P<0.05), while the levels of TP, Alb and FER in patients with moderate anemia were significantly higher than those in the patients with severe anemia, the levels of TRF and sTfR were significantly lower(P<0.05). Compared with levels before treatment, the levels of TP, Alb and FER significantly increased after treatment, while the TRF and sTfR levels significantly decreased (P<0.05). Serum levels of TP, Alb, FER, TRF and sTfR can provide a basis for the diagnosis of MA, and contribute to predict the disease to some extent.

  7. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70’s mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6–24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48–72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress.

  8. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70’s mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6–24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48–72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress. PMID:27460544

  9. Factors Identified with Higher Levels of Career Satisfaction of Physicians in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Peña-Sánchez, Juan Nicolás; Lepnurm, Rein; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Delgado, Ana; Domagała, Alicja; Górkiewicz, Maciej

    2014-04-26

    The satisfaction of physicians is a worldwide issue linked with the quality of health services; their satisfaction needs to be studied from a multi-dimensional perspective, considering lower- and higher-order needs. The objectives of this study were to: i) measure the career satisfaction of physicians; ii) identify differences in the dimensions of career satisfaction; and iii) test factors that affect higher- and lower-order needs of satisfaction among physicians working in Andalusian hospitals (Spain). Forty-one percent of 299 eligible physicians participated in a study conducted in six selected hospitals. Physicians reported higher professional, inherent, and performance satisfaction than personal satisfaction. Foreign physicians reported higher levels of personal and performance satisfaction than local physicians, and those who received non-monetary incentives had higher professional and performance satisfaction. In conclusion, physicians in the selected Andalusian hospitals reported low levels of personal satisfaction. Non-monetary incentives were more relevant to influence their career satisfaction. Further investigations are recommended to study differences in the career satisfaction between foreign and local physicians.

  10. Factors Identified with Higher Levels of Career Satisfaction of Physicians in Andalusia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Sánchez, Juan Nicolás; Lepnurm, Rein; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Delgado, Ana; Domagała, Alicja; Górkiewicz, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The satisfaction of physicians is a worldwide issue linked with the quality of health services; their satisfaction needs to be studied from a multi-dimensional perspective, considering lower- and higher-order needs. The objectives of this study were to: i) measure the career satisfaction of physicians; ii) identify differences in the dimensions of career satisfaction; and iii) test factors that affect higher- and lower-order needs of satisfaction among physicians working in Andalusian hospitals (Spain). Forty-one percent of 299 eligible physicians participated in a study conducted in six selected hospitals. Physicians reported higher professional, inherent, and performance satisfaction than personal satisfaction. Foreign physicians reported higher levels of personal and performance satisfaction than local physicians, and those who received non-monetary incentives had higher professional and performance satisfaction. In conclusion, physicians in the selected Andalusian hospitals reported low levels of personal satisfaction. Non-monetary incentives were more relevant to influence their career satisfaction. Further investigations are recommended to study differences in the career satisfaction between foreign and local physicians. PMID:26973935

  11. Does a higher educational level protect against anxiety and depression? The HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Ingvar; Krokstad, Steinar; Mykletun, Arnstein; Dahl, Alv A; Tell, Grethe S; Tambs, K

    2008-03-01

    The relationship of education to the experience of anxiety and depression throughout adult life is unclear. Our knowledge of this relationship is limited and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine (1) whether higher educational level protects against anxiety and/or depression, (2) whether this protection accumulates or attenuates with age or time, and (3) whether such a relationship appears to be mediated by other variables. In a sample from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995--1997 (HUNT 2) (N=50,918) of adults, the cross-sectional associations between educational level and symptom levels of anxiety and depression were examined, stratified by age. The long-term effects of educational level on anxiety/depression were studied in a cohort followed up from HUNT 1 (1984--1986) to HUNT 2 (N=33,774). Low educational levels were significantly associated with both anxiety and depression. The coefficients decreased with increasing age, except for the age group 65-74 years. In the longitudinal analysis, however, the protective effect of education accumulated somewhat with time. The discrepancy between these two analyses may be due to a cohort effect in the cross-sectional analysis. Among the mediators, somatic health exerted the strongest influence, followed by health behaviors and socio-demographic factors. Higher educational level seems to have a protective effect against anxiety and depression, which accumulates throughout life.

  12. β-endorphins Plasma Level is Higher in Lean Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Women.

    PubMed

    Kiałka, M; Milewicz, T; Spałkowska, M; Krzyczkowska-Sendrakowska, M; Wasyl, B; Pełka, A; Krzysiek, J

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation the β-endorphin plasma levels in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome as well as in women without this disorder. The associations between β-endorphins and other laboratory parameters were also investigated. 31 women lean, defined as women with normal range body mass index, 15 with polycystic ovary syndrome and 16 without this disorder were included to the study. In all the patients the level of β-endorphins was measured. Also the diagnostic laboratory profile including hormone assessment was made in all patients. There were significant differences in β-endorphin levels between the 2 groups. The β-endorphin level was higher in the polycystic ovary syndrome group compared to the healthy controls (15.5±4.37 pg/ml vs. 6.9±2.47 pg/ml, p<0.0001). The β-endorphin levels positively correlated with cortisol at 8 am (R=0.632, p=0.011) and negatively correlated with sex hormone binding globuline (R=0.518, p=0.0478) in polycystic ovary syndrome group. Increase in β-endorphin level of 1 pg/ml was associated with an increase of cortisol at 8 am level of 1.134 µg/dl and decrease of sex hormone binding globuline of 0.948 nmol/l in polycystic ovary syndrome group. Our study showed that the levels of β-endorphins were significantly higher in lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome than in lean controls. Moreover, β-endorphins levels were found to be correlated with other hormonal parameters. In this respect, β-endorphins may play a role in polycystic ovary syndrome pathophysiology. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Homocysteine modulates 5-lipoxygenase expression level via DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Guo; Barrero, Carlos; Gupta, Sapna; Kruger, Warren D; Merali, Salim; Praticò, Domenico

    2017-04-01

    Elevated levels of homocysteinemia (Hcy), a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been associated with changes in cell methylation. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by an upregulation of the 5-lipoxygenase (5LO), whose promoter is regulated by methylation. However, whether Hcy activates 5LO enzymatic pathway by influencing the methylation status of its promoter remains unknown. Brains from mice with high Hcy were assessed for the 5LO pathway and neuronal cells exposed to Hcy implemented to study the mechanism(s) regulating 5LO expression levels and the effect on amyloid β formation. Diet- and genetically induced high Hcy resulted in 5LO protein and mRNA upregulation, which was associated with a significant increase of the S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH)/S-adenosylmethionine ratio, and reduced DNA methyltrasferases and hypomethylation of 5-lipoxygenase DNA. In vitro studies confirmed these results and demonstrated that the mechanism involved in the Hcy-dependent 5LO activation and amyloid β formation is DNA hypomethylation secondary to the elevated levels of SAH. Taken together these findings represent the first demonstration that Hcy directly influences 5LO expression levels and establish a previously unknown cross talk between these two pathways, which is highly relevant for AD pathogenesis. The discovery of such a novel link not only provides new mechanistic insights in the neurobiology of Hcy, but most importantly new therapeutic opportunities for the individuals bearing this risk factor for the disease. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Low- and Higher-Level Sensory Deficits after Stroke: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tinga, Angelica Maria; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; van der Smagt, Maarten Jeroen; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Ee, Raymond; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to integrate and assess evidence for the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation (i.e., stimulating at least two of the following sensory systems: visual, auditory, and somatosensory) as a possible rehabilitation method after stroke. Evidence was considered with a focus on low-level, perceptual (visual, auditory and somatosensory deficits), as well as higher-level, cognitive, sensory deficits. We referred to the electronic databases Scopus and PubMed to search for articles that were published before May 2015. Studies were included which evaluated the effects of multisensory stimulation on patients with low- or higher-level sensory deficits caused by stroke. Twenty-one studies were included in this review and the quality of these studies was assessed (based on eight elements: randomization, inclusion of control patient group, blinding of participants, blinding of researchers, follow-up, group size, reporting effect sizes, and reporting time post-stroke). Twenty of the twenty-one included studies demonstrate beneficial effects on low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Notwithstanding these beneficial effects, the quality of the studies is insufficient for valid conclusion that multisensory stimulation can be successfully applied as an effective intervention. A valuable and necessary next step would be to set up well-designed randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation as an intervention for low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Finally, we consider the potential mechanisms of multisensory stimulation for rehabilitation to guide this future research.

  15. Technology and Bloom's Taxonomy: Tools to facilitate higher-level learning in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Matthew Earle

    This research project ties together chemistry data acquisition technology, introductory chemistry laboratory experiments. and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives into a unified learning model. The goal is to provide faculty and introductory chemistry students with the tools and exercises to experience higher levels of learning, as defined by Bloom's taxonomy. The tools developed as part of this project include data acquisition hardware and software, communications software, and computer simulations that enable higher-level learning situations. A series of five experiments using a discovery-based teaching model are developed as part of the learning model. The experiments bring together the hardware tools, software tools, and learning model to place students in situations that require students to use critical thinking skills and experience higher-level learning. Content-related application problems are also included in the experiments. The experiments are divided into three chemistry units of instruction that build on each other, but can also be used independently. Instructor training is an important part of this project. The successful integration of technology into educational situations cannot be accomplished without the support and understanding of faculty, staff, and teaching assistants. This aspect of the project focuses on shifting teaching and learning paradigms to encourage appropriate technology use and allow technology to become a major aspect of the high-level learning environment. Finally, students were surveyed in an attempt to measure the effectiveness of the learning model. Students were evaluated on chemistry concept retention, as well as their perception of learning. They were also asked how well they enjoyed this form of learning. Along with the tools themselves, this project provides templates that can launch future work in this area. The learning model, data acquisition tools, and experiment writing templates are developed here to provide

  16. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder.

  17. Enhancing the Schooling Level of the Special Higher Education and Perfecting the Disabled People Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Aiguo

    2009-01-01

    It is the urgent problem to quickly develop the graduate education of disabled college students for Chinese special higher education. Through the comparison of the foreign and domestic disabled graduate education actualities, we should constitute the postgraduate cultivation scheme and the education layout which could not only possess Chinese…

  18. Hierarchical Control Using Networks Trained with Higher-Level Forward Models

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Greg; Abbott, L.F.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and develop a hierarchical approach to network control of complex tasks. In this approach, a low-level controller directs the activity of a “plant,” the system that performs the task. However, the low-level controller may only be able to solve fairly simple problems involving the plant. To accomplish more complex tasks, we introduce a higher-level controller that controls the lower-level controller. We use this system to direct an articulated truck to a specified location through an environment filled with static or moving obstacles. The final system consists of networks that have memorized associations between the sensory data they receive and the commands they issue. These networks are trained on a set of optimal associations that are generated by minimizing cost functions. Cost function minimization requires predicting the consequences of sequences of commands, which is achieved by constructing forward models, including a model of the lower-level controller. The forward models and cost minimization are only used during training, allowing the trained networks to respond rapidly. In general, the hierarchical approach can be extended to larger numbers of levels, dividing complex tasks into more manageable sub-tasks. The optimization procedure and the construction of the forward models and controllers can be performed in similar ways at each level of the hierarchy, which allows the system to be modified to perform other tasks, or to be extended for more complex tasks without retraining lower-levels. PMID:25058706

  19. Arthropod food webs become increasingly lipid-limited at higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Norris, Michael; Lee, Raymond W; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Understanding why food chains are relatively short in length has been an area of research and debate for decades. We tested if progressive changes in the nutritional content of arthropods with trophic position limit the availability of a key nutrient, lipid, for carnivores. Arthropods at higher trophic levels had progressively less lipid and more protein in their bodies compared with arthropods at lower trophic levels. The nutrients present in arthropod bodies were directly related to the nutrients that predators extracted when feeding on those arthropods. As a consequence, nutrient assimilation shifted from lipid-biased to protein-biased as arthropods ascended trophic levels from herbivores to secondary carnivores. Successive changes in the nutritional consequences of predation may ultimately set an upper limit on the number of trophic levels in arthropod communities. Further work is needed to examine the influence of lipid and other nutrients on food web traits in a range of ecosystems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. B Lymphocyte Stimulator Levels in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Higher Circulating Levels in African American Patients and Increased Production after Influenza Vaccination in Patients with Low Baseline Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Merrill, Joan T.; Roberts, Virginia C.; Dedeke, Amy B.; Neas, Barbara R.; Thompson, Linda F.; Guthridge, Joel M.; James, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Examine the relationship between circulating B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels and humoral responses to influenza vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as the effect of vaccination on BLyS levels. Clinical and serologic features of SLE that are associated with elevated BLyS levels will also be investigated. Methods Clinical history, disease activity measurements and blood specimens were collected from sixty SLE patients at baseline and after influenza vaccination. Sera were tested for BLyS levels, lupus-associated autoantibodies, serum IFN-α activity, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and humoral responses to influenza vaccination. Results Thirty percent of SLE patients had elevated BLyS levels, with African American patients having higher BLyS levels than European American patients (p=0.006). Baseline BLyS levels in patients were not correlated with humoral responses to influenza vaccination (p=0.863), and BLyS levels increased post-vaccination only in the subset of patients in the lowest quartile of BLyS levels (p=0.0003). Elevated BLyS levels were associated with increased disease activity as measured by SLEDAI, PGA, and SLAM in European Americans (p=0.035, p=0.016, p=0.018, respectively), but not in African Americans. Elevated BLyS levels were also associated with anti-nRNP (p=0.0003) and decreased 25(OH)D (p=0.018). Serum IFN-α activity was a significant predictor of elevated BLyS in a multivariate analysis (p=0.002). Conclusion African American SLE patients have higher BLyS levels regardless of disease activity. Humoral response to influenza vaccination is not correlated with baseline BLyS levels in SLE patients and only those patients with low baseline BLyS levels demonstrate an increased BLyS response after vaccination. PMID:22127709

  1. Expression levels of B7-H3 and TLT-2 in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHAN-SHAN; TANG, JING; YU, SHU-YI; MA, LI; WANG, FENG; XIE, SHU-LE; JIN, LONG; YANG, HONG-YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of immune regulatory molecules B7-H3 [also known as cluster of differentiation 276] and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-like transcript-2 (TLT-2) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Human OSCC samples were obtained from 76 patients (female, 32; male, 44; age range, 23–81 years; median age, 50.9 years) that underwent resection for OSCC at Peking University Shenzhen Hospital (Shenzhen, China) between 2007 and 2010. In addition, control oral mucosal samples were obtained from 76 healthy individuals (female, 36; male, 40; age range, 21–62 years; median age, 45.3 years) during wisdom tooth extraction. Protein and gene expression levels of B7-H3 and TLT-2 were determined by immunohistochemical analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the healthy oral mucosa samples, B7-H3 expression was identified to be weak, while the expression of TLT-2 was only detected sporadically in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. By contrast, the two regulatory molecules were widely expressed in the aforementioned localizations in human OSCC specimens upon immunohistochemical examination. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the presence of significantly higher B7-H3 and TLT-2 expression levels in OSCC specimens compared with the oral mucosa of healthy individuals. The significantly higher expression levels of B7-H3 and TLT-2 in human OSCC specimens may indicate an inhibitory role of these molecules in the antitumoral immune response. To investigate interactions between these two molecules and individual antitumoral immune response in OSCC patients, prospective clinical studies with an adequate sample size are required. PMID:26622626

  2. High level constitutive expression of luciferase reporter by lsd90 promoter in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Verma, Hemant Kumar; Shukla, Poonam; Alfatah, Md; Khare, Asheesh Kumar; Upadhyay, Udita; Ganesan, Kaliannan; Singh, Jagmohan

    2014-01-01

    Because of a large number of molecular similarities with higher eukaryotes, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been considered a potentially ideal host for expressing human proteins having therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications. However, efforts in this direction are hampered by lack of a strong promoter. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a strong, constitutive promoter from S. pombe. A new expression vector was constructed by cloning the putative promoter region of the lsd90 gene (earlier reported to be strongly induced by heat stress) into a previously reported high copy number vector pJH5, which contained an ARS element corresponding to the mat2P flanking region and a truncated URA3m selectable marker. The resulting vector was used to study and compare the level of expression of the luciferase reporter with that achieved with the known vectors containing regulatable promoter nmt1 and the strong constitutive promoter adh1 in S. pombe and the methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter in Pichia pastoris. Following growth in standard media the new vector containing the putative lsd90 promoter provided constitutive expression of luciferase, at a level, which was 19-, 39- and 10-fold higher than that achieved with nmt1, adh1 and AOX1 promoters, respectively. These results indicate a great potential of the new lsd90 promoter-based vector for commercial scale expression of therapeutic proteins in S. pombe.

  3. Relationship between TLR4 and MCP2 expression levels and habitual abortion.

    PubMed

    Li, X P; Song, L N; Tian, L P; Zhang, Y S

    2016-04-25

    Habitual abortion is associated with the altered expression of multiple genes. This study was carried out to investigate the relationship between expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and monocyte chemotactic protein 2 (MCP2 or CCL8) and habitual abortion. This was done by detecting and comparing their relative expression in peripheral blood and placental villi of patients and healthy fertile women. Based on our previous research, 85 subjects with habitual abortion (study group) and 40 healthy fertile women (control group), who were admitted to our hospital between June 2013 and December 2014, were enrolled in this study. After these subjects signed written informed consent, peripheral blood samples and villous tissues were collected, from which the total RNA was extracted. The expression of TLR4 and MCP2 was detected with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, using GAPDH as a reference control. The expression of TLR4 and MCP2 in the peripheral blood and villous tissues of the study group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). A positive correlation was also observed between the changes in expression levels of TLR4 and MCP2. In conclusion, TLR4 and MCP2 expression correlated with the occurrence of habitual abortion. Detecting expression changes in TLR4 and MCP2 in the peripheral blood is a feasible method for predicting the occurrence of abortion in women of child-bearing age.

  4. Higher-level fusion for military operations based on abductive inference: proof of principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John

    2006-04-01

    The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.

  5. [Patients with vulnerable coronary plaques have higher serum metalloproteinase-1 levels].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Elvira, G; Coma-Canella, I; Artaiz, M; Páramo, J A; Barba, J; Calabuig, J

    2017-04-30

    Most acute coronary syndromes are caused by the fracture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. These plaques are thin cap fibroatheromas, which can only be detected with invasive coronary imaging techniques. It is necessary to find a non-invasive biomarker of these vulnerable plaques in order to identify patients at risk without a coronary angiography. Metalloproteinase-1 is an enzyme involved in extracellular matrix metabolism which has been correlated with the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Its serum levels in patients with vulnerable plaques remain unknown. Patients with suspected stable coronary artery disease undergoing coronary angiography in our hospital were in-cluded. The coronary arteries were studied with optical coherence tomography to detect vulnerable plaques. Blood samples were taken from a peripheral vein and from the coronary sinus, to assess metalloproteinase-1 levels. Fifty-one patients were included, 13 of whom had at least one vulnerable plaque. There were not significant dif-ferences in clinical characteristics, lipid profile or C reactive protein levels, between patients with or without vulnerable plaques. Patients with vulnerable plaques had significant higher metalloproteinase-1 levels both in peripheral (7330±5541 vs 2894±1783 pg/ml, p=0.025) and coronary sinus serum (6012±3854 vs 2707±1252 pg/ml, p=0.047). Patients with vulnerable plaques had significantly higher metalloproteinase-1 serum levels. Further studies with clinical follow up are needed to assess the prognostic value of serum metalloproteinase-1.

  6. Young and older good learners have higher levels of brain nicotinic receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Woodruff-Pak, Diana S; Lehr, Melissa A; Li, Jian-Guo; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2010-06-01

    Neuronal alphabeta heteromeric and alpha7 homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were compared in 4- and 27-month rabbits selected for learning proficiency. Sixty 4- and 60 27-month rabbits received the alpha7 nAChR agonist (MEM-3389), galantamine, or vehicle during training in trace eyeblink classical conditioning. Brain tissue from the best and worst young and older learners was analyzed with radioligand binding. Vehicle-treated 4- and 27-month good learners had higher alphabeta heteromeric nAChR binding in hippocampus and temporal-parietal cortex than poor learners, and this result was replicated in both age groups of rabbits treated with galantamine. Results indicate that anatomically more numerous nAChRs or functional activation of a greater number of nAChRs may characterize animals demonstrating optimal learning. During normal aging the expression of high-affinity binding sites declines. Age-related changes in the expression of hippocampal alphabeta heteromeric nAChRs may account for some of the documented age-related impairment in learning. However, individual differences in alphabeta heteromeric nAChRs also exist early in life, as better learning in 4-month rabbits was associated with significantly higher binding. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Visual Acuity does not Moderate Effect Sizes of Higher-Level Cognitive Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Houston, James R.; Bennett, Ilana J.; Allen, Philip A.; Madden, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Declining visual capacities in older adults have been posited as a driving force behind adult age differences in higher-order cognitive functions (e.g., the “common cause” hypothesis of Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994). McGowan, Patterson and Jordan (2013) also found that a surprisingly large number of published cognitive aging studies failed to include adequate measures of visual acuity. However, a recent meta-analysis of three studies (LaFleur & Salthouse, 2014) failed to find evidence that visual acuity moderated or mediated age differences in higher-level cognitive processes. In order to provide a more extensive test of whether visual acuity moderates age differences in higher-level cognitive processes, we conducted a more extensive meta-analysis of topic. Methods Using results from 456 studies, we calculated effect sizes for the main effect of age across four cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, and perception/language) separately for five levels of visual acuity criteria (no criteria, undisclosed criteria, self-reported acuity, 20/80-20/31, and 20/30 or better). Results As expected, age had a significant effect on each cognitive domain. However, these age effects did not further differ as a function of visual acuity criteria. Conclusion The current meta-analytic, cross-sectional results suggest that visual acuity is not significantly related to age group differences in higher-level cognitive performance—thereby replicating LaFleur and Salthouse (2014). Further efforts are needed to determine whether other measures of visual functioning (e.g. contrast sensitivity, luminance) affect age differences in cognitive functioning. PMID:27070044

  8. Interpersonal Violence, PTSD, and Inflammation: Potential Psychogenic Pathways to Higher C-reactive Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Nicole M.; Chesney, Samantha A.; Gerhart, James I.; Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Luborsky, Judith L.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Hobfoll, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal violence (IPV) is major public health concern with wide-ranging sequelae including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and possible alterations of immune and inflammation processes. There is a need to identify the psycho-biological pathways through which IPV may translate to altered inflammatory processes since both PTSD and inflammation are associated with serious physical health conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the relationships between IPV, psychological distress, and the inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP), in a sample of 139 urban women who have a high likelihood for having experienced IPV. Participants were recruited from an outpatient gynecology clinic to complete self-report measures about their IPV histories and psychological symptoms, as well as to have their blood sampled using a finger stick. Results indicated that exposure to IPV predicted the presence of probable depression and PTSD diagnoses. Individuals who experience clinical levels of PTSD exhibited higher CRP levels, and this relationship held after adjusting for comorbid depression. Correlational analyses suggested that reexperiencing symptoms may explain the link between PTSD diagnosis and higher levels of CRP. Follow-up path analytic models provided good fit to the overall data, and indicated that the relationship between probable PTSD status and CRP is not explained by higher BMI. Overall, these findings call for increased attention to the role of PTSD in explaining links between trauma and diminished health. PMID:23701836

  9. Multi-level Expression Design Language: Requirement level (MEDL-R) system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the Multi-Level Expression Design Language Requirements Level (MEDL-R) system was conducted to determine whether it would be of use in the Goddard Space Flight Center Code 580 software development environment. The evaluation is based upon a study of the MEDL-R concept of requirement languages, the functions performed by MEDL-R, and the MEDL-R language syntax. Recommendations are made for changes to MEDL-R that would make it useful in the Code 580 environment.

  10. High expression level of bone degrading proteins as a possible inducer of osteolytic features in pigmented villonodular synovitis.

    PubMed

    Geldyyev, Aman; Koleganova, Nadezda; Piecha, Grzegorz; Sueltmann, Holger; Finis, Katharina; Ruschaupt, Markus; Poustka, Annemarie; Gross, Marie-Luise; Berger, Irina

    2007-10-08

    Protein expression of osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OC), RANKL and PTHrP was determined by use of immunohistochemical analysis on tissue arrays (48 cases of PVNS, 20 cases of active (a-RA), non-active rheumatoid arthritis (na-RA), and osteoarthritis (OA)). Additionally, gene expression was analysed using complimentary DNA (cDNA) microarrays. All PVNS cases showed a higher level of both protein and gene expression of RANKL, OPN and BSP in comparison with OA cases. Expression of OPG was not significantly different in PVNS compared to OA. The RANKL/OPG expression ratio was significantly higher in PVNS than in OA. High expressions level of proteins involved in bone degradation in PVNS may promote an intra-osseous propagation of the lesion. This evidence suggests that PVNS might respond to treatment using specific inhibitors of RANKL, OPN and BSP.

  11. Effects of phased joint intervention on Rho/ROCK expression levels in patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shi, Min; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wen-Ying; Wang, Na; Wang, Ting; Wang, Yu-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The current study investigated the effects of phased joint intervention on clinical efficacy and Rho/Rho-associated coil protein kinase (ROCK) expression in patients with portal hypertension complicated by esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB) and hypersplenism. Patients with portal hypertension (n=53) caused by liver cirrhosis complicated by EVB and hypersplenism treated with phased joint intervention were assessed, and portal hemodynamics, blood, liver function, complications, and rebleeding incidence were analyzed. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells prior to and following phased joint intervention, and western blotting was employed to determine the protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, phosphorylated (p) myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) and total-MYPT1. All patients underwent an emergency assessment of hemostasis with a 100% success rate. Varicose veins were alleviated, and portal hemodynamics and liver function improved following intervention. Furthermore, preoperative and postoperative expression levels of Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA were higher compared with the control group. Notably, the mRNA expression levels of Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the postoperative group were significantly lower when compared with the preoperative group. Protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2 and pMYPT1 in the postoperative group were lower, as compared with the preoperative group. Concentration levels of transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in peripheral blood were significantly reduced following phased joint intervention. Therefore, the present findings demonstrated that phased joint intervention is able to effectively treat EVB and hypersplenism, and improve liver function. The efficacy of phased joint intervention may be associated with its role in the regulation of the

  12. Effects of phased joint intervention on Rho/ROCK expression levels in patients with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wen-Ying; Wang, Na; Wang, Ting; Wang, Yu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of phased joint intervention on clinical efficacy and Rho/Rho-associated coil protein kinase (ROCK) expression in patients with portal hypertension complicated by esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB) and hypersplenism. Patients with portal hypertension (n=53) caused by liver cirrhosis complicated by EVB and hypersplenism treated with phased joint intervention were assessed, and portal hemodynamics, blood, liver function, complications, and rebleeding incidence were analyzed. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells prior to and following phased joint intervention, and western blotting was employed to determine the protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, phosphorylated (p) myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) and total-MYPT1. All patients underwent an emergency assessment of hemostasis with a 100% success rate. Varicose veins were alleviated, and portal hemodynamics and liver function improved following intervention. Furthermore, preoperative and postoperative expression levels of Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA were higher compared with the control group. Notably, the mRNA expression levels of Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the postoperative group were significantly lower when compared with the preoperative group. Protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2 and pMYPT1 in the postoperative group were lower, as compared with the preoperative group. Concentration levels of transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in peripheral blood were significantly reduced following phased joint intervention. Therefore, the present findings demonstrated that phased joint intervention is able to effectively treat EVB and hypersplenism, and improve liver function. The efficacy of phased joint intervention may be associated with its role in the regulation of the

  13. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  14. Higher haemoglobin levels and dedicated trauma admission are associated with survival after severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Baltazar, Gerard Anthony; Pate, Amy J; Panigrahi, Benita; Sharp, Audrey; Smith, Michael; Chendrasekhar, Akella

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of secondary brain injury is a key component of acute management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Haemoglobin concentration may have an impact on optimization of cerebral oxygenation. Patients with TBI may best be served by an organized trauma service. The objective is to determine if haemoglobin concentration or dedicated trauma admission has an impact on outcomes after severe TBI. This study retrospectively analysed consecutive patients with severe TBI admitted to a level-I trauma centre over 3 years. Patients <16 years-old and with length of stay (LOS) <24 hours were excluded. Data were collected on demographics; injury severity; LOS; admission service; survival to discharge; and haemoglobin levels from hospital days 1-7. Data were also collected on number of transfusions of packed red blood cells. The sample was stratified based on admission service and survival to discharge. Of 147 patients (age = 54.1 ± 3.7 years), overall mortality rate was 15.4% (n = 23). Overall, non-survivors had lower daily and 7-day mean haemoglobin levels (10.7 ± 0.9 vs. 12.9 ± 0.4 g dL(-1), p < 0.001). Non-surgical admissions had lower haemoglobin levels and a higher mortality rate (28.9% vs. 12.2%, p < 0.001) compared to dedicated trauma admissions. Among patients with severe TBI, higher haemoglobin levels and maintenance as a dedicated trauma admission are associated with higher survival to discharge.

  15. Higher prevalence and levels of Nosema ceranae than Nosema apis infections in Canadian honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Berna; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Eccles, Les; Lacey, Brian; Ruiz-Pérez, Rosario A; Nasr, Medhat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and infection levels of the microsporidia fungi Nosema apis and/or Nosema ceranae in honey bee colonies of two Canadian provinces. Three surveys were conducted in the springs of 2008, 2010 and 2012 and PCR identification of Nosema species were performed in samples from 169 and 181 Ontario colonies and from 76 Alberta colonies that tested positive to Nosema spp. Infection levels of positive colonies were determined by microscopy and analyzed by Nosema spp. Results showed that N. ceranae was the dominant species in all three surveys (prevalence range of 41-91 vs. 4-34 % for N. apis), whereas mixed infections were less frequent than single infections (5-25 %). Infection levels of colonies parasitized by N. ceranae were three to five times higher than those of colonies parasitized by N. apis in the three surveys whereas mixed infections showed the highest spore counts. This is the first field study demonstrating significantly higher infection levels in colonies parasitized with either N. ceranae only or with both, N. ceranae and N. apis, than in colonies parasitized with N. apis only. Taken together, these results suggest that N. ceranae may be more virulent and better adapted than N. apis in cold climates such as Canadian environments.

