Science.gov

Sample records for express higher levels

  1. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  2. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  3. Memory B cells from older people express normal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 upon in vitro activation

    PubMed Central

    Bancos, Simona; Phipps, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide the elderly population is increasing. The elderly show deficiencies in immune function. B lymphocytes are essential elements of the immune system responsible for antibody production. This laboratory previously showed that activated human B cells isolated from young adults express cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and that Cox-2 is essential for optimal antibody responses. Recent data suggests that Cox-2 expression decreases with age in mouse bone tissue. There is no information regarding Cox-2 expression in B cells from older human subjects. We investigated the expression and activity of Cox-2 in naïve and memory B cells from older people. We show that B cells from older subjects show similar Cox-2 protein expression and activity, antibody production and proliferation compared to younger people. However, we found that activated memory B cells from older people produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 compared to young adults. Therefore, the dysregulated cytokine production could contribute to immune senescence in the elderly. PMID:20889146

  4. Memory B cells from older people express normal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 upon in vitro activation.

    PubMed

    Bancos, Simona; Phipps, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide the elderly population is increasing. The elderly show deficiencies in immune function. B lymphocytes are essential elements of the immune system responsible for antibody production. This laboratory previously showed that activated human B cells isolated from young adults express cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and that Cox-2 is essential for optimal antibody responses. Recent data suggests that Cox-2 expression decreases with age in mouse bone tissue. There is no information regarding Cox-2 expression in B cells from older human subjects. We investigated the expression and activity of Cox-2 in naïve and memory B cells from older people. We show that B cells from older subjects show similar Cox-2 protein expression and activity, antibody production and proliferation compared to younger people. However, we found that activated memory B cells from older people produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 compared to young adults. Therefore, the dysregulated cytokine production could contribute to immune senescence in the elderly.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  6. Coping with extreme: highland Eurasian tree sparrows with molt-breeding overlap express higher levels of corticoserone-binding globulin than lowland sparrows.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongming; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yonghong; Duan, Xianglin; Wu, Yuefeng

    2013-10-01

    In birds, suppressed expression of stress-induced corticosterone (CORT) during pre-basic molt is generally thought to reflect a physiological trade-off in self-maintenance. And reduced CORT during breeding in extreme environments may maximize reproductive success and optimize their fitness. Highland Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) are known to express significantly higher stress-induced CORT levels during the pre-basic molt stage. Here, we show that these highland sparrows are characterized by a life history strategy of molt-breeding overlap, with higher corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) levels favoring molt and breeding consistent with fitness optimization on the Tibetan Plateau. These unique behavioral and physiological strategies reflect natural selection under strong evolutionary pressures in extreme high-altitude environments.

  7. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  8. Photosynthetic gene expression in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Berry, James O; Yerramsetty, Pradeep; Zielinski, Amy M; Mure, Christopher M

    2013-11-01

    Within the chloroplasts of higher plants and algae, photosynthesis converts light into biological energy, fueling the assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide into biologically useful molecules. Two major steps, photosynthetic electron transport and the Calvin-Benson cycle, require many gene products encoded from chloroplast as well as nuclear genomes. The expression of genes in both cellular compartments is highly dynamic and influenced by a diverse range of factors. Light is the primary environmental determinant of photosynthetic gene expression. Working through photoreceptors such as phytochrome, light regulates photosynthetic genes at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Other processes that affect photosynthetic gene expression include photosynthetic activity, development, and biotic and abiotic stress. Anterograde (from nucleus to chloroplast) and retrograde (from chloroplast to nucleus) signaling insures the highly coordinated expression of the many photosynthetic genes between these different compartments. Anterograde signaling incorporates nuclear-encoded transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators, such as sigma factors and RNA-binding proteins, respectively. Retrograde signaling utilizes photosynthetic processes such as photosynthetic electron transport and redox signaling to influence the expression of photosynthetic genes in the nucleus. The basic C3 photosynthetic pathway serves as the default form used by most of the plant species on earth. High temperature and water stress associated with arid environments have led to the development of specialized C4 and CAM photosynthesis, which evolved as modifications of the basic default expression program. The goal of this article is to explain and summarize the many gene expression and regulatory processes that work together to support photosynthetic function in plants.

  9. Macrophages From Irradiated Tumors Express Higher Levels of iNOS, Arginase-I and COX-2, and Promote Tumor Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.-S.; Chen, F.-H.; Wang, C.-C.; Huang, H.-L.; Jung, Shih-Ming; Wu, C.-J.; Lee, C.-C.; McBride, William H.; Chiang, C.-S.; Hong, J.-H. . E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of single and fractionated doses of radiation on tumors and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and to elucidate the potential of TAMs to influence tumor growth. Methods and Materials: A murine prostate cell line, TRAMP-C1, was grown in C57Bl/6J mice to 4-mm tumor diameter and irradiated with either 25 Gy in a single dose, or 60 Gy in 15 fractions. The tumors were removed at the indicated times and assessed for a variety of markers related to TAM content, activation status, and function. Results: In tumors receiving a single radiation dose, arginase (Arg-I), and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression increased as a small transient wave within 24 h and a larger persistent wave starting after 3 days. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was elevated only after 3 days and continued to increase up to 3 weeks. After fractionated irradiation, Arg-1 and COX-2 mRNA levels increased within 5 days, whereas iNOS was increased only after 10 fractions of irradiation had been given. Increased levels of Arg-I, COX-2, and, to a lesser extent, iNOS protein were found to associate with TAMs 1-2 weeks after tumor irradiation. Function of TAMs were compared by mixing them with TRAMP-C1 cells and injecting them into mice; TRAMP-C1 cells mixed with TAMs from irradiated tumors appeared earlier and grew significantly faster than those mixed with TAMs from unirradiated tumors or TRAMP-C1 alone. Conclusions: Tumor-associated macrophages in the postirradiated tumor microenvironment express higher levels of Arg-1, COX-2, and iNOS, and promote early tumor growth in vivo.

  10. Danger: Work on Higher Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Archie E.

    The Assessment Policy Committee of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has directed the NAEP staff to focus the 1985-86 Assessments of Reading, Mathematics, Science, and Computer Competence on the higher-order skills. Each Learning Area Committee worked independently developing three-dimensional models. These defined what could…

  11. Mammalian expression levels of cellulase and xylanase genes optimised by human codon usage are not necessarily higher than those optimised by the extremely biased approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Yanxia; Feng, Tao; Ji, Qianqian; Cong, Peiqing; Chen, Yaosheng; He, Zuyong

    2014-11-01

    Xylanase gene xynB, cellulase genes egxA and bgl4 were subjected to codon optimisation using two opposing strategies. One was designated the 'one amino acid-one codon' approach, which employs only the codon most used by humans for each amino acid. The other one is referred to as the "humanised" codon usage method, which selects synonymous codons for each amino acid according to the human codon usage table to mimic patterns used in humans. Protein expression levels in mammalian cell lines from each sequence were measured using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, western blotting and enzymatic activity assay. The results indicate that compared with the humanised codon usage method, the relatively simple 'one amino acid-one codon' approach could enhance heterologous protein expression in mammalian cells without apparent drawbacks.

  12. Levels of Analysis in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the levels of analysis adopted in higher education research, using a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals internationally during 2010. Level of analysis is a relatively overlooked issue in this field of research, when compared with methodology, theory and/or topic--to which it is, of…

  13. Web life: Confused at a Higher Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    This two-person blog owes its name to Enrico Fermi, who supposedly informed a visiting lecturer that although he used to be confused about the lecture topic, "having listened to your lecture, I am still confused. But on a higher level".

  14. Advanced Running Performance by Genetic Predisposition in Male Dummerstorf Marathon Mice (DUhTP) Reveals Higher Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP) Related mRNA Expression in the Liver and Higher Serum Levels of Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Brenmoehl, Julia; Walz, Christina; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Schwerin, Manfred; Fuellen, Georg; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Long-term-selected DUhTP mice represent a non-inbred model for inborn physical high-performance without previous training. Abundance of hepatic mRNA in 70-day male DUhTP and control mice was analyzed using the Affymetrix mouse array 430A 2.0. Differential expression analysis with PLIER corrected data was performed using AltAnalyze. Searching for over-representation in biochemical pathways revealed cholesterol metabolism being most prominently affected in DUhTP compared to unselected control mice. Furthermore, pathway analysis by AltAnalyze plus PathVisio indicated significant induction of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis and cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver of DUhTP mice versus unselected control mice. In contrast, gluconeogenesis was partially inactivated as judged from the analysis of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance in DUhTP mice. Analysis of mRNA transcripts related to steroid hormone metabolism inferred elevated synthesis of progesterone and reduced levels of sex steroids. Abundance of steroid delta isomerase-5 mRNA (Hsd3b5, FC 4.97) was increased and steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase mRNA (Cyp17a1, FC -11.6) was massively diminished in the liver of DUhTP mice. Assessment of steroid profiles by LC-MS revealed increased levels of progesterone and decreased levels of sex steroids in serum from DUhTP mice versus controls. Analysis of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance indicates that sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) may play a major role in metabolic pathway activation in the marathon mouse model DUhTP. Thus, results from bioinformatics modeling of hepatic mRNA transcript abundance correlated with direct steroid analysis by mass spectrometry and further indicated functions of SREBP-1 and steroid hormones for endurance performance in DUhTP mice. PMID:26799318

  15. Human type 3 5α-reductase is expressed in peripheral tissues at higher levels than types 1 and 2 and its activity is potently inhibited by finasteride and dutasteride.

    PubMed

    Yamana, Kazutoshi; Labrie, Fernand; Luu-The, Van

    2010-08-01

    5α-Reductases are crucial enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone, the most potent natural androgen. To date, three types of 5α-reductases, chronologically named types 1, 2 and 3 5α-reductases (SRD5a-1, 2 and 3) have been described. In the present paper, we characterized the activity and compared the mRNA expression levels of SRD5a-3 with those of SRD5a-1 and 2 in various human tissues, and determined its sensitivity to finasteride and dutasteride. We have established HEK-293 cell line that stably expressed SRD5a-3 for studying its activity and the inhibitory effect of finasteride, using [14C]labeled steroids. mRNA expression levels were quantified using real-time PCR in many male and female human tissues including the prostate, adipose tissue, mammary gland, as well as breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Incubation of HEK-SRD5a-3 cells with [14C]4-androstenedione and [14C]testosterone allowed us to show that SRD5a-3 can catalyze very efficiently both substrates 4-androstenedione and testosterone into 5α-androstanedione and dihydrotestosterone, respectively. We observed that the affinity of the enzyme for 4-androstenedione is higher than for testosterone. The activity of SRD5a-3 and SRD5a-2 are similarly sensitive to finasteride, whereas dutasteride is a much more potent inhibitor of SRD5a-3 than SRD5a-2. Tissue distribution analysis shows that SRD5a-3 mRNA expression levels are higher than those of SRD5a-1 and SRD5a-2 in 20 analyzed tissues. In particular, it is highly expressed in the skin, brain, mammary gland and breast cancer cell lines, thus suggesting that SRD5a-3 could play an important role in the production of androgens in these and other peripheral tissues. PMID:25961201

  16. Higher level practice: degree of specialist practice?

    PubMed

    Durgahee, Taleb

    2003-04-01

    Higher level practice (HLP) is the determinant characteristic of any maturing profession. Nursing should make a quantum leap with the development of HLP if the patient, the nurse, the context of caring and the acquisition of expertise are at the forefront of such growth. This study shows the matching of nursing concepts with nursing context is at the heart of HLP. It also shows that nurses are developing their own understanding of HLP which is different from the UKCC functional criteria. The intention here is to contribute to the development and understanding of HLP. Seven key concepts emerge in the definition of HLP. These concepts are unpacked to reflect the possible criteria, which could be used in the practice, teaching, assessment, and further refinement of HLP. A series of thought provoking recommendations are made for the Nursing and Midwifery Council to consider.A learning module entitled "Higher Level Practice" anchored in the epistemology of practice has been developed and successfully implemented by the author within the MSc Nursing Practice course attended by senior and consultant nurses.

  17. An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.

  18. Higher level simulations of turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferziger, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The fundamentals of large eddy simulation are considered and various approaches to this simulation are compared. The subgrid model required by large eddy simulation is discussed as well as the use of this type of simulation in the development of models for the Reynolds-averaged equations and the application of direct simulation to the testing of both subgrid scale and Reynolds-averaged models. Numerical methods used in large eddy and direct simulation are described with emphasis on special purpose methods. Topics covered include the simulation of homogeneous flow, free shear flows, the mixing layer, wakes, and wall-bounded flows including channel flow and the boundary layer. Applications of large eddy simulation in the laboratory as in meteorological and other environmental flows are examined. Directions in which the work is proceeding and what can be expected from higher levels simulated on are examined.

  19. Higher-level simulations of turbulent flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferziger, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    The fundamentals of large eddy simulation are considered and the approaches to it are compared. Subgrid scale models and the development of models for the Reynolds-averaged equations are discussed as well as the use of full simulation in testing these models. Numerical methods used in simulating large eddies, the simulation of homogeneous flows, and results from full and large scale eddy simulations of such flows are examined. Free shear flows are considered with emphasis on the mixing layer and wake simulation. Wall-bounded flow (channel flow) and recent work on the boundary layer are also discussed. Applications of large eddy simulation and full simulation in meteorological and environmental contexts are included along with a look at the direction in which work is proceeding and what can be expected from higher-level simulation in the future.

  20. Evidence that differential gene expression between the halophyte, Thellungiella halophila, and Arabidopsis thaliana is responsible for higher levels of the compatible osmolyte proline and tight control of Na+ uptake in T. halophila.

    PubMed

    Kant, Surya; Kant, Pragya; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon

    2006-07-01

    Salt-sensitive glycophytes and salt-tolerant halophytes employ common mechanisms to cope with salinity, and it is hypothesized that differences in salt tolerance arise because of changes in the regulation of a basic set of salt tolerance genes. We explored the expression of genes involved in two key salt tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis thaliana and the halophytic A. thaliana relative model system (ARMS), Thellungiella halophila. Salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1) is a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that retrieves and loads Na+ ions from and into the xylem. Shoot SOS1 transcript was more strongly induced by salt in T. halophila while root SOS1 was constitutively higher in unstressed T. halophila. This is consistent with a lower salt-induced rise in T. halophila xylem sap Na+ concentration than in A. thaliana. Thellungiella halophila contained higher unstressed levels of the compatible osmolyte proline than A. thaliana, while under salt stress, T. halophila accumulated more proline mainly in shoots. Expression of the A. thaliana ortholog of proline dehydrogenase (PDH), involved in proline catabolism, was undetectable in T. halophila shoots. The PDH enzyme activity was lower and T. halophila seedlings were hypersensitive to exogenous proline, indicating repression of proline catabolism in T. halophila. Our results suggest that differential gene expression between glycophytes and halophytes contributes to the salt tolerance of halophytes. PMID:17080945

  1. Higher Expression of the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Fushi; Shen, Alex; Shanas, Reneé; Bhattacharyya, Achyut; Lian, Fangru; Hostetter, Galen; Shi, Jiaqi

    2010-01-01

    Background The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is an essential RNA and DNA binding protein involved in gene expression and signal transduction. The role of hnRNP K in cancer is relatively understudied. However, several cellular functions strongly indicate that hnRNP K is involved in tumorigenesis. Oncogenes c-Src, c-myc, and eIF4E are regulated by hnRNP K. We have shown an increased cytoplasmic hnRNP K in pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we investigated the altered expression of hnRNP K protein and its correlation with p-ERK in melanoma using human melanoma cell lines and tissue microarray. Materials and Methods The protein levels of hnRNP K and p-ERK in 8 human melanoma cell lines and a melanoma progression tissue microarray containing 80 melanoma, 23 dysplastic nevi, and 14 benign nevi specimens were analyzed using Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. hnRNP K was knocked down by siRNA, and its effect on melanoma cells was assessed. Results We showed a higher hnRNP K protein level in both melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue specimens, which correlated with a higher c-myc expression. An increase in the cytoplasmic hnRNP K and eIF4E protein levels in melanoma cells is also seen. p-ERK level was also higher in dysplastic nevi and melanoma tissues, but did not correlate with hnRNP K protein level. We then demonstrated that knocking down of hnRNP K by siRNA inhibited melanoma cell growth and colony formation, as well as c-myc expression. Conclusions hnRNP K expression correlated with melanoma and may play a role in melanoma tumorigenesis. PMID:20499280

  2. Light regulation of gene expression in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, E.M.; Silverthorne, J.

    1985-01-01

    In this review areas of currently active research are considered which have demonstrated that a plant's response to light involves changes in the expression of specific genes at the level of RNA. The regulation of gene expression by phytochrome and the UV-sensitive photoreceptor have been studied most extensively at the molecular level, and this review particularly focuses on such studies in higher plants. Some of the observations made on the differences in gene expression between light-grown and dark-grown plants are also included, although the photoreceptor(s) responsible for the differences may not have been ascertained. In some of these cases, phytochrome involvement has been or may be demonstrated in later studies, while in others the observed differences may be a result of the action of other photoreceptors or of multiple light-affected processes. One such process is the development of chloroplasts, a major developmental step triggered by light in angiosperms. In addition, many of the genes whose expression is changed by light and which have been studied at a molecular level encode chloroplast proteins. 156 references.

  3. NEWS: Help for the higher level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    January 2000 saw the instigation of a network of subject centres to promote high quality learning and teaching practices in universities and colleges throughout the UK. A total of £30m has been committed over five years by the four funding bodies for UK higher education to this Learning and Teaching Support Network (LTSN). The network will consist of 24 subject centres, each hosted by a university or college, plus a Generic Learning and Teaching Centre based in York (as part of the new Institute for Learning and Teaching). The latter centre will give advice on issues that affect higher education as a whole - such as the use of information technology. Among the tasks for the subject centres will be: the collation and promotion of information on good practice; the promotion of computing and IT approaches to teaching, learning and assessment; the provision of opportunities for professional development; and the maintenance of working relationships with professional bodies both in the UK and internationally. The subject centre for the Physical Sciences will be at the University of Hull (contact Dr Tina Overton, tel: 01482 465 453) with Engineering at Loughborough, Materials at Liverpool, Medicine at Newcastle, Mathematics, Statistics and Operational Research at Birmingham. The first annual conference of the Institute for Learning and Teaching in Higher Education is planned for 27 - 29 June at the College of Ripon and York St John. More details of this and the other events organized by the Institute can be obtained from ILT, Genesis 3, Innovation Way, York Science Park, Heslington, York YO10 5DQ (tel: 01904 434222, enquiries@ilt.ac.uk or www.ilt.ac.uk ).

  4. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'.

  5. Higher LPA2 and LPA6 mRNA Levels in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Are Associated with Poorer Differentiation, Microvascular Invasion and Earlier Recurrence with Higher Serum Autotaxin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Hitoshi; Kurano, Makoto; Sato, Masaya; Kudo, Hiroki; Maki, Harufumi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) commonly develops in patients with liver fibrosis; in these patients, the blood levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX) increase with the liver fibrosis stage. We aimed to examine the potential relevance of ATX and LPA in HCC. Fifty-eight HCC patients who underwent surgical treatment were consecutively enrolled in the study. Among the LPA receptors in HCC, higher LPA2 mRNA levels correlated with poorer differentiation, and higher LPA6 mRNA levels correlated with microvascular invasion, which suggested a higher malignant potential of HCC with increased LPA2 and LPA6 expression. In patients with primary HCC, neither LPA2 nor LPA6 mRNA levels were associated with recurrence. However, when serum ATX levels were combined for analysis as a surrogate for plasma LPA levels, the cumulative intra-hepatic recurrence rate was higher in patients in whom both serum ATX levels and LPA2 or LPA6 mRNA levels were higher than the median. However, the mRNA level of phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1ɑ, another LPA-generating enzyme, in HCC patients was not associated with pathological findings or recurrence, even in combination with the expression of LPA receptors. Higher LPA2 mRNA levels were associated with poorer differentiation, and higher LPA6 levels were associated with microvascular invasion in HCC; both became a risk factor for recurrence after surgical treatment when combined with increased serum ATX levels. ATX and LPA receptors merit consideration as therapeutic targets of HCC. PMID:27583415

  6. Higher LPA2 and LPA6 mRNA Levels in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Are Associated with Poorer Differentiation, Microvascular Invasion and Earlier Recurrence with Higher Serum Autotaxin Levels.

    PubMed

    Enooku, Kenichiro; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Kurano, Makoto; Sato, Masaya; Kudo, Hiroki; Maki, Harufumi; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) commonly develops in patients with liver fibrosis; in these patients, the blood levels of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its generating enzyme autotaxin (ATX) increase with the liver fibrosis stage. We aimed to examine the potential relevance of ATX and LPA in HCC. Fifty-eight HCC patients who underwent surgical treatment were consecutively enrolled in the study. Among the LPA receptors in HCC, higher LPA2 mRNA levels correlated with poorer differentiation, and higher LPA6 mRNA levels correlated with microvascular invasion, which suggested a higher malignant potential of HCC with increased LPA2 and LPA6 expression. In patients with primary HCC, neither LPA2 nor LPA6 mRNA levels were associated with recurrence. However, when serum ATX levels were combined for analysis as a surrogate for plasma LPA levels, the cumulative intra-hepatic recurrence rate was higher in patients in whom both serum ATX levels and LPA2 or LPA6 mRNA levels were higher than the median. However, the mRNA level of phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1ɑ, another LPA-generating enzyme, in HCC patients was not associated with pathological findings or recurrence, even in combination with the expression of LPA receptors. Higher LPA2 mRNA levels were associated with poorer differentiation, and higher LPA6 levels were associated with microvascular invasion in HCC; both became a risk factor for recurrence after surgical treatment when combined with increased serum ATX levels. ATX and LPA receptors merit consideration as therapeutic targets of HCC. PMID:27583415

  7. Interactive Learning in a Higher Education Level 1 Mechanics Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Kathryn M.; James, Brian W.

    2001-01-01

    Encourages Level 1 students (those taking a subject for the first time at the higher education level) to develop a deeper learning approach. Uses a cooperative learning approach to pose conceptual questions for interactive discussions and changes both teaching method and form of examination paper for a Mechanics module. (Contains 17 references.)…

  8. Assessment Strategies to Support Higher Level Learning in Blended Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Alison J.; Aspden, Liz J.; Bannister, Philip W.; Helm, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A level 6 module was developed in order to implement innovative assessment strategies and encourage higher level learning. The module tutor (one of this paper's authors) was seconded from teaching duties (40%) to the University's academic development unit to work on the module transformation. The rationale for the redesign of the assessment…

  9. Seeking a Higher Level of Arts Integration across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiropoulou-Zormpala, Marina

    2016-01-01

    To seek a higher level of arts integration across the education curriculum, I investigated designs of teaching through arts activities that would motivate educators to adopt the spirit of "aesthetic teaching." Two different designs were tested, with the second as a continuation of the first. Each ascribes a different educational role to…

  10. European Graduates' Level of Satisfaction with Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Aracil, Adela

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate satisfaction rates among young European higher education graduates with their tertiary level study. Ordered choice models are used to parse out those factors that influence study satisfaction, such as environmental factors, field of study, usefulness of study and other individual-specific characteristics. Results show…

  11. The Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures in State-Level Higher Education Lobbying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkum, Kurt Richard

    2009-01-01

    Lobbying and lobbyists are integral components of federal and state public policymaking for higher education at the federal and state levels. While the actions and goals of lobbyists appear to be straightforward, the lobbying tactics selected by lobbyists vary for different situations and in different contexts (Browne, 1985; Cook, 1998; Gladieux &…

  12. A Principled Approach to Facilitating Distance Education: The Internet, Higher Education and Higher Levels of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanuka, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Builds on the results of earlier research that investigated principles that facilitate higher levels of learning in Internet-based distance learning university courses. Explores how these can be applied to Internet-based distance learning environments, using results of questionnaires from experts and scholars that considered complex abstracted…

  13. Population-level control of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevozhay, Dmitry; Adams, Rhys; van Itallie, Elizabeth; Bennett, Matthew; Balazsi, Gabor

    2011-03-01

    Gene expression is the process that translates genetic information into proteins, that determine the way cells live, function and even die. It was demonstrated that cells with identical genomes exposed to the same environment can differ in their protein composition and therefore phenotypes. Protein levels can vary between cells due to the stochastic nature of intracellular biochemical events, indicating that the genotype-phenotype connection is not deterministic at the cellular level. We asked whether genomes could encode isogenic cell populations more reliably than single cells. To address this question, we built two gene circuits to control three cell population-level characteristics: gene expression mean, coefficient of variation and non-genetic memory of previous expression states. Indeed, we found that these population-level characteristics were more predictable than the gene expression of single cells in a well-controlled environment. This research was supported by the NIH Director's New Innovator Award 1DP2 OD006481-01 and Welch Foundation Grant C-1729.

  14. Light gazpachos contain higher phytochemical levels than conventional gazpachos.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Estruch, Ramón; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2013-08-01

    Light gazpachos in comparison with conventional alternatives are interesting because of their low percentage of fat and high content of bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. An hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to identify those metabolites that have the greatest impact on the overall metabolic profile in light gazpachos as compared to conventional alternatives. Individual polyphenols were quantified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Data obtained revealed that light gazpachos displayed a higher significant phytochemical content than conventionally produced alternatives. The compounds found in significantly higher (p < 0.05) amounts in light versus conventional gazpachos were: caffeoylquinic and dicaffeoylquinic acids, caffeic and caffeic acid hexosides, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, ferulic and ferulic acid hexosides, naringenin-7-O-glucoside, naringenin, rutin and quercetin. Light gazpachos may play a crucial role in terms of health benefits (lower fat and higher bioactive compound intake). Higher consumption levels of phenolic compounds, which are greater in light products, along with caloric restriction and physical activity may be helpful in preventing obesity.

  15. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts.

  16. Heterophils isolated from chickens resistant to extra-intestinal Salmonella enteritidis infection express higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA following infection than heterophils from susceptible chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Pamela J.; Swaggerty, Christina L.; Kaiser, Pete; Pevzner, Igal Y.; Kogut, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies showed differences in in vitro heterophil function between parental (A > B) broilers and F1 reciprocal crosses (D > C). Our objectives were to (1) determine if in vitro variations translate to differences in resistance to Salmonella enteritidis (SE) and (2) quantitate cytokine mRNA in heterophils from SE-infected chicks. One-day-old chicks were challenged and organs were cultured for SE. Chicks with efficient heterophils (A and D) were less susceptible to SE compared to chicks with inefficient heterophils (B and C). Heterophils were isolated from SE-infected chicks and cytokine mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was up-regulated in heterophils from SE-resistant chicks compared to susceptible chicks. This is the first report to quantitate cytokine mRNA in heterophils from SE-infected chicks. These data show a relationship between in vitro heterophil function, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression, and increased resistance to SE in 1-day-old chicks. PMID:15635959

  17. Cognition = life: Implications for higher-level cognition.

    PubMed

    Stewart, J

    1995-12-01

    Any global consideration of the theme 'Evolution and Cognition' requires a clear definition of what we mean by the term 'cognition'. In contemporary cognitive science, there are two distinct paradigms with contrasting definitions of cognition. The computational theory of mind is based on the syntaxical manipulation of symbolic representations; this paradigm is objectivist because the postulate of a unique independent reality is necessary as a referential basis for semantic grounding of the symbols. The alternative 'constructivist' paradigm is based on the biological metaphor 'cognition = life' and programmatically follows the evolution of cognition from bacteria to civilized humans; it is non-objectivist. There is a definite tendency to consider that the computational theory is appropriate for 'high-level' human cognition, whereas the constructivist approach is appropriate for 'low-level' cognition. This article argues against such a division of labour, since the issue of objectivism is a watershed which continues to demarcate the computational and constructivist paradigms in their respective approaches to higher-level cognition.

  18. Calcium regulates caveolin-1 expression at the transcriptional level

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Kan, Qi-Ming; Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Sato, Toshinori; Yamagata, Sadako; Yamagata, Tatsuya

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caveolin-1 expression is regulated by calcium signaling at the transcriptional level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inhibitor of or siRNA to L-type calcium channel suppressed caveolin-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cyclosporine A or an NFAT inhibitor markedly reduced caveolin-1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Caveolin-1 regulation by calcium signaling is observed in several mouse cell lines. -- Abstract: Caveolin-1, an indispensable component of caveolae serving as a transformation suppressor protein, is highly expressed in poorly metastatic mouse osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells while highly metastatic FBJ-LL cells express low levels of caveolin-1. Calcium concentration is higher in FBJ-S1 cells than in FBJ-LL cells; therefore, we investigated the possibility that calcium signaling positively regulates caveolin-1 in mouse FBJ-S1 cells. When cells were treated with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), or INCA-6 (a nuclear factor of activated T-cells [NFAT] inhibitor), caveolin-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels decreased. RNA silencing of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C resulted in suppression of caveolin-1 expression. This novel caveolin-1 regulation pathway was also identified in mouse NIH 3T3 cells and Lewis lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that caveolin-1 is positively regulated at the transcriptional level through a novel calcium signaling pathway mediated by L-type calcium channel/Ca{sup 2+}/calcineurin/NFAT.

  19. Higher-level crustacean phylogeny: consensus and conflicting hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current hypotheses of higher-level crustacean phylogeny in order to assist and help focus further research. It concentrates on hypotheses proposed or debated in the recent literature based on morphological, molecular and combined evidence phylogenetic analyses. It can be concluded that crustacean phylogeny remains essentially unresolved. Conflict is rife, irrespective of whether one compares different morphological studies, molecular studies, or both. Using the number of recently proposed alternative sister group hypotheses for each of the major tetraconatan taxa as a rough estimate of phylogenetic uncertainty, it can be concluded that the phylogenetic position of Malacostraca remains the most problematic, closely followed by Branchiopoda, Cephalocarida, Remipedia, Ostracoda, Branchiura, Copepoda and Hexapoda. Future progress will depend upon a broader taxon sampling in molecular analyses, and the further exploration of new molecular phylogenetic markers. However, the need for continued revision and expansion of morphological datasets remains undiminished given the conspicuous lack of agreement between molecules and morphology for positioning several taxa. In view of the unparalleled morphological diversity of Crustacea, and the likely nesting of Hexapoda somewhere within Crustacea, working out a detailed phylogeny of Tetraconata is a crucial step towards understanding arthropod body plan evolution.

  20. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  1. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01).

  2. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  3. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  4. Decreased expression of Klotho in cardiac atria biopsy samples from patients at higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, Giovanni; Pasini, Evasio; Scarabelli, Tiziano M; Romano, Claudia; Agrawal, Pratik R; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Knight, Richard; Saravolatz, Louis; Narula, Jagat; Ferrari-Vivaldi, Mario; Flati, Vincenzo; Assanelli, Deodato; Dioguardi, Francesco S

    2016-01-01

    Background Klotho proteins (α- and β) are membrane-based circulating proteins that regulate cell metabolism, as well as the lifespan modulating activity of Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs). Recent data has shown that higher plasma circulating Klotho levels reduce cardiovascular risk, suggesting Klotho has a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, although so far it has been identified in various organs, it is unknown whether cardiomyocytes express Klotho and FGFs, and whether high cardiovascular risk could affect cardiac expression of Klotho, FGFs and other molecules. Methods We selected 20 patients with an estimated 10-year high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and 10 age-matched control subjects with an estimated 10-year low risk undergone cardiac surgery for reasons other than coronary artery by-pass. In myocardial biopsies, we evaluated by immuno-histochemistry whether Klotho and FGFs were expressed in cardiomyocytes, and whether higher cardiovascular risk influenced the expression of other molecules involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Only cardiomyocytes of patients with a higher cardiovascular risk showed lower expression of Klotho, but higher expressions of FGFs. Furthermore, higher cardiovascular risk was associated with increased expression of oxidative and endoplasmic reticular stress, inflammation and fibrosis. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that Klotho proteins are expressed in human cardiomyocytes and that cardiac expression of Klotho is down-regulated in higher cardiovascular risk patients, while expression of stress-related molecules were significantly increased. PMID:27781061

  5. TDP-43 plasma levels are higher in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Esther; Kuiperij, H Bea; van Blitterswijk, Marka M; Veldink, Jan H; Schelhaas, H Jurgen; van den Berg, Leonard H; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate TDP-43 plasma levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 has been identified as a major component of protein inclusions in the brain of patients with ALS; mutations in the corresponding gene (TARDBP) have also been identified. Although increased TDP-43 levels have been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid, plasma levels have not yet been assessed in patients with ALS. TDP-43 levels were quantified by sandwich ELISA in plasma of 219 patients and 100 controls. In addition, we sequenced exon 6 of TARDBP, and performed longitudinal TDP-43 plasma measurements in a subset of patients. Results showed that TDP-43 plasma levels were significantly increased in patients with ALS (p=0.023) and we found a positive correlation with age in patients and controls. Longitudinal measurements of TDP-43 plasma levels showed an increase in only one patient, with stable levels in five others. Three TARDBP variations were identified in the ALS group (1.7%), but the association with TDP-43 plasma levels was ambiguous. In conclusion, our data indicate that TDP-43 plasma levels may have potential as a marker for ALS. A genotype-phenotype relationship could not, however, be established in this cohort.

  6. Charting the course for nurses' achievement of higher education levels.

    PubMed

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol; Katigbak, Carina; Djukic, Maja; Fatehi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    To improve patient outcomes and meet the challenges of the U.S. health care system, the Institute of Medicine recommends higher educational attainment for the nursing workforce. Characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) who pursue additional education are poorly understood, and this information is critical to planning long-term strategies for U.S. nursing education. To identify factors predicting enrollment and completion of an additional degree among those with an associate or bachelor's as their pre-RN licensure degree, we performed logistic regression analysis on data from an ongoing nationally representative panel study following the career trajectories of newly licensed RNs. For associate degree RNs, predictors of obtaining a bachelor's degree are the following: being Black, living in a rural area, nonnursing work experience, higher positive affectivity, higher work motivation, working in the intensive care unit, and working the day shift. For bachelor's RNs, predictors of completing a master's degree are the following: being Black, nonnursing work experience, holding more than one job, working the day shift, working voluntary overtime, lower intent to stay at current employer, and higher work motivation. Mobilizing the nurse workforce toward higher education requires integrated efforts from policy makers, philanthropists, employers, and educators to mitigate the barriers to continuing education.

  7. Charting the course for nurses' achievement of higher education levels.

    PubMed

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol; Katigbak, Carina; Djukic, Maja; Fatehi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    To improve patient outcomes and meet the challenges of the U.S. health care system, the Institute of Medicine recommends higher educational attainment for the nursing workforce. Characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) who pursue additional education are poorly understood, and this information is critical to planning long-term strategies for U.S. nursing education. To identify factors predicting enrollment and completion of an additional degree among those with an associate or bachelor's as their pre-RN licensure degree, we performed logistic regression analysis on data from an ongoing nationally representative panel study following the career trajectories of newly licensed RNs. For associate degree RNs, predictors of obtaining a bachelor's degree are the following: being Black, living in a rural area, nonnursing work experience, higher positive affectivity, higher work motivation, working in the intensive care unit, and working the day shift. For bachelor's RNs, predictors of completing a master's degree are the following: being Black, nonnursing work experience, holding more than one job, working the day shift, working voluntary overtime, lower intent to stay at current employer, and higher work motivation. Mobilizing the nurse workforce toward higher education requires integrated efforts from policy makers, philanthropists, employers, and educators to mitigate the barriers to continuing education. PMID:23158196

  8. Quadrupole mass spectrometer driver with higher signal levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Driving a quadrapole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  9. Higher expression of somatic repair genes in long-lived ant queens than workers

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Eric R.; Privman, Eyal; Keller, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Understanding why organisms senesce is a fundamental question in biology. One common explanation is that senescence results from an increase in macromolecular damage with age. The tremendous variation in lifespan between genetically identical queen and worker ants, ranging over an order of magnitude, provides a unique system to study how investment into processes of somatic maintenance and macromolecular repair influence lifespan. Here we use RNAseq to compare patterns of expression of genes involved in DNA and protein repair of age-matched queens and workers. There was no difference between queens and workers in 1-day-old individuals, but the level of expression of these genes increased with age and this up-regulation was greater in queens than in workers, resulting in significantly queen-biased expression in 2-month-old individuals in both legs and brains. Overall, these differences are consistent with the hypothesis that higher longevity is associated with increased investment into somatic repair. PMID:27617474

  10. System-Level and Strategic Indicators for Monitoring Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century. Studies on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonezawa, Akiyoshi, Ed.; Kaiser, Frans, Ed.

    Papers in this collection result from the work carried out in the context of an Invitational Roundtable on System-Level Indicators for Higher/Tertiary Education organized by the European Centre for Higher Education (UNESCO-CEPES) and the Research Institute for Higher Education of Hiroshima University, Japan. Section 1, "The Roundtable--An…

  11. Higher Level Learning: Universities and Employers Working Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot-Major, Lee

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a timely reminder of the innovative ways in which universities are providing skilled graduates for all sections of the economy. Working with employers is key to this; as the higher education (HE) sector begins to operate in a competitive market, employer-led provision will enable delivery of the skills that the labour market…

  12. Assessing Higher Level Learning: Developing Rubrics for Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochford, Linda; Borchert, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Case study analyses allow students to demonstrate proficiency in executing authentic tasks in marketing and management, facilitating faculty evaluation of higher order learning outcomes. Effective and consistent assessment of case analyses depends in large part on the development of sound rubrics. The authors explored the process of rubric…

  13. Reaching Higher Ground: Parental Outreach Programs at the Postsecondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Celina; Marquez, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    In this follow-up study to "College Knowledge: What Latino Parents Need to Know and Why They Don't Know It," [see ED469295], the Tomas Rivera Policy Institute examines how postsecondary institutions are mobilizing to address the need for college information among Latino parents. The primary objective of "Reaching Higher Ground" is to profile in…

  14. 48 CFR 246.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Higher-level contract... Requirements 246.202-4 Higher-level contract quality requirements. (1) Higher-level contract quality requirements are used in addition to a standard inspection requirement. (2) Higher-level contract...

  15. Experiments of Two-level Training in Hungarian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korcsog, Andras; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An experiment designed to train engineering students to two levels of achievement in three-year and five-year programs within a single institution is reported. Organizational and curricular problems created by such integrated schemes are examined. (Author/LBH)

  16. Development of Visual Literacy Levels Scale in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Rumiye; Nalinci, Gülbin Zeren

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale determining the visual literacy levels of university students. After reviewing the relevant literature a 75 item draft scale was prepared. The scale was applied to 3rd and 4th year students of Education Faculty of Amasya University. Non-functional items have been excluded from the scale as a result of…

  17. Higher Level Thinking, Writing, and Democracy among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In my work on the college's Committee on Multiculturalism and Ethnic Studies, I found that much of the written work done in our community college was based on lower level cognition, requiring none of the assessment or exploration that is emblematic of critical thought in a democracy. Most of the assignments asked students simply to recite…

  18. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research. PMID:24670764

  19. A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Michael A.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Orrell, Thomas M.; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C.; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D.; Kirk, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a consensus classification of life to embrace the more than 1.6 million species already provided by more than 3,000 taxonomists’ expert opinions in a unified and coherent, hierarchically ranked system known as the Catalogue of Life (CoL). The intent of this collaborative effort is to provide a hierarchical classification serving not only the needs of the CoL’s database providers but also the diverse public-domain user community, most of whom are familiar with the Linnaean conceptual system of ordering taxon relationships. This classification is neither phylogenetic nor evolutionary but instead represents a consensus view that accommodates taxonomic choices and practical compromises among diverse expert opinions, public usages, and conflicting evidence about the boundaries between taxa and the ranks of major taxa, including kingdoms. Certain key issues, some not fully resolved, are addressed in particular. Beyond its immediate use as a management tool for the CoL and ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), it is immediately valuable as a reference for taxonomic and biodiversity research, as a tool for societal communication, and as a classificatory “backbone” for biodiversity databases, museum collections, libraries, and textbooks. Such a modern comprehensive hierarchy has not previously existed at this level of specificity. PMID:25923521

  20. Skyrmions and Single Spin-Flips in higher Landau levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melik-Alaverdian, V.; Bonesteel, N. E.; Ortiz, G.

    1998-03-01

    Skyrmions and single spin-flips in the integer and fractional quantum Hall states are studied numerically in the spherical geometry, including the effects of Landau Level Mixing (LLM) and Finite Thickness (FT). LLM is included by using a generalized Fixed-Phase Diffusion Monte Carlo (FPDMC) technique,(V. Melik-Alaverdian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79) xxx (1997). and FT is included by modifying the short range part of the Coulomb potential. For trial phases in the FPDMC simulation of skyrmions we use the phases of hard-core skyrmion wave functions.(A.H. MacDonald et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76) 2153 (1996). We find that both, LLM and FT favor quasiparticles with reduced spins. For the ν=1 state our results for the crossover fields between quasiparticles with different spin polarization are consistent with experiment.(A. Schmeller et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75) 4290 (1995). For the ν=1/3 state we predict the range of fields when the skyrmions and single spin-flips become stable. Supported by DOE grant DE-FG0297ER45639. NEB acknowledges the support of an A.P. Sloan Fellowship.

  1. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  2. Sex determines the expression level of one third of the actively expressed genes in bovine blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo-Alvarez, P.; Rizos, D.; Rath, D.; Lonergan, P.; Gutierrez-Adan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although genetically identical for autosomal Chrs (Chr), male and female preimplantation embryos could display sex-specific transcriptional regulation. To illustrate sex-specific differences at the mRNA level, we compared gene-expression patterns between male and female blastocysts by DNA microarray comparison of nine groups of 60 bovine in vitro-produced blastocysts of each sex. Almost one-third of the transcripts detected showed sexual dimorphism (2,921 transcripts; false-discovery rate, P < 0.05), suggesting that in the absence of hormonal influences, the sex Chrs impose an extensive transcriptional regulation upon autosomal genes. Six genes were analyzed by qPCR in in vivo-derived embryos, which displayed similar sexual dimorphism. Ontology analysis suggested a higher global transcriptional level in females and a more active protein metabolism in males. A gene homolog to an X-linked gene involved in network interactions during spliceosome assembly was found in the Y-Chr. Most of the X-linked-expressed transcripts (88.5%) were up-regulated in females, but most of them (70%) exhibited fold-changes lower than 1.6, suggesting that X-Chr inactivation is partially achieved at the blastocyst stage. Almost half of the transcripts up-regulated in female embryos exhibiting more than 1.6-fold change were present in the X-Chr and eight of them were selected to determine a putative paternal imprinting by gene expression comparison with parthenogenetic embryos. Five (BEX, CAPN6, BEX2, SRPX2, and UBE2A) exhibited a higher expression in females than in parthenotes, suggesting that they are predominantly expressed by the paternal inherited X-Chr and that imprinting may increase the transcriptional skew caused by double X-Chr dosage. PMID:20133684

  3. Higher thyroid hormone receptor expression correlates with short larval periods in spadefoot toads and increases metamorphic rate.

    PubMed

    Hollar, Amy R; Choi, Jinyoung; Grimm, Adam T; Buchholz, Daniel R

    2011-08-01

    Spadefoot toad species display extreme variation in larval period duration, due in part to evolution of thyroid hormone (TH) physiology. Specifically, desert species with short larval periods have higher tail tissue content of TH and exhibit increased responsiveness to TH. To address the molecular basis of larval period differences, we examined TH receptor (TR) expression across species. Based on the dual function model for the role of TR in development, we hypothesized that desert spadefoot species with short larval periods would have (1) late onset of TR expression prior to the production of endogenous TH and (2) higher TR levels when endogenous TH becomes available. To test these hypotheses, we cloned fragments of TRα and TRβ genes from the desert spadefoot toads Scaphiopus couchii and Spea multiplicata and their non-desert relative Pelobates cultripes and measured their mRNA levels in tails using quantitative PCR in the absence (premetamorphosis) or presence (natural metamorphosis) of TH. All species express TRα and TRβ from the earliest stages measured (from just after hatching), but S. couchii, which has the shortest larval period, had more TRα throughout development compared to P. cultripes, which has the longest larval period. TRβ mRNA levels were similar across species. Exogenous T3 treatment induced faster TH-response gene expression kinetics in S. couchii compared to the other species, consistent with its higher TRα mRNA expression and indicative of a functional consequence of more TRα activity at the molecular level. To directly test whether higher TRα expression may contribute to shorter larval periods, we overexpressed TRα via plasmid injection into tail muscle cells of the model frog Xenopus laevis and found an increased rate of muscle cell death in response to TH. These results suggest that increased TRα expression evolved in S. couchii and contribute to its higher metamorphic rates.

  4. Aerobic conditions increase isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway gene expression levels for carotenoid production in Enterococcus gilvus.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria that harbour carotenoid biosynthesis genes (crtNM) can produce carotenoids. Although aerobic conditions can increase carotenoid production and crtNM expression levels, their effects on the pathways that synthesize carotenoid precursors such as mevalonate and isoprene are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated whether aerobic conditions affected gene expression levels involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that includes the mevalonate and isoprene biosynthesis pathways in Enterococcus gilvus using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. NADH oxidase (nox) and superoxide dismutase (sod) gene expression levels were investigated as controls for aerobic conditions. The expression levels of nox and sod under aerobic conditions were 7.2- and 8.0-fold higher, respectively, than those under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic conditions concomitantly increased the expression levels of crtNM carotenoid biosynthesis genes. HMG-CoA synthase gene expression levels in the mevalonate pathway were only slightly increased under aerobic conditions, whereas the expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase and five other genes in the isoprene biosynthesis pathways were 1.2-2.3-fold higher than those under anaerobic conditions. These results demonstrated that aerobic conditions could increase the expression levels of genes involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway via mevalonate in E. gilvus.

  5. Lower- and higher-level models of right hemisphere language. A selective survey

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Summary The models advanced to explain right hemisphere (RH) language function can be divided into two main types. According to the older (lower-level) models, RH language reflects the ontogenesis of conceptual and semantic-lexical development; the more recent models, on the other hand, suggest that the RH plays an important role in the use of higher-level language functions, such as metaphors, to convey complex, abstract concepts. The hypothesis that the RH may be preferentially involved in processing the semantic-lexical components of language was advanced by Zaidel in split-brain patients and his model was confirmed by neuropsychological investigations, proving that right brain-damaged patients show selective semantic-lexical disorders. The possible links between lower and higher levels of RH language are discussed, as is the hypothesis that the RH may have privileged access to the figurative aspects of novel metaphorical expressions, whereas conventionalization of metaphorical meaning could be a bilaterally-mediated process involving abstract semantic-lexical codes. PMID:27358218

  6. The Two-Level System of Higher Education: Western Traditions and Russian Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druzhilov, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The law on the two-level system of higher education has now gone into effect in Russia: the bachelor's degree will correspond to the first level of higher education, while the master's degree will correspond to the second level. These levels entail separate state educational standards and separate final certification. In the process of adopting…

  7. GEMS: Gifted Education Module System. Higher Level Thinking in the Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hilarie; And Others

    The curriculum, designed for use with gifted students at the junior high level, presents units of instruction which emphasize the higher level thinking skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. An introductory section explains each of the three higher level skills and presents tasks illustrating each one. Four units are presented, complete…

  8. The Level of Expressed Emotion Scale: A Useful Measure of Expressed Emotion in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelis, Sharon M.; Rae, Gordon; Liddell, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that self-report measures of expressed emotion (EE) may be employed as a proxy measure of environmental stress in the home. The appropriateness of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale as a measure of perceived expressed emotion was examined in a sample of adolescents. Participants were 239 male and 422 female adolescents…

  9. Higher expression and activity of metalloproteinases in human cervical carcinoma cell lines is associated with HPV presence.

    PubMed

    da Silva Cardeal, Laura Beatriz; Brohem, Carla Abdo; Corrêa, Tatiana Caroline Silveira; Winnischofer, Sheila Maria Brochado; Nakano, Fabio; Boccardo, Enrique; Villa, Luisa Lina; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi

    2006-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP are required for basement membrane degradation in cervical carcinoma. We evaluated the expression and activity of MMPs and their inhibitors RECK and TIMP-2 in 3 human invasive cervical carcinoma cell lines. Two HPV16-positive cell lines (SiHa and CaSki) and an HPV-negative cell line (C33A) were cultured either onto a type-I collagen gel, Matrigel, or plastic, to recreate their three-dimensional growth environment and evaluate the expression of these genes using quantitative real-time PCR. We also analyzed the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by zymography. We found that HPV (human papillomavirus)-positive cell lines express higher levels of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and TIMP-2 than the HPV negative cell line. In addition, MMP-9 was expressed at very low levels in both HPV-negative and HPV-positive cell lines. We also observed that the expression of the RECK gene is higher in CaSki cells, being associated with higher pro-MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, Matrigel substrate influences MMP-2 expression in both SiHa and CaSki cells. On the other hand, we found that type-I collagen gel, but not Matrigel, can enhance pro-MMP-2 activity in all cell lines. Our results suggest that the presence of HPV is related to increased expression of MMP-2, MT1-MMP, and TIMP-2, and that pro-MMP-2 activity is higher in HPV-positive than in HPV-negative cells.

  10. Sequence determinants of prokaryotic gene expression level under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Heng; Yang, Yi; Hu, Xiao-Pan; He, Yi-Ming; Ma, Bin-Guang

    2014-11-01

    Prokaryotic gene expression is environment-dependent and temperature plays an important role in shaping the gene expression profile. Revealing the regulation mechanisms of gene expression pertaining to temperature has attracted tremendous efforts in recent years particularly owning to the yielding of transcriptome and proteome data by high-throughput techniques. However, most of the previous works concentrated on the characterization of the gene expression profile of individual organism and little effort has been made to disclose the commonality among organisms, especially for the gene sequence features. In this report, we collected the transcriptome and proteome data measured under heat stress condition from recently published literature and studied the sequence determinants for the expression level of heat-responsive genes on multiple layers. Our results showed that there indeed exist commonness and consistent patterns of the sequence features among organisms for the differentially expressed genes under heat stress condition. Some features are attributed to the requirement of thermostability while some are dominated by gene function. The revealed sequence determinants of bacterial gene expression level under heat stress complement the knowledge about the regulation factors of prokaryotic gene expression responding to the change of environmental conditions. Furthermore, comparisons to thermophilic adaption have been performed to reveal the similarity and dissimilarity of the sequence determinants for the response to heat stress and for the adaption to high habitat temperature, which elucidates the complex landscape of gene expression related to the same physical factor of temperature.

  11. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2 (N = 285), we collected measures of fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations from older adults of mixed gender, using a measure of attachment style different from Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 108), we examined the link between trait-like attachment avoidance, manipulation of an asocial state, and consumption of sugar-rich food. In Study 4 (N = 115), we examined whether manipulating the social network will moderate the effect of attachment avoidance on consumption of sugar-rich food. Results: In Study 1, fasting blood glucose levels corresponded with higher attachment avoidance scores after statistically adjusting for time of assessment and interpersonal anxiety. For Study 2, fasting blood glucose continued to correspond with higher adult attachment avoidance even after statistically adjusting for interpersonal anxiety, stress indices, age, gender, social support and body mass. In Study 3, people high in attachment avoidance consume more sugar-rich food, especially when reminded of asocial tendencies. Study 4 indicated that after facing a stressful task in the presence of others, avoidant people gather more sugar-rich food than more socially oriented people. Conclusion: Results are consistent with the suggestion that socially avoidant individuals upwardly adjust their basal glucose levels and consume more glucose-rich food with the expectation of increased personal effort because of limited access to social resources. Further investigation of this link is warranted

  12. 48 CFR 46.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Higher-level contract quality requirements. 46.202-4 Section 46.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 46.202-4 Higher-level...

  13. 48 CFR 46.311 - Higher-level contract quality requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Higher-level contract quality requirement. 46.311 Section 46.311 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.311 Higher-level contract quality requirement. The contracting officer shall...

  14. 48 CFR 46.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Higher-level contract quality requirements. 46.202-4 Section 46.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 46.202-4 Higher-level contract quality requirements. (a)...

  15. 48 CFR 46.311 - Higher-level contract quality requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quality requirement. 46.311 Section 46.311 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.311 Higher-level contract quality requirement. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-11, Higher-Level Contract...

  16. New Opportunities for Encouraging Higher Level Mathematical Learning by Creative Use of Emerging Computer Aided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, C. J.

    2003-01-01

    This article defines "higher level mathematical skills" and details an important class: that of "constructing instances" of mathematical objects satisfying certain properties. Comment is made on the frequency of higher level tasks in undergraduate work. We explain how such questions may be assessed "in practice" without the imposition on staff of…

  17. Osmotin-expressing transgenic tea plants have improved stress tolerance and are of higher quality.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Amita; Saini, Uksha; Joshi, Robin; Kaur, Devinder; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Kumar, Nitish; Gulati, Ashu; Mohanpuria, Prashant; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2014-04-01

    Drought is a major stress that affects the yield and quality of tea, a widely consumed beverage crop grown in more than 20 countries of the world. Therefore, osmotin gene-expressing transgenic tea plants produced using earlier optimized conditions were evaluated for their tolerance of drought stress and their quality. Improved tolerance of polyethylene glycol-induced water stress and faster recovery from stress were evident in transgenic lines compared with the normal phenotype. Significant improvements in growth under in-vitro conditions were also observed. Besides enhanced reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activity, the transgenic lines contained significantly higher levels of flavan-3-ols and caffeine, key compounds that govern quality and commercial yield of the beverage. The selected transgenic lines have the potential to meet the demands of the tea industry for stress-tolerant plants with higher yield and quality. These traits of the transgenic lines can be effectively maintained for generations because tea is commercially cultivated through vegetative propagation only.

  18. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  19. Gene expression analyses in maize inbreds and hybrids with varying levels of heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Stupar, Robert M; Gardiner, Jack M; Oldre, Aaron G; Haun, William J; Chandler, Vicki L; Springer, Nathan M

    2008-01-01

    Background Heterosis is the superior performance of F1 hybrid progeny relative to the parental phenotypes. Maize exhibits heterosis for a wide range of traits, however the magnitude of heterosis is highly variable depending on the choice of parents and the trait(s) measured. We have used expression profiling to determine whether the level, or types, of non-additive gene expression vary in maize hybrids with different levels of genetic diversity or heterosis. Results We observed that the distributions of better parent heterosis among a series of 25 maize hybrids generally do not exhibit significant correlations between different traits. Expression profiling analyses for six of these hybrids, chosen to represent diversity in genotypes and heterosis responses, revealed a correlation between genetic diversity and transcriptional variation. The majority of differentially expressed genes in each of the six different hybrids exhibited additive expression patterns, and ~25% exhibited statistically significant non-additive expression profiles. Among the non-additive profiles, ~80% exhibited hybrid expression levels between the parental levels, ~20% exhibited hybrid expression levels at the parental levels and ~1% exhibited hybrid levels outside the parental range. Conclusion We have found that maize inbred genetic diversity is correlated with transcriptional variation. However, sampling of seedling tissues indicated that the frequencies of additive and non-additive expression patterns are very similar across a range of hybrid lines. These findings suggest that heterosis is probably not a consequence of higher levels of additive or non-additive expression, but may be related to transcriptional variation between parents. The lack of correlation between better parent heterosis levels for different traits suggests that transcriptional diversity at specific sets of genes may influence heterosis for different traits. PMID:18402703

  20. The transgenic cloned pig population with integrated and controllable GH expression that has higher feed efficiency and meat production.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Jiaqing; Bai, Lijing; Mu, Yulian; Du, Yutao; Yang, Wenxian; Li, Yong; Sheng, Anzhi; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained expression of the GH gene has been shown to have detrimental effects on the health of animals. In the current study, transgenic founder pigs, with controllable pig growth hormone (pGH) expression, were cloned via the handmade cloning method (HMC), and pGH expression levels were examined at the cellular and organismal levels. The serum pGH levels in 3 founder male pigs were found to be significantly higher after induction with intramuscular injection of doxycycline (DOX) compared to baseline. A daily dose of DOX was administered via feed to these animals for a period of 65 to 155 days. The growth rate, feed efficiency and pGH serum concentration increased in the DOX-induced transgenic group compared with the other groups. 8 numbers of animals were euthanized and the dressing percentage, loin muscle and lean meat percentage were significantly higher in the DOX-induced F1 transgenic group compared with the other groups. In this study a large population of transgenic pigs, with integrated controllable expression of a transgene, was obtained. The transgenic pigs were healthy and normal in terms of reproductive capability. At the same time, feed efficiency was improved, production processes were accelerated and meat yield was increased.

