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Sample records for expressing hiv antigens

  1. Recombinant measles viruses expressing single or multiple antigens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) induce cellular and humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Liniger, Matthias; Zuniga, Armando; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Combardiere, Behazine; Marty, Rene; Wiegand, Marian; Ilter, Orhan; Knuchel, Marlyse; Naim, Hussein Y

    2009-05-26

    Recombinant measles viruses (rMV) based on the live attenuated measles vaccine strain (MVb) expressing antigens of HIV-1 clade B were generated by reverse genetics. Recombinants expressing single or double antigens of HIV-1 (rMV-HIV) were genetically highly stable on human diploid cells. The production process of these viruses was essentially similar to the parental MV strain, yielding comparative end titers. Immunization of tg-mice by different regimens and formulations showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses against MV and HIV antigens. Recombinant MV-HIV expressing Gag protein conferred protective immunity in tg-mice after a high-dose pseudochallenge with recombinant vaccinia virus. In addition, rMV-HIV boosted anti-HIV antibodies, in the presence of pre-existing anti-vector antibodies.

  2. Plant-based strategies aimed at expressing HIV antigens and neutralizing antibodies at high levels. Nef as a case study.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Carla; Vitale, Alessandro; Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Donini, Marcello; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Bock, Ralph; Dix, Philip J; McCabe, Matthew S; Bellucci, Michele; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2009-08-01

    The first evidence that plants represent a valid, safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems for large-scale production of antigens and antibodies was described more than 10 years ago. Since then, considerable improvements have been made to increase the yield of plant-produced proteins. These include the use of signal sequences to target proteins to different cellular compartments, plastid transformation to achieve high transgene dosage, codon usage optimization to boost gene expression, and protein fusions to improve recombinant protein stability and accumulation. Thus, several HIV/SIV antigens and neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have recently been successfully expressed in plants by stable nuclear or plastid transformation, and by transient expression systems based on plant virus vectors or Agrobacterium-mediated infection. The current article gives an overview of plant expressed HIV antigens and antibodies and provides an account of the use of different strategies aimed at increasing the expression of the accessory multifunctional HIV-1 Nef protein in transgenic plants.

  3. The Use of Directed Evolution to Create a Stable and Immunogenic Recombinant BCG Expressing a Modified HIV-1 Gag Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Enid; Stutz, Helen; Douglass, Nicola; Mgwebi, Thandi; Meyers, Ann; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2014-01-01

    Numerous features make Mycobacterium bovis BCG an attractive vaccine vector for HIV. It has a good safety profile, it elicits long-lasting cellular immune responses and in addition manufacturing costs are affordable. Despite these advantages it is often difficult to express viral antigens in BCG, which results in genetic instability and low immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to generate stable recombinant BCG (rBCG) that express high levels of HIV antigens, by modification of the HIV genes. A directed evolution process was applied to recombinant mycobacteria that expressed HIV-1 Gag fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Higher growth rates and increased GFP expression were selected for. Through this process a modified Gag antigen was selected. Recombinant BCG that expressed the modified Gag (BCG[pWB106] and BCG[pWB206]) were more stable, produced higher levels of antigen and grew faster than those that expressed the unmodified Gag (BCG[pWB105]). The recombinant BCG that expressed the modified HIV-1 Gag induced 2 to 3 fold higher levels of Gag-specific CD4 T cells than those expressing the unmodified Gag (BCG[pWB105]). Mice primed with 107 CFU BCG[pWB206] and then boosted with MVA-Gag developed Gag-specific CD8 T cells with a frequency of 1343±17 SFU/106 splenocytes, 16 fold greater than the response induced with MVA-Gag alone. Levels of Gag-specific CD4 T cells were approximately 5 fold higher in mice primed with BCG[pWB206] and boosted with MVA-Gag than in those receiving the MVA-Gag boost alone. In addition mice vaccinated with BCG[pWB206] were protected from a surrogate vaccinia virus challenge. PMID:25061753

  4. Enhanced expression of HIV and SIV vaccine antigens in the structural gene region of live attenuated rubella viral vectors and their incorporation into virions.

    PubMed

    Virnik, Konstantin; Ni, Yisheng; Berkower, Ira

    2013-04-19

    Despite the urgent need for an HIV vaccine, its development has been hindered by virus variability, weak immunogenicity of conserved epitopes, and limited durability of the immune response. For other viruses, difficulties with immunogenicity were overcome by developing live attenuated vaccine strains. However, there is no reliable method of attenuation for HIV, and an attenuated strain would risk reversion to wild type. We have developed rubella viral vectors, based on the live attenuated vaccine strain RA27/3, which are capable of expressing important HIV and SIV vaccine antigens. The rubella vaccine strain has demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and long lasting protection in millions of children. Rubella vectors combine the growth and immunogenicity of live rubella vaccine with the antigenicity of HIV or SIV inserts. This is the first report showing that live attenuated rubella vectors can stably express HIV and SIV vaccine antigens at an insertion site located within the structural gene region. Unlike the Not I site described previously, the new site accommodates a broader range of vaccine antigens without interfering with essential viral functions. In addition, antigens expressed at the structural site were controlled by the strong subgenomic promoter, resulting in higher levels and longer duration of antigen expression. The inserts were expressed as part of the structural polyprotein, processed to free antigen, and incorporated into rubella virions. The rubella vaccine strain readily infects rhesus macaques, and these animals will be the model of choice for testing vector growth in vivo and immunogenicity.

  5. Live attenuated rubella vectors expressing SIV and HIV vaccine antigens replicate and elicit durable immune responses in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Live attenuated viruses are among our most potent and effective vaccines. For human immunodeficiency virus, however, a live attenuated strain could present substantial safety concerns. We have used the live attenuated rubella vaccine strain RA27/3 as a vector to express SIV and HIV vaccine antigens because its safety and immunogenicity have been demonstrated in millions of children. One dose protects for life against rubella infection. In previous studies, rubella vectors replicated to high titers in cell culture while stably expressing SIV and HIV antigens. Their viability in vivo, however, as well as immunogenicity and antibody persistence, were unknown. Results This paper reports the first successful trial of rubella vectors in rhesus macaques, in combination with DNA vaccines in a prime and boost strategy. The vectors grew robustly in vivo, and the protein inserts were highly immunogenic. Antibody titers elicited by the SIV Gag vector were greater than or equal to those elicited by natural SIV infection. The antibodies were long lasting, and they were boosted by a second dose of replication-competent rubella vectors given six months later, indicating the induction of memory B cells. Conclusions Rubella vectors can serve as a vaccine platform for safe delivery and expression of SIV and HIV antigens. By presenting these antigens in the context of an acute infection, at a high level and for a prolonged duration, these vectors can stimulate a strong and persistent immune response, including maturation of memory B cells. Rhesus macaques will provide an ideal animal model for demonstrating immunogenicity of novel vectors and protection against SIV or SHIV challenge. PMID:24041113

  6. Immunogenic Profiling in Mice of a HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidate (MVA-B) Expressing Four HIV-1 Antigens and Potentiation by Specific Gene Deletions

    PubMed Central

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Nájera, José Luis; Gómez, Carmen E.; Sorzano, Carlos Oscar S.; Esteban, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Background The immune parameters of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates that might be relevant in protection against HIV-1 infection are still undefined. The highly attenuated poxvirus strain MVA is one of the most promising vectors to be use as HIV-1 vaccine. We have previously described a recombinant MVA expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens from clade B (referred as MVA-B), that induced HIV-1-specific immune responses in different animal models and gene signatures in human dendritic cells (DCs) with immunoregulatory function. Methodology/Principal Findings In an effort to characterize in more detail the immunogenic profile of MVA-B and to improve its immunogenicity we have generated a new vector lacking two genes (A41L and B16R), known to counteract host immune responses by blocking the action of CC-chemokines and of interleukin 1β, respectively (referred as MVA-B ΔA41L/ΔB16R). A DNA prime/MVA boost immunization protocol was used to compare the adaptive and memory HIV-1 specific immune responses induced in mice by the parental MVA-B and by the double deletion mutant MVA-B ΔA41L/ΔB16R. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that both vectors triggered HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, with the CD8+ T-cell compartment responsible for >91.9% of the total HIV-1 responses in both immunization groups. However, MVA-B ΔA41L/ΔB16R enhanced the magnitude and polyfunctionality of the HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune responses. HIV-1-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional and preferentially Env-specific in both immunization groups. Significantly, while MVA-B induced preferentially Env-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, MVA-B ΔA41L/ΔB16R induced more GPN-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, with an enhanced polyfunctional pattern. Both vectors were capable of producing similar levels of antibodies against Env. Conclusions/Significance These findings revealed that MVA-B and MVA-B ΔA41L/ΔB16R induced in mice robust, polyfunctional and durable T

  7. Alphavirus Replicon DNA Expressing HIV Antigens Is an Excellent Prime for Boosting with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) or with HIV gp140 Protein Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Maria L.; Ljungberg, Karl; Tatoud, Roger; Weber, Jonathan; Esteban, Mariano; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination with DNA is an attractive strategy for induction of pathogen-specific T cells and antibodies. Studies in humans have shown that DNA vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity needs further improvement. As a step towards this goal, we have previously demonstrated that immunogenicity is increased with the use of an alphavirus DNA-launched replicon (DREP) vector compared to conventional DNA vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effect of varying the dose and number of administrations of DREP when given as a prime prior to a heterologous boost with poxvirus vector (MVA) and/or HIV gp140 protein formulated in glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA-AF) adjuvant. The DREP and MVA vaccine constructs encoded Env and a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein from HIV clade C. One to three administrations of 0.2 μg DREP induced lower HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses than the equivalent number of immunizations with 10 μg DREP. However, the two doses were equally efficient as a priming component in a heterologous prime-boost regimen. The magnitude of immune responses depended on the number of priming immunizations rather than the dose. A single low dose of DREP prior to a heterologous boost resulted in greatly increased immune responses compared to MVA or protein antigen alone, demonstrating that a mere 0.2 μg DREP was sufficient for priming immune responses. Following a DREP prime, T cell responses were expanded greatly by an MVA boost, and IgG responses were also expanded when boosted with protein antigen. When MVA and protein were administered simultaneously following multiple DREP primes, responses were slightly compromised compared to administering them sequentially. In conclusion, we have demonstrated efficient priming of HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses with a low dose of DREP, and shown that the priming effect depends on number of primes administered rather than dose. PMID:25643354

  8. Alphavirus replicon DNA expressing HIV antigens is an excellent prime for boosting with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) or with HIV gp140 protein antigen.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Maria L; Ljungberg, Karl; Tatoud, Roger; Weber, Jonathan; Esteban, Mariano; Liljeström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination with DNA is an attractive strategy for induction of pathogen-specific T cells and antibodies. Studies in humans have shown that DNA vaccines are safe, but their immunogenicity needs further improvement. As a step towards this goal, we have previously demonstrated that immunogenicity is increased with the use of an alphavirus DNA-launched replicon (DREP) vector compared to conventional DNA vaccines. In this study, we investigated the effect of varying the dose and number of administrations of DREP when given as a prime prior to a heterologous boost with poxvirus vector (MVA) and/or HIV gp140 protein formulated in glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA-AF) adjuvant. The DREP and MVA vaccine constructs encoded Env and a Gag-Pol-Nef fusion protein from HIV clade C. One to three administrations of 0.2 μg DREP induced lower HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses than the equivalent number of immunizations with 10 μg DREP. However, the two doses were equally efficient as a priming component in a heterologous prime-boost regimen. The magnitude of immune responses depended on the number of priming immunizations rather than the dose. A single low dose of DREP prior to a heterologous boost resulted in greatly increased immune responses compared to MVA or protein antigen alone, demonstrating that a mere 0.2 μg DREP was sufficient for priming immune responses. Following a DREP prime, T cell responses were expanded greatly by an MVA boost, and IgG responses were also expanded when boosted with protein antigen. When MVA and protein were administered simultaneously following multiple DREP primes, responses were slightly compromised compared to administering them sequentially. In conclusion, we have demonstrated efficient priming of HIV-specific T cell and IgG responses with a low dose of DREP, and shown that the priming effect depends on number of primes administered rather than dose.

  9. Chimeric human/murine monoclonal IgM antibodies to HIV-1 Nef antigen expressed on chronically infected cells.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Masahiro; He, Lianying; Kawamura, Takeshi; Omoto, Shinya; Fujii, Yoichi R; Okada, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    Human IgM antibody (Ab) to gangliosides induced cytolysis of HIV-1-infected cells by homologous human complement. We expected that any human IgM Ab reactive with HIV-1 infected cells could cause complement-mediated cytolysis. The trans-chromosome mouse (TC mouse) contains human chromosomes harboring genes responsible for immunoglobulin production. Spleen cells from TC mice immunized with recombinant Nef were fused with mouse myeloma cells to generate hybridomas, and we selected those that produced human mu-chain-positive Abs reactive with Nef fixed on an ELISA plate. However, the L-chain of the monoclonal Abs (mAbs) were murine lambda in type and were chimeric, and we could not succeed in obtaining mAb with human mu- and human kappa-chains. The chimeric mAbs reacted with the HIV-1 infected cells as seen with flow cytometric analysis, and the surface expression of Nef was also detectable on chronically infected OM10.1 cells which had no detectable gp120. However, although the reaction of the chimeric IgM mAb with HIV-1-infected MOLT4 cells induced C3 deposition on cell surfaces on incubation with fresh human serum, the cells remained unlysed, as determined by 51Cr release assay. The amount of Nef antigen on the cells might not have been high enough to overcome the function of HRF20 (CD59) that restricts formation of membrane attack complexes of homologous complement. However, combination of anti-Nef IgM mAb with other IgM mAbs reactive with the surface of HIV-1-infected cells may induce a synergistic effect in complement mediated cytolysis.

  10. HIV Antigens for Disease Intervention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and the transmembrane protein gp41 . HIV-1 vaccine development efforts conducted in this contract include developing strategies of modifying the...antigenicity of HIV envelope protein. The approaches adopted involve analysis of the possible function for N-linked glycosylation sites of gp 120 and gp41 ... gp41 . The role of N-linked sugars. a leucine zipper structure motif and the long cytoplasmic domain of gp4l in virus assembly, virus infectivity and

  11. Programmed death-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells is shaped by epitope specificity, T-cell receptor clonotype usage and antigen load

    PubMed Central

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; McGregor, Reuben; McLaren, James E.; Ladell, Kristin; Stryhn, Anette; Koofhethile, Catherine; Brener, Jacqui; Chen, Fabian; Riddell, Lynn; Graziano, Luzzi; Klenerman, Paul; Leslie, Alasdair; Buus, Søren; Price, David A.; Goulder, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although CD8+ T cells play a critical role in the control of HIV-1 infection, their antiviral efficacy can be limited by antigenic variation and immune exhaustion. The latter phenomenon is characterized by the upregulation of multiple inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD244 and lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), which modulate the functional capabilities of CD8+ T cells. Design and methods: Here, we used an array of different human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B∗15 : 03 and HLA-B∗42 : 01 tetramers to characterize inhibitory receptor expression as a function of differentiation on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations (n = 128) spanning 11 different epitope targets. Results: Expression levels of PD-1, but not CD244 or LAG-3, varied substantially across epitope specificities both within and between individuals. Differential expression of PD-1 on T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes within individual HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell populations was also apparent, independent of clonal dominance hierarchies. Positive correlations were detected between PD-1 expression and plasma viral load, which were reinforced by stratification for epitope sequence stability and dictated by effector memory CD8+ T cells. Conclusion: Collectively, these data suggest that PD-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells tracks antigen load at the level of epitope specificity and TCR clonotype usage. These findings are important because they provide evidence that PD-1 expression levels are influenced by peptide/HLA class I antigen exposure. PMID:24906112

  12. Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus N2L Gene Encoding an Inhibitor of IRF3 Improves the Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing HIV-1 Antigens

    PubMed Central

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Gómez, Carmen E.; Sorzano, Carlos Óscar S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A modified vaccinia virus Ankara poxvirus vector expressing the HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol, and Nef antigens from clade B (MVA-B) is currently being tested in clinical trials. To improve its immunogenicity, we have generated and characterized the immune profile of MVA-B containing a deletion of the vaccinia viral gene N2L, which codes for an inhibitor of IRF3 (MVA-B ΔN2L). Deletion of N2L had no effect on virus growth kinetics or on the expression of HIV-1 antigens; hence, the N2 protein is not essential for MVA replication. The innate immune responses triggered by MVA-B ΔN2L revealed an increase in beta interferon, proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Mouse prime-boost protocols showed that MVA-B ΔN2L improves the magnitude and polyfunctionality of HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell adaptive and memory immune responses, with most of the HIV-1 responses mediated by CD8+ T cells. In the memory phase, HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells with an effector phenotype were predominant and in a higher percentage with MVA-B ΔN2L than with MVA-B. In both immunization groups, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were directed mainly against Env. Furthermore, MVA-B ΔN2L in the memory phase enhanced levels of antibody against Env. For the vector immune responses, MVA-B ΔN2L induced a greater magnitude and polyfunctionality of VACV-specific CD8+ T memory cells than MVA-B, with an effector phenotype. These results revealed the immunomodulatory role of N2L, whose deletion enhanced the innate immunity and improved the magnitude and quality of HIV-1-specific T cell adaptive and memory immune responses. These findings are relevant for the optimization of poxvirus vectors as vaccines. IMPORTANCE On the basis of the limited efficacy of the RV144 phase III clinical trial, new optimized poxvirus vectors as vaccines against HIV/AIDS are needed. Here we have generated and characterized a new HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate on the basis of the poxvirus MVA vector expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol

  13. Recovery of antigenically reactive HIV-2 cores.

    PubMed

    Chrystie, I L; Almeida, J D

    1989-03-01

    Negative staining studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been hampered by the fragile nature of the particles. Although detergent treatment is capable of releasing cores from HIV-2 particles, these are unstable and do not retain morphological integrity. Addition of glutaraldehyde will stabilise these structures but, if used at too high a concentration, will destroy their antigenicity. This study shows that if both detergent and glutaraldehyde are used in correct proportions, antigenically reactive cores can be recovered from HIV-2 cell cultures. More specifically we show that a mixture of 0.1% Nonidet P40 and 0.1% glutaraldehyde produces preparations of HIV-2 cores that are suitable for immune electron microscopy. These cores reacted positively, that is, formed immune complexes, with both human HIV-2 antisera and a mouse monoclonal antibody that, although directed against p24 (HIV-1), reacts also with p25 (HIV-2).

  14. CD127 Expression, Exhaustion Status and Antigen Specific Proliferation Predict Sustained Virologic Response to IFN in HCV/HIV Co-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kared, Hassen; Saeed, Sahar; Klein, Marina B.; Shoukry, Naglaa H.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the HIV co-infected population. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) remains a major component of anti-HCV therapy despite its deleterious effects on the immune system. Furthermore, IFN-α was recently shown to diminish the size of the latent HIV reservoir. The objectives of this study were to monitor the impact of IFN-α on T cell phenotype and proliferation of HIV and HCV-specific T cells during IFN therapy, and to identify immune markers that can predict the response to IFN in HICV/HIV co-infected patients. We performed longitudinal analyses of T cell numbers, phenotype and function in co-infected patients undergoing IFN-α therapy with different outcomes including IFN-α non-responders (NR) (n = 9) and patients who achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) (n = 19). We examined the expression of activation (CD38, HLA-DR), functional (CD127) and exhaustion markers (PD1, Tim-3, CD160 and CD244) on total CD4 and CD8 T cells before, during and after therapy. In addition, we examined the HIV- and HCV-specific proliferative responses against HIV-p24 and HCV-NS3 proteins. Frequencies of CD127+ CD4 T cells were higher in SVR than in NR patients at baseline. An increase in CD127 expression on CD8 T cells was observed after IFN-α therapy in all patients. In addition, CD8 T cells from NR patients expressed a higher exhaustion status at baseline. Finally, SVR patients exhibited higher proliferative response against both HIV and HCV antigens at baseline. Altogether, SVR correlated with higher expression of CD127, lower T cell exhaustion status and better HIV and HCV proliferative responses at baseline. Such factors might be used as non-invasive methods to predict the success of IFN–based therapies in co-infected individuals. PMID:25007250

  15. Mosaic HIV-1 Gag antigens can be Processed and Presented to human HIV-specific CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Vine, Seanna; McMullen, Ashley; Koofhethile, Kegakilwe C; Goulder, Phillip JR; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Barouch, Dan H; Walker, Bruce D

    2011-01-01

    Polyvalent “mosaic” HIV immunogens offer a potential solution for generating vaccines that can elicit immune responses against genetically diverse viruses. However, it is unclear whether key T cell epitopes can be processed and presented from these synthetic antigens and recognized by epitope-specific human T cells. Here we tested the ability of mosaic HIV immunogens expressed by recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 vectors to process and present major HIV clade B and clade C CD8 T cell epitopes in human cells. A bivalent mosaic vaccine expressing HIV Gag sequences was used to transduce PBMC from 12 HIV-1-infected individuals from the US and 10 HIV-1-infected individuals from South Africa, and intracellular cytokine staining together with tetramer staining was used to assess the ability of mosaic Gag antigens to stimulate pre-existing memory responses compared to natural clade B and C vectors. Mosaic Gag antigens expressed all 8 clade B epitopes tested in 12 US subjects and all 5 clade C epitopes tested in 10 South African subjects. Overall, the magnitude of cytokine production induced by stimulation with mosaic antigens was comparable to clade B and clade C antigens tested, but the mosaic antigens elicited greater cross-clade recognition. Additionally, mosaic antigens also induced HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses. Our studies demonstrate that mosaic antigens express major clade B and clade C viral T cell epitopes in human cells, and support the evaluation of mosaic HIV-1 vaccines in humans. PMID:21576505

  16. Targeting carbohydrate antigens in HIV vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Pashov, Anastas; Canziani, Gabriela; Macleod, Stewart; Plaxco, Jason; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2005-03-18

    Peptide mimotopes provide a strategy to augment human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) specific carbohydrate reactive immune responses. Their antigenic and immunological properties will depend on the optimization of motif clustering and multimerization. We observe that structural variants of the same mimetic motif, linear versus cyclic, can be used to tune the properties of the antibodies elicited. The expansion of the database of mimotope sequence motifs can be increased by analyzing structures that bind to HIV directed monoclonal antibody 2G12 and the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A), fostering new mimotope designs. Such analysis indicates that these reagents bind to subsets of mannosyl antigens on the envelope (env) protein.

  17. HIV Antigens for Disease Intervention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-27

    infectivity is severely diminished following binding of lentil lectins to mannose-containing carbohydrate moieties on the HIV-I viral envelope glycoprotein (18...carbohydrates around the CD4 binding region. To evaluate the effect of lentil lectin on free virus infectivity, the virus containing 105 cpm RT activity...virus equivalent was * •pretreated with lentil lectin (50 j.g/ml), or medium for 30 minutes at 370C. This pretreated virus was incubated with 4 x106

  18. Antigenic Properties of the HIV Envelope on Virions in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Meron; Lewis, George K.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    The structural flexibility found in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoproteins creates a complex relationship between antigenicity and sensitivity to antiviral antibodies. The study of this issue in the context of viral particles is particularly problematic as conventional virus capture approaches can perturb antigenicity profiles. Here, we employed a unique analytical system based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which measures antibody-virion binding with all reactants continuously in solution. Panels of nine anti-envelope monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and five virus types were used to connect antibody binding profiles with neutralizing activities. Anti-gp120 MAbs against the 2G12 or b12 epitope, which marks functional envelope structures, neutralized viruses expressing CCR5-tropic envelopes and exhibited efficient virion binding in solution. MAbs against CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes considered hidden on functional envelope structures poorly bound these viruses and were not neutralizing. Anti-gp41 MAb 2F5 was neutralizing despite limited virion binding. Similar antigenicity patterns occurred on CXCR4-tropic viruses, except that anti-CD4i MAbs 17b and 19e were neutralizing despite little or no virion binding. Notably, anti-gp120 MAb PG9 and anti-gp41 MAb F240 bound to both CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic viruses without exerting neutralizing activity. Differences in the virus production system altered the binding efficiencies of some antibodies but did not enhance antigenicity of aberrant gp120 structures. Of all viruses tested, only JRFL pseudoviruses showed a direct relationship between MAb binding efficiency and neutralizing potency. Collectively, these data indicate that the antigenic profiles of free HIV particles generally favor the exposure of functional over aberrant gp120 structures. However, the efficiency of virion-antibody interactions in solution inconsistently predicts neutralizing activity in vitro. PMID:24284318

  19. Oral Immunization with a Recombinant Lactococcus lactis-Expressing HIV-1 Antigen on Group A Streptococcus Pilus Induces Strong Mucosal Immunity in the Gut.

    PubMed

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Jones, Andrew; Quigley, Bernard R; Scott, June R; Amara, Rama Rao

    2015-11-15

    The induction of a potent humoral and cellular immune response in mucosal tissue is important for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Most of the current HIV vaccines under development use the i.m. route for immunization, which is relatively poor in generating potent and long-lived mucosal immune responses. In this article, we explore the ability of an oral vaccination with a probiotic organism, Lactococcus lactis, to elicit HIV-specific immune responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments of BALB/c mice. We expressed the HIV-1 Gag-p24 on the tip of the T3 pilus of Streptococcus pyogenes as a fusion to the Cpa protein (LL-Gag). After four monthly LL-Gag oral immunizations, we observed strong Gag-specific IgG and IgA responses in serum, feces, and vaginal secretions. However, the Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses in the blood were at or below our detection limit. After an i.m. modified vaccinia Ankara/Gag boost, we observed robust Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses both in systemic and in mucosal tissues, including intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes of the small intestine, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Consistent with strong immunogenicity, the LL-Gag induced activation of CD11c(+) CD11b(+) dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches after oral immunization. Our results demonstrate that oral immunization with L. lactis expressing an Ag on the tip of the group A Streptococcus pilus serves as an excellent vaccine platform to induce strong mucosal humoral and cellular immunity against HIV. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. HIV infection and HERV expression: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The human genome contains multiple copies of retrovirus genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that have entered the germ-line at some point in evolution. Several of these proviruses have retained (partial) coding capacity, so that a number of viral proteins or even virus particles are expressed under various conditions. Human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the beta-, gamma-, or spuma- retrovirus groups. Endogenous delta- and lenti- viruses are notably absent in humans, although endogenous lentivirus genomes have been found in lower primates. Exogenous retroviruses that currently form a health threat to humans intriguingly belong to those absent groups. The best studied of the two infectious human retroviruses is the lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which has an overwhelming influence on its host by infecting cells of the immune system. One HIV-induced change is the induction of HERV transcription, often leading to induced HERV protein expression. This review will discuss the potential HIV-HERV interactions. Several studies have suggested that HERV proteins are unlikely to complement defective HIV virions, nor is HIV able to package HERV transcripts, probably due to low levels of sequence similarity. It is unclear whether the expression of HERVs has a negative, neutral, or positive influence on HIV-AIDS disease progression. A positive effect was recently reported by the specific expression of HERVs in chronically HIV-infected patients, which results in the presentation of HERV-derived peptides to CD8+ T-cells. These cytotoxic T-cells were not tolerant to HERV peptides, as would be expected for self-antigens, and consequently lysed the HIV-infected, HERV-presenting cells. This novel mechanism could control HIV replication and result in a low plasma viral load. The possibility of developing a vaccination strategy based on these HERV peptides will be discussed. PMID:22248111

  1. Post-translational intracellular trafficking determines the type of immune response elicited by DNA vaccines expressing Gag antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Aaron; West, Kim; Rothman, Alan L; Ennis, Francis A; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-10-01

    In the current study, immune responses induced by Gag DNA vaccines with different designs were evaluated in Balb/C mice. The results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine with the full length wild type gag gene (Wt-Gag) mainly produced Gag antigens intracellularly and induced a higher level of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, as measured by IFN-gamma ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) assays against a dominant CD8(+) T cell epitope (AMQMLKETI). In contrast, the addition of a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) leader sequence significantly improved overall Gag protein expression/secretion and Gag-specific antibody responses; however, Gag-specific CMI responses were decreased. The mutation of zinc-finger motif changed Gag protein expression patterns and reduced the ability to generate both CMI and antibody responses against Gag. These findings indicate that the structure and post-translational processing of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines play a critical role in eliciting optimal antibody or CMI responses.

  2. Post-translational intracellular trafficking determines the type of immune response elicited by DNA vaccines expressing Gag antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Aaron; West, Kim; Rothman, Alan L; Ennis, Francis A; Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, immune responses induced by Gag DNA vaccines with different designs were evaluated in Balb/C mice. The results demonstrated that the DNA vaccine with the full length wild type gag gene (Wt-Gag) mainly produced Gag antigens intracellularly and induced a higher level of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, as measured by IFN-gamma ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) assays against a dominant CD8+ T cell epitope (AMQMLKETI). In contrast, the addition of a tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) leader sequence significantly improved overall Gag protein expression/secretion and Gag-specific antibody responses; however, Gag-specific CMI responses were decreased. The mutation of zinc-finger motif changed Gag protein expression patterns and reduced the ability to generate both CMI and antibody responses against Gag. These findings indicate that the structure and post-translational processing of antigens expressed by DNA vaccines play a critical role in eliciting optimal antibody or CMI responses. PMID:23941868

  3. Intralesional Candida antigen for common warts in people with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aaron; Crawford, Richard I

    2013-01-01

    Intralesional Candida antigen has been used as immunotherapy to treat refractory warts in the immunocompetent pediatric and adult populations but has not been reported in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To examine if Candida antigen resulted in clearance of medically refractory, long-standing common warts in a series of HIV patients. At a hospital-based, adult, outpatient dermatology clinic, seven patients with HIV with common warts of the hands and feet were treated with intralesional Candida antigen. The warts had been resistant to standard patient- and physician-applied modalities. Clearance was achieved in three of seven patients, whereas four of seven did not respond due to a lack of effectiveness or an inability to tolerate treatment. Adverse events included injection-site redness, pruritus, and pain. This is the first reported case series using Candida antigen for warts in individuals with HIV. The use of Candida antigen represents a simple and novel approach to the management of treatment-refractory warts in those with HIV. This case series provides a foundation for future larger, randomized trials.

  4. Chimeric antigen receptor engineered stem cells: a novel HIV therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Carrillo, Mayra A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2017-03-01

    Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for suppressing HIV and improving patients' quality of life, HIV persists in cART-treated patients and remains an incurable disease. Financial burdens and health consequences of lifelong cART treatment call for novel HIV therapies that result in a permanent cure. Cellular immunity is central in controlling HIV replication. However, HIV adopts numerous strategies to evade immune surveillance. Engineered immunity via genetic manipulation could offer a functional cure by generating cells that have enhanced antiviral activity and are resistant to HIV infection. Recently, encouraging reports from several human clinical trials using an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T-cell therapy for treating B-cell malignancies have provided valuable insights and generated remarkable enthusiasm in engineered T-cell therapy. In this review, we discuss the development of HIV-specific chimeric antigen receptors and the use of stem cell based therapies to generate lifelong anti-HIV immunity.

  5. Vertebrate Cells Express Protozoan Antigen after Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Mark St. J.; Dvorak, James A.

    1980-04-01

    Epimastigotes, the invertebrate host stage of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite causing Chagas' disease in man, were fused with vertebrate cells by using polyethylene glycol. Hybrid cells were selected on the basis of T. cruzi DNA complementation of biochemical deficiencies in the vertebrate cells. Some clones of the hybrid cells expressed T. cruzi-specific antigen. It might be possible to use selected antigens obtained from the hybrids as vaccines for immunodiagnosis or for elucidation of the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease.

  6. Increased immunoglobulin G, but not M, binding to endogenous retroviral antigens in HIV-1 infected persons.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, A; Johansson, B; Rabinayaran, D; Pipkorn, R; Blomberg, J

    2000-12-01

    The modes of interaction between products of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences and the immune system are largely unknown. In HIV infected persons, an exogenous retrovirus adds further complexity to the situation. Therefore, 14 synthetic peptides with sequences derived from conserved regions of various endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and from related exogenous retroviruses were used to search for IgG and IgM antibodies that bind to such antigens in 15 HIV-1 seropositive and 17 seronegative immunosuppressed patients. IgG binding to three peptides, namely, the C-terminal half of murine leukemia virus (MLV) capsid protein, the conserved portion of HERV-H transmembrane protein, and the Pol region of human mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like (HML3) sequence, was observed in both groups. Binding was, however, more frequent and more firm in HIV-1 positive samples (P<0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test). IgM binding to the same peptides showed no significant differentiation between the two groups of patients. Binding to both immunoglobulin isotypes was sometimes variable over time in both groups. No correlation of either IgG or IgM peptide binding with progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals was observed. Inhibition studies using analogous endogenous and exogenous retroviral peptides, including HIV-1, demonstrated specificity of the IgG antibodies for a narrow range of MLV- and MMTV-like retroviral antigens, and excluded cross-reactivity of antibodies to HIV-1 as a cause of these observations. Thus, unlike IgG, IgM binding to retroviral antigens was ubiquitous. It is suggested that anti-HERV IgM belong to a class of natural antibodies and might serve as primers in the mediation of humoral immune responses to more or less related exogenous retroviruses. Increased IgG binding in HIV-1 infected individuals could result from such priming, or reflect higher HERV antigen expression.

  7. Engineering HIV-Specific Immunity with Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Scott G; Zack, Jerome A

    2016-12-01

    HIV remains a highly important public health and clinical issue despite many recent advances in attempting to develop a cure, which has remained elusive for most people infected with HIV. HIV disease can be controlled with pharmacologic therapies; however, these treatments are expensive, may have severe side effects, and are not curative. Consequently, an improved means to control or eliminate HIV replication is needed. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in controlling viral replication and are an important part in the ability of the immune response to eradicate most viral infections. There are considerable efforts to enhance CTL responses in HIV-infected individuals in hopes of providing the immune response with armaments to more effectively control viral replication. In this review, we discuss some of these efforts and focus on the development of a gene therapy-based approach to engineer hematopoietic stem cells with an HIV-1-specific chimeric antigen receptor, which seeks to provide an inexhaustible source of HIV-1-specific immune cells that are MHC unrestricted and superior to natural antiviral T cell responses. These efforts provide the basis for further development of T cell functional enhancement to target and treat chronic HIV infection in hopes of eradicating the virus from the body.

  8. Subset- and Antigen-Specific Effects of Treg on CD8+ T Cell Responses in Chronic HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Maria; Wiedemann, Aurélie; Muhtarova, Maria; Achkova, Daniela; Lacabaratz, Christine; Lévy, Yves

    2016-11-01

    We, and others, have reported that in the HIV-negative settings, regulatory CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T cells (Treg) exert differential effects on CD8 subsets, and maintain the memory / effector CD8+ T cells balance, at least in part through the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Here we investigated Treg-mediated effects on CD8 responses in chronic HIV infection. As compared to Treg from HIV negative controls (Treg/HIV-), we show that Treg from HIV infected patients (Treg/HIV+) did not significantly inhibit polyclonal autologous CD8+ T cell function indicating either a defect in the suppressive capacity of Treg/HIV+ or a lack of sensitivity of effector T cells in HIV infection. Results showed that Treg/HIV+ inhibited significantly the IFN-γ expression of autologous CD8+ T cells stimulated with recall CMV/EBV/Flu (CEF) antigens, but did not inhibit HIV-Gag-specific CD8+ T cells. In cross-over cultures, we show that Treg/HIV- inhibited significantly the differentiation of either CEF- or Gag-specific CD8+ T cells from HIV infected patients. The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was higher on Gag-specific CD8+ T cells as compared to CEF-specific CD8+ T cells, and the expression of these markers did not change significantly after Treg depletion or co-culture with Treg/HIV-, unlike on CEF-specific CD8+ T cells. In summary, we show a defect of Treg/HIV+ in modulating both the differentiation and the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 molecules on HIV-specific CD8 T cells. Our results strongly suggest that this particular defect of Treg might contribute to the exhaustion of HIV-specific T cell responses.

  9. Subset- and Antigen-Specific Effects of Treg on CD8+ T Cell Responses in Chronic HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Maria; Wiedemann, Aurélie; Achkova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    We, and others, have reported that in the HIV-negative settings, regulatory CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T cells (Treg) exert differential effects on CD8 subsets, and maintain the memory / effector CD8+ T cells balance, at least in part through the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Here we investigated Treg–mediated effects on CD8 responses in chronic HIV infection. As compared to Treg from HIV negative controls (Treg/HIV-), we show that Treg from HIV infected patients (Treg/HIV+) did not significantly inhibit polyclonal autologous CD8+ T cell function indicating either a defect in the suppressive capacity of Treg/HIV+ or a lack of sensitivity of effector T cells in HIV infection. Results showed that Treg/HIV+ inhibited significantly the IFN-γ expression of autologous CD8+ T cells stimulated with recall CMV/EBV/Flu (CEF) antigens, but did not inhibit HIV-Gag–specific CD8+ T cells. In cross-over cultures, we show that Treg/HIV- inhibited significantly the differentiation of either CEF- or Gag-specific CD8+ T cells from HIV infected patients. The expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was higher on Gag-specific CD8+ T cells as compared to CEF-specific CD8+ T cells, and the expression of these markers did not change significantly after Treg depletion or co-culture with Treg/HIV-, unlike on CEF-specific CD8+ T cells. In summary, we show a defect of Treg/HIV+ in modulating both the differentiation and the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 molecules on HIV-specific CD8 T cells. Our results strongly suggest that this particular defect of Treg might contribute to the exhaustion of HIV-specific T cell responses. PMID:27829019

  10. Evaluation of HIV antigen /antibody combination ELISAs for diagnosis of HIV infection in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Urio, Loveness John; Mohamed, Mohamed Ally; Mghamba, Janneth; Abade, Ahmed; Aboud, Said

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Enzygnost HIV Integral II antigen/antibody combination ELISAs in order to formulate HIV ELISA testing algorithms for the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Tanzania. Methods This was a laboratory-based evaluation of Enzygnost HIV Integral II Antibody/ Antigen, Murex HIV antigen/antibody and Vironostika HIV Uniform II antigen/antibody conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Results A total of 600 blood samples were included in the evaluation. A total of 209/596 (35.1%) serum samples were confirmed HIV positive. Of these, the prevalence of HIV infection was 2.3% (3/130), 2.3% (3/127), 2.2% (3/139) and 100% (200/200) for VCT clients, ANC attendees, blood donors and CTC patients, respectively. Three hundred and eighty seven (64.9%) were HIV negative samples. Sensitivity was 100% (95% CI; 98.3-100%) for all the three HIV ELISAs. The specificity for the Enzygnost HIV Integral II and Murex was 100% (95% CI; 99.1-100%). The final specificity at repeat testing was 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2-99.9%) for Vironostika. Enzygnost HIV Integral II detected HIV infection seven days since first bleed. Conclusion Initial testing using either Vironostika or Murex HIV antigen/antibody combination ELISA followed by testing of reactive samples on the Enzygnost HIV Integral II gave a sensitivity and specificity of 100% with reduced window period. Combination of two HIV antigen/antibody combination ELISAs can be used as an alternative confirmatory testing strategy for screening of donated blood at the National and Zonal blood transfusion centres and in lab diagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:26113927

  11. Antigenic characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor incorporated into nanodiscs

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Kristen C.; Castillo-Menendez, Luis; Ding, Haitao; Espy, Nicole; Zhang, Shijian; Kappes, John C.; Sodroski, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into host cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs), which are derived by the proteolytic cleavage of a trimeric gp160 Env precursor. The mature Env trimer is a major target for entry inhibitors and vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. Env interstrain variability, conformational flexibility and heavy glycosylation contribute to evasion of the host immune response, and create challenges for structural characterization and vaccine development. Here we investigate variables associated with reconstitution of the HIV-1 Env precursor into nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayer discs enclosed by membrane scaffolding proteins. We identified detergents, as well as lipids similar in composition to the viral lipidome, that allowed efficient formation of Env-nanodiscs (Env-NDs). Env-NDs were created with the full-length Env precursor and with an Env precursor with the majority of the cytoplasmic tail intact. The self-association of Env-NDs was decreased by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The Env-NDs exhibited an antigenic profile expected for the HIV-1 Env precursor. Env-NDs were recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Of note, neutralizing antibody epitopes in the gp41 membrane-proximal external region and in the gp120:gp41 interface were well exposed on Env-NDs compared with Env expressed on cell surfaces. Most Env epitopes recognized by non-neutralizing antibodies were masked on the Env-NDs. This antigenic profile was stable for several days, exhibiting a considerably longer half-life than that of Env solubilized in detergents. Negative selection with weak neutralizing antibodies could be used to improve the antigenic profile of the Env-NDs. Finally, we show that lipid adjuvants can be incorporated into Env-NDs. These results indicate that Env-NDs represent a potentially useful platform for investigating the structural, functional and antigenic properties of the HIV-1 Env trimer in a membrane context

  12. [Pax-2 antigen expression in kidney tumours].