  16. Higher hair nicotine level in children compared to mother living with smoking father in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Nur Nadia; Loy, See Ling; Man, Che Nin; Al-Mamun, Abdullah; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine parental and children's hair nicotine levels, their relationships as well as to investigate the association of smoking status of the fathers with mothers' and children's hair nicotine. A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 124 families who were participants of the Universiti Sains Malaysia Pregnancy Cohort Study. Both parents with their 2 years old children joined this study. A total of 92 hair samples of fathers, 124 hair samples of mothers and 111 hair samples of children were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Of total, 52.4 % of the fathers reported smoking. None of the mothers were smokers. Hair nicotine levels of fathers were found to be significantly correlated with mothers (r = 0.233, p = 0.026) and children (r = 0.508, p < 0.001). Children living with smoking fathers had significantly higher median hair nicotine level compared to the children of non-smoking fathers (6.08 vs 0.22 ng/mg, p = 0.046). However, this association was not seen in the mothers. Quantile regression showed significant association between fathers' and children's hair nicotine. There is a positive relationship between fathers' hair nicotine with mother's and children's hair nicotine. Living with smoking fathers can contribute to higher hair nicotine levels in children but not in mothers.

  17. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  18. Levels of Lycopene β-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  19. Levels of lycopene β-cyclase 1 modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots.

  20. Diabetes is Associated with Higher Trimethylamine N-oxide Plasma Levels.

    PubMed

    Dambrova, M; Latkovskis, G; Kuka, J; Strele, I; Konrade, I; Grinberga, S; Hartmane, D; Pugovics, O; Erglis, A; Liepinsh, E

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed strong associations between systemic trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. In addition, plasma L-carnitine levels in patients with high TMAO concentrations predicted an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and incident major adverse cardiac events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between TMAO and L-carnitine plasma levels and diabetes. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 and 20 weeks old db/db mice and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Diabetic compared to non-diabetic db/L mice presented 10-fold higher TMAO, but lower L-carnitine plasma concentrations at 12 weeks of age. After 8 weeks of observation, diabetic db/db mice had significantly increased body weight, insulin resistance and TMAO concentration in comparison to non-diabetic control. In 191 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention the median (interquartile range) plasma concentration of TMAO was 1.8 (1.2-2.6) µmol/L. Analysis of the samples showed a bivariate association of TMAO level with age, total cholesterol and L-carnitine. The multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that, in addition to L-carnitine as the strongest predictor of log transformed TMAO (p<0.001), the parameters of age, diabetes status and body mass index (BMI) were independently associated with increased log transformed TMAO levels (p<0.01).Our data provide evidence that age, diabetes and BMI are associated with higher TMAO levels independently of L-carnitine. These data support the hypothesis of TMAO as a cardiovascular risk marker and warrant further investigation of TMAO for diabetes research applications. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Surface L-type Ca2+ channel expression levels are increased in aged hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Santana, Félix Luis; Oh, Myongsoo Matthew; Antion, Marcia Diana; Lee, Amy; Hell, Johannes Wilhelm; Disterhoft, John Francis

    2014-01-01

    Age-related increase in L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons has been hypothesized to underlie the increased Ca2+ influx and subsequent reduced intrinsic neuronal excitability of these neurons that lead to age-related cognitive deficits. Here, using specific antibodies against Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subunits of LTCCs, we systematically re-examined the expression of these proteins in the hippocampus from young (3 to 4 month old) and aged (30 to 32 month old) F344xBN rats. Western blot analysis of the total expression levels revealed significant reductions in both Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subunits from all three major hippocampal regions of aged rats. Despite the decreases in total expression levels, surface biotinylation experiments revealed significantly higher proportion of expression on the plasma membrane of Cav1.2 in the CA1 and CA3 regions and of Cav1.3 in the CA3 region from aged rats. Furthermore, the surface biotinylation results were supported by immunohistochemical analysis that revealed significant increases in Cav1.2 immunoreactivity in the CA1 and CA3 regions of aged hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, we found a significant increase in the level of phosphorylated Cav1.2 on the plasma membrane in the dentate gyrus of aged rats. Taken together, our present findings strongly suggest that age-related cognitive deficits cannot be attributed to a global change in L-type channel expression nor to the level of phosphorylation of Cav1.2 on the plasma membrane of hippocampal neurons. Rather, increased expression and density of LTCCs on the plasma membrane may underlie the age-related increase in L-type Ca2+ channel activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:24033980

  2. DNA vaccines expressing pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) elicit protection levels comparable to recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daniela M; Miyaji, Eliane N; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S; Darrieux, Michelle; Arêas, Ana Paula M; Ho, Paulo L; Leite, Luciana C C

    2006-04-01

    Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a promising candidate for the development of cost-effective vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the present study, BALB/c mice were immunized with DNA vaccine vectors expressing the N-terminal region of PspA. Animals immunized with a vector expressing secreted PspA developed higher levels of antibody than mice immunized with the vector expressing the antigen in the cytosol. However, both immunogens elicited similar levels of protection against intraperitoneal challenge. Furthermore, immunization with exactly the same fragment in the form of a recombinant protein, with aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, elicited even higher antibody levels, but this increased humoral response did not correlate with enhanced protection. These results show that DNA vaccines expressing PspA are able to elicit protection levels comparable to recombinant protein, even though total anti-PspA IgG response is considerably lower.

  3. Formaldehyde exposure in a gross anatomy laboratory--personal exposure level is higher than indoor concentration.

    PubMed

    Ohmichi, Kimihide; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Takanashi, Yoshimitsu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kadota, Tomoko; Maekawa, Mamiko; Toyama, Yoshiro; Tatsugi, Yukitoshi; Kohno, Toshihiko; Ohmichi, Masayoshi; Mori, Chisato

    2006-03-01

    Cadavers for gross anatomy laboratories are usually prepared by using embalming fluid which contains formaldehyde (FA) as a principal component. During the process of dissection, FA vapors are emitted from the cadavers, resulting in the exposure of medical students and their instructors to elevated levels of FA in the laboratory. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has set a ceiling limit for FA at 0.3 ppm. In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has set an air quality guideline defining two limit values for environmental exposure to FA: 0.08 ppm as an average for general workplaces and 0.25 ppm for specific workplaces such as an FA factory. Although there are many reports on indoor FA concentrations in gross anatomy laboratories, only a few reports have described personal FA exposure levels. The purpose of the present study was to clarify personal exposure levels as well as indoor FA concentrations in our laboratory in order to investigate the relationship between them. The gross anatomy laboratory was evaluated in the 4th, 10th and 18th sessions of 20 laboratory sessions in total over a period of 10 weeks. Air samples were collected using a diffusive sampling device for organic carbonyl compounds. Area samples were taken in the center and four corners of the laboratory during the entire time of each session (4-6 hours). Personal samples were collected from instructors and students using a sampling device pinned on each person's lapel, and they were 1.1 to 6 hours in duration. Analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography. Room averages of FA concentrations were 0.45, 0.38 and 0.68 ppm for the 4th, 10th and 18th sessions, respectively, ranging from 0.23 to 1.03 ppm. These levels were comparable to or relatively lower than the levels reported previously, but were still higher than the guideline limit for specific workplaces in Japan and the ACGIH ceiling limit. The indoor FA concentrations

  4. A higher baseline plasma uric acid level is an independent predictor of arterial stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao-Han; Wang, Xiaona; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei; Ye, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hyperuricemia has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Though the association between uric acid (UA) and arterial stiffness has been investigated previously in patients with basic diseases, the predictive value of baseline UA level for arterial stiffness has not been conducted. We aimed at identifying the predictive role of UA for arterial stiffness prospectively. A longitudinal follow-up study in a routine health check-up population was performed with an average follow-up of 4.8 years. The demographic information, baseline and follow-up anthropometric parameters, arterial stiffness (pulse-wave velocity, PWV), and biomarker variables including UA have been measured and analyzed. A total of 1447 valid follow-ups were available for the final analysis. Both of the baseline and follow-up UA levels were significantly higher in the arterial stiffness groups than that in the nonarterial stiffness groups (all P values <0.001). The follow-up carotid-femoral PWV [(cf-PWV), r = 0.161, P < 0.001] was strongly correlated with baseline UA. At the follow-up cross-section, cf-PWV was also closely associated with UA (r = 0.101, P < 0.001). Logistic regressions revealed that a higher baseline UA level was an independent predictor of follow-up arterial stiffness assessed by cf-PWV [odds ratio (OR): 1.824; P = 0.046]. A higher baseline level of UA is closely related to arterial stiffness and is an independent predictor of arterial stiffening. PMID:28178136

  5. mRNA and protein expression levels of four candidate genes for ear size in Erhualian and Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L C; Liang, J; Pu, L; Zhang, Y B; Wang, L G; Liu, X; Yan, H; Wang, L X

    2017-04-13

    Porcine ear size is an important characteristic for distinguishing among pig breeds. In a previous genome-wide association study of porcine ear size, LEM domain-containing 3 (LEMD3), methionine sulfoxide reductase B3 (MSRB3), high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) were implicated as important candidate genes for ear size. This study investigated the expression levels of four candidate genes for ear size in Erhualian and Large White pigs. Ten Erhualian pigs with large ears and eight Large White pigs with small ears at 60 days of age were examined. The mRNA expression levels of the four candidate genes were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. WIF1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in Large White than in Erhualian pigs (P < 0.05), whereas the expression levels of the other three genes were not significantly different between the two breeds. The protein expression levels of the four genes were analyzed using western blot. WIF1 protein expression was significantly higher in Large White than in Erhualian pigs (P < 0.01), whereas MSRB3 protein expression was significantly higher in Erhualian than in Large White pigs (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two breeds in residual protein expression. These results suggest that WIF1 is the main causal gene for ear size in pigs.

  6. Low-temperature perception leading to gene expression and cold tolerance in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Knight, Marc R; Knight, Heather

    2012-09-01

    Plant species exhibit a range of tolerances to low temperatures, and these constitute a major determinant of their geographical distribution and use as crops. When tolerance is insufficient, either chilling or freezing injuries result. A variety of mechanisms are employed to evade the ravages of extreme or sub-optimal temperatures. Many of these involve cold-responsive gene expression and require that the drop in temperature is first sensed by the plant. Despite intensive research over the last 100 yr or longer, we still cannot easily answer the question of how plants sense low temperature. Over recent years, genomic and post-genomic approaches have produced a wealth of information relating to the sequence of events leading from cold perception to appropriate and useful responses. However, there are also crucial and significant gaps in the pathways constructed from these data. We describe the literature pertaining to the current understanding of cold perception, signalling and regulation of low-temperature-responsive gene expression in higher plants, raising some of the key questions that still intrigue plant biologists today and that could be targets for future work. Our review focuses on the control of gene expression in the pathways leading from cold perception to chilling and freezing tolerance.

  7. CONSERVED HIGHER ORDER CHROMATIN REGULATES NMDA RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION AND COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Peter, Cyril J.; Jiang, Yan; Roussos, Panos; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Shen, Erica; Mitchell, Amanda; Mao, Wenjie; Whittle, Catheryne; Dincer, Aslihan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Pothula, Venu; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Giakoumaki, Stella G.; Bitsios, Panos; Sherif, Ajfar; Gardner, Paul D.; Ernst, Patricia; Ghose, Subroto; Sklar, Pamela; Haroutunian, Vahram; Tamminga, Carol; Myers, Richard H.; Futai, Kensuke; Wood, Marcelo A.; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-01-01

    3-dimensional chromosomal conformations regulate transcription by moving enhancers and regulatory elements into spatial proximity with target genes. Here, we describe activity-regulated long-range loopings bypassing up to 0.5 megabase of linear genome to modulate NMDA glutamate receptor GRIN2B expression in human and mouse prefrontal cortex. Distal intronic and 3’ intergenic loop formations competed with repressor elements to access promoter-proximal sequences, and facilitated expression via a ‘cargo’ of AP-1 and NRF-1 transcription factors and TALE-based transcriptional activators. Neuronal deletion or overexpression of Kmt2a/Mll1 H3K4- and Kmt1e/Setdb1 H3K9-methyltransferase was associated with higher order chromatin changes at distal regulatory Grin2b sequences and impairments in working memory. Genetic polymorphisms and isogenic deletions of loop-bound sequences conferred liability for cognitive performance and decreased GRIN2B expression. Dynamic regulation of chromosomal conformations emerges as a novel layer for transcriptional mechanisms impacting neuronal signaling and cognition. PMID:25467983

  8. Androgen Receptors in a Cichlid Fish, Astatotilapia burtoni: Structure, Localization, and Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    HARBOTT, LENE K.; BURMEISTER, SABRINA S.; WHITE, RICHARD B.; VAGELL, MIKE; FERNALD, RUSSELL D.

    2009-01-01

    Androgens are an important output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that controls reproduction in all vertebrates. In male teleosts two androgens, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, control sexual differentiation and development in juveniles and reproductive behavior in adults. Androgenic signals provide feedback at many levels of the HPG axis, including the hypothalamic neurons that synthesize and release gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), but the precise cellular site of androgen action in the brain is not known. Here we describe two androgen receptor subtypes, ARα and ARβ, in the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni and show that these subtypes are differentially located throughout the adult brain in nuclei known to function in the control of reproduction. ARα was expressed in the ventral part of the ventral telencephalon, the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus and the ventral hypothalamus, whereas ARβ was more widely expressed in the dorsal and ventral telencephalon, the POA, and the ventral and dorsal hypothalamus. We provide the first evidence in any vertebrate that the GnRH1-releasing neurons, which serve as the central control point of the HPG axis, express both subtypes of AR. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that A. burtoni AR subtypes have different expression levels in adult tissue, with ARα showing significantly higher expression than ARβ in the pituitary, and ARβ expressed at a higher level than ARα in the anterior and middle brain. These data provide important insight into the role of androgens in regulating the vertebrate reproductive axis. PMID:17614300

  9. An empirical review: Characteristics of plant microsatellite markers that confer higher levels of genetic variation1

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Benjamin J.; Culley, Theresa M.; Avanesyan, Alina; Stokes, Richard; Brzyski, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    During microsatellite marker development, researchers must choose from a pool of possible primer pairs to further test in their species of interest. In many cases, the goal is maximizing detectable levels of genetic variation. To guide researchers and determine which markers are associated with higher levels of genetic variation, we conducted a literature review based on 6782 genomic microsatellite markers published from 1997–2012. We examined relationships between heterozygosity (He or Ho) or allele number (A) with the following marker characteristics: repeat type, motif length, motif region, repeat frequency, and microsatellite size. Variation across taxonomic groups was also analyzed. There were significant differences between imperfect and perfect repeat types in A and He. Dinucleotide motifs exhibited significantly higher A, He, and Ho than most other motifs. Repeat frequency and motif region were positively correlated with A, He, and Ho, but correlations with microsatellite size were minimal. Higher taxonomic groups were disproportionately represented in the literature and showed little consistency. In conclusion, researchers should carefully consider marker characteristics so they can be tailored to the desired application. If researchers aim to target high genetic variation, dinucleotide motif lengths with large repeat frequencies may be best. PMID:26312192

  10. Serum sTREM-1 level is quite higher in Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, a viral infection.

    PubMed

    Altay, Fatma Aybala; Elaldi, Nazif; Şentürk, Gönül Çiçek; Altin, Nilgün; Gözel, Mustafa Gökhan; Albayrak, Yurdagül; Şencan, İrfan

    2016-09-01

    Members of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family are known as immunmodulators in several infectious or noninfectious inflammatory disorders. The information about their role in viral infections is very limited. To enlighten if there is a relation between soluble TREM-1(sTREM-1) and a viral infection, Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF), we investigated the levels of sTREM-1 in the sera of 39 CCHF patients both at admission and at recovery and compared with 40 healthy controls by using microELISA technique. Statistical analysis was made by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 20 programme. Value of P < 0.05 was accepted as significant for statistical analyses. Median sTREM-1 level was higher in CCHF group when compared to the control group (1,961 vs. 151.1 pg/ml, respectively; P < 0.001). In CCHF patients, sTREM-1 levels were significantly decreased at recovery compared to initial level measured at hospital admission (1,961 vs. 948 pg/ml, respectively; P = 0.019). ΔsTREM-1 is correlated with ΔCRP, ΔWBC, and ΔPlt. We found that serum levels of sTREM-1 higher than 405.9 pg/ml existed as a cut off point for differentiating CCHF patients and control group with a sensitivity of 94.9% and specifity of 87.5%. It is proved that sTREM-1 is increased and correlates with the clinical and laboratory findings in CCHF, a viral infection characterized by activation of inflammation. This finding may lead new studies to enlighten the pathogenesis of infections developing by activation of inflammatory cascades and high level cytokine releases, especially. J. Med. Virol. 88:1473-1478, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Higher Pentraxin-3 Levels are Associated With Inflammation in Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Mesudiye; Ceri, Mevlut; Unverdi, Selman; Altay, Mustafa; Senes, Mehmet; Ecemis, Zafer Aydın; Duranay, Murat

    2016-11-01

    Circulating levels of Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) have been shown to increase in several inflammatory conditions. However, there is no information about the levels of PTX3 in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). This study was designed to evaluate the serum PTX3 levels in patients with FMF during attack and free-attack periods. Twenty FMF patients in attack and free-attack period, and 20 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Blood samples were obtained within the first 24 h of the attack period and between attacks, and levels of white blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Fibrinogen, high sensitive CRP, and PTX3 were determined. PTX3 levels during the attack period were not significantly different from those in free-attack patients (4.9 ± 4.6 ng/ml vs. 2.8 ± 1.4 ng/ml, P > 0.05). However, both attack and free-attack patients had significantly higher PTX3 levels than healthy controls (4.9 ± 4.6 ng/ml vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001; 2.8 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 ng/ml, P < 0.025, respectively). PTX3 levels were not markedly affected from FMF attacks, but high level of PTX3 in free-attack period of FMF patients shows ongoing subclinical inflammation. However, further studies are needed to determine its usefulness as a marker in clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. High-level expression and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen as biopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Masaki; Imamura, Takayuki; Yano, Kentaro; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Meta, Akihiro; Tokieda, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Fibrinogen is a large and complex glycoprotein containing two sets of each of three different chains (α, β and γ). There have been no reports of high-level expression of fibrinogen at commercial levels using mammalian cultured cells such as CHO cells because of the difficulty in highly expressing a protein with such a complex structure. We achieved high-level (1.3 g/l or higher) expression of recombinant human fibrinogen using CHO DG44 cells by optimizing the expression system and culture conditions. We also succeeded in establishing a high-recovery preparation method for recombinant fibrinogen that rarely yields degraded products. To characterize the properties of the recombinant human fibrinogen, we performed SDS-PAGE; western blotting of the α, β and γ chains using specific antibodies and scanning electron microscopy observations of fibrin fibres. We also evaluated the functional equivalence between recombinant fibrinogen and plasma fibrinogen with respect to the release of fibrinopeptides initiated by thrombin and its cross-linking properties. The basic properties of recombinant fibrinogen showed no apparent differences from those of plasma fibrinogen. Here, we report the development of methods for the culture and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen of satisfactory quality that can be scaled up to the commercial level. PMID:26475674

  13. High-level expression and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen as biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Masaki; Imamura, Takayuki; Yano, Kentaro; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Meta, Akihiro; Tokieda, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Fibrinogen is a large and complex glycoprotein containing two sets of each of three different chains (α, β and γ). There have been no reports of high-level expression of fibrinogen at commercial levels using mammalian cultured cells such as CHO cells because of the difficulty in highly expressing a protein with such a complex structure. We achieved high-level (1.3 g/l or higher) expression of recombinant human fibrinogen using CHO DG44 cells by optimizing the expression system and culture conditions. We also succeeded in establishing a high-recovery preparation method for recombinant fibrinogen that rarely yields degraded products. To characterize the properties of the recombinant human fibrinogen, we performed SDS-PAGE; western blotting of the α, β and γ chains using specific antibodies and scanning electron microscopy observations of fibrin fibres. We also evaluated the functional equivalence between recombinant fibrinogen and plasma fibrinogen with respect to the release of fibrinopeptides initiated by thrombin and its cross-linking properties. The basic properties of recombinant fibrinogen showed no apparent differences from those of plasma fibrinogen. Here, we report the development of methods for the culture and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen of satisfactory quality that can be scaled up to the commercial level.

  14. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P < 0.05) higher average daily gains (ADG) and better feed conversion rates (FCR). The pH 24h value tended to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing DE levels. The tenderness of Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) and Semimembranosus muscle (SM) reduced with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). With increasing DE levels, tenderness was increased (P < 0.05). The heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) mRNA expression levels in LD and SM increased with increasing DE levels (P < 0.05), but decreased with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). The calpastatin (CAST) and μ-calpain mRNA expressions levels in LD and SM were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by CP and DE levels in the diet. Therefore, the nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Association Between Dental Student-Developed Exam Questions and Learning at Higher Cognitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Anderson, Olivia S; Wright, Mary C; Fontana, Margherita

    2015-11-01

    New dental accreditation standards emphasize that graduates must be competent in the use of critical thinking (a high cognitive-level skill). Despite this new standard, most written assessments in dental school courses are still based on low cognitive-level questions. The aim of this study was to determine if an exercise that allows students to collaboratively write exam questions would help cultivate higher cognitive levels of learning. To evaluate this exercise at one U.S. dental school, the cognitive level (according to Bloom's taxonomy) of multiple-choice exam questions and students' scores across two cohorts in a cariology course were compared. This evaluation took place using a control group in which questions were instructor-generated and an intervention group in which students worked in groups to develop questions. All students in one first-year class participated in the intervention group (n=104); all students in the first-year class two years earlier served as the control group (n=106). Among students in the intervention group, the response rate to a post-intervention survey measuring students' attitudes about the experience was 70% (N=73). The results showed that the students generating their own assessments developed higher cognitive-level exam questions than the instructor-generated assessments. The intervention group (with student-generated assessments) also performed as well or better on tests compared to the control group (with instructor-generated assessments). In the intervention group survey, the vast majority of students agreed that the exercise was helpful for their overall learning experience, but working in teams was said to be the least valuable component of the activity for their learning. This study suggests that student-driven, collaborative assessments can be an important tool for building critical thinking skills in dental classrooms and that it may be worthwhile to expand this type of exercise into other courses.

  16. Low prealbumin levels are independently associated with higher mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kwon, Owen; Kim, Sang-Un; Kim, Ryang Hi; Cho, Young Wook; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim; Park, Sun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Prealbumin, a sensitive marker for protein-energy status, is also known as an independent risk factor for mortality in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the impact of prealbumin on survival in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In total, 136 incident PD patients (mean age, 53.0 ± 15.8 years) between 2002 and 2007 were enrolled in the study. Laboratory data, dialysis adequacy, and nutritional parameters were assessed 3 months after PD initiation. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to prealbumin level: high prealbumin (≥ 40 mg/dL) and low prealbumin (< 40 mg/dL). The patients in the low-prealbumin group were older and had more comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases compared with the patients in the high-prealbumin group. Mean subjective global assessment scores were lower, and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were higher in the low-prealbumin group. Serum creatinine, albumin, and transferrin levels; percent lean body mass; and normalized protein catabolic rate were positively associated, whereas subjective global assessment scores and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with prealbumin concentration. During the median follow-up of 49 months, patients in the lower prealbumin group had a higher mortality rate. Multivariate analysis revealed that prealbumin < 40 mg/dL (hazard ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-4.64) was an independent risk factor for mortality. In receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve of prealbumin for mortality was the largest among the parameters. Prealbumin levels were an independent and sensitive predictor for mortality in incident PD patients, showing a good correlation with nutritional and inflammatory markers.

  17. Development of Pgrac100-based expression vectors allowing high protein production levels in Bacillus subtilis and relatively low basal expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Phan, Trang Thi Phuong; Tran, Linh Thuoc; Schumann, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Hoang Duc

    2015-05-21

    In general, fusion of recombinant genes to strong inducible promoters allowing intracellular expression in Bacillus subtilis is a two-step process. The ligation products are transformed into Escherichia coli, followed by identification of the correct plasmid, and this plasmid is subsequently transformed into B. subtilis. This raises the problem that basal level of expression of the recombinant gene could be harmful for E. coli cells. Based on the Pgrac promoter, we optimized the UP element, the -35, 15, -10 and the +1 region to enhance the promoter activity in B. subtilis after induction. However, detailed investigations for a promoter to develop expression vectors that allows high protein production levels in B. subtilis and a relatively low basal expression levels in E. coli has not been studied yet. We screened the previously constructed library of E. coli - B. subtilis shuttle vectors for high level expression in B. subtilis and low basal level in E. coli. Promoter Pgrac100 turned out to meet these criteria, in which ß-galactosidase expression level of Pgrac100-bgaB is about 9.2 times higher than Pgrac01-bgaB in B. subtilis and the ratio of those in induced B. subtilis over un-induced E. coli from Pgrac100-bgaB is 1.3 times higher than Pgrac01-bgaB. Similarly, GFP expression level of Pgrac100-gfp is about 27 times higher than that of Pgrac01-gfp and the ratio from Pgrac100-gfp is 35.5 times higher than Pgrac01-gfp. This promoter was used as a basis for the construction of three novel vectors, pHT253 (His-tag-MCS), pHT254 (MCS-His-tag) and pHT255 (MCS-Strep-tag). Expression of the reporter proteins BgaB and GFP using these expression vectors in B. subtilis at a low IPTG concentration were measured and the fusion proteins could be purified easily in a single step by using Strep-Tactin or IMAC-Ni columns. This paper describes the construction and analysis of an IPTG-inducible expression vector termed Pgrac100 for the high level production of intracellular

  18. Change in Prostaglandin Expression Levels and Synthesizing Activities in Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jongwoo; Park, Changhun; Lee, Hyun Soo; Park, Min Soo; Lim, Hyung Taek; Chauhan, Sunil; Dana, Reza; Lee, Hyon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression level of prostaglandins (PGs) and their de novo synthesis in dry eye (DE) disease. Design Cross-sectional case-control study and in vivo mouse experimental study. Participants Forty-six eyes from 23 DE patients and 33 eyes from 17 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Also, DE-induced murine eyes were compared with control eyes. Methods Patients completed a symptom questionnaire using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Nanoliquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used for the quantification of PGE2 and PGD2. A DE disease environmental chamber was used to induce DE in mice. One week after induction, enzyme expressions of cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PG E synthase (PGES), and PG D synthase (PGDS) in the lacrimal glands, meibomian glands, and corneas were examined using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Main Outcome Measures The mean PGE2 and PGD2 levels in the tears of DE patients were measured and compared with symptom severity scores. Immunohistochemistry staining patterns and qRT-PCR data of DE mice were quantified. Results The mean PGE2 level in the tears of DE patients (2.72±3.42 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that in the control group (0.88±0.83 ng/ml; P = 0.003). However, the mean PGD2 level in the tears of DE patients (0.11 ±0.22 ng/ml) was significantly lower (0.91 ±3.28 ng/ml; P = 0.028). The mean PGE2-to-PGD2 ratio correlated strongly with VAS scoring (P = 0.008). In DE mice, COX-2 mRNA was significantly higher in ocular surface tissue and lacrimal glands. Furthermore, PGES mRNA was significantly higher in ocular surface tissue, whereas PGDS mRNA was decreased. Immunohistochemistry staining showed elevated COX-2 expression in the lacrimal glands, meibomian glands, corneas, and conjunctivas. Furthermore, PGES expression was found in periductal infiltrated cells of the lacrimal glands and conjunctival epithelium. Also, PGDS

  19. Pilot error and its relationship with higher organizational levels: HFACS analysis of 523 accidents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don

    2006-10-01

    Based on Reason's model of human error, the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was developed as an analytical framework for the investigation of the role of human error in aviation accidents. However, there is little empirical work that formally describes numerically the relationship between the levels and components in the model (the organizational structures, psychological precursors of errors, and actual errors). This research analyzed 523 accidents in the Republic of China (ROC) Air Force between 1978 and 2002 through the application of the HFACS framework. The results revealed several key relationships between errors at the operational level and organizational inadequacies at both the immediately adjacent level (preconditions for unsafe acts) and higher levels in the organization (unsafe supervision and organizational influences). This research lends support to Reason's model that suggests that active failures are promoted by latent conditions in the organization. Fallible decisions in upper command levels were found to directly affect supervisory practices, thereby creating preconditions for unsafe acts, and hence indirectly impaired performance of pilots, leading to accidents. The HFACS framework was proven to be a useful tool for guiding accident investigations and developing accident prevention strategies.

  20. Specific changes in total and mitochondrial proteomes are associated with higher levels of heterosis in maize hybrids.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Diwakar; Mooney, Brian P; Newton, Kathleen J

    2012-10-01

    The phenomenon of hybrid vigor (heterosis) has long been harnessed by plant breeders to improve world food production. However, the changes that are essential for heterotic responses and the mechanisms responsible for heterosis remain undefined. Large increases in biomass and yield in high-heterosis hybrids suggest that alterations in bioenergetic processes may contribute to heterosis. Progeny from crosses between various inbred lines vary in the extent of vigor observed. Field-grown maize F₁ hybrids that consistently exhibited either low or high heterosis across a variety of environments were examined for changes in proteins that may be correlated with increased plant vigor and yield. Unpollinated ears at the time of flowering (ear shoots) were selected for the studies because they are metabolically active, rich in mitochondria, and the sizes of the ears are diagnostic of yield heterosis. Total protein and mitochondrial proteomes were compared among low- and higher-heterosis hybrids. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis was used to identify allelic and/or isoform differences linked to heterosis. Identification of differentially regulated spots by mass spectrometry revealed proteins involved in stress responses as well as primary carbon and protein metabolism. Many of these proteins were identified in multiple spots, but analysis of their abundances by label-free mass spectrometry suggested that most of the expression differences were due to isoform variation rather than overall protein amount. Thus, our proteomics studies suggest that expression of specific alleles and/or post-translational modification of specific proteins correlate with higher levels of heterosis.

  1. Retinol binding protein-4 circulating levels were higher in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease vs. histologically normal liver from morbidly obese women.

    PubMed

    Terra, Ximena; Auguet, Teresa; Broch, Montserrat; Sabench, Fàtima; Hernández, Mercè; Pastor, Rosa M; Quesada, Isabel M; Luna, Anna; Aguilar, Carmen; del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiles in adipose tissues and liver of morbidly obese (MO) women with or without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and to study the relationships with other pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines in vivo and in vitro. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and liver samples from four lean and 45 MO women with or without NAFLD by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. We also studied RBP4 expression in HepG2 hepatocytes under various inflammatory stimuli. Circulating RBP4 levels were higher in MO women, and specifically, in MO subjects with NAFLD compared with normal liver controls (lean and MO). RBP4 liver expression was higher in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-moderate/severe than in NASHmild. Overall RBP4 gene expression was higher in liver than in adipose tissues. Among them, the higher expression corresponded to SAT. VAT expression was lower in the MO cohort. In HepG2, RBP4 mRNA expression was reduced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and increased by adiponectin treatment. The results obtained in MO women with NAFLD, brings up the use of RBP4 and other adipokines as a panel of noninvasive molecular biomarkers when NAFLD is suspected. Further studies are needed with other obesity groups. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Higher precision level at individual laying performance tests in noncage housing systems.