  1. Gene expression levels in normal human lymphoblasts with variable sensitivities to arsenite: Identification of GGT1 and NFKBIE expression levels as possible biomarkers of susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Komissarova, Elena V.; Li Ping; Uddin, Ahmed N.; Chen, Xuyan; Nadas, Arthur; Rossman, Toby G.

    2008-01-15

    Drinking arsenic-contaminated water is associated with increased risk of neoplasias of the skin, lung, bladder and possibly other sites, as well as other diseases. Earlier, we showed that human lymphoblast lines from different normal unexposed donors showed variable sensitivities to the toxic effects of arsenite. In the present study, we used microarray analysis to compare the basal gene expression profiles between two arsenite-resistant (GM02707, GM00893) and two arsenite-sensitive lymphoblast lines (GM00546, GM00607). A number of genes were differentially expressed in arsenite-sensitive and arsenite-resistant cells. Among these, {gamma}-glutamyltranspeptidase 1 (GGT1) and NF{kappa}B inhibitor-epsilon (NFKBIE) showed higher expression levels in arsenite-resistant cells. RT-PCR analysis with gene-specific primers confirmed these results. Reduction of GGT1 expression level in arsenite-resistant lymphoblasts with GGT1-specific siRNA resulted in increased cell sensitivity to arsenite. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that expression levels of GGT1 and possibly NFKBIE might be useful as biomarkers of genetic susceptibility to arsenite. Expression microarrays can thus be exploited for identifying additional biomarkers of susceptibility to arsenite and to other toxicants.

  2. Stable pediatric kidney transplant recipients run higher urine indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) levels than healthy children.

    PubMed

    Al Khasawneh, Eihab; Gupta, Sushil; Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Shahlaee, Amir H; Garrett, Timothy J; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2014-05-01

    Immune cells utilize the IDO enzymatic conversion of trp to kyn to determine T-cell activation vs. anergy/apoptosis. In prior studies, urine IDO levels were higher in rejecting renal allografts than in stable state. However, urine IDO levels in healthy subjects or children are unknown. As a corollary to a larger longitudinal and prospective study of serum and urine IDO levels for transplant immune monitoring, here, we analyzed the difference between urine IDO levels in stable post-transplant vs. healthy children. IDO levels were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and expressed as kyn/trp ratios. We compared one-time urine samples, from 34 well children at general pediatric clinics, to the first-month post-transplant urine samples from 18 children, while in stable state (no acute rejection or major infection event in next 30 days). Urine kyn/trp ratios were significantly higher in stable children in first-month post-kidney transplant (median 16.6, range 3.9-44.0) vs. healthy children (median 9.2, range 3.51-17.0; p = 0.0057 by nonparametric Mann-Whitney test). Higher urine IDO levels even with stable transplant suggest a continuous ongoing low-grade allorecognition/inflammatory process. Our data also provide baseline urine IDO levels in healthy subjects for use in future studies.

  3. Evolving entities: towards a unified framework for understanding diversity at the species and higher levels

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, Timothy G.

    2010-01-01

    Current approaches to studying the evolution of biodiversity differ in their treatment of species and higher level diversity patterns. Species are regarded as the fundamental evolutionarily significant units of biodiversity, both in theory and in practice, and extensive theory explains how they originate and evolve. However, most species are still delimited using qualitative methods that only relate indirectly to the underlying theory. In contrast, higher level patterns of diversity have been subjected to rigorous quantitative study (using phylogenetics), but theory that adequately explains the observed patterns has been lacking. Most evolutionary analyses of higher level diversity patterns have considered non-equilibrium explanations based on rates of diversification (i.e. exponentially growing clades), rather than equilibrium explanations normally used at the species level and below (i.e. constant population sizes). This paper argues that species level and higher level patterns of diversity can be considered within a common framework, based on equilibrium explanations. It shows how forces normally considered in the context of speciation, namely divergent selection and geographical isolation, can generate evolutionarily significant units of diversity above the level of reproductively isolated species. Prospects for the framework to answer some unresolved questions about higher level diversity patterns are discussed. PMID:20439282

  4. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology.

    The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  5. Map of the Field--Higher Education Research at the State Level. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Patricia H.; Adams, Charles S.

    A map of the field of higher education at the state level is presented that defines theoretical and conceptual frameworks, approaches to analysis, research designs, and methodologies that have been used in the study of the relationships between state governments and institutions of higher education or of state policy structures and processes.…

  6. An Analysis of the Knowledge Levels of Media Directors Concerning Relevant Copyright Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Mark E.

    This study analyzes the copyright knowledge levels of media directors of selected higher education institutions. A questionnaire was mailed to 466 media professionals at higher educational institutions who were members of the Division of Educational Media Management in the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). The…

  7. Gene expression in the Andes; relevance to neurology at sea level.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Otto; Minko, Tamara; Pozharov, Vitaly; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Malcovati, Luca; Gamboa, Jorge; Bernardi, Luciano

    2003-03-15

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a maladaptation syndrome to chronic hypoxia, occurs in the Andes. Gene expression differences in Andeans could explain adaptation and maladaptation to hypoxia, both of which are relevant to neurology at sea level. Expression of genes responsive to cellular oxygen concentration, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), three splicing variants of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 12 Cerro de Pasco (CP) (altitude 4338 m) natives and 15 CMS patients in CP. Thirteen high altitude natives living in Lima and five Lima natives were sea level controls. A CMS score (CMS-sc) was assigned clinically. Expression was related to the clinical assessment. High expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF-121 was found in CMS (P<0.001). Samples from CP had higher expression than those from Lima (P<0.001). Expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF-121 was related to age (P<0.001); adjusting for age did not abolish the group effect. Higher CMS-sc was related to expression independent of age (P<0.001). VEGF-165 and -189 were expressed only in CMS. Birth altitude had no effect on gene expression. pVHL was not quantifiable.HIF-1alpha and VEGF-121 participate in adaptation to hypoxia. The high levels may explain blood vessel proliferation in Andeans and hold lessons for patients at sea level. VEGF-165 expression suggests that it contributes to preservation of neuronal function in human chronic hypoxia. VHL mutations may mark those destined to develop neural crest tumors which are common in the Andes.

  8. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems.

  9. High-level expression of Proteinase K from Tritirachium album Limber in Pichia pastoris using multi-copy expression strains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Zhai, Chao; Yu, Xianhong; Li, Zhezhe; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yunyun; Ma, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xing; Li, Guolong; Wu, Di; Ma, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Proteinase K is widely used in scientific research and industries. This report was aimed to achieve high-level expression of proteinase K using Pichia pastoris GS115 as the host strain. The coding sequence of a variant of proteinase K that has higher activity than the wild type protein was chosen and optimized based on the codon usage preference of P. pastoris. The novel open reading frame was synthesized and a series of multi-copy expression vectors were constructed based on the pHBM905BDM plasmid, allowing for the tandem integration of multiple copies of the target gene into the genome of P. pastoris with a single recombination. These strains were used to study the correlation between the gene copy number and the expression level of proteinase K. The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the tandem expression cassettes were integrated into the host genome stably. Meanwhile, the results of qPCR and enzyme activity assays indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the target gene increased as the gene copy number increased. Moreover, the effect of gene dosage on the expression level of the recombinant protein was more obvious using high-density fermentation. The maximum expression level and enzyme activity of proteinase K, which were obtained from the recombinant yeast strain bearing 5 copies of the target gene after an 84-h induction, were approximately 8.069 mg/mL and 108,295 U/mL, respectively. The recombinant proteinase was purified and characterized. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of this protease were approximately pH 11 and 55 °C, respectively. PMID:26892536

  10. High-level expression of Proteinase K from Tritirachium album Limber in Pichia pastoris using multi-copy expression strains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hu; Zhai, Chao; Yu, Xianhong; Li, Zhezhe; Tang, Wei; Liu, Yunyun; Ma, Xiaojian; Zhong, Xing; Li, Guolong; Wu, Di; Ma, Lixin

    2016-06-01

    Proteinase K is widely used in scientific research and industries. This report was aimed to achieve high-level expression of proteinase K using Pichia pastoris GS115 as the host strain. The coding sequence of a variant of proteinase K that has higher activity than the wild type protein was chosen and optimized based on the codon usage preference of P. pastoris. The novel open reading frame was synthesized and a series of multi-copy expression vectors were constructed based on the pHBM905BDM plasmid, allowing for the tandem integration of multiple copies of the target gene into the genome of P. pastoris with a single recombination. These strains were used to study the correlation between the gene copy number and the expression level of proteinase K. The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) indicated that the tandem expression cassettes were integrated into the host genome stably. Meanwhile, the results of qPCR and enzyme activity assays indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of the target gene increased as the gene copy number increased. Moreover, the effect of gene dosage on the expression level of the recombinant protein was more obvious using high-density fermentation. The maximum expression level and enzyme activity of proteinase K, which were obtained from the recombinant yeast strain bearing 5 copies of the target gene after an 84-h induction, were approximately 8.069 mg/mL and 108,295 U/mL, respectively. The recombinant proteinase was purified and characterized. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of this protease were approximately pH 11 and 55 °C, respectively.

  11. Higher levels of circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are correlated with viremia and increased sCD163 levels in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hua; Duan, Zhaojun; Li, Dan; Li, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Li; Shen, Tao; Shao, Yiming

    2015-07-01

    Increased levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) are reported to be highly correlated with cardiovascular events. In this study, the MPA levels in different monocyte subsets and the associations between MPA levels, HIV-1 viremia and monocyte activation were evaluated during HIV-1 infection. The results showed that the percentages of MPAs in all three monocyte subsets were higher in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy controls, and were associated with the plasma viral load in the non-classical and intermediate monocyte subsets. The plasma levels of sCD14 and sCD163 were upregulated in HIV-1 infection and were positively associated with viral loads and negatively associated with CD4 counts. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) was shown to be expressed at significantly lower levels on all three monocyte subsets and was negatively correlated with the sCD163 level. The MPA level was correlated with the levels of plasma sCD163 but negatively correlated with CD163 and PSGL-1 on all three monocyte subsets. An elevated immune activation status was correlated with increased MPA formation, underlying the potential interaction between monocyte activation and MPA formation. This interaction may be related to a higher thromboembolic risk in patients infected with HIV-1.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.66.

  12. Comparative analysis of Phytophthora infestans induced gene expression in potato cultivars with different levels of resistance.

    PubMed

    Ros, B; Thümmler, F; Wenzel, G

    2005-11-01

    Differential gene expression was analyzed after infection with Phytophthora infestans in six potato cultivars with different levels of resistance to late blight. To verify the infection of the potato leaflets, the amount of phytopathogen mRNA within the plant material was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. The expression of 182 genes selected from two subtracted cDNA libraries was studied with cDNA array hybridization using RNA from non-infected and infected potato leaflets. Gene up- and down-regulation were clearly detectable in all cultivars 72 h post inoculation. Gene expression patterns in susceptible cultivars differed from those in potato varieties with a higher level of resistance. In general, a stronger gene induction was observed in the susceptible cultivars compared to the moderately to highly resistant potato varieties. Five genes with the highest homology to stress and/or defence-related genes were induced specifically in the susceptible cultivars. Four genes responded to pathogen attack independently of the level of resistance of the cultivar used, and three genes were repressed in infected tissue of most cultivars. Even in the absence of P. infestans infection, six genes showed higher expression levels in the somewhat resistant cultivars Bettina and Matilda. Possible reasons for the different levels of gene expression are discussed.

  13. pUNISHER: a high-level expression cassette for use with recombinant viral vectors for rapid and long term in vivo neuronal expression in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Monica S; Chen, Zuxin; Young, Samuel M

    2011-12-01

    Fast onset and high-level neurospecific transgene expression in vivo is of importance for many areas in neuroscience, from basic to translational, and can significantly reduce the amount of vector load required to maintain transgene expression in vivo. In this study, we tested various cis elements to optimize transgene expression at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels and combined them together to create the high-level neuronal transgene expression cassette pUNISHER. Using a second-generation adenoviral vector system in combination with the pUNISHER cassette, we characterized its rate of onset of detectable expression and levels of expression compared with a neurospecific expression cassette driven by the 470-bp human synapsin promoter in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate in primary neurons that the pUNISHER cassette, in a recombinant adenovirus type 5 background, led to a faster rate of onset of detectable transgene expression and higher level of transgene expression. More importantly, this cassette led to highly correlated neuronal expression in vivo and to stable transgene expression up to 30 days in the auditory brain stem with no toxicity on the characteristics of synaptic transmission and plasticity at the calyx of Held synapse. Thus the pUNISHER cassette is an ideal high-level neuronal expression cassette for use in vivo for neuroscience applications. PMID:21957229

  14. Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: The Role of Lower and Higher Level Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Beltrame, Rossella

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of lower level linguistic abilities (study 1) and a higher level capacity, namely the use of context, (study 2), on text comprehension was studied. Participants were 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged between aged between 8 years 11 months and 16 years 10 months, and 16 children with typical development, aged between 5 years…

  15. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  16. Changes in polyphenols and expression levels of related genes in 'Duke' blueberries stored under high CO2 levels.

    PubMed

    Harb, Jamil; Saleh, Omar; Kittemann, Dominikus; Neuwald, Daniel Alexandre; Hoffmann, Thomas; Reski, Ralf; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-07-30

    Blueberries are highly perishable fruits, and consequently, storage under high CO2 and low O2 levels is recommended to preserve the highly appreciated polyphenols. However, high CO2 levels might be detrimental for certain cultivars. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of storage conditions on various quality parameters, including polyphenol composition in 'Duke' berries. Results show that storage under 18 kPa CO2, coupled with 3 kPa O2, resulted in accelerated softening of berries, which was accompanied by lower levels compared to other conditions of hexosides and arabinosides of malvidin, petunidin, cyanidine, and delphinidin. However, this storage condition had no negative impact on chlorogenic acid levels. Expression data of key polyphenol-biosynthesis genes showed higher expression levels of all investigated genes at harvest time compared to all storage conditions. Of particular importance is the expression level of chalcone synthase (VcCHS), which is severely affected by storage at 18 kPa CO2.

  17. Androgen receptors in a cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni: structure, localization, and expression levels.

    PubMed

    Harbott, Lene K; Burmeister, Sabrina S; White, Richard B; Vagell, Mike; Fernald, Russell D

    2007-09-01

    Androgens are an important output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that controls reproduction in all vertebrates. In male teleosts two androgens, testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone, control sexual differentiation and development in juveniles and reproductive behavior in adults. Androgenic signals provide feedback at many levels of the HPG axis, including the hypothalamic neurons that synthesize and release gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), but the precise cellular site of androgen action in the brain is not known. Here we describe two androgen receptor subtypes, ARalpha and ARbeta, in the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni and show that these subtypes are differentially located throughout the adult brain in nuclei known to function in the control of reproduction. ARalpha was expressed in the ventral part of the ventral telencephalon, the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus and the ventral hypothalamus, whereas ARbeta was more widely expressed in the dorsal and ventral telencephalon, the POA, and the ventral and dorsal hypothalamus. We provide the first evidence in any vertebrate that the GnRH1-releasing neurons, which serve as the central control point of the HPG axis, express both subtypes of AR. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that A. burtoni AR subtypes have different expression levels in adult tissue, with ARalpha showing significantly higher expression than ARbeta in the pituitary, and ARbeta expressed at a higher level than ARalpha in the anterior and middle brain. These data provide important insight into the role of androgens in regulating the vertebrate reproductive axis.

  18. Protein pheromone expression levels predict and respond to the formation of social dominance networks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A C; Cunningham, C B; Ruff, J S; Potts, W K

    2015-06-01

    Communication signals are key regulators of social networks and are thought to be under selective pressure to honestly reflect social status, including dominance status. The odours of dominants and nondominants differentially influence behaviour, and identification of the specific pheromones associated with, and predictive of, dominance status is essential for understanding the mechanisms of network formation and maintenance. In mice, major urinary proteins (MUPs) are excreted in extraordinary large quantities and expression level has been hypothesized to provide an honest signal of dominance status. Here, we evaluate whether MUPs are associated with dominance in wild-derived mice by analysing expression levels before, during and after competition for reproductive resources over 3 days. During competition, dominant males have 24% greater urinary MUP expression than nondominants. The MUP darcin, a pheromone that stimulates female attraction, is predictive of dominance status: dominant males have higher darcin expression before competition. Dominants also have a higher ratio of darcin to other MUPs before and during competition. These differences appear transient, because there are no differences in MUPs or darcin after competition. We also find MUP expression is affected by sire dominance status: socially naive sons of dominant males have lower MUP expression, but this apparent repression is released during competition. A requisite condition for the evolution of communication signals is honesty, and we provide novel insight into pheromones and social networks by showing that MUP and darcin expression is a reliable signal of dominance status, a primary determinant of male fitness in many species.

  19. Sex Differences in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Levels of IRF5 Drive Higher IFN-α Production in Women

    PubMed Central

    Griesbeck, Morgane; Ziegler, Susanne; Laffont, Sophie; Smith, Nikaïa; Chauveau, Lise; Tomezsko, Phillip; Sharei, Armon; Kourjian, Georgio; Porichis, Filippos; Hart, Meghan; Palmer, Christine D.; Sirignano, Michael; Beisel, Claudia; Hildebrandt, Heike; Cénac, Claire; Villani, Alexandra-Chloé; Diefenbach, Thomas J.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Schwartz, Olivier; Herbeuval, Jean-Philippe; Autran, Brigitte; Guéry, Jean-Charles; Chang, J. Judy

    2015-01-01

    Increased IFN-α production contributes to the pathogenesis of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from females produce more IFN-α upon TLR7 stimulation than pDCs from males, yet the mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. In this article, we show that basal levels of IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 5 in pDCs were significantly higher in females compared with males and positively correlated with the percentage of IFN-α–secreting pDCs. Delivery of recombinant IRF5 protein into human primary pDCs increased TLR7-mediated IFN-α secretion. In mice, genetic ablation of the estrogen receptor 1 (Esr1) gene in the hematopoietic compartment or DC lineage reduced Irf5 mRNA expression in pDCs and IFN-α production. IRF5 mRNA levels furthermore correlated with ESR1 mRNA levels in human pDCs, consistent with IRF5 regulation at the transcriptional level by ESR1. Taken together, these data demonstrate a critical mechanism by which sex differences in basal pDC IRF5 expression lead to higher IFN-α production upon TLR7 stimulation in females and provide novel targets for the modulation of immune responses and inflammation. PMID:26519527

  20. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  1. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala’a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials. PMID:26393650

  2. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  3. Mapping organism expression levels at cellular resolution in developing Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, David W.; Keranen, Soile; Biggin, Mark D.; Sudar, Damir

    2002-05-01

    The development of an animal embryo is orchestrated by a network of genetically determined, temporal and spatial gene expression patterns that determine the animals final form. To understand such networks, we are developing novel quantitative optical imaging techniques to map gene expression levels at cellular and sub-cellular resolution within pregastrula Drosophila. Embryos at different stages of development are labeled for total DNA and specific gene products using different fluorophors and imaged in 3D with confocal microscopy. Innovative steps have been made which allow the DNA-image to be automatically segmented to produce a morphological mask of the individual nuclear boundaries. For each stage of development an average morphology is chosen to which images from different embryo are compared. The morphological mask is then used to quantify gene-product on a per nuclei basis. What results is an atlas of the relative amount of the specific gene product expressed within the nucleus of every cell in the embryo at the various stages of development. We are creating a quantitative database of transcription factor and target gene expression patterns in wild-type and factor mutant embryos with single cell resolution. Our goal is to uncover the rules determining how patterns of gene expression are generated.

  4. Higher levels of collagen and facilitated healing protect against ventricular rupture following myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lu; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Samuel, Chrishan S; Su, Yidan; Lim, Yean Leng; Dart, Anthony M; Du, Xiao-Jun

    2008-08-01

    The mechanism of cardiac rupture after MI (myocardial infarction) is not fully understood. Rupture has not been reported in most laboratory species, including the rat, but does occur in mice. We have reported previously that beta2-TG mice (transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of beta2-adrenergic receptors) had a lower incidence of rupture compared with NTG (non-transgenic) littermates. We hypothesized that the difference in the incidence of rupture between rodents and specific mouse strains is due to the difference in collagen content following MI. In the present study, we compared the difference in matrix remodelling post-MI between beta2-TG and NTG mice and between mice and rats. MI was induced by ligation of the left main coronary artery. Following MI, tensile strength, insoluble and soluble collagen content and gelatinase expression were determined in the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium. Better preserved tensile strength measured as TTR [tension-to-rupture; 88+/-14 and 58+/-3% of the respective sham group values for beta2-TG compared with NTG mice (P<0.05); 108+/-7 and 32+/-4% of the respective sham group values for rats compared with 129sv mice (P<0.01)] and less severe acute infarct expansion after MI were found in rats compared with mice or in beta2-TG compared with NTG mice. These differences were associated with a higher content of pre-existing fibril collagen in the normal myocardium of beta2-TG compared with NTG mice (1.6-fold) or rats compared with 129sv mice (2-fold) and an accelerated fibrotic healing in the infarcted myocardium. Additionally, a less pronounced increase in MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activity was observed in the infarcted myocardium of rats compared with 129sv mice. We conclude that a higher collagen level is associated with facilitated fibrotic healing of an infarct and preserves the tensile strength of infarcted myocardium, thereby preventing cardiac rupture and acute ventricular remodelling.

  5. Using higher-level inquiry to improve spatial ability in an introductory geology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lacey A.

    Visuo-spatial skills, the ability to visually take in information and create a mental image are crucial for success in fields involving science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as well as fine arts. Unfortunately, due to a lack of curriculum focused on developing spatial skills, students enrolled in introductory college-level science courses tend to have difficulty with spatially-related activities. One of the best ways to engage students in science activities is through a learning and teaching strategy called inquiry. There are lower levels of inquiry wherein learning and problem-solving are guided by instructions and higher levels of inquiry wherein students have a greater degree of autonomy in learning and creating their own problem-solving strategy. A study involving 112 participants was conducted during the fall semester in 2014 at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in an 1040 Introductory Geology Lab to determine if a new, high-level, inquiry-based lab would increase participants' spatial skills more than the traditional, low-level inquiry lab. The study also evaluated whether a higher level of inquiry differentially affected low versus high spatial ability participants. Participants were evaluated using a spatial ability assessment, and pre- and post-tests. The results of this study show that for 3-D to 2-D visualization, the higher-level inquiry lab increased participants' spatial ability more than the lower-level inquiry lab. For spatial rotational skills, all participants' spatial ability scores improved, regardless of the level of inquiry to which they were exposed. Low and high spatial ability participants were not differentially affected. This study demonstrates that a lab designed with a higher level of inquiry can increase students' spatial ability more than a lab with a low level of inquiry. A lab with a higher level of inquiry helped all participants, regardless of their initial spatial ability level. These findings show that curriculum

  6. Doublecortin expression levels in adult brain reflect neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Winner, Beate; Schaubeck, Susanne; Aigner, Robert; Vroemen, Maurice; Weidner, Norbert; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Winkler, Jürgen; Kuhn, Hans-Georg; Aigner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Progress in the field of neurogenesis is currently limited by the lack of tools enabling fast and quantitative analysis of neurogenesis in the adult brain. Doublecortin (DCX) has recently been used as a marker for neurogenesis. However, it was not clear whether DCX could be used to assess modulations occurring in the rate of neurogenesis in the adult mammalian central nervous system following lesioning or stimulatory factors. Using two paradigms increasing neurogenesis levels (physical activity and epileptic seizures), we demonstrate that quantification of DCX-expressing cells allows for an accurate measurement of modulations in the rate of adult neurogenesis. Importantly, we excluded induction of DCX expression during physiological or reactive gliogenesis and excluded also DCX re-expression during regenerative axonal growth. Our data validate DCX as a reliable and specific marker that reflects levels of adult neurogenesis and its modulation. We demonstrate that DCX is a valuable alternative to techniques currently used to measure the levels of neurogenesis. Importantly, in contrast to conventional techniques, analysis of neurogenesis through the detection of DCX does not require in vivo labelling of proliferating cells, thereby opening new avenues for the study of human neurogenesis under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:15654838

  7. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:24450248

  8. Phylogenetic analyses and expression studies reveal two distinct groups of calreticulin isoforms in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Persson, Staffan; Rosenquist, Magnus; Svensson, Karin; Galvão, Rafaelo; Boss, Wendy F; Sommarin, Marianne

    2003-11-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a multifunctional protein mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells. Here, we present the first analysis, to our knowledge, of evolutionary diversity and expression profiling among different plant CRT isoforms. Phylogenetic studies and expression analysis show that higher plants contain two distinct groups of CRTs: a CRT1/CRT2 group and a CRT3 group. To corroborate the existence of these isoform groups, we cloned a putative CRT3 ortholog from Brassica rapa. The CRT3 gene appears to be most closely related to the ancestral CRT gene in higher plants. Distinct tissue-dependent expression patterns and stress-related regulation were observed for the isoform groups. Furthermore, analysis of posttranslational modifications revealed differences in the glycosylation status among members within the CRT1/CRT2 isoform group. Based on evolutionary relationship, a new nomenclature for plant CRTs is suggested. The presence of two distinct CRT isoform groups, with distinct expression patterns and posttranslational modifications, supports functional specificity among plant CRTs and could account for the multiple functional roles assigned to CRTs.

  9. Increase of serum fractalkine and fractalkine gene expression levels in sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed

    Unal, Selma; Ozdemir, Ozlem; Ozcimen, Ahmet Ata; Oztas, Yesim

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of fractalkine (Fkn), a member of the chemokine family, in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD). Eighty-seven children with sickle cell disease and 55 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Complete blood counts, serum levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and fractalkine, and gene expression levels of Fkn were investigated. Serum Fkn levels and Fkn gene expression values were significantly higher in the SCD group compared to control group (P < 0.05). The findings of elevated serum Fkn and Fkn gene expression in both vaso-occlusive crisis and stable forms of SCD suggest that this chemokine may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation observed in SCD. This study is the first to our knowledge to describe the relationship of Fkn and inflammation in SCD.

  10. CD34 Over-Expression is Associated With Gliomas’ Higher WHO Grade

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyi; Guan, Jian; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Yang, Yi; Wang, Yu; Gao, Jun; Wei, Junji; Yao, Yong; Xu, Zhiqin; Dou, Wanchen; Lian, Wei; Su, Changbao; Ren, Zuyuan; Wang, Renzhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract CD34 is a transmembrane phosphoglycoprotein that was first identified on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. CD34 is known as an optimum marker for microvascular density studies and it is positively stained in pathological and physiologic vessels. The use of CD34 for the prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of neoplasms has been increasingly discussed. The implications and utilities of CD34 in WHO grades of gliomas and its prognosis have been reported rarely. Also, the WHO grades and prognosis researches remains unclear and controversial. A meta-analysis is the best choice for drawing a convincing conclusion. Several databases were searched. We carefully assess the relevant articles and standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated in terms of the relationship between CD34 expression levels with gliomas’ WHO grades, patients’ ages and gender. We used the Galbraith figure, the I2 test, and Cochran Q test to evaluate the heterogeneity of the included studies. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the pooled results’ stability. A Contour-enhanced funnel plot evaluation was made to assess potential publication bias. Ethics review and approval was not necessary because the meta-analysis did not involve any direct human trials or animal experiments. There were 12 eligible studies, including 684 patients who were considered in the present meta-analysis. All of them were conducted in China. CD34 overexpression in glioma tissues was associated closely, according to the pooled SMD, with higher WHO grade (III + IV) (SMD -1.503, 95% CI -1.685 to -1.321; P = 0.000). There were no significant associations between CD34 and age (SMD -0.223, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.156; P = 0.248) and CD34 and gender (SMD -0.059, 95% CI -0.439, 0.321; P = 0.761). No publication bias was detected according to Contour-enhanced funnel plot. Our results suggested that CD34 overexpression is associated with higher WHO

  11. Higher Fibrinogen Levels Predict Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, T.C.; Snell-Bergeon, J.K.; Maahs, D.M; Kinney, G.L.; Rewers, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine whether fibrinogen levels predict independently progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in adults with type 1 diabetes. Methods Data from a prospective cohort - the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes Study - were evaluated. Fibrinogen levels at baseline were separated into quartiles. CAC was measured twice and averaged at baseline and at follow-up 2.4 ± 0.4 years later. CAC progressors were defined as participants whose square-root transformed CAC volume increased by ≥ 2.53 or development mm of clinical coronary artery disease during the follow-up period. Results Fibrinogen levels were higher in progressors than in non-progressors (276 ± 61 mg/dl versus 259 ± 61 mg/dl, p = 0.0003). CAC progression, adjusted for known cardiovascular risk factors, increased in the highest quartile. Conclusions Higher fibrinogen levels predict CAC progression in type 1 diabetes subjects, independent of standard cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:20079495

  12. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations.

    PubMed

    Arrindell, W A; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J

    2003-07-01

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations in which both women and men are offered equal opportunities for the fulfillment of multiple social roles that are associated with good self-rated health would score significantly lower on national depression levels than tough or masculine societies in which such opportunities exist to a clearly lesser extent. Analyses of data collected in 14 nations in Europe (total N>5000) demonstrated that higher scores on Hofstede's national masculinity index and lower ones on national wealth were independent predictors of higher national depression levels. National trait neuroticism did not mediate the relationship between national masculinity and national depression levels.

  13. Expression levels of urotensin II are associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress in patients with severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    He, W-Y; Chen, G-J; Lai, X; Wu, F; Tang, C-S; Zhang, A-H

    2016-02-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. We aim to study urotensin II (UII) and its association with the markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in placentas of patients with severe preeclampsia (SPE). Thirty-three patients with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and twenty-two healthy pregnant women designated as healthy controls were recruited. Expression levels of UII, UII receptor (GPR14) and the markers of ERS in placenta specimens of patients were performed. Plasma and urinary UII levels were measured by radioimmunoassay method. Our study showed that the plasma levels of UII in patients with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy were significantly higher than that of the healthy control group. However, the urinary levels of UII had no difference in two groups. The expression level of mRNA and protein of UII, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose regulation protein 78 in placentas of SPE was significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the expression levels of UII and ERS markers were mainly located in the cytoplasm of placental trophoblastic cells. Moreover, expression level of UII mRNA and protein was positively correlated with that of the markers of ERS. The positive correlation between UII and ERS markers expression level also corresponded with the level of patient's systolic blood pressure and proteinuria. In conclusion, we first verify that expression of UII is associated with ERS in patients with SPE. Our results indicate that UII may trigger ERS in placental trophoblastic cells in patients with preeclampsia.

  14. Plastid-expressed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes provide high level glyphosate tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ye, G N; Hajdukiewicz, P T; Broyles, D; Rodriguez, D; Xu, C W; Nehra, N; Staub, J M

    2001-02-01

    Plastid transformation (transplastomic) technology has several potential advantages for biotechnological applications including the use of unmodified prokaryotic genes for engineering, potential high-level gene expression and gene containment due to maternal inheritance in most crop plants. However, the efficacy of a plastid-encoded trait may change depending on plastid number and tissue type. We report a feasibility study in tobacco plastids to achieve high-level herbicide resistance in both vegetative tissues and reproductive organs. We chose to test glyphosate resistance via over-expression in plastids of tolerant forms of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Immunological, enzymatic and whole-plant assays were used to prove the efficacy of three different prokaryotic (Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Bacillus) EPSPS genes. Using the Agrobacterium strain CP4 EPSPS as a model we identified translational control sequences that direct a 10,000-fold range of protein accumulation (to >10% total soluble protein in leaves). Plastid-expressed EPSPS could provide very high levels of glyphosate resistance, although levels of resistance in vegetative and reproductive tissues differed depending on EPSPS accumulation levels, and correlated to the plastid abundance in these tissues. Paradoxically, higher levels of plastid-expressed EPSPS protein accumulation were apparently required for efficacy than from a similar nuclear-encoded gene. Nevertheless, the demonstration of high-level glyphosate tolerance in vegetative and reproductive organs using transplastomic technology provides a necessary step for transfer of this technology to other crop species.

  15. Targeting of a histone acetyltransferase domain to a promoter enhances protein expression levels in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kwaks, T H J; Sewalt, R G A B; van Blokland, R; Siersma, T J; Kasiem, M; Kelder, A; Otte, A P

    2005-01-12

    Silencing of transfected genes in mammalian cells is a fundamental problem that probably involves the (in)accessibility status of chromatin. A potential solution to this problem is to provide a cell with protein factors that make the chromatin of a promoter more open or accessible for transcription. We tested this by targeting such proteins to different promoters. We found that targeting the p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain to strong viral or cellular promoters is sufficient to result in higher expression levels of a reporter protein. In contrast, targeting the chromatin-remodeling factor Brahma does not result in stable, higher protein expression levels. The long-term effects of the targeted p300HAT domain on protein expression levels are positively reinforced, when also anti-repressor elements are applied to flank the reporter construct. These elements were previously shown to be potent blockers of chromatin-associated repressors. The simultaneous application of the targeted p300HAT domain and anti-repressor elements conveys long-term stability to protein expression. Whereas no copy number dependency is achieved by targeting of the p300HAT domain alone, copy number dependency is improved when anti-repressor elements are included. We conclude that targeting of protein domains such as HAT domains helps to facilitate expression of transfected genes in mammalian cells. However, the simultaneous application of other genomic elements such as the anti-repressor elements prevents silencing more efficiently.

  16. Control levels of acetylcholinesterase expression in the mammalian skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Grubic, Z; Zajc-Kreft, K; Brank, M; Mars, T; Komel, R; Miranda, A F

    1999-05-14

    Protein expression can be controled at different levels. Understanding acetylcholinesterase (EC. 3.1.1.7, AChE) expression in the living organisms therefore necessitates: (1) determination and mapping of control levels of AChE metabolism; (2) identification of the regulatory factors acting at these levels; and (3) detailed insight into the mechanisms of action of these factors. Here we summarize the results of our studies on the regulation of AChE expression in the mammalian skeletal muscle. Three experimental models were employed: in vitro innervated human muscle, mechanically denervated adult fast rat muscle, and the glucocorticoid treated fast rat muscle. In situ hybridization of AChE mRNA, combined with AChE histochemistry, revealed that different distribution patterns of AChE, observed during in vitro ontogenesis and synaptogenesis of human skeletal muscle, reflect alterations in the distribution of AChE mRNA (Z. Grubic, R. Komel, W.F. Walker, A.F. Miranda, Myoblast fusion and innervation with rat motor nerve alter the distribution of acetylcholinesterase and its mRNA in human muscle cultures, Neuron 14 (1995) 317-327). To study the mechanisms of AChE mRNA loss in denervated adult rat skeletal muscle, we exposed deproteinated AChE mRNA to various subcellular fractions in vitro. Fractions were isolated from the normal and denervated rat sternomastoideus muscle. We found significantly increased, but non-specific AChE mRNA degradation capacities in the three fractions studied, suggesting that increased susceptibility of muscle mRNA to degradation might be at least partly responsible for the decreased AChE mRNA observed under such conditions (K. Zajc-Kreft, S. Kreft, Z. Grubic, Degradation of AChE mRNA in the normal and denervated rat skeletal muscle, Book of Abstracts, The Sixth International Meeting on Cholinesterases, La Jolla, CA, March 20-24, 1998, p. A3.). In adult fast rat muscle, treated chronically with glucocorticoids, we found the fraction of early

  17. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee's susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions.

  18. The genetic architecture of gene expression levels in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Zhou, Xiang; Alberts, Susan C; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Primate evolution has been argued to result, in part, from changes in how genes are regulated. However, we still know little about gene regulation in natural primate populations. We conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based study of baboons from an intensively studied wild population. We performed complementary expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and allele-specific expression analyses, discovering substantial evidence for, and surprising power to detect, genetic effects on gene expression levels in the baboons. eQTL were most likely to be identified for lineage-specific, rapidly evolving genes; interestingly, genes with eQTL significantly overlapped between baboons and a comparable human eQTL data set. Our results suggest that genes vary in their tolerance of genetic perturbation, and that this property may be conserved across species. Further, they establish the feasibility of eQTL mapping using RNA-seq data alone, and represent an important step towards understanding the genetic architecture of gene expression in primates.

  19. Cullin-3 protein expression levels correlate with breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Haagenson, Kelly K.; Tait, Larry; Wang, Juan; Shekhar, Malathy P.; Polin, Lisa; Chen, Wei; Wu, Gen Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Cullin-3 is a component of the Cullin-Ring ubiquitin ligase (CRL) family that plays an important role in mediating protein degradation. Deregulation of Cullin-3 expression has been observed in human cancers; however, a role for Cullin-3 in tumor progression has not been previously recognized. Using the MCF10DCIS.com human breast cancer xenograft model, we show that Cullin-3 is increasingly expressed during progression from comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinomas. Cullin-3 protein is not detected in early lesions but is noticeably increased in DCIS tumors and significantly overexpressed in invasive cancers. In experimental metastasis assays, high expression of Cullin-3 was observed in the lung site. Importantly, Cullin-3 staining is detected in human breast cancer tissues, not in normal breast tissues and its expression level positively correlates with tumor stage. These data suggest that Cullin-3 may play an important role in tumor progression from DCIS to invasive cancer and may serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis of aggressive breast cancer. PMID:22825334

  20. The City: A Multidisciplinary Unit Exercising the Higher Level Thinking Skills of Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Celia R.

    Designed for use with sixth grade students, this multidisciplinary unit combines independent study of urban areas with activities to develop students' higher level thinking skills. Following suggestions to teachers on strategies for introducing the unit, four options for independent study are described. The first is a study of a topic related to…

  1. Re-Setting the Concentration Levels of Students in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lisa A.; Ray, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that college students' concentration levels are limited and hard to maintain. Even though relevant in higher education, scant empirical research exists on interventions to "re-set" their concentration during a college lecture. Using a within-subjects design, four active learning interventions are administered across two…

  2. 42 CFR 405.506 - Charges higher than customary or prevailing charges or lowest charge levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Charges higher than customary or prevailing charges or lowest charge levels. 405.506 Section 405.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE...

  3. The Influence of Transformational Leadership on the Level of TQM Implementation in the Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argia, Hassan A. A.; Ismail, Aziah

    2013-01-01

    This current research paper investigates the role of transformational leadership on impacting the level of TQM implementation in the higher education sector. In addition, TQM, as a management philosophy, can be implemented successfully only when incorporated into the prevailing learning organization and adequate understanding of transformational…

  4. Multiple-Choice Exams: An Obstacle for Higher-Level Thinking in Introductory Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not…

  5. 48 CFR 52.246-11 - Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement. 52.246-11 Section 52.246-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.246-11...

  6. 48 CFR 52.246-11 - Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement. 52.246-11 Section 52.246-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.246-11...

  7. A Tracking Analysis of Compact Students within Level 1 of Their Higher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakely, Katrina; Saunders, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a tracking analysis of level 1 undergraduates who entered the University of Glamorgan through the Compact schools initiative. The Compact initiative aims to widen access to higher education by encouraging young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend a range of preparatory activities and by offering lower entry…

  8. Implementing CLT at Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh: A Review of Change Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Md Shidur

    2015-01-01

    CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) was substituted for GTM (Grammar Translation Method) at higher secondary level in Bangladesh in 2001. This replacement of ELT method was a significant change in the English curriculum. This study aimed to determine that the mismanagement of the change is a prime cause of not getting expected CLT outcomes at…

  9. Spatial Skills as a Predictor of First Grade Girls' Use of Higher Level Arithmetic Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laski, Elida V.; Casey, Beth M.; Yu, Qingyi; Dulaney, Alana; Heyman, Miriam; Dearing, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Girls are more likely than boys to use counting strategies rather than higher-level mental strategies to solve arithmetic problems. Prior research suggests that dependence on counting strategies may have negative implications for girls' later math achievement. We investigated the relation between first-grade girls' verbal and spatial skills and…

  10. Systemic Glucose Level Changes with a Carbohydrate-Restricted and Higher Protein Diet Combined with Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Rodney G.; Lanning, Beth A.; Doyle, Eva I.; Slonaker, Becky; Johnston, Holly M.; Scanes, Georgene

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to compare the effects of macronutrient intake on systemic glucose levels in previously sedentary participants who followed 1 of 4 diets that were either higher protein or high carbohydrate, while initiating an exercise program. Participants and Methods: The authors randomly assigned 94 sedentary…

  11. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70’s mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6–24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48–72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress.

  12. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70’s mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6–24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48–72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress. PMID:27460544

  13. The regulation of thermal stress induced apoptosis in corals reveals high similarities in gene expression and function to higher animals.

    PubMed

    Kvitt, Hagit; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Tchernov, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that controlled apoptotic response provides an essential mechanism, enabling corals to respond to global warming and ocean acidification. However, the molecules involved and their functions are still unclear. To better characterize the apoptotic response in basal metazoans, we studied the expression profiles of selected genes that encode for putative pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators in the coral Stylophora pistillata under thermal stress and bleaching conditions. Upon thermal stress, as attested by the elevation of the heat-shock protein gene HSP70's mRNA levels, the expression of all studied genes, including caspase, Bcl-2, Bax, APAF-1 and BI-1, peaked at 6-24 h of thermal stress (hts) and declined at 72 hts. Adversely, the expression levels of the survivin gene showed a shifted pattern, with elevation at 48-72 hts and a return to basal levels at 168 hts. Overall, we show the quantitative anti-apoptotic traits of the coral Bcl-2 protein, which resemble those of its mammalian counterpart. Altogether, our results highlight the similarities between apoptotic networks operating in simple metazoans and in higher animals and clearly demonstrate the activation of pro-cell survival regulators at early stages of the apoptotic response, contributing to the decline of apoptosis and the acclimation to chronic stress. PMID:27460544

  14. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of psychopathy relative to lower levels, both as a function of primary and secondary psychopathy and particularly their shared variance. These novel findings provide support for the idea that motor control systematically varies by psychopathy, in a basic manner, consistent with views of psychopathy emphasizing lesser control. PMID:25419045

  15. Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Jung; Huang, Po-Chao; Lu, Shao-Chun; Li, Yi-Hwei; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lin, Bi-Fong; Chang, Sue-Joan; Chou, Hsu-Fang

    2002-02-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may result from a deficiency of folate, vitamin B-6 or vitamin B-12. Because vitamin B-12 deficiency is often associated with vegetarianism, this study was designed to examine the effect of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on B-vitamin status and plasma homocysteine levels. Female Buddhist lacto-vegetarians (n = 45; 31-45 y) and matched omnivores (n = 45) recruited in Hualien, Taiwan, were investigated. Taiwanese vegetarians consumed normal amount of folate, but only 21% of Taiwan Recommended Daily Nutrient Allowances (RDNA) values of vitamin B-12. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly higher levels of plasma folate (14.79 +/- 7.70 vs. 11.98 +/- 8.29 nmol/L), but lower levels of vitamin B-12 (207.7 +/- 127.1 vs. 403.5 +/- 138.9 pmol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivores (mean: 11.20 +/- 4.27 vs. 8.64 +/- 2.06 micromol/L; median: 10.5 vs. 8.5 micromol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine was inversely correlated with plasma folate and vitamin B-12 in the vegetarian group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma folate, vitamin B-12 and creatinine were independent determinants of homocysteine variation and contributed to 38.6% of homocysteine variation in the vegetarians. Compared with the omnivores, vegetarians also had significantly lower serum levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, alanine and arginine, but higher levels of glycine. In the vegetarian group, fasting plasma homocysteine correlated negatively with serum threonine, lysine, histidine, arginine and cystine, and these amino acids contributed to 38.7% of homocysteine variation. In conclusion, the Buddhist nuns who consumed a lacto-vegetarian diet had mildly elevated fasting plasma homocysteine levels presumably due to lower levels of plasma vitamin B-12.

  16. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder.

  17. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:26372768

  18. Primary Human Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Cells Broadly Express HER2 at Immunologically-Detectable Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lanitis, Evripidis; Dangaj, Denarda; Hagemann, Ian S.; Song, De-Gang; Best, Andrew; Sandaltzopoulos, Raphael; Coukos, George; Powell, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The breadth of HER2 expression by primary human ovarian cancers remains controversial, which questions its suitability as a universal antigen in this malignancy. To address these issues, we performed extensive HER2 expression analysis on a wide panel of primary tumors as well as established and short-term human ovarian cancer cell lines. Conventional immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of multiple tumor sites in 50 cases of high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas revealed HER2 overexpression in 29% of evaluated sites. However, more sensitive detection methods including flow cytometry, western blot analysis and q-PCR revealed HER2 expression in all fresh tumor cells derived from primary ascites or solid tumors as well as all established and short-term cultured cancer cell lines. Cancer cells generally expressed HER2 at higher levels than that found in normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells. Accordingly, genetically-engineered human T cells expressing an HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) recognized and reacted against all established or primary ovarian cancer cells tested with minimal or no reactivity against normal OSE cells. In conclusion, all human ovarian cancers express immunologically-detectable levels of HER2, indicating that IHC measurement underestimates the true frequency of HER2-expressing ovarian cancers and may limit patient access to otherwise clinically meaningful HER2-targeted therapies. PMID:23189165

  19. Increased mRNA expression levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Sæbø, Mona; Skjelbred, Camilla Furu; Nexø, Bjørn Andersen; Wallin, Håkan; Hansteen, Inger-Lise; Vogel, Ulla; Kure, Elin H

    2006-01-01

    Background The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases develop through the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. If an increase in DNA repair expression is detected in both early adenomas and carcinomas it may indicate that low repair capacity in the normal mucosa is a risk factor for adenoma formation. Methods We have examined mRNA expression of two DNA repair genes, ERCC1 and OGG1 as well as the putative apoptosis controlling gene RAI, in normal tissues and lesions from 36 cases with adenomas (mild/moderat n = 21 and severe n = 15, dysplasia) and 9 with carcinomas. Results Comparing expression levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI between normal tissue and all lesions combined yielded higher expression levels in lesions, 3.3-fold higher (P = 0.005), 5.6-fold higher(P < 3·10-5) and 7.7-fold higher (P = 0.0005), respectively. The levels of ERCC1, OGG1 and RAI expressions when comparing lesions, did not differ between adenomas and CRC cases, P = 0.836, P = 0.341 and P = 0.909, respectively. When comparing expression levels in normal tissue, the levels for OGG1 and RAI from CRC cases were significantly lower compared to the cases with adenomas, P = 0.012 and P = 0.011, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased expression of defense genes is an early event in the progression of colorectal adenomas to carcinomas. PMID:16914027

  20. Factors Identified with Higher Levels of Career Satisfaction of Physicians in Andalusia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Sánchez, Juan Nicolás; Lepnurm, Rein; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Delgado, Ana; Domagała, Alicja; Górkiewicz, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The satisfaction of physicians is a worldwide issue linked with the quality of health services; their satisfaction needs to be studied from a multi-dimensional perspective, considering lower- and higher-order needs. The objectives of this study were to: i) measure the career satisfaction of physicians; ii) identify differences in the dimensions of career satisfaction; and iii) test factors that affect higher- and lower-order needs of satisfaction among physicians working in Andalusian hospitals (Spain). Forty-one percent of 299 eligible physicians participated in a study conducted in six selected hospitals. Physicians reported higher professional, inherent, and performance satisfaction than personal satisfaction. Foreign physicians reported higher levels of personal and performance satisfaction than local physicians, and those who received non-monetary incentives had higher professional and performance satisfaction. In conclusion, physicians in the selected Andalusian hospitals reported low levels of personal satisfaction. Non-monetary incentives were more relevant to influence their career satisfaction. Further investigations are recommended to study differences in the career satisfaction between foreign and local physicians. PMID:26973935

  1. Whole Blood Gene Expression and Interleukin-6 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Honghuang; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Dupuis, Josée; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Ying, Sai-Xia; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Hernandez, Dena; Singleton, Andrew; Melzer, David; Munson, Peter J.; Levy, Daniel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Murabito, Joanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Circulating interleukin-6 levels increase with advancing age and are a risk factor for various diseases and mortality. The characterization of gene expression profiles associated with interleukin-6 levels might suggest important molecular events underlying its regulation. Methods and Results We studied the association of transcriptional profiles with interleukin-6 levels in 2422 participants from Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort using Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. We identified 4139 genes that were significantly associated with interleukin-6 levels (FDR<0.05) after adjusting for age, sex and blood cell components. We then replicated 807 genes in the InCHIANTI study with 694 participants. Many of the top genes are involved in inflammation-related pathways or erythrocyte function, including JAK/Stat signaling pathway and interleukin-10 signaling pathway. Conclusion We identified and replicated 807 genes that were associated with circulating interleukin-6 levels. Future characterization of interleukin-6 regulation networks may facilitate the identification of additional potential targets for treating inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25311648

  2. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  3. Multisensory Stimulation to Improve Low- and Higher-Level Sensory Deficits after Stroke: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tinga, Angelica Maria; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; van der Smagt, Maarten Jeroen; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; van Ee, Raymond; Nijboer, Tanja Cornelia Wilhelmina

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to integrate and assess evidence for the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation (i.e., stimulating at least two of the following sensory systems: visual, auditory, and somatosensory) as a possible rehabilitation method after stroke. Evidence was considered with a focus on low-level, perceptual (visual, auditory and somatosensory deficits), as well as higher-level, cognitive, sensory deficits. We referred to the electronic databases Scopus and PubMed to search for articles that were published before May 2015. Studies were included which evaluated the effects of multisensory stimulation on patients with low- or higher-level sensory deficits caused by stroke. Twenty-one studies were included in this review and the quality of these studies was assessed (based on eight elements: randomization, inclusion of control patient group, blinding of participants, blinding of researchers, follow-up, group size, reporting effect sizes, and reporting time post-stroke). Twenty of the twenty-one included studies demonstrate beneficial effects on low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Notwithstanding these beneficial effects, the quality of the studies is insufficient for valid conclusion that multisensory stimulation can be successfully applied as an effective intervention. A valuable and necessary next step would be to set up well-designed randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation as an intervention for low- and/or higher-level sensory deficits after stroke. Finally, we consider the potential mechanisms of multisensory stimulation for rehabilitation to guide this future research. PMID:26490254

  4. Technology and Bloom's Taxonomy: Tools to facilitate higher-level learning in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Matthew Earle

    This research project ties together chemistry data acquisition technology, introductory chemistry laboratory experiments. and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives into a unified learning model. The goal is to provide faculty and introductory chemistry students with the tools and exercises to experience higher levels of learning, as defined by Bloom's taxonomy. The tools developed as part of this project include data acquisition hardware and software, communications software, and computer simulations that enable higher-level learning situations. A series of five experiments using a discovery-based teaching model are developed as part of the learning model. The experiments bring together the hardware tools, software tools, and learning model to place students in situations that require students to use critical thinking skills and experience higher-level learning. Content-related application problems are also included in the experiments. The experiments are divided into three chemistry units of instruction that build on each other, but can also be used independently. Instructor training is an important part of this project. The successful integration of technology into educational situations cannot be accomplished without the support and understanding of faculty, staff, and teaching assistants. This aspect of the project focuses on shifting teaching and learning paradigms to encourage appropriate technology use and allow technology to become a major aspect of the high-level learning environment. Finally, students were surveyed in an attempt to measure the effectiveness of the learning model. Students were evaluated on chemistry concept retention, as well as their perception of learning. They were also asked how well they enjoyed this form of learning. Along with the tools themselves, this project provides templates that can launch future work in this area. The learning model, data acquisition tools, and experiment writing templates are developed here to provide

  5. Hierarchical Control Using Networks Trained with Higher-Level Forward Models

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, Greg; Abbott, L.F.

    2015-01-01

    We propose and develop a hierarchical approach to network control of complex tasks. In this approach, a low-level controller directs the activity of a “plant,” the system that performs the task. However, the low-level controller may only be able to solve fairly simple problems involving the plant. To accomplish more complex tasks, we introduce a higher-level controller that controls the lower-level controller. We use this system to direct an articulated truck to a specified location through an environment filled with static or moving obstacles. The final system consists of networks that have memorized associations between the sensory data they receive and the commands they issue. These networks are trained on a set of optimal associations that are generated by minimizing cost functions. Cost function minimization requires predicting the consequences of sequences of commands, which is achieved by constructing forward models, including a model of the lower-level controller. The forward models and cost minimization are only used during training, allowing the trained networks to respond rapidly. In general, the hierarchical approach can be extended to larger numbers of levels, dividing complex tasks into more manageable sub-tasks. The optimization procedure and the construction of the forward models and controllers can be performed in similar ways at each level of the hierarchy, which allows the system to be modified to perform other tasks, or to be extended for more complex tasks without retraining lower-levels. PMID:25058706

  6. Arthropod food webs become increasingly lipid-limited at higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Shawn M; Norris, Michael; Lee, Raymond W; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-07-01

    Understanding why food chains are relatively short in length has been an area of research and debate for decades. We tested if progressive changes in the nutritional content of arthropods with trophic position limit the availability of a key nutrient, lipid, for carnivores. Arthropods at higher trophic levels had progressively less lipid and more protein in their bodies compared with arthropods at lower trophic levels. The nutrients present in arthropod bodies were directly related to the nutrients that predators extracted when feeding on those arthropods. As a consequence, nutrient assimilation shifted from lipid-biased to protein-biased as arthropods ascended trophic levels from herbivores to secondary carnivores. Successive changes in the nutritional consequences of predation may ultimately set an upper limit on the number of trophic levels in arthropod communities. Further work is needed to examine the influence of lipid and other nutrients on food web traits in a range of ecosystems.

  7. Higher-level fusion for military operations based on abductive inference: proof of principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John

    2006-04-01

    The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.