    PubMed

    Vjestica, Jelena M; Marković-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Tulić, Cane D; Djokić, Milan R; Segar, Bojan S; Cirović, Sanja L; Stojanović, Martina M; Vuksanović, Aleksandar M

    2011-01-01

    Pax-2 transcriptional factor is expressed during kidney development and could re-express in renal tumors. The aim of this study was to examine Pax-2 expression in different types of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in order to see whether it is good immunohistochemical marker. We analyzed 48 different renal tumours stained with Pax-2 antibody. Pax-2 positive reaction was noticed in nucleus or cytoplasm. Expression of this antigen in tumours tissue was correlated with tumour stage and nuc-lear grade. Pax-2 expression between different histological RCC types was analyzed by chi2 test and Fishers test for two in-depended samples. Pax-2 is expressed by a high percentage of re-nal tumors regardless of histologic type. Significant diffe-rence of Pax-2 expression between oncocytomas and chromofobe RCC was found. Nuclear expression of Pax-2 is useful diagnostic kidney tumour marker. Pax-2 showed stronger expression in lower malignancy kidney tumours and in oncocytomas, than in high grade RCC like in those with sarcomatoid differentiation

  13. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  14. Influence of HLA-C Expression Level on HIV Control

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Richard; Qi, Ying; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chen, Haoyan; Gao, Xiaojiang; Thomas, Rasmi; Yuki, Yuko; Del Prete, Greg Q.; Goulder, Philip; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brumme, Chanson J.; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Nelson, George; Bosch, Ronald; Heckerman, David; Stein, Judy L.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Moody, M. Anthony; Denny, Thomas N.; Zeng, Xue; Fang, Jingyuan; Moffett, Ashley; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Goedert, James J.; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; McLaren, Paul; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce; Michael, Nelson L.; Weintrob, Amy; Wolinsky, Steven; Liao, Wilson; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A variant upstream of human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C) shows the most significant genome-wide effect on HIV control in European Americans and is also associated with the level of HLA-C expression. We characterized the differential cell surface expression levels of all common HLA-C allotypes and tested directly for effects of HLA-C expression on outcomes of HIV infection in 5243 individuals. Increasing HLA-C expression was associated with protection against multiple outcomes independently of individual HLA allelic effects in both African and European Americans, regardless of their distinct HLA-C frequencies and linkage relationships with HLA-B and HLA-A. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. In contrast, high HLA-C expression had a deleterious effect in Crohn’s disease, suggesting a broader influence of HLA expression levels in human disease. PMID:23559252

  15. Broadly-specific cytotoxic T cells targeting multiple HIV antigens are expanded from HIV+ patients: implications for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sharon; Sung, Julia; Cruz, Conrad; Castillo-Caro, Paul; Ngo, Minhtran; Garrido, Carolina; Kuruc, Joann; Archin, Nancie; Rooney, Cliona; Margolis, David; Bollard, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unable to eradicate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapies for this disease to augment anti-HIV immunity. T cell therapy is appealing in this regard as T cells have the ability to proliferate, migrate, and their antigen specificity reduces the possibility of off-target effects. However, past human studies in HIV-1 infection that administered T cells with limited specificity failed to provide ART-independent, long-term viral control. In this study, we sought to expand functional, broadly-specific cytotoxic T cells (HXTCs) from HIV-infected patients on suppressive ART as a first step toward developing cellular therapies for implementation in future HIV eradication protocols. Blood samples from seven HIV+ patients on suppressive ART were used to derive HXTCs. Multiantigen specificity was achieved by coculturing T cells with antigen-presenting cells pulsed with peptides representing Gag, Pol, and Nef. All but two lines were multispecific for all three antigens. HXTCs demonstrated efficacy as shown by release of proinflammatory cytokines, specific lysis of antigen-pulsed targets, and the ability to suppress HIV replication in vitro. In conclusion, we are able to generate broadly-specific cytotoxic T cell lines that simultaneously target multiple HIV antigens and show robust antiviral function.

  16. Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines Mediates trans-Infection of HIV-1 from Red Blood Cells to Target Cells and Affects HIV-AIDS Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    He, Weijing; Neil, Stuart; Kulkarni, Hemant; Wright, Edward; Agan, Brian K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Dolan, Matthew J.; Weiss, Robin A.; Ahuja, Sunil K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) expressed on red blood cells (RBCs) influences plasma levels of HIV-1-suppressive and proinflammatory chemokines such as CCL5/RANTES. DARC is also the RBC receptor for Plasmodium vivax. Africans with DARC −46C/C genotype, which confers a DARC-negative phenotype, are resistant to vivax malaria. Here, we show that HIV-1 attaches to RBCs via DARC, effecting trans-infection of target cells. In African Americans, DARC −46C/C is associated with 40% increase in the odds of acquiring HIV-1. If extrapolated to Africans, ∼11% of the HIV-1 burden in Africa may be linked to this genotype. After infection occurs, however, DARC-negative RBC status is associated with slower disease progression. Furthermore, the disease-accelerating effect of a previously described CCL5 polymorphism is evident only in DARC-expressing and not in DARC-negative HIV-infected individuals. Thus, DARC influences HIV/AIDS susceptibility by mediating trans-infection of HIV-1 and by affecting both chemokine-HIV interactions and chemokine-driven inflammation. PMID:18621010

  17. Cloning and expression of genes encoding Haemophilus somnus antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Chikami, G; Yarnall, M; Smith, J; Guiney, D G

    1988-01-01

    A genomic library of Haemophilus somnus 2336, a virulent isolate from a calf with pneumonia (later used to reproduce H. somnus experimental pneumonia), was constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. The gene bank in Escherichia coli DH1 was screened by filter immunoassay with convalescent-phase serum, which reacted with several outer membrane antigens of H. somnus. On Western blotting (immunoblotting) of immunoreactive colonies, five clones were found to express proteins which comigrated with H. somnus surface antigens. Three clones (DH1 pHS1, pHS3, and pHS4) expressed both a 120-kilodalton (kDa) antigen and a 76-kDa antigen, one clone (DH1 pHS2) expressed only the 76-kDa antigen, and the fifth clone (DH1 pHS5) expressed a 60-kDa antigen. The 120-kDa and 76-kDa antigens were found internally, whereas the 60-kDa protein was detected in the DH1 pHS5 culture supernatant as membrane blebs or insoluble protein. Both the H. somnus 120-kDa antigen and the recombinant 120-kDa antigen had immunoglobulin Fc-binding activity. Restriction endonuclease mapping demonstrated that the genomic DNA inserts of clones expressing the 76-kDa antigen shared a common 28.4-kilobase-pair region, and the three clones also expressing the 120-kDa antigen shared an additional 7.0-kilobase-pair region. The restriction endonuclease map of pHS5, which expressed the 60-kDa antigen, was not similar to the maps of the other four plasmids. Since these three H. somnus antigens reacted with protective convalescent-phase serum, the recombinants which express these proteins should be useful in further studies of protective immunity in bovine H. somnus disease. Images PMID:2843469

  18. Fetal Immune Activation to Malaria Antigens Enhances Susceptibility to In Vitro HIV Infection in Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Kevin; Myrie, Latoya; Malhotra, Indu; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric; Dent, Arlene; King, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant cause of new HIV infections in many countries. To examine whether fetal immune activation as a consequence of prenatal exposure to parasitic antigens increases the risk of MTCT, cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) from Kenyan and North American newborns were examined for relative susceptibility to HIV infection in vitro. Kenyan CBMCs were 3-fold more likely to be infected with HIV than were North American CBMCs (P = .03). Kenyan CBMCs with recall responses to malaria antigens demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to HIV when compared with Kenyan CBMCs lacking recall responses to malaria (P = .03). CD4+ T cells from malaria-sensitized newborns expressed higher levels of CD25 and human leukocyte antigen DR ex vivo, which is consistent with increased immune activation. CD4+ T cells were the primary reservoir of infection at day 4 after virus exposure. Thus, prenatal exposure and in utero priming to malaria may increase the risk of MTCT. PMID:20687848

  19. Developmental expression of autoimmune target antigens during organogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, T; Eishi, Y

    1991-01-01

    A common factor existing among autoimmune target antigens was sought in association with their developmental expression during organogenesis. Autoimmunity against a certain organ was experimentally induced in rats by deliberate immunization with whole tissue extract of the respective organ. Histopathological changes in a target organ of the immunized rats were recorded, and tissue specificity of the raised autoantibodies was immunohistologically examined with tissue sections of normal adult rats. These immune sera were also reacted with tissue sections of a target organ in each stage of organogenesis, and the time of first expression of the target antigen was determined for each immune serum. As a result, induced autoantibodies were directed only to a limited number of tissue antigens, such as thyroid follicular antigens [gestation day 17 (17 GD)], salivary ductal antigens (18 GD), anterior pituitary antigens (21 GD), gastric parietal cell antigens (22 GD), neural myelin antigens (2 days after birth), retinal photo-receptor cell antigens (3 days after birth) and testicular germ cell antigens (4 weeks after birth). They were first expressed on the day indicated in parentheses. Comparing with the development of the immune system, which was monitored by demonstrating CD4- and/or CD8-positive cells in the developing thymus and spleen, a common feature of these potential autoimmune target antigens was found to be that they were expressed either in parallel with, or after, but never before, the development of the immune system. This observation might suggest why only a limited number of self antigens can be autoimmune target antigens among the enormously large number of antigen determinants existing in the whole extract of each organ. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1769700

  20. Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Bryan E.; Asrican, Rose; Lim, So-Yon; Sixsmith, Jaimie D.; Lukose, Regy; Souther, Sommer J. R.; Rayasam, Swati D. G.; Saelens, Joseph W.; Chen, Ching-ju; Seay, Sarah A.; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Magtanong, Leslie; Vermeul, Kim; Pajanirassa, Priyadharshini; Jimenez, Amanda E.; Ng, Tony W.; Tobin, David M.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Larsen, Michelle H.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Haynes, Barton F.; Jacobs, William R.; Lee, Sunhee

    2015-01-01

    The well-established safety profile of the tuberculosis vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), makes it an attractive vehicle for heterologous expression of antigens from clinically relevant pathogens. However, successful generation of recombinant BCG strains possessing consistent insert expression has encountered challenges in stability. Here, we describe a method for the development of large recombinant BCG accession lots which stably express the lentiviral antigens, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag, using selectable leucine auxotrophic complementation. Successful establishment of vaccine stability stems from stringent quality control criteria which not only screen for highly stable complemented BCG ΔleuCD transformants but also thoroughly characterize postproduction quality. These parameters include consistent production of correctly sized antigen, retention of sequence-pure plasmid DNA, freeze-thaw recovery, enumeration of CFU, and assessment of cellular aggregates. Importantly, these quality assurance procedures were indicative of overall vaccine stability, were predictive for successful antigen expression in subsequent passaging both in vitro and in vivo, and correlated with induction of immune responses in murine models. This study has yielded a quality-controlled BCG ΔleuCD vaccine expressing HIV gp120 that retained stable full-length expression after 1024-fold amplification in vitro and following 60 days of growth in mice. A second vaccine lot expressed full-length SIV Gag for >1068-fold amplification in vitro and induced potent antigen-specific T cell populations in vaccinated mice. Production of large, well-defined recombinant BCG ΔleuCD lots can allow confidence that vaccine materials for immunogenicity and protection studies are not negatively affected by instability or differences between freshly grown production batches. PMID:25924766

  1. HIV-specific Immunity Derived From Chimeric Antigen Receptor-engineered Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Anjie; Kamata, Masakazu; Rezek, Valerie; Rick, Jonathan; Levin, Bernard; Kasparian, Saro; Chen, Irvin SY; Yang, Otto O; Zack, Jerome A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is critical in controlling HIV infection. Since the immune response does not eliminate HIV, it would be beneficial to develop ways to enhance the HIV-specific CTL response to allow long-term viral suppression or clearance. Here, we report the use of a protective chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in a hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based approach to engineer HIV immunity. We determined that CAR-modified HSPCs differentiate into functional T cells as well as natural killer (NK) cells in vivo in humanized mice and these cells are resistant to HIV infection and suppress HIV replication. These results strongly suggest that stem cell-based gene therapy with a CAR may be feasible and effective in treating chronic HIV infection and other morbidities. PMID:26050990

  2. HIV-specific Immunity Derived From Chimeric Antigen Receptor-engineered Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Kamata, Masakazu; Rezek, Valerie; Rick, Jonathan; Levin, Bernard; Kasparian, Saro; Chen, Irvin Sy; Yang, Otto O; Zack, Jerome A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2015-08-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is critical in controlling HIV infection. Since the immune response does not eliminate HIV, it would be beneficial to develop ways to enhance the HIV-specific CTL response to allow long-term viral suppression or clearance. Here, we report the use of a protective chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in a hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based approach to engineer HIV immunity. We determined that CAR-modified HSPCs differentiate into functional T cells as well as natural killer (NK) cells in vivo in humanized mice and these cells are resistant to HIV infection and suppress HIV replication. These results strongly suggest that stem cell-based gene therapy with a CAR may be feasible and effective in treating chronic HIV infection and other morbidities.

  3. Antigenic and immunosuppressive properties of a trimeric recombinant transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Mühle, Michael; Lehmann, Melissa; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Stern, Daniel; Kroniger, Tobias; Luttmann, Werner

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus—1 (HIV-1) plays an important role during virus infection inducing the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. In addition, there are indications that the TM protein plays a role in the immunopathogenesis leading to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Inactivated virus particles and recombinant gp41 have been reported to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, as well as to alter cytokine release and gene expression. The same was shown for a peptide corresponding to a highly conserved domain of all retroviral TM proteins, the immunosuppressive domain. Due to its propensity to aggregate and to be expressed at low levels, studies comprising authentic gp41 produced in eukaryotic cells are extremely rare. Here we describe the production of a secreted, soluble recombinant gp41 in 293 cells. The antigen was purified to homogeneity and characterised thoroughly by various biochemical and immunological methods. It was shown that the protein was glycosylated and assembled into trimers. Binding studies by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies implied a six-helix bundle conformation. The low binding of broadly neutralising antibodies (bnAb) directed against the membrane proximal external region (MPER) suggested that this gp41 is probably not suited as vaccine to induce such bnAb. Purified gp41 bound to monocytes and to a lesser extent to lymphocytes and triggered the production of specific cytokines when added to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, gp41 expressed on target cells inhibited the antigen-specific response of murine CD8+ T cells by drastically impairing their IFNγ production. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of a gp41 produced in eukaryotic cells including its immunosuppressive properties. Our data provide another line of evidence that gp41 might be directly involved in HIV-1

  4. Antigenic and immunosuppressive properties of a trimeric recombinant transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Mühle, Michael; Lehmann, Melissa; Hoffmann, Kerstin; Stern, Daniel; Kroniger, Tobias; Luttmann, Werner; Denner, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) plays an important role during virus infection inducing the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. In addition, there are indications that the TM protein plays a role in the immunopathogenesis leading to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Inactivated virus particles and recombinant gp41 have been reported to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, as well as to alter cytokine release and gene expression. The same was shown for a peptide corresponding to a highly conserved domain of all retroviral TM proteins, the immunosuppressive domain. Due to its propensity to aggregate and to be expressed at low levels, studies comprising authentic gp41 produced in eukaryotic cells are extremely rare. Here we describe the production of a secreted, soluble recombinant gp41 in 293 cells. The antigen was purified to homogeneity and characterised thoroughly by various biochemical and immunological methods. It was shown that the protein was glycosylated and assembled into trimers. Binding studies by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies implied a six-helix bundle conformation. The low binding of broadly neutralising antibodies (bnAb) directed against the membrane proximal external region (MPER) suggested that this gp41 is probably not suited as vaccine to induce such bnAb. Purified gp41 bound to monocytes and to a lesser extent to lymphocytes and triggered the production of specific cytokines when added to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, gp41 expressed on target cells inhibited the antigen-specific response of murine CD8+ T cells by drastically impairing their IFNγ production. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of a gp41 produced in eukaryotic cells including its immunosuppressive properties. Our data provide another line of evidence that gp41 might be directly involved in HIV-1

  5. Identification, expression, and immunogenicity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded small viral capsid antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S F; Sun, R; Heston, L; Gradoville, L; Shedd, D; Haglund, K; Rigsby, M; Miller, G

    1997-01-01

    We describe a recombinant antigen for use in serologic tests for antibodies to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The cDNA for a small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) was identified by immunoscreening of a library prepared from the BC-1 body cavity lymphoma cell line induced into KSHV lytic gene expression by sodium butyrate. The cDNA specified a 170-amino-acid peptide with homology to small viral capsid proteins encoded by the BFRF3 gene of Epstein-Barr virus and the ORF65 gene of herpesvirus saimiri. KSHV sVCA was expressed from a 0.85-kb mRNA present late in lytic KSHV replication in BC-1 cells. This transcript was sensitive to phosphonoacetic acid and phosphonoformic acid, inhibitors of herpesvirus DNA replication. KSHV sVCA expressed in mammalian cells or Escherichia coli or translated in vitro was recognized as an antigen by antisera from KS patients. Rabbit antisera raised to KSHV sVCA expressed in E. coli detected a 22-kDa protein in KSHV-infected human B cells. Overexpressed KSHV sVCA purified from E. coli and used as an antigen in immunoblot screening assay did not cross-react with EBV BFRF3. Antibodies to sVCA were present in 89% of 47 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with KS, in 20% of 54 HIV-positive patients without KS, but in none of 122 other patients including children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and patients with hemophilia, autoimmune disease, or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Low-titer antibody was detected in three sera from 28 healthy subjects. Antibodies to recombinant sVCA correlate with KS in high-risk populations. Recombinant sVCA can be used to examine the seroepidemiology of infection with KSHV in the general population. PMID:9060668

  6. Identification, expression, and immunogenicity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded small viral capsid antigen.

    PubMed

    Lin, S F; Sun, R; Heston, L; Gradoville, L; Shedd, D; Haglund, K; Rigsby, M; Miller, G

    1997-04-01

    We describe a recombinant antigen for use in serologic tests for antibodies to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The cDNA for a small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) was identified by immunoscreening of a library prepared from the BC-1 body cavity lymphoma cell line induced into KSHV lytic gene expression by sodium butyrate. The cDNA specified a 170-amino-acid peptide with homology to small viral capsid proteins encoded by the BFRF3 gene of Epstein-Barr virus and the ORF65 gene of herpesvirus saimiri. KSHV sVCA was expressed from a 0.85-kb mRNA present late in lytic KSHV replication in BC-1 cells. This transcript was sensitive to phosphonoacetic acid and phosphonoformic acid, inhibitors of herpesvirus DNA replication. KSHV sVCA expressed in mammalian cells or Escherichia coli or translated in vitro was recognized as an antigen by antisera from KS patients. Rabbit antisera raised to KSHV sVCA expressed in E. coli detected a 22-kDa protein in KSHV-infected human B cells. Overexpressed KSHV sVCA purified from E. coli and used as an antigen in immunoblot screening assay did not cross-react with EBV BFRF3. Antibodies to sVCA were present in 89% of 47 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with KS, in 20% of 54 HIV-positive patients without KS, but in none of 122 other patients including children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and patients with hemophilia, autoimmune disease, or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Low-titer antibody was detected in three sera from 28 healthy subjects. Antibodies to recombinant sVCA correlate with KS in high-risk populations. Recombinant sVCA can be used to examine the seroepidemiology of infection with KSHV in the general population.

  7. Expression, purification and characterization of a full-length recombinant HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Njengele, Zikhona; Kleynhans, Ronel; Sayed, Yasien; Mosebi, Salerwe

    2016-12-01

    Vpu is one of four accessory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Vpu modulates the expression of several cellular restriction factors within the HIV-1 infected cell including CD4, CD74, the bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) and NK-T-and-B antigen. The interaction of HIV-1 Vpu with these proteins interferes with the innate immune response directed against HIV-1; thereby promoting viral persistence. The involvement of HIV-1 Vpu in manipulating the cellular environment in ways that favor viral replication makes it an attractive target for anti-HIV drug intervention. This paper describes the over-expression and purification of a soluble HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies by ion-exchange chromatography, allowing production of 6 mg of highly purified protein (>95% purity) per 10 mg of pelleted cells obtained from 1 L of bacterial culture. Far-UV circular dichroism showed that the recombinant protein is folded and retained its secondary structure. Moreover, using ELISA, known HIV-1 Vpu binding partners, BST-2 and CD74, showed that the refolded purified protein is functional or at least assumes a conformation that is capable of binding these putative binding partners. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification and successful solubilization of full-length, wild-type HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunochemical analysis of Taenia taeniaeformis antigens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bowtell, D D; Saint, R B; Rickard, M D; Mitchell, G F

    1986-12-01

    Previously we reported the isolation of several Escherichia coli clones expressing fragments of Taenia taeniaeformis antigens as beta-galactosidase fused proteins (Bowtell, Saint, Rickard & Mitchell, 1984). Here we describe the isolation of additional antigen-expressing clones from a larval cDNA library and the assignment of these clones to 7 antigen families. These were isolated with a polyspecific rabbit antiserum raised to the oncosphere. Since this serum was capable of reacting with a large number of antigens, it was important to develop techniques for rapidly determining the identity of the native T. taeniaeformis molecule corresponding to a cloned antigen gene. These included active immunization of rabbits with fused proteins and several techniques involving affinity purification on immobilized fused proteins. The reactivity of the antigen-positive clones with sera from humans infected with related parasites was also assessed. Finally, immunization of mice with several fused proteins failed to protect against subsequent infection, although antigens previously identified as candidate host-protective antigens (Bowtell, Mitchell, Anders, Lightowlers & Rickard, 1983) have yet to be identified in the expression library.

  9. Expression of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Bacillus megaterium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    protective antigen in Bacillus megaterium B.J. Berger, K.E. Schwandt and C.L. Radford Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Technical Memorandum DISTRIBUTION...antigen in Bacillus megaterium B. J. Berger, K. E. Schwandt, and C. L. Radford Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Defence R&D Canada - Suffield Technical...expressed using Bacillus megaterium and a xylose-inducible heterologous expression system. After only 3.5 hours growth post-induction in Luria

  10. Cancer testis antigen expression in testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bode, Peter K; Thielken, Andrea; Brandt, Simone; Barghorn, André; Lohe, Bernd; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

    2014-06-01

    Cancer testis antigens are encoded by germ line-associated genes that are present in normal germ cells of testis and ovary but not in differentiated tissues. Their expression in various human cancer types has been interpreted as 're-expression' or as intratumoral progenitor cell signature. Cancer testis antigen expression patterns have not yet been studied in germ cell tumorigenesis with specific emphasis on intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to study MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, GAGE1 and CTAG1B expression in 325 primary testicular germ cell tumors, including 94 mixed germ cell tumors. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous components were separately arranged and evaluated on tissue microarrays. Spermatogonia in the normal testis were positive, whereas intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified was negative for all five CT antigens. Cancer testis antigen expression was only found in 3% (CTAG1B), 10% (GAGE1, MAGEA4), 33% (MAGEA3) and 40% (MAGEC1) of classic seminoma but not in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. In contrast, all spermatocytic seminomas were positive for cancer testis antigens. These data are consistent with a different cell origin in spermatocytic seminoma compared with classic seminoma and support a progression model with loss of cancer testis antigens in early tumorigenesis of testicular germ cell tumors and later re-expression in a subset of seminomas.

  11. HIV-1 Adaptation to Antigen Processing Results in Population-Level Immune Evasion and Affects Subtype Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Tenzer, Stefan; Crawford, Hayley; Pymm, Phillip; Gifford, Robert; Sreenu, Vattipally B.; Weimershaus, Mirjana; de Oliveira, Tulio; Burgevin, Anne; Gerstoft, Jan; Akkad, Nadja; Lunn, Daniel; Fugger, Lars; Bell, John; Schild, Hansjörg; van Endert, Peter; Iversen, Astrid K.N.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The recent HIV-1 vaccine failures highlight the need to better understand virus-host interactions. One key question is why CD8+ T cell responses to two HIV-Gag regions are uniquely associated with delayed disease progression only in patients expressing a few rare HLA class I variants when these regions encode epitopes presented by ∼30 more common HLA variants. By combining epitope processing and computational analyses of the two HIV subtypes responsible for ∼60% of worldwide infections, we identified a hitherto unrecognized adaptation to the antigen-processing machinery through substitutions at subtype-specific motifs. Multiple HLA variants presenting epitopes situated next to a given subtype-specific motif drive selection at this subtype-specific position, and epitope abundances correlate inversely with the HLA frequency distribution in affected populations. This adaptation reflects the sum of intrapatient adaptations, is predictable, facilitates viral subtype diversification, and increases global HIV diversity. Because low epitope abundance is associated with infrequent and weak T cell responses, this most likely results in both population-level immune evasion and inadequate responses in most people vaccinated with natural HIV-1 sequence constructs. Our results suggest that artificial sequence modifications at subtype-specific positions in vitro could refocus and reverse the poor immunogenicity of HIV proteins. PMID:24726370

  12. Shortening of the diagnostic window with a new combined HIV p24 antigen and anti-HIV-1/2/O screening test.

    PubMed

    Brust, S; Duttmann, H; Feldner, J; Gürtler, L; Thorstensson, R; Simon, F

    2000-11-01

    Because antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are absent in the very early phase of HIV infection, there remains a slight residual risk for HIV transmission by blood donations by viremic but antibody negative donations. To shorten the diagnostic window between infection and the detection of antibodies, Enzygnost HIV Integral (Dade Behring, Germany) was developed. With this new test, HIV p24 antigen and HIV antibodies can be detected simultaneously in a single test. In a multicenter study the new screening assay has been compared with various tests that detect only HIV antibodies or HIV p24 antigen and with assays which permit a simultaneous detection of HIV antigen and HIV antibodies. The new assay showed 100% sensitivity for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1, groups M (n=1102) and O (n=55), and HIV-2 (n=289). In 23 out of 52 seroconversion panels, seroconversion was detected 2-18 days earlier with the new combined antigen/antibody test compared to single antibody tests. All samples from a viral load panel (n=451), all samples containing p24 antigen (n=302), and all but one of the cell culture supernatants (n=38) infected with various HIV-1 subtypes or HIV-2 were identified reliably by the new test. The specificity of the assay for 4002 unselected blood donors was 99.78% initially and 99.80% after retesting. Potentially interfering factors had no systematic influence on specificity. By testing for p24 antigen, which is present prior to the onset of antibody production in some cases of recent HIV infection, the new assay reduces the diagnostic window as compared to third generation screening assays, thus permitting an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection.

  13. Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Efficiently Capture HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins via CD4 for Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sandgren, Kerrie J; Smed-Sörensen, Anna; Forsell, Mattias N; Soldemo, Martina; Adams, William C; Liang, Frank; Perbeck, Leif; Koup, Richard A; Wyatt, Richard T; Hedestam, Gunilla B Karlsson; Loré, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Advances in HIV-1 vaccine clinical trials and preclinical research indicate that the virus envelope glycoproteins (Env) are likely to be an essential component of a prophylactic vaccine. Efficient antigen uptake and presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) is important for strong CD4+ T helper cell responses and the development of effective humoral immune responses. Here, we examined the capacity of distinct primary human DC subsets to internalise and present recombinant Env to CD4+ T cells. Consistent with their specific receptor expression, skin DCs bound and internalised Env via C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) while blood DC subsets, including CD1c+ myeloid DCs (MDCs), CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) and CD141+ DCs exhibited a restricted repertoire of CLRs and relied on CD4 for uptake of Env. Despite a generally poor capacity for antigen uptake compared to MDCs, the high expression of CD4 on PDCs allowed them to bind and internalise Env very efficiently. CD4-mediated uptake delivered Env to EEA1+ endosomes that progressed to Lamp1+ and MHC class II+ lysosomes where internalised Env was degraded rapidly. Finally, all three blood DC subsets were able to internalise an Env-CMV pp65 fusion protein via CD4 and stimulate pp65-specific CD4+ T cells. Thus, in the in vitro systems described here, CD4-mediated uptake of Env is a functional pathway leading to antigen presentation and this may therefore be a mechanism utilised by blood DCs, including PDCs, for generating immune responses to Env-based vaccines. PMID:23729440

  14. HIV Infection of Hepatocytes Results in a Modest Increase in Hepatitis C Virus Expression In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Powell, Eleanor A.; Blackard, Jason T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that soluble HIV proteins impact both hepatocyte function and HCV replication in vitro. It has also been reported that HIV can productively infect hepatocytes. We therefore investigated the impact of HIV infection of hepatocytes on HCV expression. The Huh7.5JFH1 cell line that constitutively expresses infectious HCV was infected with the lab-adapted strains HIVNL4-3 or HIVYK-JRCSF. HCV expression was quantified via HCV core antigen ELISA, Western blot, and strand-specific real-time PCR for positive-sense and negative-sense HCV RNA. After HIVNL4-3 infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells, positive-sense and negative-sense HCV RNA levels were elevated compared to HIV uninfected cells. Increased HCV RNA synthesis was also observed after infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells with HIVYK-JRCSF. HIV-induced HCV core production was decreased in the presence of the anti-HIV drugs AZT, T20, and raltegravir, although these medications had a minimal effect on HCV expression in the absence of HIV. HCV core, NS3, and NS5A protein expression were increased after HIV infection of Huh7.5JFH1 cells. Chemically inactivated HIV had a minimal effect on HCV expression in Huh7.5JFH1 cells suggesting that ongoing viral replication was critical. These data demonstrate that HIV induces HCV RNA synthesis and protein production in vitro and complement previous in vivo reports that HCV RNA levels are elevated in individuals with HIV/HCV co-infection compared to those with HCV mono-infection. These findings suggest that HIV suppression may be a critical factor in controlling liver disease, particularly if the underlying liver disease is not treated. PMID:24586227

  15. Stapled HIV-1 peptides recapitulate antigenic structures and engage broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bird, Gregory H; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D; Wilson, Ian A; Walensky, Loren D

    2014-12-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive α-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high-fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized α-helices of the membrane-proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically stabilized antigens for vaccination.

  16. Stapled HIV-1 Peptides Recapitulate Antigenic Structures and Engage Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Gregory H.; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D.; Wilson, Ian A.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive, α-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here, we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized α-helices of the membrane proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease-resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically-stabilized antigens for vaccination. PMID:25420104

  17. Booster and higher antigen doses of inactivated influenza vaccine in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jessica A; Tincher, Lindsey B; Lowe, Denise K

    2013-12-01

    To review the literature regarding booster or higher doses of influenza antigen for increasing immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in HIV-infected patients. MEDLINE (1966 to September 2013) was searched using the terms immunize, influenza, vaccine, and HIV or AIDS in combination with two-dose, booster-dose, increased antigen, or high-dose. One trial of booster dosing with standard doses (SDs) of IIV, trivalent (IIV3); 2 trials of booster dosing with intermediate doses (ID) of H1N1 IIV or IIV3; and 1 trial of high-dose (HD) IIV3 were identified. Trials administering 2-dose, booster-dose, or increased antigen of influenza vaccine to patients with HIV were reviewed. Because adjuvanted IIV is not available and IIV, quadrivalent was recently approved in the United States, studies evaluating these vaccines were excluded. HIV-infected individuals are at high risk for influenza-related complications; however, vaccination with SD IIV may not confer optimal protection. It has been postulated that booster or higher doses of influenza antigen may lead to increased immunogenicity. When ID and SD or ID with boosters were evaluated in HIV-infected patients, significant increases in surrogate markers for influenza protection were not achieved. However, HD IIV3 did result in significant increases in seroprotective antibody levels, though 'clinical' influenza was not evaluated. Currently, evidence is insufficient to reach conclusions about the efficacy of booster dosing, ID, or HD influenza vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Trials evaluating booster or higher-antigen doses of IIV for 'clinical' influenza are necessary before routinely recommending for HIV-infected patients.

  18. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  19. False negative results in anti-HIV ELISA due to insufficient antigen coating of microtitre plates.

    PubMed

    Rosenkvist, J; Dybkjaer, E

    1990-10-01

    Since routine ELISA screening of blood donors for anti-HIV antibodies was introduced, much attention has been given to the specificity and the sensitivity of this assay. Most papers deal with false positive reactions while only a few have taken account of false negative results. We have found that insufficient HIV-antigen coating of the microtitre plates can lead to false negative results. It is essential that the producers of the ELISA test kits use control systems which guarantee sufficient antigen coating.

  20. Murine Monoclonal Antibodies for Antigenic Discrimination of HIV-1 Envelope Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sealy, Robert E.; Jones, Bart G.; Surman, Sherri L.; Branum, Kristen; Howlett, Nanna M.; Flynn, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the influenza virus field, antibody reagents from research animals have been instrumental in the characterization of antigenically distinct hemagglutinin and neuraminidase membrane molecules. These small animal reagents continue to support the selection of components for inclusion in human influenza virus vaccines. Other cocktail vaccines against variant pathogens (e.g., polio virus, pneumococcus) are similarly designed to represent variant antigens, as defined by antibody reactivity patterns. However, a vaccine cocktail comprising diverse viral membrane antigens defined in this way has not yet been advanced to a clinical efficacy study in the HIV-1 field. In this study, we describe the preparation of mouse antibodies specific for HIV-1 gp140 or gp120 envelope molecules. Our experiments generated renewable reagents able to discriminate HIV-1 envelopes from one another. Monoclonals yielded more precise discriminatory capacity against their respective immunogens than did a small panel of polyclonal human sera derived from recently HIV-1-infected patients. Perhaps these and other antibody reagents will ultimately support high-throughput cartography studies with which antigenically-distinct envelope immunogens may be formulated into a successful HIV-1 envelope cocktail vaccine. PMID:26544795

  1. Screening Yield of HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination and Pooled HIV RNA Testing for Acute HIV Infection in a High-Prevalence Population.

    PubMed

    Peters, Philip J; Westheimer, Emily; Cohen, Stephanie; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Moss, Nicholas; Tsoi, Benjamin; Hall, Laura; Fann, Charles; Daskalakis, Demetre C; Beagle, Steve; Patel, Pragna; Radix, Asa; Foust, Evelyn; Kohn, Robert P; Marmorino, Jenni; Pandori, Mark; Fu, Jie; Samandari, Taraz; Gay, Cynthia L

    2016-02-16

    Although acute HIV infection contributes disproportionately to onward HIV transmission, HIV testing has not routinely included screening for acute HIV infection. To evaluate the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assay to detect acute HIV infection compared with pooled HIV RNA testing. Multisite, prospective, within-individual comparison study conducted between September 2011 and October 2013 in 7 sexually transmitted infection clinics and 5 community-based programs in New York, California, and North Carolina. Participants were 12 years or older and seeking HIV testing, without known HIV infection. All participants with a negative rapid HIV test result were screened for acute HIV infection with an HIV Ag/Ab combination assay (index test) and pooled human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA testing. HIV RNA testing was the reference standard, with positive reference standard result defined as detectable HIV-1 RNA on an individual RNA test. Number and proportion with acute HIV infections detected. Among 86,836 participants with complete test results (median age, 29 years; 75.0% men; 51.8% men who have sex with men), established HIV infection was diagnosed in 1158 participants (1.33%) and acute HIV infection was diagnosed in 168 participants (0.19%). Acute HIV infection was detected in 134 participants with HIV Ag/Ab combination testing (0.15% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.18%]; sensitivity, 79.8% [95% CI, 72.9%-85.6%]; specificity, 99.9% [95% CI, 99.9%-99.9%]; positive predictive value, 59.0% [95% CI, 52.3%-65.5%]) and in 164 participants with pooled HIV RNA testing (0.19% [95% CI, 0.16%-0.22%]; sensitivity, 97.6% [95% CI, 94.0%-99.4%]; specificity, 100% [95% CI, 100%-100%]; positive predictive value, 96.5% [95% CI, 92.5%-98.7%]; sensitivity comparison, P < .001). Overall HIV Ag/Ab combination testing detected 82% of acute HIV infections detectable by pooled HIV RNA testing. Compared with rapid HIV testing alone, HIV Ag/Ab combination testing

  2. A Novel Malaria Vaccine Candidate Antigen Expressed in Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Eleni-Muus, Janna; Aldag, Ingo; Samuel, Kay; Creasey, Alison M.; Hartmann, Marcus W. W.; Cavanagh, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Development of effective malaria vaccines is hampered by the problem of producing correctly folded Plasmodium proteins for use as vaccine components. We have investigated the use of a novel ciliate expression system, Tetrahymena thermophila, as a P. falciparum vaccine antigen platform. A synthetic vaccine antigen composed of N-terminal and C-terminal regions of merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) was expressed in Tetrahymena thermophila. The recombinant antigen was secreted into the culture medium and purified by monoclonal antibody (mAb) affinity chromatography. The vaccine was immunogenic in MF1 mice, eliciting high antibody titers against both N- and C-terminal components. Sera from immunized animals reacted strongly with P. falciparum parasites from three antigenically different strains by immunofluorescence assays, confirming that the antibodies produced are able to recognize parasite antigens in their native form. Epitope mapping of serum reactivity with a peptide library derived from all three MSP-1 Block 2 serotypes confirmed that the MSP-1 Block 2 hybrid component of the vaccine had effectively targeted all three serotypes of this polymorphic region of MSP-1. This study has successfully demonstrated the use of Tetrahymena thermophila as a recombinant protein expression platform for the production of malaria vaccine antigens. PMID:24489871

  3. A new combined HIV p24 antigen and anti-HIV-1/2/O screening assay.

    PubMed

    Polywka, Susanne; Duttmann, Hedwig; Lübben, Frank; Laufs, Rainer; Feldner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    It is important to shorten the window period after acute HIV infection in which infected individuals are still antibody-negative, especially in blood donors. Newly developed fourth-generation assays detect antibodies to HIV-1, including subtype O, and to HIV-2 and, simultaneously, p24 antigen of HIV-1. To evaluate this assay for daily routine work we compared it with different third-generation assays using sera from uninfected patients and patients with known HIV infection. The most interesting sera are those drawn during seroconversion from freshly infected patients. Whenever we encounter such a patient with acute HIV infection we store the serum in aliquots at -20 degrees C. Thus, we were able to establish our own seroconversion panel and use it in our laboratory for evaluation of new assays. The new test was shown to be able to detect all chronically HIV-infected individuals and four of six patients during seroconversion although in two of these patients conventional assays for HIV antibodies were still negative. The rate of unspecific reactivities was slightly higher as compared with third-generation assays.

  4. Analysis of Host Gene Expression Profile in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected T-Cells.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Wood, Owen; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication is closely regulated by a complex pathway of host factors, many of them being determinants of cell tropism and host susceptibility to HIV infection. These host factors are known to exert a positive or negative influence on the replication of the two major types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2, thereby modulating virus infectivity, host response to infection and ultimately disease progression profiles characteristic of these two types. Understanding the differential regulation of host cellular factors in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections will help us to understand the apparent differences in rates of disease progression and pathogenesis. This knowledge would aid in the discovery of new biomarkers that may serve as novel targets for therapy and diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the differential expression of host genes in response to HIV-1/HIV-2 infection. To achieve this, we analyzed the effects of HIV-1 (MN) and HIV-2 (ROD) infection on the expression of host factors in PBMC at the RNA level using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were identified and their biological functions determined. Host gene expression profiles were significantly changed. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a subset of differentially expressed genes in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Genes involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, immune cell proliferation and activation, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors were differentially expressed in HIV-1 infected cells. Relatively few genes were differentially expressed in cells infected with HIV-2.

  5. Analysis of Host Gene Expression Profile in HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected T-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Wood, Owen; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    HIV replication is closely regulated by a complex pathway of host factors, many of them being determinants of cell tropism and host susceptibility to HIV infection. These host factors are known to exert a positive or negative influence on the replication of the two major types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2, thereby modulating virus infectivity, host response to infection and ultimately disease progression profiles characteristic of these two types. Understanding the differential regulation of host cellular factors in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections will help us to understand the apparent differences in rates of disease progression and pathogenesis. This knowledge would aid in the discovery of new biomarkers that may serve as novel targets for therapy and diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the differential expression of host genes in response to HIV-1/HIV-2 infection. To achieve this, we analyzed the effects of HIV-1 (MN) and HIV-2 (ROD) infection on the expression of host factors in PBMC at the RNA level using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were identified and their biological functions determined. Host gene expression profiles were significantly changed. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a subset of differentially expressed genes in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Genes involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, immune cell proliferation and activation, cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors were differentially expressed in HIV-1 infected cells. Relatively few genes were differentially expressed in cells infected with HIV-2. PMID:26821323

  6. Blood Group Antigens C, Lub and P1 May Have a Role in HIV Infection in Africans.

    PubMed

    Motswaledi, Modisa Sekhamo; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi Omoniyi

    2016-01-01

    Botswana is among the world's countries with the highest rates of HIV infection. It is not known whether or not this susceptibility to infection is due to genetic factors in the population. Accumulating evidence, however, points to the role of erythrocytes as potential mediators of infection. We therefore sought to establish the role, if any, of some erythrocyte antigens in HIV infection in a cross-section of the population. 348 (346 HIV-negative and 2 HIV-positive) samples were obtained from the National Blood Transfusion Service as residual samples, while 194 HIV-positive samples were obtained from the Botswana-Harvard HIV Reference Laboratory. Samples were grouped for twenty three antigens. Chi-square or Fischer Exact analyses were used to compare the frequencies of the antigens in the two groups. A stepwise, binary logistic regression was used to study the interaction of the various antigens in the light of HIV-status. The Rh antigens C and E were associated with HIV-negative status, while blood group Jka, P1 and Lub were associated with HIV-positive status. A stepwise binary logistic regression analysis yielded group C as the most significant protective blood group while Lub and P1 were associated with significantly higher odds ratio in favor of HIV-infection. The lower-risk-associated group C was significantly lower in Africans compared to published data for Caucasians and might partially explain the difference in susceptibility to HIV-1. The most influential antigen C, which also appears to be protective, is significantly lower in Africans than published data for Caucasians or Asians. On the other hand, there appear to be multiple antigens associated with increased risk that may override the protective role of C. A study of the distribution of these antigens in other populations may shed light on their roles in the HIV pandemic.