    PubMed

    Icken, W; Thurner, S; Heinrich, A; Kaiser, A; Cavero, D; Wendl, G; Fries, R; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R

    2013-09-01

    With the Weihenstephan funnel nest box, 12 laying hen flocks were tested for their individual laying performance, egg quality, and nesting behavior in a noncage environment. During the whole observation period of 8 yr, a transponder-based data recording system was continuously improved and resulted in a recording accuracy of 97%. At peak production, heritabilities for the number of eggs laid are in some flocks higher than expected. With improved data accuracy, heritability estimates on individual egg weights are more stable. Heritabilities for nesting behavior traits range between a low to moderate level, providing very useful information for laying hen selection to help improve traits that cannot be recorded in cages. Over the years, the benefits of the Weihenstephan funnel nest box for laying hen breeders have grown. This is due to higher data recording accuracies and extended testing capacities, which result in more reliable genetic parameters.

  3. Plasmatic higher levels of homocysteine in Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, which includes a spectrum of hepatic pathology such as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with hepatic fat accumulation. Genetic mutations in the folate route may only mildly impair Hcy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between liver steatosis with plasma homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with NAFLD. Methods Thirty-five patients diagnosed with NAFLD by liver biopsy and forty-five healthy controls neither age nor sex matched were genotyped for C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA, respectively, and Hcy was determined by HPLC. All patients were negative for markers of Wilson’s, hemochromatosis and autoimmune diseases. Their daily alcohol intake was less than 100 g/week. A set of metabolic and serum lipid markers were also measured at the time of liver biopsies. Results The plasma Hcy level was higher in NAFLD patients compared to the control group (p = 0.0341). No statistical difference for genotypes 677C/T (p = 0.110) and 1298A/C (p = 0.343) in patients with NAFLD and control subjects was observed. The genotypes distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (677C/T p = 0.694 and 1298 A/C p = 0.188). The group of patients and controls showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) for BMI and HOMA_IR, similarly to HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0,006), AST, ALT, γGT, AP and triglycerides levels (p < 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between levels of vitamin B12 and Hcy concentration (p = 0.005). Conclusion Our results indicate that plasma Hcy was higher in NAFLD than controls. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms did not differ significantly between groups, despite the 677TT homozygous frequency was higher in patients (17

  4. Differential toxicity of cadmium to mustard (Brassica juncia L.) genotypes under higher metal levels.

    PubMed

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Rana P

    2011-05-01

    Cadmium application inhibited various growth and biochemical parameters in seedlings of five cultivars of Brassicajuncia L. with different magnitude at lower Cd supply, however, at higher metal applications the variation in Cd toxicity ranged with minor differences. The seedling vigour index (SVI) was inhibited more severely in Gangotri (62.25% over control) and least in Pusa Jai Kisan (8.95%) at 1.0 mM CdCI2. The SVI of all five mustard cultivars, however, severely inhibited (84.29-91.80%) at 5.0 mM Cd. The root and shoot elongation in 7 days old seedlings were inhibited by 32.39-40.38 and 11.83-56.40% respectively at 1.0 mM CdCI2. whereas the varietal differences in root and shoot elongation were 76.71-82.47 and 71.57-78.91 respectively at 5.0 mM CdCI2 The genotypic differences at lower Cd level were more pronounced in shoot elongation than that in the root elongation. The dry weight and moisture content of the seedlings, however, does notshow much varietal differences even at lower Cd level, though the Cd toxicity increased at higher level of Cd application. The metal tolerance index (MTI) and % phytotoxicity of 3 days old seedlings ranged between 43.30-98.37 and 1.63-56.70% respectively at 1.0 mM CdCI2 for different mustard genotypes, whereas at 5.0 mM CdCI2 these factors ranged between 12.26-20.92 and 80.08-87.74% respectively. The varietal differences of MTI and % phytotoxicity was, however, less pronounced at all the metal levels when the seedling attained an age of 7 days. Asimilar trend of genotypic variation was noticed in Cd accumulation in the seedlings at lower and higher levels of Cd supply to the seedlings.Amongst some biochemical parameters e.g. photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates and proteins in the leaves, the photosynthetic pigments i.e. chlorophylls and carotenoids were decreased more drastically. The carbohydrate content of leaves, however, was the least affected component. Our data indicate that the differential toxicity of cadmium to

  5. High-level expressing YAC vector for transgenic animal bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y; Miwa, M; Takahashi, R; Kodaira, K; Hirabayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Ueda, M

    1999-04-01

    The position effect is one major problem in the production of transgenic animals as mammary gland bioreactors. In the present study, we introduced the human growth hormone (hGH) gene into 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin position-independent YAC vectors using homologous recombination and produced transgenic rats via microinjection of YAC DNA into rat embryos. The efficiency of producing transgenic rats with the YAC vector DNA was the same as that using plasmid constructs. All analyzed transgenic rats had one copy of the transgene and produced milk containing a high level of hGH (0.25-8.9 mg/ml). In transgenic rats with the YAC vector in which the human alpha-lactalbumin gene was replaced with the hGH gene, tissue specificity of hGH mRNA was the same as that of the endogenous rat alpha-lactalbumin gene. Thus, the 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin YAC is a useful vector for high-level expression of foreign genes in the milk of transgenic animals.

  6. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer.

    PubMed

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2010-04-01

    The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.

  7. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K.; Yang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, p<0.001) and observed across all subtypes of MDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, p<0.001; Int-2+High, p=0.004). However, unstimulated T-cells from MDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (p<0.001) compared to controls. Other hTERT splice variants were lower in expression and not significantly different among cases and controls. Telomerase activity was positively correlated with total hTERT levels in MDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression. PMID:27655690

  8. MDS shows a higher expression of hTERT and alternative splice variants in unactivated T-cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen; Wu, Lei; Sun, Houfang; Ren, Xiubao; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Yang, Lili

    2016-11-01

    Telomere instability and telomerase reactivation are believed to play an important role in the development of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Abnormal enzymatic activity of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), and its alternative splice variants have been reported to account for deregulated telomerase function in many cancers. In this study, we aim to compare the differences in expression of hTERT and hTERT splice variants, as well as telomere length and telomerase activity in unstimulated T-cells between MDS subgroups and healthy controls. Telomere length in MDS cases was significantly shorter than controls (n = 20, p<0.001) and observed across all subtypes of MDS using World Health Organization classification (WHO subgroups versus control: RARS, p= 0.009; RCMD, p=0.0002; RAEB1/2, p=0.004, respectively) and the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS subgroups: Low+Int-1, p<0.001; Int-2+High, p=0.004). However, unstimulated T-cells from MDS patients (n=20) had significantly higher telomerase activity (p=0.002), higher total hTERT mRNA levels (p=0.001) and hTERT α+β- splice variant expression (p<0.001) compared to controls. Other hTERT splice variants were lower in expression and not significantly different among cases and controls. Telomerase activity was positively correlated with total hTERT levels in MDS (r=0.58, p=0.007). This data is in sharp contrast to data published previously by our group showing a reduction in telomerase and hTERT mRNA in MDS T-cells after activation. In conclusion, this study provides additional insight into hTERT transcript patterns and activity in peripheral T-cells of MDS patients. Additional studies are necessary to better understand the role of this pathway in MDS development and progression.

  9. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  10. Patients With COPD With Higher Levels of Anxiety Are More Physically Active

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Vincent S.; Herting, Jerald; Lee, Jungeun; Fu, Musetta; Chen, Zijing; Borson, Soo; Kohen, Ruth; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Pagalilauan, Genevieve; Adams, Sandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) has been found to be an excellent predictor of mortality beyond traditional measures in COPD. We aimed to determine the association between depression and anxiety with accelerometry-based PA in patients with COPD. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 148 stable patients with COPD enrolled in an ongoing, longitudinal, observational study. We measured PA (total daily step count) with a Stepwatch Activity Monitor over 7 days, depression and anxiety with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADSs), dyspnea with the Shortness of Breath Questionnaire, and functional capacity with the 6-min walk test. Results: Increased anxiety was associated with higher levels of PA such that for every one-point increase in the HADS-Anxiety score there was a corresponding increase of 288 step counts per day (β = 288 steps, P < .001), after adjusting for all other variables. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with lower PA (β= −176 steps, P = .02) only when anxiety was in the model. The interaction term for anxiety and depression approached significance (β = 26, P = .10), suggesting that higher levels of anxiety mitigate the negative effects of depression on PA. Conclusions: The increased PA associated with anxiety in COPD is, to our knowledge, a novel finding. However, it is unclear whether anxious patients with COPD are more restless, and use increased psychomotor activity as a coping mechanism, or whether those with COPD who push themselves to be more physically active experience more anxiety symptoms. Future studies should evaluate for anxiety and PA to better inform how to improve clinical outcomes. Trial Registry: Clinicaltrials.gov; No.: NCT01074515; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23370503

  11. SMARCA4 regulates gene expression and higher-order chromatin structure in proliferating mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Barutcu, A. Rasim; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Fritz, Andrew J.; McCord, Rachel P.; Nickerson, Jeffrey A.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; Dekker, Job; Stein, Gary S.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    The packaging of DNA into chromatin plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and nuclear processes. Brahma-related gene-1 SMARCA4 (also known as BRG1), the essential ATPase subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to disrupt nucleosomes at target regions. Although the transcriptional role of SMARCA4 at gene promoters is well-studied, less is known about its role in higher-order genome organization. SMARCA4 knockdown in human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells resulted in 176 up-regulated genes, including many related to lipid and calcium metabolism, and 1292 down-regulated genes, some of which encode extracellular matrix (ECM) components that can exert mechanical forces and affect nuclear structure. ChIP-seq analysis of SMARCA4 localization and SMARCA4-bound super-enhancers demonstrated extensive binding at intergenic regions. Furthermore, Hi-C analysis showed extensive SMARCA4-mediated alterations in higher-order genome organization at multiple resolutions. First, SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in clustering of intra- and inter-subtelomeric regions, demonstrating a novel role for SMARCA4 in telomere organization. SMARCA4 binding was enriched at topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries, and SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in weakening of TAD boundary strength. Taken together, these findings provide a dynamic view of SMARCA4-dependent changes in higher-order chromatin organization and gene expression, identifying SMARCA4 as a novel component of chromatin organization. PMID:27435934

  12. Constraints on tree-level higher order gravitational couplings in superstring theory.

    PubMed

    Stieberger, Stephan

    2011-03-18

    We consider the scattering amplitudes of five and six gravitons at tree level in superstring theory. Their power series expansions in the Regge slope α' are analyzed through the order α'(8) showing some interesting constraints on higher order gravitational couplings in the effective superstring action such as the absence of R(5) terms. Furthermore, some transcendentality constraints on the coefficients of the nonvanishing couplings are observed: the absence of zeta values of even weight through the order α'(8) like the absence of ζ(2)ζ(3)R(6) terms. Our analysis is valid for any superstring background in any space-time dimension, which allows for a conformal field theory description.

  13. B lymphocyte stimulator levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: higher circulating levels in African American patients and increased production after influenza vaccination in patients with low baseline levels.

    PubMed

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Crowe, Sherry R; Niewold, Timothy B; Merrill, Joan T; Roberts, Virginia C; Dedeke, Amy B; Neas, Barbara R; Thompson, Linda F; Guthridge, Joel M; James, Judith A

    2011-12-01

    To examine the relationship between circulating B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels and humoral responses to influenza vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as the effect of vaccination on BLyS levels, and to investigate clinical and serologic features of SLE that are associated with elevated BLyS levels. Clinical history, disease activity measurements, and blood specimens were collected from 60 SLE patients at baseline and after influenza vaccination. Sera were tested for BLyS levels, lupus-associated autoantibodies, serum interferon-α (IFNα) activity, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and humoral responses to influenza vaccination. Thirty percent of the SLE patients had elevated BLyS levels, with African American patients having higher BLyS levels than white patients (P = 0.006). Baseline BLyS levels in patients were not correlated with humoral responses to influenza vaccination (P = 0.863), and BLyS levels increased postvaccination only in the subset of patients with BLyS levels in the lowest quartile (P = 0.0003). Elevated BLyS levels were associated with increased disease activity, as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index, physician's global assessment, and Systemic Lupus Activity Measure in white patients (P = 0.035, P = 0.016, and P = 0.018, respectively), but not in African Americans. Elevated BLyS levels were also associated with anti-nuclear RNP (P = 0.0003) and decreased 25(OH)D (P = 0.018). Serum IFNα activity was a significant predictor of elevated BLyS in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.002). Our findings indicate that African American patients with SLE have higher BLyS levels regardless of disease activity. Humoral response to influenza vaccination is not correlated with baseline BLyS levels in SLE patients, and only those patients with low baseline BLyS levels demonstrate an increased BLyS response after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Do Sex Offenders Have Higher Levels of Testosterone? Results From a Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jennifer S; Gravel, Jason

    2016-03-21

    The purpose of the current study is to review the available scientific evidence on the relationship between testosterone and sexual aggression. A systematic search for all primary studies comparing basal testosterone levels in sex offenders and non-sex offenders was undertaken across 20 electronic databases using an explicit search strategy and inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of seven studies were identified and 11 effect sizes were computed; effects were pooled using both fixed and random effects meta-analysis models. Although individual study findings present a mix of results wherein sex offenders have higher or lower baseline levels of testosterone than non-sex offenders, pooled results indicate no overall difference between groups. Moderators of the analyses suggest possibly lower rates of testosterone in child molesters than controls; however, results are dependent on study weighting. Limitations, policy implications with respect to chemical castration laws, and future directions for research are discussed.

  15. Bio-molecule Surfaces Construction via a Higher-Order Level-Set Method.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Xu, Guo-Liang; Zhang, Qin

    2008-11-01

    We present a general framework for a higher-order spline level-set (HLS) method and apply this to bio-molecule surfaces construction. Starting from a first order energy functional, we obtain a general level set formulation of geometric partial differential equation, and provide an efficient approach to solve this partial differential equation using a C(2) spline basis. We also present a fast cubic spline interpolation algorithm based on convolution and the Z-transform, which exploits the local relationship of interpolatory cubic spline coefficients with respect to given function data values. One example of our HLS method is demonstrated, which is the construction of bio-molecule surfaces (an implicit solvation interface) with their individual atomic coordinates and solvated radii as prerequisite.

  16. Deimination level and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 expression are elevated in astrocytes with increased incubation temperature.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Algeciras, Mabel; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Serra, Horacio M

    2015-09-01

    Astrocytes respond to environmental cues, including changes in temperatures. Increased deimination, observed in many progressive neurological diseases, is thought to be contributed by astrocytes. We determined the level of deimination and expression of peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PAD2) in isolated primary astrocytes in response to changes on either side (31°C and 41°C) of the optimal temperature (37°C). We investigated changes in the astrocytes by using a number of established markers and accounted for cell death with the CellTiter-Blue assay. We found increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, ALDH1L1, and J1-31, resulting from increased incubation temperature and increased expression of TSP1, S100β, and AQP4, resulting from decreased incubation temperature vs. optimal temperature, suggesting activation of different biochemical pathways in astrocytes associated with different incubation temperatures. Mass spectrometric analyses support such trends. The PAD2 level was increased only as a result of increased incubation temperature with a commensurate increased level of deimination. Actin cytoskeleton and iso[4]LGE, a lipid peroxidase modification, also showed an increase with higher incubation temperature. Altogether, these results suggest that temperature, as an environmental cue, activates astrocytes in a different manner on either side of the optimal temperature and that increase in deimination is associated only with the higher temperature side of the spectrum.

  17. Endogenous Oxytocin Levels Are Associated with the Perception of Emotion in Dynamic Body Expressions in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Keller, William R.; Koenig, James I.; Sullivan, Sara K.; Gold, James M.; Buchanan, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Lower endogenous oxytocin levels have been associated with impaired social cognition in schizophrenia, particularly facial affect identification. Little is known about the relationship between oxytocin and other forms of emotion perception. In the current study, 41 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN) completed a forced-choice affective body expression classification task. Stimuli included dynamic videos of male and female actors portraying 4 discrete emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and neutral. Plasma oxytocin levels were determined via radioimmunoassay. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ were also less accurate at identifying expressions of happiness and sadness; however, there were no group differences for anger or neutral stimuli. A group x sex interaction was also present, such that female CN were more accurate than male CN, whereas male SZ were more accurate than female SZ. Higher endogenous oxytocin levels were associated with better total recognition in both SZ and CN; this association was specific to females in SZ. Findings indicate that sex plays an important role in identifying emotional expressions in body gestures in SZ, and that individual differences in endogenous oxytocin predict emotion perception accuracy. PMID:25620121

  18. Higher Alu Methylation Levels in Catch-Up Growth in Twenty-Year-Old Offsprings

    PubMed Central

    Rerkasem, Kittipan; Rattanatanyong, Prakasit; Rerkasem, Amaraporn; Wongthanee, Antika; Rungruengthanakit, Kittipong; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2015-01-01

    Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW) and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother’s weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG) was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001). The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood. PMID:25807557

  19. Secreted Proteins Defy the Expression Level-Evolutionary Rate Anticorrelation.

    PubMed

    Feyertag, Felix; Berninsone, Patricia M; Alvarez-Ponce, David

    2017-03-01

    The rates of evolution of the proteins of any organism vary across orders of magnitude. A primary factor influencing rates of protein evolution is expression. A strong negative correlation between expression levels and evolutionary rates (the so-called E-R anticorrelation) has been observed in virtually all studied organisms. This effect is currently attributed to the abundance-dependent fitness costs of misfolding and unspecific protein-protein interactions, among other factors. Secreted proteins are folded in the endoplasmic reticulum, a compartment where chaperones, folding catalysts, and stringent quality control mechanisms promote their correct folding and may reduce the fitness costs of misfolding. In addition, confinement of secreted proteins to the extracellular space may reduce misinteractions and their deleterious effects. We hypothesize that each of these factors (the secretory pathway quality control and extracellular location) may reduce the strength of the E-R anticorrelation. Indeed, here we show that among human proteins that are secreted to the extracellular space, rates of evolution do not correlate with protein abundances. This trend is robust to controlling for several potentially confounding factors and is also observed when analyzing protein abundance data for 6 human tissues. In addition, analysis of mRNA abundance data for 32 human tissues shows that the E-R correlation is always less negative, and sometimes nonsignificant, in secreted proteins. Similar observations were made in Caenorhabditis elegans and in Escherichia coli, and to a lesser extent in Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our observations contribute to understand the causes of the E-R anticorrelation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Amplification of steroid-mediated SP-B expression by physiological levels of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Fehrholz, Markus; Hütten, Matthias; Kramer, Boris W; Speer, Christian P; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Factors positively influencing surfactant homeostasis in general and surfactant protein B (SP-B) expression in particular are considered of clinical importance regarding an improvement of lung function in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to identify effects of physiological levels of caffeine on glucocorticoid-mediated SP-B expression in vitro and in vivo. Levels of SP-B and pepsinogen C were quantified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR or immunoblotting in NCI-H441 cells daily exposed to caffeine and/or dexamethasone (DEX). In vivo, SP-B expression was analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of preterm sheep exposed to antenatal DEX and/or postnatal caffeine. If DEX and caffeine were continuously present, SP-B mRNA and protein levels were increased for up to 6 days after induction (P < 0.05). Additionally, caffeine enhanced SP-B mRNA expression in DEX-pretreated cells (P < 0.05). Moreover, caffeine amplified DEX-induced pepsinogen C mRNA expression (P < 0.05). After short-term treatment with caffeine in vivo, only slightly higher SP-B levels could be detected in BAL of preterm sheep following antenatal DEX, combined with an increase of arterial oxygen partial pressure (P < 0.01). Our data demonstrated that the continuous presence of caffeine in vitro is able to amplify DEX-mediated SP-B expression. In contrast, short-term improvement of lung function in vivo is likely to be independent of altered SP-B transcription and translation. An impact of caffeine on release of surfactant reservoirs from lamellar bodies could, however, quickly affect SP-B content in BAL, which has to be further investigated. Our findings indicate that caffeine is able to amplify main effects of glucocorticoids that result from changes in surfactant production, maturation, and release.

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 gene (KDR) polymorphisms and expression levels in depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gałecki, Piotr; Orzechowska, Agata; Berent, Dominika; Talarowska, Monika; Bobińska, Kinga; Gałecka, Elżbieta; Lewiński, Andrzej; Maes, Michael; Szemraj, Janusz

    2013-05-01

    Recent research findings suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) participates in the development of depressive disorder. VEGF is involved in neurogenesis and neuroprotection processes, mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). VEGFR2 also plays a role in angiogenesis, a process related to neurogenesis and other biological processes. We examined VEGFR2 (KDR) gene polymorphism, mRNA expression levels, as well as VEGFR2 protein levels in 268 patients diagnosed with a recurrent depressive disorder (rDD) using the ICD-10 criteria, and in 200 healthy controls. Genotyping and gene expression level analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for measurement of KDR protein levels. Our study found that distribution of KDR polymorphism +1416T/A differs significantly in patients with rDD when compared to healthy subjects, while A allele and AA genotype are risk factors for rDD. KDR mRNA and protein expression are higher in patients with rDD. We also observed a significant association between the -271A/G variant and gene and protein levels. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the KDR gene may serve as a novel genetic marker that could participate in the etiology of rDD. This new pathway may play a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression.

  2. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  3. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee’s susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions. PMID:26121358

  4. Association between Higher Serum Cortisol Levels and Decreased Insulin Secretion in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kamba, Aya; Daimon, Makoto; Murakami, Hiroshi; Otaka, Hideyuki; Matsuki, Kota; Sato, Eri; Tanabe, Jutaro; Takayasu, Shinobu; Matsuhashi, Yuki; Yanagimachi, Miyuki; Terui, Ken; Kageyama, Kazunori; Tokuda, Itoyo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are well known to induce insulin resistance. However, the effect of GCs on insulin secretion has not been well characterized under physiological conditions in human. We here evaluated the effect of GCs on insulin secretion/ß-cell function precisely in a physiological condition. A population-based study of 1,071 Japanese individuals enrolled in the 2014 Iwaki study (390 men, 681 women; aged 54.1 ± 15.1 years), those excluded individuals taking medication for diabetes or steroid treatment, were enrolled in the present study. Association between serum cortisol levels and insulin resistance/secretion assessed by homeostasis model assessment using fasting blood glucose and insulin levels (HOMA-R and HOMA-ß, respectively) were examined. Univariate linear regression analyses showed correlation of serum cortisol levels with HOMA-ß (ß = -0.134, p <0.001) but not with HOMA-R (ß = 0.042, p = 0.172). Adjustments for age, gender, and the multiple clinical characteristics correlated with HOMA indices showed similar results (HOMA-ß: ß = -0.062, p = 0.025; HOMA-R: ß = -0.023, p = 0.394). The correlation between serum cortisol levels and HOMA-ß remained significant after adjustment for HOMA- R (ß = -0.057, p = 0.034). When subjects were tertiled based on serum cortisol levels, the highest tertile was at greater risk of decreased insulin secretion (defined as lower one third of HOMA-ß (≤70)) than the lowest tertile, after adjustment for multiple factors including HOMA- R (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.54). In conclusion, higher serum cortisol levels are significantly associated with decreased insulin secretion in the physiological cortisol range in a Japanese population. PMID:27861636

  5. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress, antioxidant levels and uncoupling protein expression in striped hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si-Si; Cao, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Dong; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-11-01

    According to the rate of living-free radical hypothesis, higher metabolic rates should increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the "uncoupling to survive" hypothesis postulates that uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can decrease ROS production by lowering the potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in which case the correlation between metabolic rate and ROS levels would be a negative rather than positive. In this study, we examined energy intake, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant activity and the expression of UCPs in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain, of striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either 5 °C or 32.5 °C. The energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 5 °C increased by 70.7%, whereas the energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 32.5 °C decreased by 31.3%, relative to hamsters kept at room temperature (21 °C) (P<0.05). Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in BAT significantly decreased in 5 °C group, but increased in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. Neither ROS levels (i.e. H2O2 levels), nor antioxidants in skeletal muscle, liver, heart or brain tissue, were affected by temperature. UCP1 expression in BAT was significantly up-regulated in 5 °C group, but down-regulated in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. UCP3 expression of skeletal muscle was also up-regulated significantly in hamsters acclimated to 5 °C. These results suggest that the relationship between ROS levels and metabolic rate was negative, rather than positive. UCP1 expression in BAT may have played a role in lowering ROS levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    PubMed

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1 matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tractbased spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1.

  7. Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera. PMID:25704094

  8. Higher Levels of ATGL Are Associated with Exercise-Induced Enhancement of Lipolysis in Rat Epididymal Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Junetsu; Sakurai, Takuya; Kizaki, Takako; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Izawa, Tetsuya; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Ishida, Hitoshi; Radak, Zsolt; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Background In adipose cells, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the first step in adipocyte triacylglyceride hydrolysis, thereby regulating both basal and hormone-stimulated lipolysis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s) underlying habitual exercise-induced adaptive modulation of ATGL in white adipocytes via alteration in transcription regulator and lipolytic cofactors. Methodology/Principal Results Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups a sedentary control group (CG) and a habitual exercise group (EG). The EG was subjected to running on a treadmill set at 5 days per week for 9 weeks. The CG was not subjected to running on a treadmill. In the EG, levels of ATGL mRNA and protein were elevated with a significant increase in lipolysis compared with the CG, accompanied by a significant increase in associations of CGI-58 with ATGL protein. Under these conditions, an upregulation of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptorg-2 (PPARg-2) was observed. In the EG, the addition of rosiglitazone further significantly increased the levels of ATGL protein compared with the CG. However, attenuated levels of the ATGL protein in adipocytes were obtained by the addition of insulin, which is known to inhibit the expression of ATGL, in both types of groups. Actually, levels of plasma insulin were significantly reduced in the EG compared with the CG. Conclusions These data suggest that elevated levels of ATGL are involved in the exercise-induced enhancement of lipolysis in primary adipocytes. The exact mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon is associated, at least in part, with upregulated transcriptional activation of PPARg-2. In addition, exercise-induced lower circulation levels of insulin also correlate with habitual exercise-induced higher levels of ATGL in primary adipocytes. PMID:22815850

  9. Higher Circulating Adiponectin Levels Are Associated with Increased Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Macheret, Fima; Bartz, Traci M.; Djousse, Luc; Ix, Joachim H.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Zieman, Susan J.; Siscovick, David S.; Tracy, Russell P.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adiponectin has cardioprotective properties, suggesting that lower levels seen in obesity and diabetes could heighten risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Among older adults, however, higher adiponectin has been linked to greater incidence of adverse outcomes associated with AF, although recent reports have shown this association to be U-shaped. We postulated that higher adiponectin would be linked to increased risk for AF in older adults in a U-shaped manner. Methods We examined the associations of total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin with incident AF among individuals free of prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) participating in a population-based cohort study of older adults (n=3190; age=74±5 years). Results During median follow-up of 11.4 years, there were 886 incident AF events. Adjusted cubic splines showed a positive and linear association between adiponectin and incident AF. After adjusting for potential confounders, including amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide 1–76, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for AF per SD increase in total adiponectin was 1.14 (1.05–1.24), while that for HMW adiponectin was 1.17 (1.08–1.27). Additional adjustment for putative mediators, including subclinical CVD, diabetes, lipids, and inflammation, did not significantly affect these estimates. Conclusions The present findings demonstrate that higher, not lower, levels of adiponectin are independently associated with increased risk of AF in older adults despite its documented cardiometabolic benefits. Additional work is necessary to determine if adiponectin is a marker of failed counter-regulatory pathways or whether this hormone is directly harmful in the setting of or as a result of advanced age. PMID:25855796

  10. Development of ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels in response to early feeding in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2014-12-01

    Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for different production traits: broilers and layers. Chicks of both breeds either received feed and water immediately posthatch or were subjected to a 72-h feed and water delay. Ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin mRNA expression levels were determined at different time points. Effects of early feeding were limited, but breeds differed strikingly regarding cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels. Cytokine expression levels in broilers were low compared with layers and showed a transient drop in the second to third week of life. In contrast, broilers showed considerably higher expression levels of IgA, IgM, and IgY. These findings indicate that the 2 breeds use different immune strategies, at least on the ileal level.

  11. Expression of tissue levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Teng, Xiao-dan; Guo, Xin-xin; Li, Zhi-gao; Han, Ji-guang; Yao, Lei

    2013-06-01

    We examined mRNA expression for MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in human breast cancer tissues, and the association between their expression and clinicopathological variables. Breast tissue samples from 120 patients with breast cancer were available for this study. To determine mRNA expression for MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2, semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out on tumor and normal tissues, respectively. Mean MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MT1-MMP, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 mRNA expression in the breast cancer was significantly higher than in the normal tissue. In terms of tumor size and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, the differences in MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP mRNA expression levels were significant. The association between the increased expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, and MTI-MMP and clinicopathological parameters reflects a role in predicting the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intensity dependence in high-level facial expression adaptation aftereffect.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Wook; Yoon, K Lira

    2017-06-14

    Perception of a facial expression can be altered or biased by a prolonged viewing of other facial expressions, known as the facial expression adaptation aftereffect (FEAA). Recent studies using antiexpressions have demonstrated a monotonic relation between the magnitude of the FEAA and adaptor extremity, suggesting that facial expressions are opponent coded and represented continuously from one expression to its antiexpression. However, it is unclear whether the opponent-coding scheme can account for the FEAA between two facial expressions. In the current study, we demonstrated that the magnitude of the FEAA between two facial expressions increased monotonically as a function of the intensity of adapting facial expressions, consistent with the predictions based on the opponent-coding model. Further, the monotonic increase in the FEAA occurred even when the intensity of an adapting face was too weak for its expression to be recognized. These results together suggest that multiple facial expressions are encoded and represented by balanced activity of neural populations tuned to different facial expressions.

  13. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus.

  14. Establishing a STEM Pipeline: Trends in Male and Female Enrollment and Performance in Higher Level Secondary STEM Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Liz; Gordon, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand enrollment and performance differences between male and females in higher level secondary STEM courses. This study analyzes performance and enrollment of 355,688 secondary students in higher level STEM courses. This research also enabled an exploration of country level differences. The enrollment…

  15. Establishing a STEM Pipeline: Trends in Male and Female Enrollment and Performance in Higher Level Secondary STEM Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Liz; Gordon, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand enrollment and performance differences between male and females in higher level secondary STEM courses. This study analyzes performance and enrollment of 355,688 secondary students in higher level STEM courses. This research also enabled an exploration of country level differences. The enrollment…

  16. Government and Happiness in 130 Nations: Good Governance Fosters Higher Level and More Equality of Happiness.

    PubMed

    Ott, J C

    2011-05-01

    There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in particular to 'technical' quality. Once a minimum level is reached, rising technical quality boosts average happiness proportionally. Good governance does not only produce a higher level of happiness, but also lowers inequality of happiness among citizens. The relation between good governance and inequality of happiness is not linear, but follows a bell shaped pattern, inequality of happiness being highest in nations where the quality of government is at a medium level. The relation between the size of government and average happiness depends heavily on the quality of government; good-big government adds to happiness but bad-big government does not. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.