  8. How does plant chemical diversity contribute to biodiversity at higher trophic levels?

    PubMed

    Schuman, Meredith C; van Dam, Nicole M; Beran, Franziska; Harpole, W Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Plants, perhaps Earth's most accomplished chemists, produce thousands of specialized metabolites having no direct role in cell division or growth. These phytochemicals vary by taxon, with many taxa producing characteristic substance classes; and within taxa, with individual variation in structural variety and production patterns. Observations of corresponding variation in herbivore metabolism, behavior, and diet breadth motivated the development of chemical ecology research. We discuss the importance of plant biodiversity in general and phytochemical diversity in particular for biodiversity and ecological interactions at higher trophic levels. We then provide an overview of the descriptive, molecular and analytical tools which allow modern biologists to investigate phytochemical diversity and its effects on higher trophic levels, from physiological mechanisms to ecological communities. PMID:27436646

  9. Effects of phased joint intervention on Rho/ROCK expression levels in patients with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wen-Ying; Wang, Na; Wang, Ting; Wang, Yu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of phased joint intervention on clinical efficacy and Rho/Rho-associated coil protein kinase (ROCK) expression in patients with portal hypertension complicated by esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB) and hypersplenism. Patients with portal hypertension (n=53) caused by liver cirrhosis complicated by EVB and hypersplenism treated with phased joint intervention were assessed, and portal hemodynamics, blood, liver function, complications, and rebleeding incidence were analyzed. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells prior to and following phased joint intervention, and western blotting was employed to determine the protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, phosphorylated (p) myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) and total-MYPT1. All patients underwent an emergency assessment of hemostasis with a 100% success rate. Varicose veins were alleviated, and portal hemodynamics and liver function improved following intervention. Furthermore, preoperative and postoperative expression levels of Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA were higher compared with the control group. Notably, the mRNA expression levels of Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the postoperative group were significantly lower when compared with the preoperative group. Protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2 and pMYPT1 in the postoperative group were lower, as compared with the preoperative group. Concentration levels of transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in peripheral blood were significantly reduced following phased joint intervention. Therefore, the present findings demonstrated that phased joint intervention is able to effectively treat EVB and hypersplenism, and improve liver function. The efficacy of phased joint intervention may be associated with its role in the regulation of the

  10. Effects of phased joint intervention on Rho/ROCK expression levels in patients with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Min; Wei, Jue; Meng, Wen-Ying; Wang, Na; Wang, Ting; Wang, Yu-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of phased joint intervention on clinical efficacy and Rho/Rho-associated coil protein kinase (ROCK) expression in patients with portal hypertension complicated by esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB) and hypersplenism. Patients with portal hypertension (n=53) caused by liver cirrhosis complicated by EVB and hypersplenism treated with phased joint intervention were assessed, and portal hemodynamics, blood, liver function, complications, and rebleeding incidence were analyzed. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells prior to and following phased joint intervention, and western blotting was employed to determine the protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2, phosphorylated (p) myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) and total-MYPT1. All patients underwent an emergency assessment of hemostasis with a 100% success rate. Varicose veins were alleviated, and portal hemodynamics and liver function improved following intervention. Furthermore, preoperative and postoperative expression levels of Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 mRNA were higher compared with the control group. Notably, the mRNA expression levels of Rho, ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the postoperative group were significantly lower when compared with the preoperative group. Protein expression levels of Rho, ROCK1, ROCK2 and pMYPT1 in the postoperative group were lower, as compared with the preoperative group. Concentration levels of transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor in peripheral blood were significantly reduced following phased joint intervention. Therefore, the present findings demonstrated that phased joint intervention is able to effectively treat EVB and hypersplenism, and improve liver function. The efficacy of phased joint intervention may be associated with its role in the regulation of the

  11. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  12. Potential Interactions between the Autonomic Nervous System and Higher Level Functions in Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Andrea; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) maintains the internal homeostasis by continuously interacting with other brain structures. Its failure is commonly observed in many neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative and vascular brain diseases, spinal cord injury, and peripheral neuropathies. Despite the different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, ANS failure associates with various forms of higher level dysfunctions, and may also negatively impact on patients’ clinical outcome. In this review, we will discuss potential relationships between ANS and higher level dysfunctions in a selection of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, we will focus on the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension and/or autonomic-reflex impairment on cognitive performances. Some evidence supports the hypothesis that cardiovascular autonomic failure may play a negative prognostic role in most neurological disorders. Despite a clear causal relationship between ANS involvement and higher level dysfunctions that is still controversial, this might have implications for neuro-rehabilitation strategies aimed at improving patients’ clinical outcome. PMID:26388831

  13. Preterm Birth is Associated with Higher Uric Acid Levels in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Lisa K.; Nixon, Patricia A.; Russell, Gregory B.; Snively, Beverly M.; O’Shea, T. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare serum uric acid levels in adolescents born prematurely and adolescents born at term and to assess the correlation between serum uric acid and blood pressure in those born prematurely. Study design In this observational cohort study, 124 adolescents born prematurely and 44 adolescents born at term were studied at 14 years of age. Multivariate analyses were used to describe the relationship of premature birth to serum uric acid, while adjusting for confounding variables. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between uric acid and systolic blood pressure among those born prematurely. Results Adjusting for race, sex, maternal hypertension and fetal growth, preterm adolescents had higher serum uric acid levels than adolescents born at term [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval: 0.46 (0.10, 0.81) mg/dL, 27.4 (6, 48.2) μmol/L, p=0.012]. Among those born prematurely, uric acid was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure [Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.29 (0.12, 0.44; p= 0.0013). Conclusions Serum uric acid levels are higher in adolescents born prematurely than in those born at term and this difference could contribute to higher blood pressure among individuals born prematurely. PMID:25868431

  14. MRP1 gene expression level regulates the death and differentiation response of neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Peaston, A E; Gardaneh, M; Franco, A V; Hocker, J E; Murphy, K M; Farnsworth, M L; Catchpoole, D R; Haber, M; Norris, M D; Lock, R B; Marshall, G M

    2001-01-01

    We have previously reported a strong correlation between poor prognosis in childhood neuroblastoma (NB) patients and high-level expression of the transmembrane efflux pump, Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein (MRP1), in NB tumour tissue. In this study, we inhibited the endogenous expression of MRP1 in 2 different NB tumour cell lines by stably transfecting an MRP1 antisense expression vector (MRP-AS). Compared with control cells, MRP-AS transfectant cells demonstrated a higher proportion of dead and morphologically apoptotic cells, spontaneous neuritogenesis, and, increased synaptophysin and neurofilament expression. Bcl-2 protein expression was markedly reduced in MRP-AS cells compared to controls. Conversely, we found that the same NB tumour cell line overexpressing the full-length MRP1 cDNA in sense orientation (MRP-S) demonstrated resistance to the neuritogenic effect of the differentiating agent, all-trans-retinoic acid. Taken together, the results suggest that the level of MRP1 expression in NB tumour cells may influence the capacity of NB cells for spontaneous regression in vivo through cell differentiation and death. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11720446

  15. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  16. Multi-level Expression Design Language: Requirement level (MEDL-R) system evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the Multi-Level Expression Design Language Requirements Level (MEDL-R) system was conducted to determine whether it would be of use in the Goddard Space Flight Center Code 580 software development environment. The evaluation is based upon a study of the MEDL-R concept of requirement languages, the functions performed by MEDL-R, and the MEDL-R language syntax. Recommendations are made for changes to MEDL-R that would make it useful in the Code 580 environment.

  17. CONSERVED HIGHER ORDER CHROMATIN REGULATES NMDA RECEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION AND COGNITION

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Rahul; Peter, Cyril J.; Jiang, Yan; Roussos, Panos; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Shen, Erica; Mitchell, Amanda; Mao, Wenjie; Whittle, Catheryne; Dincer, Aslihan; Jakovcevski, Mira; Pothula, Venu; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Giakoumaki, Stella G.; Bitsios, Panos; Sherif, Ajfar; Gardner, Paul D.; Ernst, Patricia; Ghose, Subroto; Sklar, Pamela; Haroutunian, Vahram; Tamminga, Carol; Myers, Richard H.; Futai, Kensuke; Wood, Marcelo A.; Akbarian, Schahram

    2014-01-01

    3-dimensional chromosomal conformations regulate transcription by moving enhancers and regulatory elements into spatial proximity with target genes. Here, we describe activity-regulated long-range loopings bypassing up to 0.5 megabase of linear genome to modulate NMDA glutamate receptor GRIN2B expression in human and mouse prefrontal cortex. Distal intronic and 3’ intergenic loop formations competed with repressor elements to access promoter-proximal sequences, and facilitated expression via a ‘cargo’ of AP-1 and NRF-1 transcription factors and TALE-based transcriptional activators. Neuronal deletion or overexpression of Kmt2a/Mll1 H3K4- and Kmt1e/Setdb1 H3K9-methyltransferase was associated with higher order chromatin changes at distal regulatory Grin2b sequences and impairments in working memory. Genetic polymorphisms and isogenic deletions of loop-bound sequences conferred liability for cognitive performance and decreased GRIN2B expression. Dynamic regulation of chromosomal conformations emerges as a novel layer for transcriptional mechanisms impacting neuronal signaling and cognition. PMID:25467983

  18. Levels of Lycopene β-Cyclase 1 Modulate Carotenoid Gene Expression and Accumulation in Daucus carota

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots. PMID:23555569

  19. Levels of lycopene β-cyclase 1 modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in Daucus carota.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan Camilo; Pizarro, Lorena; Fuentes, Paulina; Handford, Michael; Cifuentes, Victor; Stange, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Plant carotenoids are synthesized and accumulated in plastids through a highly regulated pathway. Lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB) is a key enzyme involved directly in the synthesis of α-carotene and β-carotene through the cyclization of lycopene. Carotenoids are produced in both carrot (Daucus carota) leaves and reserve roots, and high amounts of α-carotene and β-carotene accumulate in the latter. In some plant models, the presence of different isoforms of carotenogenic genes is associated with an organ-specific function. D. carota harbors two Lcyb genes, of which DcLcyb1 is expressed in leaves and storage roots during carrot development, correlating with an increase in carotenoid levels. In this work, we show that DcLCYB1 is localized in the plastid and that it is a functional enzyme, as demonstrated by heterologous complementation in Escherichia coli and over expression and post transcriptional gene silencing in carrot. Transgenic plants with higher or reduced levels of DcLcyb1 had incremented or reduced levels of chlorophyll, total carotenoids and β-carotene in leaves and in the storage roots, respectively. In addition, changes in the expression of DcLcyb1 are accompanied by a modulation in the expression of key endogenous carotenogenic genes. Our results indicate that DcLcyb1 does not possess an organ specific function and modulate carotenoid gene expression and accumulation in carrot leaves and storage roots.

  20. The Role of Different Supplements in Expression Level of Monoclonal Antibody against Human CD20

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Abolhassan, Mohammad Reza; Azarpanah, Armita; Aghajani-Lazarjani, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Haskoo, Mohammad Amin; Maleknia, Shaian; Vaziri, Behrouz

    2013-01-01

    Background Recombinant monoclonal antibodies have been marketed in last three decades as the major therapeutic proteins against different cancers. However choosing a proper medium and supplements to reach the high expression is a challenging step. Despite of commercial serum free and chemically defined media, there are still numerous researches seeking the optimum media to gain higher expression titer. Selecting the best basal media followed by proper supplementation to increase the cell density and expression titer needs proper and accurate investigation. Methods In this study, we have determined the expression titer of monoclonal antibody against human CD20 using soy extract, Essential Amino Acid, Non-Essential Amino Acid, Panexin NTS, Peptone, Yeast extract, Insulin-transferrin selenite, Human Serum Albumin, Bovine Serum Albumin, Lipid, and two commercially available supplements, Power and Xtreme feed. In each experiment, the expression level was compared with a well defined media, ProCHO5, RPMI 1640 and DMEM-F12. Results It has been shown that supplementing the ProCHO5 basal medium with 10% power feed or combination of 5% PanexinNTS,1.5 g/L yeast and 1.5g/L peptone results in the best production levels with 450 and 425 mg/L of anti CD20 mAb expression level, respectively. Conclusion Panexin NTS, yeast and peptone cane be proper supplement for fed-batch cell culture instead of commercial Power feed supplement which is a cost effective way to increase expression level. And thereby ProCHO5 may be replaced with common media such as RPMI 1640 and DMEM-F12. PMID:23919117

  1. Massively Parallel Interrogation of the Effects of Gene Expression Levels on Fitness.

    PubMed

    Keren, Leeat; Hausser, Jean; Lotan-Pompan, Maya; Vainberg Slutskin, Ilya; Alisar, Hadas; Kaminski, Sivan; Weinberger, Adina; Alon, Uri; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2016-08-25

    Data of gene expression levels across individuals, cell types, and disease states is expanding, yet our understanding of how expression levels impact phenotype is limited. Here, we present a massively parallel system for assaying the effect of gene expression levels on fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by systematically altering the expression level of ∼100 genes at ∼100 distinct levels spanning a 500-fold range at high resolution. We show that the relationship between expression levels and growth is gene and environment specific and provides information on the function, stoichiometry, and interactions of genes. Wild-type expression levels in some conditions are not optimal for growth, and genes whose fitness is greatly affected by small changes in expression level tend to exhibit lower cell-to-cell variability in expression. Our study addresses a fundamental gap in understanding the functional significance of gene expression regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the phenotypic effects of expression variation. PMID:27545349

  2. Higher prevalence and levels of Nosema ceranae than Nosema apis infections in Canadian honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Berna; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Eccles, Les; Lacey, Brian; Ruiz-Pérez, Rosario A; Nasr, Medhat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and infection levels of the microsporidia fungi Nosema apis and/or Nosema ceranae in honey bee colonies of two Canadian provinces. Three surveys were conducted in the springs of 2008, 2010 and 2012 and PCR identification of Nosema species were performed in samples from 169 and 181 Ontario colonies and from 76 Alberta colonies that tested positive to Nosema spp. Infection levels of positive colonies were determined by microscopy and analyzed by Nosema spp. Results showed that N. ceranae was the dominant species in all three surveys (prevalence range of 41-91 vs. 4-34 % for N. apis), whereas mixed infections were less frequent than single infections (5-25 %). Infection levels of colonies parasitized by N. ceranae were three to five times higher than those of colonies parasitized by N. apis in the three surveys whereas mixed infections showed the highest spore counts. This is the first field study demonstrating significantly higher infection levels in colonies parasitized with either N. ceranae only or with both, N. ceranae and N. apis, than in colonies parasitized with N. apis only. Taken together, these results suggest that N. ceranae may be more virulent and better adapted than N. apis in cold climates such as Canadian environments.

  3. Higher prevalence and levels of Nosema ceranae than Nosema apis infections in Canadian honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Berna; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Eccles, Les; Lacey, Brian; Ruiz-Pérez, Rosario A; Nasr, Medhat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and infection levels of the microsporidia fungi Nosema apis and/or Nosema ceranae in honey bee colonies of two Canadian provinces. Three surveys were conducted in the springs of 2008, 2010 and 2012 and PCR identification of Nosema species were performed in samples from 169 and 181 Ontario colonies and from 76 Alberta colonies that tested positive to Nosema spp. Infection levels of positive colonies were determined by microscopy and analyzed by Nosema spp. Results showed that N. ceranae was the dominant species in all three surveys (prevalence range of 41-91 vs. 4-34 % for N. apis), whereas mixed infections were less frequent than single infections (5-25 %). Infection levels of colonies parasitized by N. ceranae were three to five times higher than those of colonies parasitized by N. apis in the three surveys whereas mixed infections showed the highest spore counts. This is the first field study demonstrating significantly higher infection levels in colonies parasitized with either N. ceranae only or with both, N. ceranae and N. apis, than in colonies parasitized with N. apis only. Taken together, these results suggest that N. ceranae may be more virulent and better adapted than N. apis in cold climates such as Canadian environments. PMID:26358102

  4. Text comprehension in Down syndrome: the role of lower and higher level abilities.

    PubMed

    Levorato, Maria Chiara; Roch, Maja; Beltrame, Rossella

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of lower level linguistic abilities (study 1) and a higher level capacity, namely the use of context, (study 2), on text comprehension was studied. Participants were 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged between aged between 8 years 11 months and 16 years 10 months, and 16 children with typical development, aged between 5 years 11 months and 7 years 3 months, matched for the level of text comprehension. In study 1 the two groups were compared for receptive vocabulary and sentence comprehension: both of them were shown to play a role in text comprehension in Down syndrome. Since participants with Down syndrome had very low scores in sentence comprehension, study 2 tested the hypothesis that when sentences were presented within a brief context, individuals with Down syndrome would perform better. This hypothesis was confirmed and it was shown that contextual facilitation was closely related to text comprehension skills.

  5. High-level expression and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen as biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Masaki; Imamura, Takayuki; Yano, Kentaro; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Meta, Akihiro; Tokieda, Yoshiyuki; Nakashima, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Fibrinogen is a large and complex glycoprotein containing two sets of each of three different chains (α, β and γ). There have been no reports of high-level expression of fibrinogen at commercial levels using mammalian cultured cells such as CHO cells because of the difficulty in highly expressing a protein with such a complex structure. We achieved high-level (1.3 g/l or higher) expression of recombinant human fibrinogen using CHO DG44 cells by optimizing the expression system and culture conditions. We also succeeded in establishing a high-recovery preparation method for recombinant fibrinogen that rarely yields degraded products. To characterize the properties of the recombinant human fibrinogen, we performed SDS-PAGE; western blotting of the α, β and γ chains using specific antibodies and scanning electron microscopy observations of fibrin fibres. We also evaluated the functional equivalence between recombinant fibrinogen and plasma fibrinogen with respect to the release of fibrinopeptides initiated by thrombin and its cross-linking properties. The basic properties of recombinant fibrinogen showed no apparent differences from those of plasma fibrinogen. Here, we report the development of methods for the culture and preparation of recombinant human fibrinogen of satisfactory quality that can be scaled up to the commercial level.

  6. SMARCA4 regulates gene expression and higher-order chromatin structure in proliferating mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Barutcu, A Rasim; Lajoie, Bryan R; Fritz, Andrew J; McCord, Rachel P; Nickerson, Jeffrey A; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Dekker, Job; Stein, Gary S; Imbalzano, Anthony N

    2016-09-01

    The packaging of DNA into chromatin plays an important role in transcriptional regulation and nuclear processes. Brahma-related gene-1 SMARCA4 (also known as BRG1), the essential ATPase subunit of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to disrupt nucleosomes at target regions. Although the transcriptional role of SMARCA4 at gene promoters is well-studied, less is known about its role in higher-order genome organization. SMARCA4 knockdown in human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells resulted in 176 up-regulated genes, including many related to lipid and calcium metabolism, and 1292 down-regulated genes, some of which encode extracellular matrix (ECM) components that can exert mechanical forces and affect nuclear structure. ChIP-seq analysis of SMARCA4 localization and SMARCA4-bound super-enhancers demonstrated extensive binding at intergenic regions. Furthermore, Hi-C analysis showed extensive SMARCA4-mediated alterations in higher-order genome organization at multiple resolutions. First, SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in clustering of intra- and inter-subtelomeric regions, demonstrating a novel role for SMARCA4 in telomere organization. SMARCA4 binding was enriched at topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries, and SMARCA4 knockdown resulted in weakening of TAD boundary strength. Taken together, these findings provide a dynamic view of SMARCA4-dependent changes in higher-order chromatin organization and gene expression, identifying SMARCA4 as a novel component of chromatin organization. PMID:27435934

  7. An empirical review: Characteristics of plant microsatellite markers that confer higher levels of genetic variation1

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Benjamin J.; Culley, Theresa M.; Avanesyan, Alina; Stokes, Richard; Brzyski, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    During microsatellite marker development, researchers must choose from a pool of possible primer pairs to further test in their species of interest. In many cases, the goal is maximizing detectable levels of genetic variation. To guide researchers and determine which markers are associated with higher levels of genetic variation, we conducted a literature review based on 6782 genomic microsatellite markers published from 1997–2012. We examined relationships between heterozygosity (He or Ho) or allele number (A) with the following marker characteristics: repeat type, motif length, motif region, repeat frequency, and microsatellite size. Variation across taxonomic groups was also analyzed. There were significant differences between imperfect and perfect repeat types in A and He. Dinucleotide motifs exhibited significantly higher A, He, and Ho than most other motifs. Repeat frequency and motif region were positively correlated with A, He, and Ho, but correlations with microsatellite size were minimal. Higher taxonomic groups were disproportionately represented in the literature and showed little consistency. In conclusion, researchers should carefully consider marker characteristics so they can be tailored to the desired application. If researchers aim to target high genetic variation, dinucleotide motif lengths with large repeat frequencies may be best. PMID:26312192

  8. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression levels in visceral adipose tissue, and serum CCL2 and interleukin-6 levels during visceral adipose tissue accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yogarajah, Thaneswary; Bee, Yvonne-Tee Get; Noordin, Rahmah; Yin, Khoo Boon

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in visceral adipose tissue, as well as serum adipokine levels, in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were fed either a normal (control rats) or excessive (experimental rats) intake of food for 8 or 16 weeks, then sacrificed, at which time visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, as well as blood samples, were collected. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARs in the visceral adipose tissues were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, the levels of adipokines in the serum samples were determined using commercial ELISA kits. The results revealed that at 8 weeks, the mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue was higher than that of the visceral adipose tissue in the experimental rats, but the reverse occurred at 16 weeks. Furthermore, at 16 weeks the experimental rats exhibited an upregulation of PPARγ mRNA and protein expression levels in the visceral adipose tissues, and significant increases in the serum levels of CCL2 and interleukin (IL)-6 were observed, compared with those measured at 8 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the PPARγ expression level was likely correlated with serum levels of CCL2 and IL-6, molecules that may facilitate visceral adipose tissue accumulation. In addition, the levels of the two adipokines in the serum may be useful as surrogate biomarkers for the expression levels of PPARγ in accumulated visceral adipose tissues.

  9. Overwintering Is Associated with Reduced Expression of Immune Genes and Higher Susceptibility to Virus Infection in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, Nadja; Corona, Miguel; Neumann, Peter; Dainat, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The eusocial honey bee, Apis mellifera, has evolved remarkable abilities to survive extreme seasonal differences in temperature and availability of resources by dividing the worker caste into two groups that differ in physiology and lifespan: summer and winter bees. Most of the recent major losses of managed honey bee colonies occur during the winter, suggesting that winter bees may have compromised immune function and higher susceptibility to diseases. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the expression of eight immune genes and naturally occurring infection levels of deformed wing virus (DWV), one of the most widespread viruses in A. mellifera populations, between summer and winter bees. Possible interactions between immune response and physiological activity were tested by measuring the expression of vitellogenin and methyl farnesoate epoxidase, a gene coding for the last enzyme involved in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. Our data show that high DWV loads in winter bees correlate with reduced expression of genes involved in the cellular immune response and physiological activity and high expression of humoral immune genes involved in antibacterial defense compared with summer bees. This expression pattern could reflect evolutionary adaptations to resist bacterial pathogens and economize energy during the winter under a pathogen landscape with reduced risk of pathogenic viral infections. The outbreak of Varroa destructor infestation could have overcome these adaptations by promoting the transmission of viruses. Our results suggest that reduced cellular immune function during the winter may have increased honey bee’s susceptibility to DWV. These results contribute to our understanding of honey bee colony losses in temperate regions. PMID:26121358

  10. Higher level application of ADP: a next phase for the control field?

    PubMed

    Lendaris, George G

    2008-08-01

    Two distinguishing features of humanlike control vis-à-vis current technological control are the ability to make use of experience while selecting a control policy for distinct situations and the ability to do so faster and faster as more experience is gained (in contrast to current technological implementations that slow down as more knowledge is stored). The notions of context and context discernment are important to understanding this human ability. Whereas methods known as adaptive control and learning control focus on modifying the design of a controller as changes in context occur, experience-based (EB) control entails selecting a previously designed controller that is appropriate to the current situation. Developing the EB approach entails a shift of the technologist's focus "up a level" away from designing individual (optimal) controllers to that of developing online algorithms that efficiently and effectively select designs from a repository of existing controller solutions. A key component of the notions presented here is that of higher level learning algorithm. This is a new application of reinforcement learning and, in particular, approximate dynamic programming, with its focus shifted to the posited higher level, and is employed, with very promising results. The author's hope for this paper is to inspire and guide future work in this promising area.

  11. Association Between Dental Student-Developed Exam Questions and Learning at Higher Cognitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Anderson, Olivia S; Wright, Mary C; Fontana, Margherita

    2015-11-01

    New dental accreditation standards emphasize that graduates must be competent in the use of critical thinking (a high cognitive-level skill). Despite this new standard, most written assessments in dental school courses are still based on low cognitive-level questions. The aim of this study was to determine if an exercise that allows students to collaboratively write exam questions would help cultivate higher cognitive levels of learning. To evaluate this exercise at one U.S. dental school, the cognitive level (according to Bloom's taxonomy) of multiple-choice exam questions and students' scores across two cohorts in a cariology course were compared. This evaluation took place using a control group in which questions were instructor-generated and an intervention group in which students worked in groups to develop questions. All students in one first-year class participated in the intervention group (n=104); all students in the first-year class two years earlier served as the control group (n=106). Among students in the intervention group, the response rate to a post-intervention survey measuring students' attitudes about the experience was 70% (N=73). The results showed that the students generating their own assessments developed higher cognitive-level exam questions than the instructor-generated assessments. The intervention group (with student-generated assessments) also performed as well or better on tests compared to the control group (with instructor-generated assessments). In the intervention group survey, the vast majority of students agreed that the exercise was helpful for their overall learning experience, but working in teams was said to be the least valuable component of the activity for their learning. This study suggests that student-driven, collaborative assessments can be an important tool for building critical thinking skills in dental classrooms and that it may be worthwhile to expand this type of exercise into other courses.

  12. Association Between Dental Student-Developed Exam Questions and Learning at Higher Cognitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Anderson, Olivia S; Wright, Mary C; Fontana, Margherita

    2015-11-01

    New dental accreditation standards emphasize that graduates must be competent in the use of critical thinking (a high cognitive-level skill). Despite this new standard, most written assessments in dental school courses are still based on low cognitive-level questions. The aim of this study was to determine if an exercise that allows students to collaboratively write exam questions would help cultivate higher cognitive levels of learning. To evaluate this exercise at one U.S. dental school, the cognitive level (according to Bloom's taxonomy) of multiple-choice exam questions and students' scores across two cohorts in a cariology course were compared. This evaluation took place using a control group in which questions were instructor-generated and an intervention group in which students worked in groups to develop questions. All students in one first-year class participated in the intervention group (n=104); all students in the first-year class two years earlier served as the control group (n=106). Among students in the intervention group, the response rate to a post-intervention survey measuring students' attitudes about the experience was 70% (N=73). The results showed that the students generating their own assessments developed higher cognitive-level exam questions than the instructor-generated assessments. The intervention group (with student-generated assessments) also performed as well or better on tests compared to the control group (with instructor-generated assessments). In the intervention group survey, the vast majority of students agreed that the exercise was helpful for their overall learning experience, but working in teams was said to be the least valuable component of the activity for their learning. This study suggests that student-driven, collaborative assessments can be an important tool for building critical thinking skills in dental classrooms and that it may be worthwhile to expand this type of exercise into other courses. PMID:26522634

  13. Higher precision level at individual laying performance tests in noncage housing systems.

    PubMed

    Icken, W; Thurner, S; Heinrich, A; Kaiser, A; Cavero, D; Wendl, G; Fries, R; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R

    2013-09-01

    With the Weihenstephan funnel nest box, 12 laying hen flocks were tested for their individual laying performance, egg quality, and nesting behavior in a noncage environment. During the whole observation period of 8 yr, a transponder-based data recording system was continuously improved and resulted in a recording accuracy of 97%. At peak production, heritabilities for the number of eggs laid are in some flocks higher than expected. With improved data accuracy, heritability estimates on individual egg weights are more stable. Heritabilities for nesting behavior traits range between a low to moderate level, providing very useful information for laying hen selection to help improve traits that cannot be recorded in cages. Over the years, the benefits of the Weihenstephan funnel nest box for laying hen breeders have grown. This is due to higher data recording accuracies and extended testing capacities, which result in more reliable genetic parameters. PMID:23960109

  14. Higher precision level at individual laying performance tests in noncage housing systems.

    PubMed

    Icken, W; Thurner, S; Heinrich, A; Kaiser, A; Cavero, D; Wendl, G; Fries, R; Schmutz, M; Preisinger, R

    2013-09-01

    With the Weihenstephan funnel nest box, 12 laying hen flocks were tested for their individual laying performance, egg quality, and nesting behavior in a noncage environment. During the whole observation period of 8 yr, a transponder-based data recording system was continuously improved and resulted in a recording accuracy of 97%. At peak production, heritabilities for the number of eggs laid are in some flocks higher than expected. With improved data accuracy, heritability estimates on individual egg weights are more stable. Heritabilities for nesting behavior traits range between a low to moderate level, providing very useful information for laying hen selection to help improve traits that cannot be recorded in cages. Over the years, the benefits of the Weihenstephan funnel nest box for laying hen breeders have grown. This is due to higher data recording accuracies and extended testing capacities, which result in more reliable genetic parameters.

  15. Fusion Construction of the Vertex Operators in Higher Level Representation of the Elliptic Quantum Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Hitoshi

    2002-11-01

    After a short summary on the elliptic quantum group {B}q,λ (widehat {scr {sl}}2) and the elliptic algebra Uq,p(widehat {sl}2), we present a free field representation of the Drinfeld currents and the vertex operators (VO's) in the level k. We especially demonstrate a construction of the higher spin type I VO's by fusing the spin 1/2 type I VO's and fix a rule of attaching the screening current S(z) associated with the g-deformed Zk-parafermion theory. As a result we get a free field representation of the higher spin type I VO's which commutation relation by the fused Boltzmann weight coefficients is manifest.

  16. Cytomegalovirus DNA in Semen and Blood Is Associated With Higher Levels of Proviral HIV DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Anderson, Christy M.; Vargas, Milenka V.; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Morris, Sheldon R.; Smith, Davey M.

    2013-01-01

    Over three-fourths of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have at least one herpesvirus detected in their semen, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent. The presence of CMV is associated with higher T-cell immune activation and with HIV disease progression in treated and untreated individuals. In this study of 113 antiretroviral (ART)–naive HIV-infected MSM, we found that CMV replication in blood and semen was associated with higher levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that interventions aimed to reduce CMV replication and, thus, systemic immune activation could decrease the size of the latent HIV reservoir. PMID:23275608

  17. Plasmatic higher levels of homocysteine in Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease, which includes a spectrum of hepatic pathology such as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The increased serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with hepatic fat accumulation. Genetic mutations in the folate route may only mildly impair Hcy metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between liver steatosis with plasma homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with NAFLD. Methods Thirty-five patients diagnosed with NAFLD by liver biopsy and forty-five healthy controls neither age nor sex matched were genotyped for C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP and PCR-ASA, respectively, and Hcy was determined by HPLC. All patients were negative for markers of Wilson’s, hemochromatosis and autoimmune diseases. Their daily alcohol intake was less than 100 g/week. A set of metabolic and serum lipid markers were also measured at the time of liver biopsies. Results The plasma Hcy level was higher in NAFLD patients compared to the control group (p = 0.0341). No statistical difference for genotypes 677C/T (p = 0.110) and 1298A/C (p = 0.343) in patients with NAFLD and control subjects was observed. The genotypes distribution was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (677C/T p = 0.694 and 1298 A/C p = 0.188). The group of patients and controls showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) for BMI and HOMA_IR, similarly to HDL cholesterol levels (p < 0,006), AST, ALT, γGT, AP and triglycerides levels (p < 0.001). A negative correlation was observed between levels of vitamin B12 and Hcy concentration (p = 0.005). Conclusion Our results indicate that plasma Hcy was higher in NAFLD than controls. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms did not differ significantly between groups, despite the 677TT homozygous frequency was higher in patients (17

  18. Endogenous oxytocin levels are associated with the perception of emotion in dynamic body expressions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Koenig, James I; Sullivan, Sara K; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Lower endogenous oxytocin levels have been associated with impaired social cognition in schizophrenia, particularly facial affect identification. Little is known about the relationship between oxytocin and other forms of emotion perception. In the current study, 41 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN) completed a forced-choice affective body expression classification task. Stimuli included dynamic videos of male and female actors portraying 4 discrete emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and neutral. Plasma oxytocin levels were determined via radioimmunoassay. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ were also less accurate at identifying expressions of happiness and sadness; however, there were no group differences for anger or neutral stimuli. A group×sex interaction was also present, such that female CN were more accurate than male CN, whereas male SZ were more accurate than female SZ. Higher endogenous oxytocin levels were associated with better total recognition in both SZ and CN; this association was specific to females in SZ. Findings indicate that sex plays an important role in identifying emotional expressions in body gestures in SZ, and that individual differences in endogenous oxytocin predict emotion perception accuracy.

  19. Rabies Virus Vector Transgene Expression Level and Cytotoxicity Improvement Induced by Deletion of Glycoprotein Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Shinya; Sato, Sho; Oyama, Kei; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Iijima, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    The glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RV) is required for binding to neuronal receptors and for viral entry. G-deleted RV vector is a powerful tool for investigating the organization and function of the neural circuits. It gives the investigator the ability to genetically target initial infection to particular neurons and to control trans-synaptic propagation. In this study we have quantitatively evaluated the effect of G gene deletion on the cytotoxicity and transgene expression level of the RV vector. We compared the characteristics of the propagation-competent RV vector (rHEP5.0-CVSG-mRFP) and the G-deleted RV vector (rHEP5.0-ΔG-mRFP), both of which are based on the attenuated HEP-Flury strain and express monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) as a transgene. rHEP5.0-ΔG-mRFP showed lower cytotoxicity than rHEP5.0-CVSG-mRFP, and within 16 days of infection we found no change in the basic electrophysiological properties of neurons infected with the rHEP5.0-ΔG-mRFP. The mRFP expression level of rHEP5.0-ΔG-mRFP was much higher than that of rHEP5.0-CVSG-mRFP, and 3 days after infection the retrogradely infected neurons were clearly visualized by the expressed fluorescent protein without any staining. This may be due to the low cytotoxicity and/or the presumed change in the polymerase gene (L) expression level of the G-deleted RV vector. Although the mechanisms remains to be clarified, the results of this study indicate that deletion of the G gene greatly improves the usability of the RV vector for studying the organization and function of the neural circuits by decreasing the cytotoxicity and increasing the transgene expression level. PMID:24244660

  20. Amplification of steroid-mediated SP-B expression by physiological levels of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Fehrholz, Markus; Hütten, Matthias; Kramer, Boris W; Speer, Christian P; Kunzmann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Factors positively influencing surfactant homeostasis in general and surfactant protein B (SP-B) expression in particular are considered of clinical importance regarding an improvement of lung function in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to identify effects of physiological levels of caffeine on glucocorticoid-mediated SP-B expression in vitro and in vivo. Levels of SP-B and pepsinogen C were quantified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR or immunoblotting in NCI-H441 cells daily exposed to caffeine and/or dexamethasone (DEX). In vivo, SP-B expression was analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of preterm sheep exposed to antenatal DEX and/or postnatal caffeine. If DEX and caffeine were continuously present, SP-B mRNA and protein levels were increased for up to 6 days after induction (P < 0.05). Additionally, caffeine enhanced SP-B mRNA expression in DEX-pretreated cells (P < 0.05). Moreover, caffeine amplified DEX-induced pepsinogen C mRNA expression (P < 0.05). After short-term treatment with caffeine in vivo, only slightly higher SP-B levels could be detected in BAL of preterm sheep following antenatal DEX, combined with an increase of arterial oxygen partial pressure (P < 0.01). Our data demonstrated that the continuous presence of caffeine in vitro is able to amplify DEX-mediated SP-B expression. In contrast, short-term improvement of lung function in vivo is likely to be independent of altered SP-B transcription and translation. An impact of caffeine on release of surfactant reservoirs from lamellar bodies could, however, quickly affect SP-B content in BAL, which has to be further investigated. Our findings indicate that caffeine is able to amplify main effects of glucocorticoids that result from changes in surfactant production, maturation, and release.

  1. High-level overproduction of Thermobifida enzyme in Streptomyces lividans using a novel expression vector.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Xia; Zhao, Long-Mei; Wu, Ru-Juan; Zheng, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Ri-Jun

    2013-09-10

    In this study, we constructed a novel Streptomyces-E.coli shuttle vector pZRJ362 combining the xylose isomerase promoter and amylase terminator. A gene encoding the endoglucanase Cel6A in Thermobifida fusca was amplified by PCR, cloned into Streptomyces lividans host strain using the novel expression vector and Pichia pastoris GS115 host strain using the vector pPICZα-C, respectively. Afterwards, the expression pattern and the maximum expression level were comparatively studied in both expression systems. The maximum enzyme activity of Cel6A-(His)₆ secreted in S. lividans supernatant after 84-h of cultivation amounted to 5.56 U/mL, which was dramatically higher than that secreted in P. pastoris about 1.4 U/mL after 96-h of cultivation. The maximum expression level of Cel6A-(His)₆ in S. lividans supernatant reached up to 173 mg/L after 84-h of cultivation. The endoglucanase activity staining SDS-PAGE showed that there were some minor proteins in S. lividans supernatant which may be the Cel6A derivant by proteolytic degradation, while there was no proteolytic product detected in supernatant of P. pastoris.

  2. Influence of cyclophilin D protein expression level on endothelial cell oxidative damage resistance.

    PubMed

    Peng, J Z; Xue, L; Chen, J; Chen, B S; Yang, Y Q

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of cyclophilin-D (CypD) protein expression level on endothelial cell oxidative damage resistance. A model of CypD protein expression or high expression in endothelial cells was established through gene silencing or cloning. The comparable groups were normal endothelial cells cultured in phosphate-buffered solution in liquid handling cells containing 500 mM H2O2 for 90 or 120 min, and then the medium was replaced with common nutrient solution and cultured again for 24 h. The apoptosis rate and nitric oxide (NO) levels of each group were tested. The cell apoptosis rate of the CyPD low expression group (32.51 ± 6.6 %) was significantly lower than that of the control group (52.57 ± 5.84%, P = 0.001), and total NO production was 24.06 ± 3 and 13.03 ± 3.55 μM. The apoptosis rate of the CyPD high expression group (24.24 + 3.08%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (7.7 + 0.68%, P < 0.001); total NO production was 3.55 ± 1.53 and 8.46 ± 0.77 μM, which was significantly different (P = 0.008). CypD protein could increase oxidative stress and cause endothelial cell injury and apoptosis.

  3. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility

    PubMed Central

    Eidet, Jon R.; Utheim, Tor P.; Ræder, Sten; Lagali, Neil S.; Messelt, Edvard B.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth) is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED). At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire) and the Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) questionnaire (SSQ). Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men) with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%), 20 to 39 (25%), 40 to 59 (34%), 60 to 79 (35%) and 80 to 99 (5%). Xerostomia, defined as “daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months” (as presented in SSQ) was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81%) than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; P<0.001). Patients with xerostomia (60 ± 15 years) were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; P<0.001). The use of prescription drugs was more prevalent among xerostomia patients (65%) than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; P<0.021; adjusted for age and sex). Patients with xerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0) than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; P<0.001). Moreover, xerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7) than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046). Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients. PMID:27148875

  4. Durations of extended mental rehearsals are remarkably reproducible in higher level human performances.

    PubMed

    Brothers, L; Shaw, G L; Wright, E L

    1993-12-01

    It has been extremely difficult to quantify temporal aspects of higher level human brain function. We have found that mental rehearsals of musical performance of several minutes duration provide such a measure in that they can be highly reproducible, varying to less than 1%. These remarkable results pose fundamental neurophysiological problems. It is necessary to understand the underlying neuronal bases for this accuracy in the spatial-temporal activity of billions of neurons over minutes without sensory input. Further, they present a powerful constraint on neuronal models of brain function. Such highly reproducible (in duration) mental rehearsals might be used in conjunction with multielectrode EEG recordings to look for reproducible spatial-temporal patterns. Further, we suggest that our results may provide an extremely useful behavioural correlate for high level performance.

  5. Evaluation of higher order statistics parameters for multi channel sEMG using different force levels.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ganesh R; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2011-01-01

    The electromyograpy (EMG) signal provides information about the performance of muscles and nerves. The shape of the muscle signal and motor unit action potential (MUAP) varies due to the movement of the position of the electrode or due to changes in contraction level. This research deals with evaluating the non-Gaussianity in Surface Electromyogram signal (sEMG) using higher order statistics (HOS) parameters. To achieve this, experiments were conducted for four different finger and wrist actions at different levels of Maximum Voluntary Contractions (MVCs). Our experimental analysis shows that at constant force and for non-fatiguing contractions, probability density functions (PDF) of sEMG signals were non-Gaussian. For lesser MVCs (below 30% of MVC) PDF measures tends to be Gaussian process. The above measures were verified by computing the Kurtosis values for different MVCs.

  6. Development of ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels in response to early feeding in broilers and layers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2014-12-01

    Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for different production traits: broilers and layers. Chicks of both breeds either received feed and water immediately posthatch or were subjected to a 72-h feed and water delay. Ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin mRNA expression levels were determined at different time points. Effects of early feeding were limited, but breeds differed strikingly regarding cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels. Cytokine expression levels in broilers were low compared with layers and showed a transient drop in the second to third week of life. In contrast, broilers showed considerably higher expression levels of IgA, IgM, and IgY. These findings indicate that the 2 breeds use different immune strategies, at least on the ileal level.

  7. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress, antioxidant levels and uncoupling protein expression in striped hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si-Si; Cao, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Dong; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-11-01

    According to the rate of living-free radical hypothesis, higher metabolic rates should increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the "uncoupling to survive" hypothesis postulates that uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can decrease ROS production by lowering the potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in which case the correlation between metabolic rate and ROS levels would be a negative rather than positive. In this study, we examined energy intake, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant activity and the expression of UCPs in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain, of striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either 5 °C or 32.5 °C. The energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 5 °C increased by 70.7%, whereas the energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 32.5 °C decreased by 31.3%, relative to hamsters kept at room temperature (21 °C) (P<0.05). Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in BAT significantly decreased in 5 °C group, but increased in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. Neither ROS levels (i.e. H2O2 levels), nor antioxidants in skeletal muscle, liver, heart or brain tissue, were affected by temperature. UCP1 expression in BAT was significantly up-regulated in 5 °C group, but down-regulated in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. UCP3 expression of skeletal muscle was also up-regulated significantly in hamsters acclimated to 5 °C. These results suggest that the relationship between ROS levels and metabolic rate was negative, rather than positive. UCP1 expression in BAT may have played a role in lowering ROS levels. PMID:26244518

  8. Effect of temperature on oxidative stress, antioxidant levels and uncoupling protein expression in striped hamsters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Si-Si; Cao, Li-Li; Xu, Wei-Dong; Cao, Jing; Zhao, Zhi-Jun

    2015-11-01

    According to the rate of living-free radical hypothesis, higher metabolic rates should increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the "uncoupling to survive" hypothesis postulates that uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can decrease ROS production by lowering the potential of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in which case the correlation between metabolic rate and ROS levels would be a negative rather than positive. In this study, we examined energy intake, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant activity and the expression of UCPs in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and in the liver, heart, skeletal muscle and brain, of striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either 5 °C or 32.5 °C. The energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 5 °C increased by 70.7%, whereas the energy intake of hamsters acclimated to 32.5 °C decreased by 31.3%, relative to hamsters kept at room temperature (21 °C) (P<0.05). Malonadialdehyde (MDA) levels, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity in BAT significantly decreased in 5 °C group, but increased in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. Neither ROS levels (i.e. H2O2 levels), nor antioxidants in skeletal muscle, liver, heart or brain tissue, were affected by temperature. UCP1 expression in BAT was significantly up-regulated in 5 °C group, but down-regulated in 32.5 °C group, relative to the 21 °C group. UCP3 expression of skeletal muscle was also up-regulated significantly in hamsters acclimated to 5 °C. These results suggest that the relationship between ROS levels and metabolic rate was negative, rather than positive. UCP1 expression in BAT may have played a role in lowering ROS levels.

  9. Marginal Zone B Cells in Neonatal Rats Express Intermediate Levels of CD90 (Thy-1)

    PubMed Central

    Dammers, Peter M.; Lodewijk, Monique E.; Zandvoort, André; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Here we show that marginal zone (MZ)-B cells in rats can already be detected in neonatal spleen from two days after birth. At this time point, morphologically distinct MZs are not present yet and the vast majority of B cells in spleen are located in a concentric area surrounding the T cell zones (PALS). Before MZs are obviously detectable in spleen (14 days after birth), MZ-B cells seem to be enriched at the outer zones of the concentric B cell areas. Similar to adult rats, neonatal MZ-B cells are intermediate-sized cells that express high levels of surface (s)IgM and HIS57 antigen, and low levels of sIgD and CD45R (HIS24). We show here, however, that in contrast to adult MZ-B cells, MZ-B cells (and also recirculating follicular (RF)-B cells) in neonatal rats express higher levels of CD90 (Thy-1). In adult rats, expression of CD90 on the B cell lineage is confined to immature B cells. We speculate that the expression of CD90 on neonatal MZ-B cells may have implications for their responsiveness to polysaccharide (T cell-independent type 2) antigens. PMID:15144015

  10. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  11. Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera. PMID:25704094

  12. Higher-level phylogeny of paraneopteran insects inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Song, Nan; Song, Fan; Jiang, Pei; Li, Zhihong; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-02-23

    Mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been proven to be informative for animal phylogenetic studies but may also suffer from systematic errors, due to the effects of accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity. We analyzed the mt genomes of 25 insect species from the four paraneopteran orders, aiming to better understand how accelerated substitution rate and compositional heterogeneity affect the inferences of the higher-level phylogeny of this diverse group of hemimetabolous insects. We found substantial heterogeneity in base composition and contrasting rates in nucleotide substitution among these paraneopteran insects, which complicate the inference of higher-level phylogeny. The phylogenies inferred with concatenated sequences of mt genes using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and homogeneous models failed to recover Psocodea and Hemiptera as monophyletic groups but grouped, instead, the taxa that had accelerated substitution rates together, including Sternorrhyncha (a suborder of Hemiptera), Thysanoptera, Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae (a family of Psocoptera). Bayesian inference with nucleotide sequences and heterogeneous models (CAT and CAT + GTR), however, recovered Psocodea, Thysanoptera and Hemiptera each as a monophyletic group. Within Psocodea, Liposcelididae is more closely related to Phthiraptera than to other species of Psocoptera. Furthermore, Thysanoptera was recovered as the sister group to Hemiptera.

  13. The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    PubMed

    Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone β-subunit (lhβ) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone β-subunit (fshβ) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fshβ in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ≥31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

  14. High p21RAS expression levels correlate with chromosome 8 rearrangements in benign human mixed salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Stenman, G; Sandros, J; Mark, J; Nordkvist, A

    1989-09-01

    The expression of RAS oncogenes in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors was studied by immunohistochemistry and by immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies recognizing the HRAS and KRAS gene products. Twenty-eight out of 29 benign pleomorphic adenomas overexpressed p21RAS, whereas only 12 out of 18 malignant salivary gland tumors expressed the p21 protein. The expression levels were also substantially higher in the adenomas than in the malignant tumors, indicating that RAS gene activation appears to be more frequent and of greater importance for benign than for malignant salivary gland tumors. Comparisons of the p21 expression levels with the karyotypes of the pleomorphic adenomas revealed a novel correlation between high p21 expression and chromosome 8 rearrangements. As a hypothesis, it is suggested that a novel gene located on the proximal long arm of chromosome 8, most likely at band q12, is involved in the regulation of RAS gene expression.

  15. Insulin resistance is associated with higher cerebrospinal fluid tau levels in asymptomatic APOE ε4 carriers

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Erika J.; O'Grady, J. Patrick; Hoscheidt, Siobhan M.; Racine, Annie M.; Carlsson, Cindy M.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Puglielli, Luigi; Asthana, Sanjay; Dowling, N. Maritza; Gleason, Carey E.; Anderson, Rozalyn M.; Davenport-Sis, Nancy J.; DeRungs, LeAnn M.; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) is linked with the occurrence of pathological features observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. However, the extent to which IR is associated with AD pathology in the cognitively asymptomatic stages of preclinical AD remains unclear. Objective To determine the extent to which IR is linked with amyloid and tau pathology in late-middle-age. Method Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from 113 participants enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention study (mean age = 60.6 years), were assayed for AD-related markers of interest: Aβ42, P-Tau181, and T-Tau. IR was determined using the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Linear regression was used to test the effect of IR, and APOE ε4, on tau and amyloid pathology. We hypothesized that greater IR would be associated with higher CSF P-Tau181 and T-Tau, and lower CSF Aβ42. Results No significant main effects of HOMA-IR on P-Tau181, T-Tau, or Aβ42 were observed; however, significant interactions were observed between HOMA-IR and APOE ε4 on CSF markers related to tau. Among APOE ε4 carriers, higher HOMA-IR was associated with higher P-Tau181 and T-Tau. Among APOE ε4 non-carriers, HOMA-IR was negatively associated with P-Tau181 and T-Tau. We found no effects of IR on Aβ42 levels in CSF. Conclusion IR among asymptomatic APOE ε4 carriers was associated with higher P-Tau181 and T-Tau in late-middle age. The results suggest that IR may contribute to tau-related neurodegeneration in preclinical AD. The findings may have implications for developing prevention strategies aimed at modifying IR in mid-life. PMID:25812851

  16. Individuals with higher metabolic rates have lower levels of reactive oxygen species in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Salin, Karine; Auer, Sonya K.; Rudolf, Agata M.; Anderson, Graeme J.; Cairns, Andrew G.; Mullen, William; Hartley, Richard C.; Selman, Colin; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the effect of energy metabolism on oxidative stress, but much ambiguity over the relationship between the rate of oxygen consumption and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Production of ROS (such as hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) in the mitochondria is primarily inferred indirectly from measurements in vitro, which may not reflect actual ROS production in living animals. Here, we measured in vivo H2O2 content using the recently developed MitoB probe that becomes concentrated in the mitochondria of living organisms, where it is converted by H2O2 into an alternative form termed MitoP; the ratio of MitoP/MitoB indicates the level of mitochondrial H2O2 in vivo. Using the brown trout Salmo trutta, we tested whether this measurement of in vivo H2O2 content over a 24 h-period was related to interindividual variation in standard metabolic rate (SMR). We showed that the H2O2 content varied up to 26-fold among fish of the same age and under identical environmental conditions and nutritional states. Interindividual variation in H2O2 content was unrelated to mitochondrial density but was significantly associated with SMR: fish with a higher mass-independent SMR had a lower level of H2O2. The mechanism underlying this observed relationship between SMR and in vivo H2O2 content requires further investigation, but may implicate mitochondrial uncoupling which can simultaneously increase SMR but reduce ROS production. To our knowledge, this is the first study in living organisms to show that individuals with higher oxygen consumption rates can actually have lower levels of H2O2. PMID:26382073

  17. Chemically Assisted Enucleation Results in Higher G6PD Expression in Early Bovine Female Embryos Obtained by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clara Slade; Tetzner, Tatiane Almeida Drummond; de Lima, Marina Ragagnin; de Melo, Danilas Salinet; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite extensive efforts, low efficiency is still an issue in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The hypothesis of our study was that the use of cytoplasts produced by chemically assisted enucleation (EN) would improve nuclear reprogramming in nuclear transfer (NT)–derived embryos because it results in lower damage and higher cytoplasm content than conventional EN. For that purpose, we investigated the expression of two X-linked genes: X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In the first experiment, gene expression was assessed in day-7 female blastocysts from embryonic cell NT (ECNT) groups [conventional, ECNT conv; chemically assisted, ECNT deme (demecolcine)]. Whereas in the ECNT conv group, only one embryo (25%; n=4) expressed XIST transcripts, most embryos showed XIST expression (75%; n=4) in the ECNT deme group. However, no significant differences in transcript abundance of XIST and G6PD were found when comparing the embryos from all groups. In a second experiment using somatic cells as nuclear donors, we evaluated gene expression profiles in female SCNT-derived embryos. No significant differences in relative abundance (RA) of XIST transcripts were observed among the groups. Nonetheless, higher (p<0.05) levels of G6PD were observed in SCNT deme and in vitro–derived groups in comparison to SCNT conv. To know whether higher G6PD expression in embryos derived from SCNT chemically assisted EN indicates higher metabolism in embryos considered of superior quality or if the presence of higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels generated by the increased oxygen consumption triggers G6PD activation, the expression of genes related to stress response should be investigated in embryos produced by that technique. PMID:22908977

  18. Correlation of MGMT promoter methylation status with gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Miyuki; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Moura, Ricardo Pereira; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Cabrera, Hector Navarro; Begnami, Marcos; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 1) To correlate the methylation status of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter to its gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma and 2) to determine the most reliable method for using MGMT to predict the response to adjuvant therapy in patients with glioblastoma. BACKGROUND: The MGMT gene is epigenetically silenced by promoter hypermethylation in gliomas, and this modification has emerged as a relevant predictor of therapeutic response. METHODS: Fifty-one cases of glioblastoma were analyzed for MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing, gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MGMT promoter methylation was found in 43.1% of glioblastoma by methylation-specific PCR and 38.8% by pyrosequencing. A low level of MGMT gene expression was correlated with positive MGMT promoter methylation (p = 0.001). However, no correlation was found between promoter methylation and MGMT protein expression (p = 0.297). The mean survival time of glioblastoma patients submitted to adjuvant therapy was significantly higher among patients with MGMT promoter methylation (log rank = 0.025 by methylation-specific PCR and 0.004 by pyrosequencing), and methylation was an independent predictive factor that was associated with improved prognosis by multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: MGMT promoter methylation status was a more reliable predictor of susceptibility to adjuvant therapy and prognosis of glioblastoma than were MGMT protein or gene expression levels. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing methods were both sensitive methods for determining MGMT promoter methylation status using DNA extracted from frozen tissue. PMID:22012047

  19. The role of persuasive arguments in changing affirmative action attitudes and expressed behavior in higher education.

    PubMed

    White, Fiona A; Charles, Margaret A; Nelson, Jacqueline K

    2008-11-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Studies 1 and 2 established effective manipulations of positive?negative AA information, and peripheral?central routes of processing. Study 3 implemented these techniques, and a path analysis was carried out testing the differential effects of valence of information processed via different routes on AA evaluative beliefs, attitudes, intention, and expressed behavior. Results indicated that positive AA messages processed centrally (i.e., for meaning) resulted in significantly more positive evaluative beliefs. Modifications to the original model resulted in a final model with excellent fit to the data that supported the mediating role of intention in the AA attitude?behavior relationship, as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. The findings highlight potential benefits of interventions for improving support for AA policies, provided that positive information is processed at a central, evaluative level.

  20. The role of persuasive arguments in changing affirmative action attitudes and expressed behavior in higher education.