  7. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  8. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  9. Uterus human leucocyte antigen expression in the perspective of transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Tristan; Filloux, Matthieu; Guillaudeau, Angelique; Essig, Marie; Bibes, Romain; Pacha, Adam Fodil; Piver, Pascal; Aubard, Yves; Marquet, Pierre; Drouet, Mireille

    2016-12-01

    To describe class I and II human leucocyte antigen (HLA) expression using different uterine tissues in the perspective of uterus transplantation. Human uterine tissues were obtained from 12 women who had undergone hysterectomy for the treatment of benign disease. HLA class I and HLA-antigen D related (DR) expression were assessed via immunochemistry. HLA class I expression in the uterus was compared with expression in other organs and tissues, including kidney and myocardium samples. HLA class I expression was strong in the endometrial glands and mild in the myometrium. Staining of endometrial glands was similar to glomerular staining in the kidney. The myometrium seems to express HLA class I similarly to hepatocytes and myocardial cells. HLA class I expression in the uterus did not differ in younger or post-menopausal women. HLA-DR was expressed in the endometrial glands, but not in the myometrium. A lack of HLA-DR expression seemed to be correlated with cell proliferation. HLA expression in the endometrium and myometrium is different. The endometrium should be the major target of alloreactive response. As for other transplanted organs, assessment of HLA unacceptable antigens and multiple immunosuppressive treatments is necessary in uterus transplantation. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Blood group ABO and Lewis antigens in bladder tumors: correlation between glycosyltransferase activity and antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Orntoft, T F; Wolf, H

    1988-01-01

    Pronounced changes in the expression of ABO and Lewis antigens have been observed in transitional cell carcinomas compared with normal urothelium. These changes are associated with changes in the activity of blood-group gene-encoded glycosyltransferases. This paper describes the correlation between blood-group antigen expression and the activity of glycosyltransferases in transitional cell carcinomas. Examined individuals were A1A2BO, Lewis, and secretor typed by the use of blood and saliva. The activity of alpha-2-, and alpha-4-L-fucosyltransferases as well as the alpha-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase were determined as p-moles of labelled sugar incorporated by Lacto-N-biose I and 2'-fucosyllactose, respectively, per 100,000 carcinoma cells. In 3 non-secretors whose erythrocytes types as Le(a+b-), the alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase activity was similar to that in 3 secretors, and the Leb antigen could be demonstrated to be present by monoclonal antibodies, both by immunohistological and immunochemical means. In 11 tumors from A individuals, the A1-transferase was severely reduced in 9 individuals who showed a loss of A antigen expression, and present in 2 individuals with A antigen expression in cytoplasmic vesicles. In conclusion, we demonstrate a good correlation between individual glycosyltransferase activity and expression of blood group Leb and loss of expression of blood group A in transitional cell carcinomas. Immunostaining of neutral glycolipids separated by TLC showed the Leb-active glycolipids to be simple hexa-saccharides in both secretors and non-secretors.

  11. Mosaic HIV-1 Gag antigens can be processed and presented to human HIV-specific CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Vine, Seanna; McMullen, Ashley; Koofhethile, Kegakilwe C; Goulder, Phillip J R; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Barouch, Dan H; Walker, Bruce D

    2011-06-15

    Polyvalent mosaic HIV immunogens offer a potential solution for generating vaccines that can elicit immune responses against genetically diverse viruses. However, it is unclear whether key T cell epitopes can be processed and presented from these synthetic Ags and recognized by epitope-specific human T cells. In this study, we tested the ability of mosaic HIV immunogens expressed by recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 vectors to process and present major HIV clade B and clade C CD8 T cell epitopes in human cells. A bivalent mosaic vaccine expressing HIV Gag sequences was used to transduce PBMCs from 12 HIV-1-infected individuals from the United States and 10 HIV-1-infected individuals from South Africa; intracellular cytokine staining, together with tetramer staining, was used to assess the ability of mosaic Gag Ags to stimulate pre-existing memory responses compared with natural clade B and C vectors. Mosaic Gag Ags expressed all eight clade B epitopes tested in 12 United States subjects and all 5 clade C epitopes tested in 10 South African subjects. Overall, the magnitude of cytokine production induced by stimulation with mosaic Ags was comparable to clade B and clade C Ags tested, but the mosaic Ags elicited greater cross-clade recognition. Additionally, mosaic Ags induced HIV-specific CD4 T cell responses. Our studies demonstrate that mosaic Ags express major clade B and clade C viral T cell epitopes in human cells, as well as support the evaluation of mosaic HIV-1 vaccines in humans.

  12. Minor Histocompatibility Antigens Are Expressed in Syncytiotrophoblast and Trophoblast Debris

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Olivia J.; Linscheid, Caitlin; Hodes, Herbert C.; Nauser, Traci L.; Gilliam, Melissa; Stone, Peter; Chamley, Larry W.; Petroff, Margaret G.

    2012-01-01

    The fetal semi-allograft can induce expansion and tolerance of antigen-specific maternal T and B cells through paternally inherited major histocompatibility complex and minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAgs). The effects of these antigens have important consequences on the maternal immune system both during and long after pregnancy. Herein, we investigate the possibility that the placental syncytiotrophoblast and deported trophoblastic debris serve as sources of fetal mHAgs. We mapped the expression of four mHAgs (human mHAg 1, pumilio domain-containing protein KIAA0020, B-cell lymphoma 2–related protein A1, and ribosomal protein S4, Y linked) in the placenta. Each of these proteins was expressed in several placental cell types, including the syncytiotrophoblast. These antigens and two additional Y chromosome–encoded antigens [DEAD box polypeptide 3, Y linked (DDX3Y), and lysine demethylase5D] were also identified by RT-PCR in the placenta, purified trophoblast cells, and cord blood cells. Finally, we used a proteomic approach to investigate the presence of mHAgs in the syncytiotrophoblast and trophoblast debris shed from first-trimester placenta. By this method, four antigens (DDX3Y; ribosomal protein S4, Y linked; solute carrier 1A5; and signal sequence receptor 1) were found in the syncytiotrophoblast, and one antigen (DDX3Y) was found in shed trophoblast debris. The finding of mHAgs in the placenta and in trophoblast debris provides the first direct evidence that fetal antigens are present in debris shed from the human placenta. The data, thus, suggest a mechanism by which the maternal immune system is exposed to fetal alloantigens, possibly explaining the relationship between parity and graft-versus-host disease. PMID:22079431

  13. HIV leucoencephalopathy and TNFα expression in neurones

    PubMed Central

    Rostasy, K; Monti, L; Lipton, S; Hedreen, J; Gonzalez, R; Navia, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leucoencephalopathy (HIVL) is an uncommon and rapidly progressive form of AIDS dementia complex (ADC) that has remained poorly understood. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ADC, is predominantly localised in macrophages in the HIV infected brain, although in vitro studies indicate that neurones can express this cytokine. Objective: To examine the clinical/neuroradiological features of HIVL and the expression of TNFα in HIVL. Methods: Six patients who presented with rapidly progressive dementia within four to 12 weeks of the primary manifestation of their HIV infection were evaluated. Clinical history, treatment regimens, and imaging studies were reviewed, and brain samples from three of the patients were studied by means of immunohistochemistry. Results: Imaging studies showed diffuse bilateral deep white matter changes in all six patients. Clinical and imaging abnormalities improved in five of the six patients within weeks after initiation of antiretroviral treatment. Brain biopsies of two showed pronounced microglia/macrophage activation, but only scant viral protein (gp41) expression. Staining for TNFα was found in microglia/macrophages, and surprisingly, in neurones also. Postmortem analysis of a third patient also showed TNFα expression in neurones of the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. Conclusion: This study provides the first demonstration of staining for TNFα in the neurones of the HIV infected brain, and suggests that the process underlying this rapidly progressive form of ADC may reflect indirect mechanisms mediated by host factors, particularly TNFα. PMID:15965202

  14. Performance of the Cryptococcal Antigen Lateral Flow Assay in Non-HIV-Related Cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Panackal, Anil A; Williamson, Peter R; Bennett, John E; Dekker, John P; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2016-02-01

    The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (CrAg LFA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis in HIV-negative patients. The sensitivity was excellent, suggesting that this assay can replace conventional testing based on latex agglutination (LA). CrAg LFA and LA titers were correlated but were not directly comparable, with implications for conversion between assays.

  15. Performance of the Cryptococcal Antigen Lateral Flow Assay in Non-HIV-Related Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Panackal, Anil A.; Williamson, Peter R.; Bennett, John E.; Dekker, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (CrAg LFA) was evaluated for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis in HIV-negative patients. The sensitivity was excellent, suggesting that this assay can replace conventional testing based on latex agglutination (LA). CrAg LFA and LA titers were correlated but were not directly comparable, with implications for conversion between assays. PMID:26607986

  16. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G B Sunil; Ganapathi, T R; Revathi, C J; Srinivas, L; Bapat, V A

    2005-10-01

    Embryogenic cells of bananan cv. Rasthali (AAB) have been transformed with the 's' gene of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Four different expression cassettes (pHBS, pHER, pEFEHBS and pEFEHER) were utilized to optimize the expression of HBsAg in banana. The transgenic nature of the plants and expression of the antigen was confirmed by PCR, Southern hybridization and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The expression levels of the antigen in the plants grown under in vitro conditions as well as the green house hardened plants were estimated by ELISA for all the four constructs. Maximum expression level of 38 ng/g F.W. of leaves was noted in plants transformed with pEFEHBS grown under in vitro conditions, whereas pHER transformed plants grown in the green house showed the maximum expression level of 19.92 ng/g F.W. of leaves. Higher monoclonal antibody binding of 67.87% of the antigen was observed when it was expressed with a C-terminal ER retention signal. The buoyant density in CsCl of HBsAg derived from transgenic banana leaves was determined and found to be 1.146 g/ml. HBsAg obtained from transgenic banana plants is similar to human serum derived one in buoyant density properties. The transgenic plants were grown up to maturity in the green house and the expression of HBsAg in the fruits was confirmed by RT-PCR. These transgenic plants were multiplied under in vitro using floral apex cultures. Attempts were also made to enhance the expression of HBsAg in the leaves of transgenic banana plants by wounding and/or treatment with plant growth regulators. This is the first report on the expression of HBsAg in transgenic banana fruits.

  17. Analysis of Host Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens in a Multi-Site Study of Subjects with Different TB and HIV Infection States in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jayne S.; Lalor, Maeve K.; Black, Gillian F.; Ambrose, Lyn R.; Loxton, Andre G.; Chegou, Novel N.; Kassa, Desta; Mihret, Adane; Howe, Rawleigh; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Gomez, Marie P.; Donkor, Simon; Franken, Kees; Hanekom, Willem; Klein, Michel R.; Parida, Shreemanta K.; Boom, W. Henry; Thiel, Bonnie A.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Ota, Martin; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health threat with 9 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year. In order to develop a protective vaccine, we need to define the antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which are relevant to protective immunity in high-endemic areas. Methods We analysed responses to 23 Mtb antigens in a total of 1247 subjects with different HIV and TB status across 5 geographically diverse sites in Africa (South Africa, The Gambia, Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda). We used a 7-day whole blood assay followed by IFN-γ ELISA on the supernatants. Antigens included PPD, ESAT-6 and Ag85B (dominant antigens) together with novel resuscitation-promoting factors (rpf), reactivation proteins, latency (Mtb DosR regulon-encoded) antigens, starvation-induced antigens and secreted antigens. Results There was variation between sites in responses to the antigens, presumably due to underlying genetic and environmental differences. When results from all sites were combined, HIV- subjects with active TB showed significantly lower responses compared to both TST- and TST+ contacts to latency antigens (Rv0569, Rv1733, Rv1735, Rv1737) and the rpf Rv0867; whilst responses to ESAT-6/CFP-10 fusion protein (EC), PPD, Rv2029, TB10.3, and TB10.4 were significantly higher in TST+ contacts (LTBI) compared to TB and TST- contacts fewer differences were seen in subjects with HIV co-infection, with responses to the mitogen PHA significantly lower in subjects with active TB compared to those with LTBI and no difference with any antigen. Conclusions Our multi-site study design for testing novel Mtb antigens revealed promising antigens for future vaccine development. The IFN-γ ELISA is a cheap and useful tool for screening potential antigenicity in subjects with different ethnic backgrounds and across a spectrum of TB and HIV infection states. Analysis of cytokines other than IFN-γ is currently on-going to determine correlates of protection, which may

  18. Clustered epitopes within the Gag-Pol fusion protein DNA vaccine enhance immune responses and protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing HIV-1 Gag and Pol antigens.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Gzyl, Jaroslaw; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Kmieciak, Dariusz; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Kaneko, Yutaro; Srinivasan, Alagarsamy; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-02-20

    We have generated a codon-optimized hGagp17p24-Polp51 plasmid DNA expressing the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag-Pol fusion protein that consists of clusters of highly conserved cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes presented by multiple MHC class I alleles. In the hGagp17p24-Polp51 construct, the ribosomal frameshift site had been deleted together with the potentially immunosuppressive Gag nucleocapsid (p15) as well as Pol protease (p10) and integrase (p31). Analyses of the magnitude and breadth of cellular responses demonstrated that immunization of HLA-A2/K(b) transgenic mice with the hGagp17p24-Polp51 construct induced 2- to 5-fold higher CD8+ T-cell responses to Gag p17-, p24-, and Pol reverse transcriptase (RT)-specific CTL epitopes than the full-length hGag-PolDeltaFsDeltaPr counterpart. The increases were correlated with higher protection against challenge with recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVVs) expressing gag and pol gene products. Consistent with the profile of Gag- and Pol-specific CD8+ T cell responses, an elevated level of type 1 cytokine production was noted in p24- and RT-stimulated splenocyte cultures established from hGagp17p24-Polp51-immunized mice compared to responses induced with the hGag-PolDeltaFsDeltaPr vaccine. Sera of mice immunized with the hGagp17p24-Polp51 vaccine also exhibited an increased titer of p24- and RT-specific IgG2 antibody responses. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting the breadth of Gag- and Pol-specific immune responses.

  19. Kinetics of Antigen Expression and Epitope Presentation during Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Nathan P.; Smith, Stewart A.; Wong, Yik Chun; Tan, Chor Teck; Dudek, Nadine L.; Flesch, Inge E. A.; Lin, Leon C. W.; Tscharke, David C.; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge about the dynamics of antigen presentation to T cells during viral infection is very poor despite being of fundamental importance to our understanding of anti-viral immunity. Here we use an advanced mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify the presentation of eight vaccinia virus peptide-MHC complexes (epitopes) on infected cells and the amounts of their source antigens at multiple times after infection. The results show a startling 1000-fold range in abundance as well as strikingly different kinetics across the epitopes monitored. The tight correlation between onset of protein expression and epitope display for most antigens provides the strongest support to date that antigen presentation is largely linked to translation and not later degradation of antigens. Finally, we show a complete disconnect between the epitope abundance and immunodominance hierarchy of these eight epitopes. This study highlights the complexity of viral antigen presentation by the host and demonstrates the weakness of simple models that assume total protein levels are directly linked to epitope presentation and immunogenicity. PMID:23382674

  20. Exosome targeting of tumor antigens expressed by cancer vaccines can improve antigen immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Rountree, Ryan B; Mandl, Stefanie J; Nachtwey, James M; Dalpozzo, Katie; Do, Lisa; Lombardo, John R; Schoonmaker, Peter L; Brinkmann, Kay; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Laus, Reiner; Delcayre, Alain

    2011-08-01

    MVA-BN-PRO (BN ImmunoTherapeutics) is a candidate immunotherapy product for the treatment of prostate cancer. It encodes 2 tumor-associated antigens, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and is derived from the highly attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus stock known as MVA-BN. Past work has shown that the immunogenicity of antigens can be improved by targeting their localization to exosomes, which are small, 50- to 100-nm diameter vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosome targeting is achieved by fusing the antigen to the C1C2 domain of the lactadherin protein. To test whether exosome targeting would improve the immunogenicity of PSA and PAP, 2 additional versions of MVA-BN-PRO were produced, targeting either PSA (MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2) or PAP (MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2) to exosomes, while leaving the second transgene untargeted. Treatment of mice with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 led to a striking increase in the immune response against PAP. Anti-PAP antibody titers developed more rapidly and reached levels that were 10- to 100-fold higher than those for mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. Furthermore, treatment with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 increased the frequency of PAP-specific T cells 5-fold compared with mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. These improvements translated into a greater frequency of tumor rejection in a PAP-expressing solid tumor model. Likewise, treatment with MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2 increased the antigenicity of PSA compared with treatment with MVA-BN-PRO and resulted in a trend of improved antitumor efficacy in a PSA-expressing tumor model. These experiments confirm that targeting antigen localization to exosomes is a viable approach for improving the therapeutic potential of MVA-BN-PRO in humans.

  1. Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Itandehui Belem; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Martinez, Margarito; Mayoral, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Laura; Aguilar, Sergio; Zenteno, Edgar; Pina, Maria del Socorro; Hernández, Pedro

    2012-12-24

    Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors. Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts. Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development.

  2. Expression of antigen tf and galectin-3 in fibroadenoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fibroadenomas are benign human breast tumors, characterized by proliferation of epithelial and stromal components of the terminal ductal unit. They may grow, regress or remain unchanged, as the hormonal environment of the patient changes. Expression of antigen TF in mucin or mucin-type glycoproteins and of galectin-3 seems to contribute to proliferation and transformations events; their expression has been reported in ductal breast cancer and in aggressive tumors. Findings Lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence were used to examine the expression and distribution of antigen TF and galectin-3. We used lectins from Arachis hypogaea, Artocarpus integrifolia, and Amaranthus lecuocarpus to evaluate TF expression and a monoclonal antibody to evaluate galectin-3 expression. We used paraffin-embedded blocks from 10 breast tissues diagnosed with fibroadenoma and as control 10 healthy tissue samples. Histochemical and immunofluorescence analysis showed positive expression of galectin-3 in fibroadenoma tissue, mainly in stroma, weak interaction in ducts was observed; whereas, in healthy tissue samples the staining was also weak in ducts. Lectins from A. leucocarpus and A. integrifolia specificaly recognized ducts in healthy breast samples, whereas the lectin from A. hypogaea recognized ducts and stroma. In fibroadenoma tissue, the lectins from A. integrifolia, A. Hypogaea, and A. leucocarpus recognized mainly ducts. Conclusions Our results suggest that expression of antigen TF and galectin-3 seems to participate in fibroadenoma development. PMID:23265237

  3. Cancer-testis antigen expression is shared between epithelial ovarian cancer tumors.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Soto, Arlene E; Schreiber, Taylor; Strbo, Natasa; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Miao, Feng; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Simpkins, Fiona; Nieves-Neira, Wilberto; Lucci, Joseph; Podack, Eckhard R

    2017-06-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens have been proposed as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the expression of a panel of CT antigens in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tumor specimens, and to determine if antigen sharing occurs between tumors. RNA was isolated from EOC tumor specimens, EOC cell lines and benign ovarian tissue specimens. Real time-PCR analysis was performed to determine the expression level of 20 CT antigens. A total of 62 EOC specimens, 8 ovarian cancer cell lines and 3 benign ovarian tissues were evaluated for CT antigen expression. The majority of the specimens were: high grade (62%), serous (68%) and advanced stage (74%). 58 (95%) of the EOC tumors analyzed expressed at least one of the CT antigens evaluated. The mean number of CT antigen expressed was 4.5 (0-17). The most frequently expressed CT antigen was MAGE A4 (65%). Antigen sharing analysis showed the following: 9 tumors shared only one antigen with 62% of the evaluated specimens, while 37 tumors shared 4 or more antigens with 82%. 5 tumors expressed over 10 CT antigens, which were shared with 90% of the tumor panel. CT antigens are expressed in 95% of EOC tumor specimens. However, not a single antigen was universally expressed across all samples. The degree of antigen sharing between tumors increased with the total number of antigens expressed. These data suggest a multi-epitope approach for development of immunotherapy for ovarian cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antigenic structures stably expressed by recombinant TGEV-derived vectors.

    PubMed

    Becares, Martina; Sanchez, Carlos M; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zuñiga, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-stranded RNA viruses with potential as immunization vectors, expressing high levels of heterologous genes and eliciting both secretory and systemic immune responses. Nevertheless, its high recombination rate may result in the loss of the full-length foreign gene, limiting their use as vectors. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was engineered to express porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) small protein domains, as a strategy to improve heterologous gene stability. After serial passage in tissue cultures, stable expression of small PRRSV protein antigenic domains was achieved. Therefore, size reduction of the heterologous genes inserted in CoV-derived vectors led to the stable expression of antigenic domains. Immunization of piglets with these TGEV vectors led to partial protection against a challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain, as immunized animals showed reduced clinical signs and lung damage. Further improvement of TGEV-derived vectors will require the engineering of vectors with decreased recombination rate.

  5. In Vivo Suppression of HIV by Antigen Specific T Cells Derived from Engineered Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Scott G.; Levin, Bernard R.; Bristol, Gregory; Rezek, Valerie; Kim, Sohn; Aguilera-Sandoval, Christian; Balamurugan, Arumugam; Yang, Otto O.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is a critical component in controlling viral replication in vivo, but ultimately fails in its ability to eradicate the virus. Our intent in these studies is to develop ways to enhance and restore the HIV-specific CTL response to allow long-term viral suppression or viral clearance. In our approach, we sought to genetically manipulate human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) such that they differentiate into mature CTL that will kill HIV infected cells. To perform this, we molecularly cloned an HIV-specific T cell receptor (TCR) from CD8+ T cells that specifically targets an epitope of the HIV-1 Gag protein. This TCR was then used to genetically transduce HSCs. These HSCs were then introduced into a humanized mouse containing human fetal liver, fetal thymus, and hematopoietic progenitor cells, and were allowed to differentiate into mature human CD8+ CTL. We found human, HIV-specific CTL in multiple tissues in the mouse. Thus, genetic modification of human HSCs with a cloned TCR allows proper differentiation of the cells to occur in vivo, and these cells migrate to multiple anatomic sites, mimicking what is seen in humans. To determine if the presence of the transgenic, HIV-specific TCR has an effect on suppressing HIV replication, we infected with HIV-1 mice expressing the transgenic HIV-specific TCR and, separately, mice expressing a non-specific control TCR. We observed significant suppression of HIV replication in multiple organs in the mice expressing the HIV-specific TCR as compared to control, indicating that the presence of genetically modified HIV-specific CTL can form a functional antiviral response in vivo. These results strongly suggest that stem cell based gene therapy may be a feasible approach in the treatment of chronic viral infections and provide a foundation towards the development of this type of strategy. PMID:22511873

  6. Specific Marking of HIV-1 Positive Cells using a Rev-dependent Lentiviral Vector Expressing the Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuntao

    2010-01-01

    Most of HIV-responsive expression vectors are based on the HIV promoter, the long terminal repeat (LTR). While responsive to an early HIV protein, Tat, the LTR is also responsive to cellular activation states and to the local chromatin activity where the integration has occurred. This can result in high HIV-independent activity, and has restricted the usefulness of LTR-based reporter to mark HIV positive cells 1,2,3. Here, we constructed an expression lentiviral vector that possesses, in addition to the Tat-responsive LTR, numerous HIV DNA sequences that include the Rev-response element and HIV splicing sites 4,5,6. The vector was incorporated into a lentiviral reporter virus, permitting highly specific detection of replicating HIV in living cell populations. The activity of the vector was measured by expression of the green fluorescence protein (GFP). The application of this vector as reported here offers a novel alternative approach to existing methods, such as in situ PCR or HIV antigen staining, to identify HIV-positive cells. The vector can also express therapeutic genes for basic or clinical experimentation to target HIV-positive cells. PMID:20972394

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi expresses diverse repetitive protein antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, D F; Kim, K S; Otsu, K; Moser, D R; Yost, W J; Blumin, J H; Donelson, J E; Kirchhoff, L V

    1989-01-01

    We screened a Trypanosoma cruzi cDNA expression library with human and rabbit anti-T. cruzi sera and identified cDNA clones that encode polypeptides containing tandemly arranged repeats which are 6 to 34 amino acids in length. The peptide repeats encoded by these cDNAs varied markedly in sequence, copy number, and location relative to the polyadenylation site of the mRNAs from which they were derived. The repeats were specific for T. cruzi, but in each case the sizes of the corresponding mRNAs and the total number of repeat copies encoded varied considerably among different isolates of the parasite. Expression of the peptide repeats was not stage specific. One of the peptide repeats occurred in a protein with an Mr of greater than 200,000 and one was in a protein of Mr 75,000 to 105,000. The frequent occurrence and diversity of these peptide repeats suggested that they may play a role in the ability of the parasite to evade immune destruction in its invertebrate and mammalian hosts, but the primary roles of these macromolecules may be unrelated to the host-parasite relationship. Images PMID:2659529

  8. Detection and manipulation of live antigen-expressing cells using conditionally stable nanobodies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jonathan CY; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Etemad, Behzad; Rudolph, Stephanie; Guo, Binggege; Wang, Sui; Ellis, Emily G; Li, Jonathan Z; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect and/or manipulate specific cell populations based upon the presence of intracellular protein epitopes would enable many types of studies and applications. Protein binders such as nanobodies (Nbs) can target untagged proteins (antigens) in the intracellular environment. However, genetically expressed protein binders are stable regardless of antigen expression, complicating their use for applications that require cell-specificity. Here, we created a conditional system in which the stability of an Nb depends upon an antigen of interest. We identified Nb framework mutations that can be used to rapidly create destabilized Nbs. Fusion of destabilized Nbs to various proteins enabled applications in living cells, such as optogenetic control of neural activity in specific cell types in the mouse brain, and detection of HIV-infected human cells by flow cytometry. These approaches are generalizable to other protein binders, and enable the rapid generation of single-polypeptide sensors and effectors active in cells expressing specific intracellular epitopes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15312.001 PMID:27205882

  9. The role of antigen presenting cells in the induction of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4(+) T-cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitasha A; Cheong, Karey; Powell, David R; da Fonseca Pereira, Candida; Anderson, Jenny; Evans, Vanessa A; Lewin, Sharon R; Cameron, Paul U

    2015-09-11

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is able to control HIV-1 viral replication, however long-lived latent infection in resting memory CD4(+) T-cells persist. The mechanisms for establishment and maintenance of latent infection in resting memory CD4(+) T-cells remain unclear. Previously we have shown that HIV-1 infection of resting CD4(+) T-cells co-cultured with CD11c(+) myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) produced a population of non-proliferating T-cells with latent infection. Here we asked whether different antigen presenting cells (APC), including subpopulations of DC and monocytes, were able to induce post-integration latent infection in resting CD4(+) T-cells, and examined potential cell interactions that may be involved using RNA-seq. mDC (CD1c(+)), SLAN(+) DC and CD14(+) monocytes were most efficient in stimulating proliferation of CD4(+) T-cells during syngeneic culture and in generating post-integration latent infection in non-proliferating CD4(+) T-cells following HIV-1 infection of APC-T cell co-cultures. In comparison, plasmacytoid DC (pDC) and B-cells did not induce latent infection in APC-T-cell co-cultures. We compared the RNA expression profiles of APC subpopulations that could and could not induce latency in non-proliferating CD4(+) T-cells. Gene expression analysis, comparing the CD1c(+) mDC, SLAN(+) DC and CD14(+) monocyte subpopulations to pDC identified 53 upregulated genes that encode proteins expressed on the plasma membrane that could signal to CD4(+) T-cells via cell-cell interactions (32 genes), immune checkpoints (IC) (5 genes), T-cell activation (9 genes), regulation of apoptosis (5 genes), antigen presentation (1 gene) and through unknown ligands (1 gene). APC subpopulations from the myeloid lineage, specifically mDC subpopulations and CD14(+) monocytes, were able to efficiently induce post-integration HIV-1 latency in non-proliferating CD4(+) T-cells in vitro. Inhibition of key pathways involved in mDC-T-cell interactions and HIV-1

  10. Presenting native-like trimeric HIV-1 antigens with self-assembling nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    He, Linling; de Val, Natalia; Morris, Charles D.; Vora, Nemil; Thinnes, Therese C.; Kong, Leopold; Azadnia, Parisa; Sok, Devin; Zhou, Bin; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A; Nemazee, David; Ward, Andrew B.; Zhu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Structures of BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer in complex with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have revealed the critical role of trimeric context for immune recognition of HIV-1. Presentation of trimeric HIV-1 antigens on nanoparticles may thus provide promising vaccine candidates. Here we report the rational design, structural analysis and antigenic evaluation of HIV-1 trimer-presenting nanoparticles. We first demonstrate that both V1V2 and gp120 can be presented in native-like trimeric conformations on nanoparticles. We then design nanoparticles presenting various forms of stabilized gp140 trimer based on ferritin and a large, 60-meric E2p that displays 20 spikes mimicking virus-like particles (VLPs). Particle assembly is confirmed by electron microscopy (EM), while antigenic profiles are generated using representative bNAbs and non-NAbs. Lastly, we demonstrate high-yield gp140 nanoparticle production and robust stimulation of B cells carrying cognate VRC01 receptors by gp120 and gp140 nanoparticles. Together, our study provides an arsenal of multivalent immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development. PMID:27349934

  11. Archetype JC virus efficiently propagates in kidney-derived cells stably expressing HIV-1 Tat.

    PubMed

    Nukuzuma, Souichi; Kameoka, Masanori; Sugiura, Shigeki; Nakamichi, Kazuo; Nukuzuma, Chiyoko; Miyoshi, Isao; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenic JCV with rearranged regulatory regions (PML-type) causes PML, a demyelinating disease, in the brains of immunocompromised patients. On the other hand, archetype JCV persistently infecting the kidney is thought to be converted to PML-type virus during JCV replication in the infected host under immunosuppressed conditions. In addition, Tat protein, encoded by HIV-1, markedly enhances the expression of a reporter gene under control of the JCV late promoter. In order to examine the influence of Tat on JCV propagation, we used kidney-derived COS-7 cells, which only permit archetype JCV, and established COS-tat cells, which express HIV-1 Tat stably. We found that the extent of archetype JCV propagation in COS-tat cells is significantly greater than in COS-7 cells. On the other hand, COS-7 cells express SV40 T antigen, which is a strong stimulator of archetype JCV replication. The expression of SV40 T antigen was enhanced by HIV-1 Tat slightly according to real-time RT-PCR, this was not closely related to JCV replication in COS-tat cells. The efficiency of JCV propagation depended on the extent of expression of functional Tat. To our knowledge, this is the first report of increased production of archetype JCV in a culture system using cell lines stably expressing HIV-1 Tat. We propose here that COS-tat cells are a useful tool for studying the role of Tat in archetype JCV replication in the development of PML.

  12. A nonself sugar mimic of the HIV glycan shield shows enhanced antigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Doores, Katie J.; Fulton, Zara; Hong, Vu; Patel, Mitul K.; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wormald, Mark R.; Finn, M.G.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2011-08-24

    Antibody 2G12 uniquely neutralizes a broad range of HIV-1 isolates by binding the high-mannose glycans on the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120. Antigens that resemble these natural epitopes of 2G12 would be highly desirable components for an HIV-1 vaccine. However, host-produced (self)-carbohydrate motifs have been unsuccessful so far at eliciting 2G12-like antibodies that cross-react with gp120. Based on the surprising observation that 2G12 binds nonproteinaceous monosaccharide D-fructose with higher affinity than D-mannose, we show here that a designed set of nonself, synthetic monosaccharides are potent antigens. When introduced to the terminus of the D1 arm of protein glycans recognized by 2G12, their antigenicity is significantly enhanced. Logical variation of these unnatural sugars pinpointed key modifications, and the molecular basis of this increased antigenicity was elucidated using high-resolution crystallographic analyses. Virus-like particle protein conjugates containing such nonself glycans are bound more tightly by 2G12. As immunogens they elicit higher titers of antibodies than those immunogenic conjugates containing the self D1 glycan motif. These antibodies generated from nonself immunogens also cross-react with this self motif, which is found in the glycan shield, when it is presented in a range of different conjugates and glycans. However, these antibodies did not bind this glycan motif when present on gp120.

  13. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of HIV-1 consensus subtype B envelope glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kothe, Denise L.; Decker, Julie M.; Li Yingying; Weng Zhiping; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Zammit, Kenneth P.; Salazar, Maria G.; Chen, Yalu; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Mestecky, Jiri; Gao Feng; Haynes, Barton F.; Shaw, George M. ||; Muldoon, Mark; Korber, Bette T.M. |; Hahn, Beatrice H. |. E-mail: bhahn@uab.edu

    2007-03-30

    'Centralized' (ancestral and consensus) HIV-1 envelope immunogens induce broadly cross-reactive T cell responses in laboratory animals; however, their potential to elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies has not been fully explored. Here, we report the construction of a panel of consensus subtype B (ConB) envelopes and compare their biologic, antigenic, and immunogenic properties to those of two wild-type Env controls from individuals with early and acute HIV-1 infection. Glycoprotein expressed from full-length (gp160), uncleaved (gp160-UNC), truncated (gp145), and N-linked glycosylation site deleted (gp160-201N/S) versions of the ConB env gene were packaged into virions and, except for the fusion defective gp160-UNC, mediated infection via the CCR5 co-receptor. Pseudovirions containing ConB Envs were sensitive to neutralization by patient plasma and monoclonal antibodies, indicating the preservation of neutralizing epitopes found in contemporary subtype B viruses. When used as DNA vaccines in guinea pigs, ConB and wild-type env immunogens induced appreciable binding, but overall only low level neutralizing antibodies. However, all four ConB immunogens were significantly more potent than one wild-type vaccine at eliciting neutralizing antibodies against a panel of tier 1 and tier 2 viruses, and ConB gp145 and gp160 were significantly more potent than both wild-type vaccines at inducing neutralizing antibodies against tier 1 viruses. Thus, consensus subtype B env immunogens appear to be at least as good as, and in some instances better than, wild-type B env immunogens at inducing a neutralizing antibody response, and are amenable to further improvement by specific gene modifications.

  14. Outer Domain of HIV-1 gp120: Antigenic Optimization, Structural Malleability, and Crystal Structure with Antibody VRC-PG04

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, M. Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Xu, Ling; Biertümpfel, Christian; Boyington, Jeffrey C.; Moquin, Stephanie; Shi, Wei; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Mascola, John R.

    2013-01-01

    The outer domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein contains the epitope for broadly neutralizing antibodies directed to the CD4-binding site, many of which are able to neutralize over 90% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. While the outer domain is conformationally more stable than other portions of the HIV-1 envelope, efforts to express the outer domain as an immunogen for eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies have not been successful, potentially because natural outer domain variants do not bind strongly to antibodies such as VRC01. In this study, we optimized the antigenic properties of the HIV-1 Env outer domain to generate OD4.2.2, from the KER2018 strain of clade A HIV-1, enabling it to bind antibodies such as VRC01 with nanomolar affinity. The crystal structure of OD4.2.2 in complex with VRC-PG04 was solved at 3.0-Å resolution and compared to known crystal structures including (i) the structure of core gp120 bound by VRC-PG04 and (ii) a circularly permutated version of the outer domain in complex with antibody PGT128. Much of the VRC-PG04 epitope was preserved in the OD4.2.2 structure, though with altered N and C termini conformations. Overall, roughly one-third of the outer domain structure appeared to be fixed in conformation, independent of alterations in termini, clade, or ligand, while other portions of the outer domain displayed substantial structural malleability. The crystal structure of OD4.2.2 with VRC-PG04 provides atomic-level details for an HIV-1 domain recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies and insights relevant to the rational design of an immunogen that could elicit such antibodies by vaccination. PMID:23236069

  15. Outer domain of HIV-1 gp120: antigenic optimization, structural malleability, and crystal structure with antibody VRC-PG04.

    PubMed

    Joyce, M Gordon; Kanekiyo, Masaru; Xu, Ling; Biertümpfel, Christian; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Moquin, Stephanie; Shi, Wei; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Yongping; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Baoshan; Zheng, Anqi; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Mascola, John R; Kwong, Peter D; Nabel, Gary J

    2013-02-01

    The outer domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein contains the epitope for broadly neutralizing antibodies directed to the CD4-binding site, many of which are able to neutralize over 90% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. While the outer domain is conformationally more stable than other portions of the HIV-1 envelope, efforts to express the outer domain as an immunogen for eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies have not been successful, potentially because natural outer domain variants do not bind strongly to antibodies such as VRC01. In this study, we optimized the antigenic properties of the HIV-1 Env outer domain to generate OD4.2.2, from the KER2018 strain of clade A HIV-1, enabling it to bind antibodies such as VRC01 with nanomolar affinity. The crystal structure of OD4.2.2 in complex with VRC-PG04 was solved at 3.0-Å resolution and compared to known crystal structures including (i) the structure of core gp120 bound by VRC-PG04 and (ii) a circularly permutated version of the outer domain in complex with antibody PGT128. Much of the VRC-PG04 epitope was preserved in the OD4.2.2 structure, though with altered N and C termini conformations. Overall, roughly one-third of the outer domain structure appeared to be fixed in conformation, independent of alterations in termini, clade, or ligand, while other portions of the outer domain displayed substantial structural malleability. The crystal structure of OD4.2.2 with VRC-PG04 provides atomic-level details for an HIV-1 domain recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies and insights relevant to the rational design of an immunogen that could elicit such antibodies by vaccination.

  16. Novel CD4-Based Bispecific Chimeric Antigen Receptor Designed for Enhanced Anti-HIV Potency and Absence of HIV Entry Receptor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Patel, Bhavik; Ghanem, Mustafa H.; Bundoc, Virgilio; Zheng, Zhili; Morgan, Richard A.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Dey, Barna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells genetically engineered to express “chimeric antigen receptors” (CARs) represents a potential approach toward an HIV infection “functional cure” whereby durable virologic suppression is sustained after discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a novel bispecific CAR in which a CD4 segment is linked to a single-chain variable fragment of the 17b human monoclonal antibody recognizing a highly conserved CD4-induced epitope on gp120 involved in coreceptor binding. We compared a standard CD4 CAR with CD4-17b CARs where the polypeptide linker between the CD4 and 17b moieties is sufficiently long (CD4-35-17b CAR) versus too short (CD4-10-17b) to permit simultaneous binding of the two moieties to a single gp120 subunit. When transduced into a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) or T cells thereof, all three CD4-based CARs displayed specific functional activities against HIV-1 Env-expressing target cells, including stimulation of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release, specific target cell killing, and suppression of HIV-1 pseudovirus production. In assays of spreading infection of PBMCs with genetically diverse HIV-1 primary isolates, the CD4-10-17b CAR displayed enhanced potency compared to the CD4 CAR whereas the CD4-35-17b CAR displayed diminished potency. Importantly, both CD4-17b CARs were devoid of a major undesired activity observed with the CD4 CAR, namely, rendering the transduced CD8+ T cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Likely mechanisms for the superior potency of the CD4-10-17b CAR over the CD4-35-17b CAR include the greater potential of the former to engage in the serial antigen binding required for efficient T cell activation and the ability of two CD4-10-17b molecules to simultaneously bind a single gp120 subunit. IMPORTANCE HIV research has been energized by prospects for a cure for HIV infection or, at least, for a “functional cure” whereby antiretroviral therapy can be discontinued

  17. New approaches for the enhancement of chimeric antigen receptors for the treatment of HIV.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Mayra A; Zhen, Anjie; Zack, Jerome A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2017-09-01

    HIV infection continues to be a life-long chronic disease in spite of the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in controlling viral replication and preventing disease progression. However, because of the high cost of treatment, severe side effects, and inefficiency in curing the disease with ART, there is a call for alternative therapies that will provide a functional cure for HIV. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are vital in the control and clearance of viral infections and therefore immune-based therapies have attempted to engineer HIV-specific CTLs that would be able to clear the infection from the body. The development of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) provides an opportunity to engineer superior HIV-specific CTLs that will be independent of the major histocompatibility complex for target recognition. A CD4-based CAR has been previously tested in clinical trials to test the antiviral efficacy of peripheral T cells armed with this CD4-based CAR. The results from these clinical trials showed the safety and feasibility of CAR T cell therapy for HIV infection; however, minimal antiviral efficacy was seen. In this review, we will discuss the various strategies being developed to enhance the therapeutic potency of anti-HIV CARs with the goal of generating superior antiviral responses that will lead to life-long HIV immunity and clearance of the virus from the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduction of HIV-1 antigen production by phosphatidylcholine containing formulations via growth inhibition of HIV-1-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Willer, A; Heinzmann, U; Mellert, W; Kleinschmidt, A; Goebel, F D; Erfle, V

    1993-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and licensed formulations containing PC were tested for their influence on the proliferation and viability of cells permanently infected with HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1). PC alone, as well as pharmaceutical formulations containing PC, selectively inhibited the growth of productively infected lymphoid cells. The strongest growth inhibition was observed with formulations containing PC, glycerol and triglyceride together. The growth inhibition was dose-dependent for HIV-1-infected cells. Additionally, PC-containing formulations dramatically reduced antigen production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected in vitro with HIV-1. In vivo experiments with Rauscher-MuLV-infected mice showed that PC administered either intraperitoneally or orally was able to inhibit Rauscher-virus-induced splenomegaly. PC-containing formulations are currently used in man for supportive therapy at doses, which in vitro induced 50% growth inhibition of HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. Such doses have been used in man without side effects for many years. Thus, PC-containing formulations may be valuable for the treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals.

  19. Allogeneic H-2 antigen expression is insufficient for tumor rejection.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, G A; Cole, G A; Clements, V K; Garcia, E P; Ostrand-Rosenberg, S

    1987-01-01

    Murine A strain (KkDdLd) sarcoma I (SaI) tumor cells have been transfected with a cloned H-2Kb gene. The resulting clones (SKB clones) stably express high levels of a molecule that is serologically and biochemically indistinguishable from the H-2Kb antigen. SKB clones are not susceptible to cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated lysis by H-2Kb-specific bulk, cloned, or H-2Kb-restricted lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-specific effectors. Survival times of A/J and B10.A mice challenged i.p. with the H-2Kb-expressing transfectants and the parental SaI cells are similar, suggesting that the presence of an allogeneic major histocompatibility complex class I antigen on the surface of this tumor line is insufficient for tumor rejection. Images PMID:3500477

  20. Bicistronic DNA vaccines simultaneously encoding HIV, HSV and HPV antigens promote CD8⁺ T cell responses and protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Santana, Vinicius C; Diniz, Mariana O; Cariri, Francisco A M O; Ventura, Armando M; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Almeida, Rafael R; Campos, Marco A; Lima, Graciela K; Ferreira, Luís C S

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide are currently infected with human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). For this enormous contingent of people, the search for preventive and therapeutic immunological approaches represents a hope for the eradication of latent infection and/or virus-associated cancer. To date, attempts to develop vaccines against these viruses have been mainly based on a monovalent concept, in which one or more antigens of a virus are incorporated into a vaccine formulation. In the present report, we designed and tested an immunization strategy based on DNA vaccines that simultaneously encode antigens for HIV, HSV and HPV. With this purpose in mind, we tested two bicistronic DNA vaccines (pIRES I and pIRES II) that encode the HPV-16 oncoprotein E7 and the HIV protein p24 both genetically fused to the HSV-1 gD envelope protein. Mice i.m. immunized with the DNA vaccines mounted antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cell responses, including in vivo cytotoxic responses, against the three antigens. Under experimental conditions, the vaccines conferred protective immunity against challenges with a vaccinia virus expressing the HIV-derived protein Gag, an HSV-1 virus strain and implantation of tumor cells expressing the HPV-16 oncoproteins. Altogether, our results show that the concept of a trivalent HIV, HSV, and HPV vaccine capable to induce CD8⁺ T cell-dependent responses is feasible and may aid in the development of preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for the control of diseases associated with these viruses.