  17. Comparison of microRNA expression levels between initial and recurrent glioblastoma specimens.

    PubMed

    Ilhan-Mutlu, Aysegül; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Widhalm, Georg; Marosi, Christine; Wagner, Ludwig; Preusser, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary brain tumour in adults. Recent therapeutic advances increased patient's survival, but tumour recurrence inevitably occurs. The pathobiological mechanisms involved in glioblastoma recurrence are still unclear. MicroRNAs are small RNAs proposed o have important roles for cancer including proliferation, aggressiveness and metastases development. There exist only few data on the involvement of microRNAs in glioblastoma recurrence. We selected the following 7 microRNAs with potential relevance for glioblastoma pathobiology by means of a comprehensive literature search: microRNA-10b, microRNA-21, microRNA-181b, microRNA-181c, microRNA-195, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222. We further selected 15 primary glioblastoma patients, of whom formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) of the initial and recurrence surgery were available. All patients had received first line treatment consisting of postoperative combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide (n = 15). Non-neoplastic brain tissue samples from 3 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy served as control. The expression of the microRNAs were analysed by RT-qPCR. These were correlated with each other and with clinical parameters. All microRNAs showed detectable levels of expressions in glioblastoma group, whereas microRNA-10b was not detectable in epilepsy patients. MicroRNAs except microRNA-21 showed significantly higher levels in epilepsy patients when compared to the levels of first resection of glioblastoma. Comparison of microRNA levels between first and second resections revealed no significant change. Cox regression analyses showed no significant association of microRNA expression levels in the tumor tissue with progression free survival times. Expression levels of microRNA-10b, microRNA-21, microRNA-181b, microRNA-181c, microRNA-195, microRNA-221 and microRNA-222 do not differ significantly between initial and recurrent glioblastoma.

  18. Levels of aggressiveness are higher among alcohol-related suicides: results from a psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Chachamovich, Eduardo; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo

    2012-09-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of deaths worldwide. Several studies have showed that alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion. The majority of the theoretical conceptualization and the bulk of evidence on suicidal behavior and AUD are based on investigations of nonfatal cases because data on nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more readily available. This study aims to explore demographic, clinical, and behavioral dimensions in a large sample of alcohol-related suicides compared to an age-gender matched sample of non-AUD suicides to identify specific factors associated with AUD suicides. We conducted a psychological autopsy study with 158 pairs of AUD and non-AUD suicides. Findings showed that AUD suicides have lower educational level, more biological children and were more likely to be heavy smokers (OR=3.32). Cases were more likely to have family history of alcohol (OR=1.73) and drug abuse (OR=3.61). Subjects had similar prevalences of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders. AUD suicides were more likely to meet criteria for current cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=6.64). With respect to personality disorders, AUD suicides presented higher prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=4.68), and were less likely to meet criteria for Avoidant (OR=0.26) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders (OR=0.35). Impulsivity scores were higher in AUD suicides (p=0.18), as well as aggression scores (p<0.001). Results form the conditional logistic regression models showed that cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=4.20) and Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=6.24) were associated with AUD suicide. After controlling for impulsive-aggressive behaviors, levels of aggression were the only psychopathological feature statistically different between AUD and non-AUD suicides (OR=1.28). In conclusion, higher levels of aggressive behaviors are a specific characteristic of AUD suicides. Apart from

  19. Correlation of MGMT promoter methylation status with gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Miyuki; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Moura, Ricardo Pereira; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Cabrera, Hector Navarro; Begnami, Marcos; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 1) To correlate the methylation status of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter to its gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma and 2) to determine the most reliable method for using MGMT to predict the response to adjuvant therapy in patients with glioblastoma. BACKGROUND: The MGMT gene is epigenetically silenced by promoter hypermethylation in gliomas, and this modification has emerged as a relevant predictor of therapeutic response. METHODS: Fifty-one cases of glioblastoma were analyzed for MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing, gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MGMT promoter methylation was found in 43.1% of glioblastoma by methylation-specific PCR and 38.8% by pyrosequencing. A low level of MGMT gene expression was correlated with positive MGMT promoter methylation (p = 0.001). However, no correlation was found between promoter methylation and MGMT protein expression (p = 0.297). The mean survival time of glioblastoma patients submitted to adjuvant therapy was significantly higher among patients with MGMT promoter methylation (log rank = 0.025 by methylation-specific PCR and 0.004 by pyrosequencing), and methylation was an independent predictive factor that was associated with improved prognosis by multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: MGMT promoter methylation status was a more reliable predictor of susceptibility to adjuvant therapy and prognosis of glioblastoma than were MGMT protein or gene expression levels. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing methods were both sensitive methods for determining MGMT promoter methylation status using DNA extracted from frozen tissue. PMID:22012047

  20. Increased SNAIL expression and low syndecan levels are associated with high Gleason grade in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    POBLETE, CRISTIAN E.; FULLA, JUAN; GALLARDO, MARCELA; MUÑOZ, VALENTINA; CASTELLÓN, ENRIQUE A.; GALLEGOS, IVAN; CONTRERAS, HECTOR R.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a leading male oncologic malignancy wideworld. During malignant transformation, normal epithelial cells undergo genetic and morphological changes known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Several regulatory genes and specific marker proteins are involved in PC EMT. Recently, syndecans have been associated with malignancy grade and Gleason score in PC. Considering that SNAIL is mainly a gene repressor increased in PC and that syndecan promoters have putative binding sites for this repressor, we propose that SNAIL might regulate syndecan expression during PC EMT. The aim of this study was to analyze immunochemically the expression of SNAIL, syndecans 1 and 2 and other EMT markers in a tissue microarray (TMA) of PC samples and PC cell lines. The TMAs included PC samples of different Gleason grade and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples, as non-malignant controls. PC3 and LNCaP cell lines were used as models of PC representing different tumorigenic capacities. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry was performed on TMAs and fluorescence immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis were conducted on cell cultures. Results show that SNAIL exhibits increased expression in high Gleason specimens compared to low histological grade and BPH samples. Accordingly, PC3 cells show higher SNAIL expression levels compared to LNCaP cells. Conversely, syndecan 1, similarly to E-cadherin (a known marker of EMT), shows a decreased expression in high Gleason grades samples and PC3 cells. Interestingly, syndecan 2 shows no changes associated to histological grade. It is concluded that increased SNAIL levels in advanced PC are associated with low expression of syndecan 1. The mechanism by which SNAIL regulates the expression of syndecan 1 remains to be investigated. PMID:24424718

  1. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments.

  2. The role of persuasive arguments in changing affirmative action attitudes and expressed behavior in higher education.

    PubMed

    White, Fiona A; Charles, Margaret A; Nelson, Jacqueline K

    2008-11-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Studies 1 and 2 established effective manipulations of positive?negative AA information, and peripheral?central routes of processing. Study 3 implemented these techniques, and a path analysis was carried out testing the differential effects of valence of information processed via different routes on AA evaluative beliefs, attitudes, intention, and expressed behavior. Results indicated that positive AA messages processed centrally (i.e., for meaning) resulted in significantly more positive evaluative beliefs. Modifications to the original model resulted in a final model with excellent fit to the data that supported the mediating role of intention in the AA attitude?behavior relationship, as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. The findings highlight potential benefits of interventions for improving support for AA policies, provided that positive information is processed at a central, evaluative level.

  3. Expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factors a and C in patients with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Shirin; Sankian, Mojtaba; Ajami, Abolghasem; Tehrani, Mohsen; Hafezi, Nasim; Mohammadian, Rajeeh; Farazmandfar, Touraj; Hosseini, Vahid; Abbasi, Ali; Ajami, Maryam

    2014-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important growth factors for metastatic tumors. To clarify the role of VEGF-A and C in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or gastric cancer (GC), we evaluated the expression levels of these two molecules. We also analyzed the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on VEGF-A and C expression levels. PATIENTS WITH DYSPEPSIA WHO NEEDED DIAGNOSTIC ENDOSCOPY WERE SELECTED AND DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), PUD, and GC, according to their endoscopic and histopathological results. Fifty-two patients with NUD, 50 with PUD, and 38 with GC were enrolled in this study. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by the rapid urease test. After RNA extraction and synthesis of cDNA, the expression levels of VEGF-A and C were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The VEGF-C expression level in the PUD and GC groups was significantly higher than that in the NUD group. Moreover, the VEGF-A expression level in the PUD and GC groups was higher than in the NUD group, although the differences were not statistically significant. Significant positive correlations were also observed between the expression levels of these two molecules in the PUD and GC groups. In addition, the expression levels of these two molecules were higher in H. pylori positive patients with PUD or GC than in H. pylori negative patients of the same groups; however, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Up-regulation of VEGF-C expression during gastric mucosal inflammation may play a role in the development of peptic ulcers or GC.

  4. Expression Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors A and C in Patients with Peptic Ulcers and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taghizadeh, Shirin; Sankian, Mojtaba; Tehrani, Mohsen; Hafezi, Nasim; Mohammadian, Rajeeh; Farazmandfar, Touraj; Hosseini, Vahid; Abbasi, Ali; Ajami, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important growth factors for metastatic tumors. To clarify the role of VEGF-A and C in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) or gastric cancer (GC), we evaluated the expression levels of these two molecules. We also analyzed the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on VEGF-A and C expression levels. Materials and Methods Patients with dyspepsia who needed diagnostic endoscopy were selected and divided into three groups: non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD), PUD, and GC, according to their endoscopic and histopathological results. Fifty-two patients with NUD, 50 with PUD, and 38 with GC were enrolled in this study. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by the rapid urease test. After RNA extraction and synthesis of cDNA, the expression levels of VEGF-A and C were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results The VEGF-C expression level in the PUD and GC groups was significantly higher than that in the NUD group. Moreover, the VEGF-A expression level in the PUD and GC groups was higher than in the NUD group, although the differences were not statistically significant. Significant positive correlations were also observed between the expression levels of these two molecules in the PUD and GC groups. In addition, the expression levels of these two molecules were higher in H. pylori positive patients with PUD or GC than in H. pylori negative patients of the same groups; however, these differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Up-regulation of VEGF-C expression during gastric mucosal inflammation may play a role in the development of peptic ulcers or GC. PMID:25328765

  5. VEGF Polymorphisms Related to Higher Serum Levels of Protein Identify Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Fernandes; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; da Silva, Renato Ferreira; Fucuta, Patrícia da Silva; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasia of the liver. Major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include chronic liver diseases, carcinogenic agents, and genetic alterations as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involved in angiogenesis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of VEGF-A (C936T and A1154G) with HCC and cirrhosis, in addition to serum levels of VEGF, clinical profile, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities. A total of 346 individuals were studied: 102 with HCC (G1), 117 with cirrhosis (G2), and 127 controls (G3). Polymorphisms were analysed by PCR/RFLP and serum levels of VEGF by ELISA. Alpha error was set at 5%. The wild-type genotype of both polymorphisms prevailed (P > 0.05). In G1, 23% of the patients died, with no relation to genetic profile (P > 0.05). Increased VEGF level was observed in G1 and G3, related to the mutant allele of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G, respectively, and compared with the wild-type genotype (P = 0.0285; P = 0.0284, resp.) as well as G1 versus G2 and G3 for VEGF-C936T and G1 versus G2 for VEGF-A1154G (P < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, there is a relationship between mutant alleles of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G polymorphisms and higher VEGF level, making them potential markers for HCC. PMID:27660750

  6. Higher minor hemoglobin A2 levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with lesser disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Muhammed Emin; Ince, Bahri; Karadeli, Hasan Huseyin; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Asil, Talip; Altinoz, Meric A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To define whether minor adult hemoglobin A2 (HbA2, α2δ2) exerts any protective activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods HbA2 levels were measured in 146 MS patients with high performance liquid chromatography and association with MS Severity Scores (MSSS) were determined. HbA2 associations with blood count parameters were also studied using blood counts evaluated on the same day of high performance liquid chromatography sampling. Routine biochemical parameters were also determined to rule out elusively influential factors, such as anemia and thyroid disorders. Results HbA2 levels negatively correlated with MSSS (Spearman correlation, R: −0.186, P=0.025). Exclusion of confounding factors with a generalized linear model revealed an even stronger negative correlation between HbA2 and MSSS (P<0.001). HbA2 positively correlated with red blood cells (RBCs) (R=0.350, P<0.001) and in turn, RBCs negatively correlated with MSSS (R=−0.180, P=0.031). Average HbA2 levels were highest among patients treated with interferon β1a. Conclusion RBC fragility is increased in MS, and recent data suggest that circulating free Hb contributes to neural injury in MS. HbA2 and its oxidative denaturation product hemichrome A2 enhance RBC membrane stability to a greater extent than do major HbA or hemichrome A. Reductions in ischemic cerebrovascular vascular events are reported in β-thalassemia carriers and HbA2 levels are considerably higher in this population. Episodic declines of cerebral blood flow were shown in bipolar disorder, and we have recently shown a protective role of HbA2 against postpartum episodes in females with bipolar disorder. HbA2’s erythroprotective functions may reduce free Hb and long-term neural injury in MS. PMID:27578976

  7. Level of evidence and conflict of interest disclosure associated with higher citation rates in orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Okike, Kanu; Kocher, Mininder S; Torpey, Jennifer L; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Mehlman, Charles T; Bhandari, Mohit

    2011-03-01

    To identify the scientific and nonscientific factors associated with rates of citation in the orthopedic literature. All original clinical articles published in three general orthopedics journals between July 2002 and December 2003 were reviewed. Information was collected on variables plausibly related to rates of citation, including scientific and nonscientific factors. The number of citations at 5 years was ascertained and linear regression was used to identify factors associated with rates of citation. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with increased rates of citation at 5 years were high level of evidence (22.2 citations for level I or II vs. 10.8 citations for level III or IV; P=0.0001), large sample size (18.8 citations for sample size of 100 or more vs. 7.9 citations for sample size of 25 or fewer; P<0.0001), multiple institutions (15.2 citations for two or more centers vs. 11.1 citations for single center; P=0.023), self-reported conflict of interest disclosure involving a nonprofit organization (17.4 citations for nonprofit disclosure vs. 10.6 citations for no disclosure; P=0.027), and self-reported conflict of interest disclosure involving a for-profit company (26.1 citations for for-profit disclosure vs. 10.6 citations for no disclosure; P=0.011). High level of evidence, large sample size, representation from multiple institutions, and conflict of interest disclosure are associated with higher rates of citation in orthopedics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum Irisin Level is Higher and Related with Insulin in Acanthosis Nigricans-related Obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Q; Fang, L J; Song, K X; Wang, X C; Huang, Y Y; Chai, S Y; Bu, L; Qu, S

    2016-03-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is proved to be a skin phenotype of hyperinsulinemia especially in obese patients. Irisin is a new myokine which plays an important role in metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The role of irisin in the development of AN-related obesity is not yet understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between irisin and AN-related obesity. Patients & Measurements: 30 obese patients without AN (OB group), 30 obese patients with AN (AN group), and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers (control group, CON) were included in this study. Weight, BMI, lipid profile, FFA, UA, and CRP were measured in all participants. Oral Glucose Tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum glucose and plasma insulin were measured at 0, 30, 60,120 and 180 min. The AUC (area under curve) of glucose and insulin was calculated. Serum irisin was measured by ELISA. Hyperinsulinemia is found in both AN and OB groups. The AN group had higher levels of insulin but better blood glucose tolerance and insulin response. The difference in irisin levels between the 3 groups was statistically significant, with the AN group showing the highest serum level of irisin. Serum irisin levels were positively correlated with BMI, and fasting insulin. AN is a state of hyperinsulinmia and has better insulin response and glucose tolerance compared to obese patients without AN. Serum irisin may be a protective factor against impaired beta cell function in obesity with AN. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Lower activity levels are related to higher plantar pressures in overweight children.

    PubMed

    Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Baur, Louise A

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to establish whether the peak plantar pressures generated by overweight and obese school-age children during walking were associated with their objectively measured physical activity. Physical activity levels of a subset of 73 overweight/obese children from a randomized controlled trial (mean ± SD: age, 8.3 ± 1.1 yr; 47 girls; body mass index z-score, 2.7 ± 0.7) were objectively measured using accelerometers. Plantar pressure distributions were also quantified as the participants walked over a pressure platform. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the strength of the relations between the peak plantar pressures generated during walking and the physical activity levels for overweight/obese children. Peak pressures generated beneath the forefoot during walking were inversely correlated with time spent in different intensity levels of physical activity. Moderate-intensity (r = -0.321, P = 0.007), vigorous-intensity (r = -0.326, P = 0.006), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity (r = -0.342, P = 0.004) physical activity were significantly correlated with middle forefoot pressure and with lateral forefoot pressure (r = -0.248, P = 0.040; r = -0.264, P = 0.028; r = -0.267, P = 0.027, respectively). Lateral midfoot (r = -0.244, P = 0.044) and second toe (r = 0.227, P = 0.021) pressure were also significantly correlated with vigorous-intensity activity. Those children who generated higher pressures beneath their forefoot and midfoot during walking had lower levels of physical activity. Further research is required to determine the long-term effects of excessive body mass on participation in physical activity and whether the walking plantar pressure patterns associated with reduced physical activity are related to foot pain or discomfort.

  10. Higher and lower active circulating VWF levels: different facets of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Casonato, Alessandra; Pontara, Elena; Morpurgo, Margherita; Sartorello, Francesca; De Groot, Philip G; Cattini, Maria G; Daidone, Viviana; De Marco, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Most circulating von Willebrand factor (VWF) is normally inactive and incapable of binding platelets, but numerous disorders may modify the proportion of active VWF. We explored active VWF levels in patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD) whose VWF had a higher affinity for platelet glycoprotein (GP)Ib, but different susceptibilities to ADAMTS13 and multimer patterns (9 patients lacking large multimers, 10 with a normal pattern); 12 patients with VWF C2362F and R1819_C1948delinsS mutations, which make VWF resistant to ADAMTS13 were also studied. Type 2B patients with abnormal or normal multimers had significantly more active VWF (3·33 ± 1·6 and 3·74 ± 0·74, respectively; normal 0·99 ± 0·23). The type of VWF mutation influenced VWF activation: V1316M was associated with the highest levels in patients with abnormal multimers, and R1341W in those with normal multimers. Pregnancy induced gradually rising active VWF levels and declining platelet counts in one type 2B VWD patient without large multimers. Active VWF levels dropped significantly in patients homozygous for the C2362F mutation or heterozygous for R1819_C1948delinsS mutations (0·2 ± 0·03 and 0·23 ± 0·1, respectively), and less in cases heterozygous for the VWF C2362F mutation (0·55 ± 0·17). We demonstrate that VWF may be more or less activated, with or without any direct involvement of the A1 domain, and regardless of ADAMTS13.

  11. Constraints on Tree-Level Higher Order Gravitational Couplings in Superstring Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stieberger, Stephan

    2011-03-18

    We consider the scattering amplitudes of five and six gravitons at tree level in superstring theory. Their power series expansions in the Regge slope {alpha}{sup '} are analyzed through the order {alpha}{sup '8} showing some interesting constraints on higher order gravitational couplings in the effective superstring action such as the absence of R{sup 5} terms. Furthermore, some transcendentality constraints on the coefficients of the nonvanishing couplings are observed: the absence of zeta values of even weight through the order {alpha}{sup '8} like the absence of {zeta}(2){zeta}(3)R{sup 6} terms. Our analysis is valid for any superstring background in any space-time dimension, which allows for a conformal field theory description.

  12. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  13. Association of polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenoreceptor gene with higher levels of parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, C E; Hayden, C M; Tiller, K J; Burton, P R; Hagel, I; Palenque, M; Lynch, N R; Goldblatt, J; LeSouëf, P N

    1999-03-01

    The diminishing incidence of parasitic infection in westernised societies has been suggested to result in an increased prevalance of asthma. Asthma is a polygenic disease and genome screens have shown that genes on chromosome 5q31-33 are strongly linked to the disease. The gene for the beta2-adrenoreceptor is located in this region and two polymorphisms have been identified that result in amino acid changes at positions 16 (ArgGly) and 27 (GlnGlu). To determine whether these polymorphisms influence asthma and parasitic infection, a genotype/phenotype study has been performed on a cohort of 126 children from Coche Island in Venezuela. There is a high incidence of asthma on the island and intestinal helminthiasis is endemic. Genotyping for both polymorphisms was carried out by using the polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridisation. Genotype frequencies in this cohort were consistent with other studies and both polymorphisms were in significant linkage disequilibrium. Individuals who were homozygous for Arg16 had significantly higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.002), significantly higher A. lumbricoides egg counts (P<0.001) and significantly larger wheal sizes following skin-prick testing with A. lumbricoides allergen (P=0.008). There was no association between either polymorphism and total serum IgE or asthma in this population. A combination of mast cell degranulation and the lung migratory phase of A. lumbricoides larvae may result in bronchoconstriction in infected individuals. These results suggest that the Gly 16 allele confers resistance to high levels of parasitic infection in this population. An alternative explanation for the association is that it may be the result of linkage disequilibrium with other genes in the chromosome 5q31-33 region.

  14. Higher levels of CO2 during late incubation alter the hatch time of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Tong, Q; McGonnell, I M; Roulston, N; Bergoug, H; Romanini, C E B; Garain, P; Eterradossi, N; Exadaktylos, V; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Demmers, T G M

    2015-01-01

    1. It has been reported that the increasing CO2 tension triggers the embryo to pip the air cell and emerge from the egg. However, the mechanism by which higher CO2 concentrations during the last few days of incubation affect chick physiology and the hatching process is unclear. This study investigated the effect of CO2 concentrations up to 1% during pipping, on the onset and length of the hatch window (HW) and chick quality. 2. Four batches of Ross 308 broiler eggs (600 eggs per batch) were incubated in two small-scale custom-built incubators (Petersime NV). During the final 3 d of incubation, control eggs were exposed to a lower CO2 concentration (0.3%), while the test eggs experienced a higher CO2 concentration programme (peak of 1%). 3. There were no significant differences in blood values, organ weight and body weight. There was also no difference in hatchability between control and test groups. However, a small increase in the chick weight and the percentage of first class chicks was found in the test groups. Furthermore, plasma corticosterone profiles during hatching were altered in embryos exposed to higher CO2; however, they dropped to normal levels at d 21 of incubation. Importantly, the hatching process was delayed and synchronised in the test group, resulting in a narrowed HW which was 2.7 h shorter and 5.3 h later than the control group. 4. These results showed that exposing chicks to 1% CO2 concentration during pipping did not have negative impacts on physiological status of newly hatched chicks. In addition, it may have a significant impact on the physiological mechanisms controlling hatching and have benefits for the health and welfare of chickens by reducing the waiting time after hatching.

  15. Influence of plant genetic diversity on interactions between higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Mooney, Kailen A

    2013-06-23

    While the ecological consequences of plant diversity have received much attention, the mechanisms by which intraspecific diversity affects associated communities remains understudied. We report on a field experiment documenting the effects of patch diversity in the plant Baccharis salicifolia (genotypic monocultures versus polycultures of four genotypes), ants (presence versus absence) and their interaction on ant-tended aphids, ants and parasitic wasps, and the mechanistic pathways by which diversity influences their multi-trophic interactions. Five months after planting, polycultures (versus monocultures) had increased abundances of aphids (threefold), ants (3.2-fold) and parasitoids (1.7-fold) owing to non-additive effects of genetic diversity. The effect on aphids was direct, as plant genetic diversity did not mediate ant-aphid, parasitoid-aphid or ant-parasitoid interactions. This increase in aphid abundance occurred even though plant growth (and thus aphid resources) was not higher in polycultures. The increase in ants and parasitoids was an indirect effect, due entirely to higher aphid abundance. Ants reduced parasitoid abundance by 60 per cent, but did not affect aphid abundance or plant growth, and these top-down effects were equivalent between monocultures and polycultures. In summary, intraspecific plant diversity did not increase primary productivity, but nevertheless had strong effects across multiple trophic levels, and effects on both herbivore mutualists and enemies could be predicted entirely as an extension of plant-herbivore interactions.

  16. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  17. Higher levels of procoagulant microparticles in women with recurrent miscarriage are not associated with antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Tàssies, D; Creus, M; Reverter, J C; Puerto, B; Monteagudo, J; Carmona, F; Balasch, J

    2016-01-01

    Are the levels of circulating cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) in patients with recurrent miscarriage (RM) associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)? cMPs in women with RM are not associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). Previous studies have focused on cMP levels in RM patients. Most studies have shown higher levels of cMPs in RM patients whereas others have reported lower levels. Data regarding cMPs in patients with the APS are scanty in the literature. A case-control study including three groups of patients. A total of 154 women were prospectively recruited from September 2009 to October 2013. Four patients refused to participate. The APS group consisted of 50 women that had been previously diagnosed with primary APS and had had ≥3 consecutive first trimester miscarriages. The uRM group included 52 couples with ≥3 consecutive first trimester miscarriages of unknown etiology. The fertile control (FER) group was composed of 52 healthy fertile women with no history of pregnancy losses. Miscarriage was defined as intrauterine pregnancy loss at <10 weeks' size on ultrasound. Venous blood samples for coagulation studies and cMP determinations were obtained. All patients underwent a thrombophilia study. cMP levels were significantly higher in the APS and uRM groups versus the FER group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.009, respectively) (cMP number × 10(3)/ml plasma [mean ± SD]: APS: 18.5 ± 13.6; uRM: 16.3 ± 13.8; FER: 9.7 ± 4.6). There were no statistically significant differences in cMP levels between the APS and uRM groups. The sample size was arbitrarily decided according to previous studies analyzing cMPs in RM patients. Different cMP subtypes were not investigated. The present study adds further data on the subject showing that patients with RM, irrespective of testing positive for aPLs, have increased levels of cMPs compared with healthy fertile controls. The presence of elevated cMPs in RM women may reflect an ongoing systemic pathological

  18. Patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage show higher levels of DR+ activated T-cells that are less responsive to mitogens.

    PubMed

    Kuon, R J; Schaumann, J; Goeggl, T; Strowitzki, T; Sadeghi, M; Opelz, G; Daniel, V; Toth, B

    2015-11-01

    In 50% of recurrent miscarriages (RM) the cause remains unknown and standardized immunological diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic RM (iRM) is yet not established. In this prospective case-control study, out of 220 RM patients screened, 97 iRM patients were identified and compared to 26 healthy controls without a previous pregnancy or blood transfusion in order to identify deregulated immunological parameters. Blood levels of lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokines and neopterin were determined by FACS, ELISA, and Luminex technique. Lymphocyte function was studied by in-vitro lympocyte proliferation tests. As compared to controls, patients had significantly higher proportions of activated CD3+DR+, CD4+DR+ and CD8+DR+ lymphocytes, elevated levels of neopterin and a lower in-vitro proliferation of lymphocytes (all p<0.05). Within the iRM patients higher proportions of CD3+DR+ T-lymphocytes correlated with higher proportions and absolute numbers of CD4+DR+ and CD8+DR+ T-lymphocytes and lower CD16+CD56+ NK-cells. Further, it was associated with lower absolute numbers of CD19+ B-lymphocytes, CD3+CD25+ T-lymphocytes and CD45+ total lymphocytes (all p<0.05). In addition we found decreased in-vitro lymphocyte proliferation in iRM patients with high CD3+DR+ T-lymphocytes (p<0.05). In summary patients with iRM showed increased activated T-cells that are less responsive to mitogens in-vitro. The inverse relationship of increased DR but decreased CD25 expression on CD3+ T-cells and the decreased in-vitro proliferation characterize an immunological disorder with similarities to T-cell exhaustion in patients with HIV and cancer. These abnormalities potentially contribute to the pathogenesis of iRM and might be a target for future immunomodulatory therapies.

  19. Comparison of site-specific gene expression levels in primary tumors and synchronous lymph node metastases in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Naruke, Akira; Azuma, Mizutomo; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Ishido, Kenji; Katada, Chikatoshi; Sasaki, Tohru; Higuchi, Katsuhiko; Tanabe, Satoshi; Saegusa, Makoto; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2015-04-01

    Many malignant tumors consist of heterogeneous subpopulations of cells. This heterogeneity is associated with genetic characteristics. However, it remains unclear whether gene expression levels differ among specific sites of tumors in gastric cancer. We studied differences in gene expression levels among specific sites of primary tumors and synchronous lymph node metastases, using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens resected surgically from 48 patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer. Specimens were obtained by laser-captured microdissection from five regions: (1) nonneoplastic mucosa, (2) surface layer (mucosa) of the primary tumor (surface sections), (3) middle layer (submucosa) of the primary tumor (middle sections), (4) the deepest layer of the primary tumor (muscularis propria or deeper) at the site of deepest invasion (deep sections), and (5) level 1 synchronous lymph node metastasis (lymph node metastases). Expression levels of the following target genes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction: thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). TP, DPD, EGFR, and HIF1α gene expression levels were significantly higher in deep sections than in surface sections. TP, EGFR, VEGF, and HIF1α gene expression levels were significantly higher in lymph node metastases than in surface sections. TP, DPD, EGFR, VEGF, and HIF1α gene expression levels were positively correlated with the specific samples harvested from the tumors. Our results show that the expression levels of some genes in tumor cells can change in specific sites of tumors and can become higher in association with tumor progression.