    PubMed

    White, Fiona A; Charles, Margaret A; Nelson, Jacqueline K

    2008-11-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. Studies 1 and 2 established effective manipulations of positive?negative AA information, and peripheral?central routes of processing. Study 3 implemented these techniques, and a path analysis was carried out testing the differential effects of valence of information processed via different routes on AA evaluative beliefs, attitudes, intention, and expressed behavior. Results indicated that positive AA messages processed centrally (i.e., for meaning) resulted in significantly more positive evaluative beliefs. Modifications to the original model resulted in a final model with excellent fit to the data that supported the mediating role of intention in the AA attitude?behavior relationship, as predicted by the theory of reasoned action. The findings highlight potential benefits of interventions for improving support for AA policies, provided that positive information is processed at a central, evaluative level. PMID:19025247

  1. Quantitating Antibody Uptake In Vivo: Conditional Dependence on Antigen Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Greg M.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Antibodies form an important class of cancer therapeutics, and there is intense interest in using them for imaging applications in diagnosis and monitoring of cancer treatment. Despite the expanding body of knowledge describing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of antibodies in vivo, discrepancies remain over the effect of antigen expression level on tumoral uptake with some reports indicating a relationship between uptake and expression and others showing no correlation. Procedures Using a cell line with high EpCAM expression and moderate EGFR expression, fluorescent antibodies with similar plasma clearance were imaged in vivo. A mathematical model and mouse xenograft experiments were used to describe the effect of antigen expression on uptake of these high affinity antibodies. Results As predicted by the theoretical model, under subsaturating conditions, uptake of the antibodies in such tumors is similar because localization of both probes is limited by delivery from the vasculature. In a separate experiment, when the tumor is saturated, the uptake becomes dependent on the number of available binding sites. In addition, targeting of small micrometastases is shown to be higher than larger vascularized tumors. Conclusions These results are consistent with the prediction that high affinity antibody uptake is dependent on antigen expression levels for saturating doses and delivery for subsaturating doses. It is imperative for any probe to understand whether quantitative uptake is a measure of biomarker expression or transport to the region of interest. The data provide support for a predictive theoretical model of antibody uptake, enabling it to be used as a starting point for the design of more efficacious therapies and timely quantitative imaging probes. PMID:20809210

  2. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus. PMID:27136128

  3. Lower prevalence but similar fitness in a parasitic fungus at higher radiation levels near Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Badouin, Helene; Hood, Michael E; Møller, Anders P; Le Prieur, Stephanie; Snirc, Alodie; Siguenza, Sophie; Mousseau, Timothy A; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Cuomo, Christina A; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0.05 to 21.03 μGy/h. Disease prevalence decreased significantly with increasing radiation level, possibly due to lower pollinator abundance and altered pollinator behaviour. Viability and fertility, measured as the budding rate of haploid sporidia following meiosis from the diploid teliospores, did not vary with increasing radiation levels and neither did karyotype overall structure and level of chromosomal size heterozygosity. We sequenced the genomes of twelve samples from Chernobyl and of four samples collected from uncontaminated areas and analysed alignments of 6068 predicted genes, corresponding to 1.04 × 10(7)  base pairs. We found no dose-dependent differences in substitution rates (neither dN, dS, nor dN/dS). Thus, we found no significant evidence of increased deleterious mutation rates at higher levels of background radiation in this plant pathogen. We even found lower levels of nonsynonymous substitution rates in contaminated areas compared to control regions, suggesting that purifying selection was stronger in contaminated than uncontaminated areas. We briefly discuss the possibilities for a mechanistic basis of radio resistance in this nonmelanized fungus.

  4. Naringin promotes differentiation of bone marrow stem cells into osteoblasts by upregulating the expression levels of microRNA-20a and downregulating the expression levels of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jifeng; Li, Jie; Fan, Qinbo

    2015-09-01

    Naringin is a dihydrotestosterone flavonoid compound that significantly inhibits bone loss, improves bone density, and enhances biomechanical anti‑compression performance. Previous studies have demonstrated that naringin improves the activity levels of osteocalcin (OC) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in MC3T3‑E1 osteoblast precursor cells. The present study investigated the effects of naringin on osteoblastic differentiation and inhibition of adipocyte formation in bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). The levels of osteogenesis were modulated via upregulation of the expression levels of microRNA (miR)‑20a, and downregulation of the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ). The results indicated that naringin significantly enhanced BMSC proliferation in a dose‑dependent manner. In addition, naringin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of OC, ALP, and collagen type I. Furthermore, naringin decreased the protein expression levels of PPARγ, and increased the expression levels of miR‑20a in the BMSCs. These results suggested that miR‑20a may regulate the expression of PPARγ in BMSCs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report naringin‑induced osteogenesis via upregulation of the expression levels of miR‑20a, and downregulation of the expression levels of PPARγ. These results indicated the important role of naringin in BMSC differentiation.

  5. Reduced mRNA expression levels of MBD2 and MBD3 in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Artigiani, Ricardo; Lourenço, Laércio Gomes; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília

    2014-04-01

    Aberrant methylation has been reported in several neoplasias, including gastric cancer. The methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) family proteins have been implicated in the chromatin remodeling process, leading to the modulation of gene expression. To evaluate the role of MBD2 and MBD3 in gastric carcinogenesis and the possible association with clinicopathological characteristics, we assessed the mRNA levels and promoter methylation patterns in gastric tissues. In this study, MBD2 and MBD3 mRNA levels were determined by RT-qPCR in 28 neoplastic and adjacent nonneoplastic and 27 gastritis and non-gastritis samples. The promoter methylation status was determined by bisulfite sequencing, and we found reduced MBD2 and MBD3 levels in the neoplastic samples compared with the other groups. Moreover, a strong correlation between the MBD2 and MBD3 expression levels was observed in each set of paired samples. Our data also showed that the neoplastic tissues exhibited higher MBD2 promoter methylation than the other groups. Interestingly, the non-gastritis group was the only one with positive methylation in the MBD3 promoter region. Furthermore, a weak correlation between gene expression and methylation was observed. Therefore, our data suggest that DNA methylation plays a minor role in the regulation of MBD2 and MBD3 expression, and the presence of methylation at CpGs that interact with transcription factor complexes might also be involved in the modulation of these genes. Moreover, reduced mRNA expression of MBD2 and MBD3 is implicated in gastric carcinogenesis, and thus, further investigations about these genes should be conducted for a better understanding of the role of abnormal methylation involved in this neoplasia. PMID:24338710

  6. An inducible expression system for high-level expression of recombinant proteins in slow growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Leotta, Lisa; Spratt, Joanne M; Kong, Carlyn U; Triccas, James A

    2015-09-01

    A novel protein expression vector utilising the inducible hspX promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed and evaluated in this study. High-level induction of three mycobacterial antigens, comprising up to 9% of bacterial sonicate, was demonstrated in recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG when grown under low-oxygen tension, which serves to enhance hspX promoter activity. Recombinant proteins were efficiently purified from bacterial lysates in a soluble form by virtue of a C-terminal 6-histidine tag. Purification of the immunodominant M. tuberculosis Ag85B antigen using this system resulted in a recombinant protein that stimulated significant IFN-γ release from Ag85B-reactive T cells generated after vaccination of mice with an Ag85B-expressing vaccine. Further, the M. tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (Ald) protein purified from recombinant BCG displayed strong enzymatic activity in recombinant form. This study demonstrated that high levels of native-like recombinant mycobacterial proteins can be produced in mycobacterial hosts, and this may aid the analysis of mycobacterial protein function and the development of new treatments. PMID:26021569

  7. Relationship between the expression level of SLA-DQA and Escherichia coli F18 infection in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wen-bin; Ye, Lan; Zi, Chen; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jing; Pan, Zhang-yuan; Zhu, Guo-qiang; Huang, Xue-gen; Wu, Sheng-long

    2012-02-15

    The expression of SLA-DQA was assayed by Real-time PCR to analyze the differential expression between ETEC F18-resistant and -sensitive post-weaning piglets, and then to compare the expression levels of SLA-DQA in 11 different tissues from 8-, 18-, 30- and 35-day-old ETEC F18-resistant piglets, which aimed at discussing the role of SLA-DQA in resistance to ETEC F18. The results showed that SLA-DQA is broadly expressed in 11 tissues with the highest expression level in lymph nodes, and a relatively higher expression level in lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum. In tissues of lymph node, lung, spleen, jejunum, and duodenum, the mRNA expression of SLA-DQA in resistant individuals was significantly higher than that in sensitive ones (P<0.05). In most tissues, the expression of SLA-DQA increased from 8 to 18 and 30 days (weaning day), and increased persistently to 35 days of post-weaning. Expression levels of SLA-DQA on 35 days in most tissues were significant higher than that on 8, 18 and 30 days (P<0.05). The results demonstrated that the resistance to ETEC F18 in post-weaning piglets is related to up-regulation of mRNA expression of SLA-DQA to a certain extent. The analysis suggested that SLA-DQA may be not the direct immune factor that resisted the Escherichia coli F18, but perhaps enhanced humoral immunity and cell immunity to reduce the transmembrane signal transduction of ETEC F18 bacterial LPS and then led to the resistance to ETEC F18 in piglets.

  8. Higher minor hemoglobin A2 levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with lesser disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Muhammed Emin; Ince, Bahri; Karadeli, Hasan Huseyin; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Asil, Talip; Altinoz, Meric A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To define whether minor adult hemoglobin A2 (HbA2, α2δ2) exerts any protective activity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods HbA2 levels were measured in 146 MS patients with high performance liquid chromatography and association with MS Severity Scores (MSSS) were determined. HbA2 associations with blood count parameters were also studied using blood counts evaluated on the same day of high performance liquid chromatography sampling. Routine biochemical parameters were also determined to rule out elusively influential factors, such as anemia and thyroid disorders. Results HbA2 levels negatively correlated with MSSS (Spearman correlation, R: −0.186, P=0.025). Exclusion of confounding factors with a generalized linear model revealed an even stronger negative correlation between HbA2 and MSSS (P<0.001). HbA2 positively correlated with red blood cells (RBCs) (R=0.350, P<0.001) and in turn, RBCs negatively correlated with MSSS (R=−0.180, P=0.031). Average HbA2 levels were highest among patients treated with interferon β1a. Conclusion RBC fragility is increased in MS, and recent data suggest that circulating free Hb contributes to neural injury in MS. HbA2 and its oxidative denaturation product hemichrome A2 enhance RBC membrane stability to a greater extent than do major HbA or hemichrome A. Reductions in ischemic cerebrovascular vascular events are reported in β-thalassemia carriers and HbA2 levels are considerably higher in this population. Episodic declines of cerebral blood flow were shown in bipolar disorder, and we have recently shown a protective role of HbA2 against postpartum episodes in females with bipolar disorder. HbA2’s erythroprotective functions may reduce free Hb and long-term neural injury in MS. PMID:27578976

  9. VEGF Polymorphisms Related to Higher Serum Levels of Protein Identify Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Fernandes; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; da Silva, Renato Ferreira; Fucuta, Patrícia da Silva; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasia of the liver. Major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include chronic liver diseases, carcinogenic agents, and genetic alterations as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involved in angiogenesis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of VEGF-A (C936T and A1154G) with HCC and cirrhosis, in addition to serum levels of VEGF, clinical profile, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities. A total of 346 individuals were studied: 102 with HCC (G1), 117 with cirrhosis (G2), and 127 controls (G3). Polymorphisms were analysed by PCR/RFLP and serum levels of VEGF by ELISA. Alpha error was set at 5%. The wild-type genotype of both polymorphisms prevailed (P > 0.05). In G1, 23% of the patients died, with no relation to genetic profile (P > 0.05). Increased VEGF level was observed in G1 and G3, related to the mutant allele of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G, respectively, and compared with the wild-type genotype (P = 0.0285; P = 0.0284, resp.) as well as G1 versus G2 and G3 for VEGF-C936T and G1 versus G2 for VEGF-A1154G (P < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, there is a relationship between mutant alleles of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G polymorphisms and higher VEGF level, making them potential markers for HCC.

  10. VEGF Polymorphisms Related to Higher Serum Levels of Protein Identify Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rafael Fernandes; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; da Silva, Renato Ferreira; Fucuta, Patrícia da Silva; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasia of the liver. Major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include chronic liver diseases, carcinogenic agents, and genetic alterations as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) involved in angiogenesis process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of VEGF-A (C936T and A1154G) with HCC and cirrhosis, in addition to serum levels of VEGF, clinical profile, lifestyle habits, and comorbidities. A total of 346 individuals were studied: 102 with HCC (G1), 117 with cirrhosis (G2), and 127 controls (G3). Polymorphisms were analysed by PCR/RFLP and serum levels of VEGF by ELISA. Alpha error was set at 5%. The wild-type genotype of both polymorphisms prevailed (P > 0.05). In G1, 23% of the patients died, with no relation to genetic profile (P > 0.05). Increased VEGF level was observed in G1 and G3, related to the mutant allele of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G, respectively, and compared with the wild-type genotype (P = 0.0285; P = 0.0284, resp.) as well as G1 versus G2 and G3 for VEGF-C936T and G1 versus G2 for VEGF-A1154G (P < 0.05 for both). In conclusion, there is a relationship between mutant alleles of VEGF-C936T and VEGF-A1154G polymorphisms and higher VEGF level, making them potential markers for HCC. PMID:27660750

  11. Persistent Smoking after a Diagnosis of Lung Cancer is Associated with Higher Reported Pain Levels

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Marcella; Keefe, Francis J.; Lyna, Pauline; Peterson, Bercedis; Garst, Jennifer; Kelley, Mike; Bepler, Gerald; Bastian, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of smoking status after a diagnosis of lung cancer on reported pain levels. We conducted a telephone survey of patients with lung cancer identified from four participating sites between September 2004 and July 2006. Patients were asked to rate their usual pain level over the past week on a 0-10 rating scale on which 0 was ‘no pain’ and 10 ‘pain as bad as you can imagine’. We operationally defined persistent smokers as patients who reported continuing to smoke after their lung cancer diagnosis. A logistic regression analyses was used to test the hypothesis that persistent smokers report higher usual pain levels than non-smokers. Overall, 893 patients completed the survey. The majority (76%) was found to have advanced cancer (Stages IIIb and IV). The mean age was 63 (SD=10). Seventeen percent of the patients studied were categorized as persistent smokers. The mean pain score for the study sample was 3.1 (sd=2.7) and 41% reported moderate (4-6) or severe pain (7-10). A greater proportion of persistent smokers reported moderate or severe pain than non-smokers or former smokers (p<.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that, smoking status was associated with the usual pain even after adjusting for age, perceived health status and other lung cancer symptoms such as dyspnea, fatigue and trouble eating. In conclusion, patients who continue to smoke after a diagnosis of lung cancer report higher levels of usual pain than non-smokers or former smokers. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms that relate nicotine intake to pain and disease progression in late-stage lung cancer. Perspective This article examines the relationship between pain and persistent smoking in patients with lung cancer. Although more research is needed to understand the mechanisms that relate nicotine intake to pain and disease progression, physicians can promote smoking cessation in patients with lung cancer to improve

  12. Constraints on Tree-Level Higher Order Gravitational Couplings in Superstring Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Stieberger, Stephan

    2011-03-18

    We consider the scattering amplitudes of five and six gravitons at tree level in superstring theory. Their power series expansions in the Regge slope {alpha}{sup '} are analyzed through the order {alpha}{sup '8} showing some interesting constraints on higher order gravitational couplings in the effective superstring action such as the absence of R{sup 5} terms. Furthermore, some transcendentality constraints on the coefficients of the nonvanishing couplings are observed: the absence of zeta values of even weight through the order {alpha}{sup '8} like the absence of {zeta}(2){zeta}(3)R{sup 6} terms. Our analysis is valid for any superstring background in any space-time dimension, which allows for a conformal field theory description.

  13. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  14. High level of MT-MMP expression is associated with invasiveness of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gilles, C; Polette, M; Piette, J; Munaut, C; Thompson, E W; Birembaut, P; Foidart, J M

    1996-01-17

    MMP-2 (gelatinase A) has been associated with the invasive potential of many cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. It is now becoming clear that the activation of this enzyme might be a key step in tumor invasion. This activation process has been shown to be a membrane-associated pathway inducible by various agents such as collagen type I, concanavalin A or TGF-beta, but its physiological regulation is still largely unresolved. MT-MMP was recently discovered and described as a potential gelatinase-A activator. In the present study, we investigated the expression of MT-MMP (membrane-type metalloproteinase) in cervical cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Comparing several in vitro-transformed cervical cell lines, previously shown to display different invasive potentials, our results showed that the ability of cells to overexpress MT-MMP mRNA following ConA induction correlated with their ability to activate gelatinase A and with a highly invasive behavior. Moreover, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we found a higher level of MT-MMP expression in invasive cervical carcinoma and lymph node metastases compared to its expression in non-invasive CIN III lesions. Our in vivo observations also clearly demonstrated a cooperation between stromal and tumor cells for the production of MT-MMP. Taken together, our results clearly correlated high level MT-MMP expression with invasiveness, and thus suggested that MT-MMP might play a crucial role in cervical tumor invasion.

  15. Potato steroidal glycoalkaloid levels and the expression of key isoprenoid metabolic genes.

    PubMed

    Krits, Pinchas; Fogelman, Edna; Ginzberg, Idit

    2007-12-01

    The potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are toxic secondary metabolites, and their total content in tubers should not exceed 20 mg/100 g fresh weight. The two major SGA in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. SGA biosynthetic genes and the genetic factors that control their expression have not yet been determined. In the present study, potato genotypes exhibiting different levels of SGA content showed an association between high SGA levels in their leaves and tubers and high expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase 1 (hmg1) and squalene synthase 1 (pss1), genes of the mevalonic/isoprenoid pathway. Transcripts of other key enzymes of branches of the isoprenoid pathway, vetispiradiene/sesquiterpene synthase (pvs1) and sterol C24-methyltransferase type1 (smt1), were undetectable or exhibited stable expression regardless of SGA content, respectively, suggesting facilitated precursor flow to the SGA biosynthetic branch. The transcript ratio of solanidine glucosyltransferase (sgt2) to solanidine galactosyltransferase (sgt1) was correlated to the documented chaconine-to-solanine ratio in the tested genotypes. Significantly higher expression of hmg1, pss1, smt1, sgt1 and sgt2 was monitored in the tuber phelloderm than in the parenchyma of the tuber's flesh, targeting the former as the main SGA-producing tissue in the tuber, in agreement with the known high SGA content in the layers directly under the tuber skin.

  16. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena; Tedla, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels.

  17. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena; Tedla, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. PMID:26166951

  18. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OH)D Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Bucova, Maria; Suchankova, Magda; Tibenska, Elena; Tedlova, Eva; Demian, Juraj; Majer, Ivan; Novosadova, Helena; Tedla, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS). Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OH)D vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OH)D vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OH)D vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OH)D vitamin serum levels. PMID:26166951

  19. The Association of Higher Plasma Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Levels with Lower Bone Mineral Density and Higher Bone Turnover Rate in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chaeho; Lee, Seung Hun; Koh, Jung-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite evidence from animal and clinical studies showing the detrimental effects of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on bone metabolism, there are no clinical studies relating circulating MIF levels to osteoporosis-related phenotypes. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of plasma MIF with bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover markers (BTMs), and prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Korean women. Methods A total of 246 women not taking any medications or diagnosed with any diseases that could affect bone metabolism were enrolled. BMD values at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur, and blood levels of MIF and BTMs were measured in all subjects. Osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization criteria. Results Before and after adjustment for confounding variables, higher MIF levels were significantly associated with lower BMD values at all measured sites and higher levels of all BTMs. All BMD values and BTMs significantly changed in a dose-dependent fashion across increasing MIF quartile. When participants were divided into two groups according to osteoporosis status, postmenopausal women with osteoporosis demonstrated 24.2% higher plasma MIF levels than those without osteoporosis (P=0.041). The odds ratio per each standard deviation increment of MIF levels for prevalent osteoporosis was 1.32 (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.73). Conclusion This study provides the first epidemiological evidence that higher plasma MIF may be associated with higher risk of osteoporosis resulting from lower bone mass and higher bone turnover rate, and thus it could be a potential biomarker of poor bone health outcomes in postmenopausal women. PMID:27469066

  20. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  1. Complimentary lower-level and higher-order systems underpin imitation learning.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Matthew; Bennett, Simon J; Elliott, Digby; Hayes, Spencer J

    2016-04-01

    We examined whether the temporal representation developed during motor training with reduced-frequency knowledge of results (KR; feedback available on every other trial) was transferred to an imitation learning task. To this end, four groups first practised a three-segment motor sequence task with different KR protocols. Two experimental groups received reduced-frequency KR, one group received high-frequency KR (feedback available on every trial), and one received no-KR. Compared to the no-KR group, the groups that received KR learned the temporal goal of the movement sequence, as evidenced by increased accuracy and consistency across training. Next, all groups learned a single-segment movement that had the same temporal goal as the motor sequence task but required the imitation of biological and nonbiological motion kinematics. Kinematic data showed that whilst all groups imitated biological motion kinematics, the two experimental reduced-frequency KR groups were on average ∼ 800 ms more accurate at imitating movement time than the high-frequency KR and no-KR groups. The interplay between learning biological motion kinematics and the transfer of temporal representation indicates imitation involves distinct, but complementary lower-level sensorimotor and higher-level cognitive processing systems.

  2. Microarray analysis reveals higher gestational folic Acid alters expression of genes in the cerebellum of mice offspring-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Chadman, Kathryn K; Brown, W Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Folate is a water-soluble vitamin that is critical for nucleotide synthesis and can modulate methylation of DNA by altering one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have shown that folate status during pregnancy is associated with various congenital defects including the risk of aberrant neural tube closure. Maternal exposure to a methyl supplemented diet also can alter DNA methylation and gene expression, which may influence the phenotype of offspring. We investigated if higher gestational folic acid (FA) in the diet dysregulates the expression of genes in the cerebellum of offspring in C57BL/6 J mice. One week before gestation and throughout the pregnancy, groups of dams were supplemented with FA either at 2 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg of diet. Microarray analysis was used to investigate the genome wide gene expression profile in the cerebellum from day old pups. Our results revealed that exposure to the higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulated expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Several transcription factors, imprinted genes, neuro-developmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder exhibited altered expression levels. These findings suggest that higher gestational FA potentially dysregulates gene expression in the offspring brain and such changes may adversely alter fetal programming and overall brain development. PMID:25629700

  3. CTLA-4 in mesothelioma patients: tissue expression, body fluid levels and possible relevance as a prognostic factor.

    PubMed

    Roncella, Silvio; Laurent, Stefania; Fontana, Vincenzo; Ferro, Paola; Franceschini, Maria Cristiana; Salvi, Sandra; Varesano, Serena; Boccardo, Simona; Vigani, Antonella; Morabito, Anna; Canessa, Pier Aldo; Giannoni, Ugo; Rosenberg, Ilan; Valentino, Alessandro; Fedeli, Franco; Merlo, Domenico Franco; Ceppi, Marcello; Riggio, Salvatore; Romani, Massimo; Saverino, Daniele; Poggi, Alessandro; Pistillo, Maria Pia

    2016-08-01

    CTLA-4 function as a negative regulator of T cell-mediated immune response is well established, whereas much less is known about the immunoregulatory role of its soluble isoform (sCTLA-4). No data are available on CTLA-4 expression and prognostic impact in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). We investigated, by immunohistochemistry, CTLA-4 expression in tumor tissues and, by ELISA, sCTLA-4 levels in sera and matched pleural effusions from 45 MPM patients. Prognostic effect of CTLA-4 expression on overall survival (OS) was assessed through Cox regression and prognostic significance expressed as death rate ratio (HR). We found that 56.0 % of MPM tissues expressed CTLA-4 with variable intensity and percentage of positive cells estimated by the immunoreactive score. sCTLA-4 levels were significantly higher in sera (S-sCTLA-4) than in pleural effusions (PE-sCTLA-4) (geometric mean ratio = 2.70, P value = 0.020). CTLA-4 expression at the tissue level was higher in the epithelioid histological subtype than in the sarcomatoid, whereas at the serum level, it was higher in the sarcomatoid subtype. A homogeneous favorable prognostic effect was found for CTLA-4 overexpression in tissue, serum and pleural effusion. Interestingly, only the PE-sCTLA-4 was found to be a statistically significant positive prognostic factor (HR = 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.18-0.77, P value = 0.007). Indeed, PE-sCTLA-4 correlated with CTLA-4 expression in tissues, whereas this latter expression showed a weak association with OS. To confirm our findings, further experimental evidences obtained from a larger cohort of MPM patients are required. However, our results would indicate a positive correlation of PE-sCTLA-4 levels and OS in MPM patients.

  4. How School Leaders Might Promote Higher Levels of Collective Teacher Efficacy at the Level of School and Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelli, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaders search for effective leadership practices to ensure success. A quantitative study was conducted to determine what behaviors a leader could use to improve collective teacher efficacy at the level of the entire faculty and at the level of grade level teams. This article focuses on using the inverse relationship between transformational…

  5. Higher efficiency soluble prokaryotic expression, purification, and structural analysis of antimicrobial peptide G13.

    PubMed

    Che, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yinghu; Zha, Xiangdong; Huang, Huoqing; Yang, Peilong; Ma, Lijuan; Xu, Xuejiao

    2016-03-01

    G13 is a 19-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from granulysin. In order to achieve high-level expression of G13 in Escherichia coli cells, and to reduce downstream processing costs, we introduced an Asp-Pro acid labile bond between the His-Patch thioredoxin and G13 and constructed the recombinant plasmid pThiohisA-DP-G13. The plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). After induction with isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h, the fusion protein accumulated up to 200 mg/L in soluble form. The fusion protein was released by a high pressure homogenizer, cleaved using 13% acetic acid at 50 °C hydrolysis for 72 h. The recombinant G13 (r-G13) was then successively purified by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulfate and trichloroacetic acid, followed by one-step cation exchange chromatography. The purified r-G13 displayed a single band (about 2.2 kDa) as analyzed by Tris-Tricine buffered SDS-PAGE, and its precise molecular weight was confirmed using tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of r-G13 by circular dichroism (CD) indicated that r-G13 contained predominantly β-sheet and random coil. Agar plate diffusion assay revealed that the r-G13 exhibited antibacterial activity against both Bacillus subtilis and E. coli.

  6. Modeling Microbial Dynamics in Aquifers Considering the Interaction Between the Higher Trophic Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajracharya, B. M.; Cirpka, O. A.; Lu, C.

    2014-12-01

    Models of microbial dynamics coupled to solute transport in aquifers typically require the introduction of a bacterial carrying capacity term to prevent excessive microbial growth close to substrate-injection boundaries. The factors controlling this carrying capacity, however, are not fully understood. Most explanations for the occurrence of a carrying capacity discussed are based on the assumption of a bottom-up control of groundwater ecosystems. An alternative explanation is based on top-down control. Our model considers substrate, bacteria and higher trophic levels, such as grazers or bacteriophages. The dissolved substrate is transported with water flow whereas the biomasses of bacteria and grazers are considered essentially immobile. The one-dimensional reactive transport model also accounts for substrate dispersion and a random walk of grazers influenced by the bacteria concentration. The grazers grow on the bacteria, leading to a negative feedback on the bacteria concentration which may limit the turnover of the substrate. A single retentostat model with Monod kinetics of bacterial growth and a second-order grazing shows that the system oscillates but approaches a stable steady state with non-zero concentrations of substrate, bacteria, and grazers. The steady-state concentration of the bacteria biomass is independent of the substrate concentration in the inflow. When coupling several retentostats in a series to mimic a groundwater column, the steady-state bacteria concentrations remain at a constant level over a significant travel distance. The results show that grazing is a possible explanation of the carrying capacity, provided that there is enough substrate to sustain bacteria and grazers.

  7. The cohesive metaschema: a higher-level abstraction of the UMLS Semantic Network.

    PubMed

    Perl, Yehoshua; Chen, Zong; Halper, Michael; Geller, James; Zhang, Li; Peng, Yi

    2002-06-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) joins together a group of established medical terminologies in a unified knowledge representation framework. Two major resources of the UMLS are its Metathesaurus, containing a large number of concepts, and the Semantic Network (SN), containing semantic types and forming an abstraction of the Metathesaurus. However, the SN itself is large and complex and may still be difficult to view and comprehend. Our structural partitioning technique partitions the SN into structurally uniform sets of semantic types based on the distribution of the relationships within the SN. An enhancement of the structural partition results in cohesive, singly rooted sets of semantic types. Each such set is named after its root which represents the common nature of the group. These sets of semantic types are represented by higher-level components called metasemantic types. A network, called a metaschema, which consists of the meta-semantic types connected by hierarchical and semantic relationships is obtained and provides an abstract view supporting orientation to the SN. The metaschema is utilized to audit the UMLS classifications. We present a set of graphical views of the SN based on the metaschema to help in user orientation to the SN. A study compares the cohesive metaschema to metaschemas derived semantically by UMLS experts.

  8. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1 mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1. PMID:26214024

  9. Increased amounts of the influenza virus nucleoprotein do not promote higher levels of viral genome replication.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Anne E; Dalton, Rosa M; Amorim, Maria Joao; Elton, Debra; Digard, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Influenza virus genome replication requires the virus-encoded nucleoprotein (NP), partly because it is necessary to encapsidate the viral genomic RNA (vRNA) and antigenomic cRNA segments into ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). However, there is also evidence that NP actively regulates viral RNA synthesis and there is a long-standing hypothesis that increased concentrations of NP in the cell are responsible for a switch from genome transcription to replication. Here, this hypothesis is tested in a recombinant setting and in the context of virus infection. In a plasmid-based system for reconstituting active viral RNPs in cells, titration of increasing amounts of NP did not promote higher levels of genome replication relative to transcription, but in fact caused the opposite effect. An approximately fourfold reduction in the ratio of genomic and antigenomic RNAs to mRNA was seen across an 80-fold range of NP plasmid concentrations. When cells were transfected with the same amounts of NP plasmid to establish a concentration gradient of NP prior to virus superinfection, no change in the ratio of cRNA to mRNA was seen for segments 5 and 7, or for the ratio of segment 5 vRNA to mRNA. A slight reduction in the ratio of segment 7 vRNA to mRNA was seen. These findings do not support the simple hypothesis that increased intracellular concentrations of NP promote influenza virus genome replication.

  10. Higher Trophic Levels Overwhelm Climate Change Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystem Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pelini, Shannon L.; Maran, Audrey M.; Chen, Angus R.; Kaseman, Justine; Crowther, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Forest floor food webs play pivotal roles in carbon cycling, but they are rarely considered in models of carbon fluxes, including soil carbon dioxide emissions (respiration), under climatic warming. The indirect effects of invertebrates on heterotrophic (microbial and invertebrate) respiration through interactions with microbial communities are significant and will be altered by warming. However, the interactive effects of invertebrates and warming on heterotrophic respiration in the field are poorly understood. In this study we combined field and common garden laboratory approaches to examine relationships between warming, forest floor food web structure, and heterotrophic respiration. We found that soil animals can overwhelm the effects of warming (to 5 degrees Celsius above ambient) on heterotrophic respiration. In particular, the presence of higher trophic levels and burrowing detritivores strongly determined heterotrophic respiration rates in temperate forest soils. These effects were, however, context-dependent, with greater effects in a lower-latitude site. Without isolating and including the significant impact of invertebrates, climate models will be incomplete, hindering well-informed policy decisions. PMID:26292214

  11. Perceptual information for the age level of faces as a higher order invariant of growth.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, J B; Shaw, R E; Mark, L S

    1979-08-01

    Previous work supports the hypothesis that cardioidal strain, a nonlinear topological transformation, offers a plausible mathematical model for the perceived global changes in human craniofacial morphology due to growth. Experiment 1 examined the generality of the effect of this growth transformation on relative age judgments by applying it to profiles of a dog, bird, and monkey. Experiment 2 investigated the abstractness of this transformation by looking at its effect on perceived age level of a Volkswagen "Beetle." In both experiments, cardioidal strain resulted in changes in the perceived age of the nonhuman profiles that were similar to those produced on human faces in earlier work. A second transformation, affine shear, failed to produce as significant an effect on perceived age as cardioidal strain when applied to the same structures. Because cardioidal strain produces changes in structures that do not share an isomorphism of rigid (Euclidian) local features or rigid feature configurations, this transformation seems both sufficiently general and abstract to specify what J.J. Gibson has called a "higher-order invariant of perceptual information. PMID:528953

  12. Dengue Patients Exhibit Higher Levels of PrM and E Antibodies Than Their Asymptomatic Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Adeline Syin Lian; Manikam, Rishya; Sathar, Jameela; Kumari Natkunam, Santha

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals. PMID:25815314

  13. Dengue patients exhibit higher levels of PrM and E antibodies than their asymptomatic counterparts.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Adeline Syin Lian; Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Wang, Seok Mui; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Manikam, Rishya; Sathar, Jameela; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals. PMID:25815314

  14. Higher-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera inferred from mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Mao, Meng; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Higher-level hymenopteran relationships remain unresolved in both morphological and molecular analyses. In this study, we present the most comprehensive analyses of hymenopteran relationships based on 48 mitochondrial (mt) genomes. One complete and two nearly complete mt genomes representing three hymenopteran superfamilies were newly sequenced. We assessed the influence of inclusion/exclusion of 3rd codon positions, alignment approaches, partition schemes and phylogenetic approaches on topology and nodal support within the Hymenoptera. The results showed that the topologies were sensitive to the variation of dataset and analytical approach. However, some robust and highly supported relationships were recovered: the Ichneumonomorpha was monophyletic; the Trigonalyoidea+Megalyroidea and the Diaprioidea+Chalcidoidea were consistently recovered; the Cynipoidea was generally recovered as the sister group to the Diaprioidea+Chalcidoidea. In addition, the monophyletic Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha were recovered in some analyses. Several gene rearrangements were detected in each of the three newly sequenced mt genomes. Specifically, the Ibalia leucospoides mt genome harbors a large inversion of a gene block from trnE to trnS2. Inverted, duplicated A+T rich regions were detected in the Ibalia leucospoides mt genome, which probably played an important role during the formation of the large gene block inversion via recombination.

  15. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Breed, Martin F; Christmas, Matthew J; Lowe, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family) should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  16. The construct of problem solving in higher level neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Rath, Joseph F; Langenbahn, Donna M; Simon, Dvorah; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Fletcher, Jason; Diller, Leonard

    2004-08-01

    Three inter-related studies examine the construct of problem solving as it relates to the assessment of deficits in higher level outpatients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-one persons with TBI and 58 uninjured participants completed measures of problem solving and conceptually related constructs, which included neuropsychological tests, self-report inventories, and roleplayed scenarios. In Study I, TBI and control groups performed with no significant differences on measures of memory, reasoning, and executive function, but medium to large between-group differences were found on timed attention tasks. The largest between-group differences were found on psychosocial and problem-solving self-report inventories. In Study II, significant-other (SO) ratings of patient functioning were consistent with patient self-report, and for both self-report and SO ratings of patient problem solving, there was a theoretically meaningful pattern of correlations with timed attention tasks. In Study III, a combination of self-report inventories that accurately distinguished between participants with and without TBI, even when cognitive tests scores were in the normal range, was determined. The findings reflect intrinsic differences in measurement approaches to the construct of problem solving and suggest the importance of using a multidimensional approach to assessment.

  17. Fused RSOS lattice models as higher-level nonunitary minimal cosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, Elena; Pearce, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the Forrester-Baxter RSOS lattice models with crossing parameter λ = (m‧-m)π/m‧ in Regime III. In the continuum scaling limit, these models are described by the minimal models { M }(m,{m}\\prime ). We conjecture that, for λ < π/n, the n × n fused RSOS models with n≥slant 2 are described by the higher-level coset {({A}1(1))}k\\otimes {({A}1(1))}n/{({A}1(1))}k+n at fractional level k = nM/(M‧-M)-2 with (M,{M}\\prime )=({nm}-(n-1){m}\\prime ,{m}\\prime ). To support this conjecture, we investigate the one-dimensional sums arising from Baxter’s off-critical corner transfer matrices. In unitary cases (m = m‧-1) it is known that, up to leading powers of q, these coincide with the branching functions {b}r,s,{\\ell }{m\\prime -n,{m}\\prime ,n}(q). For general nonunitary cases (m < m‧-1), we identify the ground state one-dimensional RSOS paths and relate them to the quantum numbers (r, s, ℓ) in the various sectors. For n = 1, 2, 3, we obtain the local energy functions H(a, b, c) in a suitable gauge and verify that the associated one-dimensional sums produce finitized forms that converge, as N becomes large, to the fractional level branching functions {b}r,s,{\\ell }M,{M\\prime ,n}(q). Extending the work of Schilling, we also conjecture finitized bosonic branching functions {b}r,s,{\\ell }M,{M\\prime ,n;(N)}(q) for general n and check that these agree with the one-dimensional sums for n = 1, 2, 3 out to system sizes N = 14. Lastly, the finitized Kac characters {χ }r,s,{\\ell }P,{P\\prime ,n;(N)}(q) of the n × n fused logarithmic minimal models { L }{ M }(p,{p}\\prime ) are obtained by taking the logarithmic limit m,{m}\\prime \\to ∞ with m‧/m→p‧/p+.

  18. Gender Differences in Health Literacy Among Korean Adults: Do Women Have a Higher Level of Health Literacy Than Men?

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Jiwoo; Kim, Nam Keol

    2015-09-01

    The role of gender in determining the level of health literacy in Korean adults is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the level of health literacy in Korean adults and identify factors associated with health literacy by gender. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design with a convenient sample of 585 community-dwelling Korean adults age19 years and older. Health literacy was measured by using eight items selected from Chew et al.'s 16-question self-reported health literacy measure. In accordance with Andersen's health behavior model, predisposing, enabling, and need factors were included in the multiple regression model. Women indicated a higher level of health literacy than men in understanding medical forms, directions on medication bottles, and written information offered by health care providers. Additionally, for Korean women, a higher level of health literacy was associated with attaining a higher education level and having a consistent place to receive care. Unmarried men and men who had higher self-rated health reported a higher level of health literacy compared with their counterparts. Lower level of depression and higher monthly income were significantly linked to a higher level of health literacy in both men and women. This study has established the importance of gender differences in health literacy and suggests gender-specific intervention may be warranted to reduce the existing gap in health literacy in both Korean men and women. Future research should replicate this study to confirm whether or not our finding is an international phenomenon.

  19. High level protein expression in mammalian cells using a safe viral vector: modified vaccinia virus Ankara.

    PubMed

    Hebben, Matthias; Brants, Jan; Birck, Catherine; Samama, Jean-Pierre; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Spehner, Danièle; Pradeau, Karine; Domi, Arban; Moss, Bernard; Schultz, Patrick; Drillien, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Vaccinia virus vectors are attractive tools to direct high level protein synthesis in mammalian cells. In one of the most efficient strategies developed so far, the gene to be expressed is positioned downstream of a bacteriophage T7 promoter within the vaccinia genome and transcribed by the T7 RNA polymerase, also encoded by the vaccinia virus genome. Tight regulation of transcription and efficient translation are ensured by control elements of the Escherichia coli lactose operon and the encephalomyocarditis virus leader sequence, respectively. We have integrated such a stringently controlled expression system, previously used successfully in a standard vaccinia virus backbone, into the modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA). In this manner, proteins of interest can be produced in mammalian cells under standard laboratory conditions because of the inherent safety of the MVA strain. Using this system for expression of beta-galactosidase, about 15 mg protein could be produced from 10(8) BHK21 cells over a 24-h period, a value 4-fold higher than the amount produced from an identical expression system based on a standard vaccinia virus strain. In another application, we employed the MVA vector to produce human tubulin tyrosine ligase and demonstrate that this protein becomes a major cellular protein upon induction conditions and displays its characteristic enzymatic activity. The MVA vector should prove useful for many other applications in which mammalian cells are required for protein production. PMID:17892951

  20. Effect of cadmium on the expression levels of interleukin-1α and interleukin-10 cytokines in human lung cells

    PubMed Central

    ODEWUMI, CAROLINE; LATINWO, LEKAN M.; SINCLAIR, ANDRE; BADISA, VEERA L.D.; ABDULLAH, AHKINYALA; BADISA, RAMESH B.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium is an environmentally hazardous metal, which causes toxicity in humans. Inhalation of cigarette smoke and industrial fumes containing cadmium are sources of cadmium exposure. It is responsible for the malfunction of various organs, leading to disease particularly in the lungs, liver and kidneys. In the present study, the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on cell viability, and the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-10 cytokines at various concentrations and incubation durations were assessed in MRC-9 human normal lung and A549 human lung cancer cells to elucidate the mechanism of cadmium toxicity. Cell viability was measured using a crystal violet dye binding assay. The expression levels of the cytokines were measured by cytokine specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The viability assay results revealed higher sensitivity of the A549 lung cancer cells to CdCl2 compared with the normal MRC-9 lung cells. In the normal MRC-9 lung cells, higher expression levels of the cytokines were observed at the lowest CdCl2 concentration at a shorter exposure time compared with the lung cancer cells. Higher levels of the cytokines were observed in the A549 lung cancer cells at all other times and concentrations compared with the MRC-9 cells, indicating higher levels of inflammation. The cytokine levels were reduced at higher CdCl2 concentrations and longer exposure durations, demonstrating the toxic effect of cadmium. The results indicated that CdCl2 affected the expression levels of the cytokines and led to cytotoxicity in human lung cells, and suggested that compounds which reduce inflammation may prevent cadmium toxicity. PMID:26397147

  1. Codon influence on protein expression in E. coli correlates with mRNA levels

    PubMed Central

    Boël, Grégory; Wong, Kam-Ho; Su, Min; Luff, Jon; Valecha, Mayank; Everett, John K.; Acton, Thomas B.; Xiao, Rong; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Aalberts, Daniel P.; Hunt, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Degeneracy in the genetic code, which enables a single protein to be encoded by a multitude of synonymous gene sequences, has an important role in regulating protein expression, but substantial uncertainty exists concerning the details of this phenomenon. Here we analyze the sequence features influencing protein expression levels in 6,348 experiments using bacteriophage T7 polymerase to synthesize messenger RNA in Escherichia coli. Logistic regression yields a new codon-influence metric that correlates only weakly with genomic codon-usage frequency, but strongly with global physiological protein concentrations and also mRNA concentrations and lifetimes in vivo. Overall, the codon content influences protein expression more strongly than mRNA-folding parameters, although the latter dominate in the initial ~16 codons. Genes redesigned based on our analyses are transcribed with unaltered efficiency but translated with higher efficiency in vitro. The less efficiently translated native sequences show greatly reduced mRNA levels in vivo. Our results suggest that codon content modulates a kinetic competition between protein elongation and mRNA degradation that is a central feature of the physiology and also possibly the regulation of translation in E. coli. PMID:26760206

  2. Higher gene expression of CYP1A2, 2B1 and 2D2 in the brain of female compared with male rats.

    PubMed

    Nagai, K; Fukuno, S; Suzuki, H; Konishi, H

    2016-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the brain plays an essential role in the local metabolism of various compounds, including clinically used drugs, toxins, and endogenous substances. In the present study, we compared the expression profiles of mRNAs for several CYP subtypes in the brain between male and female rats. The expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, and CYP2D2 in females was significantly higher than that in males. On the other hand, the expression level of the other CYP subtypes examined in the male brain was similar to that in the female brain. These results strongly suggest that marked gender differences exist in the expression profiles of some CYP subtypes in rat brain. PMID:27455552

  3. Higher gene expression of CYP1A2, 2B1 and 2D2 in the brain of female compared with male rats.

    PubMed

    Nagai, K; Fukuno, S; Suzuki, H; Konishi, H

    2016-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the brain plays an essential role in the local metabolism of various compounds, including clinically used drugs, toxins, and endogenous substances. In the present study, we compared the expression profiles of mRNAs for several CYP subtypes in the brain between male and female rats. The expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, and CYP2D2 in females was significantly higher than that in males. On the other hand, the expression level of the other CYP subtypes examined in the male brain was similar to that in the female brain. These results strongly suggest that marked gender differences exist in the expression profiles of some CYP subtypes in rat brain.

  4. VNN1 Gene Expression Levels and the G-137T Polymorphism Are Associated with HDL-C Levels in Mexican Prepubertal Children

    PubMed Central

    Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Aguayo-de la Rosa, Pablo I.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Sánchez-Muñoz, Fausto; Bojalil, Rafael; González-Barrios, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background VNN1 gene expression levels and the G-137T polymorphism have been associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in Mexican American adults. We aim to evaluate the contribution of VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant to HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in Mexican prepubertal children. Methodology/Principal Findings VNN1 mRNA expression levels were quantified in peripheral blood leukocytes from 224 unrelated Mexican-Mestizo children aged 6–8 years (107 boys and 117 girls) and were genotyped for the G-137T variant (rs4897612). To account for population stratification, a panel of 10 ancestry informative markers was analyzed. After adjustment for admixture, the TT genotype was significantly associated with lower VNN1 mRNA expression levels (P = 2.9 × 10−5), decreased HDL-C levels (β = −6.19, P = 0.028) and with higher body mass index (BMI) z-score (β = 0.48, P = 0.024) in the total sample. In addition, VNN1 expression showed a positive correlation with HDL-C levels (r = 0.220; P = 0.017) and a negative correlation with BMI z-score (r = −0.225; P = 0.015) only in girls. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that VNN1 gene expression and the G-137T variant are associated with HDL-C levels in Mexican children, particularly in prepubertal girls. PMID:23185446

  5. Quantifying the Effect of DNA Packaging on Gene Expression Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Harold

    2010-10-01

    Gene expression, the process by which the genetic code comes alive in the form of proteins, is one of the most important biological processes in living cells, and begins when transcription factors bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region upstream of a gene. The relationship between gene expression output and transcription factor input which is termed the gene regulation function is specific to each promoter, and predicting this gene regulation function from the locations of transcription factor binding sites is one of the challenges in biology. In eukaryotic organisms (for example, animals, plants, fungi etc), DNA is highly compacted into nucleosomes, 147-bp segments of DNA tightly wrapped around histone protein core, and therefore, the accessibility of transcription factor binding sites depends on their locations with respect to nucleosomes - sites inside nucleosomes are less accessible than those outside nucleosomes. To understand how transcription factor binding sites contribute to gene expression in a quantitative manner, we obtain gene regulation functions of promoters with various configurations of transcription factor binding sites by using fluorescent protein reporters to measure transcription factor input and gene expression output in single yeast cells. In this talk, I will show that the affinity of a transcription factor binding site inside and outside the nucleosome controls different aspects of the gene regulation function, and explain this finding based on a mass-action kinetic model that includes competition between nucleosomes and transcription factors.

  6. Decisions Made with Less Evidence Involve Higher Levels of Corticosubthalamic Nucleus Theta Band Synchrony.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Baltazar; Tan, Huiling; Little, Simon; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Green, Alexander L; Aziz, Tipu; Foltynie, Thomas; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Zaghloul, Kareem; Brown, Peter

    2016-06-01

    The switch between automatic action selection and more controlled forms of decision-making is a dynamic process thought to involve both cortical and subcortical structures. During sensory conflict, medial pFC oscillations in the theta band (<8 Hz) drive those of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and this is thought to increase the threshold of evidence needed for one competing response to be selected over another. Here, we were interested in testing whether STN activity is also altered by the rate at which evidence is presented during a congruent dot motion task absent of any explicit sensory conflict. By having a series of randomly moving dots gradually transform to congruent motion at three different rates (slow, medium, fast), we were able to show that a slower rate increased the time it took participants to make a response but did not alter the total amount of evidence that was integrated before the response. Notably, this resulted in a decision being made with a lower amount of instantaneous evidence during the slow and medium trials. Consistent with the idea that medial pFC-STN activity is involved in executing cognitive control, the higher levels of ambiguity during these trials were associated with increased theta band synchrony between the cortex and the STN, with the cortical oscillations Granger-causal to those of the STN. These results further confirm the involvement of the STN in decision-making and suggest that the disruption of this network may underlie some of the unwanted cognitive deficits associated with STN deep brain stimulation.

  7. Disturbances of automatic gait control mechanisms in higher level gait disorder.

    PubMed

    Danoudis, Mary; Ganesvaran, Ganga; Iansek, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the gait changes in frontal gait disorder (FGD), a form of higher level gait disorders, are poorly understood. We investigated the relationship between stride length and cadence (SLCrel) in people with FGD (n=15) in comparison to healthy older adults (n=21) to improve our understanding of the changes to gait in FGD. Gait data was captured using an electronic walkway system as participants walked at five self-selected speed conditions: preferred, very slow, slow, fast and very fast. Linear regression was used to determine the strength of the relationship (R(2)), slope and intercept. In the FGD group 9 participants had a strong SLCrel (linear group) (R(2)>0.8) and 6 a weak relationship (R(2)<0.8) (nonlinear group). The linear FGD group did not differ to healthy control for slope (p>0.05) but did have a lower intercept (p<0.001). The linear FGD group modulated gait speed by adjusting stride length and cadence similar to controls whereas the nonlinear FGD participants adjusted stride length but not cadence similar to controls. The non-linear FGD group had greater disturbance to their gait, poorer postural control and greater fear of falling compared to the linear FGD group. Investigation of the SLCrel resulted in new insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for the gait changes found in FGD. The findings suggest stride length regulation was disrupted in milder FGD but as the disorder worsened, cadence control also became disordered resulting in a break down in the relationship between stride length and cadence. PMID:27477707

  8. A Pelargonium ARGONAUTE4 gene shows organ-specific expression and differences in RNA and protein levels.

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Gray, John; Leisner, Scott

    2010-03-01

    RNAi-induced gene silencing plays a role in plant DNA methylation and defense. While most gene silencing studies have been performed on annuals, little is known about the expression of key components of this process (like ARGONAUTE proteins) in ornamentals. Using a combination of polymerase chain reaction techniques, an ARGONAUTE4 gene, PhAGO4, was isolated from Pelargonium. PhAGO4 encodes a predicted product of 934 amino acids that contains the PAZ and PIWI domains typical of ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PhAGO4 clusters with other plant AGO4 proteins. Organ expression patterns of the AGO4 genes in Pelargonium and Arabidopsis show intriguing differences. AGO4 RNA levels decline with leaf age in both Arabidopsis and Pelargonium. In contrast AGO4 RNA levels in roots relative to leaves are higher in Pelargonium than in Arabidopsis. Both Arabidopsis and Pelargonium AGO4 showed higher RNA levels in flowers than leaves or roots. Even though flowers show higher levels of PhAGO4 RNA when compared to leaves and roots, protein gel blot analysis shows that at the protein level, the reverse is true. This suggests that PhAGO4 expression may be regulated at the translational or post-translational level in Pelargonium flowers.

  9. Higher Expression of Proteins in IGF/IR Axes in Colorectal Cancer is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Li, Cong; Tang, Jie; Yi, Cheng; Liu, Ji-Yan; Qiu, Meng

    2016-10-01

    Preexisting type 2 diabetes mellitus (preDM) increases occurrence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC). Insulin growth factor (IGF)/insulin receptor (IR) axes play an important role in the development of both diabetes and CRC. We aimed to explore the characteristics of proteins expression in IGF/IR axes in CRC tissues with preDM. Two hundred fifty CRC patients in West China hospital were included in analysis. Among them, 125 patients had history of diabetes matched by 125 CRC without diabetes at a 1:1 ratio. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of proteins in IGF/IR axis. More positive expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR were found in CRC group with diabetes than in non-diabetes group. No difference was detected in the expression of IR substrate-1, IR substrate-2, IGF-2, IGF binding protein 3, and mammalian target of rapamycin between two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes history was associated with all of the expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR, and higher T staging and lymph node metastasis were respectively independent factors of IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression in CRC patients. Besides, IGF-1 expression was positively associated with IGF-1R and IR expression in all CRC tissues, and the association of IGF-1 and IR expression seemed to be closer in diabetes group than in non-diabetes group. Higher expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IR proteins in CRC was associated with diabetes, suggesting IGF-1/IR signaling may play a special part in development of CRC in patients with diabetes.

  10. In the Red? Debt Levels at Higher Education Institutions in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Daguang; Yu, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Borrowing from banks has become a common practice among Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs), and operating with a heavy debt load has become a characteristic of Chinese higher educational development. Substantial financial commitments acquired by HEIs during their rapid expansion since 1998 are now having serious consequences: numerous…

  11. Confronting the Neo-Liberal Brute: Reflections of a Higher Education Middle-Level Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maistry, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The higher education scenario in South Africa is fraught with tensions and contradictions. Publicly funded Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) face a particular dilemma. They are expected to fulfill a social mandate which requires a considered response to the needs of the communities in which they are located while simultaneously aspiring for…

  12. Implementing English Further/Higher Education Partnerships: The Street Level Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the operation of English further/higher education, with a focus on the role of partnerships in supporting the massification of higher education. The research draws on the bottom-up policy implementation tradition to provide analysis of the effects on partnerships of a quasi-marketised environment. The rationale…

  13. Identifying Higher-Education Level Skill Needs in Labor Markets: The Main Tools Usable for Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    There are natural mismatches in the labor market between the demand for higher-educated laborers and the supply of graduates provided by the higher education system in terms of quantity and qualifications. While there are open positions, some graduates still cannot find work. There are various findings indicating that the mismatch between…

  14. The Prominence of Referring Expressions: Message and Lexical Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Tuan Q.