  1. Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA/HIV Env chimeric protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Ling; Sun Yuliang; Lin Jianguo; Bu Zhigao; Wu Qingyang; Jiang, Shibo; Steinhauer, David A.; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai . E-mail: chyang@emory.edu

    2006-08-15

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of protein expression showed that the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins were expressed on cell surfaces and formed trimeric oligomers, as found in the HIV Env as well as influenza HA proteins. In addition, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein expressed on the cell surface can also be cleaved into 2 subunits by trypsin treatment, similar to the influenza HA. Moreover, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein was found to maintain a pre-fusion conformation. Interestingly, the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins on cell surfaces exhibited increased reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the HIV Env gp41 subunit compared with the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the two broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of mice with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA/gp41 chimeric protein induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 protein and these antibodies exhibit neutralizing activity against infection by an HIV SF162 pseudovirus. These results demonstrate that the construction of such chimeric proteins can provide enhanced exposure of conserved epitopes in the HIV Env gp41 and may represent a novel vaccine design strategy for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.

  2. HIV-1 Tat induces DNMT over-expression through microRNA dysregulation in HIV-related non Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Luzzi, Anna; Morettini, Federica; Gazaneo, Sara; Mundo, Lucia; Onnis, Anna; Mannucci, Susanna; Rogena, Emily A; Bellan, Cristiana; Leoncini, Lorenzo; De Falco, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    A close association between HIV infection and the development of cancer exists. Although the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the epidemiology of AIDS-associated malignancies, a better understanding on how HIV can induce malignant transformation will help the development of novel therapeutic agents. HIV has been reported to induce the expression of DNMT1 in vitro, but still no information is available about the mechanisms regulating DNMT expression in HIV-related B-cell lymphomas. In this paper, we investigated the expression of DNMT family members (DNMT1, DNMT3a/b) in primary cases of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of HIV-positive subjects. Our results confirmed the activation of DNMT1 by HIV in vivo, and reported for the first time a marked up-regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b in HIV-positive aggressive B-cell lymphomas. DNMT up-regulation in HIV-positive tumors correlated with down-regulation of specific microRNAs, as the miR29 family, the miR148-152 cluster, known to regulate their expression. Literature reports the activation of DNMTs by the human polyomavirus BKV large T-antigen and adenovirus E1a, through the pRb/E2F pathway. We have previously demonstrated that the HIV Tat protein is able to bind to the pocket proteins and to inactivate their oncosuppressive properties, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation. Therefore, we focused on the role of Tat, due to its capability to be released from infected cells and to dysregulate uninfected ones, using an in vitro model in which Tat was ectopically expressed in B-cells. Our findings demonstrated that the ectopic expression of Tat was per se sufficient to determine DNMT up-regulation, based on microRNA down-regulation, and that this results in aberrant hypermethylation of target genes and microRNAs. These results point at a direct role for Tat in participating in uninfected B-cell lymphomagenesis, through dysregulation of the epigenetical control of gene expression.

  3. Would CLSI M53-A have helped in the diagnosis of HIV in Canada? Results of the performance of Canadian laboratories participating in a recent NLHRS proficiency testing panel containing HIV-1 antigen positive (antibody negative) and HIV-2 samples.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, K; Malloch, L; Adonsou-Hoyi, Y; Ng, D; Lavoie, S; Pulido, K; Kim, J

    2013-09-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recently published M53-A, Criteria for Laboratory Testing and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection; Approved Guideline (2011), which includes a state of the art algorithm for identifying HIV-1 acute and HIV-2 infections. To assess the ability of Canadian laboratories to detect these sample types and the impact of M53-A, the National Laboratory for HIV Reference Services distributed a special proficiency testing panel. HIVS425-2012Nov22 was sent to 42 laboratories across Canada. It contained one HIV negative sample (B), two HIV-1 positive samples (A and E), one HIV-2 positive sample (C) and one HIV-1/2 antibody negative-HIV-1 antigen positive sample (D). Data was collected and analyzed using DigitalPT; a standardized on-line tool. Forty-one laboratories returned results. Sample B (HIV negative) was identified by 95% of laboratories (39/41) and samples A and E (HIV-1 positive) by 98% (40/41). No laboratory identified sample C as HIV-2 positive, although 85% (35/41) detected reactivity prompting a referral for further testing. The remaining laboratories identified sample C as HIV-1 positive (4), indeterminate (1) or gave no final status (1). Sample D (HIV antibody negative-antigen positive) was correctly identified by two laboratories as HIV-1 antigen positive while 78% (32/41) detected reactivity, recommending further testing. One laboratory did not provide a final status. Alarmingly, six laboratories called this sample HIV negative. Although there is a high quality of HIV testing across Canada, introduction of the M53-A guideline would further improve the ability of laboratories to diagnose HIV-1 acute and HIV-2 infection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thrombin Increases Expression of Fibronectin Antigen on the Platelet Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Mark H.; Painter, Richard G.; Forsyth, Jane; Birdwell, Charles; Plow, Edward F.

    1980-02-01

    Fibronectins (fn) are adhesive glycoproteins which bind to collagen and to fibrin and appear to be important in cellular adhesion to other cells or surfaces. Fn-related antigen is present in human platelets, suggesting a possible role for fn in the adhesive properties of platelets. We have studied the localization of fn in resting and thrombin-stimulated platelets by immunofluorescence and quantitative binding of radiolabeled antibody. In resting fixed platelets, variable light surface staining for fn was observed. When these cells were made permeable to antibody with detergent, staining for fn was markedly enhanced and was present in a punctate distribution, suggesting intracellular localization. Stimulation with thrombin, which is associated with increased platelet adhesiveness, resulted in increased staining for fn antigen on intact platelets. These stimulated cells did not leak 51Cr nor did they stain for F-actin, thus documenting that the increased fn staining was not due to loss of plasma membrane integrity. The thrombin-induced increase in accessible platelet fn antigen was confirmed by quantitative antibody binding studies in which thrombin-stimulated platelets specifically bound 15 times as much radiolabeled F(ab')2 anti-fn as did resting cells. Thus, thrombin stimulation results in increased expression of fn antigen on the platelet surface. Here it may participate in interactions with fibrin, connective tissue, or other cells.

  5. [VLP vaccines and effects of HIV-1 Env protein modifications on their antigenic properties].

    PubMed

    Vzorov, A N; Compans, R W

    2016-01-01

    An ideal protective HIV-1 vaccine can elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, capable of preventing HIV transmission. The strategies of designing vaccines include generation of soluble recombinant proteins which mimic the native Env complex and are able to enhance the immunogenicity of gp120. Recent data indicate that the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein has multiple functions, which can affect the early steps of infection, as well as viral assembly and antigenic properties. Modifications in the CT can be used to induce conformational changes in functional regions of gp120 and to stabilize the trimeric structure, avoiding immune misdirection and induction of non-neutralizing antibody responses. Env-trimers with modified CTs in virus-like particles (VLPs) are able to induce antibodies with broad spectrum neutralizing activity and high avidity and have the potential for developing an effective vaccine against HIV.

  6. Ultrasensitive detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen using nanofunctionalized surfaces in a capacitive immunosensor.

    PubMed

    Teeparuksapun, Kosin; Hedström, Martin; Wong, Eric Y; Tang, Shixing; Hewlett, Indira K; Mattiasson, Bo

    2010-10-15

    The HIV-1 capsid protein, p24 antigen, is of considerable diagnostic interest because following HIV exposure it is detectable several days earlier than host-generated HIV antibodies (which are the target of almost all current tests used in the field) and can be used to design very sensitive assays without the need for PCR. Here, we present an ultrasensitive capacitive immunosensor that is capable of detecting subattogram per milliliter concentrations of p24 antigen, which to our knowledge is the lowest level of detection ever reported. Dilution studies using p24-spiked human plasma samples indicate that the immunosensor is robust against the interfering effects of a complex biological matrix. Moreover, the capacitive immunosensor assay is rapid (<20 min), label-free, and generates data in real-time, with a portable format in development. Additional optimization of the capture agents and/or surface chemistries may further improve performance, highlighting the potential of this platform to serve as a diagnostic tool for early detection of HIV in field settings.

  7. HIV-1 and influenza antibodies: seeing antigens in new ways

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Peter D; Wilson, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    New modes of humoral recognition have been identified by studies of antibodies that neutralize human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and influenza A viruses. Understanding how such modes of antibody-antigen recognition can occur in the context of sophisticated mechanisms of humoral evasion has implications for the development of effective vaccines. Here we describe eight modes of antibody recognition first observed with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Similarities to four of these modes have been identified with antibodies to a conserved ‘stem’ epitope on influenza A viruses. We outline how each of these different modes of antibody recognition is particularly suited to overcoming a specific viral evasion tactic and assess potential routes of re-elicitation in vaccine settings. PMID:19448659

  8. Paired Expression Analysis of Tumor Cell Surface Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Sindiri, Sivasish; Duris, Christine; Wen, Xinyu; He, Jianbin; Wei, Jun S.; Jarzembowski, Jason; Khan, Javed

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy with antibody-based therapy or with T cells transduced to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is useful to the extent that the cell surface membrane protein being targeted is not expressed on normal tissues. The most successful CAR-based (anti-CD19) or antibody-based therapy (anti-CD20) in hematologic malignancies has the side effect of eliminating the normal B cell compartment. Targeting solid tumors may not provide a similar expendable marker. Beyond antibody to Her2/NEU and EGFR, very few antibody-based and no CAR-based therapies have seen broad clinical application for solid tumors. To expand the way in which the surfaceome of solid tumors can be analyzed, we created an algorithm that defines the pairwise relative overexpression of surface antigens. This enables the development of specific immunotherapies that require the expression of two discrete antigens on the surface of the tumor target. This dyad analysis was facilitated by employing the Hotelling’s T-squared test (Hotelling–Lawley multivariate analysis of variance) for two independent variables in comparison to a third constant entity (i.e., gene expression levels in normal tissues). We also present a unique consensus scoring mechanism for identifying transcripts that encode cell surface proteins. The unique application of our bioinformatics processing pipeline and statistical tools allowed us to compare the expression of two membrane protein targets as a pair, and to propose a new strategy based on implementing immunotherapies that require both antigens to be expressed on the tumor cell surface to trigger therapeutic effector mechanisms. Specifically, we found that, for MYCN amplified neuroblastoma, pairwise expression of ACVR2B or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) with GFRA3, GFRA2, Cadherin 24, or with one another provided the strongest hits. For MYCN, non-amplified stage 4 neuroblastoma, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase 1, or ALK paired with GFRA2, GFRA3, SSK1, GPR173, or

  9. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Goudsmit, J; Paul, D A

    1987-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men tested showed HIV-ag in a serum taken 3-4 months before or one at the time of anti-HIV seroconversion. In another eight (14%) HIV-ag persisted after seroconversion and half of them developed AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC) in contrast to none of the other 50 anti-HIV seroconversions. Two (13%) of 16 haemophiliacs tested had HIV-ag only in the first anti-HIV seropositive sample. HIV-ag was present in 86% (30/35) of Dutch homosexual men with AIDS, in 32% (7/22) of men with ARC and in 17% (24/145) of men with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) or without symptoms. Three percent (2/60) of sera of asymptomatic i.v. drug users from Amsterdam were HIV-ag positive. Ten percent (1 of 10) of sera from Central Africans with 'Slim Disease' were HIV-ag positive. Among infected children from the USA or Europe 89-100% (8/9 and 2/2) of AIDS cases, 67-100% (6/9 and 3/3) of children with ARC and 75% (3/4) of asymptomatic children were HIV-ag positive. The HIV-ag EIA appears to be able to identify HIV infection earlier than the available anti-HIV assays in a significant number of cases. Since persistence of HIV-ag, except possibly in African cases, is strongly associated with clinical deterioration, HIV-ag appears to be a suitable marker for, independent of their clinical status, selecting individuals for antiviral therapy and also for monitoring the efficiency of such therapy.

  10. Expression and immunological characterization of cardamom mosaic virus coat protein displaying HIV gp41 epitopes.

    PubMed

    Damodharan, Subha; Gujar, Ravindra; Pattabiraman, Sathyamurthy; Nesakumar, Manohar; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Vadakkuppattu, Ramanathan D; Usha, Ramakrishnan

    2013-05-01

    The coat protein of cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV), a member of the genus Macluravirus, assembles into virus-like particles when expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system. The N and C-termini of the coat protein were engineered with the Kennedy peptide and the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes of gp41 of HIV. The chimeric proteins reacted with sera from HIV positive persons and also stimulated secretion of cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these persons. Thus, a system based on the coat protein of CdMV can be used to display HIV-1 antigens. © 2013 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Impact of nucleic acid testing relative to antigen/antibody combination immunoassay on the detection of acute HIV infection.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mark S; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Pattanachaiwit, Supanit; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James L; Kroon, Eugene D; Michael, Nelson L; Phanuphak, Praphan; Kim, Jerome H; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2015-04-24

    To assess the addition of HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) to fourth-generation (4thG) HIV antigen/antibody combination immunoassay in improving detection of acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants attending a major voluntary counseling and testing site in Thailand were screened for AHI using 4thG HIV antigen/antibody immunoassay and sequential less sensitive HIV antibody immunoassay. Samples nonreactive by 4thG antigen/antibody immunoassay were further screened using pooled NAT to identify additional AHI. HIV infection status was verified following enrollment into an AHI study with follow-up visits and additional diagnostic tests. Among 74 334 clients screened for HIV infection, HIV prevalence was 10.9% and the overall incidence of AHI (N = 112) was 2.2 per 100 person-years. The inclusion of pooled NAT in the testing algorithm increased the number of acutely infected patients detected, from 81 to 112 (38%), relative to 4thG HIV antigen/antibody immunoassay. Follow-up testing within 5 days of screening marginally improved the 4thG immunoassay detection rate (26%). The median CD4 T-cell count at the enrollment visit was 353 cells/μl and HIV plasma viral load was 598 289 copies/ml. The incorporation of pooled NAT into the HIV testing algorithm in high-risk populations may be beneficial in the long term. The addition of pooled NAT testing resulted in an increase in screening costs of 22% to identify AHI: from $8.33 per screened patient to $10.16. Risk factors of the testing population should be considered prior to NAT implementation given the additional testing complexity and costs.

  12. In Utero Activation of Fetal Memory T Cells Alters Host Regulatory Gene Expression and Affects HIV Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Kevin; Malhotra, Indu; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric; Dent, Arlene; King, Christopher L.

    2013-01-01

    In utero priming to malaria antigens renders cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) more susceptible to productive HIV infection in vitro in the absence of exogenous stimulation. This provides a unique model to better understand mechanisms affecting lymphocyte susceptibility to HIV infection in vivo. Effector memory CD3+CD4+ T cells (TEM) were the exclusive initial targets of HIV with rapid spread to central memory cells. HIV susceptibility correlated with increased expression of CD25 and HLA-DR on TEM. Virus entered all samples equally, however gag/pol RNA was only detected in HIV susceptible samples, suggesting regulation of proviral gene transcription. Targeted analysis of human genes in memory T cells showed greater expression of IFNG, NFATc1, IRF1, FOS, and PPIA and decreased expression YY1 and TFCP2 in HIV susceptible samples. Thus fetal priming to exogenous antigens enhances specific proviral gene transcription pathways in effector memory cells that may increase risk of vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:22280894

  13. Potentiation of HIV-1 expression in microglial cells by nicotine: involvement of transforming growth factor-beta 1.

    PubMed

    Rock, R Bryan; Gekker, Genya; Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Hu, Shuxian; Sheng, Wen S; Peterson, Phillip K

    2008-09-01

    HIV-1 infection and nicotine addiction are global public health crises. In the central nervous system, HIV-1 causes a devastating neurodegenerative disease. It is well recognized that microglial cells play a pivotal role in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 and that drugs of abuse not only contribute to the spread of this agent but may facilitate viral expression in these brain macrophages. Nicotine has been shown to stimulate the production of HIV-1 by in vitro-infected alveolar macrophages, and the HIV-1 protein gp120 binds to nicotinic receptors. In this study, we demonstrated the constitutive expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mRNA in primary human microglial cells and showed that the pretreatment of microglia with nicotine increased HIV-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, as measured by p24 antigen levels in culture supernatants. We also found that nicotine robustly altered the gene expression profile of HIV-1-infected microglia and that the transforming growth factor-beta1 is involved in the enhanced expression of HIV-1 by nicotine.

  14. Heterologous expression of antigenic peptides in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Cédric M; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Aguilar, Claudio; Eichwald, Catherine

    2016-08-11

    Numerous strategies have been developed for the display of heterologous proteins in the surface of live bacterial carriers, which can be used as vaccines, immune-modulators, cancer therapy or bioremediation. Bacterial biofilms have emerged as an interesting approach for the expression of proteins of interest. Bacillus subtilis is a well-described, endospore-forming organism that is able to form biofilms and also used as a probiotic, thus making it a suitable candidate for the display of heterologous proteins within the biofilm. Here, we describe the use of TasA, an important structural component of the biofilms formed by B. subtilis, as a genetic tool for the display of heterologous proteins. We first engineered the fusion protein TasA-mCherry and showed that was widely deployed within the B. subtilis biofilms. A significant enhancement of the expression of TasA-mCherry within the biofilm was obtained when depleting both tasA and sinR genes. We subsequently engineered fusion proteins of TasA to antigenic peptides of the E. granulosus parasite, paramyosin and tropomyosin. Our results show that the antigens were well expressed within the biofilm as denoted by macrostructure complementation and by the detection of the fusion protein in both immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In addition, we show that the recombinant endospores of B. subtilis preserve their biophysical and morphological properties. In this work we provide strong evidence pointing that TasA is a suitable candidate for the display of heterologous peptides, such as antigens, cytokines, enzymes or antibodies, in the B. subtilis biofilms. Finally, our data portray that the recombinant endospores preserve their morphological and biophysical properties and could be an excellent tool to facilitate the transport and the administration.

  15. Antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of IFN and STING signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Kylie M.; Zak, Daniel E.; Costa, Andreia; Yamamoto, Ayako; Kastenmuller, Kathrin; Hill, Brenna J.; Lynn, Geoffrey M.; Darrah, Patricia A.; Lindsay, Ross W.B.; Wang, Lingshu; Cheng, Cheng; Nicosia, Alfredo; Folgori, Antonella; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Gall, Jason G.D.; Roederer, Mario; Aderem, Alan; Seder, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant adenoviral vectors (rAds) are lead vaccine candidates for protection against a variety of pathogens, including Ebola, HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria, due to their ability to potently induce T cell immunity in humans. However, the ability to induce protective cellular immunity varies among rAds. Here, we assessed the mechanisms that control the potency of CD8 T cell responses in murine models following vaccination with human-, chimpanzee-, and simian-derived rAds encoding SIV-Gag antigen (Ag). After rAd vaccination, we quantified Ag expression and performed expression profiling of innate immune response genes in the draining lymph node. Human-derived rAd5 and chimpanzee-derived chAd3 were the most potent rAds and induced high and persistent Ag expression with low innate gene activation, while less potent rAds induced less Ag expression and robustly induced innate immunity genes that were primarily associated with IFN signaling. Abrogation of type I IFN or stimulator of IFN genes (STING) signaling increased Ag expression and accelerated CD8 T cell response kinetics but did not alter memory responses or protection. These findings reveal that the magnitude of rAd-induced memory CD8 T cell immune responses correlates with Ag expression but is independent of IFN and STING and provide criteria for optimizing protective CD8 T cell immunity with rAd vaccines. PMID:25642773

  16. Cloning, expression, and antigenicity of 14 proteins from Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Maojun; Meng, Fanliang; Cao, Fangfang; Qiao, Bo; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Hongying; Zhou, Yizhuang; Dong, Haiyan; Gu, Yixin; Xiao, Di; Zhang, Yongchan; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-08-01

    Fourteen Campylobacter jejuni genes--porA, cadF, omp18, dnaK, flaC, peb1, peb2, peb3, peb4, ahpC, groEL, tuF, hipO, and Cj0069--were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The recombinant proteins were purified on histidine (His) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) trap columns using the ÄKTA Explorer 100 System. Recombinant proteins were visualized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The antigenicities of these recombinant proteins were assessed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-C. jejuni immune rabbit sera. Four recombinant proteins, including rGST-PorA, rHis-CadF, rGST-GroEL, and rGST-TuF, demonstrated reactions with both anti-serum and preimmune serum, while rHis-DnaK, rGST-FlaC, rGST-PEB2, rGST-PEB3, rGST-PEB4, and rGST-HipO showed variable antigenicity characteristics to the anti-sera derived from different C. jejuni strains. rHis-Omp18, rHis-PEB1, and rGST-AhpC demonstrated universal and specific antigenities with the entire anti-sera panel tested in this present study, while recombinant rGST-Cj0069 and rHis-DnaK did not react with any of the anti-C. jejuni sera tested. In conclusion, rGST-AhpC may be useful as a potential serodiagnostic antigen for C. jejuni infection.

  17. p24 antigen rapid test for diagnosis of acute pediatric HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Parpia, Zaheer A; Elghanian, Robert; Nabatiyan, Arman; Hardie, Diana R; Kelso, David M

    2010-12-01

    Currently, the majority of HIV-infected infants are found within limited-resource settings, where inadequate screening for HIV due to the lack of access to simple and affordable point-of-care tests impedes implementation of antiretroviral therapy. Here we report development of a low-cost dipstick p24 antigen assay using a visual readout format that can facilitate the diagnosis of HIV for infants in resource-poor conditions. A heat shock methodology was developed to optimize disruption of immune complexes present in the plasma of infected infants. The analytical sensitivity of the assay using recombinant p24 antigen is 50 pg/mL (2 pM) with whole virus detection as low as 42.5k RNA copies per milliliter plasma. In a blinded study comprising 51 archived infant samples from the Women and Infants Transmission Study, our assay demonstrated an overall sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 100%, respectively. In field evaluations of 389 fresh samples from South African infants, a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 99% was achieved. The assay is simple to perform, requires minimal plasma volume (25 μL), and yields a result in less than 40 minutes making it ideal for implementation in resource-limited settings.

  18. Expression of T cell antigen receptor during differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, J.P.; Lanier, L.L.; Guyden, J.; Richie, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have used flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies, radioimmuneprecipitation with a rabbit antiserum to common epitopes of the TCR, and Northern and Southern blot analysis with cloned TCR genes to study antigen receptor (TCR) expression by normal murine and human thymocytes and by primary murine thymomas. L3T4-,Lyt2- murine thymomas corresponding to the earliest stage of thymic differentiation, were found to have rearranged TCR beta genes, and to express low levels of beta transcript, but lacked alpha gene transcript and failed to express TCR on the cell surface. L3T4+,Lyt2+ thymomas were variable, but the majority were found to contain significant levels of both alpha and beta transcripts and to express TCR at the cell surface. Similarly, alpha and beta transcripts and TCR protein were detected in sorted L3T4+,Lyt2+ murine thymocytes. Using three color fluorescence, the authors determined that app. 70% of human T4+T8+ thymocytes also expressed T3, a component of the TCR complex. These data indicate that in mouse and man expression of TCR occurs in the immature, or cortical, thymic population.

  19. Decreased Survival of B Cells of HIV-viremic Patients Mediated by Altered Expression of Receptors of the TNF Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Susan; Malaspina, Angela; Pickeral, Oxana K.; Donoghue, Eileen T.; Vasquez, Joshua; Miller, Natalie J.; Krishnan, Surekha R.; Planta, Marie A.; Turney, John F.; Justement, J. Shawn; Kottilil, Shyamasundaran; Dybul, Mark; Mican, JoAnn M.; Kovacs, Colin; Chun, Tae-Wook; Birse, Charles E.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leads to numerous perturbations of B cells through mechanisms that remain elusive. We performed DNA microarray, phenotypic, and functional analyses in an effort to elucidate mechanisms of B cell perturbation associated with ongoing HIV replication. 42 genes were up-regulated in B cells of HIV-viremic patients when compared with HIV-aviremic and HIV-negative patients, the majority of which were interferon (IFN)-stimulated or associated with terminal differentiation. Flow cytometry confirmed these increases and indicated that CD21low B cells, enhanced in HIV-viremic patients, were largely responsible for the changes. Increased expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (TNFSF) receptor CD95 correlated with increased susceptibility to CD95-mediated apoptosis of CD21low B cells, which, in turn, correlated with HIV plasma viremia. Increased expression of BCMA, a weak TNFSF receptor for B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS), on CD21low B cells was associated with a concomitant reduction in the expression of the more potent BLyS receptor, BAFF-R, that resulted in reduced BLyS binding and BLyS-mediated survival. These findings demonstrate that altered expression of genes associated with IFN stimulation and terminal differentiation in B cells of HIV-viremic patients lead to an increased propensity to cell death, which may have substantial deleterious effects on B cell responsiveness to antigenic stimulation. PMID:15353552

  20. Greenhouse and field cultivations of antigen-expressing potatoes focusing on the variability in plant constituents and antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Mikschofsky, Heike; Heilmann, Elena; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schmidt, Kerstin; Meyer, Udo; Leinweber, Peter; Broer, Inge

    2011-05-01

    The production of plant-derived pharmaceuticals essentially requires stable concentrations of plant constituents, especially recombinant proteins; nonetheless, soil and seasonal variations might drastically interfere with this stability. In addition, variability might depend on the plant organ used for production. Therefore, we investigated the variability in plant constituents and antigen expression in potato plants under greenhouse and field growth conditions and in leaves compared to tubers. Using potatoes expressing VP60, the only structural capsid protein of the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), CTB, the non-toxic B subunit (CTB) of the cholera toxin (CTA-CTB(5)) and the marker protein NPTII (neomycinphosphotransferase) as a model, we compare greenhouse and field production of potato-derived antigens. The influence of the production organ turned out to be transgene specific. In general, yield, plant quality and transgene expression levels in the field were higher than or similar to those observed in the greenhouse. The variation (CV) of major plant constituents and the amount of transgene-encoded protein was not influenced by the higher variation of soil properties observed in the field. Amazingly, for specific events, the variability in the model protein concentrations was often lower under field than under greenhouse conditions. The changes in gene expression under environmental stress conditions in the field observed in another event do not reduce the positive influence on variability since events like these should excluded from production. Hence, it can be concluded that for specific applications, field production of transgenic plants producing pharmaceuticals is superior to greenhouse production, even concerning the stability of transgene expression over different years. On the basis of our results, we expect equal or even higher expression levels with lower variability of recombinant pharmaceuticals in the field compared to greenhouse production

  1. Enhanced Sensitivity for Detection of HIV-1 p24 Antigen by a Novel Nuclease-Linked Fluorescence Oligonucleotide Assay

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Peihu; Li, Xiaojun; Su, Weiheng; Kong, Wei; Kong, Xianggui; Wang, Zhenxin; Wang, Youchun; Jiang, Chunlai; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The relatively high detection limit of the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prevents its application for detection of low concentrations of antigens. To increase the sensitivity for detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen, we developed a highly sensitive nuclease-linked fluorescence oligonucleotide assay (NLFOA). Two major improvements were incorporated in NLFOA to amplify antibody-antigen interaction signals and reduce the signal/noise ratio; a large number of nuclease molecules coupled to the gold nanoparticle/streptavidin complex and fluorescent signals generated from fluorescent-labeled oligonucleotides by the nuclease. The detection limit of p24 by NLFOA was 1 pg/mL, which was 10-fold more sensitive than the conventional ELISA (10 pg/mL). The specificity was 100% and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.8% at low p24 concentration (1.5 pg/mL) with various concentrations of spiked p24 in HIV-1 negative sera. Thus, NLFOA is highly sensitive, specific, reproducible and user-friendly. The more sensitive detection of low p24 concentrations in HIV-1-infected individuals by NLFOA could allow detection of HIV-1 infections that are missed by the conventional ELISA at the window period during acute infection to further reduce the risk for HIV-1 infection due to the undetected HIV-1 in the blood products. Moreover, NLFOA can be easily applied to more sensitive detection of other antigens. PMID:25915630

  2. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with glands expressing mammary and prostatic antigens.

    PubMed

    Wallenfels, I; Chlumská, A

    2012-01-01

    A case of unusual vaginal myofibroblastoma containing glands which expressed mammary and prostatic markers is described. The tumor occurred in 70-year-old woman in the proximal third of the vagina. It showed morphology and immunophenotype typical of so-called cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma. The peripheral zone of the lesion contained a few groups of glands suggesting vaginal adenosis or prostatic-type glands on initial examination. The glands showed a surprising simultaneous expression of mammary markers mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 and prostatic markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Immunostains for alpha-smooth muscle actin, p63 and CD10 highlighted the myoepithelial cell layer of the glands. The finding indicates that simultaneous use of both mammary and prostatic markers for examination of unusual glandular lesions in the vulvovaginal location can be helpful for an exact diagnosis, and can contribute to better understanding of prostatic and mammary differentiations in the female lower genital tract.

  3. Rotavirus antigen, cytokine, and neutralising antibody profiles in sera of children with and without HIV infection in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Hull, Jennifer J; Cunliffe, Nigel; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Moon, Sung-Sil; Wang, Yuhuan; Parashar, Umesh; Jiang, Baoming

    2017-03-01

    Rotavirus and HIV infection are major causes of death among children in sub-Saharan Africa. A previous study reported no association between concomitant HIV infection and rotavirus disease severity among hospitalised children in Malawi. This study examined rotavirus antigenaemia and broader immune responses among HIV-infected and uninfected children. Stored (-80°C), paired sera from acute and convalescent phases of Malawian children less than 5 years old, hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis in the primary study, collected from July 1997 to June 1999, were utilised. Among children older than 15 months, HIV infection was defined as the presence of HIV antibody in the blood, when confirmed by at least 2 established methods. For those younger than 15 months, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of proviral DNA was used for verification. All were followed for up to 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Rotavirus antigen levels in sera were measured with Premier™ Rotaclone® rotavirus enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Acute-phase sera were examined for 17 cytokines, using Luminex fluorescent bead human cytokine immunoassay kit. Rotavirus-specific IgA and neutralising activity were determined by EIA and microneutralisation (MN) assay, respectively. Human strains and bovine-human reassortants were propagated in MA104 cells with serum-free Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM). Differences in results, from specimens with and without HIV infection, were analysed for statistical significance using the chi-square test. We detected rotavirus antigen in 30% of the HIV-infected and 21% HIV-uninfected, in the acute-phase sera. HIV-infected children developed slightly prolonged rotavirus antigenaemia compared to HIV-uninfected children. Rotavirus-specific IgA seroconversion rates and neutralising titres were similar in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children, thus, HIV infection had no major effect on immune responses to rotavirus infection.

  4. Enzymatic triggered release of an HIV-1 entry inhibitor from prostate specific antigen degradable microparticles.

    PubMed

    Clark, Meredith R; Aliyar, Hyder A; Lee, Chang-won; Jay, Julie I; Gupta, Kavita M; Watson, Karen M; Stewart, Russell J; Buckheit, Robert W; Kiser, Patrick F

    2011-07-15

    This paper describes the design, construction and characterization of the first anti-HIV drug delivery system that is triggered to release its contents in the presence of human semen. Microgel particles were synthesized with a crosslinker containing a peptide substrate for the seminal serine protease prostate specific antigen (PSA) and were loaded with the HIV-1 entry inhibitor sodium poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (pSS). The particles were composed of N-2-hydroxyproplymethacrylamide and bis-methacrylamide functionalized peptides based on the PSA substrates GISSFYSSK and GISSQYSSK. Exposure to human seminal plasma (HSP) degraded the microgel network and triggered the release of the entrapped antiviral polymer. Particles with the crosslinker composed of the substrate GISSFYSSK showed 17 times faster degradation in seminal plasma than that of the crosslinker composed of GISSQYSSK. The microgel particles containing 1 mol% GISSFYSSK peptide crosslinker showed complete degradation in 30 h in the presence of HSP at 37°C and pSS released from the microgels within 30 min reached a concentration of 10 μg/mL, equivalent to the published IC(90) for pSS. The released pSS inactivated HIV-1 in the presence of HSP. The solid phase synthesis of the crosslinkers, preparation of the particles by inverse microemulsion polymerization, HSP-triggered release of pSS and inactivation of HIV-1 studies are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic Triggered Release of an HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor from Prostate Specific Antigen Degradable Microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Meredith R.; Aliyar, Hyder A.; Lee, Chang-won; Jay, Julie I.; Gupta, Kavita M.; Watson, Karen M.; Stewart, Russell J.; Buckheit, Robert W.; Kiser, Patrick F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and characterization of the first anti-HIV drug delivery system that is triggered to release its contents in the presence of human semen. Microgel particles were synthesized with a crosslinker containing a peptide substrate for the seminal serine protease prostate specific antigen (PSA) and were loaded with the HIV-1 entry inhibitor sodium poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (pSS). The particles were composed of N-2-hydroxyproplymethacrylamide and bis-methacrylamide functionalized peptides based on the PSA substrates GISSFYSSK and GISSQYSSK. Exposure to human seminal plasma (HSP) degraded the microgel network and triggered the release of the entrapped antiviral polymer. Particles with the crosslinker composed of the substrate GISSFYSSK showed 17 times faster degradation in seminal plasma than that of the crosslinker composed of GISSQYSSK. The microgel particles containing 1 mol% GISSFYSSK peptide crosslinker showed complete degradation in 30 hours in the presence of HSP at 37 °C and pSS released from the microgels within 30 minutes reached a concentration of 10 µg/mL, equivalent to the published IC90 for pSS. The released pSS inactivated HIV-1 in the presence of HSP. The solid phase synthesis of the crosslinkers, preparation of the particles by inverse microemulsion polymerization, HSP-triggered release of pSS and inactivation of HIV-1 studies are described. PMID:21511017

  6. GB Virus Type C Envelope Protein E2 Elicits Antibodies That React with a Cellular Antigen on HIV-1 Particles and Neutralize Diverse HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Emma L.; Xiang, Jinhua; McLinden, James H.; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Chang, Qing; Montefiori, David C.; Klinzman, Donna; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing Abs to HIV-1 are well described; however, identification of Ags that elicit these Abs has proven difficult. Persistent infection with GB virus type C (GBV-C) is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-1–infected individuals, and among those without HIV-1 viremia, the presence of Ab to GBV-C glycoprotein E2 is also associated with survival. GBV-C E2 protein inhibits HIV-1 entry, and an antigenic peptide within E2 interferes with gp41-induced membrane perturbations in vitro, suggesting the possibility of structural mimicry between GBV-C E2 protein and HIV-1 particles. Naturally occurring human and experimentally induced GBV-C E2 Abs were examined for their ability to neutralize infectious HIV-1 particles and HIV-1–enveloped pseudovirus particles. All GBV-C E2 Abs neutralized diverse isolates of HIV-1 with the exception of rabbit anti-peptide Abs raised against a synthetic GBV-C E2 peptide. Rabbit anti–GBV-C E2 Abs neutralized HIV-1–pseudotyped retrovirus particles but not HIV-1–pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus particles, and E2 Abs immune-precipitated HIV-1 gag particles containing the vesicular stomatitis virus type G envelope, HIV-1 envelope, GBV-C envelope, or no viral envelope. The Abs did not neutralize or immune-precipitate mumps or yellow fever viruses. Rabbit GBV-C E2 Abs inhibited HIV attachment to cells but did not inhibit entry following attachment. Taken together, these data indicate that the GBV-C E2 protein has a structural motif that elicits Abs that cross-react with a cellular Ag present on retrovirus particles, independent of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. The data provide evidence that a heterologous viral protein can induce HIV-1–neutralizing Abs. PMID:20826757

  7. Human leukocyte antigen-E alleles and expression in patients with serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hui; Lu, Renquan; Xie, Suhong; Wen, Xuemei; Wang, Hongling; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) is one of the most extensively studied non-classical MHC class I molecules that is almost non-polymorphic. Only two alleles (HLA-E*0101 and HLA-E*0103) are found in worldwide populations, and suggested to be functional differences between these variants. The HLA-E molecule can contribute to the escape of cancer cells from host immune surveillance. However, it is still unknown whether HLA-E gene polymorphisms might play a role in cancer immune escape. To explore the association between HLA-E alleles and the susceptibility to serous ovarian cancer (SOC), 85 primary SOC patients and 100 healthy women were enrolled. Here, we indicated that high frequency of HLA-E*0103 allele existed in SOC patients by the allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR method. The levels of HLA-E protein expression in SOC patients with the HLA-E*0103 allele were higher than those with the HLA-E*0101 allele using immunohistochemistry analysis. The cell surface expression and functional differences between the two alleles were verified by K562 cells transfected with HLA-E*0101 or HLA-E*0103 allelic heavy chains. The HLA-E*0103 allele made the transfer of the HLA-E molecule to the cell surface easier, and HLA-E/peptides complex more stable. These differences ultimately influenced the function of natural killer cells, showing that the cells transfected with HLA-E*0103 allele inhibited natural killer cells to lysis. This study reveals a novel mechanism regarding the susceptibility to SOC, which is correlated with the HLA-E*0103 allele. PMID:25711417

  8. Antigenicity-defined conformations of an extremely neutralization-resistant HIV-1 envelope spike.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongfei; Karaca-Griffin, Selen; Chen, Jia; Tian, Sai; Fredette, Nicholas; Linton, Christine E; Rits-Volloch, Sophia; Lu, Jianming; Wagh, Kshitij; Theiler, James; Korber, Bette; Seaman, Michael S; Harrison, Stephen C; Carfi, Andrea; Chen, Bing

    2017-04-10

    The extraordinary genetic diversity of the HIV-1 envelope spike [Env; trimeric (gp160)3, cleaved to (gp120/gp41)3] poses challenges for vaccine development. Envs of different clinical isolates exhibit different sensitivities to antibody-mediated neutralization. Envs of difficult-to-neutralize viruses are thought to be more stable and conformationally homogeneous trimers than those of easy-to-neutralize viruses, thereby providing more effective concealment of conserved, functionally critical sites. In this study we have characterized the antigenic properties of an Env derived from one of the most neutralization-resistant HIV-1 isolates, CH120.6. Sequence variation at neutralizing epitopes does not fully account for its exceptional resistance to antibodies. The full-length, membrane-bound CH120.6 Env is indeed stable and conformationally homogeneous. Its antigenicity correlates closely with its neutralization sensitivity, and major changes in antigenicity upon CD4 engagement appear to be restricted to the coreceptor site. The CH120.6 gp140 trimer, the soluble and uncleaved ectodomain of (gp160)3, retains many antigenic properties of the intact Env, consistent with a conformation close to that of Env spikes on a virion, whereas its monomeric gp120 exposes many nonneutralizing or strain-specific epitopes. Thus, trimer organization and stability are important determinants not only for occluding many epitopes but also for conferring resistance to neutralization by all but a small set of antibodies. Env preparations derived from neutralization-resistant viruses may induce irrelevant antibody responses less frequently than do other Envs and may be excellent templates for developing soluble immunogens.

  9. Antigenicity-defined conformations of an extremely neutralization-resistant HIV-1 envelope spike

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yongfei; Karaca-Griffin, Selen; Chen, Jia; ...

    2017-04-10

    Here, the extraordinary genetic diversity of the HIV-1 envelope spike [Env; trimeric (gp160)3, cleaved to (gp120/gp41)3] poses challenges for vaccine development. Envs of different clinical isolates exhibit different sensitivities to antibody-mediated neutralization. Envs of difficult-to-neutralize viruses are thought to be more stable and conformationally homogeneous trimers than those of easy-to-neutralize viruses, thereby providing more effective concealment of conserved, functionally critical sites. In this study we have characterized the antigenic properties of an Env derived from one of the most neutralization-resistant HIV-1 isolates, CH120.6. Sequence variation at neutralizing epitopes does not fully account for its exceptional resistance to antibodies. The full-length,more » membrane-bound CH120.6 Env is indeed stable and conformationally homogeneous. Its antigenicity correlates closely with its neutralization sensitivity, and major changes in antigenicity upon CD4 engagement appear to be restricted to the coreceptor site. The CH120.6 gp140 trimer, the soluble and uncleaved ectodomain of (gp160)3, retains many antigenic properties of the intact Env, consistent with a conformation close to that of Env spikes on a virion, whereas its monomeric gp120 exposes many nonneutralizing or strain-specific epitopes. Thus, trimer organization and stability are important determinants not only for occluding many epitopes but also for conferring resistance to neutralization by all but a small set of antibodies. Env preparations derived from neutralization-resistant viruses may induce irrelevant antibody responses less frequently than do other Envs and may be excellent templates for developing soluble immunogens.« less

  10. Strategies for optimal expression of vaccine antigens from Taeniid cestode parasites in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles; Jenkins, David; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2011-07-01

    Investigations were undertaken into optimizing the expression of Cestode parasite vaccine antigens in the bacterium, Escherichia coli to levels sufficient for mass production. A strategy to genetically engineer the antigens and improve their expression in E. coli was investigated. Plasmid constructs encoding truncated parasite antigens were prepared, leading to removal of N and C-terminal hydrophobic domains of the antigens. This approach was found to be an effective strategy for improving expression of the TSOL18 recombinant antigen of Taenia solium in E. coli. Clear demonstration that plasmid construct modification can be used to significantly improve heterologous expression in E. coli was shown for the EG95 antigen of Echinococcus granulosus. Removal of hydrophobic stretches of amino acids from the N and C termini of EG95 by genetic manipulation led to a substantial change in expression of the protein from an insoluble to a soluble form. The data demonstrate that the occurrence of hydrophobic regions in the antigens are a major feature that hindered their expression in E. coli. It was also shown that retaining a minimal protein domain (a single fibronectin type III domain) led to high level expression of functional protein that is antigenic and host protective. Two truncated antigens were combined from two species of parasite (EG95NC⁻ from E. granulosus and Tm18N⁻ from Taenia multiceps) and expressed as a single hybrid antigen in E. coli. The hybrid antigens were expressed at a high level and retained antigenicity of their respective components, thereby simplifying production of a multi-antigen vaccine. The findings are expected to have an impact on the preparation of recombinant Cestode vaccine antigens using E. coli, by increasing their utility and making them more amenable to large-scale production.