  20. Chemically Assisted Enucleation Results in Higher G6PD Expression in Early Bovine Female Embryos Obtained by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clara Slade; Tetzner, Tatiane Almeida Drummond; de Lima, Marina Ragagnin; de Melo, Danilas Salinet; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite extensive efforts, low efficiency is still an issue in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The hypothesis of our study was that the use of cytoplasts produced by chemically assisted enucleation (EN) would improve nuclear reprogramming in nuclear transfer (NT)–derived embryos because it results in lower damage and higher cytoplasm content than conventional EN. For that purpose, we investigated the expression of two X-linked genes: X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In the first experiment, gene expression was assessed in day-7 female blastocysts from embryonic cell NT (ECNT) groups [conventional, ECNT conv; chemically assisted, ECNT deme (demecolcine)]. Whereas in the ECNT conv group, only one embryo (25%; n=4) expressed XIST transcripts, most embryos showed XIST expression (75%; n=4) in the ECNT deme group. However, no significant differences in transcript abundance of XIST and G6PD were found when comparing the embryos from all groups. In a second experiment using somatic cells as nuclear donors, we evaluated gene expression profiles in female SCNT-derived embryos. No significant differences in relative abundance (RA) of XIST transcripts were observed among the groups. Nonetheless, higher (p<0.05) levels of G6PD were observed in SCNT deme and in vitro–derived groups in comparison to SCNT conv. To know whether higher G6PD expression in embryos derived from SCNT chemically assisted EN indicates higher metabolism in embryos considered of superior quality or if the presence of higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels generated by the increased oxygen consumption triggers G6PD activation, the expression of genes related to stress response should be investigated in embryos produced by that technique. PMID:22908977

  1. Relationship between the expression level of SLA-DQA and Escherichia coli F18 infection in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen-bin; Ye, Lan; Zi, Chen; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jing; Pan, Zhang-yuan; Zhu, Guo-qiang; Huang, Xue-gen; Wu, Sheng-long

    2012-02-15

    The expression of SLA-DQA was assayed by Real-time PCR to analyze the differential expression between ETEC F18-resistant and -sensitive post-weaning piglets, and then to compare the expression levels of SLA-DQA in 11 different tissues from 8-, 18-, 30- and 35-day-old ETEC F18-resistant piglets, which aimed at discussing the role of SLA-DQA in resistance to ETEC F18. The results showed that SLA-DQA is broadly expressed in 11 tissues with the highest expression level in lymph nodes, and a relatively higher expression level in lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum. In tissues of lymph node, lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum, the mRNA expression of SLA-DQA in resistant individuals was significantly higher than that in sensitive ones (P<0.05). In most tissues, the expression of SLA-DQA increased from 8 to 18 and 30 days (weaning day), and increased persistently to 35 days of post-weaning. Expression levels of SLA-DQA on 35 days in most tissues were significant higher than that on 8, 18 and 30 days (P<0.05). The results demonstrated that the resistance to ETEC F18 in post-weaning piglets is related to up-regulation of mRNA expression of SLA-DQA to a certain extent. The analysis suggested that SLA-DQA may be not the direct immune factor that resisted the Escherichia coli F18, but perhaps enhanced humoral immunity and cell immunity to reduce the transmembrane signal transduction of ETEC F18 bacterial LPS and then led to the resistance to ETEC F18 in piglets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potato steroidal glycoalkaloid levels and the expression of key isoprenoid metabolic genes.

    PubMed

    Krits, Pinchas; Fogelman, Edna; Ginzberg, Idit

    2007-12-01

    The potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are toxic secondary metabolites, and their total content in tubers should not exceed 20 mg/100 g fresh weight. The two major SGA in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. SGA biosynthetic genes and the genetic factors that control their expression have not yet been determined. In the present study, potato genotypes exhibiting different levels of SGA content showed an association between high SGA levels in their leaves and tubers and high expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase 1 (hmg1) and squalene synthase 1 (pss1), genes of the mevalonic/isoprenoid pathway. Transcripts of other key enzymes of branches of the isoprenoid pathway, vetispiradiene/sesquiterpene synthase (pvs1) and sterol C24-methyltransferase type1 (smt1), were undetectable or exhibited stable expression regardless of SGA content, respectively, suggesting facilitated precursor flow to the SGA biosynthetic branch. The transcript ratio of solanidine glucosyltransferase (sgt2) to solanidine galactosyltransferase (sgt1) was correlated to the documented chaconine-to-solanine ratio in the tested genotypes. Significantly higher expression of hmg1, pss1, smt1, sgt1 and sgt2 was monitored in the tuber phelloderm than in the parenchyma of the tuber's flesh, targeting the former as the main SGA-producing tissue in the tuber, in agreement with the known high SGA content in the layers directly under the tuber skin.

  3. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  4. Influences of Writing Tasks on Students' Answers to Recall and Higher-Level Test Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Brian; Prain, Vaughan; Wallace, Carolyn

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports on two inter-related studies that examined the use of non-traditional writing strategies within secondary school science classrooms. The first study involved Year 10 students who incorporated one letter writing experience into the learning sequence when studying genetics. The second study was with Year 9 students who used both a non-traditional laboratory writing heuristic and letter writing as part of the learning sequence when studying a topic on light. The same teacher was involved in both case studies. A higher-level analogy question was added to the teacher-prepared tests for each study to examine if students who participated in writing-to-learn activities were able to perform significantly better as a group than a group of students who completed traditional teacher directed laboratory activities and note-taking. Results indicate that for the first study there was not a significant difference using t-test analysis, while for the second study involving two writing treatments there was a statistically significant difference using t-test analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in responses between treatment and control groups when answering low level recall questions for either case study. Student interviews indicated awareness by students of the metacognitive value gained by using the non-traditional writing types.

  5. Complimentary lower-level and higher-order systems underpin imitation learning.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Matthew; Bennett, Simon J; Elliott, Digby; Hayes, Spencer J

    2016-04-01

    We examined whether the temporal representation developed during motor training with reduced-frequency knowledge of results (KR; feedback available on every other trial) was transferred to an imitation learning task. To this end, four groups first practised a three-segment motor sequence task with different KR protocols. Two experimental groups received reduced-frequency KR, one group received high-frequency KR (feedback available on every trial), and one received no-KR. Compared to the no-KR group, the groups that received KR learned the temporal goal of the movement sequence, as evidenced by increased accuracy and consistency across training. Next, all groups learned a single-segment movement that had the same temporal goal as the motor sequence task but required the imitation of biological and nonbiological motion kinematics. Kinematic data showed that whilst all groups imitated biological motion kinematics, the two experimental reduced-frequency KR groups were on average ∼ 800 ms more accurate at imitating movement time than the high-frequency KR and no-KR groups. The interplay between learning biological motion kinematics and the transfer of temporal representation indicates imitation involves distinct, but complementary lower-level sensorimotor and higher-level cognitive processing systems.

  6. Marked differences in CCR5 expression and activation levels in two South African populations.

    PubMed

    Picton, Anabela C P; Shalekoff, Sharon; Paximadis, Maria; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2012-08-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 is pivotal in determining an individual's susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and rate of disease progression. To establish whether population-based differences exist in cell surface expression of CCR5 we evaluated the extent of CCR5 expression across all peripheral blood cell types in individuals from two populations, South African Africans (SAA) and South African Caucasians (SAC). Significant differences in CCR5 expression, both in number of CCR5 molecules per cell (density) and the percentage of CCR5-expressing cells, were observed between the two study groups, within all cell subsets. Most notably, the percentage of all CCR5(+) cell subsets was significantly lower in SAC compared with SAA individuals (P < 0·01) among natural killer (NK) -cell subsets (CD56(+) , CD16(+) CD56(+) and CD56(dim) ) whereas CCR5 density was significantly higher in SAC compared with SAA individuals in CCR5(+) CD8(+) T-cell subsets and CCR5(+) NK-cell subsets (CD56(+) , CD16(+) CD56(+) and CD56(dim) ) (all P < 0·05). These relationships were maintained after exclusion of CCR5Δ32 heterozygous individuals (n = 7) from the SAC dataset. The SAA individuals exhibited significantly higher cell activation levels, as measured by HLA-DR expression, than SAC individuals in CD4(+) T-cell subsets (P = 0·002) and CD56(+) NK-cell subsets (P < 0·001). This study serves to demonstrate that ethnically divergent populations show marked differences in both cell activation and CCR5 expression, which are likely to impact on both susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and the rate of HIV-1 disease progression. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Acro-osteolysis is associated with enhanced osteoclastogenesis and higher blood VEGF levels in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Kyun; Fava, Andrea; Carrino, John; Del Grande, Filippo; Rosen, Antony; Boin, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bone resorption of distal phalanges or acro-osteolysis (AO) can develop in systemic sclerosis (SSc) causing pain and functional limitation. We investigated whether AO may be associated with abnormal osteoclastogenesis in SSc patients and whether hypoxia may be involved in this process. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 26 SSc patients (11 with and 15 without AO) and 14 healthy controls (HC) were cultured in the presence of receptor activator of NF-κB-ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 9 days. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)+ multinucleated giant cells (MNGs) containing 3 or more nuclei were counted as osteoclasts (OCs). Plasma levels and effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on OC formation were evaluated. Results SSc patients with AO formed significantly more OCs after 9 days than did subjects without AO (142.4±67.0 vs. 27.2±17.6 MNGs/well, p<0.001) or HC (18.7±27.0 MNGs/well, p <0.001). No significant difference in OC formation was noted between the patients without AO and HC. Plasma levels of VEGF were higher in SSc patients with AO compared to those without (142.4± 69.6 pg/mL vs. 88.1±38.2 pg/mL, p<0.001) or HC (54.2±24.6 pg/mL, p=0.018). Priming with VEGF-A for 24 hours significantly increased OC generation by 5.3±1.9 fold (p=0.03). The radiographic extent of AO was associated with increased OC formation (Spearman rho=0.741, p=0.01). Conclusion Increased OC formation and higher VEGF levels may contribute to AO in SSc patients.Further studies are needed to elucidate whether targeting osteoclastogenesis may provide a specific therapeutic option for SSc-AO. PMID:26361270

  8. Colony-level behavioral variation correlates with differences in expression of the foraging gene in red imported fire ants.

    PubMed

    Bockoven, Alison A; Coates, Craig J; Eubanks, Micky D

    2017-09-13

    Among social insects, colony-level variation is likely to be widespread and have significant ecological consequences. Very few studies, however, have documented how genetic factors relate to behavior at the colony level. Differences in expression of the foraging gene have been associated with differences in foraging and activity of a wide variety of organisms. We quantified expression of the red imported fire ant foraging gene (sifor) in workers from 21 colonies collected across the natural range of Texas fire ant populations, but maintained under standardized, environmentally controlled conditions. Colonies varied significantly in their behavior. The most active colonies had up to 10 times more active foragers than the least active colony and more than 16 times as many workers outside the nest. Expression differences among colonies correlated with this colony-level behavioral variation. Colonies with higher sifor expression in foragers had, on average, significantly higher foraging activity, exploratory activity, and recruitment to nectar than colonies with lower expression. Expression of sifor was also strongly correlated with worker task (foraging versus working in the interior of the nest). These results provide insight into the genetic and physiological processes underlying collective differences in social behavior. Quantifying variation in expression of the foraging gene may provide an important tool for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of colony-level behavioral variation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. PMID:26166951

  10. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena; Tedla, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels.

  11. Circulating irisin levels and muscle FNDC5 mRNA expression are independent of IL-15 levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Quinn, LeBris S; Anderson, Barbara G; Conner, Jennifer D; Wolden-Hanson, Tami

    2015-11-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) and irisin are exercise-induced myokines that exert favorable effects on energy expenditure and metabolism. IL-15 can induce PGC-1α expression, which in turn induces expression of irisin and its precursor, FNDC5. Therefore, the present study tested the hypothesis that increases in circulating irisin levels and muscle FNDC5 mRNA expression are dependent on IL-15. Circulating irisin levels and gastrocnemius muscle FNDC5 mRNA expression were examined following acute exercise in control and IL-15-deleted (IL-15 KO) mice, following injection of IL-15 into IL-15 KO mice, and in transgenic mice with elevated circulating IL-15 levels (IL-15 Tg mice). Circulating IL-15 levels and muscle PGC-1α and PPARδ mRNA expressions were determined as positive controls. No effect of IL-15 deletion on post-exercise serum irisin levels or muscle FNDC5 mRNA expression was detected. While serum IL-15 levels and muscle PGC-1α expression were elevated post-exercise in control mice, both serum irisin levels and muscle FNDC5 expression decreased shortly after exercise in both control and IL-15 KO mice. A single injection of recombinant IL-15 into IL-15 KO mice that significantly increased muscle PPARδ and PGC-1α mRNA expressions had no effect on circulating irisin release, but modestly induced muscle FNDC5 expression. Additionally, serum irisin and gastrocnemius muscle FNDC5 expression in IL-15 Tg mice were similar to those of control mice. Muscle FNDC5 mRNA expression and irisin release are not IL-15-dependent in mice.

  12. Process-oriented guided inquiry learning strategy enhances students' higher level thinking skills in a pharmaceutical sciences course.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Robert; Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-02-17

    To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.

  13. Higher Peripheral TREM2 mRNA Levels Relate to Cognitive Deficits and Hippocampal Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi Jayne; Ng, Adeline S L; Vipin, Ashwati; Lim, Joseph K W; Chander, Russell J; Ji, Fang; Qiu, Yingwei; Ting, Simon K S; Hameed, Shahul; Lee, Tih-Shih; Zeng, Li; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Zhou, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Variants in triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) are associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Recent studies have reported inconsistent peripheral TREM2 mRNA expression levels and relationship with cognitive scores in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Additionally, no study has examined the association of peripheral TREM2 levels with neuroimaging measures in AD and MCI. To determine peripheral TREM2 mRNA levels in AD, amnestic MCI (aMCI) and healthy controls, and the association with cognitive performance and brain structural changes. We measured peripheral TREM2 mRNA levels in 80 AD, 30 aMCI, and 86 healthy controls using real time polymerase chain reaction. TREM2 levels were correlated with various cognitive performance and brain volumes, correcting for APOE4 status. TREM2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in AD compared to controls and aMCI. Levels did not differ between aMCI and controls. Corrected for APOE4, higher TREM2 levels correlated with lower Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and episodic memory scores, and lower total grey matter and right hippocampal volumes. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis found negative association between TREM2 mRNA levels and grey matter volumes in temporal, parietal and frontal regions. AD subjects with MoCA scores ≤20 had higher TREM2 levels correlating with smaller total grey matter, left hippocampal and right hippocampal volumes. Peripheral TREM2 mRNA levels are higher in AD and are associated with AD-related cognitive deficits and hippocampal atrophy. Our findings suggest that TREM2 may be a potential non-invasive peripheral biomarker for AD diagnosis.

  14. Higher levels of psychological distress are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes during 18 year follow-up: results from the British household panel survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Reviews have shown that depression is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limited evidence for general psychological distress to be associated with incident diabetes. The aim of the present study was to test whether persons who report higher levels of psychological distress are at increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes during 18 years follow up, adjusted for confounders. Methods A prospective analysis using data from 9,514 participants (41 years, SD=14; 44% men) of the British Household Panel Survey. The General Health Questionnaire 12 item version was used to assess general psychological distress, diabetes was measured by means of self-report. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident diabetes during 18 years follow up, comparing participants with low versus high psychological distress at baseline (1991). Results A total of 472 participants developed diabetes 18 year follow up. Those with a high level of psychological distress had a 33% higher hazard of developing diabetes (HR=1.33, 95% CI 1.10–1.61), relative to those with a low level of psychological distress, adjusted for age, sex, education level and household income. After further adjustment for differences in level of energy, health status, health problems and activity level, higher psychological distress was no longer associated with incident diabetes (HR=1.10, 95% CI 0.91-1.34). Conclusions Higher levels of psychological distress are a risk factor for the development of diabetes during an 18 year follow up period. This association may be potentially mediated by low energy level and impaired health status. PMID:23259455

  15. How School Leaders Might Promote Higher Levels of Collective Teacher Efficacy at the Level of School and Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelli, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaders search for effective leadership practices to ensure success. A quantitative study was conducted to determine what behaviors a leader could use to improve collective teacher efficacy at the level of the entire faculty and at the level of grade level teams. This article focuses on using the inverse relationship between transformational…

  16. Increased ceramide synthase 2 and 6 mRNA levels in breast cancer tissues and correlation with sphingosine kinase expression.

    PubMed

    Erez-Roman, Racheli; Pienik, Reut; Futerman, Anthony H

    2010-01-01

    Intervention in the ceramide metabolic pathway is emerging as a novel means to regulate cancer and to modify the activity of chemotherapeutic drugs. We now study mRNA expression levels of the six ceramide synthase (CerS) genes in breast cancer tissue. CerS2 and CerS6 mRNA was significantly elevated in breast cancer tissue compared to paired normal tissue, with approximately half of the individuals showing elevated CerS2 and CerS6 mRNA. A significant correlation was found between CerS2 and CerS6 expression, and between CerS4 and CerS2/CerS6 expression. Moreover, patients that expressed higher CerS2 or 4 mRNA levels tended to show no changes in sphingosine kinase 1 levels, and likewise patients that expressed no change in CerS2 or CerS4 mRNA levels tended to express higher levels of sphingosine kinase 1. Together these results suggest an important role for the CerS genes in breast cancer etiology or diagnosis.

  17. Effects of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation on homocysteine levels and related enzyme expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyan; Rech, Leslie; Wu, Yinghong; Goltz, Douglas; Taylor, Carla G; House, James D

    2015-04-01

    Methionine synthase (MS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are both zinc (Zn)-dependent methyltransferases and involved in the methylation of homocysteine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn supply on homocysteine levels and expression of the two enzymes in growing rats. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to four dietary groups (n=8/group) for 3 weeks: Zn deficient (ZD; <1mg Zn/kg); Zn control (ZC; 30mg Zn/kg); Zn supplemented (ZS; 300mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Serum and femur Zn concentrations were 83% and 58% lower in ZD, and 49% and 62% higher in ZS compared to ZC (P<0.001), respectively. The ZD rats had lower feed intake (37%), body weight gains (45%), liver (43%) and kidney (31%) weights than those of ZC (P<0.001), but these parameters in ZD were not significantly different from the PF controls. Serum homocysteine concentrations were 65% higher in ZD compared to PF (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in serum folate levels between ZD and PF groups. The mRNA expression of liver and kidney MS was 57% and 38% lower in ZD than PF (P<0.001), respectively. Hepatic and renal BHMT mRNA levels were not altered in ZD compared to controls. The aforementioned measurements were not significantly different between ZS and ZC groups, except Zn levels. These results demonstrated that homocysteine homeostasis appeared to be disturbed by Zn deficiency but not Zn supplementation, and elevated serum homocysteine might be due to reduced expression of MS during Zn deficiency.

  18. Focus on the Customer: A New Approach to State-Level Accountability Reporting and Processes for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppert, Sandra S.

    This paper outlines the dimensions of a customer-focused system of accountability and describes approaches taken at the state level to respond to the information needs of a broader client base for higher education. Section 1 traces current trends in the development and implementation of state-level accountability policy for higher education. It…

  19. Partners or Adversaries: A Comparative Case Study of Higher-Education Systems and State-Level Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toman, Janelle Krause; Card, Karen Aldred

    2010-01-01

    The accountability focus in higher education historically has been directed at the institutional level. The purpose of this comparative case study, however, was to look at state-level accountability. The research focused on the processes used in Tennessee, Minnesota, and South Dakota. Interviews were conducted with higher education administrators…

  20. Level of CYP4G19 Expression Is Associated with Pyrethroid Resistance in Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guang-Zhou; Geng, Yi-Jie; Huang, Da-Na; Xue, Cai-Fang; Zhang, Ren-Li

    2010-01-01

    German cockroaches have become a large problem in the Shenzhen area because of their pesticide resistance, especially to pyrethroid. A pyrethroid called "Jia Chong Qing" to prevent pests for a long time were found to be resistant to "Jia Chong Qing" with resistance index of 3.88 measured using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that both CYP4G19 mRNA and CYP4G19 protein expression levels in the wild strain were substantially higher than that of a sensitive strain. dsRNA segments derived from the target gene CYP4G19 were prepared using in vitro transcription and were microinjected into abdomens of the wild strain. Two to eight days after injection, the result showed that CYP4G19 mRNA expressions were significantly reduced in the groups injected with dsRNAs.

  1. Modeling Microbial Dynamics in Aquifers Considering the Interaction Between the Higher Trophic Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajracharya, B. M.; Cirpka, O. A.; Lu, C.

    2014-12-01

    Models of microbial dynamics coupled to solute transport in aquifers typically require the introduction of a bacterial carrying capacity term to prevent excessive microbial growth close to substrate-injection boundaries. The factors controlling this carrying capacity, however, are not fully understood. Most explanations for the occurrence of a carrying capacity discussed are based on the assumption of a bottom-up control of groundwater ecosystems. An alternative explanation is based on top-down control. Our model considers substrate, bacteria and higher trophic levels, such as grazers or bacteriophages. The dissolved substrate is transported with water flow whereas the biomasses of bacteria and grazers are considered essentially immobile. The one-dimensional reactive transport model also accounts for substrate dispersion and a random walk of grazers influenced by the bacteria concentration. The grazers grow on the bacteria, leading to a negative feedback on the bacteria concentration which may limit the turnover of the substrate. A single retentostat model with Monod kinetics of bacterial growth and a second-order grazing shows that the system oscillates but approaches a stable steady state with non-zero concentrations of substrate, bacteria, and grazers. The steady-state concentration of the bacteria biomass is independent of the substrate concentration in the inflow. When coupling several retentostats in a series to mimic a groundwater column, the steady-state bacteria concentrations remain at a constant level over a significant travel distance. The results show that grazing is a possible explanation of the carrying capacity, provided that there is enough substrate to sustain bacteria and grazers.

  2. Lower serum albumin level is associated with higher fractional excretion of creatinine.

    PubMed

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    Creatinine clearance (Ccr) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to the tubular secretion of creatinine. It is known that fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr) increases with decreasing GFR. Association of serum albumin level with the tubular secretion of creatinine was also reported previously. Alteration of FE-Cr may affect the performance of GFR estimating equations based on serum creatinine. Therefore, we analyzed the factors influencing FE-Cr and compared the performance of GFR equations in subjects stratified by serum albumin levels. Seven hundred and fifty-seven Japanese subjects were included. GFR was measured by inulin renal clearance. GFR and Ccr were measured simultaneously. FE-Cr was calculated as the ratio of Ccr to GFR. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the factors influencing FE-Cr. Age, gender, GFR, body mass index (BMI), body weight, height and serum albumin level were analyzed as the parameters. Estimated GFR was calculated by Japanese GFR equations based on serum creatinine (Eq-cr), serum cystatin C (Eq-cys) and 5 variables including serum albumin (Eq-5var). FE-Cr in subjects with serum albumin <3.0, 3.0-3.9 and ≥4.0 g/dl were 1.63 ± 0.48, 1.53 ± 0.55, and 1.40 ± 0.36, respectively. FE-Cr in subjects with serum albumin <3.0 or 3.0-3.9 g/dl were significantly higher than the value in subjects with serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR (p < 0.0001) and serum albumin level (p = 0.004) were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Biases of Eq-cr, Eq-cys and Eq-5var in subjects with serum albumin <3.0 g/dl were -9.5 ± 17.5, -0.7 ± 17.1 and -0.6 ± 14.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Eq-cr significantly overestimated GFR compared with Eq-cys or Eq-5var. Biases in subjects with serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl were 6.4 ± 18.8, 2.0 ± 18.1 and 3.0 ± 18.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Eq-cr significantly underestimated GFR compared with Eq-cys or Eq-5var. GFR and serum albumin level were

  3. [Expression level of Th22 cells and its cytokines in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and its significance].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rong-Hua

    2013-08-01

    This study was purposed to analyze the expression level of Th22 cells and their cytokines in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and evaluate its significance. Forty-eight patients with ALL were selected. According to the treatment, all patients were divided into the newly diagnosed group (n = 26) and complete remission (CR) group (n = 22). The proportion of Th22 cells in peripheral blood was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The expression levels of cytokines IL-22, IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-β in peripheral blood were measured by ELISA. The expression level of IL-22 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was examined by semi-quantitative-reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Meanwhile, 30 healthy individuals were selected as a control group. The parameters of the 3 groups were compared. The results showed that the percentage of Th22 cells and the expression levels of IL-22, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-22 mRNA in newly diagnosed group and the CR group were significantly lower than that in control group, the expression level of TGF-β in above mentioned two group was obviously higher than that in control group (P < 0.05). The percentage of Th22 cells and the expression levels of IL-22, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-22 mRNA in newly diagnosed group were evidently lower than that in CR group (P < 0.05), but the expression level of TGF-β in newly diagnosed group obviously higher than that in CR group. The expression level of IL-22 in newly diagnosed group was positively related with expression level of IL-6 and TNF-α, but it was negatively related with expression level of TGF-β. It is concluded that the decreasing of Th22 cells and down-regulation of IL-22 expression level may be related with pathogenesis of ALL, the decreasing of Th22 cells is risk factor for ALL.

  4. Higher trophic level affects nutrient, silicon, metal(loid), and radionuclide mobilization from freshwater sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Jörg; Planer-Friedrich, Britta

    2017-04-01

    Organic sediments in aquatic ecosystems are well known sinks for nutrients, silicon, and metal(loid)s. Organic matter-decomposing organisms like invertebrate shredders, grazers, bioturbators, and filter feeder are key-species for the carbon and energy turnover within the decomposer community. We could show that invertebrate shredders and grazer affect element fixation or remobilization by changing binding properties of organic sediments and the attached biofilm. Bioturbators affect element fixation or remobilization by changing redox conditions within the uppermost sediment layer. Last but not least filter feeders, like the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an invasive organism in North American and European freshwater ecosystems significantly contributed to element mobilization of silicon, iron, phosphorus, arsenic, and copper and to immobilization of uranium (p<0.001), probably driven by redox conditions, microbial activity within the gut system, or active control of element homeostasis. Except of the filter feeder D. polymorpha, the invertebrates are able to minimize the accumulation of non-nutrient elements due to specific strategies, which is an important strategy for species living in systems tending to element accumulation. However, D. polymorpha revealed a significant uptake and accumulation of arsenic, copper, iron, and especially uranium both into the soft body tissues and the seashell. This accumulation by D. polymorpha is in line with previous observations of metal(loid) accumulation from biomonitoring studies. In summary, higher trophic level strongly contributes to element fixation or remobilization in aquatic systems.

  5. Dengue patients exhibit higher levels of PrM and E antibodies than their asymptomatic counterparts.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Adeline Syin Lian; Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Wang, Seok Mui; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Manikam, Rishya; Sathar, Jameela; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals.

  6. Higher Levels of Multiple Paternities Increase Seedling Survival in the Long-Lived Tree Eucalyptus gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Breed, Martin F.; Christmas, Matthew J.; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding – named here as the ‘constrained inbreeding hypothesis’. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development. PMID:24587373

  7. Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.

    PubMed

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities.

  8. Higher Trophic Levels Overwhelm Climate Change Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pelini, Shannon L.; Maran, Audrey M.; Chen, Angus R.; Kaseman, Justine; Crowther, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor food webs play pivotal roles in carbon cycling, but they are rarely considered in models of carbon fluxes, including soil carbon dioxide emissions (respiration), under climatic warming. The indirect effects of invertebrates on heterotrophic (microbial and invertebrate) respiration through interactions with microbial communities are significant and will be altered by warming. However, the interactive effects of invertebrates and warming on heterotrophic respiration in the field are poorly understood. In this study we combined field and common garden laboratory approaches to examine relationships between warming, forest floor food web structure, and heterotrophic respiration. We found that soil animals can overwhelm the effects of warming (to 5 degrees Celsius above ambient) on heterotrophic respiration. In particular, the presence of higher trophic levels and burrowing detritivores strongly determined heterotrophic respiration rates in temperate forest soils. These effects were, however, context-dependent, with greater effects in a lower-latitude site. Without isolating and including the significant impact of invertebrates, climate models will be incomplete, hindering well-informed policy decisions. PMID:26292214

  9. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1 mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1. PMID:26214024

  10. Higher Trophic Levels Overwhelm Climate Change Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystem Functioning.

    PubMed

    Pelini, Shannon L; Maran, Audrey M; Chen, Angus R; Kaseman, Justine; Crowther, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor food webs play pivotal roles in carbon cycling, but they are rarely considered in models of carbon fluxes, including soil carbon dioxide emissions (respiration), under climatic warming. The indirect effects of invertebrates on heterotrophic (microbial and invertebrate) respiration through interactions with microbial communities are significant and will be altered by warming. However, the interactive effects of invertebrates and warming on heterotrophic respiration in the field are poorly understood. In this study we combined field and common garden laboratory approaches to examine relationships between warming, forest floor food web structure, and heterotrophic respiration. We found that soil animals can overwhelm the effects of warming (to 5 degrees Celsius above ambient) on heterotrophic respiration. In particular, the presence of higher trophic levels and burrowing detritivores strongly determined heterotrophic respiration rates in temperate forest soils. These effects were, however, context-dependent, with greater effects in a lower-latitude site. Without isolating and including the significant impact of invertebrates, climate models will be incomplete, hindering well-informed policy decisions.

  11. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    PubMed Central

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426

  12. The cohesive metaschema: a higher-level abstraction of the UMLS Semantic Network.

    PubMed

    Perl, Yehoshua; Chen, Zong; Halper, Michael; Geller, James; Zhang, Li; Peng, Yi

    2002-06-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) joins together a group of established medical terminologies in a unified knowledge representation framework. Two major resources of the UMLS are its Metathesaurus, containing a large number of concepts, and the Semantic Network (SN), containing semantic types and forming an abstraction of the Metathesaurus. However, the SN itself is large and complex and may still be difficult to view and comprehend. Our structural partitioning technique partitions the SN into structurally uniform sets of semantic types based on the distribution of the relationships within the SN. An enhancement of the structural partition results in cohesive, singly rooted sets of semantic types. Each such set is named after its root which represents the common nature of the group. These sets of semantic types are represented by higher-level components called metasemantic types. A network, called a metaschema, which consists of the meta-semantic types connected by hierarchical and semantic relationships is obtained and provides an abstract view supporting orientation to the SN. The metaschema is utilized to audit the UMLS classifications. We present a set of graphical views of the SN based on the metaschema to help in user orientation to the SN. A study compares the cohesive metaschema to metaschemas derived semantically by UMLS experts.

  13. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  14. Microarray Analysis Reveals Higher Gestational Folic Acid Alters Expression of Genes in the Cerebellum of Mice Offspring—A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Chadman, Kathryn K.; Brown, W. Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development. PMID:25629700

  15. Higher Levels of GATA3 Predict Better Survival in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nam K.; Maresh, Erin L.; Shen, Dejun; Elshimali, Yahya; Apple, Sophia; Horvath, Steve; Mah, Vei; Bose, Shikha; Chia, David; Chang, Helena R.; Goodglick, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. GATA3 in particular is necessary for mammary gland maturation, and its loss has been implicated in breast cancer development. Our goal was to validate the ability of GATA3 expression to predict survival in breast cancer patients. Protein expression of GATA3 was analyzed on a high density tissue microarray consisting of 242 cases of breast cancer. We associated GATA3 expression with patient outcomes and clinicopathological variables. Expression of GATA3 was significantly increased in breast cancer, in situ lesions, and hyperplastic tissue compared to normal breast tissue. GATA3 expression decreased with increasing tumor grade. Low GATA3 expression was a significant predictor of disease-related death in all patients, as well as in subgroups of estrogen receptor positive or low grade patients. Additionally, low GATA3 expression correlated with increased tumor size and estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity. GATA3 is an important predictor of disease outcome in breast cancer patients. This finding has been validated in a diverse set of populations. Thus, GATA3 expression has utility as a prognostic indicator in breast cancer. PMID:21078439

  16. Changes in endogenous gene transcript and protein levels in maize plants expressing the soybean ferritin transgene.

    PubMed

    Kanobe, Milly N; Rodermel, Steven R; Bailey, Theodore; Scott, M Paul

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, we tested effects of soybean ferritin transgene (SoyFer1, M64337) on transcript and protein levels of endogenous genes in maize. Results showed that the transgene was successfully introduced and expressed in the maize seed endosperm. mRNA abundance of seven tested iron homeostasis genes and seed storage protein genes differed significantly between seed samples positive and negative for the transgene. The PCR negative samples had higher zein and total protein content compared to the positive samples. However, PCR positive samples had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We have shown that the soybean ferritin transgene affected the expression of native iron homeostasis genes in the maize plant. These results underscore the importance of taking a holistic approach to the evaluation of transgenic events in target plants, comparing the transgenic plant to the untransformed controls.