    2012-01-01

    In conversation, speakers produce some words with greater intensity, longer duration, and higher fundamental frequency (F0) than other words. By making different words in a sentence more prominent than other words, a speaker can change the meaning implied by a sentence. This thesis explores the relationship between processing in the language…

  15. Health Behaviors Predict Higher Interleukin-6 levels Among Patients Newly Diagnosed with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Sonia A.; Teknos, Theodoros; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Fowler, Karen E.; Islam, Mozaffarul; Wolf, Gregory T.; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Health behaviors have been shown to be associated with recurrence risk and survival rates in cancer patients and are also associated with Interleukin-6 levels, but few epidemiologic studies have investigated the relationship of health behaviors and Interleukin-6 among cancer populations. The purpose of the study is to look at the relationship between five health behaviors: smoking, alcohol problems, body mass index (a marker of nutritional status), physical activity, and sleep and pretreatment Interleukin-6 levels in persons with head and neck cancer. Methods Patients (N=409) were recruited in otolaryngology clinic waiting rooms and invited to complete written surveys. A medical record audit was also conducted. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine which health behaviors were associated with higher Interleukin-6 levels controlling for demographic and clinical variables among newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients. Results While smoking, alcohol problems, body mass index, physical activity, and sleep were associated with Interleukin-6 levels in bivariate analysis, only smoking (current and former) and decreased sleep were independent predictors of higher Interleukin-6 levels in multivariate regression analysis. Covariates associated with higher Interleukin-6 levels were age and higher tumor stage, while comorbidities were marginally significant. Conclusion Health behaviors, particularly smoking and sleep disturbances, are associated with higher Interleukin-6 levels among head and neck cancer patients. Impact Treating health behavior problems, especially smoking and sleep disturbances, may be beneficial to decreasing Interleukin-6 levels which could have a beneficial effect on overall cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:23300019

  16. Nonresident Enrollment Demand in Public Higher Education: An Analysis at National, State, and Institutional Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2007-01-01

    This article estimates the standard demand equations for nonresident students using national, state, and institutional level data. The national-level analysis reveals a near-unitary price elasticity, but increases in nonresident tuition and fees do not decrease nonresident enrollment. Finally, results from the institutional level of analysis…

  17. Mentoring the Organization: Helping Principals Bring Schools to Higher Levels of Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelehear, Zach

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Frances Fuller's stages of concern, David Hunt's conceptual levels, and Jean Piaget's model of equilibration, a new view of principal leadership is presented. By attending to the preferred learning style of a group, taking into account the level of stress present as a result of initiatives, and listening to the level of…

  18. A Comparative Study of Student Satisfaction Level in Distance Learning and Live Classroom at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Azhar; Mahmood, Sheikh Tariq; Malik, Allah Bakhsh

    2012-01-01

    The technology has embraced the innovative learning methodologies. Distance Learning has taken the place of traditional face-to-face educational environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of student satisfaction of graduate distance learning educational psychology course to a traditional classroom educational psychology course…

  19. Sustained high level transgene expression in mammalian cells mediated by the optimized piggyBac transposon system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Cui, Jing; Yan, Zhengjian; Zhang, Hongmei; Chen, Xian; Wang, Ning; Shah, Palak; Deng, Fang; Zhao, Chen; Geng, Nisha; Li, Melissa; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Haydon, Rex C.; Luu, Hue H.; Reid, Russell R.; He, Tong-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Sustained, high level transgene expression in mammalian cells, especially stem cells, may be desired in many cases for studying gene functions. Traditionally, stable transgene expression has been accomplished by using retroviral or lentiviral vectors. However, such viral vector-mediated transgene expression is often at low levels and can be reduced over time due to low copy numbers and/or chromatin remodeling repression. The piggyBac transposon has emerged as a promising non-viral vector system for efficient gene transfer into mammalian cells. Despite its inherent advantages over lentiviral and retroviral systems, piggyBac system has not been widely used, at least in part due to the limited availability of piggyBac vectors with manipulation flexibilities. Here, we seek to optimize piggyBac-mediated transgene expression and generate a more efficient, user-friendly piggyBac system. By engineering a panel of versatile piggyBac vectors and constructing recombinant adenoviruses expressing piggyBac transposase (PBase), we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated PBase expression significantly enhances the integration efficiency and expression level of transgenes in mesenchymal stem cells and osteosarcoma cells, compared to that obtained from co-transfection of the CMV-PBase plasmid. We further determine the drug selection timeline to achieve optimal stable transgene expression. Moreover, we demonstrate that the transgene copy number of piggyBac-mediated integration is approximately 10 times higher than that mediated by retroviral vectors. Using the engineered tandem expression vector, we show that three transgenes can be simultaneously expressed in a single vector with high efficiency. Thus, these results strongly suggest that the optimized piggyBac system is a valuable tool for making stable cell lines with sustained, high transgene expression. PMID:25815368

  20. Does Domain Knowledge Moderate Involvement of Working Memory Capacity in Higher-Level Cognition? A Test of Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, D.Z.; Oswald, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that both working memory capacity and domain knowledge contribute to individual differences in higher-level cognition. This study evaluated three hypotheses concerning the interplay between these factors. The compensation hypothesis predicts that domain knowledge attenuates the influence of working memory capacity on higher-level…

  1. The Internationalization of Canadian University Research: A Global Higher Education Matrix Analysis of Multi-Level Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Glen A.; Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    To date, much of the research on internationalization and globalization of higher education has focused on the institution or higher education system as the unit of analysis. Institution based studies have focused on the analysis of institutional practices and policies designed to further internationalization. System-level studies focus on state…

  2. Baseline corticosterone levels are higher in migrating than sedentary common blackbirds in autumn, but not in spring.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Müller, Florian; Klinner, Thomas; Bairlein, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Corticosterone at baseline levels is thought to be mainly involved in the regulation of uptake, storage and release of energy, processes central to avian migration. Consequently, corticosterone levels are thought to be upregulated during migration, but the temporal pattern of its secretion during migration is not well defined. For example, although it appears that corticosterone levels decrease from flight to stopover, it is unknown if levels at stopover are still elevated and it is largely unclear how these levels compare to non-migratory life-history stages. Furthermore, what role corticosterone plays in crucial migratory processes, such as refueling and departure from stopover, is far from understood. We here determined baseline corticosterone levels in migrating and resident common blackbirds (Turdus merula), sampled simultaneously on Helgoland, a stopover site that also supports a sedentary breeding population. In autumn, migrants had higher corticosterone levels than residents, but in spring levels did not differ between the two groups. Corticosterone levels of migrants were very similar in spring and autumn, whereas in residents levels tended to be higher in spring than autumn. Higher levels in residents in spring than autumn most likely reflect the higher daily workload faced by birds during the pre-breeding than the post-breeding period. Our study thus indicates that, relative to the levels observed in residents in autumn, in spring baseline corticosterone levels were moderately elevated in both migrants and residents and that in autumn levels were moderately elevated in migrants only. Currently, corticosterone's main function at stopover is thought to lie in the regulation of departure. Because most migrant blackbirds stay only one or two days on Helgoland, our results are in line with this idea and suggest that migrating blackbirds up-regulated their corticosterone level in anticipation of an oncoming flight bout.

  3. Baseline corticosterone levels are higher in migrating than sedentary common blackbirds in autumn, but not in spring.

    PubMed

    Eikenaar, Cas; Müller, Florian; Klinner, Thomas; Bairlein, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Corticosterone at baseline levels is thought to be mainly involved in the regulation of uptake, storage and release of energy, processes central to avian migration. Consequently, corticosterone levels are thought to be upregulated during migration, but the temporal pattern of its secretion during migration is not well defined. For example, although it appears that corticosterone levels decrease from flight to stopover, it is unknown if levels at stopover are still elevated and it is largely unclear how these levels compare to non-migratory life-history stages. Furthermore, what role corticosterone plays in crucial migratory processes, such as refueling and departure from stopover, is far from understood. We here determined baseline corticosterone levels in migrating and resident common blackbirds (Turdus merula), sampled simultaneously on Helgoland, a stopover site that also supports a sedentary breeding population. In autumn, migrants had higher corticosterone levels than residents, but in spring levels did not differ between the two groups. Corticosterone levels of migrants were very similar in spring and autumn, whereas in residents levels tended to be higher in spring than autumn. Higher levels in residents in spring than autumn most likely reflect the higher daily workload faced by birds during the pre-breeding than the post-breeding period. Our study thus indicates that, relative to the levels observed in residents in autumn, in spring baseline corticosterone levels were moderately elevated in both migrants and residents and that in autumn levels were moderately elevated in migrants only. Currently, corticosterone's main function at stopover is thought to lie in the regulation of departure. Because most migrant blackbirds stay only one or two days on Helgoland, our results are in line with this idea and suggest that migrating blackbirds up-regulated their corticosterone level in anticipation of an oncoming flight bout. PMID:26163918

  4. Expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins predict clinical outcome in anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    ten Berge, Rosita L; Meijer, Chris J L M; Dukers, Danny F; Kummer, J Alain; Bladergroen, Bellinda A; Vos, Wim; Hack, C Erik; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Oudejans, Joost J

    2002-06-15

    In vitro studies suggest that resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis might explain poor response to therapy in fatal cases. Actual execution of apoptosis depends on proper functioning of effector caspases, particularly caspase 3, and on the expression levels of apoptosis-regulating proteins, including Bcl-2 and the recently identified granzyme B- specific protease inhibitor 9 (PI9). Thus, high levels of caspase 3 activation should reflect proper functioning of the apoptosis pathways, resulting in chemotherapy-sensitive neoplastic cells and a favorable prognosis. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying numbers of tumor cells positive for active caspase 3, Bcl-2, and PI9, respectively, in pretreatment biopsies of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) patients and by comparing these numbers with clinical outcome. Activation of caspase 3 in more than 5% of the tumor cells was strongly correlated with a highly favorable outcome. High numbers of Bcl-2- and PI9-positive tumor cells were found to predict unfavorable prognosis. This prognostic effect was strongly related to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) status: ALK-positive ALCL had significantly higher levels of active caspase 3, while high expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and PI9 was almost completely restricted to ALK-negative cases. In conclusion, high numbers of active caspase 3-positive tumor cells predict a highly favorable prognosis in systemic ALCL patients. Poor prognosis is strongly related to high numbers of Bcl-2- and PI9-positive neoplastic cells. These data support the notion that a favorable response to chemotherapy depends on an intact apoptosis cascade. Moreover, these data indicate that differences in prognosis between ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL might be explained by differences in expression of apoptosis-inhibiting proteins.

  5. Strategies for achieving high-level expression of genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, S C

    1996-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of several biological processes promises to broaden the usefulness of Escherichia coli as a tool for gene expression. There is an expanding choice of tightly regulated prokaryotic promoters suitable for achieving high-level gene expression. New host strains facilitate the formation of disulfide bonds in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm and offer higher protein yields by minimizing proteolytic degradation. Insights into the process of protein translocation across the bacterial membranes may eventually make it possible to achieve robust secretion of specific proteins into the culture medium. Studies involving molecular chaperones have shown that in specific cases, chaperones can be very effective for improved protein folding, solubility, and membrane transport. Negative results derived from such studies are also instructive in formulating different strategies. The remarkable increase in the availability of fusion partners offers a wide range of tools for improved protein folding, solubility, protection from proteases, yield, and secretion into the culture medium, as well as for detection and purification of recombinant proteins. Codon usage is known to present a potential impediment to high-level gene expression in E. coli. Although we still do not understand all the rules governing this phenomenon, it is apparent that "rare" codons, depending on their frequency and context, can have an adverse effect on protein levels. Usually, this problem can be alleviated by modification of the relevant codons or by coexpression of the cognate tRNA genes. Finally, the elucidation of specific determinants of protein degradation, a plethora of protease-deficient host strains, and methods to stabilize proteins afford new strategies to minimize proteolytic susceptibility of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:8840785

  6. High expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor sustain the innate immune responses of neonates.

    PubMed

    Roger, Thierry; Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Sweep, Fred C G J; Le Roy, Didier; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2016-02-23

    The vulnerability to infection of newborns is associated with a limited ability to mount efficient immune responses. High concentrations of adenosine and prostaglandins in the fetal and neonatal circulation hamper the antimicrobial responses of newborn immune cells. However, the existence of mechanisms counterbalancing neonatal immunosuppression has not been investigated. Remarkably, circulating levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory immunoregulatory cytokine expressed constitutively, were 10-fold higher in newborns than in children and adults. Newborn monocytes expressed high levels of MIF and released MIF upon stimulation with Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the leading pathogens of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Inhibition of MIF activity or MIF expression reduced microbial product-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases and secretion of cytokines. Recombinant MIF used at newborn, but not adult, concentrations counterregulated adenosine and prostaglandin E2-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2 activation and TNF production in newborn monocytes exposed to E. coli. In agreement with the concept that once infection is established high levels of MIF are detrimental to the host, treatment with a small molecule inhibitor of MIF reduced systemic inflammatory response, bacterial proliferation, and mortality of septic newborn mice. Altogether, these data provide a mechanistic explanation for how newborns may cope with an immunosuppressive environment to maintain a certain threshold of innate defenses. However, the same defense mechanisms may be at the expense of the host in conditions of severe infection, suggesting that MIF could represent a potential attractive target for immune-modulating adjunctive therapies for neonatal sepsis.

  7. High expression levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor sustain the innate immune responses of neonates

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Anina; Weier, Manuela; Sweep, Fred C. G. J.; Le Roy, Didier; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Calandra, Thierry; Giannoni, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to infection of newborns is associated with a limited ability to mount efficient immune responses. High concentrations of adenosine and prostaglandins in the fetal and neonatal circulation hamper the antimicrobial responses of newborn immune cells. However, the existence of mechanisms counterbalancing neonatal immunosuppression has not been investigated. Remarkably, circulating levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory immunoregulatory cytokine expressed constitutively, were 10-fold higher in newborns than in children and adults. Newborn monocytes expressed high levels of MIF and released MIF upon stimulation with Escherichia coli and group B Streptococcus, the leading pathogens of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Inhibition of MIF activity or MIF expression reduced microbial product-induced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases and secretion of cytokines. Recombinant MIF used at newborn, but not adult, concentrations counterregulated adenosine and prostaglandin E2-mediated inhibition of ERK1/2 activation and TNF production in newborn monocytes exposed to E. coli. In agreement with the concept that once infection is established high levels of MIF are detrimental to the host, treatment with a small molecule inhibitor of MIF reduced systemic inflammatory response, bacterial proliferation, and mortality of septic newborn mice. Altogether, these data provide a mechanistic explanation for how newborns may cope with an immunosuppressive environment to maintain a certain threshold of innate defenses. However, the same defense mechanisms may be at the expense of the host in conditions of severe infection, suggesting that MIF could represent a potential attractive target for immune-modulating adjunctive therapies for neonatal sepsis. PMID:26858459

  8. Higher cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression in familial than in sporadic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Marie-Luise; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Budczies, Jan; Bult, Peter; Prinzler, Judith; Radke, Cornelia; van Krieken, J Han J M; Dietel, Manfred; Denkert, Carsten; Müller, Berit Maria

    2012-10-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) is a key element of the single-base excision pathway for repair of DNA single-strand breaks. To compare the cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) expression between familial (BRCA1, BRCA2, or non BRCA1/2) and sporadic breast cancer, we investigated 39 sporadic and 39 familial breast cancer cases. The two groups were matched for hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Additionally, they were matched by grading with a maximum difference of ±1 degree (e.g., G2 instead of G3). Cytoplasmic PARP (cPARP) expression was significantly higher in familial compared to sporadic breast cancer (P = 0.008, chi-squared test for trends) and a high nuclear PARP expression (nPARP) was significantly more frequently observed in familial breast cancer (64 %) compared with sporadic breast cancer (36 %) (P = 0.005, chi-squared test). The overall PARP expression was significantly higher in familial breast cancer (P = 0.042, chi-squared test). In familial breast cancer, a combination of high cPARP and high nPARP expression is the most common (33 %), whereas in sporadic breast cancer, a combination of low cPARP and intermediate nPARP expression is the most common (39 %). Our results show that the overall PARP expression in familial breast cancer is higher than in sporadic breast cancer which might suggest they might respond better to treatment with PARP inhibitors.

  9. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  10. How does gene expression level contribute to thermophilic adaptation of prokaryotes? An exploration based on predictors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Ma, Bin-Guang; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Chen, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Shi-Cui

    2008-09-15

    By analyzing the predicted gene expression levels of 33 prokaryotes with living temperature span from <10 degrees C to >100 degrees C, a universal positive correlation was found between the percentage of predicted highly expressed genes and the organisms' optimal growth temperature. A physical interpretation of the correlation revealed that highly expressed genes are statistically more thermostable than lowly expressed genes. These findings show the possibility of the significant contribution of gene expression level to the prokaryotic thermal adaptation and provide evidence for the translational selection pressure on the thermostability of natural proteins during evolution.

  11. Level of Aspiration: A Behavioral Expression of Self-Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Richard S.; Felker, Donald W.

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of expectations in self-concept and level of aspiration (LOA) behavior. Specifically, the focus was to investigate self-concept and LOA as covariates and to describe the nature of the relationship if, in fact, one existed. A sample of 80 third and fourth grade students was selected from three…

  12. The Role of Persuasive Arguments in Changing Affirmative Action Attitudes and Expressed Behavior in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fiona A.; Charles, Margaret A.; Nelson, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this article examined the conditions under which persuasive arguments are most effective in changing university students' attitudes and expressed behavior with respect to affirmative action (AA). The conceptual framework was a model that integrated the theory of reasoned action and the elaboration likelihood model of…

  13. Higher SOD1 Gene Expression in Cumulus Cells From Infertile Women With Moderate and Severe Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Donabela, Flávia Cappello; Meola, Juliana; Padovan, Cristiana Carolina; de Paz, Cláudia Cristina Paro; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2015-11-01

    It is questioned whether worsening of oocyte quality and oxidative stress (OS) are involved in the pathogenesis of infertility related to endometriosis and in compromised intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. Cumulus cells (CCs) protect oocytes from entering apoptosis induced by OS. Thus, we carried out a case-control study comparing expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4; genes encoding for the main antioxidant enzymes) in CCs from mature oocytes of 26 infertile patients with minimal/mild endometriosis, 14 patients with moderate/severe endometriosis, and 41 controls undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for ICSI, using real-time polymerase chain reaction. As a secondary objective, we investigated the interaction between the expression of these genes and clinical pregnancy (CP) by a statistical model. Only infertile women with moderate/severe endometriosis showed increased expression of the SOD1 in CCs compared to women with minimal/mild endometriosis and controls, with a positive interaction between increased expression and the occurrence of CP, suggesting that SOD1 might be a potential biomarker of CP following ICSI.

  14. Development Efforts Expanded in Ion Propulsion: Ion Thrusters Developed With Higher Power Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Sovey, James S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center was the major contributor of 2-kW-class ion thruster technology to the Deep Space 1 mission, which was successfully completed in early 2002. Recently, NASA s Office of Space Science awarded approximately $21 million to Glenn to develop higher power xenon ion propulsion systems for large flagship missions such as outer planet explorers and sample return missions. The project, referred to as NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), is a logical follow-on to the ion propulsion system demonstrated on Deep Space 1. The propulsion system power level for NEXT is expected to be as high as 25 kW, incorporating multiple ion thrusters, each capable of being throttled over a 1- to 6-kW power range. To date, engineering model thrusters have been developed, and performance and plume diagnostics are now being documented. The project team-Glenn, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Dynamics, Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the University of Michigan, and Colorado State University-is in the process of developing hardware for a ground demonstration of the NEXT propulsion system, which comprises a xenon feed system, controllers, multiple thrusters, and power processors. The development program also will include life assessments by tests and analyses, single-string tests of ion thrusters and power systems, and finally, multistring thruster system tests in calendar year 2005. In addition, NASA's Office of Space Science selected Glenn to lead the development of a 25-kW xenon thruster to enable NASA to conduct future missions to the outer planets of Jupiter and beyond, under the High Power Electric Propulsion (HiPEP) program. The development of a 100-kW-class ion propulsion system and power conversion systems are critical components to enable future nuclear-electric propulsion systems. In fiscal year 2003, a team composed of Glenn, the Boeing Company, General Dynamics, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Naval Research

  15. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  16. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  17. A Prototype for the Use of Hypermedia To Foster Higher Level Reasoning in Family and Consumer Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Dept of Continuing and Vocational Education.

    This guide outlines a prototype for using hypermedia to help students in secondary-level family and consumer education courses develop higher-level reasoning skills. Chapter 1 examines the nature and potential of hypermedia, with special emphasis on its relevance to family-focused curriculum efforts. The following aspects of designing a local…

  18. Object Substitution Masking Induced by Illusory Masks: Evidence for Higher Object-Level Locus of Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Nobuyuki; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2009-01-01

    A briefly presented target can be rendered invisible by a lingering sparse mask that does not even touch it. This form of visual backward masking, called object substitution masking, is thought to occur at the object level of processing. However, it remains unclear whether object-level interference alone produces substitution masking because…

  19. The Life Cycles and Career Stages of Senior-Level Administrative Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Patricia H.; Donohue, Wyveta G.

    Women's opportunities for becoming senior-level administrators at 4-year, coeducational, state-supported colleges were assessed in 1979 in relation to age-related and other factors. Attention was also directed to whether there was a consistent career pattern for women attaining senior-level administrative positions. Biographical data and data…

  20. Gender Disparities in Educational Trajectories in India: Do Females Become More Robust at Higher Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Zakir; Sarkar, Swagata

    2011-01-01

    Studies on educational attainments have tended to focus on attainments at a specific level of education. The change in disparities in attainment over the educational life cycle, however, has been neglected in literature--in India, for instance, the only exceptions are Vaid (2004) and Desai and Kulkarni (2008). This paper uses unit level National…

  1. Higher level of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

    PubMed

    Tomasiuk, Ryszard; Lipowski, Dariusz; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Peplinska, Krystyna; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Malgorzata

    2016-02-12

    Aminoterminal pro-C type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) as an active form of CNP, has been recently proven to be a potential marker of sepsis and to be linked to inflammatory diseases. So far, there are no studies describing the level of NT-proCNP in meningitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with meningitis and to compare it with the serum level of CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) in this group of patients. The results were compared to serum levels of CRP, PCT and CSF levels of cytosis, protein and lactate. NT-proCNP levels were statistically significant between the control group and the meningitis groups (p=0.02; R=0.3). We also noted a correlation between the level of NT-proCNP in the CSF of all of the study groups (controls and meningitis patients) and the CSF levels of cytosis (p<0.5; R=0.43), protein (p<0.05; R=0.39) and lactate (p<0.05; R=0.34), and also the serum level of CRP (p<0.05; R=0.30), but not serum PCT (p>0.05; R=0.11). These results suggest that NT-proCNP could be a potential marker of meningitis, but it cannot be used to distinguish between the types of meningitis.

  2. Association between ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1 expression levels and pork meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X D; Zhang, S J; Ding, Y Y; Feng, Y F; Zhu, H Y; Huang, L; Wu, T; Zhou, J; Yin, Z J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, meat quality traits were compared between Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. The association between expression of four genes (ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, DGAT1, and DECR1) and meat quality traits was also investigated. Meat quality traits were found to differ significantly between pig breeds. Meat color parameter values (a* and b*) and intramuscular fat content in Anqingliubai were significantly higher than those in Landrace (P < 0.01). Meat pH at 1 and 24 h following slaughter was significantly higher in Landrace than in Wei pigs, and meat inosine monophosphate (IMP) content was significantly higher in Landrace than in Wei and Anqingliubai pigs (both P < 0.01). Expression levels of ADSL, GARS-AIRS-GART, and DGAT1 were higher in longissimus lumborum muscle than in heart or liver tissues. ADSL and GARS-AIRS-GART expression levels were correlated with meat IMP content and pH levels. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of meat quality traits in Chinese lard- and European lean-type pigs. PMID:26600543

  3. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Strategy Enhances Students’ Higher Level Thinking Skills in a Pharmaceutical Sciences Course

    PubMed Central

    Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting. PMID:25741027

  4. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    PubMed

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  5. Positive attitude toward healthy eating predicts higher diet quality at all cost levels of supermarkets.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality.

  6. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  7. Tensions in Higher Education Leadership: Towards a Multi-Level Model of Leadership Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Richard; Petrov, Georgy; Gosling, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    UK higher education is undergoing a period of significant change that generates a series of tensions and difficulties for universities and university leaders. This paper explores these tensions through analysis of findings from a study comprising 152 semi-structured face-to-face interviews in 12 UK universities. Building on from theories of…

  8. Institutional and Program Level Guidelines for Conflict Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warters, Bill; Wendy, Smith J.

    2003-01-01

    These guidelines were developed by a national working group seminar hosted by the FIPSE-funded Conflict Management in Higher Education Resource Center. They provide a set of best-practices related to the establishment of conflict-handling services for colleges and universities. Seminar participants were carefully chose to represent faculty,…

  9. The Validation of Different Kinds of Knowledge at the Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omerzel, Doris Gomezelj; Sirca, Nada Trunk

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a flexible education system, including procedures for the validation of previous education and other forms of knowledge should be one of the objectives of higher education institutions as well as other institutions that are engaged in adult education. To be effective, the system must be developed and implemented in partnership with…

  10. Lowering the Cost Barrier to Higher Education for Undocumented Students: A Promising University-Level Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thangasamy, Andrew; Horan, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Undocumented students, many of Hispanic origin, face among the strictest cost barriers to higher education in the United States. Lack of legal status excludes them from most state and all federal financial aid programs. Furthermore, most states require them to pay out-of-state tuition rates at publicly supported institutions. In a new direction,…

  11. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  12. Learning to Lead: Development for Middle-Level Leaders in Higher Education in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in interest in the development of educational leadership in recent years, not least in the school sector. However, little research exists on how leaders in higher education have learnt to lead, particularly those in "middle-leadership" positions such as heads of faculties and departments. This study explores…

  13. Populations of hippocampal inhibitory neurons express different levels of cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Attila I; Buzsáki, György; Freund, Tamás F; Hirase, Hajime

    2006-05-01

    Cytochrome c (CC) immunoreactivity was quantified in functionally distinct rat hippocampal inhibitory neuron populations using double immunocytochemistry and laser scanning confocal microscopy to measure the CC expression level as well as the amount of mitochondria within the cells, which is a sign of neuronal activity. The CC signal showed a similar distribution to cytochrome c oxidase histochemical staining. Strongly stained somata, dendrites and axon terminal clouds were dispersed over the low intensity neuropil staining. The staining was granular and electron microscopic investigation confirmed that the signal was localized in mitochondria. Intensively labeled neurons, showing the morphological features of inhibitory cells, were most frequently found in the principal cell layers, stratum oriens of the CA1-3 areas, stratum lucidum and hilus. These neurons contained not only a higher number of mitochondria than the principal cells but the intensity of the mitochondrial staining was evidently stronger. Among the examined interneuronal populations, parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons were intensively labeled for CC. Calbindin D28k- (CB), somatostatin- and cholecystokinin-labeled cells showed heterogeneous CC levels, whereas calretinin-immunoreactive cells never showed a strong CC signal. CB cells in stratum oriens and alveus layers, lucidum and the hilus were strongly labeled for CC. CB cells in such regions are known to project to the medial septum and contain somatostatin. We have demonstrated that the CA1 interneurons that project to the medial septum (hippocampo-septal neurons) express a high level of CC. Thus, similar to the parvalbumin-containing basket and axo-axonic cells, the hippocampo-septal neurons potentially have a high average activity level.

  14. Differential contribution of cis-regulatory elements to higher order chromatin structure and expression of the CFTR locus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Kerschner, Jenny L.; Gosalia, Nehal; Neems, Daniel; Gorsic, Lidija K.; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E.; Kosak, Steven T.; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromatin structure establishes domains that organize the genome and coordinate gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling transcription of individual loci within a topological domain (TAD) are not fully understood. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene provides a paradigm for investigating these mechanisms. CFTR occupies a TAD bordered by CTCF/cohesin binding sites within which are cell-type-selective cis-regulatory elements for the locus. We showed previously that intronic and extragenic enhancers, when occupied by specific transcription factors, are recruited to the CFTR promoter by a looping mechanism to drive gene expression. Here we use a combination of CRISPR/Cas9 editing of cis-regulatory elements and siRNA-mediated depletion of architectural proteins to determine the relative contribution of structural elements and enhancers to the higher order structure and expression of the CFTR locus. We found the boundaries of the CFTR TAD are conserved among diverse cell types and are dependent on CTCF and cohesin complex. Removal of an upstream CTCF-binding insulator alters the interaction profile, but has little effect on CFTR expression. Within the TAD, intronic enhancers recruit cell-type selective transcription factors and deletion of a pivotal enhancer element dramatically decreases CFTR expression, but has minor effect on its 3D structure. PMID:26673704

  15. Bisphenol a influences blastocyst implantation via regulating integrin β3 and trophinin expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiyan; Wang, Zhengchao; Wang, Xuenan; Dou, Zhaohua; Li, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to investigate effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the blastocyst implantation in endometrium. Methods: Pregnant mice were orally administered with BPA. Implantation sites were examined, and serum estrogen level was assayed with ELISA. Protein expression levels were detected with immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. Results: High doses (400 and 600 mg/kg/day) of BPA remarkably reduced the implantation sites in the pregnant mice. No significant differences were observed in the serum estrogen level across the groups. Moreover, high doses (400 and 600 mg/kg/day) of BPA significantly declined the expression level of endometrial estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the pregnant mice. In addition, high doses (400 and 600 mg/kg/day) of BPA significantly declined the expression levels of integrin β3 and trophinin in the endometrium and blastocysts. Conclusion: BPA declines ERα expression in endometrium, and inhibits adhesion protein expression in endometrium and blastocysts, causing the adhesion failure of blastocyst implantation. PMID:26884915

  16. Expression of neurexin and neuroligin in the enteric nervous system and their down-regulated expression levels in Hirschsprung disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangye; Wang, Jian; Li, Aiwu; Liu, Hongzhen; Zhang, Wentong; Cui, Xinhai; Wang, Kelai

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the expression levels of neurexins and neuroligins in the enteric nervous system (ENS) in Hirschsprung Disease (HSCR). Longitudinal muscles with adherent mesenteric plexus were obtained by dissection of the fresh gut wall of mice, guinea pigs, and humans. Double labeling of neurexin I and Hu (a neuron marker), neuroligin 1 and Hu, neurexin I and synaptophysin (a presynaptic marker), and neuroligin 1 and PSD95 (a postsynaptic marker) was performed by immunofluorescence staining. Images were merged to determine the relative localizations of the proteins. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in different segments of the ENS in HSCR were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Neurexin and neuroligin were detected in the mesenteric plexus of mice, guinea pigs, and humans with HSCR. Neurexin was located in the presynapse, whereas neuroligin was located in the postsynapse. Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin were significant in the ganglionic colonic segment of HSCR, moderate in the transitional segment, and negative in the aganglionic colonic segment. The expressions of neurexin and neuroligin in the transitional segments were significantly down-regulated compared with the levels in the normal segments (P < 0.05). Expression levels of neurexin and neuroligin in ENS are significantly down-regulated in HSCR, which may be involved in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  17. Expression of FOXO6 is Associated With Oxidative Stress Level and Predicts the Prognosis in Hepatocellular Cancer: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Yong; Chen, Yao-Min; Wu, Jian; Yang, Fu-Chun; Lv, Zhen; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of Forkhead box O6 (FOXO6) expression with oxidative stress level and prognosis of hepatocellular cancer (HCC).The case group included tissues of HCC from 128 patients who were hospitalized in Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery of First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The control group included normal liver tissues from 74 patients. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test expressions of FOXO6, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Dihydroethidium (DHE) was dyed to observe reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Immunohistochemistry was used to test FOXO6 expression. FOXO6 was silenced in HepG2 cells to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expressions of ROS, HO-1, GPx, SOD, CAT, p27, and cyclin D1 were also detected to further explore the possible mechanism.The expressions of FOXO6, HO-1, GPx, SOD, and CAT in HCC tissue was significantly higher than those in normal and adjacent HCC tissues (P <0.05). The tumor size, TNM stage, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, the presence or absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), and differentiation degree were related to FOXO6 expression level (all P <0.05). COX analysis showed that high FOXO6 expression, male, positive HBsAg, advanced TNM staging, high expression of AFP, and low degree of differentiation were all risk factors for prognosis in HCC (P <0.05). Compared with the blank group (C group, without transfection) and the negative control (NC) group, the mRNA expressions of ROS, FOXO6, HO-1, SOD, GPx, and CAT were decreased (P <0.05). si-RNA group had significantly decreased proliferation speed during 24 to 72 hours (P <0.05), whereas si-FOXO6 group had remarkably increased G0/G1 staged cells and decreased S-staged cells (P <0.05). The si-FOXO6 group showed notably increased apoptosis rate (P <0.05) and p27

  18. Expression of FOXO6 is Associated With Oxidative Stress Level and Predicts the Prognosis in Hepatocellular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-Yong; Chen, Yao-Min; Wu, Jian; Yang, Fu-Chun; Lv, Zhen; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Shu-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the association of Forkhead box O6 (FOXO6) expression with oxidative stress level and prognosis of hepatocellular cancer (HCC). The case group included tissues of HCC from 128 patients who were hospitalized in Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery of First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The control group included normal liver tissues from 74 patients. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test expressions of FOXO6, heme oxygenase (HO)-1, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). Dihydroethidium (DHE) was dyed to observe reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Immunohistochemistry was used to test FOXO6 expression. FOXO6 was silenced in HepG2 cells to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expressions of ROS, HO-1, GPx, SOD, CAT, p27, and cyclin D1 were also detected to further explore the possible mechanism. The expressions of FOXO6, HO-1, GPx, SOD, and CAT in HCC tissue was significantly higher than those in normal and adjacent HCC tissues (P <0.05). The tumor size, TNM stage, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, the presence or absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg), and differentiation degree were related to FOXO6 expression level (all P <0.05). COX analysis showed that high FOXO6 expression, male, positive HBsAg, advanced TNM staging, high expression of AFP, and low degree of differentiation were all risk factors for prognosis in HCC (P <0.05). Compared with the blank group (C group, without transfection) and the negative control (NC) group, the mRNA expressions of ROS, FOXO6, HO-1, SOD, GPx, and CAT were decreased (P <0.05). si-RNA group had significantly decreased proliferation speed during 24 to 72 hours (P <0.05), whereas si-FOXO6 group had remarkably increased G0/G1 staged cells and decreased S-staged cells (P <0.05). The si-FOXO6 group showed notably increased apoptosis rate (P <0.05) and p

  19. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  20. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  1. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  2. Conceptualizing Gender Performance in Higher Education: Exploring Regulation of Identity Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellabaum, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    While many higher education scholars have considered gender (e.g., Dawson-Threat & Huba, 1996; DeLucia-Waack, Gerrity, Taub, & Baldo, 2001; Jacobs, 1995; Knox, Zusman, & Mcneely, 2004; Lackland & De Lisi, 2001; Massey & Christensen, 1990), most of the literature uses modernistic theories to examine gender roles or gendered differences among…

  3. "A Delicate Balance...": Language as a Tool of Identity Expression for Incarcerated Men Pursuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Lila

    2014-01-01

    In the course of an initiative to provide higher education to adults in prison, incarcerated men enrolled in an undergraduate degree programme were offered the opportunity to participate in a series of writing workshops. This article examines the products of these workshops, specifically the ways that language chosen by the writers serves as a…

  4. Serum creatinine concentration at the onset of uremia: higher levels in black males.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, J G; Shemin, D; Chazan, J A

    1992-06-01

    We compared serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations, estimated creatinine clearances and frequency of uremic symptoms at the start of chronic hemodialysis in all 20 black and 179 white males treated between 1969 and 1983. Serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in black males (16.5 +/- 5.9 mg/dl) than in white males (11.7 +/- 4.7 mg/dl; p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in blood urea nitrogen concentration, estimated creatinine clearance and frequency of uremic symptoms between the two groups. Blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine ratios were lower in black males, (7.3 +/- 1.9) than in white males (11.4 +/- 3.8; p = 0.0001), and only one black male had a ratio greater than 10 compared to 60% of whites. We concluded that black males tend to have higher serum creatinine concentrations than white males at the onset of uremic symptoms, and that higher striated muscle creatinine production in black males and not lower renal function may be the cause.

  5. Effect of opioid receptor antagonism on proopiomelanocortin peptide levels and gene expression in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, C E; Berkowitz, K M; Jaffe, S B; Wardlaw, S L

    1992-06-01

    In order to determine how brain beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and its precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) adapt to chronic opioid blockade we have examined the effects of treatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (NTX) on POMC gene expression and peptide levels in the hypothalamus. Male rats were treated with NTX by daily injection or constant minipump infusion. RNA was isolated from the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) after an aliquot was removed for peptide RIA and the amount of POMC mRNA was measured by solution hybridization SI nuclease protection assay. beta-EP and several other POMC-derived peptides including alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP) or gamma(3)-MSH were measured in the MBH and anterior hypothalamus (AH) by RIA. In an initial experiment POMC peptide levels were measured after 7 days of NTX (4.8 mg/day) infusion. There was a marked fall in the concentrations of beta-EP, alpha-MSH, and CLIP; levels in the MBH declined by more than 60% (P < 0.001). In the next experiment NTX (1 mg) was injected daily and POMC peptides and mRNA were measured after 2 and 5 days of treatment. (beta-EP) and alpha-MSH levels fell progressively in the MBH and AH and were significantly less than those of the controls by 5 days of treatment (P < 0.02). POMC mRNA levels, however, did not change after 2 or 5 days. When NTX was infused for 3 weeks there was a decrease in the concentrations of beta-EP, alpha-MSH, and gamma(3)-MSH in the MBH (P < 0.001). The concentration of POMC mRNA in the MBH, however, was significantly higher in the NTX-treated animals, 0.99 +/- 0.06 pg/mug RNA vs 0.81 +/- 0.05 pg/mug RNA (P < 0.05). Since NTX can affect LH and testosterone release, the study was repeated in castrated rats. POMC peptide levels again fell after 3 weeks of NTX. POMC mRNA levels were higher in the castrated rats than in the intact rats, 1.14 +/- 0.06 pg/mug RNA vs 0.85 +/- 0.09 pg/mug RNA (P < 0

  6. Paracellular nutrient absorption is higher in bats than rodents: integrating from intact animals to the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Rott, Katherine H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2014-10-01

    Flying vertebrates have been hypothesized to rely heavily on paracellular absorption of nutrients to compensate for having smaller intestines than non-flyers. We tested this hypothesis in an insectivorous bat (Myotis lucifugus) and two insect-eating rodents (Onychomys leucogaster and Peromyscus leucopus). In intact animals, the fractional absorption of orally dosed l-arabinose (Mr 150) was 82% in M. lucifugus, which was more than twice that of the rodents. Absorption of creatinine (Mr 113) was greater than 50% for all species and did not differ between M. lucifugus and the rodents. We also conducted intestinal luminal perfusions on anesthetized animals. Absorption of l-arabinose per nominal surface area in M. lucifugus was nearly double that of the rodents, while absorption of creatinine was not different among species. Using an everted sleeve preparation, we demonstrated that high concentrations of l-arabinose and creatinine did not inhibit their own uptake, validating their use as passive, paracellular probes. Histological measurements indicated that M. lucifugus has more cells, and presumably more tight junctions, per nominal surface area than P. leucopus. This seems unlikely to explain entirely the higher absorption of l-arabinose in M. lucifugus during perfusions, because l-arabinose absorption normalized to the number of enterocytes was still double that of P. leucopus. As an alternative, we investigated tight junction gene expression. M. lucifugus had higher expression of claudin-1 and claudin-15, and lower expression of claudin-2 relative to P. leucopus. Expression of claudin-7 and occludin did not differ among species. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that bats have evolved higher paracellular nutrient absorption than non-flying animals, and that this phenomenon might be driven by both histological characteristics and differences in tight junction gene expression. PMID:25063860

  7. Paracellular nutrient absorption is higher in bats than rodents: integrating from intact animals to the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Rott, Katherine H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Karasov, William H

    2014-10-01

    Flying vertebrates have been hypothesized to rely heavily on paracellular absorption of nutrients to compensate for having smaller intestines than non-flyers. We tested this hypothesis in an insectivorous bat (Myotis lucifugus) and two insect-eating rodents (Onychomys leucogaster and Peromyscus leucopus). In intact animals, the fractional absorption of orally dosed l-arabinose (Mr 150) was 82% in M. lucifugus, which was more than twice that of the rodents. Absorption of creatinine (Mr 113) was greater than 50% for all species and did not differ between M. lucifugus and the rodents. We also conducted intestinal luminal perfusions on anesthetized animals. Absorption of l-arabinose per nominal surface area in M. lucifugus was nearly double that of the rodents, while absorption of creatinine was not different among species. Using an everted sleeve preparation, we demonstrated that high concentrations of l-arabinose and creatinine did not inhibit their own uptake, validating their use as passive, paracellular probes. Histological measurements indicated that M. lucifugus has more cells, and presumably more tight junctions, per nominal surface area than P. leucopus. This seems unlikely to explain entirely the higher absorption of l-arabinose in M. lucifugus during perfusions, because l-arabinose absorption normalized to the number of enterocytes was still double that of P. leucopus. As an alternative, we investigated tight junction gene expression. M. lucifugus had higher expression of claudin-1 and claudin-15, and lower expression of claudin-2 relative to P. leucopus. Expression of claudin-7 and occludin did not differ among species. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that bats have evolved higher paracellular nutrient absorption than non-flying animals, and that this phenomenon might be driven by both histological characteristics and differences in tight junction gene expression.

  8. Sea level higher than present 3500 years ago on the northern main Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H., III

    1998-04-01

    New data from an emerged coastal bench and associated fossil beach on Kapapa Island (Oahu), Hawaii, preserve a detailed history of middle to late Holocene sea level. These include 29 new calibrated radiocarbon ages and elevations indicating mean sea level reached a maximum position of 2.00 ± 0.35 m ca. 3500 yr B.P. These results correlate with additional evidence from Hawaii and other Pacific islands and provide constraints on Oahu's long-term uplift rate (0.03 0.07 mm/yr), previously based solely on Pleistocene age shorelines. Our sea-level reconstruction is consistent with geophysical model predictions of Earth's geoid response to the last deglaciation and with observations of increased Antarctic ice volume during the late Holocene.

  9. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  10. Modeling Coastal Erosion, Passive Inundation, and Dynamic Wave Inundation under Higher Sea Level in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii State legislators recently formed the Interagency Committee on Climate Adaptation to investigate community vulnerability to sea level rise. We developed modeling to provide the committee with assessments of exposure to coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding based on the IPCC RCP 8.5 model of sea level rise over the 21st Century. We model the exposure to coastal erosion using a hybrid equilibrium profile model (Anderson et al., 2015) that combines historical rates of shoreline change with a Bruun-type model of beach profile translation. Results are mapped in a GIS showing the 80th percentile probability of potential erosion at years 2030, 2050, 2075, and 2100. Wave inundation is modeled using XBeach. We use a 3 m significant wave height to represent a seasonal high swell event. A separate simulation was run for each heightened sea level (corresponding to the years previously mentioned); which accounts for changes in wave dynamics due to the change in water level over the reef platform. We use a bare earth topo/bathy LiDAR DEM derived from data collected during the 2013 JBLTX survey of the Hawaiian Islands. XBeach modeling is done along one-dimensional profiles spaced 20 m apart. From this, we develop a gridded product of water depth and velocity for use in a vulnerability analysis. Passive inundation due to sea level rise, the so-called "bath tub" method, provide estimates of storm drain flooding and groundwater inundation. Our analysis of these three impacts of sea level rise, combined - coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding - are used with other available data in the FEMA Hazus software to estimate exposure and loss of upland assets.

  11. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change. PMID:25372614

  12. Gli2 protein expression level is a feasible marker of ligand-dependent hedgehog activation in pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Y; Sasajima, J; Mizukami, Y; Koizumi, K; Kawamoto, T; Ono, Y; Karasaki, H; Tanabe, H; Fujiya, M; Kohgo, Y

    2016-06-01

    The hedgehog pathway is known to promote proliferation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and has been shown to restrain tumor progression. To understand how hedgehog causes these effects, we sought to carefully examine protein expression of hedgehog signaling components during different tumor stages. Genetically engineered mice, Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D and Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D;p53lox/+, were utilized to model distinct phases of tumorigenesis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN) and PDA. Human pancreatic specimens of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and PDA were also employed. PanIN and IPMN lesions highly express Sonic Hedgehog, at a level that is slightly higher than that observed in PDA. GLI2 protein is also expressed in both PanIN/IPMN and PDA. Although there was no difference in the nuclear staining, the cytoplasmic GLI2 level in PDA was modest in comparison to that in PanIN/IPMN. Hedgehog interacting protein was strongly expressed in the precursors, whereas the level in PDA was significantly attenuated. There were no differences in expression of Patched1 at early and late stages. Finally, a strong correlation between Sonic Hedgehog and GLI2 staining was found in both human and murine pancreatic tumors. The results indicate that the GLI2 protein level could serve as a feasible marker of ligand-dependent hedgehog activation in pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:27543868

  13. Higher levels of antibodies to the tumour-associated antigen cyclin B1 in cancer-free individuals than in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, J P; Kistner-Griffin, E; Namboodiri, A M; Iwasaki, M; Kasuga, Y; Hamada, G S; Tsugane, S

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin B1 is a checkpoint protein that regulates cell division from G2 to the M phase. Studies in mice have shown that cyclin B1 vaccine-induced immunity significantly delayed or prevented the spontaneous cancer development later in life. We hypothesized that if these results showing a protective effect of anti-cyclin B1 antibodies could be extrapolated to the human condition, cancer-free individuals should have higher levels of endogenous antibodies than patients with cancers characterized by the over-expression of this tumour-associated antigen. To test this hypothesis, we characterized a large (1739 subjects) number of multi-ethnic patients with breast cancer (which over-expresses cyclin B1) and matched controls for anti-cyclin B1 immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. Multivariate analyses, after adjusting for the covariates, showed that cancer-free individuals had significantly higher levels of naturally occurring IgG antibodies to cyclin B1 than patients with breast cancer (mean ± standard deviation: 148·0 ± 73·6 versus 126·1 ± 67·8 arbitrary units per ml; P < 0·0001). These findings may have important implications for cyclin B1-based immunotherapy against breast cancer and many other cyclin B1-over-expressing malignancies. PMID:24852823

  14. Higher habitual intake of dietary fat and carbohydrates are associated with lower leptin and higher ghrelin concentrations in overweight and obese postmenopausal women with elevated insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Neuhouser, Marian L; Xiao, Liren; Ulrich, Cornelia M; McTiernan, Anne; Foster-Schubert, Karen E

    2009-11-01

    A highly regulated homeostatic system governs body weight; however, it is possible that this system might be impaired by the sustained intake of highly palatable foods. Short-term feeding studies suggest that the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin is suppressed less effectively by dietary fat intake, and diets high in sucrose decrease levels of the adipose hormone leptin. We hypothesized that higher habitual intake of dietary fat and carbohydrate (CHO) would be associated with elevated concentrations of circulating plasma ghrelin and lower circulating leptin in humans, a hormonal profile that could promote weight gain. To test our hypothesis, we examined the cross-sectional associations of ghrelin and leptin with the habitual macronutrient intake of 165 healthy overweight and obese sedentary women and tested the modifying role of insulin in these associations. We observed a significant inverse association between leptin concentrations and percentage energy from CHO independent of body mass index, percentage body fat, age, and intraabdominal fat (beta = -0.11 P = .04). No significant associations were observed between ghrelin and macronutrients or their subtypes among the total cohort. Among women with insulin concentrations at or greater than the median, we found a statistically significant positive association between intake of saturated fat and ghrelin concentrations, as well as additional statistically significant associations between leptin concentrations and macronutrients not observed among the total cohort. Our results provide some evidence that diets higher in fat and CHO are associated with a hormonal profile (ie, lower leptin and higher ghrelin concentrations), which could enhance weight gain, particularly among individuals with higher circulating insulin concentrations.

  15. Enriched expression of GluD1 in higher brain regions and its involvement in parallel fiber-interneuron synapse formation in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Konno, Kohtarou; Matsuda, Keiko; Nakamoto, Chihiro; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Yamasaki, Miwako; Sakimura, Kenji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2014-05-28

    Of the two members of the δ subfamily of ionotropic glutamate receptors, GluD2 is exclusively expressed at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses in the cerebellum and regulates their structural and functional connectivity. However, little is known to date regarding cellular and synaptic expression of GluD1 and its role in synaptic circuit formation. In the present study, we investigated this issue by producing specific and sensitive histochemical probes for GluD1 and analyzing cerebellar synaptic circuits in GluD1-knock-out mice. GluD1 was widely expressed in the adult mouse brain, with high levels in higher brain regions, including the cerebral cortex, striatum, limbic regions (hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, bed nucleus stria terminalis, lateral habenula, and central nucleus of the amygdala), and cerebellar cortex. In the cerebellar cortex, GluD1 mRNA was expressed at the highest level in molecular layer interneurons and its immunoreactivity was concentrated at PF synapses on interneuron somata. In GluD1-knock-out mice, the density of PF synapses on interneuron somata was significantly reduced and the size and number of interneurons were significantly diminished. Therefore, GluD1 is common to GluD2 in expression at PF synapses, but distinct from GluD2 in neuronal expression in the cerebellar cortex; that is, GluD1 in interneurons and GluD2 in PCs. Furthermore, GluD1 regulates the connectivity of PF-interneuron synapses and promotes the differentiation and/or survival of molecular layer interneurons. These results suggest that GluD1 works in concert with GluD2 for the construction of cerebellar synaptic wiring through distinct neuronal and synaptic expressions and also their shared synapse-connecting function.

  16. Level of expression of E-cadherin mRNA in colorectal cancer correlates with clinical outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Dorudi, S.; Hanby, A. M.; Poulsom, R.; Northover, J.; Hart, I. R.

    1995-01-01

    A series of colorectal carcinomas (n = 49) resected from patients with known clinical outcomes were analysed for E-cadherin expression using in situ hybridisation to measure mRNA. Patients surviving 5 years or longer (n = 31) exhibited significantly higher levels of E-cadherin mRNA than those surviving less than 5 years (n = 18, P = 0.003). These preliminary results from this small sample suggest that E-cadherin expression may be a useful prognostic marker in colorectal cancer patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:7880746

  17. Qualifications at Level 5: Progressing in a Career or to Higher Education. Working Paper No 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grm, Slava Pevec; Bjørnåvold, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses qualifications at level 5 of the European qualifications framework (EQF) in 15 countries (Belgium (Flanders), the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Ireland, France, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, the United Kingdom (EWNI and Scotland) that had linked their national…

  18. The Effects of Higher Education/Military Service on Achievement Levels of Police Academy Cadets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas Allen

    This study compared levels of achievement of three groups of Houston (Texas) police academy cadets: those with no military service but with 60 or more college credit hours, those with military service and 0 hours of college credit, and those with military service and 1 to 59 hours of college credit. Prior to 1991, police cadets in Houston were…

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  20. Exploring the Supervision Experiences of Student Affairs Mid-Level Leaders in Catholic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Dorothy Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the supervision experiences of 17 student affairs department directors at six Catholic colleges and universities in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The study focused on the supervision and management skills needed by mid-level managers, and probed if and how they acquired those skills.…

  1. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with greater hippocampal volume in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle; Cooke, Gillian E.; Awick, Elizabeth; Roberts, Sarah; Erickson, Kirk I.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    As breast cancer treatment is associated with declines in brain and cognitive health, it is important to identify strategies to enhance the cognitive vitality of cancer survivors. In particular, the hippocampus is known to play an important role in brain and memory declines following cancer treatment. The hippocampus is also known for its plasticity and positive association with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The present study explores whether CRF may hold promise for lessening declines in brain and cognitive health of a sample of breast cancer survivors within 3 years of completion of primary cancer treatment. We explored the role of cardiovascular fitness in hippocampal structure in breast cancer survivors and non-cancer female controls, as well as performed a median split to compare differences in hippocampal volume in relatively higher fit and lower fit cancer survivors and non-cancer controls. Indeed, CRF and total hippocampal volume were positively correlated in the cancer survivors. In particular, higher fit breast cancer survivors had comparable hippocampal volumes to non-cancer control participants (Cohen’s d = 0.13; p > 0.3), whereas lower fit breast cancer survivors showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes compared to both lower fit and higher fit control participants (Cohen’s d = 0.87, p < 0.05). These results are the first to identify that CRF may protect the brain health of breast cancer survivors within 3 years of treatment. The present study uniquely contributes to the field of cancer and cognition and emphasizes the importance of investigating how individual differences in CRF play a role in brain changes of breast cancer survivors. PMID:26379528

  2. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones.

  3. Associations between Depressive State and Impaired Higher-Level Functional Capacity in the Elderly with Long-Term Care Requirements.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Soshiro; Hayashi, Chisato; Sugiura, Keiko; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Depressive state has been reported to be significantly associated with higher-level functional capacity among community-dwelling elderly. However, few studies have investigated the associations among people with long-term care requirements. We aimed to investigate the associations between depressive state and higher-level functional capacity and obtain marginal odds ratios using propensity score analyses in people with long-term care requirements. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on participants aged ≥ 65 years (n = 545) who were community dwelling and used outpatient care services for long-term preventive care. We measured higher-level functional capacity, depressive state, and possible confounders. Then, we estimated the marginal odds ratios (i.e., the change in odds of impaired higher-level functional capacity if all versus no participants were exposed to depressive state) by logistic models using generalized linear models with the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) for propensity score and design-based standard errors. Depressive state was used as the exposure variable and higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable. The all absolute standardized differences after the IPTW using the propensity scores were < 10% which indicated negligible differences in the mean or prevalence of the covariates between non-depressive state and depressive state. The marginal odds ratios were estimated by the logistic models with IPTW using the propensity scores. The marginal odds ratios were 2.17 (95%CI: 1.13-4.19) for men and 2.57 (95%CI: 1.26-5.26) for women. Prevention of depressive state may contribute to not only depressive state but also higher-level functional capacity.

  4. The consumption of more vegetables and less meat is associated with higher levels of acculturation among Mongolians in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Hwang, Jinah; Lee, Jounghee; Park, Haeryun

    2013-12-01

    Although Mongolian immigrants are a rapidly growing population in South Korea, the 2 countries have distinct diets because of climatic and geographical differences. The Mongolian diet is mostly animal-based with few vegetables and fruits, whereas the Korean diet is largely plant based. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and dietary intakes among Mongolians living in South Korea. We hypothesized that higher levels of acculturation would be associated with higher vegetable, fruit, and plant-based food intakes among Mongolian immigrants. A total of 500 Mongolian immigrants participated in this study conducted between December 2010 and May 2011. To measure the acculturation level, we developed an acculturation scale based on the Suinn-Lew Asian self-identity acculturation scale. Dietary intakes were assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. Associations between acculturation and dietary intakes were investigated using a general linear model adjusted for demographic characteristics. The participants were grouped into either a low-acculturation group or a high-acculturation group. The high-acculturation group reported significantly higher consumption of vegetables and rice and significantly lower consumption of meat, potatoes, and flour products compared with their low-acculturation counterparts. However, a higher level of acculturation was also significantly related to a higher intake of sodium. These findings could be used to tailor nutrition programs to different acculturation levels.

  5. New adipokines vaspin and omentin. Circulating levels and gene expression in adipose tissue from morbidly obese women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaspin and omentin are recently described molecules that belong to the adipokine family and seem to be related to metabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were twofold: to evaluate vaspin and omentin circulating levels and mRNA expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in non-diabetic morbidly obese women; and to assess the relationship of vaspin and omentin with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and other adipo/cytokines. Design We analysed vaspin and omentin circulating levels in 71 women of European descent (40 morbidly obese [BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2] and 31 lean [BMI ≤ 25]). We assessed vaspin and omentin gene expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 46 women: 40 morbidly obese and 6 lean. We determined serum vaspin and plasma omentin levels with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and adipose tissue mRNA expression by real time RT-PCR. Results Serum vaspin levels in the morbidly obese were not significantly different from those in controls. They correlated inversely with levels of lipocalin 2 and interleukin 6. Vaspin mRNA expression was significantly higher in the morbidly obese, in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma omentin levels were significantly lower in the morbidly obese and they correlated inversely with glucidic metabolism parameters. Omentin circulating levels, then, correlated inversely with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Omentin expression in visceral adipose tissue was significantly lower in morbidly obese women than in controls. Conclusions The present study indicates that vaspin may have a compensatory role in the underlying inflammation of obesity. Decreased omentin circulating levels have a close association with MS in morbidly obese women. PMID:21526992

  6. Hypoxia disrupts the expression levels of circadian rhythm genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Yang, Sheng-Li; Fang, Xiefan; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Sun, Cheng-Yi; Huang, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Disturbance in the expression of circadian rhythm genes is a common feature in certain types of cancer, however the mechanisms mediating this disturbance remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxia on the expression of circadian rhythm genes in liver cancer cells and to identify the mechanisms underlying this effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The HCC cell line, PLC/PRF/5. was treated with either a vehicle control or CoCl2 at 50, 100 or 200 µΜ for 24 h. Following treatment, the protein expression levels of hypoxia‑inducible factor (HIF)‑1α and HIF‑2α were detected by western blotting and the mRNA expression levels of circadian rhythm genes, including circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock), brain and muscle Arnt‑like 1 (Bmal1), period (Per)1, Per2, Per3, cryptochrome (Cry)1, Cry2 and casein kinase Iε (CKIε), were detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). Expression plasmids containing HIF‑1α or HIF‑2α were transfected into the PLC/PRF/5 cells using liposomes and RT‑qPCR was used to determine the effects of the transfections on the expression levels of circadian rhythm genes. Following treatment with CoCl2, the protein expression levels of HIF‑1α and HIF‑2α were upregulated in a CoCl2 concentration‑dependent manner. The mRNA expression levels of Clock, Bmal1 and Cry2 were increased, and the mRNA expression levels of Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1 and CKIε were decreased following CoCl2 treatment (P<0.05). In the PLC/PRF/5 cells transfected with the plasmid containing HIF‑1α, the mRNA expression levels of Clock, Bmal1 and Cry2 were increased, and the mRNA expression levels of Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1 and CKIε were decreased. In the PLC/PRF/5 cells transfected with the plasmid containing HIF‑2α, the mRNA expression levels of Clock, Bmal1, Per1, Cry1, Cry2 and CKIε were upregulated, and the mRNA expression levels of Per2 and Per3 were

  7. Differential viral levels and immune gene expression in three stocks of Apis mellifera induced by different numbers of Varroa destructor.