  11. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-07-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8-9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies.

  12. Genetic regulation of variable Vi antigen expression in a strain of Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed Central

    Snellings, N J; Johnson, E M; Kopecko, D J; Collins, H H; Baron, L S

    1981-01-01

    Certain strains of the genus Citrobacter exhibit a variable expression of the Vi surface antigen that appears to involve a special mechanism for regulation of gene expression. Two nonlinked chromosomal loci, viaA and viaB, are known to determine nonvariable Vi antigen expression in strains of Salmonella. To confirm the presence of analogous loci in Citrobacter and to ascertain whether either of them is involved in variable Vi antigen expression in this organism, donor strains were constructed from Citrobacter freundii WR7004 and used to transfer their Vi antigen-determining genes to ViaA- and ViaB- Salmonella typhi recipient strains. Vi antigen expression in C. freundii was found to be controlled by loci analogous to the Salmonella via genes. S. typhi recipients of the C. freundii viaA+ genes were restored to the full, continuous expression of the Vi antigen normally seen in S. typhi. Thus, the C. freundii viaA genes appeared to play no role in the variable expression of the Vi antigen. In contrast, S. typhi recipients of the C. freundii viaB+ genes exhibited the rapid, reversible alternation between full Vi antigen expression and markedly reduced Vi antigen expression that was seen to occur in the C. freundii parent. The C. freundii viaB locus was thus identified as the one whose genes are regulated so as to produce variable Vi antigen expression. Genes determining another C. freundii surface antigen, the synthesis of which is not affected by the mechanism regulating Vi expression, were coinherited with the C. freundii viaB+ genes. An invertible, insertion sequence element located within the C. freundii viaB locus is proposed to account for the regulation of variable Vi antigen expression. Images PMID:6161917

  13. Mature IgM-expressing plasma cells sense antigen and develop competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Pascal; Moro-Sibilot, Ludovic; Barthly, Lucas; Jagot, Ferdinand; This, Sébastien; de Bernard, Simon; Buffat, Laurent; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Colisson, Renaud; Hobeika, Elias; Fest, Thierry; Taillardet, Morgan; Thaunat, Olivier; Sicard, Antoine; Mondière, Paul; Genestier, Laurent; Nutt, Stephen L.; Defrance, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Dogma holds that plasma cells, as opposed to B cells, cannot bind antigen because they have switched from expression of membrane-bound immunoglobulins (Ig) that constitute the B-cell receptor (BCR) to production of the secreted form of immunoglobulins. Here we compare the phenotypical and functional attributes of plasma cells generated by the T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent forms of the hapten NP. We show that the nature of the secreted Ig isotype, rather than the chemical structure of the immunizing antigen, defines two functionally distinct populations of plasma cells. Fully mature IgM-expressing plasma cells resident in the bone marrow retain expression of a functional BCR, whereas their IgG+ counterparts do not. Antigen boost modifies the gene expression profile of IgM+ plasma cells and initiates a cytokine production program, characterized by upregulation of CCL5 and IL-10. Our results demonstrate that IgM-expressing plasma cells can sense antigen and acquire competence for cytokine production upon antigenic challenge. PMID:27924814

  14. HIV infection of monocytes inhibits the T-lymphocyte proliferative response to recall antigens, via production of eicosanoids.

    PubMed Central

    Foley, P; Kazazi, F; Biti, R; Sorrell, T C; Cunningham, A L

    1992-01-01

    Human monocytes infected in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) soon after adherence to plastic substrate demonstrated a significantly decreased ability to restimulate autologous immune T-lymphocyte proliferation after exposure to soluble (tetanus toxoid) and particulate [herpes simplex virus (HSV)] antigen. Incubation with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (2-5 microM), prevented inhibition of antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. The inhibitory activity was identified in ultrafiltrates containing the low molecular weight fraction (less than 3000 MW) of supernatants from HIV-infected monocyte cultures. This activity was significantly and markedly reduced in similar ultrafiltrates prepared from indomethacin-treated cultures. Increased concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were detected in ultrafiltrates from HIV-infected monocyte cultures compared with uninfected cultures and cultures preincubated with indomethacin. Ultrafiltrates were inhibitory when added during the presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes but not when removed from monocyte cultures prior to the addition of lymphocytes. In addition, ultrafiltrates inhibited antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and PHA-induced lymphocyte proliferation to the same extent. These data indicate that cyclo-oxygenase products of arachidonic acid, including PGE2, are produced in excess by HIV-infected monocytes and that PGE2 and perhaps other cyclo-oxygenase products are implicated in the inhibition of antigen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation via a direct effect on T lymphocytes. PMID:1572689

  15. Cloning and Expression of Soluble Recombinant HIV-1 CRF35 Protease-HP Thioredoxin Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Azarnezhad, Asaad; Sharifi, Zohreh; Seyedabadi, Rahmatollah; Hosseini, Arshad; Johari, Behrooz; Sobhani Fard, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a drug target and an antigenic agent, HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) is at the center of attention for designing anti-AIDS inhibitors and diagnostic tests. In previous studies, the production of the recombinant protease has been faced with several difficulties; therefore, the aims of this study were the easy production, purification of the soluble form of protease in E. coli and investigation of its immunoreactivity. Methods: Protease coding region was isolated from the serum of an infected individual, amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into PTZ57R using TA-cloning. Protease coding frame was isolated by PCR and cloned in pET102/D. TOPO expression vector and cloned protease was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21. Produced recombinant protein was purified by affinity Ni-NTA column and protein concentration was checked by BCA protein assay kit. Subsequently, immunoreactivity of recombinant protease (rPR) was assayed by Western blotting and ELISA. Results: Cloning of the HIV protease by TOPO cloning system in pET102/D.TOPO was confirmed with PCR and sequencing. The concentration range of purified recombinant protein was 85 to 100 μg/ml. Immunogenicity of rPR was confirmed by Western blotting and ELISA. Conclusion: Soluble production of recombinant HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 rPR) was performed successfully. This recombinant protein disclosed 86% specificity and 90% sensitivity in immunoassay tests. PMID:27920885

  16. Cell surface expression of hepatitis B surface and core antigens in transfected rat fibroblast cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Siddiqui, A; Vierling, J M

    1990-04-01

    Hepatocellular necrosis during hepatitis B virus infection is hypothesized to result from host immune responses against either hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis B core antigen expressed on the surface membrane of infected hepatocytes. To study the capacity of hepatitis B deoxyribonucleic acid to induce membrane expression of either hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis B core antigen in vitro, we assessed transfected rat fibroblast cell lines by indirect immunofluorescence. Rat fibroblasts were transfected with plasmid vectors containing the natural promoters, native enhancer, and uninterrupted sequences of either the Pre S/S gene or core gene. Resulting cell lines produced hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen/hepatitis B e antigen, respectively. Immunofluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry showed that hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen were expressed in a granular pattern in the surface membrane of transfected cells. We conclude that surface membrane expression of both hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen is an intrinsic consequence of expression of either the Pre S/S or core gene.

  17. Regulation of cancer germline antigen gene expression: implications for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akers, Stacey N; Odunsi, Kunle; Karpf, Adam R

    2010-05-01

    Cancer germline (CG; also known as cancer-testis) antigen genes are normally expressed in germ cells and trophoblast tissues and are aberrantly expressed in a variety of human malignancies. CG antigen genes have high clinical relevance as they encode a class of immunogenic and highly selective tumor antigens. CG antigen-directed immunotherapy is undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of a number of solid tumor malignancies and has been demonstrated to be safe, provoke immune responses and be of therapeutic benefit. Achieving an improved understanding of the mechanisms of CG antigen gene regulation will facilitate the continued development of targeted therapeutic approaches against tumors expressing these antigens. Substantial evidence suggests epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, as a primary regulator of CG antigen gene expression in normal and cancer cells as well as in stem cells. The roles of sequence-specific transcription factors and signal transduction pathways in controlling CG antigen gene expression are less clear but are emerging. A combinatorial therapeutic approach involving epigenetic modulatory drugs and CG antigen immunotherapy is suggested based on these data and is being actively pursued. In this article, we review the mechanisms of CG antigen gene regulation and discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the development of cancer immunotherapy approaches targeting CG antigens.

  18. Expression of basement membrane antigens in spindle cell melanoma.

    PubMed

    Prieto, V G; Woodruff, J M

    1998-07-01

    Spindle cell melanoma (SCM) is an uncommon form of melanoma that may be confused histologically with other tumors, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Tumors with neural differentiation and melanocytic nevi may both show basement membrane immunohistochemically and at the ultrastructural level. However, most ultrastructural studies of melanoma have failed to demonstrate well formed basement membrane around tumor cells. The presence of basement membrane has been used by some authors as evidence favoring MPNST, as opposed to SCM. To evaluate this distinction immunohistochemically, 22 primary and metastatic cutaneous melanomas having a spindle cell component (SCM) were studied using monoclonal antibodies against laminin and Type IV collagen. S100 protein and HMB45 antigen expression were also studied. All but one of the SCM were reactive for S100 protein in at least 25% of the cells. Thirteen of 20 tumors (65%) were focally reactive with HMB45. Laminin was expressed in 42% of the tumors (only membranous pattern in 3; cytoplasmic and membranous in 5). Seventeen tumors (77%) expressed type IV collagen (only membranous pattern in 7; cytoplasmic and membranous pattern in 10). Laminin and type IV collagen, known components of basement membrane, are often found in SCM. Therefore, their detection cannot be used to distinguish SCM from MPNST.

  19. Cytokine expression of macrophages in HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Tyor, W R; Glass, J D; Baumrind, N; McArthur, J C; Griffin, J W; Becker, P S; Griffin, D E

    1993-05-01

    Macrophages are frequently present within the periaxonal and intramyelinic vacuoles that are located primarily in the posterior and lateral funiculi of the thoracic spinal cord in HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy. But the role of these macrophages in the formation of the vacuoles is unclear. One hypothesis is that cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, are produced locally by macrophages and have toxic effects on myelin or oligodendrocytes. The resulting myelin damage eventually culminates in the removal of myelin by macrophages and vacuole formation. We studied thoracic spinal cord specimens taken at autopsy from HIV-positive (+) and HIV-negative individuals. The predominant mononuclear cells present in HIV+ spinal cords are macrophages. They are located primarily in the posterior and lateral funiculi regardless of the presence or absence of vacuolar myelopathy. Macrophages and microglia are more frequent in HIV+ than HIV-negative individuals and these cells frequently stain for class I and class II antigens, IL-1, and TNF-alpha. Activated macrophages positive for IL-1 and TNF-alpha are great increased in the posterior and lateral funiculi of HIV+ individuals with and without vacuolar myelopathy, suggesting they are present prior to the development of vacuoles. Cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, may be toxic for myelin or oligodendrocytes, leading to myelin damage and removal by macrophages and vacuole formation.

  20. Co-Administration of Poly I:C and ISCOMs Modifies Antigen Processing in Dendritic Cell Subsets and Enhances HIV Gag-Specific T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Kylie M.; Yamamoto, Ayako; Costa, Andreia; Darrah, Patricia A.; Lindsay, Ross W.B.; Hegde, Sonia T.; Johnson, Teresa R.; Flynn, Barbara J.; Lore, Karin; Seder, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Currently approved adjuvants induce protective antibody responses but are more limited for generating cellular immunity. Here we assessed the effect of combining two adjuvants with distinct mechanisms of action on their ability to prime T cells; the TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C), and immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs). Each adjuvant was administered alone or together with HIV Gag protein (Gag) and the magnitude, quality and phenotype of Gag-specific T cell responses were assessed. For CD8 T cells, all adjuvants induced a comparable response magnitude, but combining Poly I:C with ISCOMs induced a high frequency of CD127+, IL-2 producing cells with decreased expression of Tbet compared to either adjuvant alone. For CD4 T cells, combining Poly I:C and ISCOMs increased the frequency of multifunctional cells, producing IFNγ, IL-2 and TNF, and the total magnitude of the response compared to either adjuvant alone. CD8 or CD4 T cell responses induced by both adjuvants mediated protection against Gag-expressing Listeria monocytogenes or vaccinia viral infections. Poly I:C and ISCOMs can alter antigen uptake and/or processing and we therefore used fluorescently labeled HIV Gag and DQ-OVA to assess these mechanisms respectively in multiple DC subsets. Poly I:C promoted uptake and retention of antigen, while ISCOMs enhanced antigen degradation. Combining Poly I:C and ISCOMs caused substantial death of DCs but persistence of degraded antigen. These data illustrate how combining adjuvants, such as Poly I:C and ISCOMs that modulate antigen processing and have potent innate activity, can enhance the magnitude, quality and phenotype of T cell immunity. PMID:24089189

  1. HIV-1 Trans Infection of CD4+ T Cells by Professional Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldo, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s we have known of the fascinating ability of a complex set of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs; dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes) to mediate HIV-1 trans infection of CD4+ T cells. This results in a burst of virus replication in the T cells that is much greater than that resulting from direct, cis infection of either APC or T cells, or trans infection between T cells. Such APC-to-T cell trans infection first involves a complex set of virus subtype, attachment, entry, and replication patterns that have many similarities among APC, as well as distinct differences related to virus receptors, intracellular trafficking, and productive and nonproductive replication pathways. The end result is that HIV-1 can sequester within the APC for several days and be transmitted via membrane extensions intracellularly and extracellularly to T cells across the virologic synapse. Virus replication requires activated T cells that can develop concurrently with the events of virus transmission. Further research is essential to fill the many gaps in our understanding of these trans infection processes and their role in natural HIV-1 infection. PMID:24278768

  2. Conductive silver paste smeared glass substrates for label-free Raman spectroscopic detection of HIV-1 and HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Otange, Ben O; Birech, Zephania; Okonda, Justus; Rop, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    We report on application of conductive silver paste smeared glass slides as Raman spectroscopy sample substrates for label-free detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma. We also show that the same substrates can be applied in Raman spectroscopic screening of blood plasma for presence of HIV. The characteristic Raman spectrum of HIV-1 p24 antigen displayed prominent bands that were assigned to ribonucleic acids (RNA) and proteins that constitute the antigen. This spectrum can be used as reference during Raman spectroscopic screening for HIV in plasma within the first few days after exposure (<7 days). The Raman spectra obtained from HIV+ plasma displayed unique peaks centered at wavenumbers 928, 990, 1270, 1397, and 1446 cm(-1) attributed to the Raman active vibrations in the virion carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Other bands similar to those reported in literature were also seen and assignments made. The attachment of the HIV virions to silver nanoparticles via gp120 glycoprotein knobs was thought to be responsible for the enhanced Raman signals of proteins associated with the virus. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied on the combined spectral data showed that HIV- and HIV+ spectra had differing spectral patterns. This indicated the great power of Raman spectroscopy in HIV detection when plasma samples are deposited onto silver paste smeared glass substrates. The Raman peaks responsible for the segregation of the spectral data in PCA were mainly those assigned to the viral proteins (645, 725, 813, 1270, and 1658 cm(-1)). Excellent results were obtained from Artificial Neural Network (ANN) applied on the HIV+ Raman spectral data around the prominent peak centered at 1270 cm(-1) with R (coefficient of correlation) and R (2) (coefficient of determination) values of 0.9958 and 0.9895, respectively. The method has the potential of being used as quick blood screening for HIV before blood transfusion with the Raman peaks assigned to the virion

  3. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA) Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mouser, Emily E. I. M.; Pollakis, Georgios; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Harnett, William

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA) and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62) from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th) cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs. PMID:26808476

  4. Analysis of CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and adjacent tissue.

    PubMed

    Borges, Marcus Nascimento; Facina, Gil; Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrin Guerreiro; Waitzberg, Angela Flávia Logullo; Nazario, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cell maturation is considered essential for starting an immune response. The CD83 antigen is an important marker of dendritic cell maturation. The objectives here were to analyze CD83 antigen expression in human breast fibroadenoma and breast tissue adjacent to the lesion and to identify clinical factors that might influence this expression. This was a retrospective study at a public university hospital, in which 29 histopathological samples of breast fibroadenoma and adjacent breast tissue, from 28 women of reproductive age, were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry method was used to analyze the cell expression of the antigen. The antigen expression in the cells was evaluated by means of random manual counting using an optical microscope. Positive expression of the CD83 antigen in the epithelial cells of the fibroadenoma (365.52; standard deviation ± 133.13) in relation to the adjacent breast tissue cells (189.59; standard deviation ± 140.75) was statistically larger (P < 0.001). Several clinical features were analyzed, but only parity was shown to influence CD83 antigen expression in the adjacent breast tissue, such that positive expression was more evident in nulliparous women (P = 0.042). The expression of the CD83 antigen in the fibroadenoma was positive and greater than in the adjacent breast tissue. Positive expression of the antigen in the adjacent breast tissue was influenced by parity, and was significantly more evident in nulliparous women.

  5. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1–3) bind to m6A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1–3 proteins recognize m6A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4+ T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1–3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1–3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m6A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m6A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15528.001 PMID:27371828

  6. Different antigen-processing activities in dendritic cells, macrophages, and monocytes lead to uneven production of HIV epitopes and affect CTL recognition.

    PubMed

    Dinter, Jens; Gourdain, Pauline; Lai, Nicole Y; Duong, Ellen; Bracho-Sanchez, Edith; Rucevic, Marijana; Liebesny, Paul H; Xu, Yang; Shimada, Mariko; Ghebremichael, Musie; Kavanagh, Daniel G; Le Gall, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (MPs), and monocytes are permissive to HIV. Whether they similarly process and present HIV epitopes to HIV-specific CD8 T cells is unknown despite the critical role of peptide processing and presentation for recognition and clearance of infected cells. Cytosolic peptidases degrade endogenous proteins originating from self or pathogens, exogenous Ags preprocessed in endolysosomes, thus shaping the peptidome available for endoplasmic reticulum translocation, trimming, and MHC-I presentation. In this study, we compared the capacity of DCs, MPs, and monocyte cytosolic extracts to produce epitope precursors and epitopes. We showed differences in the proteolytic activities and expression levels of cytosolic proteases between monocyte-derived DCs and MPs and upon maturation with LPS, R848, and CL097, with mature MPs having the highest activities. Using cytosol as a source of proteases to degrade epitope-containing HIV peptides, we showed by mass spectrometry that the degradation patterns of long peptides and the kinetics and amount of antigenic peptides produced differed among DCs, MPs, and monocytes. Additionally, variable intracellular stability of HIV peptides prior to loading onto MHC may accentuate the differences in epitope availability for presentation by MHC-I between these subsets. Differences in peptide degradation led to 2- to 25-fold differences in the CTL responses elicited by the degradation peptides generated in DCs, MPs, and monocytes. Differences in Ag-processing activities between these subsets might lead to variations in the timing and efficiency of recognition of HIV-infected cells by CTLs and contribute to the unequal capacity of HIV-specific CTLs to control viral load. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Surface expression of Helicobacter pylori HpaA adhesion antigen on Vibrio cholerae, enhanced by co-expressed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli fimbrial antigens.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Joshua; Lebens, Michael; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Holmgren, Jan; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari

    2017-02-17

    Helicobacter pylori infection can cause peptic ulceration and is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to construct and characterize a non-virulent Vibrio cholerae O1 strain, which grows more rapidly than H. pylori, as vector for H. pylori antigens for possible use as a vaccine strain against H. pylori. This was done by recombinant expression of the H. pylori adhesion antigen HpaA alone or, as a proof of principle, together with different colonization factor (CF) antigens of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) which may enhance immune responses against HpaA. A recombinant V. cholerae strain co-expressing HpaA and a fimbrial CF antigens CFA/I or CS5, but not the non-fimbrial CF protein CS6, was shown to express larger amounts of HpaA on the surface when compared with the same V. cholerae strain expressing HpaA alone. Mutations in the CFA/I operon showed that the chaperon, possibly together with the usher, was involved in enhancing the surface expression of HpaA. Oral immunization of mice with formaldehyde-inactivated recombinant V. cholerae expressing HpaA alone or together with CFA/I induced significantly higher serum antibody responses against HpaA than mice similarly immunized with inactivated HpaA-expressing H. pylori bacteria. Our results demonstrate that a non-virulent V. cholerae strain can be engineered to allow strong surface expression of HpaA, and that the expression can be further increased by co-expressing it with ETEC fimbrial antigens. Such recombinant V. cholerae strains expressing HpaA, and possibly also other H. pylori antigens, may have the potential as oral inactivated vaccine candidates against H. pylori.

  8. Greater preexisting interferon γ responses to mycobacterial antigens and lower bacillary load during HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Timothy; Czechura, Tom; Crabtree, Scott; Arbeit, Robert D; Matee, Mecky; Horsburgh, C Robert; MacKenzie, Todd; Bakari, Muhammad; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham

    2013-11-15

    The role of preexisting interferon (IFN) γ responses in controlling bacillary burden in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis is not known. Among BCG-immunized HIV-infected adults who developed tuberculosis in a phase III trial of an investigational tuberculosis vaccine, greater baseline IFN-γ responses to early secretory antigenic target 6 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-cell lysate were associated with reduced bacillary burden on sputum smear grade, days to culture positivity on agar, and sputum culture grade during subsequent tuberculosis. This association was most consistent among recipients of the investigational vaccine. When HIV-associated tuberculosis develops, greater preexisting IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens are associated with reduced tuberculosis bacillary burden. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier. NCT0052195.

  9. Human erythrocyte antigens. Regulation of expression of a novel erythrocyte surface antigen by the inhibitor Lutheran In(Lu) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Telen, M J; Eisenbarth, G S; Haynes, B F

    1983-01-01

    Our study describes a novel human erythrocyte protein antigen, the expression of which is regulated by the rare Lutheran inhibitor In(Lu) gene. We have produced a monoclonal antibody (A3D8) that bound strongly to erythrocytes from subjects with Lutheran phenotypes Lu(a+b+), Lu(a+b-), and Lu(a-b+) but bound negligibly to erythrocytes from subjects with the dominant form of Lu(a-b-) phenotype, reflecting inheritance of the In(Lu) gene. Importantly, erythrocytes from an individual with the recessive form of Lu(a-b-) phenotype (i.e., absence of the In(Lu) gene and absence of genes encoding for Lutheran antigens) showed reactivity with A3D8 antibody comparable to that seen with Lu(a+) or Lu(b+) erythrocytes. A3D8 antigen activity was also found on all leukocytes and in serum and plasma; this activity also appeared to be regulated by the In(Lu) gene in serum, plasma, and on a subset of leukocytes. Thus, we have identified a human erythrocyte protein whose expression is modified by the In(Lu) gene. This knowledge that such an antigen exists on erythrocytes and in normal plasma should allow further studies into the molecular genetics of the In(Lu) gene and into the functional and structural significance of the A3D8 antigen. PMID:6863545

  10. T cells expressing CD19/CD20 bi-specific chimeric antigen receptors prevent antigen escape by malignant B cells

    PubMed Central

    Zah, Eugenia; Lin, Meng-Yin; Silva-Benedict, Anne; Jensen, Michael C.; Chen, Yvonne Y.

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown remarkable curative potential against advanced B-cell malignancies, but multiple trials have also reported patient relapses due to the emergence of CD19-negative leukemic cells. Here, we report the design and optimization of single-chain, bi-specific CARs that trigger robust cytotoxicity against target cells expressing either CD19 or CD20, two clinically validated targets for B-cell malignancies. We determined the structural parameters required for efficient dual-antigen recognition, and we demonstrate that optimized bi-specific CARs can control both wild-type B-cell lymphoma and CD19− mutants with equal efficiency in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first bi-specific CAR capable of preventing antigen escape by performing true OR-gate signal computation on a clinically relevant pair of tumor-associated antigens. The CD19-OR-CD20 CAR is fully compatible with existing T-cell manufacturing procedures and implementable by current clinical protocols. These results present an effective solution to the challenge of antigen escape in CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, and they highlight the utility of structure-based rational design in the development of receptors with higher-level complexity. PMID:27059623

  11. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pleural Tuberculosis in Patients with Early HIV Infection Is Associated with Increased TNF-Alpha Expression and Necrosis in Granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, Juanita; Roberts, Teri; Muller, Liesel; van Helden, Paul; Walzl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Although granulomas may be an essential host response against persistent antigens, they are also associated with immunopathology. We investigated whether HIV co-infection affects histopathological appearance and cytokine profiles of pleural granulomas in patients with active pleural tuberculosis (TB). Granulomas were investigated in pleural biopsies from HIV positive and negative TB pleuritis patients. Granulomas were characterised as necrotic or non-necrotic, graded histologically and investigated for the mRNA expression of IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4 by in situ hybridisation. In all TB patients a mixed Th1/Th2 profile was noted. Necrotic granulomas were more evident in HIV positive patients with a clear association between TNF-α and necrosis. This study demonstrates immune dysregulation which may include TNF-α-mediated immunopathology at the site of disease in HIV infected pleural TB patients. PMID:19156215

  13. Different Expression of Interferon Stimulated Genes in Response to HIV-1 Infection in Dendritic Cells According to Their Maturation State.

    PubMed

    Calonge, Esther; Bermejo, Mercedes; Diez-Fuertes, Francisco; Mangeot, Isabelle; Gonzalez, Nuria; Coiras, Mayte; Jimenez Tormo, Laura; García-Perez, Javier; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Le Grand, Roger; Alcamí, José

    2017-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells whose functions are dependent on their degree of differentiation. In their immature state, DCs, capture pathogens and migrate to the lymph nodes. During this process DCs become resident mature cells specialized in antigen presentation. DCs are characterized by a highly limiting environment to HIV-1 replication due to the expression of restriction factors as SAMHD1 and APOBEC3G. However, uninfected DCs capture and transfer viral particles to CD4 lymphocytes through a trans-enhancement mechanism in which chemokines are involved. We analyzed changes in gene expression with whole-genome-microarray when immature (IDCs) or mature (MDCs) dendritic cells were productively infected using Vpx-loaded HIV-1 particles. Whereas productive HIV infection of IDCs induced expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs), such induction was not produced in MDCs in which a sharp decrease in ISG and CXCR3-binding chemokines was observed lessening trans-infection of CD4 lymphocytes. Similar patterns of gene expression were found when DCs were infected with HIV-2 that naturally express Vpx. Differences were also observed in conditions of restrictive HIV-1 infection, in the absence of Vpx. ISGs expression was not modified in IDCs whereas an increase of ISG and CXCR3-binding chemokines was observed in MDCs. Overall these results suggest that sensing and restriction of HIV-1 infection are different between IDCs and MDCs. We propose that restrictive infection results in increased virulence through different mechanisms. In IDC avoiding sensing and induction of ISGs whereas in MDC increased production of CXCR3-binding chemokines would result in lymphocyte attraction and enhanced infection at the immune synapse.

  14. Expression and Cellular Immunogenicity of a Transgenic Antigen Driven by Endogenous Poxviral Early Promoters at Their Authentic Loci in MVA

    PubMed Central

    Orubu, Toritse; Alharbi, Naif Khalaf; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Cottingham, Matthew G.

    2012-01-01

    CD8+ T cell responses to vaccinia virus are directed almost exclusively against early gene products. The attenuated strain modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is under evaluation in clinical trials of new vaccines designed to elicit cellular immune responses against pathogens including Plasmodium spp., M. tuberculosis and HIV-1. All of these recombinant MVAs (rMVA) utilize the well-established method of linking the gene of interest to a cloned poxviral promoter prior to insertion into the viral genome at a suitable locus by homologous recombination in infected cells. Using BAC recombineering, we show that potent early promoters that drive expression of non-functional or non-essential MVA open reading frames (ORFs) can be harnessed for immunogenic expression of recombinant antigen. Precise replacement of the MVA orthologs of C11R, F11L, A44L and B8R with a model antigen positioned to use the same translation initiation codon allowed early transgene expression similar to or slightly greater than that achieved by the commonly-used p7.5 or short synthetic promoters. The frequency of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells induced in mice by single shot or adenovirus-prime, rMVA-boost vaccination were similarly equal or marginally enhanced using endogenous promoters at their authentic genomic loci compared to the traditional constructs. The enhancement in immunogenicity observed using the C11R or F11L promoters compared with p7.5 was similar to that obtained with the mH5 promoter compared with p7.5. Furthermore, the growth rates of the viruses were unimpaired and the insertions were genetically stable. Insertion of a transgenic ORF in place of a viral ORF by BAC recombineering can thus provide not only a potent promoter, but also, concomitantly, a suitable insertion site, potentially facilitating development of MVA vaccines expressing multiple recombinant antigens. PMID:22761956

  15. Hemopoietic cell kinase (Hck) and p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) are involved in the down-regulation of CD1a lipid antigen presentation by HIV-1 Nef in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Eiji; Shimizu, Masumi; Owaki, Atsuko; Paoletti, Samantha; Mori, Lucia; De Libero, Gennaro; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in in vivo pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Therefore, DCs may provide a promising strategy to control and eventually overcome the fatal infection. Especially, immature DCs express all CD1s, the non-MHC lipid antigen -presenting molecules, and HIV-1 Nef down-regulates CD1 expression besides MHC. Moreover, CD1d-restricted CD4(+) NKT cells are infected by HIV-1, reducing the number of these cells in HIV-1-infected individuals. To understand the exact role of DCs and CD1-mediated immune response during HIV-1 infection, Nef down-regulation of CD1a-restricted lipid/glycolipid Ag presentation in iDCs was analyzed. We demonstrated the involvement of the association of Nef with hemopoietic cell kinase (Hck) and p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), and that Hck, which is expressed strongly in iDCs, augmented this mutual interaction. Hck might be another therapeutic target to preserve the function of HIV-1 infected DCs, which are potential reservoirs of HIV-1 even after antiretroviral therapy.

  16. Evaluation in macaques of HIV-1 DNA vaccines containing primate CpG motifs and fowlpoxvirus vaccines co-expressing IFNgamma or IL-12.

    PubMed

    Dale, C Jane; De Rose, Robert; Wilson, Kim M; Croom, Hayley A; Thomson, Scott; Coupar, Barbara E H; Ramsay, Alistair; Purcell, Damian F J; Ffrench, Rosemary; Law, Matthew; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A; Ramshaw, Ian A; Boyle, David B; Kent, Stephen J

    2004-11-25

    Induction of HIV-specific T-cell responses by vaccines may facilitate efficient control of HIV. Plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant fowlpoxvirus (rFPV) vaccines are promising HIV-1 vaccine candidates, although either vaccine alone may be insufficient to protect against HIV-1. A consecutive immunisation strategy involving priming with DNA and boosting with rFPV vaccines encoding multiple common HIV-1 antigens was further evaluated in 30 macaques. The DNA vaccine vector included CpG immunostimulatory molecules, and rFPV vaccines were compared with rFPV vaccines co-expressing the pro-T cell cytokines IFNgamma or IL-12. Vaccines expressed multiple HIV-1 genes, mutated to remove active sites of the HIV proteins. The vaccines were well tolerated, and a significant enhancement of DNA-vaccine primed HIV-1 specific T lymphocyte responses was observed following rFPV boosting. Co-expression of IFNgamma or IL-12 by the rFPV vaccines did not further enhance immune responses. Non-sterilising protection from a non-pathogenic HIV-1 challenge was observed. This study provides evidence of a safe, optimised, strategy for the generation of T-cell mediated immunity to HIV-1.

  17. Differential expression and interaction of host factors augment HIV-1 gene expression in neonatal mononuclear cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaravaradan, Vasudha; Mehta, Roshni; Harris, David T.; Zack, Jerome A.; Ahmad, Nafees

    2010-04-25

    We have previously shown a higher level of HIV-1 replication and gene expression in neonatal (cord) blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) compared with adult blood cells (PBMC), which could be due to differential expression of host factors. We performed the gene expression profile of CBMC and PBMC and found that 8013 genes were expressed at higher levels in CBMC than PBMC and 8028 genes in PBMC than CBMC, including 1181 and 1414 genes upregulated after HIV-1 infection in CBMC and PBMC, respectively. Several transcription factors (NF-kappaB, E2F, HAT-1, TFIIE, Cdk9, Cyclin T1), signal transducers (STAT3, STAT5A) and cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10) were upregulated in CBMC than PBMC, which are known to influence HIV-1 replication. In addition, a repressor of HIV-1 transcription, YY1, was down regulated in CBMC than PBMC and several matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7, -12, -14) were significantly upregulated in HIV-1 infected CBMC than PBMC. Furthermore, we show that CBMC nuclear extracts interacted with a higher extent to HIV-1 LTR cis-acting sequences, including NF-kappaB, NFAT, AP1 and NF-IL6 compared with PBMC nuclear extracts and retroviral based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for STAT3 and IL-6 down regulated their own and HIV-1 gene expression, signifying that these factors influenced differential HIV-1 gene expression in CBMC than PBMC.

  18. Improved quantification of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells using an optimised method of intracellular HIV-1 gag p24 antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongbing; Yorke, Elisabeth; Hancock, Gemma; Clutton, Genevieve; Sande, Nellia; Angus, Brian; Smyth, Redmond; Mak, Johnson; Dorrell, Lucy

    2013-05-31

    The capacity of CD8+ T cells to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro strongly correlates with virus control in vivo. Post-hoc evaluations of HIV-1 vaccine candidates suggest that this immunological parameter is a promising benchmark of vaccine efficacy. Large-scale analysis of CD8+ T cell antiviral activity requires a rapid, robust and economical assay for accurate quantification of HIV-1 infection in primary CD4+ T cells. Detection of intracellular HIV-1 p24 antigen (p24 Ag) by flow cytometry is one such method but it is thought to be less sensitive and quantitative than p24 Ag ELISA. We report that fixation and permeabilisation of HIV-infected cells using paraformaldehyde/50% methanol/Nonidet P-40 instead of a conventional paraformaldehyde/saponin-based protocol improved their detection across multiplicities of infection (MOI) ranging from 10(-2) to 8×10(-5), and by nearly two-fold (p<0.001) at the optimal MOI tested (10(-2)). The frequency of infected cells was strongly correlated with p24 Ag release during culture, thus validating its use as a measure of productive infection. We were also able to quantify infection with a panel of HIV-1 isolates representing the major clades. The protocol described here is rapid and cost-effective compared with ELISA and thus could be a useful component of immune monitoring of HIV-1 vaccines and interventions to reduce viral reservoirs.

  19. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis of membrane antigen expression.

    PubMed

    D'hautcourt, Jean-Luc

    2002-11-01

    Immunological analysis for cell antigens has been performed by flow cytometry in a qualitative fashion for over thirty years. During that time it has become increasingly apparent that quantitative measurements such as number of antigens per cell provide unique and useful information. This unit on quantitative flow cytometry (QFCM) describes the most commonly used protocols, both direct and indirect, and the major methods of analysis for the number of antibody binding sites on a cell or particle. Practical applications include detection of antigen under- or overexpression in hematological malignancies, distinguishing between B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, and precise diagnosis of certain rare diseases.

  20. Preferential expression and immunogenicity of HIV-1 Tat fusion protein expressed in tomato plant.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Hibi, Yurina; Karamatsu, Katsuo; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Imai, Kenichi; Laurena, Antonio C; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat plays a major role in viral replication and is essential for AIDS development making it an ideal vaccine target providing that both humoral and cellular immune responses are induced. Plant-based antigen production, due to its cheaper cost, appears ideal for vaccine production. In this study, we created a plant-optimized tat and mutant (Cys30Ala/Lys41Ala) tat (mtat) gene and ligated each into a pBI121 expression vector with a stop codon and a gusA gene positioned immediately downstream. The vector construct was bombarded into tomato leaf calli and allowed to develop. We thus generated recombinant tomato plants preferentially expressing a Tat-GUS fusion protein over a Tat-only protein. In addition, plants bombarded with either tat or mtat genes showed no phenotypic difference and produced 2-4 microg Tat-GUS fusion protein per milligram soluble plant protein. Furthermore, tomato extracts intradermally inoculated into mice were found to induce a humoral and, most importantly, cellular immunity.

  1. Immunogenic measles antigens expressed in plants: role as an edible vaccine for adults.

    PubMed

    Muller, Claude P; Marquet-Blouin, Estelle; Fack, Fred; Damien, Benjamin; Steinmetz, Andŕe; Bouche, Fabienne B

    2003-01-30

    Vaccine-induced immunity against measles is less robust than natural immunity. Waning of immunity in vaccines may eventually require a revaccination of adults. Measles antigens expressed in plants have been shown to be antigenic and immunogenic both after invasive and oral vaccination. Strategies for the vaccination of adults, the potential of an oral measles vaccine produced in edible plants and the design of suitable antigens are discussed.

  2. Oral Vaccination Against Anthrax Using a Transgenic Plant Expressing Protective Antigen.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    Plant Expressing Protective Antigen DAMDI7-95-C-5102 6 . AUTHOR(S) Dr. Karen Oishi 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA), the Yersiniapestis V antigen modified to contain a His 6 epitope to facilitate affinity purification (His-Tag V...these reasons it has been very difficult to 6 develop more effective vaccines which will stimulate mucosal immunity. With the majority of vaccines

  3. HIV-1--Infected T Cells Show a Selective Signaling Defect after Perturbation of CD3/Antigen Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linette, Gerald P.; Hartzman, Robert J.; Ledbetter, Jeffrey A.; June, Carl H.

    1988-07-01

    The binding of antigen or monoclonal antibody to the T cell receptor for antigen or the closely associated CD3 complex causes increases in the concentration of intracellular ionized calcium and subsequent cell proliferation. By measuring second messenger production in primary cultures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)--infected T cells stimulated with monoclonal antibodies specific for either CD3 or CD2, a specific impairment of membrane signaling was revealed. The HIV-1--infected T cells were unable to mobilize Ca2+ after stimulation with anti-CD3, whereas CD2-induced calcium mobilization remained intact. Furthermore, the HIV-1--infected cells proliferated poorly after CD3 stimulation, although the cells retained normal DNA synthesis in response to interleukin-2 stimulation. These results show that the signals initiated by CD2 and CD3 can be regulated independently within the same T cell; uncoupling of signal transduction after antigen-specific stimulation provides a biochemical mechanism to explain, in part, the profound immunodeficiency of patients with HIV-1 infection.

  4. Induction of antigen-positive cell death by the expression of perforin, but not DTa, from a DNA vaccine enhances the immune response.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Tessa; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Garrod, Tamsin J; Yu, Wenbo; Miller, Darren; Major, Lee; Wesselingh, Steve; Suhrbier, Andreas; Gowans, Eric J

    2014-04-01

    The failure of traditional protein-based vaccines to prevent infection by viruses such as HIV or hepatitis C highlights the need for novel vaccine strategies. DNA vaccines have shown promise in small animal models, and are effective at generating anti-viral T cell-mediated immune responses; however, they have proved to be poorly immunogenic in clinical trials. We propose that the induction of necrosis will enhance the immune response to vaccine antigens encoded by DNA vaccines, as necrotic cells are known to release a range of intracellular factors that lead to dendritic cell (DC) activation and enhanced cross-presentation of antigen. Here we provide evidence that induction of cell death in DNA vaccine-targeted cells provides an adjuvant effect following intradermal vaccination of mice; however, this enhancement of the immune response is dependent on both the mechanism and timing of cell death after antigen expression. We report that a DNA vaccine encoding the cytolytic protein, perforin, resulted in DC activation, enhanced broad and multifunctional CD8 T-cell responses to the HIV-1 antigen GAG and reduced viral load following challenge with a chimeric virus, EcoHIV, compared with the canonical GAG DNA vaccine. This effect was not observed for a DNA vaccine encoding an apoptosis-inducing toxin, DTa, or when the level of perforin expression was increased to induce cell death sooner after vaccination. Thus, inducing lytic cell death following a threshold level of expression of a viral antigen can improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines, whereas apoptotic cell death has an inhibitory effect on the immune response.