  17. Changes in endogenous gene transcript and protein levels in maize plants expressing the soybean ferritin transgene

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Milly N.; Rodermel, Steven R.; Bailey, Theodore; Scott, M. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, we tested effects of soybean ferritin transgene (SoyFer1, M64337) on transcript and protein levels of endogenous genes in maize. Results showed that the transgene was successfully introduced and expressed in the maize seed endosperm. mRNA abundance of seven tested iron homeostasis genes and seed storage protein genes differed significantly between seed samples positive and negative for the transgene. The PCR negative samples had higher zein and total protein content compared to the positive samples. However, PCR positive samples had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We have shown that the soybean ferritin transgene affected the expression of native iron homeostasis genes in the maize plant. These results underscore the importance of taking a holistic approach to the evaluation of transgenic events in target plants, comparing the transgenic plant to the untransformed controls. PMID:23785377

  18. The prognostic value of hTERT expression levels in advanced-stage colorectal cancer patients: a comparison between tissue and serum expression.

    PubMed

    Safont, María José; Gil, Mireia; Sirera, Rafael; Jantus-Lewintre, Eloísa; Sanmartín, Elena; Gallach, Sandra; Caballero, Cristina; Del Pozo, Nieves; Palomares, Eugenio; Camps, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Telomeres are regions of highly repetitive, non-coding DNA located at the termini of chromosomes whose principal function is to maintain the structural stability of these ends. In 90% of human tumours, telomere length is maintained by the expression and activation of telomerase reverse transcriptase. Various studies have demonstrated an increase in telomerase activity in tumour tissue, which suggests its possible prognostic value. The main objective of our study was to study the prognostic value of the expression level of telomerase catalytic component (hTERT) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We analysed the prognostic value of the ratio of telomerase expression in tumour tissue to telomerase expression in the adjacent healthy mucosa and the prognostic value of the expression level of hTERT in the serum of patients diagnosed with CRC. As secondary objectives of the study, we (1) analysed the correlation between telomerase expression in the serum and that in the tumour tissue and (2) analysed the relationship between telomerase expression and different clinical parameters. Peripheral blood and tissue samples taken from 48 patients with CRC were analysed. No significant differences were observed in disease-free survival (DFS) or overall survival time (OST) between the groups of patients categorised based on the ratio of telomerase expression between tumour tissue and healthy tissue. The correlation index (Pearson's coefficient) between telomerase levels in the serum and those in tissue was 0.32. Our study of the relationship between telomerase levels in the serum and different clinical variables, such as tumour size, ganglion affectation, preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen levels and stage, revealed a higher telomerase expression level in patients with stage IV CRC. There was no significant association between telomerase expression in tumour tissue and the clinical parameters analysed. The results obtained in our study do not allow us to propose that the

  19. Delineating the boundary and structure of higher trophic level assemblages in the western North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Takehiro; Kiyota, Masashi; Yonezaki, Shiroh; Murakami, Chisato; Kato, Yoshiki; Sakai, Mitsuo; Wakabayashi, Toshie; Okazaki, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the community structure of oceanic higher trophic level (HTL) organisms (e.g., sharks, tunas, salmons, and squids) is fundamental to management of marine resources in a way that ensures their sustainable use and maintains marine ecosystem functionality and biodiversity. We analyzed the spatial structure of HTL assemblages in the western North Pacific Ocean using driftnet survey data collected at latitudes of 35-46 °N along transect lines at 144 °E, 155 °E, and 175.5 °E longitude in July and August 2011. We proposed a new dissimilarity metric segmentation procedure (Dissimilarity Segmentation) based on the differences of mean Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices between two individual driftnet hauls within the same subarea or among different subareas. Dissimilarity Segmentation allowed us to divide the western North Pacific Ocean into three subareas: a northern subarea (>41 °N including 41 °N on the 175.5 °E transect), a transition subarea (37-41 °N), and a southern subarea (<37 °N). The HTL biomass in the northern subarea was high, and the species diversity was low; dominant and common species accounted for most of the biomass. The HTL assemblage in the southern subarea was composed of many species that were uncommon or rare; the biomass was lower, and the species diversity was higher than in the northern subarea. In the transition subarea, neon flying squid accounted for most of the biomass, and although the biomass was intermediate, species diversity was highest among the three subareas. Canonical correspondence analysis with oceanic environmental variables, principally chlorophyll a, sea surface salinity, and sea surface height, as the explanatory variables accounted for 43.6% of the variance of the HTL pelagic species composition. This result suggests that the HTL pelagic community in the western North Pacific is influenced largely by productivity and oceanic physical structure. These results suggest that an analytical approach based on

  20. Contributions of C3 and C4 plants to higher trophic levels in an Amazonian savanna.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, William E; Carmozina de Araújo, M; Cintra, Renato; Lima, Albertina P; Martinelli, Luiz A; Sanaiotti, Tânia M; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Victoria, Reynaldo L

    1999-04-01

    We studied the energy flow from C3 and C4 plants to higher trophic levels in a central Amazonian savanna by comparing the carbon stable-isotope ratios of potential food plants to the isotope ratios of species of different consumer groups. All C4 plants encountered in our study area were grasses and all C3 plants were bushes, shrubs or vines. Differences in δ(13)C ratios among bushes (x¯ = -30.8, SD = 1.2), vines (x¯ = -30.7, SD = 0.46) and trees (x¯ = -29.7, SD = 1.5) were small. However the mean δ(13)C ratio of dicotyledonous plants (x¯ = -30.4, SD = 1.3) was much more negative than that of the most common grasses (x¯ = -13.4, SD = 0.27). The insect primary consumers had δ(13)C ratios which ranged from a mean of -29.5 (SD = 0.47) for the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris to a mean of -14.7 (SD = 0.56) for a termite (Nasutitermes sp.), a range similar to that of the vegetation. However, the common insectivorous and omnivorous vertebrates had intermediate values for δ(13)C, indicating that carbon from different autotrophic sources mixes rapidly as it moves up the food chain. Despite this mixing, the frogs and lizards generally had higher values of δ(13)C (x¯ = -21.7, SD = 1.6; x¯ = -21.9, SD = 1.8, respectively) than the birds (x¯ = -24.8, SD = 1.8) and the only species of mammal resident in the savanna (x¯ = -25.4), indicating that they are generally more dependent on, or more able to utilise, food chains based on C4 grasses.

  1. Expression Level of Genes Coding for Cell Adhesion Molecules of Cadherin Group in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lorenc, Zbigniew; Opiłka, Mieszko Norbert; Kruszniewska-Rajs, Celina; Rajs, Antoni; Waniczek, Dariusz; Starzewska, Małgorzata; Lorenc, Justyna; Mazurek, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed neoplasms and also one of the main death causes. Cell adhesion molecules are taking part in specific junctions, contributing to tissue integrality. Lower expression of the cadherins may be correlated with poorer differentiation of the CRC, and its more aggressive phenotype. The aim of the study is to designate the cadherin genes potentially useful for the diagnostics, prognostics, and the treatment of CRC. Material/Method Specimens were collected from 28 persons (14 female and 14 male), who were operated for CRC. The molecular analysis was performed using oligonucleotide microarrays, mRNA used was collected from adenocarcinoma, and macroscopically healthy tissue. The results were validated using qRT-PCR technique. Results Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of normalized mRNA levels has shown 4 groups with statistically different gene expression. The control group was divided into 2 groups, the one was appropriate control (C1), the second (C2) had the genetic properties of the CRC, without pathological changes histologically and macroscopically. The other 2 groups were: LSC (Low stage cancer) and HSC (High stage cancer). Consolidated results of the fluorescency of all of the differential genes, designated two coding E-cadherin (CDH1) with the lower expression, and P-cadherin (CDH3) with higher expression in CRC tissue. Conclusions The levels of genes expression are different for several groups of cadherins, and are related with the stage of CRC, therefore could be potentially the useful marker of the stage of the disease, also applicable in treatment and diagnostics of CRC. PMID:26167814

  2. Higher PDCD4 expression is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism disorders, and granulosa cell apoptosis in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lingling; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Meng; Yan, Wenjiang; Tang, Rong; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a novel metabolism-associated gene, during polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathogenesis. Case-control study. University hospital. A total of 77 PCOS patients and 67 healthy women as matched controls. PDCD4 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and apoptosis of granulosa cells (GCs) detected by flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and small-interfering RNA. PDCD4 expression, body mass index (BMI), insulin 0, insulin 120, glucose 120, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function (HOMA-β), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and GC apoptosis. The PCOS patients had higher PDCD4 expression, but BMI was similar as matched with the obese group, which positively correlated with BMI, insulin 0, insulin 120, glucose 120, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, triglycerides and negatively correlated with HDL (P<.05). After metformin treatment, PDCD4 expression was distinctly down-regulated for the obese women with PCOS with insulin resistance. Compared with the healthy controls, the apoptosis percentage of GCs was higher in the PCOS group and was decreased by knocking down PDCD4. Furthermore, expression of proapotosis factor Bax and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio were lower, whereas the expression of antiapoptosis factor Bcl-2 was increased. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the level of PDCD4 expression independently related to the odds of PCOS risk after controlling for estradiol and insulin 120 (odds ratio 1.318). Our study suggests for the first time that higher PDCD4 expression might play an important role in PCOS pathogenesis by affecting obesity, insulin resistance, lipid metabolism disorders, and GC apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  3. High-level expression of two thermophilic β-mannanases in Yarrowialipolytica.

    PubMed

    YaPing, Wang; Ben, Rao; Ling, Zhang; Lixin, Ma

    2017-02-22

    Two thermophilic β-mannanases (ManA and ManB)were successfully expressed in Yarrowialipolytica using vector pINA1296I. The sequences of manA from Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88 and manB from Bacillus subtilis BCC41051 were optimized based on codon-usage bias in Y.lipolytica and synthesized by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We utilized the pINA1296I vector, which allows inserting and expression of multiple copies of an expression cassette, to engineer recombinant strains containing multiple copies of manA or manB. Following verification of target-gene expression by quantitative PCR, fermentation experiments indicated that recombinant protein levels and enzyme activity increased along with increasing manA/manB copy number.After production in a 10 l fermenter, we obtained maximum enzyme activity from strains YLA6 and YLB6 of3024 U/mL and 1024 U/mL, respectively. Additionally, purification and characterization results revealed that the optimum pH and temperature for manA activity were pH∼5 and ∼70 °C, and for manB activity were pH∼7 and 60 °C, respectively. These results indicated that the thermo stabilities of these two enzymes were higher than most other mannanases, making them potentially useful for industrial applications.

  4. Quantifying the Effect of DNA Packaging on Gene Expression Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Harold

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression, the process by which the genetic code comes alive in the form of proteins, is one of the most important biological processes in living cells, and begins when transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region upstream of a gene. The relationship between gene expression output and transcription factor input which is termed the gene regulation function is specific to each promoter, and predicting this gene regulation function from the locations of transcription factor binding sites is one of the challenges in biology. In eukaryotic organisms (for example, animals, plants, fungi etc), DNA is highly compacted into nucleosomes, 147-bp segments of DNA tightly wrapped around histone protein core, and therefore, the accessibility of transcription factor binding sites depends on their locations with respect to nucleosomes - sites inside nucleosomes are less accessible than those outside nucleosomes. To understand how transcription factor binding sites contribute to gene expression in a quantitative manner, we obtain gene regulation functions of promoters with various configurations of transcription factor binding sites by using fluorescent protein reporters to measure transcription factor input and gene expression output in single yeast cells. In this talk, I will show that the affinity of a transcription factor binding site inside and outside the nucleosome controls different aspects of the gene regulation function, and explain this finding based on a mass-action kinetic model that includes competition between nucleosomes and transcription factors.

  5. Raising Productivity by Improving Higher Technical Education: Tackling the Level 4 and Level 5 Conundrum. Occasional Paper 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Scott

    2015-01-01

    England and Wales lag behind competitor nations in the proportion of people with higher technical skills. In this pamphlet, Scott Kelly proposes three overarching reforms to ensure employers have access to the skills they need: (1) There should be a well-defined set of institutions where the core mission is to deliver technical and professional…

  6. Higher Expression of Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase Is Significantly Associated with Merkel Cell Polyomavirus-negative Merkel Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Michiko; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Nonaka, Daisuke; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Nagata, Keiko; Kato, Masako; Kitamura, Yukisato; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs), clinically aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancers, are divided into Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-positive and -negative tumors, which show different clinicopathological features and may develop through different mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Aberrant expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) as a genomic modulator was demonstrated through pathogen-related NF-κB signal in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1), hepatoma (HCV), and Burkitt lymphoma (EBV). Methods To elucidate the relation of aberrant AID expression in MCPyV-positive and -negative MCCs, we evaluated immunohistochemical expressions of AID and AID-regulating factors between 24 MCPyV-positive and 17 MCPyV-negative MCCs. Results AID expression was significantly higher in MCPyV-negative MCCs than MCPyV-positive ones (P = 0.026), although expression of NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) (AID-enhancer) was significantly higher in MCPyV-positive MCCs than MCPyV-negative ones (P = 0.034). Expressions of PAX5 and c-Myb were not significantly different between these subgroups. Expressions of AID and AID-regulating factors were not correlated to prognosis of MCC patients. Conclusion Our findings suggest that although pathogen-induced AID expression through upregulation of NF-κB may be relevant to carcinogenesis of MCPyV-positive MCCs, the significantly higher aberrant AID expression in MCPyV-negative MCCs is consistent with the fact that MCPyV-negative MCCs have an extremely higher mutation burden than MCPyV-positive ones. PMID:28959124

  7. Higher Expression of Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase Is Significantly Associated with Merkel Cell Polyomavirus-negative Merkel Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Michiko; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Nonaka, Daisuke; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Nagata, Keiko; Kato, Masako; Kitamura, Yukisato; Hayashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-09-01

    Merkel cell carcinomas (MCCs), clinically aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancers, are divided into Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-positive and -negative tumors, which show different clinicopathological features and may develop through different mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Aberrant expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) as a genomic modulator was demonstrated through pathogen-related NF-κB signal in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer, adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (HTLV-1), hepatoma (HCV), and Burkitt lymphoma (EBV). To elucidate the relation of aberrant AID expression in MCPyV-positive and -negative MCCs, we evaluated immunohistochemical expressions of AID and AID-regulating factors between 24 MCPyV-positive and 17 MCPyV-negative MCCs. AID expression was significantly higher in MCPyV-negative MCCs than MCPyV-positive ones (P = 0.026), although expression of NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) (AID-enhancer) was significantly higher in MCPyV-positive MCCs than MCPyV-negative ones (P = 0.034). Expressions of PAX5 and c-Myb were not significantly different between these subgroups. Expressions of AID and AID-regulating factors were not correlated to prognosis of MCC patients. Our findings suggest that although pathogen-induced AID expression through upregulation of NF-κB may be relevant to carcinogenesis of MCPyV-positive MCCs, the significantly higher aberrant AID expression in MCPyV-negative MCCs is consistent with the fact that MCPyV-negative MCCs have an extremely higher mutation burden than MCPyV-positive ones.

  8. Higher measured than modeled ozone production at increased NOx levels in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baier, Bianca C.; Brune, William H.; Miller, David O.; Blake, Donald; Long, Russell; Wisthaler, Armin; Cantrell, Christopher; Fried, Alan; Heikes, Brian; Brown, Steven; McDuffie, Erin; Flocke, Frank; Apel, Eric; Kaser, Lisa; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Chemical models must correctly calculate the ozone formation rate, P(O3), to accurately predict ozone levels and to test mitigation strategies. However, air quality models can have large uncertainties in P(O3) calculations, which can create uncertainties in ozone forecasts, especially during the summertime when P(O3) is high. One way to test mechanisms is to compare modeled P(O3) to direct measurements. During summer 2014, the Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor (MOPS) directly measured net P(O3) in Golden, CO, approximately 25 km west of Denver along the Colorado Front Range. Net P(O3) was compared to rates calculated by a photochemical box model that was constrained by measurements of other chemical species and that used a lumped chemical mechanism and a more explicit one. Median observed P(O3) was up to a factor of 2 higher than that modeled during early morning hours when nitric oxide (NO) levels were high and was similar to modeled P(O3) for the rest of the day. While all interferences and offsets in this new method are not fully understood, simulations of these possible uncertainties cannot explain the observed P(O3) behavior. Modeled and measured P(O3) and peroxy radical (HO2 and RO2) discrepancies observed here are similar to those presented in prior studies. While a missing atmospheric organic peroxy radical source from volatile organic compounds co-emitted with NO could be one plausible solution to the P(O3) discrepancy, such a source has not been identified and does not fully explain the peroxy radical model-data mismatch. If the MOPS accurately depicts atmospheric P(O3), then these results would imply that P(O3) in Golden, CO, would be NOx-sensitive for more of the day than what is calculated by models, extending the NOx-sensitive P(O3) regime from the afternoon further into the morning. These results could affect ozone reduction strategies for the region surrounding Golden and possibly other areas that do not comply with national ozone regulations

  9. CD44 affects the expression level of FOS‑like antigen 1 in cervical cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Jiang, Jianfa; Yuan, Le; Xue, Min

    2014-05-01

    Cervical carcinoma is the second most prevalent type of malignancy in females worldwide. The crucial etiological factors involved in the development of cervical carcinoma include infection with the papillomavirus, and the structural or functional mutation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. CD44 refers to a multifunctional family of type I transmembrane proteins. These proteins have been implicated in numerous biological processes, including cell adhesion, cell migration and metastasis. The present study examined the differences in the expression levels of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2, CD24, CD44, CD133, cytokeratin (CK) 14 and CK19 between cervical cancer tissues and corresponding normal non-tumor tissues by flow cytometry. Then, the CD44+ or CD44‑ cells from cervical cancer tissues were sorted for identification and confirmation of differential expression by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the expression level of CD44 in cervical cancer tissues was higher than in the corresponding non-tumor normal tissues (t=3.12; P=0.0102). Compared with the CD44‑ cells, the FOS-like antigen 1 (Fra-1), nestin, nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2, OCT4 and p63 genes were highly expressed in CD44+ cells. The fold changes were 3.55, 3.55, 2.46, 2.87 and 2.56, respectively (P<0.05). However, BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene, ck5, tumor protein p53 and lactotransferrin genes exhibited low expression levels in CD44+ cells. It was verified by western blot analysis and flow cytometry that Fra-1 was highly expressed in CD44+ cells. Fra-1 was a potential target of miR-19a and miR-19b. The expression of miR-19a and miR-19b was downregulated by ~50% in CD44+ cells compared with CD44‑ cells. These findings suggested that CD44 dysregulated the activation of the Fra‑1 gene. The interaction of Fra-1 and CD44 may therefore be important in cervical carcinoma.

  10. Gremlin localization and expression levels partially differentiate idiopathic interstitial pneumonia severity and subtype.

    PubMed

    Myllärniemi, M; Vuorinen, K; Pulkkinen, V; Kankaanranta, H; Aine, T; Salmenkivi, K; Keski-Oja, J; Koli, K; Kinnula, Vl

    2008-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (histopathology of usual interstitial pneumonia, UIP) and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) are diseases characterized by loss of normal lung architecture and function. The differential diagnosis between IPF/UIP and NSIP may be difficult. The levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 antagonist gremlin are up-regulated in IPF/UIP. The present study was performed to clarify whether the localization or the mRNA expression of gremlin or BMP-4 could be used in the differential diagnosis or assessment of severity of IPF/UIP and NSIP. Gremlin and BMP-4 immunoreactivities were quantitated from 24 UIP and 12 NSIP lung specimens. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to compare gremlin and BMP-4 expression between UIP (n = 8) and NSIP (n = 5) biopsies. Immunohistochemical positivity and mRNA levels were correlated to lung function parameters. In IPF/UIP biopsies, gremlin was detected mainly in the thickened lung parenchyma, whereas in NSIP it was observed in the alveolar epithelium. BMP-4-positive (BMP-4+) cells were detected solely in the alveolar wall. The percentage of gremlin-positive area was higher in IPF/UIP (5.1 +/- 0.6) than in NSIP (1.8 +/- 0.7) (n = 36, p < 0.0001). Gremlin mRNA levels were higher in advanced UIP (p = 0.008) and NSIP (p = 0.007) biopsies than in the normal control lung. A negative correlation was found between the specific diffusion capacity corrected for alveolar volume (DLCO/VA) and gremlin mRNA levels (r = - 0.69, p = 0.007). The highest numbers of BMP-4+ cells were found in NSIP biopsies. BMP-4 mRNA levels correlated positively with forced vital capacity (r = 0.801, p < 0.0001) and diffusion capacity. Parenchymal gremlin immunoreactivity is thus suggestive of a UIP-type interstitial pneumonia. Gremlin expression levels correlating negatively and BMP-4 levels positively with disease severity support recent observations of a fibroprotective role for the BMPs.

  11. Effect of cadmium on the expression levels of interleukin-1α and interleukin-10 cytokines in human lung cells

    PubMed Central

    ODEWUMI, CAROLINE; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; SINCLAIR, ANDRE; BADISA, VEERA L.D.; ABDULLAH, AHKINYALA; BADISA, RAMESH B.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmentally hazardous metal, which causes toxicity in humans. Inhalation of cigarette smoke and industrial fumes containing cadmium are sources of cadmium exposure. It is responsible for the malfunction of various organs, leading to disease particularly in the lungs, liver and kidneys. In the present study, the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on cell viability, and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-10 cytokines at various concentrations and incubation durations were assessed in MRC-9 human normal lung and A549 human lung cancer cells to elucidate the mechanism of cadmium toxicity. Cell viability was measured using a crystal violet dye binding assay. The expression levels of the cytokines were measured by cytokine specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The viability assay results revealed higher sensitivity of the A549 lung cancer cells to CdCl2 compared with the normal MRC-9 lung cells. In the normal MRC-9 lung cells, higher expression levels of the cytokines were observed at the lowest CdCl2 concentration at a shorter exposure time compared with the lung cancer cells. Higher levels of the cytokines were observed in the A549 lung cancer cells at all other times and concentrations compared with the MRC-9 cells, indicating higher levels of inflammation. The cytokine levels were reduced at higher CdCl2 concentrations and longer exposure durations, demonstrating the toxic effect of cadmium. The results indicated that CdCl2 affected the expression levels of the cytokines and led to cytotoxicity in human lung cells, and suggested that compounds which reduce inflammation may prevent cadmium toxicity. PMID:26397147

  12. MEDEVAC: survival and physiological parameters improved with higher level of flight medic training.

    PubMed

    Holland, Seth R; Apodaca, Amy; Mabry, Robert L

    2013-05-01

    Determine if a higher level of Army flight medic (AFM) training was associated with improved physiological state on arrival to a combat support hospital (CSH). A retrospective study comparing casualties who were evacuated by two AFM units with only Emergency Medical Technicians-Basic (EMT-Bs) to an Army National Guard unit with Critical Care Flight Paramedics (CCFPs) in Afghanistan with an injury severity score >16 in different time periods looking at their 48-hour mortality, hematocrit (HCT), base deficit (BD), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and physiological parameters on arrival to the CSH. The CCFP group had better HCT [36.5 (8.8)] than the EMT-B group [33.1 (11.4); p ≤ 0.001]. BD and SpO2 were better in the CCFP group [-3.2 (4.7)]/[97.8 (4.8)] than the EMT-B group [-4.4 (5.5)]/[96.3 (10.9)] [p ≤ 0.014]. The CCFP group had a 72% lower estimated risk ratio of mortality with an associated improvement in 48-hour survivability of 4.9% versus 15.8% for the EMT-B-group. There is a statistically significant improvement in the HCT, BD, SpO2, and 48-hour survivability at the CSH in the cohort transported by the CCFP group when compared to the cohort transported by the EMT-B group. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Higher free thyroxine levels are associated with frailty in older men: the Health In Men Study.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Bu B; Alfonso, Helman; Chubb, Stephen A Paul; Walsh, John P; Hankey, Graeme J; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Flicker, Leon

    2012-05-01

    Frailty is common in the elderly and predisposes to ill-health. Some symptoms of frailty overlap those of thyroid dysfunction, but it is unclear whether differences in thyroid status influence risk of frailty. We evaluated associations between thyroid status and frailty in older men. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Community-dwelling men aged 70-89 years. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT(4) ) were assayed. Frailty was assessed as ≥3 of the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses and Loss (FRAIL) scale's 5 domains: fatigue; resistance (difficulty climbing flight of stairs); ambulation (difficulty walking 100 m); illness (>5); or weight loss (>5%), blinded to hormone results. Of 3943 men, 27 had subclinical hyperthyroidism, 431 subclinical hypothyroidism and 608 were classified as being frail (15·4%). There was an inverse log-linear association of TSH with FT(4). There was no association between TSH and frailty. After adjusting for covariates, men with FT(4) in the highest two quartiles had increased odds of being frail (Q3:Q1, odds ratio [OR] = 1·32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1·01-1·73 and Q4:Q1, OR = 1·36, 95% CI = 1·04-1·79, P = 0·010 for trend). Higher FT(4) was associated with fatigue (P = 0·038) and weight loss (P < 0·001). The association between FT(4) and frailty remained significant when the analysis was restricted to euthyroid men. High-normal FT(4) level is an independent predictor of frailty among ageing men. This suggests that even within the euthyroid range, circulating thyroxine may contribute to reduced physical capability. Further studies are needed to clarify the utility of thyroid function testing and the feasibility of preventing or reversing frailty in older men. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Decisions Made with Less Evidence Involve Higher Levels of Corticosubthalamic Nucleus Theta Band Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Baltazar; Tan, Huiling; Little, Simon; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Green, Alexander L.; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Zaghloul, Kareem; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The switch between automatic action selection and more controlled forms of decision-making is a dynamic process thought to involve both cortical and subcortical structures. During sensory conflict, medial pFC oscillations in the theta band (<8 Hz) drive those of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and this is thought to increase the threshold of evidence needed for one competing response to be selected over another. Here, we were interested in testing whether STN activity is also altered by the rate at which evidence is presented during a congruent dot motion task absent of any explicit sensory conflict. By having a series of randomly moving dots gradually transform to congruent motion at three different rates (slow, medium, fast), we were able to show that a slower rate increased the time it took participants to make a response but did not alter the total amount of evidence that was integrated before the response. Notably, this resulted in a decision being made with a lower amount of instantaneous evidence during the slow and medium trials. Consistent with the idea that medial pFC–STN activity is involved in executing cognitive control, the higher levels of ambiguity during these trials were associated with increased theta band synchrony between the cortex and the STN, with the cortical oscillations Granger-causal to those of the STN. These results further confirm the involvement of the STN in decision-making and suggest that the disruption of this network may underlie some of the unwanted cognitive deficits associated with STN deep brain stimulation. PMID:26845109

  15. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  16. VNN1 Gene Expression Levels and the G-137T Polymorphism Are Associated with HDL-C Levels in Mexican Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Aguayo-de la Rosa, Pablo I.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Bojalil, Rafael; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. Methodology/Principal Findings VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6–8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P = 2.9 × 10−5), decreased HDL-C levels (β = −6.19, P = 0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (β = 0.48, P = 0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r = 0.220; P = 0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r = −0.225; P = 0.015) only in girls. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls. PMID:23185446

  17. Low feed efficient broilers within a single genetic line exhibit higher oxidative stress and protein expression in breast muscle with lower mitochondrial complex activity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Pumford, N R; Tang, Z X; Lassiter, K; Wing, T; Cooper, M; Bottje, W

    2004-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of low or high feed efficiency (FE) on a) protein oxidation, b) the activities of various respiratory chain complexes, and c) expression of various mitochondrial proteins in male broilers within a single genetic line. Tissue homogenate or mitochondria were isolated from breast muscle of broilers with high (0.80 +/- 0.01) and low FE (0.62 +/- 0.02). The complex activities were measured spectrophotometrically, and the levels of oxidized protein (carbonyl) and immunoreactive mitochondrial proteins were analyzed using Western blots. Protein carbonyl levels were higher in low FE compared with high FE broilers breast muscle, which indicated enhanced protein oxidation in low FE mitochondria. Activities of all respiratory chain complexes (I, II, III, IV) were higher in high FE compared with low FE broilers for breast mitochondria. Whereas the expression of immunoreactive proteins was higher in low FE muscle mitochondria for 5 mitochondrial proteins [core I, cyt c1, cyt b (complex III), COX II (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, complex IV), and adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT1)], there were no differences between groups in the expression of 9 other respiratory chain protein subunits associated with complexex I, II, III, IV, and V. SDS-PAGE revealed a protein band of 47 kDa that was expressed at a higher level in low FE compared with high FE mitochondria. The differential expression of certain mitochondrial proteins and the 47-kDa band might be a compensatory response either to the lower complex activities or increased protein oxidation observed in low FE birds.

  18. GTP cyclohydrolase I expression, protein, and activity determine intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin levels, independent of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein expression.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Amy L; Crabtree, Mark J; Warrick, Nicholas; Cai, Shijie; Alp, Nicholas J; Channon, Keith M

    2009-05-15

    GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) is a key enzyme in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a required cofactor for nitricoxide synthases and aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Alterations of GTPCH activity and BH4 availability play an important role in human disease. GTPCH expression is regulated by inflammatory stimuli, in association with reduced expression of GTP cyclohydrolase feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). However, the relative importance of GTPCH expression versus GTPCH activity and the role of GFRP in relation to BH4 bioavailability remain uncertain. We investigated these relationships in a cell line with tet-regulated GTPCH expression and in the hph-1 mouse model of GTPCH deficiency. Doxycycline exposure resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GTPCH protein and activity, with a strong correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r(2) = 0.85, p < 0.0001). These changes in GTPCH and BH4 had no effect on GFRP expression or protein levels. GFRP overexpression and knockdown in tet-GCH cells did not alter GTPCH activity or BH4 levels, and GTPCH-specific knockdown in sEnd.1 endothelial cells had no effect on GFRP protein. In mouse liver we observed a graded reduction of GTPCH expression, protein, and activity, from wild type, heterozygote, to homozygote littermates, with a striking linear correlation between GTPCH expression and BH4 levels (r(2) = 0.82, p < 0.0001). Neither GFRP expression nor protein differed between wild type, heterozygote, nor homozygote mice, despite the substantial differences in BH4. We suggest that GTPCH expression is the primary regulator of BH4 levels, and changes in GTPCH or BH4 are not necessarily accompanied by changes in GFRP expression.