    PubMed

    Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; de Guzman, Lilia I; Tarver, Matthew R; Rinderer, Thomas E; Chen, Yanping; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2015-01-01

    The viral levels and immune responses of Italian honey bees (IHB), Russian honey bees (RHB) and an outcross of Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees (POL) deliberately infested with one or two foundress Varroa were compared. We found that the Deformed wing virus (DWV) level in IHB inoculated with one or two foundress Varroa increased to about 10(3) or 10(5) fold the levels of their uninfested brood. In contrast, POL (10(2) or 10(4) fold) and RHB (10(2) or l0(4) fold) supported a lower increase in DWV levels. The feeding of different stages of Varroa nymphs did not increase DWV levels of their pupal hosts. Analyses of their corresponding Varroa mites showed the same trends: two foundress Varroa yielded higher DWV levels than one foundress, and the addition of nymphs did not increase viral levels. Using the same pupae examined for the presence of viruses, 16 out of 24 genes evaluated showed significant differential mRNA expression levels among the three honey bee stocks. However, only four genes (Defensin, Dscam, PPOact and spaetzle), which were expressed at similar levels in uninfested pupae, were altered by the number of feeding foundress Varroa and levels of DWV regardless of stocks. This research provides the first evidence that immune response profiles of different honey bee stocks are induced by Varroa parasitism.

  8. Cloning and High-Level Expression of α-Galactosidase cDNA from Penicillium purpurogenum

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Hajime; Nagasaki, Hiroaki; Kaneko, Satoshi; Yoshida, Shigeki; Park, Gwi Gun; Kusakabe, Isao; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    1998-01-01

    The cDNA coding for Penicillium purpurogenum α-galactosidase (αGal) was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the α-Gal cDNA showed that the mature enzyme consisted of 419 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 46,334 Da. The derived amino acid sequence of the enzyme showed similarity to eukaryotic αGals from plants, animals, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. The highest similarity observed (57% identity) was to Trichoderma reesei AGLI. The cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the yeast GAL10 promoter. Almost all of the enzyme produced was secreted into the culture medium, and the expression level reached was approximately 0.2 g/liter. The recombinant enzyme purified to homogeneity was highly glycosylated, showed slightly higher specific activity, and exhibited properties almost identical to those of the native enzyme from P. purpurogenum in terms of the N-terminal amino acid sequence, thermoactivity, pH profile, and mode of action on galacto-oligosaccharides. PMID:9797312

  9. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal. PMID:26373423

  10. Morphology, sex steroid level and gene expression analysis in gonadal sex reversal of triploid female (XXX) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Xu, Gefeng; Huang, Tianqing; Jin, Xian; Cui, Cunhe; Li, Depeng; Sun, Cong; Han, Ying; Mu, Zhenbo

    2016-02-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, estrogens and expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 play critical roles in maintaining ovary differentiation and development, while dmrt1 and sox9 are male-specific genes in testicular differentiation and are highly conserved. In order to deeply understand the morphological change, sex steroids level and molecular mechanism of triploid female gonadal reversal in rainbow trout, we studied the ovary morphology, tendency of estradiol-17β (E2) and testosterone (T) levels and the relative expressions of dmrt1, cyp19a1, sox9 and foxl2 in juvenile and adult fish. Our results demonstrated that the development of triploid female gonads in rainbow trout went through arrested development, oocytes dedifferentiation, ovary reconstruction and sex reversal finally. During early gonadal development (154-334 days post-fertilization), the expressions of foxl2 and cyp19a1 increased linearly, while expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 were extremely suppressed, and E2 level was higher, while T level was lower. During the mid-to-late period of triploid female gonadal development (574-964 days post-fertilization), the expressions of dmrt1 and sox9 remained high and were very close to the quantity of diploid male genes, and T levels were even reaching diploid male plasma concentrations, while expressions of cyp19a1 and foxl2 were decreased, leading to decrease in E2 level. We realized that the development model of rainbow trout triploid female gonads was extremely rare, and the regulatory mechanism was very special. Genes involved in gonadal development and endogenous estrogens are pivotal factors in fish natural sex reversal.

  11. Endogenous galectin-3 expression levels modulate immune responses in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna D; Gude, Rajiv P; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-12-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin, is involved in cancer progression and metastasis. However, there is an unmet need to identify the underlying mechanisms of cancer metastasis mediated by endogenous host galectin-3. Galectin-3 is also known to be an important regulator of immune responses. The present study was aimed at analysing how expression of endogenous galectin-3 regulates host immunity and lung metastasis in B16F10 murine melanoma model. Transgenic Gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and Gal-3(-/-) (null) mice exhibited decreased levels of Natural Killer (NK) cells and lower NK mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumor targets, compared to Gal-3(+/+) (wild-type) mice. On stimulation, Gal-3(+/-) and Gal-3(-/-) mice splenocytes showed increased T cell proliferation than Gal-3(+/+) mice. Intracellular calcium flux was found to be lower in activated T cells of Gal-3(-/-) mice as compared to T cells from Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice. In Gal-3(-/-) mice, serum Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels were found to be lowest, exhibiting dysregulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance. Marked decrease in serum IFN-γ levels and splenic IFN-γR1 (IFN-γ Receptor 1) expressing T and NK cell percentages were observed in Gal-3(-/-) mice. On recombinant IFN-γ treatment of splenocytes in vitro, Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3 protein expression was higher in Gal-3(-/-) mice compared to that in Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice; suggesting possible attenuation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) 1 mediated IFN-γ signaling in Gal-3(-/-) mice. The ability of B16F10 melanoma cells to form metastatic colonies in the lungs of Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(-/-) mice remained comparable, whereas it was found to be reduced in Gal-3(+/-) mice. Our data indicates that complete absence of endogenous host galectin-3 facilitates lung metastasis of B16F10 cells in mice, which may be contributed by dysregulated immune

  12. Endogenous galectin-3 expression levels modulate immune responses in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aparna D; Gude, Rajiv P; Kalraiya, Rajiv D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-12-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a β-galactoside-binding mammalian lectin, is involved in cancer progression and metastasis. However, there is an unmet need to identify the underlying mechanisms of cancer metastasis mediated by endogenous host galectin-3. Galectin-3 is also known to be an important regulator of immune responses. The present study was aimed at analysing how expression of endogenous galectin-3 regulates host immunity and lung metastasis in B16F10 murine melanoma model. Transgenic Gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and Gal-3(-/-) (null) mice exhibited decreased levels of Natural Killer (NK) cells and lower NK mediated cytotoxicity against YAC-1 tumor targets, compared to Gal-3(+/+) (wild-type) mice. On stimulation, Gal-3(+/-) and Gal-3(-/-) mice splenocytes showed increased T cell proliferation than Gal-3(+/+) mice. Intracellular calcium flux was found to be lower in activated T cells of Gal-3(-/-) mice as compared to T cells from Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice. In Gal-3(-/-) mice, serum Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine levels were found to be lowest, exhibiting dysregulation of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines balance. Marked decrease in serum IFN-γ levels and splenic IFN-γR1 (IFN-γ Receptor 1) expressing T and NK cell percentages were observed in Gal-3(-/-) mice. On recombinant IFN-γ treatment of splenocytes in vitro, Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3 protein expression was higher in Gal-3(-/-) mice compared to that in Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(+/-) mice; suggesting possible attenuation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) 1 mediated IFN-γ signaling in Gal-3(-/-) mice. The ability of B16F10 melanoma cells to form metastatic colonies in the lungs of Gal-3(+/+) and Gal-3(-/-) mice remained comparable, whereas it was found to be reduced in Gal-3(+/-) mice. Our data indicates that complete absence of endogenous host galectin-3 facilitates lung metastasis of B16F10 cells in mice, which may be contributed by dysregulated immune

  13. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  14. HLA-C expression levels define permissible mismatches in hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gooley, Theodore A.; Malkki, Mari; Bacigalupo, Andrea P.; Cesbron, Anne; Du Toit, Ernette; Ehninger, Gerhard; Egeland, Torstein; Fischer, Gottfried F.; Gervais, Thibaut; Haagenson, Michael D.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Hsu, Katharine; Jindra, Pavel; Madrigal, Alejandro; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Ringdén, Olle; Schroeder, Marlis L.; Spellman, Stephen R.; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Velardi, Andrea; Witt, Campbell S.; O’Huigin, Colm; Apps, Richard; Carrington, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) limits the use of HLA-C-mismatched unrelated donors in transplantation. Clinicians lack criteria for donor selection when HLA-C-mismatched donors are a patient’s only option for cure. We examined the role for HLA-C expression levels to identify permissible HLA-C mismatches. The median fluorescence intensity, a proxy of HLA-C expression, was assigned to each HLA-C allotype in 1975 patients and their HLA-C-mismatched unrelated transplant donors. The association of outcome with the level of expression of patients’ and donors’ HLA-C allotypes was evaluated in multivariable models. Increasing expression level of the patient’s mismatched HLA-C allotype was associated with increased risks of grades III to IV acute GVHD, nonrelapse mortality, and mortality. Increasing expression level among HLA-C mismatches with residue 116 or residue 77/80 mismatching was associated with increased nonrelapse mortality. The immunogenicity of HLA-C mismatches in unrelated donor transplantation is influenced by the expression level of the patient’s mismatched HLA-C allotype. HLA-C expression levels provide new information on mismatches that should be avoided and extend understanding of HLA-C-mediated immune responses in human disease. PMID:25323824

  15. Testing the Psychometric Properties of a Chinese Version of the Level of Expressed Emotion Scale

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Wai Tong; Chan, Zenobia Chung-Yee; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76–0.95 and ICC = 0.81–0.92), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89–0.95, P < 0.01), and internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.86–0.92). Among 262 patients with severe mental illness and their caregivers, the 50-item Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement), accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (χ2/df = 1.93, P = 0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78) to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = −0.54) and family burden (r = 0.49) and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90). The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P < 0.01). The Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families' expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries. PMID:24511302

  16. Low Phosphorylated AKT Expression in Laryngeal Cancer: Indications for a Higher Metastatic Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Nijkamp, Monique M.; Span, Paul N.; Stegeman, Hanneke; Grénman, Reidar; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Bussink, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To validate the association of phosphorylated (p)AKT with lymph node metastasis in an independent, homogeneous cohort of patients with larynx cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with laryngeal cancer were included. Epidermal growth factor receptor, pAKT, vimentin, E-cadherin, hypoxia, and blood vessels were visualized in biopsy material using immunohistochemistry. Positive tumor areas and spatial relationships between markers were assessed by automated image analysis. In 6 laryngeal cancer cell lines, E-cadherin and vimentin messenger RNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and by immunohistochemistry before and after treatment with the pAKT inhibitor MK-2206. Results: A significant correlation was found between low pAKT in the primary tumor and positive lymph node status (P=.0005). Tumors with lymph node metastases had an approximately 10-fold lower median pAKT value compared with tumors without lymph node metastases, albeit with large intertumor variations, validating our previous results. After inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer cells with MK-2206, up-regulation of vimentin and a downregulation of E-cadherin occurred, consistent with epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Conclusion: Low pAKT expression in larynx tumors is associated with lymph node metastases. Further, inhibition of pAKT in laryngeal cancer induces epithelial–mesenchymal transition, predisposing for an increased metastatic risk.

  17. Genome-Wide Tuning of Protein Expression Levels to Rapidly Engineer Microbial Traits.

    PubMed

    Freed, Emily F; Winkler, James D; Weiss, Sophie J; Garst, Andrew D; Mutalik, Vivek K; Arkin, Adam P; Knight, Rob; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-20

    The reliable engineering of biological systems requires quantitative mapping of predictable and context-independent expression over a broad range of protein expression levels. However, current techniques for modifying expression levels are cumbersome and are not amenable to high-throughput approaches. Here we present major improvements to current techniques through the design and construction of E. coli genome-wide libraries using synthetic DNA cassettes that can tune expression over a ∼10(4) range. The cassettes also contain molecular barcodes that are optimized for next-generation sequencing, enabling rapid and quantitative tracking of alleles that have the highest fitness advantage. We show these libraries can be used to determine which genes and expression levels confer greater fitness to E. coli under different growth conditions. PMID:26478262

  18. Higher levels of sex chromosome heteromorphism are associated with markedly stronger reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Lima, Thiago G

    2014-01-01

    The two 'rules of speciation', Haldane's rule and the large X-effect, describe the genetic basis of postzygotic isolation, and have led to the realization that sex chromosomes play an important role in this process. However, a range of sex determination mechanisms exists in nature, not always involving sex chromosomes. Based on these 'rules of speciation', I test the hypothesis that the presence of sex chromosomes will contribute to a faster evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation. I show that taxa that do not have sex chromosomes evolve lower levels of postzygotic isolation than taxa with sex chromosomes, at a similar amount of genetic divergence. Taxa with young homomorphic sex chromosomes show an intermediate pattern compared to taxa with heteromorphic sex chromosomes and taxa without sex chromosomes. These results are consistent with predictions from the two 'rules of speciation', and emphasize the importance of sex chromosomes for the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation.

  19. Assessing the Potential for Openness: A Framework for Examining Course-Level OER Implementation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judith, Kate; Bull, David

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of open educational resources (OER) at the course level in higher education poses numerous challenges to education practitioners--ranging from discoverability challenges to the lack of knowledge on how to best localize and utilize OER as courseware. Drawing on case studies of OER initiatives globally, the article discusses…

  20. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from…

  1. Stress Levels in Tenure-Track and Recently Tenured Faculty Members in Selected Institutions of Higher Education in Northeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the stress, strain, and coping levels between pretenured faculty and recently tenured faculty in institutions of higher education in Northeast Tennessee. Aging faculty population combined with talented people leaving the area is common in rural parts of the United States. There is a need to…

  2. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  3. Performance or Enactment? The Role of the Higher Level Teaching Assistant in a Remodelled School Workforce in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on research conducted over two years in the North West of England and is located in the context of workforce remodelling. It examines how the higher level teaching assistant (HLTA) role has developed and is appraised and suggests that the anomalous nature of the role, which often relies on the enactment of observed teacher…

  4. Guiding Principles for Facilitating Higher Levels of Web-Based Distance Teaching and Learning in Post-Secondary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanuka, Heather

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop guiding principles to encourage higher levels of teaching and learning in Web-based distance education. The research framework used Zetterberg's (1962) model for change. Data from semi-structured interviews with university instructors who had experience in teaching Web-based distance education courses, a…

  5. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  6. "They Call Me Wonder Woman": The Job Jurisdictions and Work-Related Learning of Higher Level Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Roger; Hall, Thelma; Cable, Carrie; Eyres, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth interview study of the roles, job jurisdictions and associated learning of higher level teaching assistants (HLTAs). This role has the core purpose of covering classes to enable teacher release for planning, preparation and assessment. HLTAs' individual job jurisdictions are described and discussed as are…

  7. Leadership Provided by Non-Academic Middle-Level Managers in the Australian Higher Education Sector: The Enablers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the leadership behaviours displayed by non-academic middle-level managers in the Australian higher education sector. The study also identifies the importance of these leadership behaviours and the leadership effectiveness of these managers. The integrated competing values framework was used to measure leadership…

  8. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  9. Levels of Professional Training of Upper-Division Students in Kuzbass Higher Educational Institutions: A Typological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the data from a sociological survey serve as the basis for an analysis of the levels of professional training of the graduates of higher educational institutions in the Kuzbass region. The object of this survey consisted of upper-division students in daytime enrollment of colleges and universities in Novokuznetsk, which is not…

  10. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  11. Music Students' Perception of the Use of Multi-Media Technology at the Graduate Level in Hong Kong Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2007-01-01

    The core purpose of this paper is to draw together research issues and concrete problems with the use of multimedia technology at the graduate level in higher music education by examining one university's responses to the challenges posed by the use of multimedia technology as a teaching and learning aid for music education. Between June and July…

  12. Directed evolution of G protein-coupled receptors in yeast for higher functional production in eukaryotic expression hosts.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marco; Schöppe, Jendrik; Sedlák, Erik; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Ehrenmann, Janosch; Klenk, Christoph; Egloff, Pascal; Kummer, Lutz; Plückthun, Andreas

    2016-02-25

    Despite recent successes, many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remained refractory to detailed molecular studies due to insufficient production yields, even in the most sophisticated eukaryotic expression systems. Here we introduce a robust method employing directed evolution of GPCRs in yeast that allows fast and efficient generation of receptor variants which show strongly increased functional production levels in eukaryotic expression hosts. Shown by evolving three different receptors in this study, the method is widely applicable, even for GPCRs which are very difficult to express. The evolved variants showed up to a 26-fold increase of functional production in insect cells compared to the wild-type receptors. Next to the increased production, the obtained variants exhibited improved biophysical properties, while functional properties remained largely unaffected. Thus, the presented method broadens the portfolio of GPCRs accessible for detailed investigations. Interestingly, the functional production of GPCRs in yeast can be further increased by induced host adaptation.

  13. Directed evolution of G protein-coupled receptors in yeast for higher functional production in eukaryotic expression hosts

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Marco; Schöppe, Jendrik; Sedlák, Erik; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Ehrenmann, Janosch; Klenk, Christoph; Egloff, Pascal; Kummer, Lutz; Plückthun, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent successes, many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remained refractory to detailed molecular studies due to insufficient production yields, even in the most sophisticated eukaryotic expression systems. Here we introduce a robust method employing directed evolution of GPCRs in yeast that allows fast and efficient generation of receptor variants which show strongly increased functional production levels in eukaryotic expression hosts. Shown by evolving three different receptors in this study, the method is widely applicable, even for GPCRs which are very difficult to express. The evolved variants showed up to a 26-fold increase of functional production in insect cells compared to the wild-type receptors. Next to the increased production, the obtained variants exhibited improved biophysical properties, while functional properties remained largely unaffected. Thus, the presented method broadens the portfolio of GPCRs accessible for detailed investigations. Interestingly, the functional production of GPCRs in yeast can be further increased by induced host adaptation. PMID:26911446

  14. Directed evolution of G protein-coupled receptors in yeast for higher functional production in eukaryotic expression hosts.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marco; Schöppe, Jendrik; Sedlák, Erik; Hillenbrand, Matthias; Nagy-Davidescu, Gabriela; Ehrenmann, Janosch; Klenk, Christoph; Egloff, Pascal; Kummer, Lutz; Plückthun, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent successes, many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remained refractory to detailed molecular studies due to insufficient production yields, even in the most sophisticated eukaryotic expression systems. Here we introduce a robust method employing directed evolution of GPCRs in yeast that allows fast and efficient generation of receptor variants which show strongly increased functional production levels in eukaryotic expression hosts. Shown by evolving three different receptors in this study, the method is widely applicable, even for GPCRs which are very difficult to express. The evolved variants showed up to a 26-fold increase of functional production in insect cells compared to the wild-type receptors. Next to the increased production, the obtained variants exhibited improved biophysical properties, while functional properties remained largely unaffected. Thus, the presented method broadens the portfolio of GPCRs accessible for detailed investigations. Interestingly, the functional production of GPCRs in yeast can be further increased by induced host adaptation. PMID:26911446

  15. The correlation of in vivo burn scar contraction with the level of α-smooth muscle actin expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Kravchuk, Olena; Winterford, Clay; Kimble, Roy M

    2011-12-01

    This study describes the direct association of in vivo burn scar contraction with the level of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in scar tissue, in a porcine burn model. The expression of α-SMA was investigated in 100 biopsies from 44 6-week old burn scars and in 85 biopsies from 16 2-week old burn wounds. Statistical analysis showed that the levels of α-SMA in 6-week old scars were significantly negatively correlated to scar size (r=-0.68) and the higher levels of α-SMA were observed in smaller scars. Moreover, α-SMA was also found to be significantly positively correlated to re-epithelialisation time (r=0.57) and scar thickness (r=0.58) and higher levels of α-SMA were detected in thicker scars with delayed wound closure. Further statistical analysis revealed that scar contraction can be explained best by the level of α-SMA expression and partially by scar thickness. Other variables, such as different dressings and individual pig, may also partly contribute to scar contraction. At week 2 after-burn, the level of α-SMA expression in 16 burn wounds was significantly related to the depth of burns and wound healing outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide in vivo evidence of the association of α-SMA expression with scar contraction, scar thickness, re-epithelialisation time and the depth of burn in a large animal burn model with scars similar to human hypertrophic scar.

  16. OVATION Prime-2013: Extension of auroral precipitation model to higher disturbance levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, P. T.; Liou, K.; Zhang, Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Paxton, L. J.; Mitchell, E. J.

    2014-06-01

    OVATION Prime (OP) is an auroral precipitation model parameterized by solar wind driving. Distinguishing features of the model include an optimized solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function (dΦMP/dt) which predicts auroral power significantly better than Kp or other traditional parameters, the separation of aurora into categories (diffuse aurora, monoenergetic, broadband, and ion), the inclusion of seasonal variations, and separate parameter fits for each magnetic latitude (MLAT) × magnetic local time (MLT) bin, thus permitting each type of aurora and each location to have differing responses to season and solar wind input—as indeed they do. We here introduce OVATION Prime-2013, an upgrade to the 2010 version currently widely available. The most notable advantage of OP-2013 is that it uses UV images from the GUVI instrument on the satellite TIMED for high disturbance levels (dΦMP/dt > 1.2 MWb/s which roughly corresponds to Kp = 5+ or 6-). The range of validity is approximately 0 < dΦMP/dt ≤ 3.0 MWb/s (Kp about 8+). Other upgrades include a reduced susceptibility to salt-and-pepper noise, and smoother interpolation across the postmidnight data gap. The model is tested against an independent data set of hemispheric auroral power from Polar UVI. Over the common range of validity of OP-2010 and OP-2013, the two models predict auroral power essentially identically, primarily because hemispheric power calculations were done in a way to minimize the impact of OP-2010s noise. To quantitatively demonstrate the improvement at high disturbance levels would require multiple very large substorms, which are rare, and insufficiently present in the limited data set of Polar UVI hemispheric power values. Nonetheless, although OP-2010 breaks down in a variety of ways above Kp = 5+ or 6-, OP-2013 continues to show the auroral oval advancing equatorward, at least to 55° MLAT or a bit less, and OP-2013 does not develop spurious large noise patches. We will also discuss the

  17. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer. PMID:26435258

  18. Correlation of plasma nitrite/nitrate levels and inducible nitric oxide gene expression among women with cervical abnormalities and cancer.

    PubMed

    Sowjanya, A Pavani; Rao, Meera; Vedantham, Haripriya; Kalpana, Basany; Poli, Usha Rani; Marks, Morgan A; Sujatha, M

    2016-01-30

    Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), a soluble factor involved in chronic inflammation, may modulate cervical cancer risk among HPV infected women. The aim of the study was to measure and correlate plasma nitrite/nitrate levels with tissue specific expression of iNOS mRNA among women with different grades of cervical lesions and cervical cancer. Tissue biopsy and plasma specimens were collected from 120 women with cervical neoplasia or cancer (ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and invasive cancer) and 35 women without cervical abnormalities. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA from biopsy and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels of the same study subjects were measured. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on the promoter region and Ser608Leu (rs2297518) in exon 16 of the iNOS gene. Differences in iNOS gene expression and plasma nitrite/nitrate levels were compared across disease stage using linear and logistic regression analysis. Compared to normal controls, women diagnosed with HSIL or invasive cancer had a significantly higher concentration of plasma nitrite/nitrate and a higher median fold-change in iNOS mRNA gene expression. Genotyping of the promoter region showed three different variations: A pentanucleotide repeat (CCTTT) n, -1026T > G (rs2779249) and a novel variant -1153T > A. These variants were associated with increased levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate across all disease stages. The higher expression of iNOS mRNA and plasma nitrite/nitrate among women with pre-cancerous lesions suggests a role for nitric oxide in the natural history of cervical cancer.

  19. Effects of elevated peroxidase levels and corn earworm feeding on gene expression in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato gene arrays were used to investigate how high levels of transgenic peroxidase expression and feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, affected expression of defensive and other genes. High peroxidase activity significantly upregulated proteinase inhibitors and a few other defensive gene...

  20. Pursuit tracking and higher levels of skill development in the human pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the human pilot is offered for pursuit tracking tasks; the model encompasses an existing model for compensatory tracking. The central hypothesis in the development of this model states that those primary structural elements in the compensatory model responsible for the pilot's equalization capabilities remain intact in the pursuit model. In this latter case, effective low-frequency inversion of the controlled-element dynamics occurs by feeding-forward derived input rate through the equalization dynamics, with low-frequency phase droop minimized. The sharp reduction in low-frequency phase lag beyond that associated with the disappearance of phase droop is seen to accompany relatively low-gain feedback of vehicle output. The results of some recent motion cue research are discussed and interpreted in terms of the compensatory-pursuit display dichotomy. Tracking with input preview is discussed in a qualitative way. In terms of the model, preview is shown to demand no fundamental changes in structure or equalization and to allow the pilot to eliminate the effective time delays that accrue in the inversion of the controlled-element dynamics. Precognitive behavior is discussed, and a model that encompasses all the levels of skill development outlined in the successive organizations of perception theory is finally proposed.

  1. OVATION Prime -2013: Solar Wind Driven Precipitation Model Extended to Higher Geomagnetic Activity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Patrick; Liou, Kan; Zhang, Yongliang; Sotirelis, Thomas; Paxton, Larry; Mitchell, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    OVATION Prime is an auroral precipitation model parameterized by solar wind driving. Distinguishing features of the model include an optimized solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function (dΦMP/dt) which predicts auroral power far better than Kp or other traditional parameters, the separation of aurora into categories (diffuse aurora, monoenergetic, broadband, and ion), the inclusion of seasonal variations, and separate parameter fits for each MLATxMLT bin, thus permitting each type of aurora and each location to have differing responses to season and solar wind input (as indeed they do). We here introduce OVATION Prime-2013, an upgrade to the 2008 version currently widely available. The most notable advantage of OP-2013 is that it uses UV images from the GUVI instrument on the satellite TIMED for high disturbance levels (dΦMP/dt > 12,000 (nT2/3 (km/s)4/3 which roughly corresponds to Kp = 5+ or 6-). The range of validity is thought to be about 0 < dΦMP/dt = 30000 (say Kp = 8 or 8+). Other upgrades include a reduced susceptibility to salt and pepper noise, and smoother interpolation across the postmidnight data gap. We will also provide a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of other current precipitation models, especially OVATION-SuperMAG, which produces particularly good estimates for total auroral power, at the expense of working best on an historical basis.

  2. A study of improved MHR 50/100 toward a higher level of inherent safety

    SciTech Connect

    Minatsuki, I.; Otani, T.; Shimizu, K.; Oyama, S.; Tsukamoto, H.; Kunitomi, K.

    2012-07-01

    A new concept of the Mitsubishi small-sized High temperature gas-cooled modular Reactors (MHR-50/100) had been developed and published in papers. The study results of the first design concept show that the MHR-50/100 can achieve the inherent safety level set as a design target in case of water ingress during steam generator tube rupture accident. And more specifically, the reactor was shown to remain stable during long-term station black out (SBO) with protection of only passive devices during a depressurization accident and with additional motion of steam dump system during a water ingress accident. Recently greater requirements for safety of future nuclear plants including the MHR-50/100 have been expected. This study has thus made a key design improvement for the MHR-50/100 in order to secure the inherent safety aspect without reliance on active steam dump system in case of a water ingress accident. The innovative technologies listed below have been created and investigated to achieve the improved MHR-50/100 design; (1) Design improvement of steam generator, (2) Heat balance optimization of steam cycle, (3) Control system design of differential pressure between primary helium gas and water/steam, (4) Study on operation procedure during a water ingress accident. (authors)

  3. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data.

    PubMed

    Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas; Weingartner, Elisabet; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Nylin, Sören; Freitas, André V L; Brower, Andrew V Z

    2006-07-01

    We have inferred the first empirically supported hypothesis of relationships for the cosmopolitan butterfly subfamily Satyrinae. We used 3090 base pairs of DNA from the mitochondrial gene COI and the nuclear genes EF-1alpha and wingless for 165 Satyrinae taxa representing 4 tribes and 15 subtribes, and 26 outgroups, in order to test the monophyly of the subfamily and elucidate phylogenetic relationships of its major lineages. In a combined analysis, the three gene regions supported an almost fully resolved topology, which recovered Satyrinae as polyphyletic, and revealed that the current classification of suprageneric taxa within the subfamily is comprised almost completely of unnatural assemblages. The most noteworthy findings are that Manataria is closely related to Melanitini; Palaeonympha belongs to Euptychiina; Oressinoma, Orsotriaena and Coenonympha group with the Hypocystina; Miller's (1968). Parargina is polyphyletic and its components group with multiple distantly related lineages; and the subtribes Elymniina and Zetherina fall outside the Satyrinae. The three gene regions used in a combined analysis prove to be very effective in resolving relationships of Satyrinae at the subtribal and tribal levels. Further sampling of the taxa closely related to Satyrinae, as well as more extensive sampling of genera within the tribes and subtribes for this group will be critical to test the monophyly of the subfamily and establish a stronger basis for future biogeographical and evolutionary studies.

  4. Expression levels of IL-17 and TNF-α in degenerated lumbar intervertebral discs and their correlation

    PubMed Central

    LIU, XIAO-GANG; HOU, HONG-WEI; LIU, YI-LIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression and roles of interleukin (IL)-17 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) and to identify the association between the effects of IL-17 and TNF-α in IDD. This may increase understanding of the pathogenic mechanism underlying IDD, and aid the development of alternative therapies. The experimental group consisted of 40 samples of nucleus pulposus tissue obtained from the intervertebral discs (IVDs) of patients with IDD by surgical intervention, and was further divided into an annulus fibrosus disrupted group, comprising 18 patients in which the external annulus was ruptured, and an annulus fibrosus intact group comprising 22 patients. The control group consisted of 20 samples of nucleus pulposus tissue from the IVDs of patients with traumatic lumbar disc fractures. The mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-17 and TNF-α in the 50 tissue samples were detected by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, and the results were statistically analyzed. The IL-17 and TNF-α protein and mRNA expression levels in the annulus fibrosus disrupted and annulus fibrosus intact groups were both higher compared with those in the control group. In addition, the expression levels of IL-17 and TNF-α in the annulus fibrosus disrupted group were significantly higher compared with those in the annulus fibrosus intact group (P<0.01). A positive correlation was identified between the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-17 and TNF-α in the experimental group (r=0.957, P<0.01). IL-17 and TNF-α may therefore be involved in the progression of human IDD, and may have synergistic effects in the development of IDD. PMID:27284317

  5. The expression level of HJURP has an independent prognostic impact and predicts the sensitivity to radiotherapy in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhi; Huang, Ge; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Gu, Shenda; Lenburg, Marc E; Pai, Melody; Bayani, Nora; Blakely, Eleanor A; Gray, Joe W; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2010-06-25

    Introduction: HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. Methods: We measured HJURP expression level in human breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancers by Western blot and/or by Affymetrix Microarray; and determined its associations with clinical variables using standard statistical methods. Validation was performed with the use of published microarray data. We assessed cell growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells after radiation using high-content image analysis. Results: HJURP was expressed at higher level in breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. HJURP mRNA levels were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, age and Ki67 proliferation indices, but not with pathologic stage, ERBB2, tumor size, or lymph node status. Higher HJURP mRNA levels significantly decreased disease-free and overall survival. HJURP mRNA levels predicted the prognosis better than Ki67 proliferation indices. In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression, including clinical variables as covariates, HJURP mRNA levels remained an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. In addition HJURP mRNA levels were an independent prognostic factor over molecular subtypes (normal like, luminal, Erbb2 and basal). Poor clinical outcomes among patients with high HJURP expression werevalidated in five additional breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, the patients with high HJURP levels were much more sensitive to radiotherapy. In vitro studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that cells with high HJURP levels were more sensitive to radiation treatment and had a higher rate of apoptosis

  6. Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L.; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages. PMID:23717448

  7. OVATION Prime -2013: Solar Wind Driven Precipitation Model Extended to Higher Geomagnetic Activity Levels (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, P. T.; Liou, K.; Zhang, Y.; Paxton, L.; Sotirelis, T.; Mitchell, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    OVATION Prime is an auroral precipitation model parameterized by solar wind driving. Distinguishing features of the model include an optimized solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function (dΦMP/dt) which predicts auroral power far better than Kp or other traditional parameters, the separation of aurora into categories (diffuse aurora, monoenergetic, broadband, and ion), the inclusion of seasonal variations, and separate parameter fits for each MLATxMLT bin, thus permitting each type of aurora and each location to have differing responses to season and solar wind input (as indeed they do). We here introduce OVATION Prime-2013, an upgrade to the 2008 version currently widely available. The most notable advantage of OP-2013 is that it uses UV images from the GUVI instrument on the satellite TIMED for high disturbance levels (dΦMP/dt > 12,000 (nT2/3 (km/s)4/3 which roughly corresponds to Kp = 5+ or 6-). The range of validity is thought to be about 0 < dΦMP/dt = 30000 (say Kp = 8 or 8+). Other upgrades include a reduced susceptibility to salt and pepper noise, and smoother interpolation across the postmidnight data gap. We will also provide a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of other current precipitation models, especially OVATION-SuperMAG, which produces particularly good estimates for total auroral power, at the expense of working best on an historical basis. OVATION Prime-2013, for high solar wind driving, as TIMED GUVI data takes over from DMSP

  8. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  9. High-Level Expression of Bacillus naganoensis Pullulanase from Recombinant Escherichia coli with Auto-Induction: Effect of lac Operator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Chen, Wen Bo; Mu, Xiao Qing; Wang, Xinye; Xiao, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Pullulanase plays an important role in specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin and is generally employed as an important enzyme in starch-processing industry. So far, however, the production level of pullulanase is still somewhat low from wide-type strains and even heterologous expression systems. Here the gene encoding Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase was amplified and cloned. For expression of the protein, two recombinant systems, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)/pET-20b(+)-pul and E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul, were constructed, both bearing T7 promoter and signal peptide sequence, but different in the existance of lac operator and lacI gene encoding lac repressor. Recombinant pullulanase was initially expressed with the activity of up to 14 U/mL by E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-20b(+)-pul with IPTG induction in LB medium, but its expression level reduced continually with the extension of cryopreservation time and basal expression was observed. However, E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul , involving lac operator downstream of T7 promoter to regulate foreign gene transcription, exhibited pullulanase activity consistently without detected basal expression. By investigating the effect of lac operator, basal expression of foreign protein was found to cause expression instability and negative effect on production of target protein. Thus double-repression strategy was proposed that lac operators in both chromosome and plasmid were bound with lac repressor to repress T7 RNA polymerase synthesis and target protein expression before induction. Consequently, the total activity of pullulanase was remarkably increased to 580 U/mL with auto-induction by lac operator-involved E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET-22b(+)-pul. When adding 0.6% glycine in culture, the extracellular production of pullulanase was significantly improved with the extracellular activity of 502 U/mL, which is a relatively higher level achieved to date for extracellular production of pullulanase. The successful

  10. Optimality and evolutionary tuning of the expression level of a protein.

    PubMed

    Dekel, Erez; Alon, Uri

    2005-07-28

    Different proteins have different expression levels. It is unclear to what extent these expression levels are optimized to their environment. Evolutionary theories suggest that protein expression levels maximize fitness, but the fitness as a function of protein level has seldom been directly measured. To address this, we studied the lac system of Escherichia coli, which allows the cell to use the sugar lactose for growth. We experimentally measured the growth burden due to production and maintenance of the Lac proteins (cost), as well as the growth advantage (benefit) conferred by the Lac proteins when lactose is present. The fitness function, given by the difference between the benefit and the cost, predicts that for each lactose environment there exists an optimal Lac expression level that maximizes growth rate. We then performed serial dilution evolution experiments at different lactose concentrations. In a few hundred generations, cells evolved to reach the predicted optimal expression levels. Thus, protein expression from the lac operon seems to be a solution of a cost-benefit optimization problem, and can be rapidly tuned by evolution to function optimally in new environments. PMID:16049495

  11. Different levels in orexin concentrations and risk factors associated with higher orexin levels: comparison between detoxified opiate and methamphetamine addicts in 5 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoran; Lian, Zhi; Yan, Shiyan; Bao, Yanping; Liu, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC) in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P < 0.05). Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than "chasing the dragon" (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2-7.9). No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome. PMID:24102051

  12. Low-level laser therapy enhances the expression of osteogenic factors during bone repair in rats.

    PubMed

    Tim, Carla Roberta; Pinto, Karina Nogueira Zambone; Rossi, Bruno Rafael Orsini; Fernandes, Kelly; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone formation, immunoexpression of osteogenic factors, and biomechanical properties in a tibial bone defect model in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were distributed into bone defect control group (CG) and laser irradiated group (LG). Animals were euthanized on days 15, 30, and 45 post-injury. The histological and morphometric analysis showed that the treated animals presented no inflammatory infiltrate and a better tissue organization at 15 and 30 days postsurgery. Also, a higher amount of newly formed bone was observed at 15 days postsurgery. No statistically significant difference was observed in cyclooxygenase-2 immunoexpression among the groups at 15, 30, and 45 days in the immunohistochemical analysis. Considering RUNX-2, the immunoexpression was statistically higher in the LG compared to the CG at 45 days. BMP-9 immunoexpression was significantly higher in the LG in comparison to CG at day 30. However, there was no expressivity for this immunomarker, both in the CG and LG, at the day 45 postsurgery. No statistically significant difference was observed in the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand immunoexpression among the groups in all periods evaluated. No statistically significant difference among the groups was observed in the maximal load in any period of time. Our findings indicate that laser therapy improved bone healing by accelerating the development of newly formed bone and activating the osteogenic factors on tibial defects, but the biomechanical properties in LG were not improved. PMID:23515631

  13. Secondary Data Analytics of Aquaporin Expression Levels in Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Isokpehi, Raphael D; Wollenberg Valero, Katharina C; Graham, Barbara E; Pacurari, Maricica; Sims, Jennifer N; Udensi, Udensi K; Ndebele, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor in adults in which recurrence has been attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. On the basis of tumor formation in vivo and growth type in vitro, two published microarray gene expression profiling studies grouped nine glioblastoma stem-like (GS) cell lines into one of two groups: full (GSf) or restricted (GSr) stem-like phenotypes. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are water transport proteins that are highly expressed in primary glial-derived tumors. However, the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 have not been previously described in a panel of 92 glioma samples. Therefore, we designed secondary data analytics methods to determine the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 in GS cell lines and glioblastoma neurospheres. Our investigation also included a total of 2,566 expression levels from 28 Affymetrix microarray probe sets encoding 13 human aquaporins (AQP0–AQP12); CXCR4 (the receptor for stromal cell derived factor-1 [SDF-1], a potential glioma stem cell therapeutic target]); and PROM1 (gene encoding CD133, the widely used glioma stem cell marker). Interactive visual representation designs for integrating phenotypic features and expression levels revealed that inverse expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 correlate with distinct phenotypes in a set of cell lines grouped into full and restricted stem-like phenotypes. Discriminant function analysis further revealed that AQP1 and AQP4 expression are better predictors for tumor formation and growth types in glioblastoma stem-like cells than are CXCR4 and PROM1. Future investigations are needed to characterize the molecular mechanisms for inverse expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 in the glioblastoma stem-like neurospheres. PMID:26279619

  14. Secondary Data Analytics of Aquaporin Expression Levels in Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Isokpehi, Raphael D; Wollenberg Valero, Katharina C; Graham, Barbara E; Pacurari, Maricica; Sims, Jennifer N; Udensi, Udensi K; Ndebele, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor in adults in which recurrence has been attributed to the presence of cancer stem cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. On the basis of tumor formation in vivo and growth type in vitro, two published microarray gene expression profiling studies grouped nine glioblastoma stem-like (GS) cell lines into one of two groups: full (GSf) or restricted (GSr) stem-like phenotypes. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) are water transport proteins that are highly expressed in primary glial-derived tumors. However, the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 have not been previously described in a panel of 92 glioma samples. Therefore, we designed secondary data analytics methods to determine the expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 in GS cell lines and glioblastoma neurospheres. Our investigation also included a total of 2,566 expression levels from 28 Affymetrix microarray probe sets encoding 13 human aquaporins (AQP0-AQP12); CXCR4 (the receptor for stromal cell derived factor-1 [SDF-1], a potential glioma stem cell therapeutic target]); and PROM1 (gene encoding CD133, the widely used glioma stem cell marker). Interactive visual representation designs for integrating phenotypic features and expression levels revealed that inverse expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 correlate with distinct phenotypes in a set of cell lines grouped into full and restricted stem-like phenotypes. Discriminant function analysis further revealed that AQP1 and AQP4 expression are better predictors for tumor formation and growth types in glioblastoma stem-like cells than are CXCR4 and PROM1. Future investigations are needed to characterize the molecular mechanisms for inverse expression levels of AQP1 and AQP4 in the glioblastoma stem-like neurospheres.

  15. Correlations Between Gene Expression and Mercury Levels in Blood of Boys With and Without Autism

    PubMed Central

    Green, Peter G.; Tian, Yingfang; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hansen, Robin; Yang, Xiaowei; Teng, Jennifer; Gregg, Jeffrey P.; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Sharp, Frank R.

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in blood was correlated with mercury levels in blood of 2- to 5-year-old boys with autism (AU) compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) control boys. This was done to address the possibility that the two groups might metabolize toxicants, such as mercury, differently. RNA was isolated from blood and gene expression assessed on whole genome Affymetrix Human U133 expression microarrays. Mercury levels were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed and partial correlations between gene expression and mercury levels were calculated, after correcting for age and batch effects. To reduce false positives, only genes shared by the ANCOVA models were analyzed. Of the 26 genes that correlated with mercury levels in both AU and TD boys, 11 were significantly different between the groups (P(Diagnosis*Mercury) ≤ 0.05). The expression of a large number of genes (n = 316) correlated with mercury levels in TD but not in AU boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell death and cell morphology. Expression of 189 genes correlated with mercury levels in AU but not in TD boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell morphology, amino acid metabolism, and antigen presentation. These data and those in our companion study on correlation of gene expression and lead levels show that AU and TD children display different correlations between transcript levels and low levels of mercury and lead. These findings might suggest different genetic transcriptional programs associated with mercury in AU compared to TD children. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12640-009-9137-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19937285

  16. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials. PMID:24229729

  17. A Novel Approach for Characterizing Expression Levels of Genes Duplicated by Polyploidy

    PubMed Central

    Udall, Joshua A.; Swanson, Jordan M.; Nettleton, Dan; Percifield, Ryan J.; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2006-01-01

    Studying gene expression in polyploids is complicated by genomewide gene duplication and the problem of distinguishing transcript pools derived from each of the two homeologous genomes such as the A- and D-genomes of allotetraploid Gossypium. Short oligonucleotide probes designed to specifically target several hundred homeologous gene pairs of Gossypium were printed on custom NimbleGen microarrays. These results demonstrate that relative expression levels of homeologous genes may be measured by microarrays and that deviation from equal expression levels of homeologous loci may be common in the allotetraploid nucleus of Gossypium. PMID:16702424

  18. The iron-sensing fur regulator controls expression timing and levels of salmonella pathogenicity island 2 genes in the course of environmental acidification.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunna; Kim, Hyunkeun; Lee, Hwiseop; Nam, Daesil; Choi, Jeongjoon; Shin, Dongwoo

    2014-06-01

    In order to survive inside macrophages, Salmonella produces a series of proteins encoded by genes within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). In the present study, we report that Fur, a central regulator of iron utilization, negatively controls the expression of SPI-2 genes. Time course analysis of SPI-2 expression after the entry of Salmonella into macrophages revealed that SPI-2 genes are induced earlier and at higher levels in the absence of the Fur regulator. It was hypothesized that Fur repressed the SPI-2 expression that was activated during acidification of the phagosome. Indeed, as pH was lowered from pH 7.0 to pH 5.5, the lack of Fur enabled SPI-2 gene expression to be induced at higher pH and to be expressed at higher levels. Fur controlled SPI-2 genes via repression of the SsrB response regulator, a primary activator of SPI-2 expression. Fur repressed ssrB expression both inside macrophages and under acidic conditions, which we ascribe to the direct binding of Fur to the ssrB promoter. Our study suggests that Salmonella could employ iron inside the phagosome to precisely control the timing and levels of SPI-2 expression inside macrophages.

  19. Dual transcriptional-translational cascade permits cellular level tuneable expression control

    PubMed Central

    Morra, Rosa; Shankar, Jayendra; Robinson, Christopher J.; Halliwell, Samantha; Butler, Lisa; Upton, Mathew; Hay, Sam; Micklefield, Jason; Dixon, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The ability to induce gene expression in a small molecule dependent manner has led to many applications in target discovery, functional elucidation and bio-production. To date these applications have relied on a limited set of protein-based control mechanisms operating at the level of transcription initiation. The discovery, design and reengineering of riboswitches offer an alternative means by which to control gene expression. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel tunable recombinant expression system, termed RiboTite, which operates at both the transcriptional and translational level. Using standard inducible promoters and orthogonal riboswitches, a multi-layered modular genetic control circuit was developed to control the expression of both bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and recombinant gene(s) of interest. The system was benchmarked against a number of commonly used E. coli expression systems, and shows tight basal control, precise analogue tunability of gene expression at the cellular level, dose-dependent regulation of protein production rates over extended growth periods and enhanced cell viability. This novel system expands the number of E. coli expression systems for use in recombinant protein production and represents a major performance enhancement over and above the most widely used expression systems. PMID:26405200

  20. Dual transcriptional-translational cascade permits cellular level tuneable expression control.

    PubMed

    Morra, Rosa; Shankar, Jayendra; Robinson, Christopher J; Halliwell, Samantha; Butler, Lisa; Upton, Mathew; Hay, Sam; Micklefield, Jason; Dixon, Neil

    2016-02-18

    The ability to induce gene expression in a small molecule dependent manner has led to many applications in target discovery, functional elucidation and bio-production. To date these applications have relied on a limited set of protein-based control mechanisms operating at the level of transcription initiation. The discovery, design and reengineering of riboswitches offer an alternative means by which to control gene expression. Here we report the development and characterization of a novel tunable recombinant expression system, termed RiboTite, which operates at both the transcriptional and translational level. Using standard inducible promoters and orthogonal riboswitches, a multi-layered modular genetic control circuit was developed to control the expression of both bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase and recombinant gene(s) of interest. The system was benchmarked against a number of commonly used E. coli expression systems, and shows tight basal control, precise analogue tunability of gene expression at the cellular level, dose-dependent regulation of protein production rates over extended growth periods and enhanced cell viability. This novel system expands the number of E. coli expression systems for use in recombinant protein production and represents a major performance enhancement over and above the most widely used expression systems. PMID:26405200

  1. CCR5 Expression Levels in HIV-Uninfected Women Receiving Hormonal Contraception.

    PubMed

    Sciaranghella, Gaia; Wang, Cuiwei; Hu, Haihong; Anastos, Kathryn; Merhi, Zaher; Nowicki, Marek; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T; Watts, D Heather; Alter, Galit; Young, Mary A; Tsibris, Athe M N

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity increases as receptor/coreceptor expression levels increase. We determined peripheral CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 expression levels in HIV-uninfected women who used depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA; n = 32), the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD; n = 27), oral contraceptive pills (n = 32), or no hormonal contraception (n = 33). The use of LNG-IUD increased the proportion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that expressed CCR5; increases in the magnitude of T-cell subset CCR5 expression were observed with DMPA and LNG-IUD use (P < .01 for all comparisons). LNG-IUD and, to a lesser extent, DMPA use were associated with increased peripheral T-cell CCR5 expression.

  2. Boric acid increases the expression levels of human anion exchanger genes SLC4A2 and SLC4A3.

    PubMed

    Akbas, F; Aydin, Z

    2012-04-03

    Boron is an important micronutrient in plants and animals. The role of boron in living systems includes coordinated regulation of gene expression, growth and proliferation of higher plants and animals. There are several well-defined genes associated with boron transportation and tolerance in plants and these genes show close homology with human anion exchanger genes. Mutation of these genes also characterizes some genetic disorders. We investigated the toxic effects of boric acid on HEK293 cells and mRNA expression of anion exchanger (SLC4A1, SLC4A2 and SLC4A3) genes. Cytotoxicity of boric acid at different concentrations was tested by using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Gene expression profiles were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. In the HEK293 cells, the nontoxic upper concentration of boric acid was 250 μM; more than 500 μM caused cytotoxicity. The 250 μM boric acid concentration increased gene expression level of SLC4A2 up to 8.6-fold and SLC4A3 up to 2.6-fold, after 36-h incubation. There was no significant effect of boric acid on SLC4A1 mRNA expression levels.

  3. Regulation of DEK expression by AP-2α and methylation level of DEK promoter in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ming-Xu; Li, Chun; Zhang, Ai-Qun; Hou, Ling-Ling; Yang, Juan; Hu, Hong-Gang

    2016-10-01

    DEK is overexpressed in multiple invasive tumors. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of DEK remains unclear. In the present study, progressive-type truncation assay indicated that CpG2-2 (-167 bp/+35 bp) was the DEK core promoter, whose methylation inhibited DEK expression. Bisulfite genomic sequencing analysis indicated that the methylation levels of the DEK promoter in normal hepatic cells and tissues were higher than those in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. TFSEARCH result revealed transcription factor binding sites in CpG2-2. Among the sites, the AP-2α binding site showed the most significant methylation difference; hence, AP-2α is a key transcription factor that regulates DEK expression. Point or deletion mutation of the AP-2α binding site significantly reduced the promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated the binding of AP-2α to the core promoter. Furthermore, knock down of endogenous AP-2α downregulated DEK expression, whereas overexpression of AP-2α upregulated DEK expression. Thus, AP-2α is an important transcription factor of DEK expression, which is correlated with the methylation level of the DEK core promoter in HCC.

  4. Serum ceruloplasmin protein expression and activity increases in iron-deficient rats and is further enhanced by higher dietary copper intake

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Perungavur N.; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Lingli; Kim, Changae

    2011-01-01

    Increases in serum and liver copper content are noted during iron deficiency in mammals, suggesting that copper-dependent processes participate during iron deprivation. One point of intersection between the 2 metals is the liver-derived, multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) that is important for iron release from certain tissues. The current study sought to explore Cp expression and activity during physiologic states in which hepatic copper loading occurs (eg, iron deficiency). Weanling rats were fed control or low iron diets containing low, normal, or high copper for ∼ 5 weeks, and parameters of iron homeostasis were measured. Liver copper increased in control and iron-deficient rats fed extra copper. Hepatic Cp mRNA levels did not change; however, serum Cp protein was higher during iron deprivation and with higher copper consumption. In-gel and spectrophotometric ferroxidase and amine oxidase assays demonstrated that Cp activity was enhanced when hepatic copper loading occurred. Interestingly, liver copper levels strongly correlated with Cp protein expression and activity. These observations support the possibility that liver copper loading increases metallation of the Cp protein, leading to increased production of the holo enzyme. Moreover, this phenomenon may play an important role in the compensatory response to maintain iron homeostasis during iron deficiency. PMID:21768302

  5. The prelimbic cortex uses higher-order cues to modulate both the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Melissa J.; Killcross, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic (PL) cortex allows rodents to adapt their responding under changing experimental circumstances. In line with this, the PL cortex has been implicated in strategy set shifting, attentional set shifting, the resolution of response conflict, and the modulation of attention towards predictive stimuli. One interpretation of this research is that the PL cortex is involved in using information garnered from higher-order cues in the environment to modulate how an animal responds to environmental stimuli. However, data supporting this view of PL function in the aversive domain are lacking. In the following experiments, we attempted to answer two questions. Firstly, we wanted to investigate whether the role of the PL cortex in using higher-order cues to influence responding generalizes across appetitive and aversive domains. Secondly, as much of the research has focused on a role for the PL cortex in performance, we wanted to assess whether this region is also involved in the acquisition of hierarchal associations which facilitate an ability to use higher-order cues to modulate responding. In order to answer these questions, we assessed the impact of PL inactivation during both the acquisition and expression of a contextual bi-conditional discrimination. A contextual bi-conditional discrimination involves presenting two stimuli. In one context, one stimulus is paired with shock while the other is presented without shock. In another context, these contingencies are reversed. Thus, animals have to use the present contextual cues to disambiguate the significance of the stimulus and respond appropriately. We found that PL inactivation disrupted both the encoding and expression of these context-dependent associations. This supports a role for the PL cortex in allowing higher-order cues to modulate both learning about, and responding towards, different cues. We discuss these findings in the broader context of functioning in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC). PMID

  6. MAP17 and SGLT1 Protein Expression Levels as Prognostic Markers for Cervical Tumor Patient Survival

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Marco; Praena-Fernandez, Juan M.; Felipe-Abrio, Blanca; Lopez-Garcia, Maria A.; Lucena-Cacace, Antonio; Garcia, Angel; Lleonart, Matilde; Roncador, Guiovanna; Marin, Juan J.; Carnero, Amancio

    2013-01-01

    MAP17 is a membrane-associated protein that is overexpressed in human tumors. Because the expression of MAP17 increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation through SGLT1 in cancer cells, in the present work, we investigated whether MAP17 and/or SGLT1 might be markers for the activity of treatments involving oxidative stress, such as cisplatin or radiotherapy. First, we confirmed transcriptional alterations in genes involved in the oxidative stress induced by MAP17 expression in HeLa cervical tumor cells and found that Hela cells expressing MAP17 were more sensitive to therapies that induce ROS than were parental cells. Furthermore, MAP17 increased glucose uptake through SGLT receptors. We then analyzed MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels in cervical tumors treated with cisplatin plus radiotherapy and correlated the expression levels with patient survival. MAP17 and SGLT1 were expressed in approximately 70% and 50% of cervical tumors of different types, respectively, but they were not expressed in adenoma tumors. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between MAP17 and SGLT1 expression levels. High levels of either MAP17 or SGLT1 correlated with improved patient survival after treatment. However, the patients with high levels of both MAP17 and SGLT1 survived through the end of this study. Therefore, the combination of high MAP17 and SGLT1 levels is a marker for good prognosis in patients with cervical tumors after cisplatin plus radiotherapy treatment. These results also suggest that the use of MAP17 and SGLT1 markers may identify patients who are likely to exhibit a better response to treatments that boost oxidative stress in other cancer types. PMID:23418532

  7. Post-harvest light treatment increases expression levels of recombinant proteins in transformed plastids of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Larraya, Luis M; Fernández-San Millán, Alicia; Ancín, María; Farran, Inmaculada; Veramendi, Jon

    2015-09-01

    Plastid genetic engineering represents an attractive system for the production of foreign proteins in plants. Although high expression levels can be achieved in leaf chloroplasts, the results for non-photosynthetic plastids are generally discouraging. Here, we report the expression of two thioredoxin genes (trx f and trx m) from the potato plastid genome to study transgene expression in amyloplasts. As expected, the highest transgene expression was detected in the leaf (up to 4.2% of TSP). The Trx protein content in the tuber was approximately two to three orders of magnitude lower than in the leaf. However, we demonstrate that a simple post-harvest light treatment of microtubers developed in vitro or soil-grown tubers induces up to 55 times higher accumulation of the recombinant protein in just seven to ten days. After the applied treatment, the Trx f levels in microtubers and soil-grown tubers increased to 0.14% and 0.11% of TSP, respectively. Moreover, tubers stored for eight months maintained the capacity of increasing the foreign protein levels after the light treatment. Post-harvest cold induction (up to five times) at 4°C was also detected in microtubers. We conclude that plastid transformation and post-harvest light treatment could be an interesting approach for the production of foreign proteins in potato.