  5. Comparative immunological evaluation of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains expressing model antigens as live oral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the development of various systems to generate live recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, little work has been performed to systematically evaluate and compare their relative immunogenicity. Such information would provide invaluable guidance for the future rational design of live recombinant Salmonella oral vaccines. Result To compare vaccine strains encoded with different antigen delivery and expression strategies, a series of recombinant Salmonella Typhimurium strains were constructed that expressed either the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or a fragment of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the H5N1 influenza virus, as model antigens. The antigens were expressed from the chromosome, from high or low-copy plasmids, or encoded on a eukaryotic expression plasmid. Antigens were targeted for expression in either the cytoplasm or the outer membrane. Combinations of strategies were employed to evaluate the efficacy of combined delivery/expression approaches. After investigating in vitro and in vivo antigen expression, growth and infection abilities; the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains was evaluated in mice. Using the soluble model antigen EGFP, our results indicated that vaccine strains with high and stable antigen expression exhibited high B cell responses, whilst eukaryotic expression or colonization with good construct stability was critical for T cell responses. For the insoluble model antigen HA, an outer membrane expression strategy induced better B cell and T cell responses than a cytoplasmic strategy. Most notably, the combination of two different expression strategies did not increase the immune response elicited. Conclusion Through systematically evaluating and comparing the immunogenicity of the constructed recombinant Salmonella strains in mice, we identified their respective advantages and deleterious or synergistic effects. Different construction strategies were optimally

  6. HLA Class II Antigen Expression in Colorectal Carcinoma Tumors as a Favorable Prognostic Marker12

    PubMed Central

    Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Arriga, Roberto; Coppola, Andrea; Caratelli, Sara; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Lauro, Davide; Lugli, Alessandro; Han, Junyi; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Ferrone, Cristina; Ferlosio, Amedeo; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul; Rossi, Piero; Attanasio, Antonio; Ferrone, Soldano; Terracciano, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of HLA class II antigen expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) tumors, its association with the clinical course of the disease, and the underlying mechanism(s). Two tissue microarrays constructed with 220 and 778 CRC tumors were stained with HLA-DR, DQ, and DP antigen-specific monoclonal antibody LGII-612.14, using the immunoperoxidase staining technique. The immunohistochemical staining results were correlated with the clinical course of the disease. The functional role of HLA class II antigens expressed on CRC cells was analyzed by investigating their in vitro interactions with immune cells. HLA class II antigens were expressed in about 25% of the 220 and 21% of the 778 tumors analyzed with an overall frequency of 23%. HLA class II antigens were detected in 19% of colorectal adenomas. Importantly, the percentage of stained cells and the staining intensity were significantly lower than those detected in CRC tumors. However, HLA class II antigen staining was weakly detected only in 5.4% of 37 normal mucosa tissues. HLA class II antigen expression was associated with a favorable clinical course of the disease. In vitro stimulation with interferon gamma (IFNγ) induced HLA class II antigen expression on two of the four CRC cell lines tested. HLA class II antigen expression on CRC cells triggered interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by resting monocytes. HLA class II antigen expression in CRC tumors is a favorable prognostic marker. This association may reflect stimulation of IL-1β production by monocytes. PMID:24563618

  7. Production of recombinant botulism antigens: a review of expression systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, G M S G; Cunha, C E P; Salvarani, F M; Gonçalves, L A; Pires, P S; Conceição, F R; Lobato, F C F

    2014-08-01

    Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by intoxication with neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Despite their similar mechanism of action, the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are classified in eight serotypes (A to H). As to veterinary medicine, the impact of this disease is essentially economic, since different species of production animals can be affected, especially by BoNT/C and D. In human health, botulism is feared in a possible biological warfare, what would involve mainly the BoNT/A, B, E and F. In both cases, the most effective way to deal with botulism is through prevention, which involves vaccination. However, the current vaccines against this disease have several drawbacks on their process of production and, besides this, can be dangerous to producers since it requires certain level of biosafety. This way, recombinant vaccines have been shown to be a great alternative for the development of vaccines against both animal and human botulism. All BoNTs have a 50-kDa light chain (LC) and a 100-kDa heavy chain (HC). The latter one presents two domains of 50 kDa, called the N-terminal (HN) and C-terminal (HC) halves. Among these regions, the HC alone seem to confer the proper immune response against intoxication. Since innumerous studies describe the expression of these distinct regions using different systems, strategies, and protocols, it is difficult to define the best option for a viable vaccine production. Thereby, the present review describes the problematic of botulism and discusses the main advances for the viable production of vaccines for both human and veterinary medicine using recombinant antigens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2 specifically induces expression of the B-cell activation antigen CD23

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, F.; Gregory, C.D.; Rowe, M.; Rickinson, A.B.; Wang, D.; Birkenbach, M.; Kikutani, H.; Kishimoto, T.; Kieff, E.

    1987-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of EBV-negative Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cells includes some changes similar to those seen in normal B lymphocytes that have been growth transformed by EBV. The role of individual EBV genes in this process was evaluated by introducing each of the viral genes that are normally expressed in EBV growth-transformed and latently infected lymphoblasts into an EBV-negative BL cell line, using recombinant retrovirus-mediated transfer. Clones of cells were derived that stably express the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1), EBNA-2, EBNA-3, EBNA-leader protein, or EBV latent membrane protein (LMP). These were compared with control clones infected with the retrovirus vector. All 10 clones converted to EBNA-2 expression differed from control clones or clones expressing other EBV proteins by growth in tight clumps and by markedly increased expression of one particular surface marker of B-cell activation, CD23. Other activation antigens were unaffected by EBNA-2 expression, as were markers already expressed on the parent BL cell line. The results indicate that EBNA-2 is a specific direct or indirect trans-activator of CD23. This establishes a link between an EBV gene and cell gene expression. Since CD23 has been implicated in the transduction of B-cell growth signals, its specific induction by EBNA-2 could be important in EBV induction of B-lymphocyte transformation.

  9. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juan; Wang, Shixia; Gan, Weihua; Zhang, Wenhong; Ju, Liwen; Huang, Zuhu; Lu, Shan

    2012-04-20

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  10. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8(+) T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Patrick Y; Ng, Hwee L; Ringpis, Gene-Errol E; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O'Connor, Sean; Yang, Otto O; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8(+) T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8(+) T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8(+) T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24(Gag) in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance.

  11. Human leukocyte antigen class I supertypes and HIV-1 control in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Song, Wei; Lobashevsky, Elena; Tang, Jianming; Shrestha, Sadeep; Zhang, Kui; Gardner, Lytt I; McNicholl, Janet M; Wilson, Craig M; Klein, Robert S; Rompalo, Anne; Mayer, Kenneth; Sobel, Jack; Kaslow, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    The role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I supertypes in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in African Americans has not been established. We examined the effects of the HLA-A and HLA-B alleles and supertypes on the outcomes of HIV-1 clade B infection among 338 African American women and adolescents. HLA-B58 and -B62 supertypes (B58s and B62s) were associated with favorable HIV-1 disease control (proportional odds ratio [POR] of 0.33 and 95% confidence interval [95% CI] of 0.21 to 0.52 for the former and POR of 0.26 and 95% CI of 0.09 to 0.73 for the latter); B7s and B44s were associated with unfavorable disease control (POR of 2.39 and 95% CI of 1.54 to 3.73 for the former and POR of 1.63 and 95% CI of 1.08 to 2.47 for the latter). In general, individual alleles within specific B supertypes exerted relatively homogeneous effects. A notable exception was B27s, whose protective influence (POR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.94) was masked by the opposing effect of its member allele B*1510. The associations of most B supertypes (e.g., B58s and B7s) were largely explained either by well-known effects of constituent B alleles or by effects of previously unimplicated B alleles aggregated into a particular supertype (e.g., B44s and B62s). A higher frequency of HLA-B genotypic supertypes correlated with a higher mean viral load (VL) and lower mean CD4 count (Pearson's r = 0.63 and 0.62, respectively; P = 0.03). Among the genotypic supertypes, B58s and its member allele B*57 contributed disproportionately to the explainable VL variation. The study demonstrated the dominant role of HLA-B supertypes in HIV-1 clade B-infected African Americans and further dissected the contributions of individual class I alleles and their population frequencies to the supertype effects.

  12. Transcriptional Bursting from the HIV-1 Promoter is a Significant Source of Stochastic Noise in HIV-1 Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A; Razooky, B; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of noise in gene expression has proven a powerful approach for analyzing gene regulatory architecture. To probe the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of HIV-1, we analyze noise in gene-expression from HIV-1 s long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter at different HIV-1 integration sites across the human genome. Flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression from the HIV-1 LTR shows high variability (noise) at each integration site. Notably, the measured noise levels are inconsistent with constitutive gene expression models. Instead, quantification of expression noise indicates that HIV-1 gene expression occurs through randomly timed bursts of activity from the LTR and that each burst generates an average of 2 10 mRNA transcripts before the promoter returns to an inactive state. These data indicate that transcriptional bursting can generate high variability in HIV-1 early gene products, which may critically influence the viral fate-decision between active replication and proviral latency.

  13. A Human Minor Histocompatibility Antigen Resulting from Differential Expression due to a Gene Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Makoto; Warren, Edus H.; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2003-01-01

    Minor histocompatibility antigens (minor H antigens) are targets of graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia responses after allogeneic human leukocyte antigen identical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Only a few human minor H antigens have been molecularly characterized and in all cases, amino acid differences between homologous donor and recipient proteins due to nucleotide polymorphisms in the respective genes were responsible for immunogenicity. Here, we have used cDNA expression cloning to identify a novel human minor H antigen encoded by UGT2B17, an autosomal gene in the multigene UDP-glycosyltransferase 2 family that is selectively expressed in liver, intestine, and antigen-presenting cells. In contrast to previously defined human minor H antigens, UGT2B17 is immunogenic because of differential expression of the protein in donor and recipient cells as a consequence of a homozygous gene deletion in the donor. Deletion of individual members of large gene families is a common form of genetic variation in the population and our results provide the first evidence that differential protein expression as a consequence of gene deletion is a mechanism for generating minor H antigens in humans. PMID:12743171

  14. Isolation and characterization of NIH 3T3 cells expressing polyomavirus small T antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, T.; Satake, M.; Robins, T.; Ito, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The polyomavirus small T-antigen gene, together with the polyomavirus promoter, was inserted into retrovirus vector pGV16 which contains the Moloney sarcoma virus long terminal repeat and neomycin resistance gene driven by the simian virus 40 promoter. This expression vector, pGVST, was packaged into retrovirus particles by transfection of PSI2 cells which harbor packaging-defective murine retrovirus genome. NIH 3T3 cells were infected by this replication-defective retrovirus containing pGVST. Of the 15 G418-resistant cell clones, 8 express small T antigen at various levels as revealed by immunoprecipitation. A cellular protein with an apparent molecular weight of about 32,000 coprecipitates with small T antigen. Immunofluorescent staining shows that small T antigen is mainly present in the nuclei. Morphologically, cells expressing small T antigen are indistinguishable from parental NIH 3T3 cells and have a microfilament pattern similar to that in parental NIH 3T3 cells. Cells expressing small T antigen form a flat monolayer but continue to grow beyond the saturation density observed for parental NIH 3T3 cells and eventually come off the culture plate as a result of overconfluency. There is some correlation between the level of expression of small T antigen and the growth rate of the cells. Small T-antigen-expressing cells form small colonies in soft agar. However, the proportion of cells which form these small colonies is rather small. A clone of these cells tested did not form tumors in nude mice within 3 months after inoculation of 10/sup 6/ cells per animal. Thus, present studies establish that the small T antigen of polyomavirus is a second nucleus-localized transforming gene product of the virus (the first one being large T antigen) and by itself has a function which is to stimulate the growth of NIH 3T3 cells beyond their saturation density in monolayer culture.

  15. Deletion of fusion peptide or destabilization of fusion core of HIV gp41 enhances antigenicity and immunogenicity of 4E10 epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Chen Xi; Jiang Shibo Chen Yinghua

    2008-11-07

    The human monoclonal antibody 4E10 against the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1 gp41 demonstrates broad neutralizing activity across various strains, and makes its epitope an attractive target for HIV-1 vaccine development. Although the contiguous epitope of 4E10 has been identified, attempts to re-elicit 4E10-like antibodies have failed, possibly due to the lack of proper conformation of the 4E10 epitope. Here we used pIg-tail expression system to construct a panel of eukaryotic cell-surface expression plasmids encoding the extracellular domain of gp41 with deletion of fusion peptide and/or introduction of L568P mutation that may disrupt the gp41 six-helix bundle core conformation as DNA vaccines for immunization of mice. We found that these changes resulted in significant increase of the antigenicity and immunogenicity of 4E10 epitope. This information is thus useful for rational design of vaccines targeting the HIV-1 gp41 MPER.

  16. Live attenuated measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus like particles covered with gp160DELTAV1V2 is strongly immunogenic

    SciTech Connect

    Guerbois, Mathilde; Moris, Arnaud; Combredet, Chantal; Najburg, Valerie; Ruffie, Claude; Fevrier, Michele; Cayet, Nadege; Brandler, Samantha; Schwartz, Olivier; Tangy, Frederic

    2009-05-25

    Although a live attenuated HIV vaccine is not currently considered for safety reasons, a strategy inducing both T cells and neutralizing antibodies to native assembled HIV-1 particles expressed by a replicating virus might mimic the advantageous characteristics of live attenuated vaccine. To this aim, we generated a live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) covered with gp160DELTAV1V2 Env protein. The measles-HIV virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and induced the intense budding of HIV particles covered with Env. In mice sensitive to MV infection, this recombinant vaccine stimulated high levels of cellular and humoral immunity to both MV and HIV with neutralizing activity. The measles-HIV virus infected human professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and induced efficient presentation of HIV-1 epitopes and subsequent activation of human HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell clones. This candidate vaccine will be next tested in non-human primates. As a pediatric vaccine, it might protect children and adolescents simultaneously from measles and HIV.

  17. CRISPR-mediated Activation of Latent HIV-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Limsirichai, Prajit; Gaj, Thomas; Schaffer, David V

    2016-03-01

    Complete eradication of HIV-1 infection is impeded by the existence of cells that harbor chromosomally integrated but transcriptionally inactive provirus. These cells can persist for years without producing viral progeny, rendering them refractory to immune surveillance and antiretroviral therapy and providing a permanent reservoir for the stochastic reactivation and reseeding of HIV-1. Strategies for purging this latent reservoir are thus needed to eradicate infection. Here, we show that engineered transcriptional activation systems based on CRISPR/Cas9 can be harnessed to activate viral gene expression in cell line models of HIV-1 latency. We further demonstrate that complementing Cas9 activators with latency-reversing compounds can enhance latent HIV-1 transcription and that epigenome modulation using CRISPR-based acetyltransferases can also promote viral gene activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CRISPR systems are potentially effective tools for inducing latent HIV-1 expression and that their use, in combination with antiretroviral therapy, could lead to improved therapies for HIV-1 infection.

  18. CRISPR-mediated Activation of Latent HIV-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Limsirichai, Prajit; Gaj, Thomas; Schaffer, David V

    2016-01-01

    Complete eradication of HIV-1 infection is impeded by the existence of cells that harbor chromosomally integrated but transcriptionally inactive provirus. These cells can persist for years without producing viral progeny, rendering them refractory to immune surveillance and antiretroviral therapy and providing a permanent reservoir for the stochastic reactivation and reseeding of HIV-1. Strategies for purging this latent reservoir are thus needed to eradicate infection. Here, we show that engineered transcriptional activation systems based on CRISPR/Cas9 can be harnessed to activate viral gene expression in cell line models of HIV-1 latency. We further demonstrate that complementing Cas9 activators with latency-reversing compounds can enhance latent HIV-1 transcription and that epigenome modulation using CRISPR-based acetyltransferases can also promote viral gene activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that CRISPR systems are potentially effective tools for inducing latent HIV-1 expression and that their use, in combination with antiretroviral therapy, could lead to improved therapies for HIV-1 infection. PMID:26607397

  19. Expression of blood group antigens on red cell microvesicles.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, R T; Dumaswala, U J; Greenwalt, T J

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether epitopes of the A, B, D, Fya, M, N, S, s, and K blood group antigens are present on microvesicle membranes shed by red cells during storage. Vesicles were isolated from outdated units of blood having and lacking the specified antigens. Diluted antisera were absorbed with fixed quantities of vesicles from red cells with the test antigen and red cells lacking that antigen (controls). The adsorbed and unadsorbed antisera were titrated and scored by using panel cells from persons known to be heterozygous for all the non-AB antigens. The mean titration scores following adsorption with the vesicles from A, B, D, M+N-, M-N+, S+s-, S-s+, and Fy(a+b-) units were appreciably lower than the control scores (0, 0, 3, 2, 2, 0, 4, and 4 vs. 19, 23, 34, 13, 12, 16, 18, and 29, respectively), which indicated the presence of these epitopes on the membrane of shed vesicles. The results following adsorption with K:1,2 vesicles were equivocal.

  20. Initial HIV-1 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection inhibit transmitted/founder virus replication.

    PubMed

    Freel, Stephanie A; Picking, Ralph A; Ferrari, Guido; Ding, Haitao; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Kirchherr, Jennifer L; Soderberg, Kelly A; Weinhold, Kent J; Cunningham, Coleen K; Denny, Thomas N; Crump, John A; Cohen, Myron S; McMichael, Andrew J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2012-06-01

    CD8-mediated virus inhibition can be detected in HIV-1-positive subjects who naturally control virus replication. Characterizing the inhibitory function of CD8(+) T cells during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) can elucidate the nature of the CD8(+) responses that can be rapidly elicited and that contribute to virus control. We examined the timing and HIV-1 antigen specificity of antiviral CD8(+) T cells during AHI. Autologous and heterologous CD8(+) T cell antiviral functions were assessed longitudinally during AHI in five donors from the CHAVI 001 cohort using a CD8(+) T cell-mediated virus inhibition assay (CD8 VIA) and transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. Potent CD8(+) antiviral responses against heterologous T/F viruses appeared during AHI at the first time point sampled in each of the 5 donors (Fiebig stages 1/2 to 5). Inhibition of an autologous T/F virus was durable to 48 weeks; however, inhibition of heterologous responses declined concurrent with the resolution of viremia. HIV-1 viruses from 6 months postinfection were more resistant to CD8(+)-mediated virus inhibition than cognate T/F viruses, demonstrating that the virus escapes early from CD8(+) T cell-mediated inhibition of virus replication. CD8(+) T cell antigen-specific subsets mediated inhibition of T/F virus replication via soluble components, and these soluble responses were stimulated by peptide pools that include epitopes that were shown to drive HIV-1 escape during AHI. These data provide insights into the mechanisms of CD8-mediated virus inhibition and suggest that functional analyses will be important for determining whether similar antigen-specific virus inhibition can be induced by T cell-directed vaccine strategies.

  1. Expression and the antigenicity of recombinant coat proteins of tungro viruses expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yee, Siew Fung; Chu, Chia Huay; Poili, Evenni; Sum, Magdline Sia Henry

    2017-02-01

    Rice tungro disease (RTD) is a recurring disease affecting rice farming especially in the South and Southeast Asia. The disease is commonly diagnosed by visual observation of the symptoms on diseased plants in paddy fields and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, visual observation is unreliable and PCR can be costly. High-throughput as well as relatively cheap detection methods are important for RTD management for screening large number of samples. Due to this, detection by serological assays such as immunoblotting assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are preferred. However, these serological assays are limited by lack of continuous supply of antibodies as reagents due to the difficulty in preparing sufficient purified virions as antigens. This study aimed to generate and evaluate the reactivity of the recombinant coat proteins of Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) and Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) as alternative antigens to generate antibodies. The genes encoding the coat proteins of both viruses, RTBV (CP), and RTSV (CP1, CP2 and CP3) were cloned and expressed as recombinant fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. All of the recombinant fusion proteins, with the exception of the recombinant fusion protein of the CP2 of RTSV, were reactive against our in-house anti-tungro rabbit serum. In conclusion, our study showed the potential use of the recombinant fusion coat proteins of the tungro viruses as alternative antigens for production of antibodies for diagnostic purposes.

  2. Mendelian and non-mendelian mutations affecting surface antigen expression in Paramecium tetraurelia

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, L.M.; Forney, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A screening procedure was devised for the isolation of X-ray-induced mutations affecting the expression of the A immobilization antigen (i-antigen) in Paramecium tetraurelia. Two of the mutations isolated by this procedure proved to be in modifier genes. The two genes are unlinked to each other and unlinked to the structural A i-antigen gene. These are the first modifier genes identified in a Paramecium sp. that affect surface antigen expression. Another mutation was found to be a deletion of sequences just downstream from the A i-antigen gene. In cells carrying this mutation, the A i-antigen gene lies in close proximity to the end of a macronuclear chromosome. The expression of the A i-antigen is not affected in these cells, demonstrating that downstream sequences are not important for the regulation and expression of the A i-antigen gene. A stable cell line was also recovered which shows non-Mendelian inheritance of a macronuclear deletion of the A i-antigen gene. This mutant does not contain the gene in its macronucleus, but contains a complete copy of the gene in its micronucleus. In the cytoplasm of wild-type animals, the micronuclear gene is included in the developing macronucleus; in the cytoplasm of the mutant, the incorporation of the A i-antigen gene into the macronucleus is inhibited. This is the first evidence that a mechanism is available in ciliates to control the expression of a gene by regulating its incorporation into developing macronuclei.

  3. HIV incidence in the Estonian population in 2013 determined using the HIV-1 limiting antigen avidity assay.

    PubMed

    Soodla, P; Simmons, R; Huik, K; Pauskar, M; Jõgeda, E-L; Rajasaar, H; Kallaste, E; Maimets, M; Avi, R; Murphy, G; Porter, K; Lutsar, I

    2017-08-01

    Estonia has one the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the European Union, mainly among injecting drug users and heterosexuals. Little is known of HIV incidence, which is crucial for limiting the epidemic. Using a recent HIV infection testing algorithm (RITA) assay, we aimed to estimate HIV incidence in 2013. All individuals aged ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with HIV in Estonia January- December 2013, except blood donors and those undergoing antenatal screening, were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the Estonian Health Board and the Estonian HIV-positive patient database. Serum samples were tested for recent infection using the LAg-avidity EIA assay. HIV incidence was estimated based on previously published methods. Of 69,115 tested subjects, 286 (0.41%) were newly-diagnosed with HIV with median age of 33 years (IQR: 28-42) and 65% male. Self-reported routes of HIV transmission were mostly heterosexual contact (n = 157, 53%) and injecting drug use (n = 62, 21%); 64 (22%) were with unknown risk group. Eighty two (36%) were assigned recent, resulting in estimated HIV incidence of 0.06%, corresponding to 642 new infections in 2013 among the non-screened population. Incidence was highest (1.48%) among people who inject drugs. These high HIV incidence estimates in Estonia call for urgent action of renewed targeted public health promotion and HIV testing campaigns. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  4. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Brown, C. Titus; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Adami, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit. PMID:26426037

  5. Differential expression of HLA class II antigens on human fetal and adult lymphocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J A; Jones, D B; Evans, P R; Smith, J L

    1985-01-01

    A panel of monoclonal antibodies to monomorphic determinants of the MHC class II subregion locus products: DP, DR and DQ, was used to investigate the expression of these antigens on early lymphocytes and macrophages from human fetal liver (13-20 weeks), placenta (16 weeks and term) and cord blood, in relation to the class II phenotype of cells from adult tonsil and peripheral blood. Fetal liver sections and cell suspensions showed differential expression of class II antigens. DP was expressed at a higher frequency (11.0% of nucleated cells) than DR on lymphoid cells and macrophages from fetal liver, and DQ was either absent or expressed on less than 0.3% of nucleated cells. Consistent with this finding, DP but not DR or DQ antigens were observed on vascular elements and macrophages in the villi of 16-week placenta. At term, all three subregion locus products were expressed. Adult tonsil and peripheral blood B lymphocytes expressed DP, DR and DQ antigens with similar frequency; however, DQ was expressed at a lower frequency than DP and DR on cord blood B lymphocytes. In contrast, 30-50% macrophages from cord blood and adult peripheral blood expressed DP and DR, but fewer (5% and 18%, respectively) expressed DQ. These data suggest that class II antigens are expressed in the sequence DP, DR, DQ on developing lymphocytes. A similar sequence is suggested for macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3894221

  6. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II antigens in canine masticatory muscle myositis.

    PubMed

    Paciello, Orlando; Shelton, G Diane; Papparella, Serenella

    2007-04-01

    Studies in human immune-mediated inflammatory myopathies have documented expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) and class II (MHC class II) antigens on muscle fiber membranes in the presence or absence of cellular infiltration. Here we evaluate the presence and distribution of these antigens in canine masticatory muscle myositis, an immune-mediated inflammatory myopathy. Twelve samples of temporalis and masseter muscles from dogs with a clinical diagnosis of canine masticatory muscle myositis were examined by immunohistochemistry and double-immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. MHC class I and class II antigens were expressed in muscle fibers independent of inflammatory cell infiltration. Furthermore MHC class I and class II antigens were expressed on the sarcolemma and co-localized with dystrophin. Our results suggest that MHC class I and class II expression in canine masticatory muscle myositis may play a role in the initiation and maintenance of the pathological condition, rather than just a consequence of a preceding local inflammation.

  7. Cryptococcosis in HIV-infected hospitalized patients in Germany: Evidence for routine antigen testing.

    PubMed

    Katchanov, Juri; Jefferys, Laura; Tominski, Daniela; Wöstmann, Kai; Slevogt, Hortense; Arastéh, Keikawus; Stocker, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of routine cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) testing in HIV-infected patients in a low prevalence setting. Retrospective single centre cohort study of a 10-year period (2005-2014). 5461 patients tested for CRAG were included. Cryptococcal antigenaemia was found in 1.6% and 1.1% of patients with CD4 counts of ≤100/μl and 101-200/μl, respectively. The positive predictive values for identifying clinically relevant cryptococcal disease was 96% and 100%, respectively. Half of the patients had a non-specific presentation and median time-to-diagnosis was high (5 days, range 1-44 days). The median time-to-diagnosis in direct admissions to our centre with routine CRAG testing was significantly shorter: 1 day (range: 1-17) vs. 7 days (range: 2-44), p = 0.003. Prevalence of cryptococcal antigenaemia was 2.8% in patients with pneumocystis pneumonia and median time-to-diagnosis of cryptococcosis was significantly longer in this subgroup (15 days; range: 1-44 vs. 3 days; range: 1-17; p = 0.008). CRAG titres ≥1:512 were associated with disseminated disease (OR 21.3, p = 0.0008, 95% CI 1.64-277), however, 10% of patients with disseminated cryptococcosis had CRAG titres <1:16. Our data support routine CRAG testing in hospitalized HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤200/μl, and/or pneumocystis pneumonia. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8{sup +} T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Patrick Y.; Ng, Hwee L.; Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O'Connor, Sean; Yang, Otto O.; Chen, Irvin S.Y.

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8{sup +} T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8{sup +} T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24{sup Gag} in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect.

  9. Bcl-2 in combination to myeloid antigen expression in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia and prognostic outcome.

    PubMed

    Amirghofran, Zahra; Daneshbod, Yahya; Gholijani, Naser

    2009-01-01

    The present study was performed to find the importance of two myeloid (CD13 and CD33) antigens aberrantly expressed on the blasts of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and Bcl-2 expression in relation to clinical and biological features and treatment outcome. Bone marrow or peripheral blood samples of 50 patients were assessed for the expression of markers by immunostaining methods. Twenty-one patients (42%) showed more than 20% positivity for Bcl-2. Aberrant expression of myeloid antigens was found in 14% of cases. The expression of Bcl-2 was associated with shorter survival (p = 0.009). A significant correlation between expression of myeloid antigens (MY) and survival and complete remission duration was found. The mean survival was 656 + 301 days for MY+ cases and 1009 +/- 230 days for MY- patients (p < 0.0001). Expression of Bcl-2 in combination to myeloid antigens was associated with a poorer outcome. Survival of MY+ patients expressing Bcl-2 was shorter than MY- Bcl-2+ and MY+ Bcl-2- ALL cases (p = 0.038). In conclusion, results of this study indicated the prognostic value of Bcl-2 and myeloid antigen expression in ALL patients. Presence of these markers together on the leukemic cells was associated with a poorer response to therapy and may implicate modified therapeutic strategies in the patients.

  10. Short Communication: Low False Recent Rate of Limiting Antigen-Avidity Assay Combined with HIV-1 RNA Data in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Kotokwe, Kenanao P; Mohammed, Terence; Boleo, Corretah; Mupfumi, Lucy; Chishala, Samuel; Tsalaile, Lesedi; Bussmann, Hermann; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Musonda, Rosemary; Makhema, Joseph; Baum, Marianna; Marlink, Richard; Engelbrecht, Susan; Essex, Max; Novitsky, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional estimation of HIV incidence could misclassify some established or chronic HIV infections as recent. Usually long-term nonprogressors, elite and viremic controllers, and individuals on ART contribute to misclassification. Local data on the false recent rate (FRR) could minimize misclassification during estimation of HIV incidence. To improve monitoring of HIV incidence, we estimated local FRR in Botswana. A total of 1,036 specimens from individuals infected for at least 1.5-2 years were sampled between 2004 and 2009 and tested using the limiting antigen (LAg)-avidity assay using a cutoff of 1.5 normalized optical density units. The FRR was 0.97% (10/1,036; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-1.77). Four samples had HIV-1 RNA >1,000 cps/ml, giving an adjusted FRR of 0.39% (4/1,036; 95% CI 0.11-0.99). A combination of LAg and HIV-1 RNA load data resulted in FRR below 1% in the Botswana population.

  11. Ectopic ATP synthase facilitates transfer of HIV-1 from antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ target cells

    PubMed Central

    Yavlovich, Amichai; Viard, Mathias; Zhou, Ming; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Wang, Ji Ming; Gong, Wanghua; Heldman, Eliahu; Blumenthal, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) act as vehicles that transfer HIV to their target CD4+ cells through an intercellular junction, termed the virologic synapse. The molecules that are involved in this process remain largely unidentified. In this study, we used photoaffinity labeling and a proteomic approach to identify new proteins that facilitate HIV-1 transfer. We identified ectopic mitochondrial ATP synthase as a factor that mediates HIV-1 transfer between APCs and CD4+ target cells. Monoclonal antibodies against the β-subunit of ATP synthase inhibited APC-mediated transfer of multiple strains HIV-1 to CD4+ target cells. Likewise, the specific inhibitors of ATPase, citreoviridin and IF1, completely blocked APC-mediated transfer of HIV-1 at the APC-target cell interaction step. Confocal fluorescent microscopy showed localization of extracellular ATP synthase at junctions between APC and CD4+ target cells. We conclude that ectopic ATP synthase could be an accessible molecular target for inhibiting HIV-1 proliferation in vivo. PMID:22753871

  12. Major histocompatibility complex class II antigen expression in B and T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M E; Holgate, C S; Williamson, J M; Grigor, I; Quirke, P; Bird, C C

    1987-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of 46 B and T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, using monoclonal antibodies to the products of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen subregions, DP, DQ, and DR, showed that most B and T cell lymphomas express these antigens. Both coordinate and non-coordinate expression of MHC class II antigens was observed, but this did not correlate with immunological phenotype, morphological grade, or proliferation index as determined by flow cytometry. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:3546388

  13. Mutations that impair a posttranscriptional step in expression of HLA-A and -B antigens.

    PubMed Central

    DeMars, R; Rudersdorf, R; Chang, C; Petersen, J; Strandtmann, J; Korn, N; Sidwell, B; Orr, H T

    1985-01-01

    Mutations can interfere with posttranscriptional expression of the HLA-A and -B genes. B-lymphoblastoid cells that contain one copy of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were subjected to mutagenesis and immunoselection for MHC antigen-loss mutants. Some mutations partially reduced surface expression of HLA-A and eliminated HLA-B expression concurrently, although the HLA-A and -B genes were present and transcribed. Antigen expression was fully restored in hybrids of these mutants with other B-lymphoblastoid cells. Therefore, normal cell surface expression of the HLA-A and -B antigens on B lymphoblasts requires (i) execution of at least one trans-active step in the production of the antigens after transcription of the HLA-A and -B genes or (ii) association of the class I antigens with other molecules. DNA analysis of one mutant suggests the possibility that a locus required for the normal expression of the HLA-A and -B antigens is located between the MHC complement genes and the HLA-DP alpha II locus. Images PMID:3906658

  14. Dendritic Cell Targeting of Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-28

    Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice from lethal challenge M...lethal chal- lenge. A vaccine strategy was established by using Lactobacillus acidophilus to deliver Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) via...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice

  15. Multi-scale silica structures for improved HIV-1 Capsid (p24) antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sophia; Hedde, Per Niklas; Venugopalan, Vasan; Gratton, Enrico; Khine, Michelle

    2016-06-20

    Silica (SiO2) micro- and nanostructures fabricated with pre-stressed thermoplastic shrink wrap film have been shown to yield far-field fluorescence signal enhancements over their planar or wrinkled counterparts. The SiO2 structures have previously been used for improved detection of fluorescently labelled proteins and DNA. In this work, we probe the mechanism responsible for the dramatic increases in fluorescence signal intensity. Optical characterization studies attribute the fluorescence signal enhancements to increased surface density and light scattering from the rough SiO2 structures. Using this information, we come up with a theoretical approximation for the enhancement factor based off the scattering effects alone. We show that increased deposition thickness of SiO2 yields improved fluorescence signal enhancements, with an optimal SiO2 thin layer achieved at 20 nm. Finally, we show that the SiO2 substrates serve as a suitable platform for disease diagnostics, and show improved limits of detection (LOD) for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 antigen.

  16. In vitro HIV Type 1 infection indirectly alters CD127 expression on CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Vranjkovic, Agatha; Crawley, Angela M; Angel, Jonathan B

    2012-03-01

    Decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-7 receptor α (CD127) on CD8(+) T cells in progressive HIV disease suggests a role for CD127 regulation in HIV immunopathogenesis. The direct effect of HIV on CD127 expression has not been explored to explain these in vivo findings. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or isolated CD8(+) T cells from healthy individuals were cultured with either X4 (HIV-1(IIIB)), R5 (HIV-1(BaL)), dual tropic (HIV-1(CS204)), or replication-incompetent (HIV(8E5)) strains of HIV. Both X4 and R5 strains transiently decreased CD127 expression on CD8(+) T cells in PBMC cultures but had no effect on isolated CD8(+) T cell cultures. Isolated CD8(+) T cells exposed to either (1) PBMCs incubated with HIV and cultured in a transwell or (2) supernatants from PBMCs incubated with HIV resulted in decreased CD127 expression. Under no conditions did the replication-incompetent HIV strain affect CD127 expression. As observed in vivo, infection of PBMCs with HIV in vitro results in the downregulation of CD127 surface expression on CD8(+) T cells. Collectively, these data indicate that soluble factor(s) released as a result of HIV infection regulate CD127 expression. Further elucidation of the mechanism(s) of CD127 downregulation will provide important insights into the immunopathogenesis of HIV disease.

  17. Cytokines Elevated in HIV Elite Controllers Reduce HIV Replication In Vitro and Modulate HIV Restriction Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Evan S; Keating, Sheila M; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Gibb, Stuart L; Heitman, John W; Inglis, Heather C; Martin, Jeffrey N; Zhang, Jinbing; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Deng, Xutao; Wu, Shiquan; Anastos, Kathryn; Crystal, Howard; Villacres, Maria C; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Landay, Alan L; Gange, Stephen J; Deeks, Steven G; Golub, Elizabeth T; Pillai, Satish K; Norris, Philip J

    2017-03-15

    A subset of HIV-infected individuals termed elite controllers (ECs) maintain CD4(+) T cell counts and control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Systemic cytokine responses may differentiate ECs from subjects with uncontrolled viral replication or from those who require ART to suppress viral replication. We measured 87 cytokines in four groups of women: 73 ECs, 42 with pharmacologically suppressed viremia (ART), 42 with uncontrolled viral replication (noncontrollers [NCs]), and 48 HIV-uninfected (NEG) subjects. Four cytokines were elevated in ECs but not NCs or ART subjects: CCL14, CCL21, CCL27, and XCL1. In addition, median stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) levels were 43% higher in ECs than in NCs. The combination of the five cytokines suppressed R5 and X4 virus replication in resting CD4(+) T cells, and individually SDF-1β, CCL14, and CCL27 suppressed R5 virus replication, while SDF-1β, CCL21, and CCL14 suppressed X4 virus replication. Functional studies revealed that the combination of the five cytokines upregulated CD69 and CCR5 and downregulated CXCR4 and CCR7 on CD4(+) T cells. The CD69 and CXCR4 effects were driven by SDF-1, while CCL21 downregulated CCR7. The combination of the EC-associated cytokines induced expression of the anti-HIV host restriction factors IFITM1 and IFITM2 and suppressed expression of RNase L and SAMHD1. These results identify a set of cytokines that are elevated in ECs and define their effects on cellular activation, HIV coreceptor expression, and innate restriction factor expression. This cytokine pattern may be a signature characteristic of HIV-1 elite control, potentially important for HIV therapeutic and curative strategies.IMPORTANCE Approximately 1% of people infected with HIV control virus replication without taking antiviral medications. These subjects, termed elite controllers (ECs), are known to have stronger immune responses targeting HIV than the typical HIV-infected subject, but the

  18. Bioreactor aeration conditions modulate growth and antigen expression during Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae cultivation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Adilson José; de Baptista-Neto, Alvaro; do Carmo Cilento, Maria; de Campos Giordano, Roberto; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2008-05-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the causative agent of swine erysipelas, was cultivated in a 5-L stirred and aerated bioreactor under different dissolved oxygen tensions (0%, 5%, and 30% of saturation) for evaluation of the influence of oxygen on cell growth as well as on the production of the main antigenic component of the vaccine against erysipelas, a 64-69 kDa protein (SpaA). The microorganism presented different growth profiles for different aeration conditions. However, at the end of the batch cultivations, similar cell concentrations were obtained under the studied conditions. In order to maximize biomass titers and antigen production, the microorganism was cultivated in fed-batch operation mode under aerobic conditions. Under this condition, there was a fivefold increase in biomass production in comparison to the results attained in batch cultivations. To follow up antigen expression, samples collected during batch cultivations were concentrated and treated with choline for antigen extraction. Antigen expression was then assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by murine immunization tests. It was observed a direct influence of oxygen availability upon antigen expression, which is favored in the presence of oxygen. Analysis of the samples collected throughout the fed-batch process also revealed that antigen production is growth associated.

  19. Expression and immunogenicity of novel subunit enterovirus 71 VP1 antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Juan; Wang, Shixia; Gan, Weihua; Zhang, Wenhong; Ju, Liwen; Huang, Zuhu; Lu, Shan

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EV71 is a major emerging infectious disease in many Asian countries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivated EV71 vaccines are in clinical studies but their safety and efficacy are unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developing subunit based EV71 vaccines is significant and novel antigen design is needed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA immunization is an efficient tool to test the immunogenicity of VP1 based EV71 vaccines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple VP1 antigens are developed showing immunogenic potential. -- Abstract: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness in young children. HFMD is caused by viruses belonging to the enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family. Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a virulent agent for HFMD with severe clinical outcomes. In the current report, we conducted a pilot antigen engineering study to optimize the expression and immunogenicity of subunit VP1 antigen for the design of EV71 vaccines. DNA immunization was adopted as a simple technical approach to test different designs of VP1 antigens without the need to express VP1 protein in vitro first. Our studies indicated that the expression and immunogenicity of VP1 protein can be improved with alternated VP1 antigen designs. Data presented in the current report revealed novel pathways to optimize the design of VP1 antigen-based EV71 vaccines.

  20. Novel methods for expression of foreign antigens in live vector vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Yuan; Harley, Regina H.; Galen, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial live vector vaccines represent a vaccine development strategy that offers exceptional flexibility. In this approach, genes encoding protective antigens of unrelated bacterial, viral or parasitic pathogens are expressed in an attenuated bacterial vaccine strain that delivers these foreign antigens to the immune system, thereby eliciting relevant immune responses. Rather than expressing these antigens using low copy expression plasmids, here we pursue expression of foreign proteins from the live vector chromosome. Our strategy is designed to compensate for the inherent disadvantage of loss of gene dosage (vs. plasmid-based expression) by integrating antigen-encoding gene cassettes into multiple chromosomal sites already inactivated in an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine candidate. We tested expression of a cassette encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) integrated separately into native guaBA, htrA or clyA chromosomal loci. Using single integrations, we show that expression levels of GFPuv are significantly affected by the site of integration, regardless of the inclusion of additional strong promoters within the incoming cassette. Using cassettes integrated into both guaBA and htrA, we observe cumulative synthesis levels from two integration sites superior to single integrations. Most importantly, we observe that GFPuv expression increases in a growth phase-dependent manner, suggesting that foreign antigen synthesis may be “tuned” to the physiology of the live vaccine. We expect this novel platform expression technology to prove invaluable in the development of a wide variety of multivalent live vector vaccines, capable of expressing multiple antigens from both chromosomal and plasmid-based expression systems within a single strain. PMID:23406777

  1. Enhanced antigen-presenting capacity of cultured Langerhans' cells is associated with markedly increased expression of Ia antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, S.; Caughman, S.W.; Sharrow, S.O.; Stephany, D.; Katz, S.I.

    1987-10-15

    Recent studies indicate that when epidermal Langerhans' cells (LC) are cultured for 2 to 3 days they, in comparison to freshly prepared LC, exhibit markedly enhanced ability to stimulate T cell proliferative responses in oxidative mitogenesis and in the mixed epidermal-leukocyte reaction. In this study, we determined whether cultured LC enhance antigen-specific T cell responses, and whether such enhanced stimulatory capacity correlates with the level of Ia antigen expressed on LC. We used C3H/He (Iak) epidermal cells as stimulators and, as responder cells, both the trinitrophenyl-specific clones D8 and SE4, which were assayed for (/sup 3/H)dThd incorporation, and the pigeon cytochrome c specific hybridoma 2C2, which was assayed for interleukin 2 production. Cultured LC induced 10 to 100 times greater proliferation or interleukin 2 production by responder cells than did freshly prepared LC. The intensity of I-Ak and I-Ek, expressed on cultured LC as assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, was found to be 10 to 36 times greater on a per cell basis than that on freshly prepared LC. Depletion of LC from fresh epidermal cell suspensions by anti-Iak and complement or treatment with 50 mJ/cm/sup 2/ medium range ultraviolet light or cycloheximide before culture abrogated both the increase in Ia expression and antigen-specific clonal proliferation. The results suggest that when LC are removed from their usual epidermal milieu, they express increased amounts of Ia and become more potent stimulators of T cell responses.

  2. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Wang, Xue; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s) for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death. PMID:27144577

  3. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Wang, Xue; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-05-02

    While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s) for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death.