  19. Low Expressive Vocabulary: Higher Heritability as a Function of More Severe Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeThorne, Laura S.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This study of 4,274 pairs of 4-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study explored the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on low expressive vocabulary skill, both as a function of general cognitive ability and as a function of the severity of expressive vocabulary impairment. Assessments were conducted through parent report…

  20. Tumor endothelial cells express high pentraxin 3 levels.

    PubMed

    Hida, Kyoko; Maishi, Nako; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hida, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Kenji; Hojo, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Masumi; Torii, Chisaho; Shinohara, Nobuo; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2016-12-01

    It has been described that tumor progression has many similarities to inflammation and wound healing in terms of the signaling processes involved. Among biological responses, angiogenesis, which is necessary for tumor progression and metastasis, is a common hallmark; therefore, tumor blood vessels have been considered as important therapeutic targets in anticancer therapy. We focused on pentraxin 3 (PTX3), which is a marker of cancer-related inflammation, but we found no reports on its expression and function in tumor blood vessels. Here we showed that PTX3 is expressed in mouse and human tumor blood vessels based on immunohistochemical analysis. We found that PTX3 is upregulated in primary mouse and human tumor endothelial cells compared to normal endothelial cells. We also showed that PTX3 plays an important role in the proliferation of the tumor endothelial cells. These results suggest that PTX3 is an important target for antiangiogenic therapy.

  1. High Levels of BCOX1 Expression Are Associated with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, Xian-Yu; He, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Jing-Shu; Liu, Yang; Kong, De-Jia; Shi, Qing-Yu; Liu, Feng; Wei, Wei; Pang, Da

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the breast cancer-overexpressed gene 1 (BCOX1) expression in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast and its value in the prognosis of the disease. The levels of BCOX1 expression in 491 paired IDC and surrounding non-tumor breast tissues as well as 40 paired fresh specimens were evaluated by tissue microarray, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. The potential associations of high BCOX1 expression with clinicopathological variables and the overall survival of these patients were analyzed. The relative levels of BCOX1 mRNA transcripts in the IDC breast tissues were significantly higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues (P = 0.005). The anti-BCOX1 was predominantly stained in the cytoplasm of breast tissue cells and the levels of BCOX1 expression in the majority of breast cancer tissues were obviously higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor breast tissues. High levels of BCOX1 expression were found in 59.5% (292/491) of breast cancer tissues. The high BCOX1 expression was significantly associated with high histological grade (P = 0.037), positive expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, P = 0.031) and triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.027). The high BCOX1 expression in breast cancers was significantly associated with a shorter overall survival of these patients (P = 0.023), particularly in patients with triple negative breast cancer (P = 0.005). Therefore, the high BCOX1 expression may serve as a novel marker of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for patients with IDC of the breast. PMID:24489812

  2. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in bovine oviducts is higher in the postovulatory phase than during the oestrus and luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Asrafun; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2016-07-28

    Whether macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the bovine oviduct is important for early embryogenesis has not been well substantiated. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that bovine oviduct expresses higher levels of MIF during the post-ovulation phase. Both ampullary and isthmic samples were collected from Japanese black heifers during oestrus (Day 0; n=5), postovulation (Day 3; n=6) and luteal phase (Days 9-12; n=5). MIF mRNA and protein were extracted from the ampullary and isthmic samples and their levels measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis respectively. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry was performed on frozen ampullary and isthmic sections using antibodies against MIF. MIF mRNA and protein expression was higher in the postovulatory phase than during oestrus and the luteal phase (P<0.05). Fluorescent immunohistochemistry confirmed that in all phases of the oestrous cycle evaluated, the primary site of MIF expression in the ampulla and isthmus was the tunica mucosa. In conclusion, the bovine ampulla and isthmus have higher MIF expression during the postovulatory phase. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of MIF in bovine oviducts.

  3. Mitochondrial impairment increases FL-PINK1 levels by calcium-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Gegg, Matthew E; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Martín, Yolanda; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa Ana; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2014-02-01

    Mutations of the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are a cause of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD). This gene encodes a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, which is partly localized to mitochondria, and has been shown to play a role in protecting neuronal cells from oxidative stress and cell death, perhaps related to its role in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy. In this study, we report that increased mitochondrial PINK1 levels observed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophelyhydrazone (CCCP) treatment were due to de novo protein synthesis, and not just increased stabilization of full length PINK1 (FL-PINK1). PINK1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by 4-fold after 24h. FL-PINK1 protein levels at this time point were significantly higher than vehicle-treated, or cells treated with CCCP for 3h, despite mitochondrial content being decreased by 29%. We have also shown that CCCP dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and induced entry of extracellular calcium through L/N-type calcium channels. The calcium chelating agent BAPTA-AM impaired the CCCP-induced PINK1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, CCCP treatment activated the transcription factor c-Fos in a calcium-dependent manner. These data indicate that PINK1 expression is significantly increased upon CCCP-induced mitophagy in a calcium-dependent manner. This increase in expression continues after peak Parkin mitochondrial translocation, suggesting a role for PINK1 in mitophagy that is downstream of ubiquitination of mitochondrial substrates. This sensitivity to intracellular calcium levels supports the hypothesis that PINK1 may also play a role in cellular calcium homeostasis and neuroprotection.

  4. Implementing English Further/Higher Education Partnerships: The Street Level Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the operation of English further/higher education, with a focus on the role of partnerships in supporting the massification of higher education. The research draws on the bottom-up policy implementation tradition to provide analysis of the effects on partnerships of a quasi-marketised environment. The rationale…

  5. Global and Local Priorities in Higher Education Policies: A Headache at the National Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001 the Finnish Ministry of Education published a working group report on the internationalisation strategy for higher education, and shortly after another report concentrating on the local dimensions and effects of higher education. In the era of internationalisation and globalisation, local concerns seem to be so great that the…

  6. Global and Local Priorities in Higher Education Policies: A Headache at the National Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahola, Sakari

    2005-01-01

    In November 2001 the Finnish Ministry of Education published a working group report on the internationalisation strategy for higher education, and shortly after another report concentrating on the local dimensions and effects of higher education. In the era of internationalisation and globalisation, local concerns seem to be so great that the…

  7. Implementing English Further/Higher Education Partnerships: The Street Level Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the operation of English further/higher education, with a focus on the role of partnerships in supporting the massification of higher education. The research draws on the bottom-up policy implementation tradition to provide analysis of the effects on partnerships of a quasi-marketised environment. The rationale…

  8. Confronting the Neo-Liberal Brute: Reflections of a Higher Education Middle-Level Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maistry, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The higher education scenario in South Africa is fraught with tensions and contradictions. Publicly funded Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) face a particular dilemma. They are expected to fulfill a social mandate which requires a considered response to the needs of the communities in which they are located while simultaneously aspiring for…

  9. Confronting the Neo-Liberal Brute: Reflections of a Higher Education Middle-Level Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maistry, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The higher education scenario in South Africa is fraught with tensions and contradictions. Publicly funded Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) face a particular dilemma. They are expected to fulfill a social mandate which requires a considered response to the needs of the communities in which they are located while simultaneously aspiring for…

  10. Identifying Higher-Education Level Skill Needs in Labor Markets: The Main Tools Usable for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    There are natural mismatches in the labor market between the demand for higher-educated laborers and the supply of graduates provided by the higher education system in terms of quantity and qualifications. While there are open positions, some graduates still cannot find work. There are various findings indicating that the mismatch between…

  11. A Comparative Study of Student Satisfaction Level in Distance Learning and Live Classroom at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Azhar; Mahmood, Sheikh Tariq; Malik, Allah Bakhsh

    2012-01-01

    The technology has embraced the innovative learning methodologies. Distance Learning has taken the place of traditional face-to-face educational environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of student satisfaction of graduate distance learning educational psychology course to a traditional classroom educational psychology course…

  12. The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    PubMed

    Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone β-subunit (lhβ) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone β-subunit (fshβ) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fshβ in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ≥31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Prominence of Referring Expressions: Message and Lexical Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.

    2012-01-01

    In conversation, speakers produce some words with greater intensity, longer duration, and higher fundamental frequency (F0) than other words. By making different words in a sentence more prominent than other words, a speaker can change the meaning implied by a sentence. This thesis explores the relationship between processing in the language…

  14. The Prominence of Referring Expressions: Message and Lexical Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.

    2012-01-01

    In conversation, speakers produce some words with greater intensity, longer duration, and higher fundamental frequency (F0) than other words. By making different words in a sentence more prominent than other words, a speaker can change the meaning implied by a sentence. This thesis explores the relationship between processing in the language…

  15. Nonresident Enrollment Demand in Public Higher Education: An Analysis at National, State, and Institutional Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2007-01-01

    This article estimates the standard demand equations for nonresident students using national, state, and institutional level data. The national-level analysis reveals a near-unitary price elasticity, but increases in nonresident tuition and fees do not decrease nonresident enrollment. Finally, results from the institutional level of analysis…

  16. Mentoring the Organization: Helping Principals Bring Schools to Higher Levels of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelehear, Zach

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Frances Fuller's stages of concern, David Hunt's conceptual levels, and Jean Piaget's model of equilibration, a new view of principal leadership is presented. By attending to the preferred learning style of a group, taking into account the level of stress present as a result of initiatives, and listening to the level of…

  17. Mentoring the Organization: Helping Principals Bring Schools to Higher Levels of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelehear, Zach

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Frances Fuller's stages of concern, David Hunt's conceptual levels, and Jean Piaget's model of equilibration, a new view of principal leadership is presented. By attending to the preferred learning style of a group, taking into account the level of stress present as a result of initiatives, and listening to the level of…

  18. Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: The Case of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The European Quality Assurance system demands that the degree programme level is represented in terms of quantitative outcomes to be valid and reliable. To meet this need the Educational Level Evaluator (ELE) was devised. This conceptually designed procedure with instrumentation aiming to evaluate the level of a degree validly and reliably still…

  19. Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: The Case of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The European Quality Assurance system demands that the degree programme level is represented in terms of quantitative outcomes to be valid and reliable. To meet this need the Educational Level Evaluator (ELE) was devised. This conceptually designed procedure with instrumentation aiming to evaluate the level of a degree validly and reliably still…

  20. Nonresident Enrollment Demand in Public Higher Education: An Analysis at National, State, and Institutional Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2007-01-01

    This article estimates the standard demand equations for nonresident students using national, state, and institutional level data. The national-level analysis reveals a near-unitary price elasticity, but increases in nonresident tuition and fees do not decrease nonresident enrollment. Finally, results from the institutional level of analysis…

  1. Steroid hormone receptor gene expression in human breast cancer cells: inverse relationship between oestrogen and glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA levels.

    PubMed

    Hall, R E; Lee, C S; Alexander, I E; Shine, J; Clarke, C L; Sutherland, R L

    1990-12-15

    The relative expression in human breast cancer cells of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA) encoding different steroid hormone receptors is unknown. Accordingly, mRNA levels in total RNA extracted from 13 human breast cancer cell lines were measured by Northern analysis employing complementary DNA probes for the human oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), androgen (AR), vitamin D3 (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). The 7 ER+ lines expressed a single 6.4 kilobases (kb) ER mRNA. Interestingly, low concentrations of ER mRNA were detected in the ER- cell lines, MDA-MB-330 and BT 20. PR mRNA, predominantly a 13.5 kb species, was expressed in the 6 lines known to be ER+, PR+ by radioligand binding; however, one ER+ cell line, MDA-MB-134, failed to express PR mRNA. A 10.5 kb AR mRNA was expressed at significantly higher levels in ER+ than ER- cell lines. All cell lines expressed a single 4.6 kb mRNA for VDR and a single 7.4 kb mRNA for GR. ER and PR mRNA levels were positively correlated (p = 0.011) and each was positively correlated with androgen receptor (AR) mRNA levels (p less than or equal to 0.009). ER, PR and AR mRNAs were negatively associated with GR levels (p less than or equal to 0.012), while ER and AR mRNA levels were negatively correlated with mRNA for the epidermal growth factor receptor. In contrast, levels of VDR mRNA were unrelated to the concentration of any other steroid receptor mRNA. Our data demonstrate the coordinate expression of ER, PR and AR genes, and an inverse relationship between sex steroid hormone receptor and GR gene expression in human breast cancer cell lines.

  2. Detection of sugar accumulation and expression levels of correlative key enzymes in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Yu, Jing; Cang, Jing; Liu, Lijie; Mu, Yongchao; Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Da

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrate accumulation is common in frost-resistant plants, and many enzymes participate in this process. The sugar content and expression levels of metabolic enzymes related to sugar biosynthesis in response to drops in temperature were measured in two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) with different cold tolerances. The results indicate that the two cultivars examined, Dongnongdongmai 1 and Jimai 22, accumulated high levels of carbohydrate before November 4 (above 0°C), and that accumulation decreased as temperatures fell. However, this decrease was more modest in Dongnongdongmai 1, which had a higher sugar content. Sucrose and fructose were the main soluble sugars, indicating an important role in freezing tolerance. Gene expression studies revealed that expression of the genes encoding chloroplastic enzymes was significantly upregulated in the tillering nodes. Expression upregulation of TaSS and TaTPT may be helpful for sugar accumulation before November 4.

  3. Higher Expression of Proteins in IGF/IR Axes in Colorectal Cancer is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Li, Cong; Tang, Jie; Yi, Cheng; Liu, Ji-Yan; Qiu, Meng

    2016-10-01

    Preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus (preDM) increases occurrence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). Insulin growth factor (IGF)/insulin receptor (IR) axes play an important role in the development of both diabetes and CRC. We aimed to explore the characteristics of proteins expression in IGF/IR axes in CRC tissues with preDM. Two hundred fifty CRC patients in West China hospital were included in analysis. Among them, 125 patients had history of diabetes matched by 125 CRC without diabetes at a 1:1 ratio. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of proteins in IGF/IR axis. More positive expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR were found in CRC group with diabetes than in non-diabetes group. No difference was detected in the expression of IR substrate-1, IR substrate-2, IGF-2, IGF binding protein 3, and mammalian target of rapamycin between two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes history was associated with all of the expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR, and higher T staging and lymph node metastasis were respectively independent factors of IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression in CRC patients. Besides, IGF-1 expression was positively associated with IGF-1R and IR expression in all CRC tissues, and the association of IGF-1 and IR expression seemed to be closer in diabetes group than in non-diabetes group. Higher expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR proteins in CRC was associated with diabetes, suggesting IGF-1/IR signaling may play a special part in development of CRC in patients with diabetes.

  4. BCL6 mRNA Expression Level in Invasive Duct Carcinoma not otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Eman; Masoud, Eman; Eldien, Marwa Serag

    2016-01-01

    Introduction B-Cell Lymphoma 6 (BCL6) has an oncogenic role in tumourigenesis of various malignancies. It represses genes involved in terminal differentiation and plays complementary role with Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) in triple-negative breast cancer cellular function. Aim To evaluate the expression of BCL6 in cancer breast and determine its correlation with the clinico-pathological features including the molecular subtype of breast carcinoma. Materials and Methods This prospective case control study was carried out on 150 patients, divided into 100 cases of invasive duct carcinoma not otherwise specified and 50 benign breast lesions including fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease. Fresh tissues were excised, which were then subjected to RNA extraction. The BCL6 mRNA level was assessed using real-time reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results There was a significant higher levels of BCL6 mRNA in malignant cases compared to benign ones (p<0.001). The level of BCL6 mRNA was higher in cases showing advanced tumor stage (p<0.04), triple negative subtype and associated in situ component (p<0.001) compared to cases with an early stage, luminal or Her 2-neu positive subtypes and those lacking in situ component. Conclusion BCL6 is up-regulated in breast cancer and is associated with poor prognostic features such as advanced stage and triple negative molecular subtype. BCL6 inhibitors might be considered as targeted therapy for breast cancer. PMID:28208987

  5. 42 CFR 405.506 - Charges higher than customary or prevailing charges or lowest charge levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... charge in such cases. The mere fact that the physician's or other person's customary charge is higher..., 1903(i)(1) of the Social Security Act; 49 Stat. 647, 79 Stat. 302, 310, 331; 86 Stat. 1395, 1454; (42 U...

  6. Baseline corticosterone levels are higher in migrating than sedentary common blackbirds in autumn, but not in spring.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Müller, Florian; Klinner, Thomas; Bairlein, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Corticosterone at baseline levels is thought to be mainly involved in the regulation of uptake, storage and release of energy, processes central to avian migration. Consequently, corticosterone levels are thought to be upregulated during migration, but the temporal pattern of its secretion during migration is not well defined. For example, although it appears that corticosterone levels decrease from flight to stopover, it is unknown if levels at stopover are still elevated and it is largely unclear how these levels compare to non-migratory life-history stages. Furthermore, what role corticosterone plays in crucial migratory processes, such as refueling and departure from stopover, is far from understood. We here determined baseline corticosterone levels in migrating and resident common blackbirds (Turdus merula), sampled simultaneously on Helgoland, a stopover site that also supports a sedentary breeding population. In autumn, migrants had higher corticosterone levels than residents, but in spring levels did not differ between the two groups. Corticosterone levels of migrants were very similar in spring and autumn, whereas in residents levels tended to be higher in spring than autumn. Higher levels in residents in spring than autumn most likely reflect the higher daily workload faced by birds during the pre-breeding than the post-breeding period. Our study thus indicates that, relative to the levels observed in residents in autumn, in spring baseline corticosterone levels were moderately elevated in both migrants and residents and that in autumn levels were moderately elevated in migrants only. Currently, corticosterone's main function at stopover is thought to lie in the regulation of departure. Because most migrant blackbirds stay only one or two days on Helgoland, our results are in line with this idea and suggest that migrating blackbirds up-regulated their corticosterone level in anticipation of an oncoming flight bout.

  7. Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level…

  8. Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level…

  9. Production of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems: higher activity of R2 produced by eukaryotic cells related to higher iron-binding capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Lamarche, N; Matton, G; Massie, B; Fontecave, M; Atta, M; Dumas, F; Gaudreau, P; Langelier, Y

    1996-01-01

    The R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase from herpes simplex virus type 2 was overproduced with prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. The recombinant R2 purified by a two-step procedure exhibited a 3-fold higher activity when produced in eukaryotic cells. Precise quantification of the R2 concentration at each step of the purification indicated that the activity was not altered during the purification procedure. Moreover, we have observed that the level of R2 expression, in eukaryotic cells as well as in prokaryotic cells, did not influence R2 activity. Extensive characterization of the recombinant R2 purified from eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems has shown that both types of pure R2 preparations were similar in their 76 kDa dimer contents (more than 95%) and in their ability to bind the R1 subunit. However, we have found that the higher activity of R2 produced in eukaryotic cells is more probably related to a higher capability of binding the iron cofactor as well as a 3-fold greater ability to generate the tyrosyl free radical. PMID:8947477

  10. A higher degree of expression of DNA methyl transferase 1 in cervical cancer is associated with poor survival outcome

    PubMed Central

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Badiga, Suguna; Borak, Samuel G; Weragoda, Janaka; Bae, Sejong; Matthews, Roland; Bell, Walter C; Partridge, Edward E

    2017-01-01

    Background Even though novel therapies based on aberrant DNA methylation could be of particular importance for the treatment of cervical cancer (CC) because the oncoproteins E6/E7 of high-risk human papillomaviruses, the causative agents for developing CC, have the capacity to bind and upregulate DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), to our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the expression of this enzyme in CC in relation to survival outcomes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the expression of DNMT1 in CC and its association with survival outcomes. Methods The study population consisted of 76 women treated for primary CC and followed up by the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) cancer registry. The expression of DNMT1 was examined using immunohistochemistry, and the degree of expression of DNMT1 was expressed as a percentage of cells positive for DNMT1 and its intensity. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the relationship between the degree of expression of DNMT1 and overall survival after adjusting for relevant covariates. Results The expression of DNMT1 was significantly higher in CC cells compared to that in the normal cervical epithelium. A higher percentage of cells positive for DNMT1 and a higher intensity score for DNMT1 were significantly associated with poor survival outcome (hazard ratio [HR] =4.3, P=0.03 and HR =4.9, P=0.02, respectively). Conclusion Our findings suggested that the degree of expression of DNMT1 could be considered as a target in the epigenetic treatment of CC. Replication of our results in other study populations with CC could create the opportunity of using DNMT inhibitors to treat CC. PMID:28652820

  11. Familiar taste induces higher dendritic levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein in the insular cortex than a novel one.

    PubMed

    Morin, Jean-Pascal; Quiroz, Cesar; Mendoza-Viveros, Lucia; Ramirez-Amaya, Victor; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2011-10-01

    The immediate early gene (IEG) Arc is known to play an important role in synaptic plasticity; its protein is locally translated in the dendrites where it has been involved in several types of plasticity mechanisms. Because of its tight coupling with neuronal activity, Arc has been widely used as a tool to tag behaviorally activated networks. However, studies examining the modulation of Arc expression during and after learning have yielded somewhat contradictory results. Although some have reported that higher levels of Arc were induced by initial acquisition of a task rather than by reinstating a learned behavior, others have failed to observe such habituation of Arc transcription. Moreover, most of these studies have focused on the mRNA and, surprisingly, relatively little is known about how learning can affect Arc protein expression levels. Here we used taste recognition memory and examined Arc protein expression in the insular cortex of rats at distinct times during taste memory formation. Interestingly, we found that more Arc protein was induced by a familiar rather than by a novel taste. Moreover, this increase was inhibited by post-trial intrahippocampal anisomycin injections, a treatment known to inhibit safe-taste memory consolidation. In addition, confocal microscopy analysis of immunofluorescence stained tissue revealed that the proportion of IC neurons expressing Arc was the same in animals exposed to novel and familiar taste, but Arc immunoreactivity in dendrites was dramatically higher in rats exposed to the familiar taste. These results provide novel insights on how experience affects cortical plasticity.

  12. The myostatin gene of Mytilus chilensis evidences a high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a protein of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays a crucial role in muscular development for higher vertebrates. However, its biological function in marine invertebrates remains undiscovered. This study characterizes the full-length sequence of the Mytilus chilensis myostatin gene (Mc-MSTN). Furthermore, tissue transcription patterns and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. The Mc-MSTN cDNA sequence showed 3528 base pairs (bp), consisting of 161 bp of 5' UTR, 2,110 bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 1,257 bp encoding for 418 amino acids and with an RXXR proteolytic site and nine cysteine-conserved residues. Gene transcription analysis revealed that the Mc-MSTN has ubiquitous expression among several tissues, with higher expression in the gonads and mantle than in the digestive gland, gills, and hemolymph. Furthermore, high levels of polymorphisms were detected (28 SNPs in 3'-UTR and 9 SNPs in the coding region). Two SNPs were non-synonymous and involved amino acid changes between Glu/Asp and Thr/Ile. Until now, the MSTN gene has been mainly related to muscle growth in marine bivalves. However, the present study suggests a putative biological function not entirely associated to muscle tissue and contributes molecular evidence to the current debate about the function of the MSTN gene in marine invertebrates.

  13. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  14. Development Efforts Expanded in Ion Propulsion: Ion Thrusters Developed With Higher Power Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sovey, James S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center was the major contributor of 2-kW-class ion thruster technology to the Deep Space 1 mission, which was successfully completed in early 2002. Recently, NASA s Office of Space Science awarded approximately $21 million to Glenn to develop higher power xenon ion propulsion systems for large flagship missions such as outer planet explorers and sample return missions. The project, referred to as NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), is a logical follow-on to the ion propulsion system demonstrated on Deep Space 1. The propulsion system power level for NEXT is expected to be as high as 25 kW, incorporating multiple ion thrusters, each capable of being throttled over a 1- to 6-kW power range. To date, engineering model thrusters have been developed, and performance and plume diagnostics are now being documented. The project team-Glenn, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Dynamics, Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the University of Michigan, and Colorado State University-is in the process of developing hardware for a ground demonstration of the NEXT propulsion system, which comprises a xenon feed system, controllers, multiple thrusters, and power processors. The development program also will include life assessments by tests and analyses, single-string tests of ion thrusters and power systems, and finally, multistring thruster system tests in calendar year 2005. In addition, NASA's Office of Space Science selected Glenn to lead the development of a 25-kW xenon thruster to enable NASA to conduct future missions to the outer planets of Jupiter and beyond, under the High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP) program. The development of a 100-kW-class ion propulsion system and power conversion systems are critical components to enable future nuclear-electric propulsion systems. In fiscal year 2003, a team composed of Glenn, the Boeing Company, General Dynamics, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Naval Research

  15. Development Efforts Expanded in Ion Propulsion: Ion Thrusters Developed With Higher Power Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sovey, James S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center was the major contributor of 2-kW-class ion thruster technology to the Deep Space 1 mission, which was successfully completed in early 2002. Recently, NASA s Office of Space Science awarded approximately $21 million to Glenn to develop higher power xenon ion propulsion systems for large flagship missions such as outer planet explorers and sample return missions. The project, referred to as NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), is a logical follow-on to the ion propulsion system demonstrated on Deep Space 1. The propulsion system power level for NEXT is expected to be as high as 25 kW, incorporating multiple ion thrusters, each capable of being throttled over a 1- to 6-kW power range. To date, engineering model thrusters have been developed, and performance and plume diagnostics are now being documented. The project team-Glenn, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Dynamics, Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the University of Michigan, and Colorado State University-is in the process of developing hardware for a ground demonstration of the NEXT propulsion system, which comprises a xenon feed system, controllers, multiple thrusters, and power processors. The development program also will include life assessments by tests and analyses, single-string tests of ion thrusters and power systems, and finally, multistring thruster system tests in calendar year 2005. In addition, NASA's Office of Space Science selected Glenn to lead the development of a 25-kW xenon thruster to enable NASA to conduct future missions to the outer planets of Jupiter and beyond, under the High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP) program. The development of a 100-kW-class ion propulsion system and power conversion systems are critical components to enable future nuclear-electric propulsion systems. In fiscal year 2003, a team composed of Glenn, the Boeing Company, General Dynamics, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Naval Research

  16. Gender Disparities in Educational Trajectories in India: Do Females Become More Robust at Higher Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Zakir; Sarkar, Swagata

    2011-01-01

    Studies on educational attainments have tended to focus on attainments at a specific level of education. The change in disparities in attainment over the educational life cycle, however, has been neglected in literature--in India, for instance, the only exceptions are Vaid (2004) and Desai and Kulkarni (2008). This paper uses unit level National…

  17. Object Substitution Masking Induced by Illusory Masks: Evidence for Higher Object-Level Locus of Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Nobuyuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    A briefly presented target can be rendered invisible by a lingering sparse mask that does not even touch it. This form of visual backward masking, called object substitution masking, is thought to occur at the object level of processing. However, it remains unclear whether object-level interference alone produces substitution masking because…

  18. Object Substitution Masking Induced by Illusory Masks: Evidence for Higher Object-Level Locus of Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Nobuyuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    A briefly presented target can be rendered invisible by a lingering sparse mask that does not even touch it. This form of visual backward masking, called object substitution masking, is thought to occur at the object level of processing. However, it remains unclear whether object-level interference alone produces substitution masking because…

  19. Review or True? Using Higher-Level Thinking Questions in Social Studies Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kracl, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    Asking surface-level questions is a common practice among educators. Delva Daines's (1986) pilot study indicated that 93 percent of the questions asked during lessons were at the literal level of comprehension and that it was very common for the teachers to restate, rephrase, or answer their own questions before the student had an opportunity to…

  20. The Life Cycles and Career Stages of Senior-Level Administrative Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Patricia H.; Donohue, Wyveta G.

    Women's opportunities for becoming senior-level administrators at 4-year, coeducational, state-supported colleges were assessed in 1979 in relation to age-related and other factors. Attention was also directed to whether there was a consistent career pattern for women attaining senior-level administrative positions. Biographical data and data…

  1. Gender Disparities in Educational Trajectories in India: Do Females Become More Robust at Higher Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Zakir; Sarkar, Swagata

    2011-01-01

    Studies on educational attainments have tended to focus on attainments at a specific level of education. The change in disparities in attainment over the educational life cycle, however, has been neglected in literature--in India, for instance, the only exceptions are Vaid (2004) and Desai and Kulkarni (2008). This paper uses unit level National…

  2. Trustees' Level of Satisfaction and Strategies for Improving Satisfaction: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Steve O.; Schwartz, Michael; Cook, Dawn M.; Winston, Portia L.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of about 500 college and university trustees focused on perceived levels of satisfaction and strategies for improving satisfaction. Analysis identified sectoral and gender differences in satisfaction and recommended strategies; no differences by educational levels were noted. Suggests that traditional approach for studying job…

  3. Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: Conceptual Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor's and master's degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree programme level based on valid and reliable…

  4. Accurate Detection of Differential Expression and Splicing Using Low-Level Features.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Tomi; Elo, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression can be quantified in high throughput using microarray technology. Here we describe how to accurately detect differential expression and splicing using a probe-level expression change averaging (PECA) method. PECA is available as an R package from Bioconductor ( https://www.bioconductor.org ), and it supports multiple operating systems.

  5. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. How does gene expression level contribute to thermophilic adaptation of prokaryotes? An exploration based on predictors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Ma, Bin-Guang; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2008-09-15

    By analyzing the predicted gene expression levels of 33 prokaryotes with living temperature span from <10 degrees C to >100 degrees C, a universal positive correlation was found between the percentage of predicted highly expressed genes and the organisms' optimal growth temperature. A physical interpretation of the correlation revealed that highly expressed genes are statistically more thermostable than lowly expressed genes. These findings show the possibility of the significant contribution of gene expression level to the prokaryotic thermal adaptation and provide evidence for the translational selection pressure on the thermostability of natural proteins during evolution.

  7. Evolutionary tuning of protein expression levels of a positively autoregulated two-component system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rong; Stock, Ann M

    2013-10-01

    Cellular adaptation relies on the development of proper regulatory schemes for accurate control of gene expression levels in response to environmental cues. Over- or under-expression can lead to diminished cell fitness due to increased costs or insufficient benefits. Positive autoregulation is a common regulatory scheme that controls protein expression levels and gives rise to essential features in diverse signaling systems, yet its roles in cell fitness are less understood. It remains largely unknown how much protein expression is 'appropriate' for optimal cell fitness under specific extracellular conditions and how the dynamic environment shapes the regulatory scheme to reach appropriate expression levels. Here, we investigate the correlation of cell fitness and output response with protein expression levels of the E. coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS). In response to phosphate (Pi)-depletion, the PhoB/PhoR system activates genes involved in phosphorus assimilation as well as genes encoding themselves, similarly to many other positively autoregulated TCSs. We developed a bacteria competition assay in continuous cultures and discovered that different Pi conditions have conflicting requirements of protein expression levels for optimal cell fitness. Pi-replete conditions favored cells with low levels of PhoB/PhoR while Pi-deplete conditions selected for cells with high levels of PhoB/PhoR. These two levels matched PhoB/PhoR concentrations achieved via positive autoregulation in wild-type cells under Pi-replete and -deplete conditions, respectively. The fitness optimum correlates with the wild-type expression level, above which the phosphorylation output saturates, thus further increase in expression presumably provides no additional benefits. Laboratory evolution experiments further indicate that cells with non-ideal protein levels can evolve toward the optimal levels with diverse mutational strategies. Our results suggest that the natural protein expression

  8. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  9. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  10. Comparison of MMP2 and MMP9 expression levels between primary and metastatic regions of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Kensuke; Motozawa, Keiko; Omagari, Daisuke; Gojoubori, Takahiro; Ikeda, Takayuki; Asano, Masatake; Gionhaku, Nobuhito

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play important roles in tumor growth. The present study investigated the expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in relation to the distribution of TAMs in the primary and metastatic regions of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Twenty-nine cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with regional lymph node metastasis were selected from available documents in the archives of the Department of Pathology, Nihon University School of Dentistry. Four-micrometer-thick sections were prepared from the primary and metastatic regions. Each section was subjected to immunohistochemical staining using anti-MMP2, anti-MMP9, and anti-CD68 antibodies. The distribution and localization of MMPs and TAMs were compared between primary and metastatic regions. The expression levels of both MMPs were higher in the metastatic regions of lingual and gingival cancers. Statistically significant differences were observed in both T1 and T2 cases. In contrast to the higher expression of MMPs in metastatic regions, a higher number of TAMs were distributed in the primary regions. From these results, MMP expression levels and the numbers of TAMs were expected to have an inverse relationship between the primary and metastatic regions of OSCC. (J Oral Sci 58, 59-65, 2016).