  8. Post-harvest light treatment increases expression levels of recombinant proteins in transformed plastids of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    Larraya, Luis M; Fernández-San Millán, Alicia; Ancín, María; Farran, Inmaculada; Veramendi, Jon

    2015-09-01

    Plastid genetic engineering represents an attractive system for the production of foreign proteins in plants. Although high expression levels can be achieved in leaf chloroplasts, the results for non-photosynthetic plastids are generally discouraging. Here, we report the expression of two thioredoxin genes (trx f and trx m) from the potato plastid genome to study transgene expression in amyloplasts. As expected, the highest transgene expression was detected in the leaf (up to 4.2% of TSP). The Trx protein content in the tuber was approximately two to three orders of magnitude lower than in the leaf. However, we demonstrate that a simple post-harvest light treatment of microtubers developed in vitro or soil-grown tubers induces up to 55 times higher accumulation of the recombinant protein in just seven to ten days. After the applied treatment, the Trx f levels in microtubers and soil-grown tubers increased to 0.14% and 0.11% of TSP, respectively. Moreover, tubers stored for eight months maintained the capacity of increasing the foreign protein levels after the light treatment. Post-harvest cold induction (up to five times) at 4°C was also detected in microtubers. We conclude that plastid transformation and post-harvest light treatment could be an interesting approach for the production of foreign proteins in potato. PMID:26121393

  9. Adrenocortical Production Is Associated with Higher Levels of Luteinizing Hormone in Nonobese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Gláucia; Pereira, Andrea Z.; Tufik, Sérgio; Zanella, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Insulin resistance (IR) and ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism are a common finding in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of the present study was to access possible differences in insulin resistance, gonadotropins, and androgens production in obese and nonobese PCOS women. Study Design. We studied 37 PCOS women (16 nonobese and 21 obese) and 18 nonobese controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, androgens, and gonadotropins levels were determined. Salivary cortisol was measured basal and in the morning after dexamethasone (DEX) 0.25 mg. Results. Nonobese PCOS women showed higher basal salivary cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels than controls and obese PCOS. These hormones levels did not differ between the obese and control groups. After DEX administration no differences were found between the three groups. In PCOS women, salivary cortisol levels showed negative correlation with BMI (r = −0.52; P = 0.001) and insulin (r = −0.47; P = 0.003) and positive correlation with LH (r = 0.40; P = 0.016). Conclusion. Our results show an increased adrenocortical production in nonobese PCOS women, not related to IR and associated with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression. Higher LH levels might be involved in this event. PMID:24895496

  10. Moving Away from Ones and Zeros, Designing a Ground Data System Based on Higher Levels of Abstraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tankenson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Previous JPL ground systems have been designed with the Ground Data System (GDS) engineer in mind. The focus on these systems has been on packaging and delivery of low level information (frames, packets, telemetry values) to the end user. It was not that long ago when project teams would be huddled over a workstation, examining crude displays of telemetry bits organized in various ways, trying to determine the status of a spacecraft. Understanding the data often required additional levels of GDS expertise, or worse, transformation of the raw data into alternative formats followed by ingestion into other tools so that the data became meaningful. The primary focus was often to answer these types of questions: "Why did this particular frame fail Reed-Solomon decode? Why did this packet get marked as invalid? Why am I missing a block of telemetry from my query?" -- which are completely valid questions to ask from a GDS Engineer's point of view, and large families of tools have been designed to help answer these questions. But these are not the questions that most users care about - which are more like: "Why is the battery state of charge trending down? Show me a summary image report for the last traverse to the target. Show me a data accountability summary for the last DSN pass." Answers to these questions, which are what users are looking for, requires a higher level of abstraction and supporting tools than mining through ones and zeros. JPL has created a next generation capability called the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS) which is designed to support this higher level of abstraction by providing customizable views of the ground system combining collections of lower level information into more meaningful ways. Instead of examining frames, packets, and individual telemetry data points -- MPCS is capable of providing comprehensive summary reports, product status, overall flight/ground event status, as well as payload health summaries. Based on these

  11. Using E-Z Reader to model the effects of higher level language processing on eye movements during reading.

    PubMed

    Reichle, Erik D; Warren, Tessa; McConnell, Kerry

    2009-02-01

    Although computational models of eye-movement control during reading have been used to explain how saccadic programming, visual constraints, attention allocation, and lexical processing jointly affect eye movements during reading, these models have largely ignored the issue of how higher level, postlexical language processing affects eye movements. The present article shows how one of these models, E-Z Reader (Pollatsek, Reichle, & Rayner, 2006c), can be augmented to redress this limitation. Simulations show that with a few simple assumptions, the model can account for the fact that effects of higher level language processing are not observed on eye movements when such processing is occurring without difficulty, but can capture the patterns of eye movements that are observed when such processing is slowed or disrupted.

  12. Vasopressin, but not oxytocin, increases empathic concern among individuals who received higher levels of paternal warmth: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Benjamin A.; Meyer, Meghan L.; Castle, Elizabeth; Dutcher, Janine M.; Irwin, Michael R.; Han, Jung H.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Empathy improves our ability to communicate in social interactions and motivates prosocial behavior. The neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and oxytocin play key roles in socioemotional processes such as pair bonding and parental care, which suggests that they may be involved in empathic processing. Methods We investigated how vasopressin and oxytocin affect empathic responding in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects study design. We also examined the moderating role of parental warmth, as reported in the early family environment, on empathic responding following vasopressin, oxytocin, or placebo administration. Results Among participants who reported higher levels of paternal warmth (but not maternal warmth), vasopressin (vs. placebo and oxytocin) increased ratings of empathic concern after viewing distressing and uplifting videos. No main or interaction effects were found for individuals who received oxytocin. Conclusions Vasopressin has a role in enhancing empathy among individuals who received higher levels of paternal warmth. Trial registration NCT01680718 PMID:25462898

  13. Abnormal expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are correlated with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiong; Xu, Hong; Zhu, Xing-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Soluble major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A molecules (sMICA) and natural-killer group 2 member D (NKG2D) not only correlate with tumorigenesis and progression, but also with tumor invasion and metastasis. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the correlation and prognostic significance of the differential expression of sMICA and NKG2D in pancreatic carcinoma and paracarcinoma tissues from 70 patients with pancreatic carcinomas. The results showed that sMICA expression was significantly (P<0.05) higher in tumor tissues (67.1%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (31.4%), whereas NKG2D expression was significantly (P<0.001) lower in tumor tissues (32.9%) than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (60.0%). Spearman’s rank correlation test showed a negative correlation between the expression of sMICA and that of NKG2D (r=−0.676, P<0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was significantly correlated with decreased disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.001) and overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), while a high NKG2D expression was significantly associated with increased DFS (P=0.001) and OS (P=0.001) of the patients. Multivariate analysis showed that a high sMICA expression was an independent predictive factor for poor DFS (P<0.001) and OS (P=0.012); but low NKG2D expression was not an independent prognostic factor for poor DFS (P=0.238) and OS (P=0.574). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the expression levels of sMICA and NKG2D are abnormal and negatively correlated with one another in pancreatic carcinoma tissues; they may be considered as valuable biomarkers for the prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma. PMID:26730197

  14. High level expression of differentially localized BAG-1 isoforms in some oestrogen receptor-positive human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Brimmell, M; Burns, J S; Munson, P; McDonald, L; O’Hare, M J; Lakhani, S R; Packham, G

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity to oestrogens and apoptosis are critical determinants of the development and progression of breast cancer and reflect closely linked pathways in breast epithelial cells. For example, induction of BCL-2 oncoprotein expression by oestrogen contributes to suppression of apoptosis and BCL-2 and oestrogen receptor (ER) are frequently co-expressed in tumours. BAG-1/HAP is a multifunctional protein which complexes with BCL-2 and steroid hormone receptors (including the ER), and can suppress apoptosis and influence steroid hormone-dependent transcription. Therefore, analysis of expression of BAG-1 in human breast cancer is of considerable interest. BAG-1 was readily detected by immunostaining in normal breast epithelial cells and most ER-positive tumours, but was undetectable or weakly expressed in ER-negative tumours. BAG-1 positive cells showed a predominantly cytoplasmic or cytoplasmic plus nuclear distribution of staining. A correlation between ER and BAG-1 was also evident in breast cancer derived cell lines, as all lines examined with functional ER expression also expressed high levels of BAG-1. In addition to the prototypical 36 kDa BAG-1 isoform, breast cancer cells expressed higher molecular weight isoforms and, in contrast to BCL-2, BAG-1 expression was independent of oestrogens. BAG-1 isoforms were differentially localized to the nucleus or cytoplasm and this was also independent of oestrogens. These results demonstrate a close association between BAG-1 and functional ER expression and suggest BAG-1 may be useful as a therapeutic target or prognostic marker in breast cancer. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10576663

  15. Correlation of Notch1/Hes1 Genes Expression Levels in Egyptian Paediatric Patients with Newly Diagnosed and Persistent Primary Immune(Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Gawdat, Rania Mohsen; Hammam, Amira Ahmed; Ezzat, Dina Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Notch signalling is involved in the development of several autoimmune diseases, one of such diseases is ITP. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the expression levels of Notch1 receptor and its target Hes1 gene in Egyptian paediatric ITP patients. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to analyse the expression levels of Notch1 and Hes1 in 42 children with primary ITP (22 newly diagnosed and 20 persistent) cases. Twenty age and sex matched non-ITP controls were included. The expression levels of Notch1 were higher in newly diagnosed and persistent cases than controls with high statistical significant difference (P value < 0.001, P < 0.001) respectively, similarly as regards the expression levels of HES1 (P value < 0.001, P < 0.007) respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between Notch1 and Hes1 expression levels in newly diagnosed cases (r = 0.587, P value = 0.004). There was an association between levels of both genes in most of ITP patients but Hes1 was markedly elevated than Notch1 in few cases. High expression levels of Notch1/Hes1 indicated the important role of Notch signalling in both newly diagnosed and persistent ITP. High expression levels of Hes1 than Notch1 may shed light on its value as a therapeutic target for future research in ITP. PMID:27429531

  16. Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Safa, A; Rashidinejad, H R; Khalili, M; Dabiri, S; Nemati, M; Mohammadi, M M; Jafarzadeh, A

    2016-07-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chemokines play an important role in the migration of these cells into the inflammation sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4508917, rs6749704 and rs4359426 in chemokine genes in patients with IHD to clarify any association. A total of 300 patients with IHD as having acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n=100), stable angina (SA; n=100) or unstable angina (UA; n=100) and 100 healthy subjects as a control group were enrolled to study. Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. The SNPs were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58±205.77Pg/mL), SA patients (405.48±27.36Pg/mL, 90.20±7.69Pg/mL and 2322.04±231.23Pg/mL) and UA patients (396.69±22.79Pg/mL, 141.87±18.10Pg/mL and 2754.89±211.70Pg/mL) were significantly higher than in the healthy group (179.38±8.85Pg/mL, 51.92±4.62Pg/mL and 451.82±23.76Pg/mL, respectively; P<0.001). Similarly, the serum levels of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in total IHD patients (399.38±13.77Pg/mL, 113.49±7.48Pg/mL and 2309.84±126.39Pg/mL, respectively) were also significantly higher as compared with healthy subjects (P<0.001). The serum levels of CCL20 and CCL22 in UA patients were significantly higher than those in SA and AMI patients, respectively (P<0.01 and P<0.003, respectively). The serum levels of CXCL10 and CCL20 in diabetic patients were significantly higher in comparison to non-diabetic patients (P<0.05 and P<0.02, respectively). The serum levels of CCL22 in dyslipidemic- and obese patients were also significantly higher in comparison with non-dyslipidemic- and non-obese patients

  17. Higher circulating levels of chemokines CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in patients with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Safa, A; Rashidinejad, H R; Khalili, M; Dabiri, S; Nemati, M; Mohammadi, M M; Jafarzadeh, A

    2016-07-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and chemokines play an important role in the migration of these cells into the inflammation sites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs4508917, rs6749704 and rs4359426 in chemokine genes in patients with IHD to clarify any association. A total of 300 patients with IHD as having acute myocardial infarction (AMI; n=100), stable angina (SA; n=100) or unstable angina (UA; n=100) and 100 healthy subjects as a control group were enrolled to study. Serum samples from all participants were tested for the CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 levels by using ELISA. The SNPs were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The mean serum concentrations of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in AMI patients (395.97±21.20Pg/mL, 108.38±10.31Pg/mL and 1852.58±205.77Pg/mL), SA patients (405.48±27.36Pg/mL, 90.20±7.69Pg/mL and 2322.04±231.23Pg/mL) and UA patients (396.69±22.79Pg/mL, 141.87±18.10Pg/mL and 2754.89±211.70Pg/mL) were significantly higher than in the healthy group (179.38±8.85Pg/mL, 51.92±4.62Pg/mL and 451.82±23.76Pg/mL, respectively; P<0.001). Similarly, the serum levels of CXCL10, CCL20 and CCL22 in total IHD patients (399.38±13.77Pg/mL, 113.49±7.48Pg/mL and 2309.84±126.39Pg/mL, respectively) were also significantly higher as compared with healthy subjects (P<0.001). The serum levels of CCL20 and CCL22 in UA patients were significantly higher than those in SA and AMI patients, respectively (P<0.01 and P<0.003, respectively). The serum levels of CXCL10 and CCL20 in diabetic patients were significantly higher in comparison to non-diabetic patients (P<0.05 and P<0.02, respectively). The serum levels of CCL22 in dyslipidemic- and obese patients were also significantly higher in comparison with non-dyslipidemic- and non-obese patients

  18. Higher Plasma ApoE Levels are Associated with Low-Normal Thyroid Function: Studies in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Subjects.

    PubMed

    van Tienhoven-Wind, L J N; Dallinga-Thie, G M; Dullaart, R P F

    2016-07-01

    Low-normal thyroid function within the euthyroid range may confer higher plasma triglycerides, but relationships with plasma apolipoprotein (apo) E, which plays an important role in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich apoB-containing lipoproteins, are unknown. We determined relationships of plasma apoE with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (free T4) in euthyroid subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TSH, free T4, lipids, and apoE were measured in fasting plasma from 72 T2DM subjects and 82 nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype was also determined. Free T4 was slightly higher in T2DM (p=0.030), but TSH levels were not different vs. nondiabetic subjects. The APOE genotype distribution was not different between the groups. None of the participants had the ε2/ε2 genotype. Plasma triglycerides were higher in T2DM (p=0.037). ApoB and apoE levels were not different between the groups. In all subjects combined, multivariable analysis showed that plasma triglycerides (p=0.039), non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (p=0.030), and apoE levels (p=0.002) were each independently and positively associated with TSH after adjustment for age, sex, T2DM and the presence of the APOE ε3 allele. Furthermore, the associations of TSH with apoE remained present after adjustment for either triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, or apoB (p=0.005 to 0.023). The presence of T2DM did not modify the relationships of TSH with these (apo) lipoprotein variables (p=0.11 to 0.36). In conclusion, low-normal thyroid function, as indicated by higher TSH levels within the euthyroid range, may influence the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by affecting apoE regulation.

  19. The PXR rs7643645 Polymorphism Is Associated with the Risk of Higher Prostate-Specific Antigen Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D.; Vega, Libia; Jiménez-Ríos, Miguel A.; Martínez-Cervera, Pedro F.; Lugo-García, Juan A.; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Orozco, Lorena; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Levels of enzymes that determine testosterone catabolism such as CYP3A4 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Although some studies have related CYP3A4*1B allele, a gene polymorphism that modifies CYP3A4 expression level, with PCa risk, others have failed, suggesting that additional genetic variants may be involved. Expression of CYP3A4 is largely due to the activation of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). Particularly, rs2472677 and rs7643645 PXR polymorphisms modify CYP3A4 expression levels. To evaluate whether PXR-HNF3β/T (rs2472677), PXR-HNF4/G (rs7643645), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) polymorphisms are associated with PCa a case control-study was performed. The multiple testing analysis showed that the PXR-HNF4/G polymorphism was associated with higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with PCa (OR = 3.99, p = 0.03). This association was stronger in patients diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older (OR = 10.8, p = 0.006). Although the CYP3A4*1B/*1B genotype was overrepresented in PCa patients, no differences were observed in the frequency of this and PXR-HNF3β/T alleles between controls and cases. Moreover, no significant association was found between these polymorphisms and PSA, Gleason grade, or tumor lymph node metastasis. PMID:24924803

  20. The PXR rs7643645 polymorphism is associated with the risk of higher prostate-specific antigen levels in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Hernández, Octavio D; Vega, Libia; Jiménez-Ríos, Miguel A; Martínez-Cervera, Pedro F; Lugo-García, Juan A; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Orozco, Lorena; Elizondo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Levels of enzymes that determine testosterone catabolism such as CYP3A4 have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk. Although some studies have related CYP3A4*1B allele, a gene polymorphism that modifies CYP3A4 expression level, with PCa risk, others have failed, suggesting that additional genetic variants may be involved. Expression of CYP3A4 is largely due to the activation of Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). Particularly, rs2472677 and rs7643645 PXR polymorphisms modify CYP3A4 expression levels. To evaluate whether PXR-HNF3β/T (rs2472677), PXR-HNF4/G (rs7643645), and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) polymorphisms are associated with PCa a case control-study was performed. The multiple testing analysis showed that the PXR-HNF4/G polymorphism was associated with higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with PCa (OR = 3.99, p = 0.03). This association was stronger in patients diagnosed at the age of 65 years or older (OR = 10.8, p = 0.006). Although the CYP3A4*1B/*1B genotype was overrepresented in PCa patients, no differences were observed in the frequency of this and PXR-HNF3β/T alleles between controls and cases. Moreover, no significant association was found between these polymorphisms and PSA, Gleason grade, or tumor lymph node metastasis. PMID:24924803

  1. Tumor Vascular Permeability to a Nanoprobe Correlates to Tumor-Specific Expression Levels of Angiogenic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Karathanasis, Efstathios; Chan, Leslie; Karumbaiah, Lohitash; McNeeley, Kathleen; D'Orsi, Carl J.; Annapragada, Ananth V.; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 is the major mediator of the mitogenic, angiogenic, and vascular hyperpermeability effects of VEGF on breast tumors. Overexpression of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 is associated with the degree of pathomorphosis of the tumor tissue and unfavorable prognosis. In this study, we demonstrate that non-invasive quantification of the degree of tumor vascular permeability to a nanoprobe correlates with the VEGF and its receptor levels and tumor growth. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed an imaging nanoprobe and a methodology to detect the intratumoral deposition of a 100 nm-scale nanoprobe using mammography allowing measurement of the tumor vascular permeability in a rat MAT B III breast tumor model. The tumor vascular permeability varied widely among the animals. Notably, the VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 gene expression of the tumors as measured by qRT-PCR displayed a strong correlation to the imaging-based measurements of vascular permeability to the 100 nm-scale nanoprobe. This is in good agreement with the fact that tumors with high angiogenic activity are expected to have more permeable blood vessels resulting in high intratumoral deposition of a nanoscale agent. In addition, we show that higher intratumoral deposition of the nanoprobe as imaged with mammography correlated to a faster tumor growth rate. This data suggest that vascular permeability scales to the tumor growth and that tumor vascular permeability can be a measure of underlying VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 expression in individual tumors. Conclusions/Significance This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that quantitative imaging of tumor vascular permeability to a nanoprobe represents a form of a surrogate, functional biomarker of underlying molecular markers of angiogenesis. PMID:19513111

  2. Higher initial tacrolimus blood levels and concentration-dose ratios in kidney transplant recipients who develop diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, E; de Cos, M A; Fernández-Fresnedo, G; Sánchez, B; Ruiz, J C; Piñera, C; Palomar, R; Cotorruelo, J G; Gómez-Alamillo, C; de Castro, S Sanz; de Francisco, A L M; Arias, M

    2005-11-01

    Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication of kidney transplantation, associated with poorer graft and patient outcomes. Tacrolimus is a strong immunosuppressive drug associated with low acute rejection rates, but a higher risk for PTDM. High trough levels of tacrolimus during the first month after transplantation have been found to be a significant risk factor for the development of PTDM. The aim of this single-center study was to identify the risk factors for the development of PTDM among kidney transplant recipients under tacrolimus therapy. We examined 73 cadaveric kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus between 1994 and 2003. Age, donor and recipient gender, dialysis method, body mass index (BMI), first year weight gain, mismatches, incidence of acute rejection and delayed graft function, hepatitis C serology, first year cumulative steroid dose, first tacrolimus blood level, first tacrolimus blood level <15 ng/mL, and corresponding tacrolimus daily doses and concentration/dose ratios (CDR) were also collected. PTDM was defined as at least 2 fasting blood glucose values > or =126 mg/dL, according to the World Health Organization criteria. Incidence of first year PTDM was 27.4%. Patients with PTDM showed significantly higher age, BMI, first tacrolimus blood level, first tacrolimus CDR, and CDR with tacrolimus blood level <15 ng/mL as well as less 1-year weight gain. After logistic regression, age (relative risk [RR] 1.060, confidence interval [CI] 95%, 1.001-1.122; P = .043) and first tacrolimus blood level (RR 1.154; CI 95%, 1.038-1.283; P = .008) remain significant risk factors for developing PTDM. Older age and initial tacrolimus blood levels were the main risk factors for PTDM among our group of patients. Kidney transplant recipients who develop PTDM maintain a high CDR of tacrolimus.

  3. Development of a new noncytopathic Semliki Forest virus vector providing high expression levels and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Casales, Erkuden; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan R.; Ruiz-Guillen, Marta; Razquin, Nerea; Cuevas, Yolanda; Prieto, Jesus; Smerdou, Cristian

    2008-06-20

    Alphavirus vectors express high levels of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells, but their cytopathic nature makes this expression transient. In order to generate a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) noncytopathic vector we introduced mutations previously described to turn Sindbis virus noncytopathic into a conserved position in an SFV vector expressing LacZ. Interestingly, mutant P718T in replicase nsp2 subunit was able to replicate in only a small percentage of BHK cells, producing {beta}-gal-expressing colonies without selection. Puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (pac) gene was used to replace LacZ in this mutant allowing selection of an SFV noncytopathic replicon containing a second mutation in nsp2 nuclear localization signal (R649H). This latter mutation did not confer a noncytopathic phenotype by itself and did not alter nsp2 nuclear translocation. Replicase synthesis was diminished in the SFV double mutant, leading to genomic and subgenomic RNA levels that were 125-fold and 66-fold lower than in wild-type vector, respectively. Interestingly, this mutant expressed {beta}-gal levels similar to parental vector. By coexpressing pac and LacZ from independent subgenomic promoters this vector was able to generate stable cell lines maintaining high expression levels during at least 10 passages, indicating that it could be used as a powerful system for protein production in mammalian cells.

  4. Development of a new noncytopathic Semliki Forest virus vector providing high expression levels and stability.

    PubMed

    Casales, Erkuden; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan R; Ruiz-Guillen, Marta; Razquin, Nerea; Cuevas, Yolanda; Prieto, Jesus; Smerdou, Cristian

    2008-06-20

    Alphavirus vectors express high levels of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells, but their cytopathic nature makes this expression transient. In order to generate a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) noncytopathic vector we introduced mutations previously described to turn Sindbis virus noncytopathic into a conserved position in an SFV vector expressing LacZ. Interestingly, mutant P718T in replicase nsp2 subunit was able to replicate in only a small percentage of BHK cells, producing beta-gal-expressing colonies without selection. Puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (pac) gene was used to replace LacZ in this mutant allowing selection of an SFV noncytopathic replicon containing a second mutation in nsp2 nuclear localization signal (R649H). This latter mutation did not confer a noncytopathic phenotype by itself and did not alter nsp2 nuclear translocation. Replicase synthesis was diminished in the SFV double mutant, leading to genomic and subgenomic RNA levels that were 125-fold and 66-fold lower than in wild-type vector, respectively. Interestingly, this mutant expressed beta-gal levels similar to parental vector. By coexpressing pac and LacZ from independent subgenomic promoters this vector was able to generate stable cell lines maintaining high expression levels during at least 10 passages, indicating that it could be used as a powerful system for protein production in mammalian cells.

  5. Effect of floral cluster pruning on anthocyanin levels and anthocyanain-related gene expression in ‘Houman’ grape

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Yan-shuai; Jia, Yue; Wang, Ji-yuan; Yuan, Yue; Yu, Yang; Tao, Jian-min

    2016-01-01

    Lateral floral clusters were removed from the main axis of the floral clusters of ‘Houman’ grape plants, leaving only 3–5-cm-long region of flowers at the end of the central axis. The floral clusters were pruned at 7 days prior to flowering. The effect of the pruning on fruit quality was assessed by determining the composition and levels of anthocyanins in the fruit and anthocyanin-related gene expression. Results indicated that floral cluster pruning significantly improved the quality of the fruit by increasing berry size, fruit weight and the total content of soluble solids. Floral cluster pruning also decreased the level of titratable acidity. Sixteen different anthocyanins were detected in fruit of the pruned clusters, while only 15 were detected in fruit from unpruned clusters. The level of anthocyanins was also significantly higher in fruit of the pruned clusters than in the unpruned clusters. Anthocyanin-related gene expression was also significantly upregulated to a higher level in fruit from pruned floral clusters as compared with unpruned clusters. The upregulation was closely associated with increases in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:27555920

  6. Effect of floral cluster pruning on anthocyanin levels and anthocyanain-related gene expression in 'Houman' grape.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Yan-Shuai; Jia, Yue; Wang, Ji-Yuan; Yuan, Yue; Yu, Yang; Tao, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    Lateral floral clusters were removed from the main axis of the floral clusters of 'Houman' grape plants, leaving only 3-5-cm-long region of flowers at the end of the central axis. The floral clusters were pruned at 7 days prior to flowering. The effect of the pruning on fruit quality was assessed by determining the composition and levels of anthocyanins in the fruit and anthocyanin-related gene expression. Results indicated that floral cluster pruning significantly improved the quality of the fruit by increasing berry size, fruit weight and the total content of soluble solids. Floral cluster pruning also decreased the level of titratable acidity. Sixteen different anthocyanins were detected in fruit of the pruned clusters, while only 15 were detected in fruit from unpruned clusters. The level of anthocyanins was also significantly higher in fruit of the pruned clusters than in the unpruned clusters. Anthocyanin-related gene expression was also significantly upregulated to a higher level in fruit from pruned floral clusters as compared with unpruned clusters. The upregulation was closely associated with increases in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:27555920

  7. TDP-43 aggregation mirrors TDP-43 knockdown, affecting the expression levels of a common set of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Prpar Mihevc, S.; Baralle, Marco; Buratti, Emanuele; Rogelj, Boris

    2016-01-01

    TDP-43 protein plays an important role in regulating transcriptional repression, RNA metabolism, and splicing. Typically it shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm to perform its functions, while abnormal cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). For the purpose of this study we selected a set of proteins that were misregulated following silencing of TDP-43 and analysed their expression in a TDP-43-aggregation model cell line HEK293 Flp-in Flag-TDP-43-12x-Q/N F4L. Following TDP-43 sequestration in insoluble aggregates, we observed higher nuclear levels of EIF4A3, and POLDIP3β, whereas nuclear levels of DNMT3A, HNRNPA3, PABPC1 and POLDIP3α dropped, and cytoplasmic levels of RANBP1 dropped. In addition, immunofluorescence signal intensity quantifications showed increased nuclear expression of HNRNPL and YARS, and downregulation of cytoplasmic DPCD. Furthermore, cytoplasmic levels of predominantly nuclear protein ALYREF increased. In conclusion, by identifying a common set of proteins that are differentially expressed in a similar manner in these two different conditions, we show that TDP-43 aggregation has a comparable effect to TDP-43 knockdown. PMID:27665936

  8. Inconformity of CXCL3 plasma level and placenta expression in preeclampsia and its effect on trophoblast viability and invasion.

    PubMed

    Gui, Shunping; Ni, Shanshan; Jia, Jin; Gong, Yunhui; Gao, Linbo; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Rong

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the chemokine family, CXCL3 was previously known to participate in many pathophysiological events. However, whether CXCL3 stimulates trophoblast invasion as a key process of preeclampsia pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis and determine the effect of CXCL3 on the first trimester trophoblast. Seventy gravidas were included in this study. ELISA was used to detect CXCL3 plasma levels on preeclampsia and normal pregnant groups. CXCL3 protein and mRNA levels were detected via Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR analysis after immunolocalized in human placenta. Moreover, the CXCL3 function in HTR-8/Svneo was analyzed via WST-1 assay, flow cytometry and invasion test. The plasma CXCL3 level in preeclampsia was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy. CXCL3 expression was observed in the cytoplasm of placental trophoblasts and vascular endothelium in all groups without significant difference between maternal and fetal sides. In addition, placenta CXCL3 expression in severe preeclampsia was significantly lower than those in normal and mild PE groups. Moreover, exogenous CXCL3 can promote the proliferation and invasion of HTR-8/Svneo; however, its effect on apoptosis remains unclear. In summary, a significant abnormality of plasma CXCL3 level and placental CXCL3 expression was discovered in severe preeclampsia; CXCL3 had a function in trophoblast invasion, which indicated its participation in shallow implantation. Therefore CXCL3 might be involved in severe preeclampsia pathogenesis. PMID:25485631

  9. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva as a possible risk factor for early laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sereg-Bahar, Maja; Jerin, Ales; Hocevar-Boltezar, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is suspected to be an etiological factor in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to establish, using a non-invasive method, whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) appears more often in patients with early laryngeal cancer than in a control group. Patients and methods We compared the pH, the level of bile acids, the total pepsin and the pepsin enzymatic activity in saliva in a group of 30 patients with T1 laryngeal carcinoma and a group of 34 healthy volunteers. Results The groups differed significantly in terms of levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva sample. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids were detected in the group of cancer patients. No significant impact of other known factors influencing laryngeal mucosa (e.g. smoking, alcohol consumption, and the presence of irritating substances in the workplace) on the results of saliva analysis was found. Conclusions A higher level of typical components of LPR in the saliva of patients with early laryngeal cancer than in the controls suggests the possibility that LPR, especially biliary reflux, has a role in the development of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:25810702

  10. Levels of expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 on resting and activated human peripheral blood leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Stephen E; de la Mata Espinosa, Claudia T; Halliday, Deborah; Buxton, Cheryl A; Cummerson, Joanne A; Johnson, Peter M

    2006-01-01

    The cell surface complement regulatory (CReg) proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 are widely expressed on human lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. This study aimed to compare systematically levels of CReg expression by different leucocyte subsets and to determine whether levels were increased following activation in vitro. Levels of each CReg protein were similar on freshly isolated monocytes and all major lymphocyte subsets, except that CD4+ cells expressed significantly less CD46 than CD8+ cells (P < 0·05) while the reverse was observed for CD55 (P < 0·02). CD56+ cells, predominantly natural killer cells, expressed significantly lower levels of CD59 than T cells (P < 0·02). CD45RO+ cells had higher levels of surface CD46 and CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than CD45RO– cells (P < 0·02); CD25+ cells also expressed significantly less CD55 than CD25− cells (P < 0·002). Neutrophils expressed higher levels of CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than monocytes. Following activation with phytohaemagglutinin, CD46 was up-regulated on all leucocyte subsets with the exception of CD56+ cells. Both CD55 and CD59 were also markedly up-regulated on monocytes, and CD55 expression was greater on CD8+ than CD4+ cells following activation (P < 0·02). Lipopolysaccharide treatment did not significantly alter B-cell expression of CReg proteins whereas CD55 and CD59, but not CD46, were significantly up-regulated on monocytes (P < 0·02). These observations that CReg proteins are up-regulated on certain activated leucocyte subsets indicate that levels would be increased following immune responses in vivo. This could enhance both protection against local complement activation at inflammatory sites and also the immunoregulatory properties of these leucocytes. PMID:16999828

  11. Levels of expression of complement regulatory proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 on resting and activated human peripheral blood leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Stephen E; de la Mata Espinosa, Claudia T; Halliday, Deborah; Buxton, Cheryl A; Cummerson, Joanne A; Johnson, Peter M

    2006-12-01

    The cell surface complement regulatory (CReg) proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 are widely expressed on human lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells. This study aimed to compare systematically levels of CReg expression by different leucocyte subsets and to determine whether levels were increased following activation in vitro. Levels of each CReg protein were similar on freshly isolated monocytes and all major lymphocyte subsets, except that CD4(+) cells expressed significantly less CD46 than CD8(+) cells (P < 0.05) while the reverse was observed for CD55 (P < 0.02). CD56(+) cells, predominantly natural killer cells, expressed significantly lower levels of CD59 than T cells (P < 0.02). CD45RO(+) cells had higher levels of surface CD46 and CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than CD45RO(-) cells (P < 0.02); CD25(+) cells also expressed significantly less CD55 than CD25(-) cells (P < 0.002). Neutrophils expressed higher levels of CD59, but lower levels of CD55, than monocytes. Following activation with phytohaemagglutinin, CD46 was up-regulated on all leucocyte subsets with the exception of CD56(+) cells. Both CD55 and CD59 were also markedly up-regulated on monocytes, and CD55 expression was greater on CD8(+) than CD4(+) cells following activation (P < 0.02). Lipopolysaccharide treatment did not significantly alter B-cell expression of CReg proteins whereas CD55 and CD59, but not CD46, were significantly up-regulated on monocytes (P < 0.02). These observations that CReg proteins are up-regulated on certain activated leucocyte subsets indicate that levels would be increased following immune responses in vivo. This could enhance both protection against local complement activation at inflammatory sites and also the immunoregulatory properties of these leucocytes.

  12. Field programmable gate array processing for an improved low-light-level imaging system with higher detection sensibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hongying; Yu, Zhengtao

    2014-05-01

    The method which employs the frame accumulation and shaped function is effective in low-light-level imaging. However, it has drawbacks of lower imaging speed and complex operation. To optimize the method, we provide the design of an improved low-light-level imaging system with higher detection sensibility. The design is developed specifically for a faster imaging speed based on field programmable gate arrays. It features the use of least-square algorithm and a saw-tooth wave varied light applied to the image sensor. By manipulation of the video signal in synchronous dynamic random access memory, a low-light-level image which was previously undetectable can be estimated. The design simplifies the imaging process and doubles the imaging speed, and makes the system adapted to long range imaging.

  13. Identification of cis-elements conferring high levels of gene expression in non-green plastids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Ruf, Stephanie; Hasse, Claudia; Childs, Liam; Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Although our knowledge about the mechanisms of gene expression in chloroplasts has increased substantially over the past decades, next to nothing is known about the signals and factors that govern expression of the plastid genome in non-green tissues. Here we report the development of a quantitative method suitable for determining the activity of cis-acting elements for gene expression in non-green plastids. The in vivo assay is based on stable transformation of the plastid genome and the discovery that root length upon seedling growth in the presence of the plastid translational inhibitor kanamycin is directly proportional to the expression strength of the resistance gene nptII in transgenic tobacco plastids. By testing various combinations of promoters and translation initiation signals, we have used this experimental system to identify cis-elements that are highly active in non-green plastids. Surprisingly, heterologous expression elements from maize plastids were significantly more efficient in conferring high expression levels in root plastids than homologous expression elements from tobacco. Our work has established a quantitative method for characterization of gene expression in non-green plastid types, and has led to identification of cis-elements for efficient plastid transgene expression in non-green tissues, which are valuable tools for future transplastomic studies in basic and applied research.

  14. Lower vitamin D levels at first trimester are associated with higher risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Houde, Ghislaine; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Hivert, Marie-France; Perron, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    The progressive increase of insulin resistance observed in pregnancy contributes to the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). There is controversy whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to abnormal glycemic regulation in pregnancy. We tested the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and: 1) the risk of developing GDM; 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, beta cell function and compensation indices in a large population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women. Participants (n = 655) were seen at first (6-13 weeks) and second (24-28 weeks) trimesters for blood samples. At first trimester, 25OHD levels were measured. At second trimester, glucose and insulin were measured 3 times during the oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUCins/gluc) and beta cell compensation (ISSI-2). Based on IADPSG criteria, 54 participants (8.2 %) developed GDM. Lower first trimester 25OHD levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM even after adjustment for vitamin D confounding factors and GDM risk factors (OR = 1.48 per decrease of one SD in 25OHD levels; P = 0.04). Lower first trimester 25OHD levels were associated with higher HOMA-IR (r = - 0.08; P = 0.03), lower Matsuda index (r = 0.13; P = 0.001) and lower ISSI-2 (r = 0.08; P = 0.04). After adjustment for confounders, we found no significant association with HOMA-B and AUCins/gluc. Our results suggest that low levels of 25OHD at first trimester are (1) an independent risk factor for developing GDM and (2) associated with insulin resistance at second trimester.

  15. A Theoretical Lower Bound for Selection on the Expression Levels of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Price, Morgan N.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2016-01-01

    We use simple models of the costs and benefits of microbial gene expression to show that changing a protein’s expression away from its optimum by 2-fold should reduce fitness by at least 0.2·P, where P is the fraction the cell’s protein that the gene accounts for. As microbial genes are usually expressed at above 5 parts per million, and effective population sizes are likely to be above 106, this implies that 2-fold changes to gene expression levels are under strong selection, as Ne·s≫1, where Ne is the effective population size and s is the selection coefficient. Thus, most gene duplications should be selected against. On the other hand, we predict that for most genes, small changes in the expression will be effectively neutral. PMID:27289091

  16. The human phenolsulphotransferase polymorphism is determined by the level of expression of the enzyme protein.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A L; Roberts, R C; Coughtrie, M W

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the expression of platelet phenolsulphotransferase (PST) in 60 individuals. Using an antibody which recognizes both forms of PST present in man (P-PST and M-PST), we determined that the polymorphism of platelet P-PST activity is determined by the level of expression of the enzyme protein. The implications for susceptibility to adverse drug reactions and chemical carcinogenesis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8257413

  17. Expression of fas protein on CD4+T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Fan; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence on the Expression of Fas protein on CD4+ T cells irradiated by low level He-Ne laser in the cases of psoriasis. Methods:the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was determined in the casee of psoriasis(n=5) pre and post-low level laser irradiation(30 min、60min and 120min)by flow cytometry as compared withthe control(n=5). Results:In the cases of psoriasis,the expression of CD4+T FAS protein 21.4+/-3.1% was increased significantly than that of control group 16.8+/-2.1% pre-irradiation, p<0.05in the control,there is no difference between pre and post- irradiation,p>0.05in the cases , the expression of CD4+T Fas protein wae positively corelated to the irradiation times, when the energy density arrived to 22.92J/cm2(60 minutes)and 45.84J/cm2(120minutes), the expression of CD4+ T Fas protein was increased significantly as compared with pre-irradiation,p<0.05.Conclusion: The expression of CD4+T Fas protein may be increased by low level He-Ne laser irradiation ,the uncontrolled status of apoptosis could be corrected.

  18. Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2014-11-01

    Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin.

  19. NXS2 murine neuroblastomas express increased levels of MHC class I antigens upon recurrence following NK-dependent immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zane C; Imboden, Michael; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L; Kim, Kyung-Mann; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Surfus, Jean; Dixon, John R; Lode, Holger N; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Sondel, Paul M

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated recurrent NXS2 neuroblastoma tumors that developed following NK- or T-cell-mediated immunotherapy in tumor-bearing mice. Recurrent tumors developed following an NK-dependent antitumor response using a suboptimal dose of hu14.18-IL2, a humanized IL-2 immunocytokine targeted to the GD(2)-ganglioside. This treatment initially induced complete resolution of measurable tumor in the majority of mice, followed, however, by delayed tumor recurrence in some mice. These recurrent NXS2 tumors revealed markedly enhanced (> fivefold) MHC class I antigen expression when compared with NXS2 tumors growing in PBS-treated control mice. A similar level of enhanced MHC class I antigen-expression could be induced on NXS2 cells in vitro by culturing with interferon gamma, and was associated with reduced susceptibility to both NK-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in vitro. In contrast, Flt3-ligand treatment of NXS2-bearing mice induced a protective T-cell-dependent antitumor memory response. Recurrent NXS2 tumors that developed following Flt3-L therapy revealed a decreased expression of MHC class I antigens. While NXS2 tumors are susceptible to in vivo destruction following either hu14.18-IL2 or Flt3-ligand immunotherapies, these results suggest that some tumor cells may be selected to survive and progress by expressing either higher or lower levels of MHC class I antigen in order to resist either NK- or T-cell-mediated antitumor responses, respectively.

  20. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, K. S.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Paoli, F.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases.

  1. Codon optimization, promoter and expression system selection that achieved high-level production of Yarrowia lipolytica lipase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Jing; Yang, Jiang-Ke; Mao, Lin; Miao, Li-Hong

    2015-04-01

    Lipase (EC 3.1.1.3) stands amongst the most important and promising biocatalysts for industrial applications. In this study, in order to realize a high-level expression of the Yarrowia lipolytica lipase gene in Pichia pastoris, we optimized the codon of LIP2 by de novo gene design and synthesis, which significantly improved the lipase expression when compared to the native lip2 gene. We also comparatively analyzed the effects of the promoter types (PAOX1 and PFLD1) and the Pichia expression systems, including the newly developed PichiaPink system, on lipase production and obtained the optimal recombinants. Bench-top scale fermentation studies indicated that the recombinant carrying the codon-optimized lipase gene syn-lip under the control of promoter PAOX1 has a significantly higher lipase production capacity in the fermenter than other types of recombinants. After undergoing methanol inducible expression for 96h, the wet cell weight of Pichia, the lipase activity and the protein content in the fermentation broth reached their highest values of 262g/L, 38,500U/mL and 2.82g/L, respectively. This study has not only greatly facilitated the bioapplication of lipase in industrial fields but the strategies utilized, such as de novo gene design and synthesis, the comparative analysis among promoters and different generations of Pichia expression systems will also be useful as references for future work in this field. PMID:25765312

  2. Distinct patterns of expression but similar biochemical properties of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Thapar, N; Kim, A K; Clarke, S

    2001-02-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase is a widely distributed repair enzyme that initiates the conversion of abnormal L-isoaspartyl residues to their normal L-aspartyl forms. Here we show that this activity is expressed in developing corn (Zea mays) and carrot (Daucus carota var. Danvers Half Long) plants in patterns distinct from those previously seen in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Augusta) and thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas the pattern of expression observed in rice (Oryza sativa) is similar to that of winter wheat. Although high levels of activity are found in the seeds of all of these plants, relatively high levels of activity in vegetative tissues are only found in corn and carrot. The activity in leaves was found to decrease with aging, an unexpected finding given the postulated role of this enzyme in repairing age-damaged proteins. In contrast with the situation in wheat and Arabidopsis, we found that osmotic or salt stress could increase the methyltransferase activity in newly germinated seeds (but not in seeds or seedlings), whereas abscisic acid had no effect. We found that the corn, rice, and carrot enzymes have comparable affinity for methyl-accepting substrates and similar optimal temperatures for activity of 45 degrees C to 55 degrees C as the wheat and Arabidopsis enzymes. These experiments suggest that this enzyme may have specific roles in different plant tissues despite a common catalytic function.

  3. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Olivier; Gauthier, Claudine J.; Fraser, Sarah A.; Desjardins-Crèpeau, Laurence; Desjardins, Michèle; Mekary, Said; Lesage, Frederic; Hoge, Rick D.; Pouliot, Philippe; Bherer, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., V˙O2max) in order to classify them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit). All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions) in which the change in prefrontal cortex oxygenation was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness × Condition interaction (p < 0.05) such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the Executive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed in the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (ΔHbT and ΔHbO2), we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion: Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by V˙O2max) show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good cardiorespiratory functions can have a positive impact on cognition, regardless of age. PMID:25741267

  4. Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher systemic lupus erythematosus activity, but not predictive of disease flare-up

    PubMed Central

    Schoindre, Yoland; Jallouli, Moez; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Ghillani, Pascale; Galicier, Lionel; Aumaître, Olivier; Francès, Camille; Le Guern, Véronique; Lioté, Frédéric; Smail, Amar; Limal, Nicolas; Perard, Laurent; Desmurs-Clavel, Hélène; Thi Huong, Du Le; Asli, Bouchra; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Sailler, Laurent; Ackermann, Félix; Papo, Thomas; Sacré, Karim; Fain, Olivier; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Cacoub, Patrice; Leroux, Gaëlle; Cohen-Bittan, Judith; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Lechat, Philippe; Musset, Lucile; Piette, Jean-Charles; Amoura, Zahir; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have found an association between lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and higher SLE activity. We studied the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score, and we assessed for the first time the role of vitamin D in predicting SLE flare-ups. Methods Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured in 170 patients with SLE who were prospectively followed up for 6 months (Plaquenil LUpus Systemic study, ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00413361). Results The mean SLEDAI score was 2.03±2.43 and 12.3% patients had active disease (SLEDAI ≥6). The mean 25(OH)D level was 20.6±9.8 ng/mL. Deficiency (25(OH)D <10 ng/mL) was observed in 27 (15.9%), insufficiency (10≤25(OH)D<30) in 112 (65.9%) and optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D≥30) in 31 (18.2%) patients. In multivariate analysis, female gender (p=0.018), absence of defined antiphospholipid syndrome (p=0.002) and higher creatinine clearance (p=0.004) were predictive of lower 25(OH)D levels. In multivariate analysis, lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with high SLE activity (p=0.02). Relapse-free survival rate was not statistically different according to the vitamin D status during the 6-month follow-up (p=0.22). Conclusions We found a low vitamin D status in the majority of patients with SLE, and a modest association between lower 25(OH)D levels and high disease activity. There was no association between baseline 25(OH)D levels and relapse-free survival rate. PMID:25379192

  5. A Comparison of Brain Gene Expression Levels in Domesticated and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Frank W.; Somel, Mehmet; Carneiro, Miguel; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Halbwax, Michel; Thalmann, Olaf; Blanco-Aguiar, Jose A.; Trut, Lyudmila; Villafuerte, Rafael; Ferrand, Nuno; Kaiser, Sylvia; Jensen, Per; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species (dogs and wolves, pigs and wild boars, and domesticated and wild rabbits). We compared the expression differences with those between domesticated guinea pigs and a distant wild relative (Cavia aperea) as well as between two lines of rats selected for tameness or aggression towards humans. There were few gene expression differences between domesticated and wild dogs, pigs, and rabbits (30–75 genes (less than 1%) of expressed genes were differentially expressed), while guinea pigs and C. aperea differed more strongly. Almost no overlap was found between the genes with differential expression in the different domestication events. In addition, joint analyses of all domesticated and wild samples provided only suggestive evidence for the existence of a small group of genes that changed their expression in a similar fashion in different domesticated species. The most extreme of these shared expression changes include up-regulation in domesticates of SOX6 and PROM1, two modulators of brain development. There was almost no overlap between gene expression in domesticated animals and the tame and aggressive rats. However, two of the genes with the strongest expression differences between the rats (DLL3 and DHDH) were located in a genomic region associated with tameness and aggression, suggesting a role in influencing tameness. In summary, the majority of brain gene expression changes in domesticated animals are specific to the given domestication event, suggesting that the causative variants of behavioral domestication traits may likewise be different. PMID:23028369

  6. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis reveals correlation between higher WRKY61 expression and reduced symptom severity in Turnip crinkle virus infected Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruimin; Liu, Peng; Yong, Yuhan; Wong, Sek-Man

    2016-01-01

    Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is a carmovirus that infects many Arabidopsis ecotypes. Most studies mainly focused on discovery of resistance genes against TCV infection, and there is no Next Generation Sequencing based comparative genome wide transcriptome analysis reported. In this study, RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis revealed that 238 (155 up-regulated and 83 down-regulated) significant differentially expressed genes with at least 15-fold change were determined. Fifteen genes (including upregulated, unchanged and downregulated) were selected for RNA-seq data validation using quantitative real-time PCR, which showed consistencies between these two sets of data. GO enrichment analysis showed that numerous terms such as stress, immunity, defence and chemical stimulus were affected in TCV-infected plants. One putative plant defence related gene named WRKY61 was selected for further investigation. It showed that WRKY61 overexpression plants displayed reduced symptoms and less virus accumulation, as compared to wild type (WT) and WRKY61 deficient lines, suggesting that higher WRKY61 expression level reduced TCV viral accumulation. In conclusion, our transcriptome analysis showed that global gene expression was detected in TCV-infected Arabidopsis thaliana. WRKY61 gene was shown to be negatively correlated with TCV infection and viral symptoms, which may be connected to plant immunity pathways. PMID:27086702

  7. Elevated expression level of long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 facilitates cell growth, migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Feng; Hu, Hai; Yuan, Cuncun; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Weihua; Jin, Ziliang; Guo, Zhen; Wang, Liwei

    2014-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies with a dismal survival rate. Recent studies have shown that high expression levels of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1) correlate with several solid tumors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and its clinical significance in pancreatic cancer remain to be elucidated. In the present study, our results showed that MALAT-1 expression levels were upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous controls. Consistently, higher expression level of MALAT-1 was found in all seven pancreatic cancer cell lines relative to the human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell. Further function analysis revealed that downregulation of MALAT-1 could inhibit tumor cell proliferation and decrease cell migration and invasion in vitro. The underlying mechanisms are possibly involved in inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, promoting cell apoptosis, suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reducing cancer stem-like properties. In conclusion, this study indicated that MALAT-1 may serve as an oncogenic lncRNA that is involved in malignancy phenotypes of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, it may be used as a potential therapeutic target.

  8. Calpain expression in lymphoid cells. Increased mRNA and protein levels after cell activation.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, R V; Goust, J M; Chakrabarti, A K; Barbosa, E; Hogan, E L; Banik, N L

    1995-02-10

    Although calpain is ubiquitously present in human tissues and is thought to play a role in demyelination, its activity is very low in resting normal lymphocytes. To determine the nature of calpain expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human lymphoid cells, we studied human T lymphocytic, B lymphocytic, and monocytic lines as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Stimulation of cells with the phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate and the calcium ionophore A23187 resulted in increased calpain mRNA and protein expression. Calpain mRNA expression is also increased in human T cells stimulated with anti-CD3. A dissociation between the increases of RNA and protein suggested that calpain could be released from the cells; the subsequent experiments showed its presence in the extracellular environment. 5,6-Dichloro-1b-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a reversible inhibitor of mRNA synthesis, reduced calpain mRNA levels by 50-67% and protein levels by 72-91%. Its removal resulted in resumption of both calpain mRNA and protein synthesis. Cycloheximide, a translational inhibitor, reduced calpain protein levels by 77-81% and calpain mRNA levels by 96% in activated THP-1 cells. Interferon-gamma induced calpain mRNA and protein in U-937 and THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone increased mRNA expression in THP-1 cells. Our results indicate that activation of lymphoid cells results in de novo synthesis and secretion of calpain. PMID:7852311

  9. Hepcidin expression in liver cells: evaluation of mRNA levels and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Yohei; Murakami, Masaru; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2014-08-01

    Hepcidin produced in the liver negatively regulates intestinal iron absorption, and the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is well-known to stimulate hepcidin expression. However, the regulation of hepcidin expression has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluate different systems that can be used to determine how hepcidin expression is regulated. The basal expression of hepcidin in liver cell lines, such as HepG2 cells and Hepa1-6 cells, was lower than that in the liver and primary hepatocytes; the expression levels of hepcidin in the cell lines were near the limit of detection for RT-PCR and RT-qPCR analyses. Treatment with trichostatin A, RNAlater, or MG-132 enhanced the expression of hepcidin in HepG2 cells, suggesting that histone deacetylation, instability of mRNA, or proteosomal degradation of the protein(s) that positively regulate hepcidin expression may be responsible for the decreased expression of hepcidin in HepG2 cells. In luciferase-based reporter assays, BMP induced the transcription of a reporter, hepcidin(-2018)-luc, that contains nt -2018 through nt -35 of the hepcidin promoter in HepG2 cells and Hepa1-6 cells. However, BRE-luc, a representative reporter used to evaluate BMP signaling, was unresponsive to BMP in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that hepcidin transcription can be best evaluated in liver cell lines and that the hepcidin promoter senses BMP signaling with high sensitivity. The present study demonstrates that studies regarding the regulation of hepcidin expression at the mRNA level should be evaluated in primary hepatocytes, and liver cell lines are well-suited for studies examining the transcriptional regulation of hepcidin.

  10. Borrelia burgdorferi Stimulates Macrophages to Secrete Higher Levels of Cytokines and Chemokines than Borrelia afzelii or Borrelia garinii

    PubMed Central

    Strle, Klemen; Drouin, Elise E.; Shen, Shiqian; El Khoury, Joseph; McHugh, Gail; Ruzic-Sabljic, Eva; Strle, Franc; Steere, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    To delineate the inflammatory potential of the 3 pathogenic species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, we stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy human donors with 10 isolates each of B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, or B. garinii recovered from erythema migrans (EM) skin lesions of Lyme borreliosis patients from the United States or Slovenia. U.S. B. burgdorferi isolates induced macrophages to secrete significantly higher levels of IL-8, CCL3, CCL4, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF than B. garinii or B. afzelii isolates. Consistent with this response in cultured macrophages, the cytokine levels in sera of patients from whom the isolates were obtained were significantly greater in B. burgdorferi-infected patients than in B. afzelii- or B. garinii-infected patients. These results demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that B. burgdorferi has greater inflammatory potential than B. afzelii and B. garinii, which may account in part for variations in the clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:19909078

  11. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  12. The Expression Level and Prognostic Value of Y-Box Binding Protein-1 in Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ping-Wu; Feng, Gang; Xie, Gang; Wang, An-Qun; Yang, Yong-Hong; Wang, Dong; Du, Xiao-Bo

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to simultaneously evaluate the expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) in non-neoplastic rectal tissue and rectal cancer tissue, and to collect clinical follow-up data for individual patients. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the developmental functions and prognostic value of YB-1 in rectal cancer. We performed immunohistochemical studies to examine YB-1 expression in tissue samples from 80 patients with rectal cancer, 30 patients with rectal tubular adenoma, and 30 patients with rectitis. The mean YB-1 histological scores for rectal cancer, rectal tubular adenoma, and rectitis tissue specimens were 205.5, 164.3, and 137.7, respectively. Shorter disease-free and overall survival times were found in patients with rectal cancer who had higher YB-1 expression than in those with lower expression (38.2 months vs. 52.4 months, P = 0.013; and 44.4 months vs. 57.3 months, P = 0.008, respectively). Our results indicate that YB-1 expression is higher in rectal cancer tissue than in rectal tubular adenoma and rectitis tissue and that it may be an independent prognostic factor for rectal cancer. PMID:25790262

  13. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  14. TSLP Expression and High Serum TSLP Level Indicate a Poor Prognosis in Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Joji; Saito, Hiroaki; Miyatani, Kozo; Ikeguchi, Masahide; Umekita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays an important role in promoting tumor survival, by manipulating the immune response and angiogenesis. However, the clinical significance of TSLP in gastric cancer is unclear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate TSLP expression in non-cancerous gastric mucosa and gastric cancer tissue from patients with gastric cancer. Serum TSLP levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Tumors with TSLP expression were significantly larger than those without TSLP expression. TSLP expression was observed more frequently in advanced (T2/T3/T4) than in early (T1) gastric cancer and in stage 3/4 than in stage 1/2. Lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, positive peritoneal lavage cytology, lymphatic invasion, and vascular invasion occurred significantly more often in TSLP-expressing than in non-expressing tumors. The prognosis of patients with TSLP-positive tumors was significantly worse than that of patients with TSLP-negative tumors. Patients with high serum TSLP concentrations also had a significantly worse prognosis than those with low concentrations. Multivariate analysis identified serum TSLP level as an independent prognostic indicator. Conclusion TSLP is closely related to the progression of gastric cancer and may predict survival in these patients. PMID:26538800

  15. Cellular energy allocation in zebra mussels exposed along a pollution gradient: linking cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization.