  4. Update on baculovirus as an expression and/or delivery vehicle for vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yeh; Chung, Yao-Chi; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2014-12-01

    After three decades of development, the baculovirus/insect cell expression system is now recognized as a powerful platform for recombinant protein production. With a number of distinct advantages, the baculovirus/insect cell expression system has been extensively used for the production of various vaccine candidates, and several human and veterinary vaccine products have been commercially available. In addition to insect cells, baculovirus is capable of entering a broad range of mammalian cells, lending itself to a promising gene delivery vehicle for antigen expression and display in vivo. The use of baculovirus for antigen expression and delivery has been reviewed in 2008. Rather than a critical evaluation, this paper aims to provide an update of the applications of baculovirus as an in vitro or in vivo antigen expression/delivery vehicle, with special focuses on developments and advances after 2008.

  5. Immunogenicity of an eight amino acid domain shared by Fas (CD95/Apo-I) and HIV-1 gp120. I. Structural and antigenic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Silvestris, F.; Cocco, T.; Cafforio, P.; Calvani, N.; Dammacco, F.

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to VEINCTR-N, a domain shared by Fas (CD95/Apo-I) and gp120, contribute to T-cell apoptosis during human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection as a result of the agonist cross-linking of Fas. The present work was designed to determine whether these molecules are elicited primarily to HIV-1 or the cell receptor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sera from 439 HIV-1-infected patients were screened by ELISA for their reactivity to VEINCTR-N. Subjects with significant serum elevations of IgG anti-VEINCTR-N were further investigated. Immunologic parameters, including CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte count, extent of T-cell apoptosis, occurrence of both anti-Fas antibodies and circulating soluble Fas titers, and reactivity to the 8-mer peptides resembling the flank-regions of VEINCTR-N on both gp120 V3 loop and Fas were examined. In addition, the antigenicity of these domains was assessed by biochemical and computerized analyses. RESULTS: 21 patients with significant levels of IgG to VEINCTR-N showed both an increased extent of peripheral T-cell apoptosis and binding to full-length Fas. A weak, though positive correlation of the anti-VEINCTR-N activity with its antecedent peptide on Fas was also found. Charge and structural analysis revealed that, although the extended 26-amino acid (a.a.) regions on both proteins were hydrophilic, the Fas peptide adjacent to VEINCTR-N expressed a short beta-conformed a.a. sequence in contiguity with a portion of the shared epitope, also in beta-sheet conformation. Patterns of antigenicity confirmed an apparent immunodominance of the full VEINCTR-N, based on its homology with the consensus sequence of other members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. The hypothesis that the high immunogenicity of this region of Fas, rather than gp120, can drive the production of anti-VEINCTR-N antibodies also was supported by the concurrent significant elevations of soluble

  6. Interleukin 12 inhibits antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and Th2 cytokine expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia, and may be mediated by T helper (Th) lymphocytes expressing a Th2 cytokine pattern. Interleukin (IL) 12 suppresses the expression of Th2 cytokines and their associated responses, including eosinophilia, serum immunoglobulin E, and mucosal mastocytosis. We have previously shown in a murine model that antigen- induced increases in airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia are CD4+ T cell dependent. We used this model to determine the ability of IL-12 to prevent antigen-induced increases in airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils, and lung Th2 cytokine expression. Sensitized A/J mice developed airway hyperresponsiveness and increased numbers of BAL eosinophils and other inflammatory cells after single or repeated intratracheal challenges with sheep red blood cell antigen. Pulmonary mRNA and protein levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 were increased after antigen challenge. Administration of IL-12 (1 microgram/d x 5 d) at the time of a single antigen challenge abolished the airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia and promoted an increase in interferon (IFN) gamma and decreases in IL-4 and IL-5 expression. The effects of IL-12 were partially dependent on IFN-gamma, because concurrent treatment with IL-12 and anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody partially reversed the inhibition of airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia by IL-12. Treatment of mice with IL-12 at the time of a second antigen challenge also prevented airway hyperresponsiveness and significantly reduced numbers of BAL inflammatory cells, reflecting the ability of IL-12 to inhibit responses associated with ongoing antigen-induced pulmonary inflammation. These data show that antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation can be blocked by IL-12, which suppresses Th2 cytokine expression. Local administration of IL-12 may provide a novel

  7. C-myc oncogene expression in human melanoma and its relationship with tumour antigenicity.

    PubMed

    Grover, R; Ross, D A; Richman, P I; Robinson, B; Wilson, G D

    1996-08-01

    Melanoma produces specific tumour antigens which are capable of eliciting an immune response. However, this tumour evades the immune system, in part, by downregulation of class I HLA antigens on the cell surface, which are required for T cell recognition. It has been suggested that the oncogene c-myc may have a role in effecting this change in vitro, however, the relationship between oncoprotein level and tumour antigenicity has not been established in human tumours. This study measured c-myc oncoprotein in 94 melanoma specimens (46 primary tumours and 48 regional metastases) using flow cytometry and evaluated class I HLA expression with immunohistochemistry. C-myc expression was found in 91 tumours (96%) with higher expression in metastases than primary melanomas (P<0.005). Class I HLA expression was found to show great variation although metastases showed less antigenicity than primary tumours (P<0.01). Analysis of the relationship between these two parameters revealed a highly significant correlation in both primary (P<0.01) and metastatic disease (P<0.01), with high oncoprotein being associated with down regulation of cell surface antigens. Knowledge of the control of tumour antigenicity is likely to provide an objective platform for the development of new strategies for immunotherapy.

  8. Ectopic expression of cancer testis antigens in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma (CTCL) patients

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Ivan V.; Cordeiro, Brendan; Huang, Yuanshen; Zargham, Hanieh; Pehr, Kevin; Doré, Marc-André; Gilbert, Martin; Zhou, Youwen; Kupper, Thomas S.; Sasseville, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The pathogenesis of CTCL remains only partially understood. A number of recent studies attempted to identify novel diagnostic markers and future therapeutic targets. One group of antigens, cancer-testis (CT) antigens, normally present solely in testicular germ cells, can be ectopically expressed in a variety of cancers. Currently only a few studies attempted to investigate the expression of CT antigens in CTCL. Experimental Design In the present work we test the expression of CT genes in a cohort of CTCL patients, normal skin samples, skin from benign inflammatory dermatoses and in patient-derived CTCL cells. We correlate such expression with the p53 status and explore molecular mechanisms behind their ectopic expression in these cells. Results Our findings demonstrate that SYCP1, SYCP3, REC8, SPO11 and GTSF1 genes are heterogeneously expressed in CTCL patients and patient-derived cell lines, while cTAGE1 was found to be robustly expressed in both. Mutated p53 status did not appear to be a requirement for the ectopic expression of CT antigens. While T cell stimulation resulted in a significant upregulation of STAT3 and JUNB expression, it did not significantly alter the expression of CT antigens. Treatment of CTCL cells in-vitro with Vorinostat or Romidepsin Histone Deacetylase inhibitors resulted in a significant dose-dependent upregulation of mRNA, but not protein. Further expression analysis demonstrated that SYCP1, cTAGE1 and GTSF1 were expressed in CTCL, but not in normal skin or benign inflammatory dermatoses. Conclusions A number of CT genes are ectopically expressed in CTCL patients and can be used as biomarkers or novel targets for immunotherapy. PMID:24850846

  9. [MHC class I antigens, CD4 and CD8 expressions in polymyositis and dermatomyositis].

    PubMed

    Graça, Carla Renata; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the frequencies of the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) antigens, and CD4 and CD8 cells in skeletal muscle in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). This was a retrospective study of 34 PM cases, 8 DM cases, and 29 control patients with non-inflammatory myopathies. MHC-I antigens were expressed in the sarcolemma and/or sarcoplasm in 79.4% of PM cases, 62.5% of DM cases, and 27.6% of controls (CD4 expression was observed in 76.5%, 75%, and 13.8%, respectively). There was a high suspicion of PM/DM (mainly PM) in patients in whom MHC-I antigens and CD4 were co-expressed. In 14.3% of PM/DM cases, we observed MHC-I antigens expression alone, without inflammatory cells. MCH-I antigens expression and CD4 positivity might add to strong diagnostic suspicion of PM/DM. No cellular infiltration was observed in 14.3% of such cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Recent HIV-1 Infection Using a New Limiting-Antigen Avidity Assay: Potential for HIV-1 Incidence Estimates and Avidity Maturation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Yen T.; Qiu, Maofeng; De, Anindya K.; Jackson, Keisha; Dobbs, Trudy; Kim, Andrea A.; Nkengasong, John N.; Parekh, Bharat S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate and reliable laboratory methods are needed for estimation of HIV-1 incidence to identify the high-risk populations and target and monitor prevention efforts. We previously described a single-well limiting-antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA) to detect recent HIV-1 infection. Methods We describe here further optimization and characterization of LAg-Avidity EIA, comparing it to the BED assay and a two-well avidity-index (AI) EIA. Specimen sets included longitudinal sera (n = 393), collected from 89 seroconverting individuals from 4 cohorts representing 4 HIV-1 subtypes, and sera from AIDS patients (n = 488) with or without TB co-infections from 3 different cohorts. Ninety seven HIV-1 positive specimens were purchased commercially. The BED assay, LAg-Avidity EIA, AI-EIA and HIV serology were performed, as needed. Results Monitoring quality control specimens indicated high reproducibility of the LAg-Avidity EIA with coefficient of variation of <10% in the dynamic range. The LAg-Avidity EIA has an overall mean duration of recency (ω) of 141 days (95% CI 119–160) at normalized optical density (ODn) cutoff of 1.0, with similar ω in different HIV-1 subtypes and populations (132 to 143 days). Antibody avidity kinetics were similar among individuals and subtypes by both the LAg-Avidity EIA and AI-EIA compared to the HIV-IgG levels measured by the BED assay. The false recent rate among individuals with AIDS was 0.2% with the LAg-Avidity EIA, compared to 2.9% with the BED assay. Western blot profiles of specimens with increasing avidity confirm accurate detection of recent HIV-1 infections. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the LAg-Avidity EIA is a promising assay with consistent ω in different populations and subtypes. The assay should be very useful for 1) estimating HIV-1 incidence in cross-sectional specimens as part of HIV surveillance, 2) identifying risk factors for recent infections, 3) measuring impact of

  11. Effect of promoter strength on protein expression and immunogenicity of an HSV-1 amplicon vector encoding HIV-1 Gag

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kathlyn; Duke, Cindy M.P.; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol M.; Dakwar, Anthony; Fan, Shongshan; Keefer, Michael C.; Federoff, Howard J.; Frelinger, John G.; Bowers, William J.; Dewhurst., Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Helper-free herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors elicit robust immune responses to encoded proteins, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) antigens. To improve this vaccine delivery system, seven amplicon vectors were constructed, each encoding HIV-1 Gag under the control of a different promoter. Gag expression levels were analyzed in murine and human cell lines, as well as in biopsied tissue samples from injected mice; these data were then compared with Gag-specific T cell responses in BALB/c mice. The magnitude of the amplicon-induced immune response was found to correlate strongly with the level of Gag production both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the best correlation of the strength of the amplicon-induced immune response was with antigen expression in cultured DC rather than expression at the tissue site of injection or in cultured cell lines. These findings may have implications for the generation of improved HSV-1 amplicon vectors for HIV-1 vaccine delivery. PMID:17145123

  12. HIV/AIDS and professional freedom of expression in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Masami

    2002-07-01

    A senior physician with a government role in Japan made a widely reported and misleading statement about Thailand's policy on HIV/AIDS patients. He claimed that in Thailand the policy is to spend public money on the prevention of HIV infection while allowing AIDS patients to die untreated. The author, a community nursing specialist in Japan with first-hand knowledge of HIV/AIDS policy in Thailand, thought that this statement would influence attitudes negatively in Japan. However, speaking out about this misrepresentation of the facts carried certain risks. Although freedom of expression is valued in Japan, in practice it is not easy to contradict senior medical professionals. The author uses his experience of this difficult professional situation to teach nurses how to approach speaking out in the public interest.

  13. Varying expression of major histocompatibility complex antigens on human renal endothelium and epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P. R.; Trickett, L. P.; Smith, J. L.; MacIver, A. G.; Tate, D.; Slapak, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pre-anastomosis wedge biopsies from 14 cadaveric donor kidneys were examined for the expression of class I (HLA-ABC) and class II (HLA-DR) antigens in renal tissue. Two monoclonal antibodies to class I antigens and four to class II antigens were used in an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Consistent expression of both antigens was demonstrated on the surface of glomerular, peritubular capillary and venous endothelial cells. Renal arteries contained only class I antigens. Proximal tubules contained varying amounts of each antigen in their cytoplasm. Sixteen human lymphocytotoxic allo-antisera showed marked variation in their ability to detect HLA antigens on the kidney. The selection of donors for recipients of renal allografts involves the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test and the failure of some lymphocytotoxic antisera to bind to the kidney indicates that some suitable patients may be incorrectly excluded. The use of a binding assay using an immunoperoxidase technique should be included in cross-match techniques particularly for patients who have high levels of circulating cytotoxic antibodies. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3855644

  14. Expression of PCV2 antigen in the ovarian tissues of gilts

    PubMed Central

    TUMMARUK, Padet; PEARODWONG, Pachara

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the expression of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antigen in the ovarian tissue of naturally infected gilts. Ovarian tissues were obtained from 11 culled gilts. The ovarian tissues sections were divided into two groups according to PCV2 DNA detection using PCR. PCV2 antigen was assessed in the paraffin embedded ovarian tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. A total of 2,131 ovarian follicles (i.e., 1,437 primordial, 133 primary, 353 secondary and 208 antral follicles), 66 atretic follicles and 131 corpora lutea were evaluated. It was found that PCV2 antigen was detected in 280 ovarian follicles (i.e., 239 primordial follicles, 12 primary follicles, 10 secondary follicles and 19 antral follicles), 1 atretic follicles and 3 corpora lutea (P<0.05). PCV2 antigen was detected in primordial follicles more often than in secondary follicles, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (P<0.05). The detection of PCV2 antigen was found mainly in oocytes. PCV2 antigen was found in both PCV2 DNA positive and negative ovarian tissues. It can be concluded that PCV2 antigen is expressed in all types of the ovarian follicles and corpora lutea. Further studies should be carried out to determine the influence of PCV2 on porcine ovarian function and oocyte quality. PMID:26522687

  15. Properties of B cells and Thy-1-antigen-expressing cells infiltrating rat renal allografts

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczynski, D.; Halttunen, J.; Tiisala, S.; Ustinov, J.; Renkonen, R.; Haeyry, P. )

    1990-10-01

    We have examined (1) the frequency of B cells secreting antibodies against donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and (2) the properties of Thy-1-antigen-expressing leukocytes in rats rejecting renal allografts. Our results show that B cells secreting antibodies are present in the inflammatory cell population at the frequency of 1:850. Among them only 1 out of 2-150 is engaged in production of antibodies directed to the graft MHC antigens, depending on the method of assay. This suggests that despite the observed significant production of nonspecific immunoglobulin in situ, only a minority of the B-cell population is specifically committed to the graft MHC antigens. This finding is concordant with the described previously low frequencies of the T cells specifically directed toward the graft MHC antigen. The role of the immunologically noncommitted cells in graft rejection is unknown. We have found that a substantial part (up to 60%) of inflammatory cells invading a rat kidney allograft express the Thy-1 antigen. This suggests that they might be immature (progenitor ) cells and, therefore, unable to respond to the graft antigens. Progenitor-like properties of these cells have been confirmed by their ability to reconstitute lethally irradiated syngeneic rat. Finally, these immature cells are of lymphoid, not of myeloid, linkage, because they do not proliferate in the presence of GM-CSF.

  16. Induction of Human Blood Group A Antigen Expression on Mouse Cells, Using Lentiviral Gene Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohu; Lang, Haili; Zhou, Xianpei; Zhang, Li; Yin, Rong; Maciejko, Jessica; Giannitsos, Vasiliki; Motyka, Bruce; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ABO histo-blood group system is the most important antigen system in transplantation medicine, yet no small animal model of the ABO system exists. To determine the feasibility of developing a murine model, we previously subcloned the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (H-transferase, EC 2.4.1.69) cDNA and the human α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (A-transferase, EC 2.4.1.40) cDNA into lentiviral vectors to study their ability to induce human histo-blood group A antigen expression on mouse cells. Herein we investigated the optimal conditions for human A and H antigen expression in murine cells. We determined that transduction of a bicistronic lentiviral vector (LvEF1-AH-trs) resulted in the expression of A antigen in a mouse endothelial cell line. We also studied the in vivo utility of this vector to induce human A antigen expression in mouse liver. After intrahepatic injection of LvEF1-AH-trs, A antigen expression was observed on hepatocytes as detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. In human group A erythrocyte-sensitized mice, A antigen expression in the liver was associated with tissue damage, and deposition of antibody and complement. These results suggest that this gene transfer strategy can be used to simulate the human ABO blood group system in a murine model. This model will facilitate progress in the development of interventions for ABO-incompatible transplantation and transfusion scenarios, which are difficult to develop in clinical or large animal settings. PMID:20163247

  17. [HIV/AIDS: expression of nursing students imaginary through photography].

    PubMed

    Leyva, Juan M; Mestres, Lourdes; Lluva, Alicia; De Dios, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Caring for people with HIV is an exercise of reflection and self-analysis in relation to our own beliefs about it. Along with the personal and social values, future nursing professional' beliefs have an important paper in the field of stigmatized diseases such as HIV infection, and may have an impact on nursing care. The aim of this study is to deeply know the meaning of the possibility of living with HIV among nursing students, bringing us a closer understanding of the subjective beliefs that give meaning to the act of caring. Qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Data collection was done through photographs and reflective stories. Living with HIV would change their lives, associating it to illness and fear of social rejection. Planning the future appears difficult, generating kind of uncertainty. However, some light of hope and social change is also observed. The possibility of acquiring HIV is lived as a negative experience associated with old fashioned experiences. It is necessary to facilitate forms of expression to visualize the internal processes of the opinions and invite discussion and permeation to other perspectives that may have an impact, direct or indirect, in nursing care.

  18. [Prokaryotic expression, purification and antigenicity identification of recombinant human survivin protein].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaotao; Wang, Wei; Tian, Renli; Xu, Yuanji; Yan, Jinqi; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Jiangping; Yu, Jiyun

    2013-08-01

    To construct a prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a-survivin, optimize the recombinant protein expression conditions in E.coli, and purify the survivin recombinant protein and identify its antigenicity. Survivin cDNA segment was amplified by PCR and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET28a(+) to construct the recombinant expression vector pET28a-survivin. The expression vector was transformed into BL21 (DE3) and the fusion protein survivin/His was induced by IPTG. The fusion protein was purified through Ni affinity chromatography. The antigenicity of the purified survivin protein was identified by Western blotting and ELISA. The recombinant expression vector was verified successfully by BamHI and HindIII. The fusion protein induced by IPTG was obtained with Mr; about 24 000. The purity of the purified protein reached 90% by SDS-PAGE analysis. And the antigenicity of the survivin protein was validated by Western blotting and ELISA. The prokaryotic expression plasmid pET28a-survivin was successfully constructed and the survivin protein was expressed and purified in E.coli. The antigenicity of the purified survivin protein was demonstrated desirable.

  19. Lewis Antigen Expression by Helicobacter pylori Strains Colonizing Different Regions of the Stomach of Individual Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Valencia, Gerardo; Muñoz-Perez, Leopoldo; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier

    2008-01-01

    The diversity in the expression of Lewis antigens (Le) of 226 single colonies of Helicobacter pylori isolated from four regions of the stomach of eight adults is shown. Ley was expressed more in strains colonizing antrum than in strains colonizing fundus, whereas Lex was more common in fundus strains. cagA+ strains were more associated with Le-negative strains. PMID:18550746

  20. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiming; Modiano, Jaime F; Ito, Daisuke

    2017-03-30

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1(-) and SSEA-1(+) cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines.

  1. Increased expression of nuclear envelope gp210 antigen in small bile ducts in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Minoru; Takii, Yasushi; Ito, Masahiro; Komori, Atsumasa; Yokoyama, Terufumi; Shimizu-Yoshida, Yuki; Koyabu, Makiko; Matsuyama, Mutsumi; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Kamihira, Takashi; Daikoku, Manabu; Migita, Kiyoshi; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Naohito; Shimoda, Shinji; Ishibashi, Hiromi

    2006-03-01

    The sustained antibody response to nuclear envelope gp210 antigen indicates a group of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients at high risk for the progression to end-stage hepatic failure. To address this issue, we immunohistochemically studied the expression of gp210 antigen in needle liver biopsy specimens from PBC patients using a monoclonal antibody specific for gp210 antigen. The specimens from autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB) and C (CHC) patients served as disease controls. The expression of gp210 antigen was apparently increased on the nuclear envelope of biliary epithelial cells (BECs) of small bile ducts in almost all specimens from PBC. In contrast, the expression of gp210 antigen was negative in BECs of small bile ducts in normal liver, while relatively weak anti-gp210 immunostaining was observed in AIH, CHC and CHB. In addition, the degree of gp210 expression in BECs of small bile ducts was positively correlated to that of portal inflammation, interface hepatitis and lobular inflammation in PBC. These results indicate that the increased expression of gp210 in small bile ducts, which is probably associated with damage to BECs by inflammation, is possibly involved in autoimmune response to gp210 leading to the progression to end-stage hepatic failure in PBC.

  2. Antigenic properties and diagnostic potential of puumala virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, O; Lundkvist, A; Kallio-Kokko, H; Paukku, K; Julkunen, I; Lankinen, H; Vaheri, A

    1996-01-01

    Puumala virus (PUU) is a member of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae and the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, a European form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Sera of nephropathia epidemica patients react specifically with PUU nucleocapsid (N) protein. In order to safely provide large quantities of antigen for diagnostic purposes, PUU Sotkamo strain N protein was expressed by using the baculovirus system in Sf9 insect cells to up to 30 to 50% of the total cellular protein. The recombinant N protein (bac-PUU-N) was solubilized with 6 M urea, dialyzed, and purified by anion-exchange liquid chromatography. In an immunoglobulin M mu-capture assay purified and unpurified bac-PUU-N antigen showed identical results compared with the results of a similar assay based on native PUU antigen grown in Vero E6 cells. An immunoglobulin G monoclonal antibody-capture assay based on unpurified bac-PUU-N also showed results identical to those of an assay with native PUU-N antigen. Moreover, a panel of monoclonal antibodies reactive with eight different epitopes showed identical reactivity patterns with both natural and bac-PUU-N antigen, while two epitopes in PUU-N expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli were not recognized. Puumala hantavirus N protein expressed by the baculovirus system offers a safe and inexpensive source of specific antigen for large-scale diagnostic and seroepidemiological purposes. PMID:8748286

  3. Regulation of Sialyl Lewis Antigen Expression in Colon Cancer Cells by Sialidase NEU4*

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazunori; Takahashi, Kohta; Moriya, Setsuko; Miyagi, Taeko

    2011-01-01

    Sialyl Lewis antigens, sialyl Lewis a and sialyl Lewis x, are utilized as tumor markers, and their increase in cancer is associated with tumor progression by enhancement of cancer cell adhesion to endothelial E-selectin. However, regulation mechanisms are not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that NEU4 is the only sialidase efficiently acting on mucins and it is down-regulated in colon cancer. To elucidate the significance of NEU4 down-regulation, we investigated sialyl Lewis antigens as endogenous substrates for the sialidase. NEU4 was found to hydrolyze the antigens in vitro and decrease cell surface levels much more effectively than other sialidases. Western blot, thin layer chromatography, and metabolic inhibition studies of desialylation products revealed NEU4 to preferentially catalyze sialyl Lewis antigens expressed on O-glycans. Cell adhesion to and motility and growth on E-selectin were significantly reduced by NEU4. E-selectin stimulation of colon cancer cells enhanced cell motility through activation of the p38/Hsp27/actin reorganization pathway, whereas NEU4 attenuated the signaling. On immunocytochemical analysis, some NEU4 molecules were localized at cell surfaces. Under hypoxia conditions whereby the antigens were increased concomitantly with several sialyl- and fucosyltransferases, NEU4 expression was markedly decreased. These results suggest that NEU4 plays an important role in control of sialyl Lewis antigen expression and its impairment in colon cancer. PMID:21521691

  4. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of the M Antigen of Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Reiss, Errol; Lott, Timothy J.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Deepe, George S.

    1999-01-01

    The major diagnostic antigens of Histoplasma capsulatum are the H and M antigens, pluripotent glycoproteins that elicit both humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses. These antigens may play a role in the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. M antigen is considered immunodominant because antibodies against it are the first precipitins to arise in acute histoplasmosis and are commonly present during all phases of infection. The biological activity of monomolecular M antigen and its ability to elicit a protective immune response to H. capsulatum are largely unknown. A molecular approach was used to identify the biological nature of M antigen, including its purification from histoplasmin, partial digestion with proteinases, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to separate the released peptides. The amino acid sequences of the purified peptides were obtained by Edman degradation, and using degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR, a 321-bp fragment of the gene encoding the M antigen was amplified from genomic H. capsulatum DNA. This fragment was used to screen an H. capsulatum genomic DNA library, leading to the isolation, cloning, and sequencing of the full-length gene. The M gene consists of 2,187-bp DNA encoding a protein of 80,719 Da, which has significant homology to catalases from Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, and Eimericella nidulans. A cDNA was generated by reverse transcription-PCR and cloned into the expression vector pQE40. The identity of the cloned, expressed protein was confirmed by Western blotting. The recombinant fusion protein was immunoreactive with monoclonal antibodies raised against M antigen, with polyclonal mouse anti-M antiserum, and with a serum sample from a patient with histoplasmosis. The gene encoding the major immunodominant M antigen of H. capsulatum is a presumptive catalase, and the recombinant protein retains serodiagnostic activity. PMID:10085041

  5. Recombinant production of influenza hemagglutinin and HIV-1 GP120 antigenic peptides using a cleavable self-aggregating tag

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanghui; Zhao, Qing; Xing, Lei; Lin, Zhanglin

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for antigenic peptides in the development of novel serologic diagnostics and epitope-based vaccines requires rapid and reliable peptide synthesis techniques. Here we investigated a method for efficient recombinant expression and purification of medium- to large-sized antigenic peptides in E. coli. Previously we devised a streamlined protein expression and purification scheme based on a cleavable self-aggregating tag (cSAT), which comprised an intein molecule and a self-aggregating peptide ELK16. In this scheme, the target proteins were fused in the C-termini with cSAT and expressed as insoluble aggregates. After intein self-cleavage, target proteins were released into the soluble fraction with high yield and reasonable purity. We demonstrated the applicability of this scheme by preparing seven model viral peptides, with lengths ranging from 32 aa to 72 aa. By adding an N-terminal thioredoxin tag, we enhanced the yield of target peptides released from the aggregates. The purified viral peptides demonstrated high antigenic activities in ELISA and were successfully applied to dissecting the antigenic regions of influenza hemagglutinin. The cSAT scheme described here allows for the rapid and low-cost preparation of multiple antigenic peptides for immunological screening of a broad range of viral antigens. PMID:27808126

  6. Aberrant Cosmc genes result in Tn antigen expression in human colorectal carcinoma cell line HT-29

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofeng; Du, Zhenzhen; Sun, Xuhong; Shi, Chuanqin; Zhang, Huaixiang; Hu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The Tn antigen, which arises from mutation in the Cosmc gene is one of the most common tumor associated carbohydrate antigens. Cosmc resides in X24 encoded by a single gene and functions as a specific molecular chaperone for T-synthase. While the Tn antigen cannot be detected in normal cells, Cosmc mutations inactivate T-synthase and consequently result in Tn antigen expression within certain cancers. In addition to this Cosmc mutation-induced expression, the Tn antigen is also expressed in such cell lines as Jurkat T, LSC and LS174T. Whether the Cosmc mutation is present in the colon cancer cell line HT-29 is still unclear. Here, we isolate HT-29-Tn+ cells from HT-29 cells derived from a female colon cancer patient. These HT-29-Tn+ cells show a loss of the Cosmc gene coding sequence (CDS) leading to an absence of T-synthase activity and Tn antigen expression. Additionally, almost no methylation of Cosmc CpG islands was detected in HT-29-Tn+ as well as in HT-29-Tn- and Tn- tumor cells from male patients. In contrast, the methylation frequency of CpG island of Cosmc in normal female cells was ~50%. Only one active allele of Cosmc existed in HT-29-Tn+ and HT-29-Tn- cells as based upon detection of SNP sites. These results indicate that Tn antigens expression and T-synthase inactivity in HT-29-Tn+ cells can be related to the absence of CDS in Cosmc active alleles, while an inactive allele deletion of Cosmc in HT-29 cells has no influence on Cosmc function. PMID:26045765

  7. Microcyst formation and HIV-1 gene expression occur in multiple nephron segments in HIV-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ross, M J; Bruggeman, L A; Wilson, P D; Klotman, P E

    2001-12-01

    Tubular microcyst formation is a prominent histopathologic feature of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), but its pathogenesis is unknown. HIV-1 has recently been shown to infect renal tubular epithelial cells in patients with HIVAN. In addition, HIV-1 gene expression in renal epithelial cells has been shown to cause a renal disease that is identical to HIVAN in HIV-1 transgenic mice. In these studies, immunohistochemistry for tubular segment-specific markers and mRNA in situ hybridization for HIV-1 was used to determine which tubular segments develop microcysts and which segments express HIV-1 in the kidneys of transgenic mice and patients with HIVAN. It was found that microcysts involve multiple nephron segments in both patients with HIVAN and HIV-1 transgenic mice. Furthermore, HIV-1 infection in HIVAN and HIV-1 transgene expression also occurs in multiple segments of the nephron. These data support a direct role for HIV-1 infection of renal epithelial cells in the pathogenesis of microcyst formation in patients with HIVAN.

  8. Comparison of the reactivities of baculovirus-expressed recombinant Norwalk virus capsid antigen with those of the native Norwalk virus antigen in serologic assays and some epidemiologic observations.

    PubMed Central

    Green, K Y; Lew, J F; Jiang, X; Kapikian, A Z; Estes, M K

    1993-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Norwalk virus (NV) by immune electron microscopy (IEM) in 1972, serologic studies with this virus have relied on particle-positive fecal material from infected volunteers as the source of antigen because it has not been possible to propagate this virus in cell culture. However, the recent cloning of the NV (strain 8FIIa) genome and expression of the capsid protein in a baculovirus system to form "virus-like particles" has provided a consistent source of antigen (designated rNV). The purpose of the present study was to compare the antigenicities of these rNV particles with those of native NV antigen derived from human fecal material by using well-characterized sera obtained from earlier studies. In IEM studies, the rNV antigen reacted with NV-specific antibodies in a manner similar to that observed previously when particle-positive fecal material was used as antigen. In addition, a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in which the rNV antigen was used as antigen, proved efficient and specific for the detection of serologic responses to NV compared with the previously established techniques of IEM and blocking antibody immunoassays in which particle-positive fecal material was used as the antigen. The availability of an unlimited source of antigen will enable serologic studies that will greatly increase our understanding of the epidemiology of NV and its role in human enteric illness. Images PMID:8396590

  9. Virological and Immunological Characterization of Novel NYVAC-Based HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidates Expressing Clade C Trimeric Soluble gp140(ZM96) and Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) as Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Perdiguero, Beatriz; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Cepeda, Victoria; Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; García-Arriaza, Juan; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Jiménez, Victoria; Sánchez, Cristina; Sorzano, Carlos Óscar S.; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Delaloye, Julie; Roger, Thierry; Calandra, Thierry; Asbach, Benedikt; Wagner, Ralf; Kibler, Karen V.; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The generation of vaccines against HIV/AIDS able to induce long-lasting protective immunity remains a major goal in the HIV field. The modest efficacy (31.2%) against HIV infection observed in the RV144 phase III clinical trial highlighted the need for further improvement of HIV vaccine candidates, formulation, and vaccine regimen. In this study, we have generated two novel NYVAC vectors, expressing HIV-1 clade C gp140(ZM96) (NYVAC-gp140) or Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) (NYVAC-Gag-Pol-Nef), and defined their virological and immunological characteristics in cultured cells and in mice. The insertion of HIV genes does not affect the replication capacity of NYVAC recombinants in primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells, HIV sequences remain stable after multiple passages, and HIV antigens are correctly expressed and released from cells, with Env as a trimer (NYVAC-gp140), while in NYVAC-Gag-Pol-Nef-infected cells Gag-induced virus-like particles (VLPs) are abundant. Electron microscopy revealed that VLPs accumulated with time at the cell surface, with no interference with NYVAC morphogenesis. Both vectors trigger specific innate responses in human cells and show an attenuation profile in immunocompromised adult BALB/c and newborn CD1 mice after intracranial inoculation. Analysis of the immune responses elicited in mice after homologous NYVAC prime/NYVAC boost immunization shows that recombinant viruses induced polyfunctional Env-specific CD4 or Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses. Antibody responses against gp140 and p17/p24 were elicited. Our findings showed important insights into virus-host cell interactions of NYVAC vectors expressing HIV antigens, with the activation of specific immune parameters which will help to unravel potential correlates of protection against HIV in human clinical trials with these vectors. IMPORTANCE We have generated two novel NYVAC-based HIV vaccine candidates expressing HIV-1 clade C trimeric soluble gp140 (ZM96) and Gag(ZM96)-Pol

  10. Tumorigenic activity of Merkel cell polyomavirus T antigens expressed in the stratified epithelium of mice

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Megan E.; Cheng, Jingwei; Bronson, Roderick T.; Lambert, Paul F.; DeCaprio, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is frequently associated with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Most MCC tumors contain integrated copies of the viral genome with persistent expression of the MCPyV large T (LT) and small T (ST) antigen. MCPyV isolated from MCC typically contain wild type ST but truncated forms of LT that retain the N-terminus but delete the C-terminus and render LT incapable of supporting virus replication. To determine the oncogenic activity of MCC tumor-derived T antigens in vivo, a conditional, tissue-specific mouse model was developed. Keratin 14-mediated Cre recombinase expression induced expression of MCPyV T antigens in stratified squamous epithelial cells and Merkel cells of the skin epidermis. Mice expressing MCPyV T antigens developed hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and acanthosis of the skin with additional abnormalities in whisker pads, footpads and eyes. Nearly half of the mice also developed cutaneous papillomas. Evidence for neoplastic progression within stratified epithelia included increased cellular proliferation, unscheduled DNA synthesis, increased E2F-responsive genes levels, disrupted differentiation, and presence of a DNA damage response. These results indicate that MCPyV T antigens are tumorigenic in vivo, consistent with their suspected etiological role in human cancer. PMID:25596282

  11. Expression of Ia like (HLA-DR) antigens on human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Clerici, N; Reboiras, S; Fierro, C; Leyva-Cobian, F

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of Ia like (HLA-DR) antigens on human alveolar macrophages (HAM phi) has been investigated by indirect immunofluorescence staining of viable macrophages with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to common determinants of these antigens. HAM phi were characterized by non-specific esterase stain, plastic adherence, phagocytosis and IgG-Fc receptor expression. Ia like antigens were expressed in approximately 45-80% of HAM phi, being localized as patchy and lineal fluorescence along the membrane. Ia like expression was higher in macrophages from non-smoker subjects (P less than 0.025). No difference in Ia like antigen expression was found between adherent and non-adherent HAM phi subsets. Ia like positive HAM phi from both smoker and non-smoker subjects consisted of a large subpopulation of phagocytic cells (60-70%) and a smaller non-phagocytic subpopulation (20-25%). These subpopulations were also present in the Ia like negative HAM phi. The percentage of Ia like positive macrophages showed variable results depending on the MoAb used, suggesting that not all anti-Ia like antibodies recognize the same antigenic determinants. Moreover, lack of staining of one macrophage subset occurred with all MoAb tested, over a large range of concentrations. PMID:6209043

  12. Antigenic variation in African trypanosomes: the importance of chromosomal and nuclear context in VSG expression control.

    PubMed

    Glover, Lucy; Hutchinson, Sebastian; Alsford, Sam; McCulloch, Richard; Field, Mark C; Horn, David

    2013-12-01

    African trypanosomes are lethal human and animal parasites that use antigenic variation for evasion of host adaptive immunity. To facilitate antigenic variation, trypanosomes dedicate approximately one third of their nuclear genome, including many minichromosomes, and possibly all sub-telomeres, to variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes and associated sequences. Antigenic variation requires transcription of a single VSG by RNA polymerase I (Pol-I), with silencing of other VSGs, and periodic switching of the expressed gene, typically via DNA recombination with duplicative translocation of a new VSG to the active site. Thus, telomeric location, epigenetic controls and monoallelic transcription by Pol-I at an extranucleolar site are prominent features of VSGs and their expression, with telomeres, chromatin structure and nuclear organization all making vitally important contributions to monoallelic VSG expression control and switching. We discuss VSG transcription, recombination and replication control within this chromosomal and sub-nuclear context.

  13. Expression of protective antigen in transgenic plants: a step towards edible vaccine against anthrax.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mohd Azhar; Singh, Samer; Anand Kumar, P; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2002-12-06

    Protective antigen (PA) is the most potent molecule for vaccination against anthrax. In the present study, we have successfully integrated protective antigen gene in nuclear genome of tobacco plants by Agrobacterium mediated leaf-disc transformation method. Expression of protective antigen gene was detected by immunoblot analysis using antisera raised against purified PA. A distinct band of approximately 83kDa lighted up in the protein extracted from transformed plants while there was no such band in untransformed plants. The plant expressed PA showed biological activity just like native PA, which was demonstrated by cytolytic assay on macrophage like cell lines with lethal factor. This study establishes for the first time expression of PA gene in a plant system and thus marks the first milestone towards developing edible vaccine against anthrax.