  11. Higher gait speed and smaller sway area decrease the risk for decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Mariko; Otsuka, Rei; Yuki, Atsumu; Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Kato, Yuki; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether physical function can indicate a risk of decline in higher-level functional capacity. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Subjects comprised 466 men and 495 women aged 40-79 years at baseline (1997-2000), whose total score for the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) at baseline was ≥11 and who participated in the follow-up survey. Baseline physical function examination included grip strength, comfortable gait speed, and sway area with eyes open. A decline in higher-level functional capacity was defined as a ≥2-point decrease in the TMIG-IC score after 14 years. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for decline in the TMIG-IC score for 14 years according to a 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in physical function measurements at baseline were estimated. Subjects with decreased TMIG-IC scores included 78 (16.7%) men and 80 (16.2%) women. In women, the multivariate-adjusted OR (95% CI) for a TMIG-IC score decrease with a 1-SD increase in comfortable gait speed was 0.68 (0.50-0.92; p=0.013), and that with a 1-SD increase in sway area with eyes open was 1.49 (1.17-1.90; p=0.001). Grip strength was not associated with TMIG-IC score decline. None of the physical performance measures affected TMIG-IC score declines in men. These results suggest that gait speed decreases and sway area increases might predict a risk of decline in higher-level functional capacity among middle-aged and elderly women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effective Leadership Development in Higher Education: Individual and Group Level Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Susanne; Nazlic, Tanja; Weisweiler, Silke; Pawlowska, Beata; Peus, Claudia; Frey, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Research in commercial organizations has provided a multitude of examples on how leadership development can effectively foster employees' performance and work-related attitudes such as commitment or satisfaction. In contrast, to date systematic leadership development is largely lacking for employees in higher education. However, we suggest that…

  13. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  14. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  15. Phases, Levels and Circles in Policy Development: The Cases of Higher Education and Environmental Quality Assurance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitema, Dave; Jeliazkova, Margarita; Westerheijden, Don F.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines parallel developments in the fields of quality assurance in higher education and in environmental policy. Starting from empirically grounded analytical frameworks for the two fields separately, Fischer's framework of policy argumentation is overlaid on both to gain deeper understanding of underlying similarities and…

  16. Tensions in Higher Education Leadership: Towards a Multi-Level Model of Leadership Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Richard; Petrov, Georgy; Gosling, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    UK higher education is undergoing a period of significant change that generates a series of tensions and difficulties for universities and university leaders. This paper explores these tensions through analysis of findings from a study comprising 152 semi-structured face-to-face interviews in 12 UK universities. Building on from theories of…

  17. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  18. Lowering the Cost Barrier to Higher Education for Undocumented Students: A Promising University-Level Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thangasamy, Andrew; Horan, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Undocumented students, many of Hispanic origin, face among the strictest cost barriers to higher education in the United States. Lack of legal status excludes them from most state and all federal financial aid programs. Furthermore, most states require them to pay out-of-state tuition rates at publicly supported institutions. In a new direction,…

  19. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality.

  20. Does Higher Education Level the Playing Field? Socio-Economic Differences in Graduate Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Claire; van der Erve, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Education--and in particular higher education--is often regarded as a route to social mobility. For this to be the case, however, the link between family background and adult outcomes must be broken (or at least reduced) once we take account of an individual's education history. This paper provides new evidence on differences in graduates'…

  1. Institutional and Program Level Guidelines for Conflict Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warters, Bill; Wendy, Smith J.

    2003-01-01

    These guidelines were developed by a national working group seminar hosted by the FIPSE-funded Conflict Management in Higher Education Resource Center. They provide a set of best-practices related to the establishment of conflict-handling services for colleges and universities. Seminar participants were carefully chose to represent faculty,…

  2. The Validation of Different Kinds of Knowledge at the Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omerzel, Doris Gomezelj; Sirca, Nada Trunk

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a flexible education system, including procedures for the validation of previous education and other forms of knowledge should be one of the objectives of higher education institutions as well as other institutions that are engaged in adult education. To be effective, the system must be developed and implemented in partnership with…

  3. Higher Level Open Distance Learning in Europe: The Accelerating Pace of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Azevedo, R. Charters

    1992-01-01

    Europe's socioeconomic climate will undergo rapid change as the single market becomes a reality and technological change accelerates. With companies in some countries now spending more collectively on training than their governments spend on the higher education sector, it is essential to map out a new European strategy for training for the 1990s.…

  4. Lowering the Cost Barrier to Higher Education for Undocumented Students: A Promising University-Level Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thangasamy, Andrew; Horan, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Undocumented students, many of Hispanic origin, face among the strictest cost barriers to higher education in the United States. Lack of legal status excludes them from most state and all federal financial aid programs. Furthermore, most states require them to pay out-of-state tuition rates at publicly supported institutions. In a new direction,…

  5. Tensions in Higher Education Leadership: Towards a Multi-Level Model of Leadership Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Richard; Petrov, Georgy; Gosling, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    UK higher education is undergoing a period of significant change that generates a series of tensions and difficulties for universities and university leaders. This paper explores these tensions through analysis of findings from a study comprising 152 semi-structured face-to-face interviews in 12 UK universities. Building on from theories of…

  6. An Assessment of Anxiety Levels in Dyslexic Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Iles, Jane E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: It has long been hypothesized that children with learning disabilities, including dyslexia, may be highly vulnerable to emotional consequences such as anxiety. However, research has centred on school-aged children. Aims: The present study aimed to clarify these findings with dyslexic students in higher education. Samples: Sixteen…

  7. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Strategy Enhances Students’ Higher Level Thinking Skills in a Pharmaceutical Sciences Course

    PubMed Central

    Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting. PMID:25741027

  8. Higher level of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tomasiuk, Ryszard; Lipowski, Dariusz; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Peplinska, Krystyna; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Malgorzata

    2016-02-12

    Aminoterminal pro-C type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) as an active form of CNP, has been recently proven to be a potential marker of sepsis and to be linked to inflammatory diseases. So far, there are no studies describing the level of NT-proCNP in meningitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with meningitis and to compare it with the serum level of CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) in this group of patients. The results were compared to serum levels of CRP, PCT and CSF levels of cytosis, protein and lactate. NT-proCNP levels were statistically significant between the control group and the meningitis groups (p=0.02; R=0.3). We also noted a correlation between the level of NT-proCNP in the CSF of all of the study groups (controls and meningitis patients) and the CSF levels of cytosis (p<0.5; R=0.43), protein (p<0.05; R=0.39) and lactate (p<0.05; R=0.34), and also the serum level of CRP (p<0.05; R=0.30), but not serum PCT (p>0.05; R=0.11). These results suggest that NT-proCNP could be a potential marker of meningitis, but it cannot be used to distinguish between the types of meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between Legible Handwriting and Level of Success of Third Grade Students in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayat, Seher; Küçükayar, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify third-grade students' performance levels for written expression and handwriting and to find the relationship between these performances. The study is based on relational screening model. It is carried out with 110 third grade students. Students' levels of success in handwriting and in written expression are evaluated…

  10. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  11. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    PubMed

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  12. U6 promoter-enhanced GlnUAG suppressor tRNA has higher suppression efficacy and can be stably expressed in 293 cells.

    PubMed

    Koukuntla, Ramesh; Ramsey, William J; Young, Won-Bin; Link, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    Almost one-third of all human genetic diseases are the result of nonsense mutations that can result in truncated proteins. Nonsense suppressor tRNAs (NSTs) were proposed as valuable tools for gene therapy of genetic diseases caused by premature termination codons (PTCs). Although various strategies have been adapted aiming to increase NST expression and efficacy, low suppression efficacies of NSTs and toxicity associated with stable expression of suppressor tRNAs have hampered the development of NST-mediated gene therapy. We have employed the U6 promoter to enhance Gln-Amber suppressor tRNA (GlnUAG) expression and to increase PTC suppression in mammalian cells. In an attempt to study the toxic effects of NSTs, a stable 293 cell line constitutively expressing a U6 promoter-enhanced GlnUAG tRNA was established. To examine whether any proteomic changes occurred in cells that constitutively express suppressor tRNA, whole cell proteins from cells with and without any suppressor tRNA expression were analyzed. The data obtained suggest that U6 promoter-enhanced GlnUAG tRNAs have higher suppression efficacies than multimers of the same suppressor tRNA without a U6 promoter. Proteomic analysis of cells constitutively expressing the GlnUAG suppressor tRNA indicates that stable expression of NSTs may not lead to significant read through of normal cellular proteins. Because most tRNAs have cell-specific differential expression, this technique will enable the expression of different kinds of suppressor tRNAs in various cell types at high, functionally relevant levels. The techniques developed in the present study may contribute to the further development of suppressor tRNA-mediated gene therapy. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Space mutagenesis of genetically engineered bacteria expressing recombinant human interferon α1b and screening of higher yielding strains.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Changting; Liu, Jinyi; Fang, Xiangqun; Xu, Chen; Guo, Yinghua; Chang, De; Su, Longxiang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the space mutagenesis of genetically engineered bacteria expressing recombinant human interferon α1b. The genetically engineered bacteria expressing the recombinant interferon α1b were sent into outer space on the Chinese Shenzhou VIII spacecraft. After the 17 day space flight, mutant strains that highly expressed the target gene were identified. After a series of screening of spaceflight-treated bacteria and the quantitative comparison of the mutant strains and original strain, we found five strains that showed a significantly higher production of target proteins, compared with the original strain. Our results support the notion that the outer space environment has unique effects on the mutation breeding of microorganisms, including genetically engineered strains. Mutant strains that highly express the target protein could be obtained through spaceflight-induced mutagenesis.

  14. Expression of the glucose-sensing receptor T1R3 in pancreatic islet: changes in the expression levels in various nutritional and metabolic states.

    PubMed

    Medina, Anya; Nakagawa, Yuko; Ma, Jinhui; Li, Longfei; Hamano, Kunihisa; Akimoto, Toshio; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    We reported recently that the taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3), a subunit of the sweet taste receptor, functions as a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor in pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of T1R3 in pancreatic islets. mRNA for T1R2 and T1R3 was detected in mouse pancreatic islets. Quantitatively, the mRNA expression level of T1R2 was less than 1% of that of T1R3. Immunohistochemically, T1R3 was abundantly expressed in mouse islets whereas T1R2 was barely detected. Most immunoreactive T1R3 was colocalized with insulin and almost all β-cells were positive for T1R3. In addition, T1R3 was expressed in some portion of α-cells. Immunoreactivity of T1R3 in β-cells was markedly reduced in fed mice compared to those in fasting mice. In contrast, mRNA for T1R3 was not different in islets of fasting and fed mice. Glucose-induced insulin-secretion was higher in islets obtained from fasting mice compared to those from fed mice. The expression of T1R3 was markedly reduced in islets of ob/ob mice compared to those of control mice. Similarly, the expression of T1R3 was reduced in islet of db/db mice. In addition, the expression of T1R3 was markedly reduced in β-cells of fatty diabetic rats and GK rats, models of obese and non-obese type 2 diabetes, respectively. These results indicate that T1R3 is expressed mainly in β-cells and the expression levels are different depending upon the nutritional and metabolic conditions.

  15. Expression of neurexin and neuroligin in the enteric nervous system and their down-regulated expression levels in Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangye; Wang, Jian; Li, Aiwu; Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Wentong; Cui, Xinhai; Wang, Kelai

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the expression levels of neurexins and neuroligins in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR). Longitudinal muscles with adherent mesenteric plexus were obtained by dissection of the fresh gut wall of mice, guinea pigs, and humans. Double labeling of neurexin I and Hu (a neuron marker), neuroligin 1 and Hu, neurexin I and synaptophysin (a presynaptic marker), and neuroligin 1 and PSD95 (a postsynaptic marker) was performed by immunofluorescence staining. Images were merged to determine the relative localizations of the proteins. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in different segments of the ENS in HSCR were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Neurexin and neuroligin were detected in the mesenteric plexus of mice, guinea pigs, and humans with HSCR. Neurexin was located in the presynapse, whereas neuroligin was located in the postsynapse. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin were significant in the ganglionic colonic segment of HSCR, moderate in the transitional segment, and negative in the aganglionic colonic segment. The expressions of neurexin and neuroligin in the transitional segments were significantly down-regulated compared with the levels in the normal segments (P < 0.05). Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in ENS are significantly down-regulated in HSCR, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  16. Lipoatrophy among HIV-infected patients is associated with higher levels of depression than lipohypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crane, HM; Grunfeld, C; Harrington, RD; Uldall, KK; Ciechanowski, PS; Kitahata, MM

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the association between body morphology abnormalities and depression examining lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy separately. Methods Observational cross-sectional study of 250 patients from the University of Washington HIV Cohort. Patients completed an assessment including depression and body morphology. We used linear regression analysis to examine the association between lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and depression. ANOVA was used to examine the relationship between mean depression scores and lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy in 10 body regions. Results Of 250 patients, 76 had lipoatrophy, and 128 had lipohypertrophy. Mean depression scores were highest among patients with moderate-to-severe lipoatrophy (16.4), intermediate among those with moderate-to-severe lipohypertrophy (11.7), mild lipohypertrophy (9.9), and mild lipoatrophy (8.5), and lowest among those without body morphology abnormalities (7.7) (p=0.002). After adjustment, mean depression scores for subjects reporting moderate-to-severe lipoatrophy were 9.2 points higher (p<0.001), scores for subjects with moderate-to-severe lipohypertrophy were 4.8 points higher (p=0.02), and scores for subjects with mild lipohypertrophy were 2.8 points higher (p=0.03) than patients without body morphology abnormalities. Facial lipoatrophy was the body region associated with the most severe depression scores (15.5 versus 8.9 for controls, p=0.03). Conclusions In addition to long-term cardiovascular implications, body morphology has a more immediate effect on depression severity. PMID:18754804

  17. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  18. Modeling Coastal Erosion, Passive Inundation, and Dynamic Wave Inundation under Higher Sea Level in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii State legislators recently formed the Interagency Committee on Climate Adaptation to investigate community vulnerability to sea level rise. We developed modeling to provide the committee with assessments of exposure to coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding based on the IPCC RCP 8.5 model of sea level rise over the 21st Century. We model the exposure to coastal erosion using a hybrid equilibrium profile model (Anderson et al., 2015) that combines historical rates of shoreline change with a Bruun-type model of beach profile translation. Results are mapped in a GIS showing the 80th percentile probability of potential erosion at years 2030, 2050, 2075, and 2100. Wave inundation is modeled using XBeach. We use a 3 m significant wave height to represent a seasonal high swell event. A separate simulation was run for each heightened sea level (corresponding to the years previously mentioned); which accounts for changes in wave dynamics due to the change in water level over the reef platform. We use a bare earth topo/bathy LiDAR DEM derived from data collected during the 2013 JBLTX survey of the Hawaiian Islands. XBeach modeling is done along one-dimensional profiles spaced 20 m apart. From this, we develop a gridded product of water depth and velocity for use in a vulnerability analysis. Passive inundation due to sea level rise, the so-called "bath tub" method, provide estimates of storm drain flooding and groundwater inundation. Our analysis of these three impacts of sea level rise, combined - coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding - are used with other available data in the FEMA Hazus software to estimate exposure and loss of upland assets.

  19. Can a city combat sea level rise alone: the impact of higher seawalls on the neighbors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. Q.; Stacey, M. T.; Herdman, L.; Hummel, M.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P.

    2016-12-01

    Global mean sea level has been rising by an average of 2 mm every year since 1993. This trend is observed to be accelerating in recent years, and the mean sea level rise is projected to be 1 m by 2100. Coastal communities are beginning to plan for protections against this threat, often requiring alterations to the structure of protective shorelines. As each community takes action, it is not clear how much an individual project (i.e., construction of a seawall, restoration of a marsh, etc. ) changes the regional hydrodynamics and how much the aggregated effects of other communities' projects influence a particular city. Because tidal forcing interacts with the geometry of a coastal embayment, alterations to the shoreline may increase (or decrease) flood risk regionally. There may be even more direct influences between neighboring communities, if the risk of inundation of one increases the risk for the other. This spatial interdependence has been largely neglected in coastal community planning, due in large part to a lack of quantitative information on the interdependence of communities. We have developed a suite of numerical methodologies to address this issue. A Bay-scale model has been established to reproduce the tidal and inundation dynamics under various scenarios for sea level rise. By considering different shoreline configurations, we can evaluate the impact of both local and regional actions on water level and inundation risk. For example, a complete hardening of embayment shores (i.e., a seawall ringing the entire embayment) increases water levels moderately for all communities, increasing the necessary investment in shoreline protections. To complement the forward model calculations, we have developed an adjoint sensitivity analysis tool that can efficiently analyze the importance of all the other coastal projects on a particular city. The quantification of these interdependencies demonstrate the value of coordinated action by communities, and the role

  20. Higher levels of endogenous estradiol are associated with frailty in postmenopausal women from the toledo study for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Carcaillon, L; García-García, F J; Tresguerres, J A F; Gutiérrez Avila, G; Kireev, R; Rodríguez-Mañas, L

    2012-08-01

    Adverse effects of higher endogenous estradiol (E2) levels on various clinical outcomes and on determinants of the frailty syndrome have recently been reported. However, there are no data about the potential relationship between E2 and frailty. We aimed to study the association between E2 levels and frailty among older postmenopausal women not taking hormonal therapy. We used data from the Toledo Study for Healthy Aging, a Spanish population-based cohort study. Frailty was defined according to Fried's approach. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with E2 levels were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. E2 levels decreased significantly with age and educational level, whereas they increased with body mass index, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and impairment in Katz activities of daily living. Higher E2 levels were associated with the prevalence of frailty among women younger than 79 yr, but not in the oldest group (p interaction = 0.047). After adjustment, OR of frailty associated with a 1 sd increase of E2 was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.04-2.20; P = 0.03). We identified an interaction between E2 and hs-CRP on the prevalence of frailty (P value = 0.042). Women with both higher E2 and hs-CRP (defined as values into the upper tertile) had an age-adjusted OR of 4.2 (95% CI, 1.7-10.5; P = 0.002), compared with women with low levels of both E2 and hs-CRP. Higher E2 levels were associated with frailty in postmenopausal women. The synergism between higher E2 and hs-CRP levels suggests the existence of physiopathological mechanisms connecting inflammation and estrogen to frailty.

  1. Sources of signal in 62 protein-coding nuclear genes for higher-level phylogenetics of arthropods.

    PubMed

    Regier, Jerome C; Zwick, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the strength of various sources of phylogenetic information that led to recent seemingly robust conclusions about higher-level arthropod phylogeny and to assess the role of excluding or downweighting synonymous change for arriving at those conclusions. The current study analyzes DNA sequences from 68 gene segments of 62 distinct protein-coding nuclear genes for 80 species. Gene segments analyzed individually support numerous nodes recovered in combined-gene analyses, but few of the higher-level nodes of greatest current interest. However, neither is there support for conflicting alternatives to these higher-level nodes. Gene segments with higher rates of nonsynonymous change tend to be more informative overall, but those with lower rates tend to provide stronger support for deeper nodes. Higher-level nodes with bootstrap values in the 80% - 99% range for the complete data matrix are markedly more sensitive to substantial drops in their bootstrap percentages after character subsampling than those with 100% bootstrap, suggesting that these nodes are likely not to have been strongly supported with many fewer data than in the full matrix. Data set partitioning of total data by (mostly) synonymous and (mostly) nonsynonymous change improves overall node support, but the result remains much inferior to analysis of (unpartitioned) nonsynonymous change alone. Clusters of genes with similar nonsynonymous rate properties (e.g., faster vs. slower) show some distinct patterns of node support but few conflicts. Synonymous change is shown to contribute little, if any, phylogenetic signal to the support of higher-level nodes, but it does contribute nonphylogenetic signal, probably through its underlying heterogeneous nucleotide composition. Analysis of seemingly conservative indels does not prove useful. Generating a robust molecular higher-level phylogeny of Arthropoda is currently possible with large amounts of data and an exclusive reliance on

  2. Sources of Signal in 62 Protein-Coding Nuclear Genes for Higher-Level Phylogenetics of Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Jerome C.; Zwick, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the strength of various sources of phylogenetic information that led to recent seemingly robust conclusions about higher-level arthropod phylogeny and to assess the role of excluding or downweighting synonymous change for arriving at those conclusions. Methodology/Principal Findings The current study analyzes DNA sequences from 68 gene segments of 62 distinct protein-coding nuclear genes for 80 species. Gene segments analyzed individually support numerous nodes recovered in combined-gene analyses, but few of the higher-level nodes of greatest current interest. However, neither is there support for conflicting alternatives to these higher-level nodes. Gene segments with higher rates of nonsynonymous change tend to be more informative overall, but those with lower rates tend to provide stronger support for deeper nodes. Higher-level nodes with bootstrap values in the 80% – 99% range for the complete data matrix are markedly more sensitive to substantial drops in their bootstrap percentages after character subsampling than those with 100% bootstrap, suggesting that these nodes are likely not to have been strongly supported with many fewer data than in the full matrix. Data set partitioning of total data by (mostly) synonymous and (mostly) nonsynonymous change improves overall node support, but the result remains much inferior to analysis of (unpartitioned) nonsynonymous change alone. Clusters of genes with similar nonsynonymous rate properties (e.g., faster vs. slower) show some distinct patterns of node support but few conflicts. Synonymous change is shown to contribute little, if any, phylogenetic signal to the support of higher-level nodes, but it does contribute nonphylogenetic signal, probably through its underlying heterogeneous nucleotide composition. Analysis of seemingly conservative indels does not prove useful. Conclusions Generating a robust molecular higher-level phylogeny of Arthropoda is currently possible

  3. Adverse childhood experiences and higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese people: results from the JAGES study.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Murayama, Hiroshi; Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-05-19

    A life-course perspective is essential in understanding the determinants of higher-level functional limitations. We examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on higher-level functional limitations in older people. Data were from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2013, a population-based cohort of independent people aged 65 years or older across Japan (n = 19,220). ACEs before the age of 18 were assessed in terms of seven adversities: parental death, parental divorce, parental mental illness, family violence, physical abuse, psychological neglect, and psychological abuse. Associations between the cumulative number of ACEs and higher-level functional limitations were investigated by multivariate Poisson regression with robust error variances, adjusted for age, gender, childhood disadvantage, adult socio-demographics, adult health behaviours, and health status. Of the older people, 36.3% reported at least one ACE. Older people who had experienced two or more ACEs showed significantly greater higher-level functional limitations than those with no ACE in a crude model (prevalence ratio, PR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.51-1.71). After adjusting the covariates, this association remained (PR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.12-1.27). ACEs showed robust independent effects on higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese without disabilities, even after adjusting for potential covariates in childhood and adulthood. The current findings may help in understanding the impact of the latent effects of ACEs on functional limitations in older people.

  4. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  5. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  6. Higher constitutive IL15Rα expression and lower IL-15 response threshold in coeliac disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, D; Garrote, J A; Allegretti, Y; León, A; Gómez, E; Bermejo-Martin, J F; Calvo, C; Riestra, S; Fernández-Salazar, L; Blanco-Quirós, A; Chirdo, F; Arranz, E

    2008-01-01

    The IL-15 triggering effect of gliadin is not exclusive to coeliac disease (CD) patients, whereas the secondary response is CD specific. We have studied the expression of the IL-15 receptor, and the IL-15 response upon stimulation, in non-CD and CD patients, and the possible existence of a lower immunological threshold in the latter. Forty-two CD patients (20 on a gluten-containing diet, GCD, and 22 on gluten-free diet, GFD) and 24 non-CD healthy individuals were studied. IL15Rα mRNA expression, and tissue characterization, were assayed in the duodenum. Biopsies from six CD patients on GFD and 10 non-CD individuals were studied in vitro using organ culture in basal conditions, as well as after IL-15 stimulation discarding basal IL-15 production. Secretion of immune mediators was measured in the culture supernatants. IL15Rα mRNA expression was increased in CD patients, as compared with non-CD controls (on GFD P = 0·0334, on GCD P = 0·0062, respectively), and confirmed also by immunofluorescence. No differences were found between CD patients on GFD and on GCD. After in vitro IL-15 stimulation, IL15Rα expression was only triggered in non-CD controls (P = 0·0313), though it remained increased in CD patients. Moreover, IL-15 induced a more intense immunological response in CD patients after triggering the production of both nitrites and IFNγ (P = 0·0313, P = 0·0313, respectively). Gliadin-induced IL15 has a lower response threshold in CD patients, leading to the production of other immune mediators and the development of the intestinal lesion, and thus magnifying its effects within the CD intestine. PMID:18821940

  7. Expression of FOXO6 is Associated With Oxidative Stress Level and Predicts the Prognosis in Hepatocellular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-Yong; Chen, Yao-Min; Wu, Jian; Yang, Fu-Chun; Lv, Zhen; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the association of Forkhead box O6 (FOXO6) expression with oxidative stress level and prognosis of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). The case group included tissues of HCC from 128 patients who were hospitalized in Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery of First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The control group included normal liver tissues from 74 patients. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test expressions of FOXO6, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Dihydroethidium (DHE) was dyed to observe reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Immunohistochemistry was used to test FOXO6 expression. FOXO6 was silenced in HepG2 cells to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expressions of ROS, HO-1, GPx, SOD, CAT, p27, and cyclin D1 were also detected to further explore the possible mechanism. The expressions of FOXO6, HO-1, GPx, SOD, and CAT in HCC tissue was significantly higher than those in normal and adjacent HCC tissues (P <0.05). The tumor size, TNM stage, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, the presence or absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), and differentiation degree were related to FOXO6 expression level (all P <0.05). COX analysis showed that high FOXO6 expression, male, positive HBsAg, advanced TNM staging, high expression of AFP, and low degree of differentiation were all risk factors for prognosis in HCC (P <0.05). Compared with the blank group (C group, without transfection) and the negative control (NC) group, the mRNA expressions of ROS, FOXO6, HO-1, SOD, GPx, and CAT were decreased (P <0.05). si-RNA group had significantly decreased proliferation speed during 24 to 72 hours (P <0.05), whereas si-FOXO6 group had remarkably increased G0/G1 staged cells and decreased S-staged cells (P <0.05). The si-FOXO6 group showed notably increased apoptosis rate (P <0.05) and p

  8. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  9. State-Level Academic Program Review in Higher Education. Report No. 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Robert J.; Berdahl, Robert O.

    The state of the art of state-level academic program review is presented. The growth of state agency reviews and three types of state coordinating agencies are discussed. The relation of program review to budget review and planning is outlined, and a description is provided of what programs are reviewed, the criteria for reviewing new programs,…

  10. Improving Student Oral and Written Communication Skills through the Use of Higher Level Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevich, Karen; Price, Barbara; Ronna, Vicki; Xanos, Pamela

    This study describes a program designed to increase the communication skills of at-risk students. The targeted population consists of kindergarten through third grade students in two elementary schools in a community in central Illinois. The status of family income ranges from low to high levels. Evidence for the existence of inadequate…

  11. Qualifications at Level 5: Progressing in a Career or to Higher Education. Working Paper No 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grm, Slava Pevec; Bjørnåvold, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses qualifications at level 5 of the European qualifications framework (EQF) in 15 countries (Belgium (Flanders), the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Ireland, France, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, the United Kingdom (EWNI and Scotland) that had linked their national…

  12. c-Kit identifies a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells in adipose tissue with higher telomerase expression and differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Blazquez-Martinez, A; Chiesa, M; Arnalich, F; Fernandez-Delgado, J; Nistal, M; De Miguel, M P

    2014-01-01

    The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue is an easy to obtain source of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We and others have achieved significant but suboptimal therapeutic effects with ADSCs in various settings, mainly due to low rates of differentiation into specific cell types and with the downside of undesired side effects as a consequence of the undifferentiated ADSCs. These data prompted us to find new stem cell-specific markers for ADSCs and/or subpopulations with higher differentiation potential to specific lineages. We found a subpopulation of human ADSCs, marked by c-Kit positiveness, resides in a perivascular location, and shows higher proliferative activity and self-renewal capacity, higher telomerase activity and expression, higher in vitro adipogenic efficiency, a higher capacity for the maintenance of cardiac progenitors, and higher pancreatogenic and hepatogenic efficiency independently of CD105 expression. Our data suggests that the isolation of ADSC subpopulations with anti-c-Kit antibodies allows for the selection of a more homogeneous subpopulation with increased cardioprotective properties and increased adipogenic and endodermal differentiation potential, providing a useful tool for specific therapies in regenerative medicine applications.

  13. Differential contribution of cis-regulatory elements to higher order chromatin structure and expression of the CFTR locus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Kerschner, Jenny L.; Gosalia, Nehal; Neems, Daniel; Gorsic, Lidija K.; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E.; Kosak, Steven T.; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromatin structure establishes domains that organize the genome and coordinate gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling transcription of individual loci within a topological domain (TAD) are not fully understood. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene provides a paradigm for investigating these mechanisms. CFTR occupies a TAD bordered by CTCF/cohesin binding sites within which are cell-type-selective cis-regulatory elements for the locus. We showed previously that intronic and extragenic enhancers, when occupied by specific transcription factors, are recruited to the CFTR promoter by a looping mechanism to drive gene expression. Here we use a combination of CRISPR/Cas9 editing of cis-regulatory elements and siRNA-mediated depletion of architectural proteins to determine the relative contribution of structural elements and enhancers to the higher order structure and expression of the CFTR locus. We found the boundaries of the CFTR TAD are conserved among diverse cell types and are dependent on CTCF and cohesin complex. Removal of an upstream CTCF-binding insulator alte