    PubMed

    Smolders, R; Bervoets, L; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2004-05-01

    Organisms exposed to suboptimal environments incur a cost of dealing with stress in terms of metabolic resources. The total amount of energy available for maintenance, growth and reproduction, based on the biochemical analysis of the energy budget, may provide a sensitive measure of stress in an organism. While the concept is clear, linking cellular or biochemical responses to the individual and population or community level remains difficult. The aim of this study was to validate, under field conditions, using cellular energy budgets [i.e. changes in glycogen-, lipid- and protein-content and mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS)] as an ecologically relevant measurement of stress by comparing these responses to physiological and organismal endpoints. Therefore, a 28-day in situ bioassay with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) was performed in an effluent-dominated stream. Five locations were selected along the pollution gradient and compared with a nearby (reference) site. Cellular Energy Allocation (CEA) served as a biomarker of cellular energetics, while Scope for Growth (SFG) indicated effects on a physiological level and Tissue Condition Index and wet tissue weight/dry tissue weight ratio were used as endpoints of organismal effects. Results indicated that energy budgets at a cellular level of biological organization provided the fastest and most sensitive response and energy budgets are a relevant currency to extrapolate cellular effects to higher levels of biological organization within the exposed mussels.

  16. Assessment of Interleukin 16 Serum Levels and Skin Expression in Psoriasis Patients in Correlation with Clinical Severity of the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Purzycka-Bohdan, Dorota; Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Zablotna, Monika; Wierzbicka, Justyna; Piotrowska, Anna; Zmijewski, Michal A.; Nedoszytko, Boguslaw; Nowicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 16 (IL-16) has been described as a significant cytokine involved in the recruitment of CD4+ cells during inflammation; however, its potential role in psoriasis has not been defined. Our aim was to investigate the IL-16 serum levels and IL-16 mRNA skin expression in psoriasis patients in correlation with disease severity and mRNA skin expression for CD4. Moreover, the IL-16 skin localization was assessed and the -295 T/C IL-16 polymorphism was analyzed. For this exploratory, observational, and cross-sectional study, 97 unrelated patients with chronic plaque type psoriasis and 104 healthy controls were enrolled. IL-16 serum levels were significantly increased in patients compared with controls (P = 0.000022) and positively correlated with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (r = 0.34, P = 0.0007), Body Surface Area (r = 0.34, P = 0.01) and were significantly higher in individuals with moderate to severe psoriasis (P = 0.0029). There was no significant correlation between IL-16 serum levels and Dermatology Quality of Life Index and no differences in genotype and allele frequencies for -295 T/C IL-16 polymorphism. The expression of IL-16 (mRNA and protein) was elevated in the margin of psoriatic skin while statistically significant increase in IL-16 immunoreactivity, but not in mRNA level, was observed within plaques. Furthermore, the IL-16 mRNA levels within psoriatic lesions positively correlated with the levels of CD4 mRNA, but not with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. In conclusion, our data revealed an association between circulating IL-16 and severity of psoriasis which indicates that this cytokine could serve as a potential marker of disease activity. However, further investigations are required. PMID:27788245

  17. A correlation between dexamethasone inducibility and basal expression levels of retroviral vector proviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Duch, M; Paludan, K; Lovmand, J; Pedersen, L; Jørgensen, P; Pedersen, F S

    1993-01-01

    Identical transcription units inserted at different positions of mammalian chromosomes may vary widely in transcriptional activity. We have used a set of ten cell clones with random unselected single integrations of retroviral vectors to study such position effects. The vector used carries a neo gene driven by the Akv murine leukemia virus long terminal repeat that has only a weak promoter-enhancer activity in the target cell, the lymphoid cell line L691. Under transient expression conditions, the strength of the Akv promoter-enhancer in the L691 cells is increased by dexamethasone. In cell clones with single vector integrations, a correlation is observed between the non-induced expression levels and the degree of dexamethasone induction. The strongest relative induction is found for the integrated vectors with the lowest non-induced expression levels and approaches the inducibility under transient expression. These results indicate that expression levels are composed of distinct contributions from the integrated vector and from the site of integration and are best explained in terms of a model in which the sites of chromosomal integration exert variable positive enhancer effects upon vector transcription. Images PMID:8233826

  18. Architectural proteins CTCF and cohesin have distinct roles in modulating the higher order structure and expression of the CFTR locus.

    PubMed

    Gosalia, Nehal; Neems, Daniel; Kerschner, Jenny L; Kosak, Steven T; Harris, Ann

    2014-09-01

    Higher order chromatin structures across the genome are maintained in part by the architectural proteins CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) and the cohesin complex, which co-localize at many sites across the genome. Here, we examine the role of these proteins in mediating chromatin structure at the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR encompasses nearly 200 kb flanked by CTCF-binding enhancer-blocking insulator elements and is regulated by cell-type-specific intronic enhancers, which loop to the promoter in the active locus. SiRNA-mediated depletion of CTCF or the cohesin component, RAD21, showed that these two factors have distinct roles in regulating the higher order organization of CFTR. CTCF mediates the interactions between CTCF/cohesin binding sites, some of which have enhancer-blocking insulator activity. Cohesin shares this tethering role, but in addition stabilizes interactions between the promoter and cis-acting intronic elements including enhancers, which are also dependent on the forkhead box A1/A2 (FOXA1/A2) transcription factors (TFs). Disruption of the three-dimensional structure of the CFTR gene by depletion of CTCF or RAD21 increases gene expression, which is accompanied by alterations in histone modifications and TF occupancy across the locus, and causes internalization of the gene from the nuclear periphery. PMID:25081205

  19. Recombinant expression and purification of a MAP30-cell penetrating peptide fusion protein with higher anti-tumor bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiang; Yang, Xu-Zhong; Fu, Long-Yun; Lu, Yv-Ting; Lu, Yan-Hua; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Fu-Jun

    2015-07-01

    MAP30 (Momordica Antiviral Protein 30 Kd), a single-stranded type-I ribosome inactivating protein, possesses versatile biological activities including anti-tumor abilities. However, the low efficiency penetrating into tumor cells hampers the tumoricidal effect of MAP30. This paper describes MAP30 fused with a human-derived cell penetrating peptide HBD which overcome the low uptake efficiency by tumor cells and exhibits higher anti-tumor bioactivity. MAP30 gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of Momordica charantia and the recombinant plasmid pET28b-MAP30-HBD was established and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MAP30-HBD protein (rMAP30-HBD) was expressed in a soluble form after being induced by 0.5mM IPTG for 14h at 15°C. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The rMAP30-HBD protein not only has topological inactivation and protein translation inhibition activity but also showed significant improvements in cytotoxic activity compared to that of the rMAP30 protein without HBD in the tested tumor cell lines, and induced higher apoptosis rates in HeLa cells analyzed by Annexin V-FITC with FACS. This paper demonstrated a new method for improving MAP30 protein anti-tumor activity and might have potential applications in cancer therapy area.

  20. Association between plasma selenium level and NRF2 target genes expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Reszka, Edyta; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Janasik, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    Animal studies in rodent and in vitro studies indicate compensatory role of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like (Nrf2) and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and phase II biotransformation enzymes for the dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or for the loss of selenoproteins. To explore associations between plasma Se level and NRF2-regulated cytoprotective genes expression, an observational study was conducted in a population of 96 healthy non-smoking men living in Central Poland aged 18-83 years with relatively low plasma Se level. NRF2, KEAP2, CAT, EPHX1, GCLC, GCLM, GPX2, GSR, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, HMOX1, NQO1, PRDX1, SOD1, SOD2, TXNRD1 transcript levels in peripheral blood leukocytes and polymorphism of NRF2-617C/A (rs6721961) in blood genomic DNA were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Mean plasma Se level was found to be 51.10±15.25μg/L (range 23.86-96.18μg/L). NRF2 mRNA level was positively correlated with expression of investigated NRF2-target genes. The multivariate linear regression adjusting for selenium status showed that plasma Se level was significantly inversely associated only with expression of GSTP1 (β-coef.=-0.270, p=0.009), PRDXR1 (β-coef.=-0.245, p=0.017) and SOD2 with an inverse trend toward significance (β-coef.=-0.186, p=0.074), but without an effect of NRF2 gene variants. NRF2 expression was inversely associated with age (r=-0.23, p=0.03) and body mass index (r=-0.29, p<0.001). The findings may suggest a possible link between plasma Se level and cytoprotective response at gene level in humans. PMID:25524402

  1. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  2. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718. PMID:27053769

  3. Cell-cell channels, viruses, and evolution: via infection, parasitism, and symbiosis toward higher levels of biological complexity.

    PubMed

    Baluska, Frantisek

    2009-10-01

    Between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells there is dramatic difference in complexity which represents a problem for the current version of the cell theory, as well as for the current version of evolution theory. In the past few decades, the serial endosymbiotic theory of Lynn Margulis has been confirmed. This results in a radical departure from our understanding of living systems: the eukaryotic cell represents de facto"cells-within-cell." Higher order "cells-within-cell" situations are obvious at the eukaryotic cell level in the form of secondary and tertiary endosymbiosis, or in the male and female gametophytes of higher plants. The next challenge of the current version of the cell theory is represented by the fact that the multicellular fungi and plants are, in fact, supracellular assemblies as their cells are not physically separated from each other. Moreover, there are also examples of alliances and mergings between multicellular organisms. Infection, especially the viral one, but also bacterial and fungal infections, followed by symbiosis, is proposed to act as the major force that drives the biological evolution toward higher complexity.

  4. TRPV1 expression level in isolectin B₄-positive neurons contributes to mouse strain difference in cutaneous thermal nociceptive sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kentaro; Ye, Yi; Viet, Chi T; Dang, Dongmin; Schmidt, Brian L

    2015-05-01

    Differential thermal nociception across inbred mouse strains has genetic determinants. Thermal nociception is largely attributed to the heat/capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1); however, the contribution of this channel to the genetics of thermal nociception has not been revealed. In this study we compared TRPV1 expression levels and electrophysiological properties in primary sensory neurons and thermal nociceptive behaviors between two (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) inbred mouse strains. Using immunofluorescence and patch-clamp physiology methods, we demonstrated that TRPV1 expression was significantly higher in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive trigeminal sensory neurons of C57BL/6 relative to BALB/c; the expression in IB4-negative neurons was similar between the strains. Furthermore, using electrophysiological cell classification (current signature method), we showed differences between the two strains in capsaicin sensitivity in IB4-positive neuronal cell types 2 and 13, which were previously reported as skin nociceptors. Otherwise electrophysiological membrane properties of the classified cell types were similar in the two mouse strains. In publicly available nocifensive behavior data and our own behavior data from the using the two mouse strains, C57BL/6 exhibited higher sensitivity to heat stimulation than BALB/c, independent of sex and anatomical location of thermal testing (the tail, hind paw, and whisker pad). The TRPV1-selective antagonist JNJ-17203212 inhibited thermal nociception in both strains; however, removing IB4-positive trigeminal sensory neurons with IB4-conjugated saporin inhibited thermal nociception on the whisker pad in C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c. These results suggest that TRPV1 expression levels in IB4-positive type 2 and 13 neurons contributed to differential thermal nociception in skin of C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c.

  5. Relationship between stx genotype and Stx2 expression level in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 strains.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Kimiko; Ono, Hidetoshi; Iwashita, Osamu; Kurogi, Mai; Haga, Takeshi; Maeda, Ken; Goto, Yoshitaka

    2012-07-01

    To determine the expression level of Shiga toxin (Stx) 2-related toxins (Stx2 and Stx2c) produced by each of 33 Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 strains, stx2 and stx2c mRNAs (stx2-related mRNA) were measured using real-time PCR with primers that recognize sequences common to stx2 and stx2c. The amount of Stx2 and Stx2c protein was measured using a reversed passive latex agglutination (RPLA) kit. Expression of stx2-related mRNA was significantly higher in STEC O157 strains carrying the stx2 gene (i.e., stx2, stx1/stx2, or stx2/stx2c) than in most strains that carried the stx2c gene but not the stx2 gene (i.e., stx2c or stx1/stx2c). RPLA might not measure the precise amount of each toxin variant; nevertheless, stx2-inclusive strains had 40-fold higher mean toxin titers than did strains that carried the stx2c gene but not the stx2 gene, with the exception of 1 stx2c strain. Interestingly, 1 stx2c strain that was isolated from a patient with severe hemorrhagic diarrhea had the highest stx2-related mRNA expression and the highest toxin titer of all 33 STEC O157 strains. Taken together, these findings indicated that measurement of stx2-related mRNA expression could reflect differences in production levels of toxins among STEC strains.

  6. Gene expression in diplosporous and sexual Eragrostis curvula genotypes with differing ploidy levels.

    PubMed

    Cervigni, Gerardo D L; Paniego, Norma; Pessino, Silvina; Selva, Juan P; Díaz, Marina; Spangenberg, Germán; Echenique, Viviana

    2008-05-01

    The molecular nature of gene expression during the initiation and progress of diplosporous apomixis is still unknown. Moreover, the basis of the close correlation between diplospory and polyploidy is not clarified yet. A comparative expression analysis was performed based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing and differential display in an Eragrostis curvula diplosporous tetraploid genotype (T, 4x apo), a sexual diploid derivative obtained from tissue culture (D, 2x sex) and an artificial sexual tetraploid obtained from the diploid seeds after colchicine treatment (C, 4x sex). From a total of 8,884 unigenes sequenced from inflorescence-derived libraries, 112 (1.26%) showed significant differential expression in individuals with different ploidy level and/or variable reproductive mode. Independent comparisons between plants with different reproductive mode (same ploidy) or different ploidy level (same reproductive mode) allowed the identification of genes modulated in response to diplosporous development or polyploidization, respectively. Surprisingly, a group of genes (Group 3) were differentially expressed or silenced only in the 4x sex plant, presenting similar levels of expression in the 4x apo and the 2x sex genotypes. A group of randomly selected differential genes was validated by QR-PCR. Differential display analysis showed that in general the 4x apo and 4x sex expression profiles were more related and different from the 2x sex one, but confirmed the existence of Group 3-type genes, in both inflorescences and leaves. The possible biological significance for the occurrence of this particular group of genes is discussed. In silico mapping onto the rice genome was used to identify candidates mapping to the region syntenic to the diplospory locus. PMID:18311543

  7. Gene expression in diplosporous and sexual Eragrostis curvula genotypes with differing ploidy levels.

    PubMed

    Cervigni, Gerardo D L; Paniego, Norma; Pessino, Silvina; Selva, Juan P; Díaz, Marina; Spangenberg, Germán; Echenique, Viviana

    2008-05-01

    The molecular nature of gene expression during the initiation and progress of diplosporous apomixis is still unknown. Moreover, the basis of the close correlation between diplospory and polyploidy is not clarified yet. A comparative expression analysis was performed based on expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequencing and differential display in an Eragrostis curvula diplosporous tetraploid genotype (T, 4x apo), a sexual diploid derivative obtained from tissue culture (D, 2x sex) and an artificial sexual tetraploid obtained from the diploid seeds after colchicine treatment (C, 4x sex). From a total of 8,884 unigenes sequenced from inflorescence-derived libraries, 112 (1.26%) showed significant differential expression in individuals with different ploidy level and/or variable reproductive mode. Independent comparisons between plants with different reproductive mode (same ploidy) or different ploidy level (same reproductive mode) allowed the identification of genes modulated in response to diplosporous development or polyploidization, respectively. Surprisingly, a group of genes (Group 3) were differentially expressed or silenced only in the 4x sex plant, presenting similar levels of expression in the 4x apo and the 2x sex genotypes. A group of randomly selected differential genes was validated by QR-PCR. Differential display analysis showed that in general the 4x apo and 4x sex expression profiles were more related and different from the 2x sex one, but confirmed the existence of Group 3-type genes, in both inflorescences and leaves. The possible biological significance for the occurrence of this particular group of genes is discussed. In silico mapping onto the rice genome was used to identify candidates mapping to the region syntenic to the diplospory locus.

  8. Insect cell transformation vectors that support high level expression and promoter assessment in insect cell culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A somatic transformation vector, pDP9, was constructed that provides a simplified means of producing permanently transformed cultured insect cells that support high levels of protein expression of foreign genes. The pDP9 plasmid vector incorporates DNA sequences from the Junonia coenia densovirus th...

  9. Correlation between radiation dose and p53 protein expression levels in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Mariana B; Fernandes, Thiago S; Silva, Edvane B; Amaral, Ademir

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the relationship between p53 protein levels and absorbed doses from in vitro irradiated human lymphocytes. For this, samples of blood from 23 donors were irradiated with 0.5; 1; 2; and 4 Gy from a Cobalt-60 source, and the percentages of lymphocytes expressing p53 were scored using Flow Cytometry. The subjects were divided into 3 groups, in accordance with the p53 levels expressed per radiation dose: low (Group I), high (Group II), and excessive levels (Group III). For all groups, the analyses showed that the p53 expression levels increase with the absorbed dose. Particularly for groups I and II, the correlation between this protein expression and the dose follows the linear-quadratic model, such as for radioinduced chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, our findings indicate possible applications of this approach in evaluating individual radiosensitivity prior to radiotherapeutical procedures as well as in medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers. Furthermore, due to the rapidity of flow-cytometric analyses, the methodology here employed would play an important role in emergency responses to a large-scale radiation incident where many people may have been exposed. PMID:26312422

  10. Examination of Anxiety Levels and Anger Expression Manners of Undergraduate Table Tennis Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Tamer; Türkçapar, Ünal

    2016-01-01

    This research was done for the determination of how their anxiety levels' and anger expressions' get shaped according to some variances. For this reason there were 76 female 125 male totally 201 sportsmen, who participated to the table tennis championship between universities in 2016 and ages differ from 18 to 28, were included the research group.…

  11. High level expression of organophosphorus hydrolase in Pichia pastoris by multicopy ophcM assembly.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Shu, Min; Ma, Lixin; Ni, Hong; Yan, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The residues of organophosphorus pesticides bring serious impact on the environmental safety and people's health. Biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides is recognized as an ideal method. An organophosphorus hydrolase (OPHCM) from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The yield reached approximately 470 mg/l after a 6-d induction in shake flasks. To improve the enzyme production, we describe a novel approach to express OPHCM efficiently with a biobrick assembly method in vitro. Four recombinant plasmids containing 1-4 copies of ophcM-expressing cassettes were constructed and transformed into P. pastoris. Increasing the copy number of ophcM gene enhanced the expression level of OPHCM. The maximum yield and specific activity in P. pastoris harboring two-copy tandem ophcM-expressing cassettes reached 610 mg/l after a 6-d induction in shake flasks and 7.8 g/l in high-density fermentation with specific activity of 13.7 U/mg. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant OPHCM activity were 11.0 and 50 °C, respectively. In addition, the enzyme activity of recombinant OPHCM enhanced 57.6% and 30.1% in the presence of 1 mM Cd(2+) and 5% glycerol, respectively. The high expression and good properties of recombinant OPHCM provide an effective solution to solve the pollution of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment. Moreover, the approach for generating multicopy gene expressing vectors here will benefit the study for enhancing the expression level of genes of interest. PMID:26611611

  12. High Levels of MeCP2 Depress MHC Class I Expression in Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Miralvès, Julie; Magdeleine, Eddy; Kaddoum, Lara; Brun, Hélène; Peries, Sophie; Joly, Etienne

    2007-01-01

    Background The expression of MHC class I genes is repressed in mature neurons. The molecular basis of this regulation is poorly understood, but the genes are particularly rich in CpG islands. MeCP2 is a transcriptional repressor that binds to methylated CpG dinucleotides; mutations in this protein also cause the neurodevelopmental disease called Rett syndrome. Because MHC class I molecules play a role in neuronal connectivity, we hypothesised that MeCP2 might repress MHC class I expression in the CNS and that this might play a role in the pathology of Rett syndrome. Methodology We show here that transiently transfected cells expressing high levels of MeCP2 specifically downregulate cell-surface expression of MHC class I molecules in the neuronal cell line N2A and they prevent the induction of MHC class I expression in response to interferon in these cells, supporting our first hypothesis. Surprisingly, however, overexpression of the mutated forms of MeCP2 that cause Rett syndrome had a similar effect on MHC class I expression as the wild-type protein. Immunohistological analyses of brain slices from MECP2 knockout mice (the MeCP2tm1.1Bird strain) demonstrated a small but reproducible increase in MHC class I when compared to their wild type littermates, but we found no difference in MHC class I expression in primary cultures of mixed glial cells (mainly neurons and astrocytes) from the knockout and wild-type mice. Conclusion These data suggest that high levels of MeCP2, such as those found in mature neurons, may contribute to the repression of MHC expression, but we find no evidence that MeCP2 regulation of MHC class I is important for the pathogenesis of Rett syndrome. PMID:18159237

  13. PAQR3 gene expression and its methylation level in colorectal cancer tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ri-Heng; Zhang, Ai-Min; Li, Shuang; Li, Tian-Yang; Wang, Lian-Jing; Zhang, Hao-Ran; Shi, Jian-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Rui; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Ya-Chao; Wei, Teng-Yao; Gao, Ying; Li, Wei; Tang, Hong-Ying; Tang, Mei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the PAQR3 gene expression and its methylation level in colorectal cancer tissues, as well as the association with colorectal cancer clinical data. In total, 54 cases of colorectal cancer tissue samples and normal adjacent tissue samples were collected between June, 2013 and July, 2014. RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect the mRNA and protein levels of PAQR3 in colorectal samples, respectively. MSP was used to detect the methylation level of PAQR3 gene in colorectal samples, which was compared with colorectal data. The results showed that a decreased expression level of PAQR3 mRNA in colorectal cancer tissues and the expression reduction rate was 57.4% (31/54). Similarly, the expression level of PAQR3 protein was reduced in cancer tissues, and the reduction rate was 46.3% (25/54), while the protein expression reduction rate in cancer adjacent tissue was 5.6% (3/54), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Furthermore, the methylation rates of PAQR3 in cancer tissues and cancer adjacent tissues were 33.3% (18/54) and 5.6% (3/54), respectively. In addition, PAQR3 mRNA and protein levels in colorectal cancer tissues were associated with the differentiation degree, lymphatic metastasis and tumor infiltration depth. The methylation level of PAQR3 was associated with age, differentiated degree, lymphatic metastasis and tumor infiltration depth. In conclusion, the expression of PAQR3 mRNA and protein in colorectal cancer was reduced and methylation of PAQR3 occurred. Although the PAQR3 mRNA and protein levels were not associated with gender, age or the location of tumor, there was an association with differentiation degree, lymphatic metastasis and tumor infiltration depth. In addition, the methylation level of PAQR3 was not correlated with gender or tumor location, but was correlated with age, differentiation degree, lymphatic metastasis and tumor infiltration depth. PMID:27588124

  14. Ectopic expression of dehydration responsive element binding proteins (StDREB2) confers higher tolerance to salt stress in potato.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Donia; Pirrello, Julien; Ben Amor, Hela; Hammami, Asma; Charfeddine, Mariam; Dhieb, Amina; Bouzayen, Mondher; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2012-11-01

    Dehydration responsive element binding proteins (DREB) are members of a larger family of transcription factors, many of which have been reported to contribute to plant responses to abiotic stresses in several species. While, little is known about their role in potato (Solanum tuberosum). This report describes the cloning and characterization of a DREB transcription factor cDNA, StDREB2, isolated from potato (cv Nicola) plants submitted to salt treatment. Based on a multiple sequence alignment, this protein was classified into the A-5 group of DREB subfamily. Expression studies revealed that StDREB2 was induced in leaves, roots and stems upon various abiotic stresses and in response to exogenous treatment with abscisic acid (ABA). In agreement with this expression pattern, over-expression of StDREB2 in transgenic potato plants resulted in enhanced tolerance to salt stress. These data suggest that the isolated StDREB2 encodes a functional protein involved in plant response to different abiotic stresses. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that the StDREB2 protein bound specifically to the DRE core element (ACCGAGA) in vitro. Moreover, Semi quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcript level of a putative target gene i.e. δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) was up-regulated in transgenic plants submitted to salt stress conditions. A concomitant increase in proline accumulation was also observed under these conditions. Taking together, all these data suggest that StDREB2 takes part in the processes underlying plant responses to abiotic stresses probably via the regulation of ABA hormone signaling and through a mechanism allowing proline synthesis.

  15. Connexin-deficiency affects expression levels of glial glutamate transporters within the cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Unger, Tina; Bette, Stefanie; Zhang, Jiong; Theis, Martin; Engele, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The glial glutamate transporter subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate transporter expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network controlling glial glutamate transport in health and disease still remains incomplete. In studies with cultured cortical astrocytes, we previously obtained evidence that glial glutamate transporter expression is also affected by gap junctions/connexins. To assess whether gap junctions would likewise control the in vivo expression of glial glutamate transporters, we have now assessed their expression levels in brains of conditional Cx43 knockout mice, total Cx30 knockouts, as well as Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts. We found that either knocking out Cx30, Cx43, or both increases GLT-1/EAAT-2 protein levels in the cerebral cortex to a similar extent. By contrast, GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels maximally increased in cerebral cortices of Cx30/Cx43 double knockouts, implying that gap junctions differentially affect the expression of GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1. Quantitative PCR analysis further revealed that increases in glial glutamate transporter expression are brought about by transcriptional and translational/posttranslational processes. Moreover, GLT-1/EAAT-2- and GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels remained unchanged in the hippocampi of Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts when compared to Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating brain region-specific effects of gap junctions on glial glutamate transport. Since astrocytic gap junction coupling is affected in various forms of brain injuries, our findings point to gap junctions/connexins as important regulators of glial glutamate turnover in the diseased cerebral cortex.

  16. Intercellular Variability in Protein Levels from Stochastic Expression and Noisy Cell Cycle Processes

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mohammad; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar A.; Antunes, Duarte; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-01-01

    Inside individual cells, expression of genes is inherently stochastic and manifests as cell-to-cell variability or noise in protein copy numbers. Since proteins half-lives can be comparable to the cell-cycle length, randomness in cell-division times generates additional intercellular variability in protein levels. Moreover, as many mRNA/protein species are expressed at low-copy numbers, errors incurred in partitioning of molecules between two daughter cells are significant. We derive analytical formulas for the total noise in protein levels when the cell-cycle duration follows a general class of probability distributions. Using a novel hybrid approach the total noise is decomposed into components arising from i) stochastic expression; ii) partitioning errors at the time of cell division and iii) random cell-division events. These formulas reveal that random cell-division times not only generate additional extrinsic noise, but also critically affect the mean protein copy numbers and intrinsic noise components. Counter intuitively, in some parameter regimes, noise in protein levels can decrease as cell-division times become more stochastic. Computations are extended to consider genome duplication, where transcription rate is increased at a random point in the cell cycle. We systematically investigate how the timing of genome duplication influences different protein noise components. Intriguingly, results show that noise contribution from stochastic expression is minimized at an optimal genome-duplication time. Our theoretical results motivate new experimental methods for decomposing protein noise levels from synchronized and asynchronized single-cell expression data. Characterizing the contributions of individual noise mechanisms will lead to precise estimates of gene expression parameters and techniques for altering stochasticity to change phenotype of individual cells. PMID:27536771

  17. Intercellular Variability in Protein Levels from Stochastic Expression and Noisy Cell Cycle Processes.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mohammad; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar A; Antunes, Duarte; Singh, Abhyudai

    2016-08-01

    Inside individual cells, expression of genes is inherently stochastic and manifests as cell-to-cell variability or noise in protein copy numbers. Since proteins half-lives can be comparable to the cell-cycle length, randomness in cell-division times generates additional intercellular variability in protein levels. Moreover, as many mRNA/protein species are expressed at low-copy numbers, errors incurred in partitioning of molecules between two daughter cells are significant. We derive analytical formulas for the total noise in protein levels when the cell-cycle duration follows a general class of probability distributions. Using a novel hybrid approach the total noise is decomposed into components arising from i) stochastic expression; ii) partitioning errors at the time of cell division and iii) random cell-division events. These formulas reveal that random cell-division times not only generate additional extrinsic noise, but also critically affect the mean protein copy numbers and intrinsic noise components. Counter intuitively, in some parameter regimes, noise in protein levels can decrease as cell-division times become more stochastic. Computations are extended to consider genome duplication, where transcription rate is increased at a random point in the cell cycle. We systematically investigate how the timing of genome duplication influences different protein noise components. Intriguingly, results show that noise contribution from stochastic expression is minimized at an optimal genome-duplication time. Our theoretical results motivate new experimental methods for decomposing protein noise levels from synchronized and asynchronized single-cell expression data. Characterizing the contributions of individual noise mechanisms will lead to precise estimates of gene expression parameters and techniques for altering stochasticity to change phenotype of individual cells. PMID:27536771

  18. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1β signaling might be of value in terms of controlling

  19. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  20. Factors Associated with Higher Reported Pain Levels in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Jun; Yoon, Duck Mi; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Moon, Ji Ae; Kim, Shin Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, disabling, and costly, and has many negative effects on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with higher reported pain levels in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain among demographic, clinical, and psychological factors, and to evaluate whether insomnia is independently associated with pain intensity in this population. Methods A total of 357 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (pain duration ≥ six months) satisfied the study inclusion criteria and were included in the analyses. Patient demographics, clinical, and psychological factors were evaluated with hierarchical multivariate logistic analysis to identify factors associated with severe pain (NRS [numeric rating scale] ≥ 7). Hierarchical linear regression analysis also performed to identify factors associated with pain intensity (0 to 10 NRS). Results Multivariate logistic analyses revealed older age (OR [odds ratio] = 1.017, 95% CI [confidence interval] 1.001–1.032, P = 0.034), high anxiety level (OR = 1.162, 95% CI 1.020–1.324, P = 0.024), high pain catastrophizing (OR = 1.043, 95% CI 1.007–1.081, P = 0.018), and severe insomnia (OR = 1.112, 95% CI 1.057–1.170, P<0.001) were significantly associated with severe pain. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed age (β = 0.106, P = 0.041), pain catastrophizing (β = 0.249, P<0.001), and insomnia (β = 0.286, P<0.001) were significantly associated with pain intensity. The variance in pain intensity explained by the final model was 32.2%. Conclusions Older age, severe insomnia, and high pain catastrophizing were significantly associated with higher reported pain levels. Insomnia was independently associated with pain intensity, even after controlling for various demographic and clinical factors. These factors should be considered when devising pain management strategies for this population. PMID:27636367

  1. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Patricia M; Wright, Alan J; Veltien, Andor; van Asten, Jack J A; Tack, Cees J; Jones, John G; Heerschap, Arend

    2014-05-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced hepatic triglyceride (HTG) accumulation can be attributed to both DNL stimulation and dietary lipid absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose diet on HTG and ATP content and the contributions of dietary lipids and DNL to HTG. Measurements were performed in vivo in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and novel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches. Abdominal adipose tissue volume and intramyocellular lipid levels were comparable between 8-wk fructose- and glucose-fed mice. HTG levels were ∼1.5-fold higher in fructose-fed than in glucose-fed mice (P<0.05). Metabolic flux analysis by (13)C and (2)H MRS showed that this was not due to dietary lipid absorption, but due to DNL stimulation. The contribution of oral lipids to HTG was, after 5 h, 1.60 ± 0.23% for fructose and 2.16 ± 0.35% for glucose diets (P=0.26), whereas that of DNL was higher in fructose than in glucose diets (2.55±0.51 vs.1.13±0.24%, P=0.01). Hepatic energy status, assessed by (31)P MRS, was similar for fructose- and glucose-fed mice. Fructose-induced HTG accumulation is better explained by DNL and not by dietary lipid uptake, while not compromising ATP homeostasis.

  2. Association between the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 and the prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, LING; YANG, XIGUI; YANG, XIANGSHAN; FAN, KAIXI; XIAO, PING; ZHANG, JING; WANG, XIUWEN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) in gastric adenocarcinoma. TNFAIP8 expression levels in gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples (with and without lymph node metastasis), adjacent normal tissue samples and metastatic lymph node tissue samples were detected by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between TNFAIP8 expression levels and clinicopathological data and gastric adenocarcinoma prognosis was analyzed. The results demonstrated that TNFAIP8 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples and metastatic lymph node tissue samples markedly increased at a rate of 47.2% (50/106) and 81.7% (49/60), respectively, as compared with the adjacent normal tissue samples in which no TNGFAIP8 expression was detected (0%). This increase in TNFAIP8 expression was statistically significant. TNFAIP8 expression rates in the primary tumors (60%, 36/60) of patients with lymph node metastasis were significantly higher compared with the primary tumors of patients without lymph node metastasis (30.4%, 14/46). TNFAIP8 expression was associated with an increase in the severity of TNM stage, tumor grade, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and serum CA72-4 levels. The overall survival rate of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and high TNFAIP8 expression was poorer compared with patients with low TNFAIP8 expression, and TNFAIP8 expression was negatively correlated with patient prognosis. The results also demonstrated that TNFAIP8 was an independent prognostic marker in gastric adenocarcinoma (relative risk, 1.736; P=0.029). In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that TNFAIP8 expression was associated with the occurrence, development and metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma, and negatively correlated with the prognosis of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. TNFAIP8 may therefore serve as a prognostic factor for gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:27347043

  3. MicroRNA-199b expression level and coliform count in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Marwa A; Sabbah, Norhan A; Mansour, Shymaa A; Ibrahim, Amany M

    2016-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common intestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of IBS may involve an altered intestinal microbiota. Recent studies have shown that alterations in microRNA (miRNA) levels have affected IBS and its subtypes. We aimed to compare both the count of Coliform and serum level of miRNA-199b between patients with IBS and healthy controls and to find the relationship between the Coliform and miRNAs in patients with IBS. Patients with IBS were classified into three subgroups based on their predominant bowel pattern as defined by Rome III criteria. Quantitative culture of Coliform and determination of serum miRNA-199b expression level by quantitative real-time PCR in IBS group versus healthy controls were performed. There was a significant increase in the count of Coliform in patients with IBS and its different subtypes when compared with healthy controls. There was a significant decrease of serum miR-199b expression level in patients with IBS and its different subtypes when compared with healthy controls with the highest level (1.9 ± 0.53 log scale) in healthy controls and lowest one (0.71 ± 0.27 log scale) in IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D) subtype. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the count of Coliform and the serum miRNA-199b expression level in IBS. This study reported that there was a significant increase in the count of Coliform and a decrease in the serum miRNA-199b expression level. In addition, there was a negative correlation between them in patients with IBS and its different subtypes when compared with healthy controls. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(5):335-342, 2016. PMID:27015896

  4. Higher plasma orexin A levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated sibling controls.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; Johnson, Lisa; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia, and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS. Multiplex immune assays utilized the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex platform. Natural log-transformed orexin A data were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age, total body fat and body mass index (BMI). Plasma orexin A levels were significantly higher (P < 0.006) in children with PWS (average ±SD = 1028 pg/ml ± 358) compared with unrelated siblings (average ±SD = 609 pg/ml ± 351; P < 0.001). Orexin A levels correlated with age in females and were significantly elevated in PWS even after these effects were controlled. These findings support the hypothesis that dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia in PWS. Further studies are warranted to better understand the complex relationship between orexin A levels and the problematic behaviors consistently found in individuals with PWS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27214028

  5. Higher plasma orexin a levels in children with Prader-Willi syndrome compared with healthy unrelated sibling controls.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Ann M; Johnson, Lisa; Miller, Jennifer L; Driscoll, Daniel J; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder associated with maladaptive social behavior, hyperphagia and morbid obesity. Orexin A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide important as a homeostatic regulator of feeding behavior and in energy metabolism through actions in the lateral hypothalamus. Dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia seen in PWS and we sought to assess orexin A levels in PWS relative to controls children. Morning fasting plasma orexin A levels were analyzed in 23 children (aged 5-11 years) with genetically confirmed PWS and 18 age and gender matched healthy unrelated siblings without PWS. Multiplex immune assays utilized the Milliplex Human Neuropeptide Magnetic panel and the Luminex platform. Natural log-transformed orexin A data were analyzed using general linear model adjusting for diagnosis, gender, age, total body fat, and body mass index (BMI). Plasma orexin A levels were significantly higher (P < 0.006) in children with PWS (average ±SD = 1,028 pg/ml ± 358) compared with unrelated siblings (average ±SD = 609 pg/ml ± 351; P < 0.001). Orexin A levels correlated with age in females and were significantly elevated in PWS even after these effects were controlled. These findings support the hypothesis that dysregulation of orexin signaling may contribute to behavioral problems and hyperphagia in PWS. Further studies are warranted to better understand the complex relationship between orexin A levels and the problematic behaviors consistently found in individuals with PWS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27518917

  6. Evaluating the prognostic significance of FBXW7 expression level in human breast cancer by a meta-analysis of transcriptional profiles

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guangwei; Wang, Yunshan; Zhang, Pengju; Lu, Jing; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene FBXW7 is mutated in numerous types of human cancers leading to loss of its function and/or expression. However the clinic significance of FBXW7 alterations remains largely unknown. Here, we carried out a meta-analysis of 10 gene expression microarray studies for a total 1900 patients of breast cancer with clinic information to evaluate the prognostic impact of FBXW7 mRNA expression. The FBXW7 mRNA levels significantly reduced in breast cancer compared to normal tissues. In addition, significant difference in the FBXW7 mRNA levels was found among molecular subtypes (normal-like, luminal A, luminal B, ERBB2 and basal). ERBB2 and basal tumors had significantly lower average FBXW7 mRNA level than normal-like tumors, whereas luminal A and B tumors have the lowest average FBXW7 mRNA level. The patients with higher FBXW7 mRNA level significantly increased disease-free survival, particularly in the group of patients with ER negative and basal subtype tumors. Moreover, higher FBXW7 mRNA level also significantly increased overall survival in the patients with ER negative tumors. But we strikingly found opposite effect of FBXW7 expression on overall survival in different subtypes. The patients with higher FBXW7 mRNA level significantly decreased overall survival in normal-like subtype while the patients with higher FBXW7 mRNA level significantly increased overall survival in ERBB2 and Basal subtype. Taken together, our results suggest that FBXW7 mRNA levels were a prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival according to ER status and molecular subtypes. PMID:23105958

  7. High levels of glucose-6-phosphatase gene and protein expression reflect an adaptive response in proliferating liver and diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Haber, B A; Chin, S; Chuang, E; Buikhuisen, W; Naji, A; Taub, R

    1995-01-01

    The regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy is one of the few physiologic models of cellular proliferation in the adult animal. During hepatic regeneration, the animal is able to maintain metabolic homeostasis despite the acute loss of two thirds of hepatic tissue. In examining the molecular mechanisms regulating hepatic regeneration, we isolated novel immediate-early genes that are rapidly induced as the remnant liver undergoes the transition from its normal quiescent state into the G1 phase of the cell cycle. One of the most rapidly and highly induced genes which we initially termed RL-1, encodes rat glucose-6-phosphatase (rG6Pase). G6Pase mRNA peaks at 30 min and 36-48 h after hepatectomy correlating with the first and second rounds of cell division. This finding is compatible with studies that showed that G6Pase enzyme activity increases during liver regeneration. However, the increase in G6Pase mRNA is much more dramatic, indicating that it is a more sensitive indicator of this regulation. G6Pase gene expression peaks in the perinatal time period in the liver and remains elevated during the first month of life. The expression of the G6Pase gene is also dramatically elevated in BB diabetic rats, again higher than the enzyme elevation, and its relative induction after partial hepatectomy is blunted in these animals. Insulin treatment of partially hepatectomized diabetic animals downregulates the expression of G6Pase mRNA. Using specific antibodies against G6Pase, we detect a 36-kD G6Pase protein, and its level is elevated in regenerating and diabetic livers. The pattern of G6Pase mRNA expression appears to reflect similar changes in insulin and glucagon levels which accompany diabetes and hepatic proliferation. The elevation of G6Pase expression in these conditions is indicative of its importance as a regulator of glucose homeostasis in normal and abnormal physiologic states. Images PMID:7860767

  8. High levels of CC-chemokine expression and downregulated levels of CCR5 during HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections.

    PubMed

    Oo, Z; Barrios, C S; Castillo, L; Beilke, M A

    2015-05-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are common copathogens among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. HTLV-2 may confer a survival benefit among patients with HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections, along with lower plasma HIV-1 levels and delayed rates of CD4(+) T-cell decline. These effects have been attributed to the ability of the HTLV-2 viral transactivating Tax2 protein to induce the production of high levels of antiviral CC-chemokines and to downregulate expression of the CCR5 receptor, resulting in impaired entry of HIV-1 into CD4(+) T-cells. This study investigated the innate immunity of coinfected HIV/HTLV individuals by testing the ability of patient PBMCs to produce CC-chemokines in association CCR5 receptor modulation. The cellular proliferative responses of HIV/HTLV coinfected versus HIV monoinfected individuals were also evaluated. Higher levels of MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES (P < 0.05) were found in HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfected group compared to HIV-1 monoinfected population. Upregulated levels of RANTES were shown in HIV-1/HTLV-1 after 1 and 3 days of culture (P < 0.05). Lymphocytes from HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfected individuals showed significant CCR5 downregulation after 1 and 3 days of culture compared to lymphocytes from HIV-1 and uninfected groups (P < 0.05). Lower percentages of CCR5-positive cells were found in HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfected after 3 days of incubation (P < 0.05). Levels of proliferation were significantly higher in the HIV-1/HTLV-1 group compared to HIV-1 alone (P < 0.05). HTLV-2 and HTLV-1 infections may induce the involvement of innate immunity against HIV-1 via stimulation of CC-chemokines and receptors, potentially modifying CCR5/HIV-1 binding and HIV-1 progression in coinfected individuals.

  9. Changes in expression levels of ERCC1, DPYD, and VEGFA mRNA after first-line chemotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer: results of a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hideo; Baba, Yoshifumi; Uemoto, Shinji; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Saiura, Akio; Watanabe, Masayuki; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Oki, Eiji; Ikeda, Yasuharu; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Shimada, Mitsuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Unno, Michiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi; Ogata, Yutaka; Eguchi, Susumu; Kitano, Seigo; Shirouzu, Kazuo; Saiki, Yasumitsu; Takamori, Hiroshi; Mori, Masaki; Hirata, Toshihiko; Wakabayashi, Go; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-10-20

    Our previous study showed that administering oxaliplatin as first-line chemotherapy increased ERCC1 and DPD levels in liver colorectal cancers (CRCs) metastases. Second, whether the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab alters tumoral VEGFA levels is unknown. We conducted this multicenter observational study to validate our previous findings on ERCC1 and DPD, and clarify the response of VEGFA expression to bavacizumab administration. 346 CRC patients with liver metastases were enrolled at 22 Japanese institutes. Resected liver metastases were available for 175 patients previously treated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (chemotherapy group) and 171 receiving no previous chemotherapy (non-chemotherapy group). ERCC1, DPYD, and VEGFA mRNA levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR. ERCC1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the chemotherapy group than in the non-chemotherapy group (P = 0.033), and were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.42; P < 0.0001). VEGFA expression level was higher in patients receiving bevacizumab (n = 51) than in those who did not (n = 251) (P = 0.007). This study confirmed that first-line oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy increases ERCC1 and DPYD expression levels, potentially enhancing chemosensitivity to subsequent therapy. We also found that bevacizumab induces VEGFA expression in tumor cells, suggesting a biologic rationale for extending bevacizumab treatment beyond first progression. PMID:26372896

  10. Analysis of gene expression levels in individual bacterial cells without image segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, In Hae; Son, Minjun; Hagen, Stephen J.

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a method for extracting gene expression data from images of bacterial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method does not employ cell segmentation and does not require high magnification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence and phase contrast images of the cells are correlated through the physics of phase contrast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate the method by characterizing noisy expression of comX in Streptococcus mutans. -- Abstract: Studies of stochasticity in gene expression typically make use of fluorescent protein reporters, which permit the measurement of expression levels within individual cells by fluorescence microscopy. Analysis of such microscopy images is almost invariably based on a segmentation algorithm, where the image of a cell or cluster is analyzed mathematically to delineate individual cell boundaries. However segmentation can be ineffective for studying bacterial cells or clusters, especially at lower magnification, where outlines of individual cells are poorly resolved. Here we demonstrate an alternative method for analyzing such images without segmentation. The method employs a comparison between the pixel brightness in phase contrast vs fluorescence microscopy images. By fitting the correlation between phase contrast and fluorescence intensity to a physical model, we obtain well-defined estimates for the different levels of gene expression that are present in the cell or cluster. The method reveals the boundaries of the individual cells, even if the source images lack the resolution to show these boundaries clearly.

  11. The Expression of c-Myb Correlates with the Levels of Rhabdomyosarcoma-specific Marker Myogenin

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Petr; Zikova, Martina; Bartunek, Petr; Sterba, Jaroslav; Strnad, Hynek; Kren, Leos; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb is required for modulation of progenitor cells in several tissues, including skeletal muscle and its upregulation is observed in many human malignancies. Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are a heterogeneous group of mesodermal tumors with features of developing skeletal muscle. Several miRNAs are downregulated in RMS, including miR-150, a negative regulator of c-Myb expression. Using the C2C12 myoblast cell line, a cellular model of skeletal muscle differentiation, we showed that miR-150 controls c-Myb expression mainly at the level of translation. We hypothesized that a similar mechanism of c-Myb regulation operates in RMS tumors. We examined expression of c-Myb by immunohistochemistry and revealed c-Myb positivity in alveolar and embryonal tumors, the two most common subgroups of RMS. Furthermore, we showed direct correlation between c-Myb production and myogenin expression. Interestingly, high myogenin levels indicate poor prognosis in RMS patients. c-Myb could, therefore, contribute to the tumor phenotype by executing its inhibitory role in skeletal muscle differentiation. We also showed that c-Myb protein is abundant in migratory C2C12 myoblasts and its ectopic expression potentiates cell motility. In summary, our results implicate that metastatic properties of some RMS subtypes might be linked to c-Myb function. PMID:26462877

  12. Decreased expression and DNA methylation levels of GATAD1 in preeclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoling; Li, Jinping; Brost, Brian; Cheng, Wenjun; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2014-05-01

    Expression of syncytin-1, or the human endogenous retroviral family W member 1 (HERVWE1) in human placental trophoblasts is regulated by DNA methylation. Increased DNA methylation and decreased expression of syncytin-1 have been observed in preeclamptic placentas. The syncytin-1-mediated fusogenic as well as non-fusogenic activities, e.g., cell cycle promotion, anti-apoptosis, and immune suppression, are implicated in the pathogenic changes in preeclamptic placentas. It is noteworthy that in a close vicinity to syncytin-1 there are two genes, peroxisome biogenesis factor 1 (PEX1) and GATA zinc finger domain containing 1 (GATAD1), as well as multiple CpG islands around these genes. In this study we determined if these adjacent genes might, like syncytin-1, subject to epigenetic regulation in preeclamptic placentas. Data from quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting indicated that while PEX1 expression remained stable, GATAD1 expression was significantly decreased in the third-trimester placentas associated with preeclampsia than those associated with normal pregnancy. Immunohistochemistry detected high GATAD1 expression in trophoblast linage, and confirmed its reduced levels in preeclamptic placentas. However, COBRA and bisulfate sequencing detected decreased DNA methylation in levels in the 3 [prime] region of GATAD1 gene in preeclamptic placentas. The positive correlation between 3 [prime] methylation and GATAD1 expression was confirmed by treatment of choriocarcinoma JAR cells with DNMT inhibitor. These data pointed to a potential role of GATAD1 for the syncytium deficiency often associated with preeclamptic placentas. The sharp contrast of the methylation alterations for the closely positioned GATAD1 and HERVWE1 may provide a useful model for studying the accurate control of DNA methylation as well as their positive and negative impact on gene expression in placental trophoblasts. PMID:24462704

  13. Constitutively expressed DHAR and MDHAR influence fruit, but not foliar ascorbate levels in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Haroldsen, Victor M.; Chi-Ham, Cecilia L.; Kulkarni, Shashank; Lorence, Argelia; Bennett, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin C (l-ascorbate, AsA) is an essential nutrient required in key metabolic functions in humans and must be obtained from the diet, mainly from fruits and vegetables. Given its importance in human health and plant physiology we sought to examine the role of the ascorbate recycling enzymes monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an economically important fruit crop. Cytosolic-targeted tomato genes Mdhar and Dhar were cloned and over-expressed under a constitutive promoter in tomato var. Micro-Tom. Lines with increased protein levels and enzymatic activity were identified and examined. Mature green and red ripe fruit from DHAR over-expressing lines had a 1.6 fold increase in AsA content in plants grown under relatively low light conditions (150 µmol m−2 s−1). Conversely, MDHAR over-expressers had significantly reduced AsA levels in mature green fruits by 0.7 fold. Neither over-expressing line had altered levels of AsA in foliar tissues. These results underscore a complex regulation of the AsA pool size in tomato. PMID:21875809

  14. High-level production of a functional immunoglobulin heterodimer in a baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Hasemann, C A; Capra, J D

    1990-01-01

    A murine immunoglobulin heterodimer has been expressed in a baculovirus expression system. This was achieved by using both double infection of insect cells with separate heavy- and light-chain-expressing viruses and infection with a double-recombinant virus containing both the immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain cDNAs. In both cases, the polypeptide chains were correctly processed, glycosylated, and assembled into normal H2L2 (H = heavy, L = light) immunoglobulin monomers. These molecules bound antigen and expressed both polyclonal idiotype and monoclonal idiotopes. Furthermore, the transfer vectors described have been modified to contain the F1 origin of replication for the production of single-stranded DNA, which facilitates site-specific mutations of either the polyhedrin promoter or the inserted foreign gene. Use of this system should significantly advance the analysis of the structural bases for both idiotype expression and antigen binding by immunoglobulin. More importantly, it provides a generic method for the high-level expression of antibodies of diverse interest. Images PMID:2111022

  15. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  16. The effect of freeze-thaw cycles on gene expression levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed

    Çalışkan, Minal; Pritchard, Jonathan K; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are a widely used renewable resource for functional genomic studies in humans. The ability to accumulate multidimensional data pertaining to the same individual cell lines, from complete genomic sequences to detailed gene regulatory profiles, further enhances the utility of LCLs as a model system. However, the extent to which LCLs are a faithful model system is relatively unknown. We have previously shown that gene expression profiles of newly established LCLs maintain a strong individual component. Here, we extend our study to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on gene expression patterns in mature LCLs, especially in the context of inter-individual variation in gene expression. We report a profound difference in the gene expression profiles of newly established and mature LCLs. Once newly established LCLs undergo a freeze-thaw cycle, the individual specific gene expression signatures become much less pronounced as the gene expression levels in LCLs from different individuals converge to a more uniform profile, which reflects a mature transformed B cell phenotype. We found that previously identified eQTLs are enriched among the relatively few genes whose regulations in mature LCLs maintain marked individual signatures. We thus conclude that while insight drawn from gene regulatory studies in mature LCLs may generally not be affected by the artificial nature of the LCL model system, many aspects of primary B cell biology cannot be observed and studied in mature LCL cultures.

  17. The Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Gene Expression Levels in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Minal; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Ober, Carole; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are a widely used renewable resource for functional genomic studies in humans. The ability to accumulate multidimensional data pertaining to the same individual cell lines, from complete genomic sequences to detailed gene regulatory profiles, further enhances the utility of LCLs as a model system. However, the extent to which LCLs are a faithful model system is relatively unknown. We have previously shown that gene expression profiles of newly established LCLs maintain a strong individual component. Here, we extend our study to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on gene expression patterns in mature LCLs, especially in the context of inter-individual variation in gene expression. We report a profound difference in the gene expression profiles of newly established and mature LCLs. Once newly established LCLs undergo a freeze-thaw cycle, the individual specific gene expression signatures become much less pronounced as the gene expression levels in LCLs from different individuals converge to a more uniform profile, which reflects a mature transformed B cell phenotype. We found that previously identified eQTLs are enriched among the relatively few genes whose regulations in mature LCLs maintain marked individual signatures. We thus conclude that while insight drawn from gene regulatory studies in mature LCLs may generally not be affected by the artificial nature of the LCL model system, many aspects of primary B cell biology cannot be observed and studied in mature LCL cultures. PMID:25192014

  18. Tumor redox metabolism correlation with the expression level of red fluorescent protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Shuang; Wang, Anle; Lin, Qiaoya; Zhang, Zhihong

    2015-03-01

    The redox metabolism is variable and complicated with the progress of tumor development. Whether the tumor redox state will affect the exogenous gene expression or not, are still not clear now . To investigate the relationship between tumor endogenous redox state and the exogenous gene expression level, a far red fluorescent protein fRFP was used to monitor tumor cells proliferation and as an exogenous protein expression in tumors. NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and Fp (flavin protein) are two important coenzymes in the mitochondria respiratory chain, which can be as a standard representation for redox metabolism state. Three tumor subcutaneous models (melanoma, human pancreatic carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma) were used to observe their redox state and protein expression by our home-made redox scanner. The results showed that the distribution of fRFP fluorescent protein expression in the inner tumor regions are heterogeneous, and the fluorescent intensity of fRFP and the fluorescent intensity of NADH have high correlation. In addition, we also found the linear coefficient in three tumors are different, the value of coefficient is (R2 = 0.966 and R2 = 0.943) in melanoma, (R2 = 0.701 and R2 = 0.942) in human pancreatic carcinoma, and (R2 = 0.994) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, respectively. From these results, we consider that the exogenous protein expression of fRFP in tumor had some relationship with the tumor redox state of NADH.

  19. High-level expression, purification and antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferricin and lactoferrampin in Photorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiru; Zhang, Youming; Stewart, Adrian Francis; Geng, Meimei; Tang, Xiangsha; Tu, Qiang; Yin, Yulong

    2010-10-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LFC) and bovine lactoferrampin (LFA) are two active fragments located in the N(1)-domain of bovine lactoferrin. Recent studies suggested that LFC and LFA have broad-spectrum activity against Gram-