  14. HLA-A is a Predictor of Hepatitis B e Antigen Status in HIV-Positive African Adults.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philippa C; Carlson, Jonathan M; Beloukas, Apostolos; Malik, Amna; Jooste, Pieter; Ogwu, Anthony; Shapiro, Roger; Riddell, Lynn; Chen, Fabian; Luzzi, Graz; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Jeffery, Katie; Jojic, Nebojsa; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Carrington, Mary; Goulder, Philip J R; Geretti, Anna Maria; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-04-15

    Outcomes of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are varied, with increased morbidity reported in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The factors driving different outcomes are not well understood, but there is increasing interest in an HLA class I effect. We therefore studied the influence of HLA class I on HBV in an African HIV-positive cohort. We demonstrated that virologic markers of HBV disease activity (hepatitis B e antigen status or HBV DNA level) are associated with HLA-A genotype. This finding supports the role of the CD8(+) T-cell response in HBV control, and potentially informs future therapeutic T-cell vaccine strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Immunodiagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid of cerebral toxoplasmosis and HIV-infected patients using Toxoplasma gondii excreted/secreted antigens.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cristina S; Vidal, José E; Costa-Silva, Thaís A; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera L

    2011-11-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common neurologic opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. Excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) are the majority of the circulating antigens in sera from hosts with acute toxoplasmosis, and their usefulness as antigens has been shown. This study considered whether it could find anti-ESA antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and whether these antibodies can be markers of active infection. Samples of CSF from 270 HIV-infected patients were analyzed and divided into 3 groups according to the presence or absence of active toxoplasmosis. Group I: 99 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis; group II: 112 patients with other opportunistic neurologic diseases and seropositive for toxoplasmosis; and group III: 59 patients with other opportunistic neurologic diseases and seronegative for toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii ESA and a crude tachyzoite antigen were used as antigens using ELISA and immunoblotting. The statistical analysis was done using the F test and unpaired Student's t test. Crude tachyzoite antigen: mean ELISA-relative values ± standard error for CSF of groups I and II were 7.0 ± 0.27 and 3.9 ± 0.19, respectively. Variance analysis revealed that results of both groups of patients were statistically different (1.80, P = 0.0025). The difference between the mean results was 3.0 ± 0.3, and the Student's t test value was 9.41 (P = 0.0001). Samples from groups I and II were reactive by immunoblotting, with similar intensities. In ESA-ELISA, the mean for group I was 9.0 ± 0.39. Group II showed a mean value of 2.7 ± 0.12. Both groups were statistically different (9.16, P < 0.001). However, in ESA, the difference between the mean results was higher (6.2 ± 0.39) and the Student's t test value was 16.04 (P < 0.0001). Similar results were shown in immunoblotting where a CSF sample from group I reacted well with ESA, and the sample from a group II patient failed to do so. The mean ELISA-relative value of the control group

  16. SMIM1 variants rs1175550 and rs143702418 independently modulate Vel blood group antigen expression

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Mikael K.; Jöud, Magnus; Ajore, Ram; Vege, Sunitha; Ljungdahl, Klara W.; Westhoff, Connie M.; Olsson, Martin L.; Storry, Jill R.; Nilsson, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The Vel blood group antigen is expressed on the red blood cells of most individuals. Recently, we described that homozygosity for inactivating mutations in SMIM1 defines the rare Vel-negative phenotype. Still, Vel-positive individuals show great variability in Vel antigen expression, creating a risk for Vel blood typing errors and transfusion reactions. We fine-mapped the regulatory region located in SMIM1 intron 2 in Swedish blood donors, and observed a strong correlation between expression and rs1175550 as well as with a previously unreported tri-nucleotide insertion (rs143702418; C > CGCA). While the two variants are tightly linked in Caucasians, we separated their effects in African Americans, and found that rs1175550G and to a lesser extent rs143702418C independently increase SMIM1 and Vel antigen expression. Gel shift and luciferase assays indicate that both variants are transcriptionally active, and we identified binding of the transcription factor TAL1 as a potential mediator of the increased expression associated with rs1175550G. Our results provide insight into the regulatory logic of Vel antigen expression, and extend the set of markers for genetic Vel blood group typing. PMID:28084402

  17. Co-expression and impact of prostate specific membrane antigen and prostate specific antigen in prostatic pathologies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to relate the co-expression of prostate-associated antigens, PSMA and PSA, with the degree of vascularization in normal and pathologic (hyperplasia and cancer) prostate tissues to elucidate their possible role in tumor progression. Methods The study was carried out in 6 normal, 44 benign prostatic hyperplastic and 39 cancerous human prostates. Immunohistochemical analysis were performed using the monoclonal antibody CD34 to determine the angiogenic activity, and the monoclonal antibodies 3E6 and ER-PR8 to assess PSMA and PSA expression, respectively. Results In our study we found that in normal prostate tissue, PSMA and PSA were equally expressed (3.7 ± 0.18 and 3.07 ± 0.11). A significant difference in their expression was see in hyperplastic and neoplastic prostates tissues (16.14 ± 0.17 and 30.72 ± 0.85, respectively) for PSMA and (34.39 ± 0.53 and 17.85 ± 1.21, respectively) for PSA. Study of prostate tumor profiles showed that the profile (PSA+, PSMA-) expression levels decreased between normal prostate, benign prostatic tissue and primary prostate cancer. In the other hand, the profile (PSA-, PSMA+) expression levels increased from normal to prostate tumor tissues. PSMA overexpression was associated with high intratumoral angiogenesis activity. By contrast, high PSA expression was associated with low angiogenesis activity. Conclusion These data suggest that these markers are regulated differentially and the difference in their expression showed a correlation with malignant transformation. With regard to the duality PSMA-PSA, this implies the significance of their investigation together in normal and pathologic prostate tissues. PMID:21189143

  18. Identification, sequencing, and expression of Mycobacterium leprae superoxide dismutase, a major antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Thangaraj, H S; Lamb, F I; Davis, E O; Jenner, P J; Jeyakumar, L H; Colston, M J

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding a major 28-kilodalton antigen of Mycobacterium leprae has now been sequenced and identified as the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) on the basis of the high degree of homology with known SOD sequences. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 67% homology with a human manganese-utilizing SOD and 55% homology with the Escherichia coli manganese-utilizing enzyme. The gene is not expressed from its own promoter in E. coli but is expressed from its own promoter in Mycobacterium smegmatis. The amino acid sequences of epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against the 28-kilodalton antigen have been determined. Images PMID:1692812

  19. Multivalent Chromosomal Expression of the Clostridium botulinum Serotype A Neurotoxin Heavy-Chain Antigen and the Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus anthracis produce potent toxins that cause severe disease in humans. New and improved vaccines are needed for both of these pathogens. For mucosal vaccine delivery using lactic acid bacteria, chromosomal expression of antigens is preferred over plasmid-based expression systems, as chromosomal expression circumvents plasmid instability and the need for antibiotic pressure. In this study, we constructed three strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM expressing from the chromosome (i) the nontoxic host receptor-binding domain of the heavy chain of Clostridium botulinum serotype A neurotoxin (BoNT/A-Hc), (ii) the anthrax protective antigen (PA), and (iii) both the BoNT/A-Hc and the PA. The BoNT/A-Hc vaccine cassette was engineered to contain the signal peptide from the S-layer protein A from L. acidophilus and a dendritic-cell-targeting peptide. A chromosomal region downstream of lba0889 carrying a highly expressed enolase gene was selected for insertion of the vaccine cassettes. Western blot analysis confirmed the heterologous expression of the two antigens from plasmid and chromosome locations. Stability assays demonstrated loss of the vaccine cassettes from expression plasmids without antibiotic maintenance. RNA sequencing showed high expression of each antigen and that insertion of the vaccine cassettes had little to no effect on the transcription of other genes in the chromosome. This study demonstrated that chromosomal integrative recombinant strains are promising vaccine delivery vehicles when targeted into high-expression chromosomal regions. Levels of expression match high-copy-number plasmids and eliminate the requirement for antibiotic selective maintenance of recombinant plasmids. IMPORTANCE Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus anthracis produce potent neurotoxins that pose a biochemical warfare concern; therefore, effective vaccines against these bacteria are required. Chromosomal expression of antigens is

  20. Multivalent Chromosomal Expression of the Clostridium botulinum Serotype A Neurotoxin Heavy-Chain Antigen and the Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2016-10-15

    Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus anthracis produce potent toxins that cause severe disease in humans. New and improved vaccines are needed for both of these pathogens. For mucosal vaccine delivery using lactic acid bacteria, chromosomal expression of antigens is preferred over plasmid-based expression systems, as chromosomal expression circumvents plasmid instability and the need for antibiotic pressure. In this study, we constructed three strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM expressing from the chromosome (i) the nontoxic host receptor-binding domain of the heavy chain of Clostridium botulinum serotype A neurotoxin (BoNT/A-Hc), (ii) the anthrax protective antigen (PA), and (iii) both the BoNT/A-Hc and the PA. The BoNT/A-Hc vaccine cassette was engineered to contain the signal peptide from the S-layer protein A from L. acidophilus and a dendritic-cell-targeting peptide. A chromosomal region downstream of lba0889 carrying a highly expressed enolase gene was selected for insertion of the vaccine cassettes. Western blot analysis confirmed the heterologous expression of the two antigens from plasmid and chromosome locations. Stability assays demonstrated loss of the vaccine cassettes from expression plasmids without antibiotic maintenance. RNA sequencing showed high expression of each antigen and that insertion of the vaccine cassettes had little to no effect on the transcription of other genes in the chromosome. This study demonstrated that chromosomal integrative recombinant strains are promising vaccine delivery vehicles when targeted into high-expression chromosomal regions. Levels of expression match high-copy-number plasmids and eliminate the requirement for antibiotic selective maintenance of recombinant plasmids. Clostridium botulinum and Bacillus anthracis produce potent neurotoxins that pose a biochemical warfare concern; therefore, effective vaccines against these bacteria are required. Chromosomal expression of antigens is preferred over plasmid

  1. Polymorphic expression of a human superficial bladder tumor antigen defined by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Y; Islam, N; Boucher, L; Parent-Vaugeois, C; Tardif, M

    1987-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which define a highly restricted antigen, were obtained by simultaneous immunizations with superficial papillary bladder tumor cells and mouse polyclonal serum against normal urothelium. The antigen was detected by the avidin/biotin/peroxidase method in 30/44 superficial bladder tumors (68%) but in only 4/27 infiltrating urothelial cancers (with much less intensity). No normal adult or fetal tissues tested expressed the antigen, including normal urothelium from 40 individuals, 13 of whom had a bladder tumor positive for the antigen. Only 1 of 45 nonbladder tumors showed some reactivity with one of the three mAbs. Serological tests on a large panel of human cancer cell lines and normal cultured cells were negative. The antigen is highly stable and well preserved on paraffin-embedded tissues. Electrophoretic transfer blot experiments with fresh tumor extracts showed that all three mAbs react with a determinant on a component of 300,000 Mr (pI 9.5) and 62,000 Mr (pI 6.5). The antigen shows polymorphic expression at the cellular level on tissue sections and also at a molecular level on immunoblots where the two bands are differentially detected on extracts of a series of tumors but are not visualized on normal urothelium extracts. The characteristics of this antigenic system suggest that it may provide some insights about the biology of bladder cancer. Specific detection of the antigen on 70% of superficial bladder tumors with normal cytology may be useful for their diagnosis and follow-up. Images PMID:3313389

  2. CD4+ memory stem cells are infected by HIV-1 in a manner regulated in part by SAMHD1 expression.

    PubMed

    Tabler, Caroline O; Lucera, Mark B; Haqqani, Aiman A; McDonald, David J; Migueles, Stephen A; Connors, Mark; Tilton, John C

    2014-05-01

    CD4(+) and CD8(+) memory T cells with stem cell-like properties (T(SCM) cells) have been identified in mice, humans, and nonhuman primates and are being investigated for antitumor and antiviral vaccines and immunotherapies. Whether CD4(+) T(SCM) cells are infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was investigated by using a combination HIV reporter virus system in vitro and by direct staining for HIV p24 antigen ex vivo. A proportion of T(SCM) cells were found to express the HIV coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 and were infected by HIV both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of viral outcome following fusion using the combination reporter virus system revealed that T(SCM) cells can become productively or latently infected, although the vast majority of T(SCM) cells are abortively infected. Knockdown of the HIV restriction factor SAMHD1 using Vpx-containing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virion-like particles enhanced the productive infection of T(SCM) cells, indicating that SAMHD1 contributes to abortive infection in these cells. These results demonstrate that CD4(+) T(SCM) cells are targets for HIV infection, that they become productively or latently infected at low levels, and that SAMHD1 expression promotes abortive infection of this important memory cell subset. Here we demonstrate the susceptibility of CD4(+) memory stem cells (T(SCM) cells) to infection by HIV in vitro and in vivo, provide an in-depth analysis of coreceptor expression, demonstrate the infection of naïve and memory CD4(+) T cell subsets with both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic HIV, and also perform outcome analysis to calculate the percentage of cells that are productively, latently, or abortively infected. Through these outcome studies, we determined that the vast majority of T(SCM) cells are abortively infected by HIV, and we demonstrate that knockdown of SAMHD1 significantly increases the frequency of infection of this CD4(+) T cell subset, indicating that SAMHD1 is an active restriction factor in

  3. Fetal exposure to HIV-1 alters chemokine receptor expression by CD4+T cells and increases susceptibility to HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Bunders, Madeleine J; van Hamme, John L; Jansen, Machiel H; Boer, Kees; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2014-10-24

    Absolute numbers of lymphocytes are decreased in uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected women (HIV-1-exposed). Although the exact mechanism is unknown, fetal exposure to maternal HIV-1-infection could prime the immune system and affect T cell trafficking. We compared the expression of chemokine receptors on cord blood CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1-exposed children and healthy controls. At baseline CD4(+) T cells had a largely naïve phenotype. However, stimulation with cytokines resulted in an upregulation of inflammatory response-related chemokine receptors on CD4(+) T cells, with HIV-1-exposed infants having a significantly higher frequency of CD4(+) T cells expressing, in particularly Th2 associated chemokine receptors (CCR3 p < 0.01, CCR8 p = 0.03). Numbers of naive CCR7(+) CD4(+) T cells were reduced (p = 0.01) in HIV-1-exposed infants. We further assessed whether the inflammatory phenotype was associated with susceptibility to HIV-1 and detected higher levels of p24 upon in in vitro infection of stimulated CD4(+) T cells of HIV-1-exposed infants. In summary, fetal exposure to HIV-1 primes the immune system in the infant leading to an enhanced immune activation and altered T cell homing, with potential ramifications regarding T cell responses and the acquisition of HIV-1 as an infant.

  4. T cells expressing an anti–B-cell maturation antigen chimeric antigen receptor cause remissions of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Abbas; Shi, Victoria; Maric, Irina; Wang, Michael; Stroncek, David F.; Rose, Jeremy J.; Brudno, Jennifer N.; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Feldman, Steven A.; Hansen, Brenna G.; Fellowes, Vicki S.; Hakim, Frances T.; Gress, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Therapies with novel mechanisms of action are needed for multiple myeloma (MM). B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is expressed in most cases of MM. We conducted the first-in-humans clinical trial of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells targeting BCMA. T cells expressing the CAR used in this work (CAR-BCMA) specifically recognized BCMA-expressing cells. Twelve patients received CAR-BCMA T cells in this dose-escalation trial. Among the 6 patients treated on the lowest 2 dose levels, limited antimyeloma activity and mild toxicity occurred. On the third dose level, 1 patient obtained a very good partial remission. Two patients were treated on the fourth dose level of 9 × 106 CAR+ T cells/kg body weight. Before treatment, the first patient on the fourth dose level had chemotherapy-resistant MM, making up 90% of bone marrow cells. After treatment, bone marrow plasma cells became undetectable by flow cytometry, and the patient’s MM entered a stringent complete remission that lasted for 17 weeks before relapse. The second patient on the fourth dose level had chemotherapy-resistant MM making up 80% of bone marrow cells before treatment. Twenty-eight weeks after this patient received CAR-BCMA T cells, bone marrow plasma cells were undetectable by flow cytometry, and the serum monoclonal protein had decreased by >95%. This patient is in an ongoing very good partial remission. Both patients treated on the fourth dose level had toxicity consistent with cytokine-release syndrome including fever, hypotension, and dyspnea. Both patients had prolonged cytopenias. Our findings demonstrate antimyeloma activity of CAR-BCMA T cells. This trial was registered to www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02215967. PMID:27412889

  5. Protein expression in yeast as an approach to production of recombinant malaria antigens.

    PubMed

    Bathurst, I C

    1994-01-01

    The selection of a system suitable for expression of recombinant malaria antigens for vaccine development is, in the final analysis, empirical. However, experience gained with both malaria antigens and other recombinant proteins has provided helpful guidelines. Recombinant DNA technology has been successfully applied to the development of vaccines against a number of human diseases. For example, recombinant DNA-derived hepatitis B virus surface antigen has been produced from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. Yeast has been demonstrated to be an excellent host for the expression of recombinant proteins with uses in diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine production. Both intracellular and secretory systems have been developed and optimized for the production of high levels of recombinant proteins. Recombinant DNA technology, and in particular yeast expression systems, have been successfully used to produce malaria antigens, several of which have been protective in various animal models. In contrast, attempts to produce sufficient quantities of antigens for a malaria vaccine from in vitro cultures of the malaria parasite have been unsuccessful. Recombinant proteins can be produced and purified from yeast in large quantities and at low cost, each being requirements for a vaccine to be used in a global vaccination program against malaria.

  6. Neural Crest Cells Isolated from the Bone Marrow of Transgenic Mice Express JCV T-Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jennifer; Sariyer, Ilker K.; De La Fuente-Granada, Marisol; Augelli, Brian J.; Otte, Jessica; Azizi, S. Ausim; Amini, Shohreh; Khalili, Kamel; Krynska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    JC virus (JCV), a common human polyomavirus, is the etiological agent of the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). In addition to its role in PML, studies have demonstrated the transforming ability of the JCV early protein, T-antigen, and its association with some human cancers. JCV infection occurs in childhood and latent virus is thought to be maintained within the bone marrow, which harbors cells of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages. Here we show that non-hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from the bone marrow of JCV T-antigen transgenic mice give rise to JCV T-antigen positive cells when cultured under neural conditions. JCV T-antigen positive cells exhibited neural crest characteristics and demonstrated p75, SOX-10 and nestin positivity. When cultured in conditions typical for mesenchymal cells, a population of T-antigen negative cells, which did not express neural crest markers arose from the MSCs. JCV T-antigen positive cells could be cultured long-term while maintaining their neural crest characteristics. When these cells were induced to differentiate into neural crest derivatives, JCV T-antigen was downregulated in cells differentiating into bone and maintained in glial cells expressing GFAP and S100. We conclude that JCV T-antigen can be stably expressed within a fraction of bone marrow cells differentiating along the neural crest/glial lineage when cultured in vitro. These findings identify a cell population within the bone marrow permissible for JCV early gene expression suggesting the possibility that these cells could support persistent viral infection and thus provide clues toward understanding the role of the bone marrow in JCV latency and reactivation. Further, our data provides an excellent experimental model system for studying the cell-type specificity of JCV T-antigen expression, the role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in the pathogenesis of JCV-related diseases and the

  7. Immune Activation in the Female Genital Tract: Expression Profiles of Soluble Proteins in Women at High Risk for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Suzanna C.; Hou, Yanwen; Baisley, Kathy; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Ao, Trong T.; Herrera, Carolina; Maganja, Kaballa; Andreasen, Aura; Kapiga, Saidi; Coulton, Gary R.; Hayes, Richard J.; Shattock, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Soluble cervicovaginal biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation and risk of HIV acquisition are needed to reliably assess the safety of new biomedical prevention strategies including vaccines and microbicides. However, a fuller understanding of expression profiles in women at high risk for HIV infection is crucial to the effective use of these potential biomarkers in Phase 3 trial settings. We have measured 45 soluble proteins and peptides in cervicovaginal lavage samples from 100 HIV negative women at high risk for HIV infection. Women were followed over one menstrual cycle to investigate modulation by hormonal contraception, menstrual cycle phase, recent sexual exposure and intravaginal practices. Women using injectable DMPA had increased concentration of several soluble proteins of the innate and adaptive immune system, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, MIP-1β, IP-10, IL-8, TGF-β, HBD4, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2. Women using combined oral contraceptives had a similar signature. There were differences in concentrations among samples from post-ovulation compared to pre-ovulation, notably increased immunoglobulins. Increased prostate-specific antigen, indicative of recent sexual exposure, was correlated with increased IL-6, MCP-1, and SLPI, and decreased GM-CSF and HBD3. The identified signature profiles may prove critical in evaluating the potential safety and impact on risk of HIV acquisition of different biomedical intervention strategies. PMID:26814891

  8. Expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and nonspecific crossreacting antigen (NCA) in gastrointestinal cancer; the correlation with degree of differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Kodera, Y.; Isobe, K.; Yamauchi, M.; Satta, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Oikawa, S.; Kondoh, K.; Akiyama, S.; Itoh, K.; Nakashima, I.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of its reputation as a tumour marker, little is known about the function of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We examined the mRNA expression of CEA and NCA in 26 gastric and 14 colorectal cancers together with adjacent morphologically normal mucosae. There was no significant difference between the CEA mRNA levels of colorectal cancer and adjacent mucosa, whereas the CEA mRNA levels were significantly elevated in gastric cancer compared with normal gastric mucosa. The expression of NCA, on the other hand, was more cancer-specific and was significantly up-regulated in both gastric and colorectal cancers compared with the corresponding normal mucosae. No correlation was found between the mRNA level and plasma CEA value. No significant up-regulation was recognised in the node positive cancer, cancer with distant metastasis, or the metastatic tissues themselves. Marked diversity in the degree of differentiation in gastric cancer tissues, however, resulted in varied expression of the CEA gene family, compared with the constantly high expression found in colorectal cancer. Further analysis revealed significant up-regulation of NCA in well and moderately differentiated gastric cancers over poorly differentiated cancers, suggesting that NCA might have roles in differentiation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8318403

  9. Phase Variable O Antigen Biosynthetic Genes Control Expression of the Major Protective Antigen and Bacteriophage Receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1

    PubMed Central

    Seed, Kimberley D.; Faruque, Shah M.; Mekalanos, John J.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity. We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage. PMID:23028317

  10. Inducible expression of cancer-testis antigens in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heninger, Erika; Krueger, Timothy E.G.; Thiede, Stephanie M.; Sperger, Jamie M.; Byers, Brianna L.; Kircher, Madison R.; Kosoff, David; Yang, Bing; Jarrard, David F.; McNeel, Douglas G.; Lang, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Immune tolerance to self-antigens can limit robust anti-tumor immune responses in the use of tumor vaccines. Expression of novel tumor associated antigens can improve immune recognition and lysis of tumor cells. The cancer-testis antigen (CTA) family of proteins has been hypothesized to be an ideal class of antigens due to tumor-restricted expression, a subset of which have been found to induce antibody responses in patients with prostate disease. We demonstrate that CTA expression is highly inducible in five different Prostate Cancer (PC) cell lines using a hypomethylating agent 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5AZA) and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor LBH589. These CTAs include NY-ESO1, multiple members of the MAGE and SSX families and NY-SAR35. A subset of CTAs is synergistically induced by the combination of 5AZA and LBH589. We developed an ex vivo organ culture using human PC biopsies for ex vivo drug treatments to evaluate these agents in clinical samples. These assays found significant induction of SSX2 in 9/9 distinct patient samples and NY-SAR35 in 7/9 samples. Further, we identify expression of SSX2 in circulating tumor cells (CTC) from patients with advanced PC. These results indicate that epigenetic modifying agents can induce expression of a broad range of neoantigens in human PC and may serve as a useful adjunctive therapy with novel tumor vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors. PMID:27769045

  11. Cancer/Testis Antigens: Expression, Regulation, Tumor Invasion, and Use in Immunotherapy of Cancers.

    PubMed

    Salmaninejad, Arash; Zamani, Mohammad Reza; Pourvahedi, Mehrnaz; Golchehre, Zahra; Hosseini Bereshneh, Ali; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-10-01

    Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are named based on their expression pattern that is restricted in a number of normal and abnormal tissues. Tumor cells frequently express antigens whose expression is typically restricted to germ cells. Their unique expression pattern is guaranteed by precise epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Because of their tumor-limited, high immunogenicity, and biased expression, discovery of these molecules provides unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development in the field of cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy. Evolving evidence reveals that a number of CTAs stimulate epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and generation of cancer stem-like cells, intensifying metastasis, invasion, and tumorigenesis. Based on these features, CTAs attract attention to be considered as ideal targets for developing several clinical trials, many of them concentrating on CTA vaccine therapy. According to recent practical clinical interest, more characterizations of CTA regulation are identified. CTA expression has been demonstrated in a variety of human cancer tissues, and some of them have been found to elicit humoral and/or cellular immune responses in cancer patients. CTAs are brilliant targets for anticancer drug discovery, targeted tumor therapy, and diagnostic biomarkers, furthermore, valued genes in the study of immunotherapy, promoting tumorigenesis, and malignant progression. This review outlines and categorizes our current understanding of the complex and biased process of CTAs mRNA and protein expression in cancer, and supplies the most recent information on their regulation and function. Besides, a concise synopsis of the major clinical trials involving CTAs, as therapeutic avenues, is discussed. AIRE: autoimmune regulator; cAMP: cyclic adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; CEA: carcinoembryonic antigen; CML: chronic myeloid leukemia; CREB: cyclicamp response element binding; CSCs: cancer stem cells; CTAs: cancer

  12. Primary virus-induced lymphomas evade T cell immunity by failure to express viral antigens

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    T lymphoma induction by the mink cell focus-inducing murine leukemia virus MCF 1233 in C57BL/10 and C57BL/6 mice is influenced by a strongly Th-dependent, H-2I-A-restricted antiviral immune response (25). We compared the MHC class I as well as viral env and gag antigenic cell surface profiles of frequent T lymphomas of H-2I-A nonresponder-type mice to that of rare T lymphomas of H-2I-A responder-type mice. Membrane immunofluorescence studies, with a panel of anti-env mAbs (reactive with the highly conserved gp70f epitope, the p15Ec epitope, and the gp70-p15E complex), a polyclonal anti-p30 serum, and anti-H-2 class I mAbs, showed that all 17 nonresponder tumors tested expressed high levels of both env and gag viral proteins, and 15 of these 17 nonresponder tumors expressed high levels of H-2 class I K and D antigens. In contrast, 10 of 11 responder lymphomas lacked env and/or gag determinants. The only responder lymphoma with both strong env and gag expression failed to express H-2K and -D antigens. Preferential loss of env or gag expression did not correlate with H-2 class I allelic specificities. Both responder and nonresponder T lymphoma DNA contained multiple, predominantly MCF-like, newly acquired proviral integrations. Differences in viral antigen cell surface expression were confirmed at cytoplasmic and RNA levels. The amounts of 8.2- and 3.2-kb viral RNA were greatly reduced in two responder lymphomas when compared with four nonresponder lymphomas. In both responder lymphomas, aberrantly sized viral RNA species were found. Upon in vivo passage of these responder lymphomas in either immunocompetent or T cell-deficient nu/nu mice, it was found that various molecular mechanisms may underlie the lack of viral antigen expression at the cell surface of these lymphomas. One lymphoma re-expressed viral antigens when transplanted with nu/nu mice, whereas the other remained stably gag negative. The combined findings indicate that an H-2I-A-regulated antiviral immune

  13. Expression of recombinant Araraquara Hantavirus nucleoprotein in insect cells and its use as an antigen for immunodetection compared to the same antigen expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antigens for Hantavirus serological tests have been produced using DNA recombinant technology for more than twenty years. Several different strategies have been used for that purpose. All of them avoid the risks and difficulties involved in multiplying Hantavirus in the laboratory. In Brazil, the Araraquara virus is one of the main causes of Hantavirus Cardio-Pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS). Methods In this investigation, we report the expression of the N protein of the Araraquara Hantavirus in a Baculovirus Expression System, the use of this protein in IgM and IgG ELISA and comparison with the same antigen generated in E. coli. Results The protein obtained, and purified in a nickel column, was effectively recognized by antibodies from confirmed HCPS patients. Comparison of the baculovirus generated antigen with the N protein produced in E. coli showed that both were equally effective in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Our results therefore indicate that either of these proteins can be used in serological tests in Brazil. PMID:21569341

  14. Potential To Streamline Heterologous DNA Prime and NYVAC/Protein Boost HIV Vaccine Regimens in Rhesus Macaques by Employing Improved Antigens.

    PubMed

    Asbach, Benedikt; Kliche, Alexander; Köstler, Josef; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Esteban, Mariano; Jacobs, Bertram L; Montefiori, David C; LaBranche, Celia C; Yates, Nicole L; Tomaras, Georgia D; Ferrari, Guido; Foulds, Kathryn E; Roederer, Mario; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Seaman, Michael S; Hawkins, Natalie; Self, Steven G; Sato, Alicia; Gottardo, Raphael; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, James; Barnett, Susan W; Burke, Brian; Cristillo, Anthony D; Weiss, Deborah E; Francis, Jesse; Galmin, Lindsey; Ding, Song; Heeney, Jonathan L; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Wagner, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In a follow-up to the modest efficacy observed in the RV144 trial, researchers in the HIV vaccine field seek to substantiate and extend the results by evaluating other poxvirus vectors and combinations with DNA and protein vaccines. Earlier clinical trials (EuroVacc trials 01 to 03) evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 clade C GagPolNef and gp120 antigens delivered via the poxviral vector NYVAC. These showed that a vaccination regimen including DNA-C priming prior to a NYVAC-C boost considerably enhanced vaccine-elicited immune responses compared to those with NYVAC-C alone. Moreover, responses were improved by using three as opposed to two DNA-C primes. In the present study, we assessed in nonhuman primates whether such vaccination regimens can be streamlined further by using fewer and accelerated immunizations and employing a novel generation of improved DNA-C and NYVAC-C vaccine candidates designed for higher expression levels and more balanced immune responses. Three different DNA-C prime/NYVAC-C+ protein boost vaccination regimens were tested in rhesus macaques. All regimens elicited vigorous and well-balanced CD8(+)and CD4(+)T cell responses that were broad and polyfunctional. Very high IgG binding titers, substantial antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and modest antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), but very low neutralization activity, were measured after the final immunizations. Overall, immune responses elicited in all three groups were very similar and of greater magnitude, breadth, and quality than those of earlier EuroVacc vaccines. In conclusion, these findings indicate that vaccination schemes can be simplified by using improved antigens and regimens. This may offer a more practical and affordable means to elicit potentially protective immune responses upon vaccination, especially in resource-constrained settings. Within the EuroVacc clinical trials, we previously assessed the immunogenicity of HIV clade C antigens

  15. Potential To Streamline Heterologous DNA Prime and NYVAC/Protein Boost HIV Vaccine Regimens in Rhesus Macaques by Employing Improved Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Asbach, Benedikt; Kliche, Alexander; Köstler, Josef; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Esteban, Mariano; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Yates, Nicole L.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Roederer, Mario; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N.; Seaman, Michael S.; Hawkins, Natalie; Self, Steven G.; Sato, Alicia; Gottardo, Raphael; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, James; Barnett, Susan W.; Burke, Brian; Cristillo, Anthony D.; Weiss, Deborah E.; Francis, Jesse; Galmin, Lindsey; Ding, Song; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a follow-up to the modest efficacy observed in the RV144 trial, researchers in the HIV vaccine field seek to substantiate and extend the results by evaluating other poxvirus vectors and combinations with DNA and protein vaccines. Earlier clinical trials (EuroVacc trials 01 to 03) evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 clade C GagPolNef and gp120 antigens delivered via the poxviral vector NYVAC. These showed that a vaccination regimen including DNA-C priming prior to a NYVAC-C boost considerably enhanced vaccine-elicited immune responses compared to those with NYVAC-C alone. Moreover, responses were improved by using three as opposed to two DNA-C primes. In the present study, we assessed in nonhuman primates whether such vaccination regimens can be streamlined further by using fewer and accelerated immunizations and employing a novel generation of improved DNA-C and NYVAC-C vaccine candidates designed for higher expression levels and more balanced immune responses. Three different DNA-C prime/NYVAC-C+ protein boost vaccination regimens were tested in rhesus macaques. All regimens elicited vigorous and well-balanced CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses that were broad and polyfunctional. Very high IgG binding titers, substantial antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and modest antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), but very low neutralization activity, were measured after the final immunizations. Overall, immune responses elicited in all three groups were very similar and of greater magnitude, breadth, and quality than those of earlier EuroVacc vaccines. In conclusion, these findings indicate that vaccination schemes can be simplified by using improved antigens and regimens. This may offer a more practical and affordable means to elicit potentially protective immune responses upon vaccination, especially in resource-constrained settings. IMPORTANCE Within the EuroVacc clinical trials, we previously assessed the immunogenicity of

  16. Slime Production and Expression of the Slime-Associated Antigen by Staphylococcal Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ammendolia, M. G.; Di Rosa, R.; Montanaro, L.; Arciola, C. R.; Baldassarri, L.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to produce slime and to express a slime-associated antigen was examined in a collection of staphylococcal clinical isolates. Slime-producing strains were found among coagulase-negative staphylococci in percentages comparable to those reported in other studies; surprisingly, a high percentage of Staphylococcus aureus strains also were able to produce this extracellular material. In the latter case, this ability was strongly dependent on the presence of an additional carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Expression of the slime-associated antigen appeared to be species specific and confined to the Staphylococcus epidermidis sensu stricto isolates; its strong association with the ability of these strains to produce thicker biofilms indicated slime-associated antigen as a possible virulence marker for S. epidermidis. PMID:10488184

  17. Ia antigens are expressed on ATPase-positive dendritic cells in chicken epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Torres, A; Millan Aldaco, D A

    1994-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LC) are antigen-presenting dendritic cells located in mammalian epidermis and in other stratified epithelia. We recently demonstrated the presence of Langerhans-like cells in the epidermis of the chicken using ultrastructural histochemistry for adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase). The aim of the present study was to test whether ATPase-positive dendritic cells also express class II histocompatibility molecules (Ia antigens) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a double staining technique, in separated chicken epidermal sheets. We concluded that the epidermal dendritic cells observed are the LC of the chicken, based on their morphology and spatial distribution, but mainly on the complete overlap for ATPase reaction and Ia antigen expression, these being reliable markers for the identification of mammalian LC. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Figs 7,8 Figs 9,10 Figs 11,12 PMID:7928646

  18. Inhibiting DNA methylation activates cancer testis antigens and expression of the antigen processing and presentation machinery in colon and ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Siebenkäs, Cornelia; Chiappinelli, Katherine B; Guzzetta, Angela A; Sharma, Anup; Jeschke, Jana; Vatapalli, Rajita; Baylin, Stephen B; Ahuja, Nita

    2017-01-01

    Innovative therapies for solid tumors are urgently needed. Recently, therapies that harness the host immune system to fight cancer cells have successfully treated a subset of patients with solid tumors. These responses have been strong and durable but observed in subsets of patients. Work from our group and others has shown that epigenetic therapy, specifically inhibiting the silencing DNA methylation mark, activates immune signaling in tumor cells and can sensitize to immune therapy in murine models. Here we show that colon and ovarian cancer cell lines exhibit lower expression of transcripts involved in antigen processing and presentation to immune cells compared to normal tissues. In addition, treatment with clinically relevant low doses of DNMT inhibitors (that remove DNA methylation) increases expression of both antigen processing and presentation and Cancer Testis Antigens in these cell lines. We confirm that treatment with DNMT inhibitors upregulates expression of the antigen processing and presentation molecules B2M, CALR, CD58, PSMB8, PSMB9 at the RNA and protein level in a wider range of colon and ovarian cancer cell lines and treatment time points than had been described previously. In addition, we show that DNMTi treatment upregulates many Cancer Testis Antigens common to both colon and ovarian cancer. This increase of both antigens and antigen presentation by epigenetic therapy may be one mechanism to sensitize patients to immune therapies.

  19. Antiviral CD8(+) T Cells Restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Exist during Natural HIV Infection and Exhibit Clonal Expansion.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Srinika; Lamothe, Pedro A; Soghoian, Damien Z; Kazer, Samuel W; Cole, Michael B; Shalek, Alex K; Yosef, Nir; Jones, R Brad; Donaghey, Faith; Nwonu, Chioma; Jani, Priya; Clayton, Gina M; Crawford, Frances; White, Janice; Montoya, Alana; Power, Karen; Allen, Todd M; Streeck, Hendrik; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Picker, Louis J; Kappler, John W; Walker, Bruce D

    2016-10-18

    CD8(+) T cell recognition of virus-infected cells is characteristically restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, although rare examples of MHC class II restriction have been reported in Cd4-deficient mice and a macaque SIV vaccine trial using a recombinant cytomegalovirus vector. Here, we demonstrate the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses with antiviral properties in a small subset of HIV-infected individuals. In these individuals, T cell receptor β (TCRβ) analysis revealed that class II-restricted CD8(+) T cells underwent clonal expansion and mediated killing of HIV-infected cells. In one case, these cells comprised 12% of circulating CD8(+) T cells, and TCRα analysis revealed two distinct co-expressed TCRα chains, with only one contributing to binding of the class II HLA-peptide complex. These data indicate that class II-restricted CD8(+) T cell responses can exist in a chronic human viral infection, and may contribute to immune control. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epigenetic silencing of the chaperone Cosmc in human leukocytes expressing tn antigen.

    PubMed

    Mi, Rongjuan; Song, Lina; Wang, Yingchun; Ding, Xiaokun; Zeng, Junwei; Lehoux, Sylvain; Aryal, Rajindra P; Wang, Jianmei; Crew, Vanja K; van Die, Irma; Chapman, Arlene B; Cummings, Richard D; Ju, Tongzhong

    2012-11-30

    Cosmc is the specific molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum for T-synthase, a Golgi β3-galactosyltransferase that generates the core 1 O-glycan, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr, in glycoproteins. Dysfunctional Cosmc results in the formation of inactive T-synthase and consequent expression of the Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), which is associated with several human diseases. However, the molecular regulation of expression of Cosmc, which is encoded by a single gene on Xq24, is poorly understood. Here we show that epigenetic silencing of Cosmc through hypermethylation of its promoter leads to loss of Cosmc transcripts in Tn4 cells, an immortalized B cell line from a male patient with a Tn-syndrome-like phenotype. These cells lack T-synthase activity and express the Tn antigen. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine causes restoration of Cosmc transcripts, restores T-synthase activity, and reduces Tn antigen expression. Bisulfite sequencing shows that CG dinucleotides in the Cosmc core promoter are hypermethylated. Interestingly, several other X-linked genes associated with glycosylation are not silenced in Tn4 cells, and we observed no correlation of a particular DNA methyltransferase to aberrant methylation of Cosmc in these cells. Thus, hypermethylation of the Cosmc promoter in Tn4 cells is relatively specific. Epigenetic silencing of Cosmc provides another mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of the Tn antigen, which may be important in understanding aberrant Tn antigen expression in human diseases, including IgA nephropathy and cancer.

  1. Epigenetic Silencing of the Chaperone Cosmc in Human Leukocytes Expressing Tn Antigen*

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Rongjuan; Song, Lina; Wang, Yingchun; Ding, Xiaokun; Zeng, Junwei; Lehoux, Sylvain; Aryal, Rajindra P.; Wang, Jianmei; Crew, Vanja K.; van Die, Irma; Chapman, Arlene B.; Cummings, Richard D.; Ju, Tongzhong

    2012-01-01

    Cosmc is the specific molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum for T-synthase, a Golgi β3-galactosyltransferase that generates the core 1 O-glycan, Galβ1–3GalNAcα-Ser/Thr, in glycoproteins. Dysfunctional Cosmc results in the formation of inactive T-synthase and consequent expression of the Tn antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr), which is associated with several human diseases. However, the molecular regulation of expression of Cosmc, which is encoded by a single gene on Xq24, is poorly understood. Here we show that epigenetic silencing of Cosmc through hypermethylation of its promoter leads to loss of Cosmc transcripts in Tn4 cells, an immortalized B cell line from a male patient with a Tn-syndrome-like phenotype. These cells lack T-synthase activity and express the Tn antigen. Treatment of cells with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine causes restoration of Cosmc transcripts, restores T-synthase activity, and reduces Tn antigen expression. Bisulfite sequencing shows that CG dinucleotides in the Cosmc core promoter are hypermethylated. Interestingly, several other X-linked genes associated with glycosylation are not silenced in Tn4 cells, and we observed no correlation of a particular DNA methyltransferase to aberrant methylation of Cosmc in these cells. Thus, hypermethylation of the Cosmc promoter in Tn4 cells is relatively specific. Epigenetic silencing of Cosmc provides another mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of the Tn antigen, which may be important in understanding aberrant Tn antigen expression in human diseases, including IgA nephropathy and cancer. PMID:23035125

  2. Dysregulation of Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Responses to Microbial and Food Antigens as a Factor Contributing to Microbial Translocation and Chronic Inflammation in HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Hel, Zdenek; Xu, Jun; Denning, Warren L; Helton, E Scott; Huijbregts, Richard P H; Heath, Sonya L; Overton, E Turner; Christmann, Benjamin S; Elson, Charles O; Goepfert, Paul A; Mestecky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is associated with an early and profound depletion of mucosal memory CD4+ T cells, a population that plays an indispensable role in the regulation of isotype switching and transepithelial transport of antibodies. In this study, we addressed whether the depletion of CD4+ T cell in HIV-1-infected individuals results in altered humoral responses specific to antigens encountered at mucosal surfaces. Comprehensive protein microarray of systemic humoral responses to intestinal microbiota demonstrated reduced IgG responses to antigens derived from Proteobacteria and Firmicutes but not Bacteroidetes. Importantly, intestinal secretions of antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected individuals exhibited a significant elevation of IgM levels and decreased IgA/IgM and IgG/IgM ratios of antibodies specific to a variety of microbial and food antigens. The presented findings indicate reduced competence of mucosal B cells for class switch recombination from IgM to other isotypes limiting their capacity to react to changing antigenic variety in the gut lumen. Decreased availability of microbiota-specific IgA and IgG may be an important factor contributing to the translocation of microbial antigens across the intestinal mucosal barrier and their systemic dissemination that drives chronic inflammation in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  3. Dysregulation of Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Responses to Microbial and Food Antigens as a Factor Contributing to Microbial Translocation and Chronic Inflammation in HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hel, Zdenek; Xu, Jun; Denning, Warren L.; Huijbregts, Richard P. H.; Heath, Sonya L.; Overton, E. Turner; Elson, Charles O.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Mestecky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is associated with an early and profound depletion of mucosal memory CD4+ T cells, a population that plays an indispensable role in the regulation of isotype switching and transepithelial transport of antibodies. In this study, we addressed whether the depletion of CD4+ T cell in HIV-1-infected individuals results in altered humoral responses specific to antigens encountered at mucosal surfaces. Comprehensive protein microarray of systemic humoral responses to intestinal microbiota demonstrated reduced IgG responses to antigens derived from Proteobacteria and Firmicutes but not Bacteroidetes. Importantly, intestinal secretions of antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected individuals exhibited a significant elevation of IgM levels and decreased IgA/IgM and IgG/IgM ratios of antibodies specific to a variety of microbial and food antigens. The presented findings indicate reduced competence of mucosal B cells for class switch recombination from IgM to other isotypes limiting their capacity to react to changing antigenic variety in the gut lumen. Decreased availability of microbiota-specific IgA and IgG may be an important factor contributing to the translocation of microbial antigens across the intestinal mucosal barrier and their systemic dissemination that drives chronic inflammation in HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:28125732

  4. Induction of cancer testis antigen expression in circulating acute myeloid leukemia blasts following hypomethylating agent monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pragya; Paluch, Benjamin E.; Matsuzaki, Junko; James, Smitha R.; Collamat-Lai, Golda; Blagitko-Dorfs, Nadja; Ford, Laurie Ann; Naqash, Rafeh; Lübbert, Michael; Karpf, Adam R.; Nemeth, Michael J.; Griffiths, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer testis antigens (CTAs) are promising cancer associated antigens in solid tumors, but in acute myeloid leukemia, dense promoter methylation silences their expression. Leukemia cell lines exposed to HMAs induce expression of CTAs. We hypothesized that AML patients treated with standard of care decitabine (20mg/m2 per day for 10 days) would demonstrate induced expression of CTAs. Peripheral blood blasts serially isolated from AML patients treated with decitabine were evaluated for CTA gene expression and demethylation. Induction of NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA3/A6, were observed following decitabine. Re-expression of NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA3/A6 was associated with both promoter specific and global (LINE-1) hypomethylation. NY-ESO-1 and MAGEA3/A6 mRNA levels were increased irrespective of clinical response, suggesting that these antigens might be applicable even in patients who are not responsive to HMA therapy. Circulating blasts harvested after decitabine demonstrate induced NY-ESO-1 expression sufficient to activate NY-ESO-1 specific CD8+ T-cells. Induction of CTA expression sufficient for recognition by T-cells occurs in AML patients receiving decitabine. Vaccination against NY-ESO-1 in this patient population is feasible. PMID:26883197

  5. HIV Protease Inhibitor-Induced Cathepsin Modulation Alters Antigen Processing and Cross-Presentation.

    PubMed

    Kourjian, Georgio; Rucevic, Marijana; Berberich, Matthew J; Dinter, Jens; Wambua, Daniel; Boucau, Julie; Le Gall, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    Immune recognition by T cells relies on the presentation of pathogen-derived peptides by infected cells, but the persistence of chronic infections calls for new approaches to modulate immune recognition. Ag cross-presentation, the process by which pathogen Ags are internalized, degraded, and presented by MHC class I, is crucial to prime CD8 T cell responses. The original degradation of Ags is performed by pH-dependent endolysosomal cathepsins. In this article, we show that HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) prescribed to HIV-infected persons variably modulate cathepsin activities in human APCs, dendritic cells and macrophages, and CD4 T cells, three cell subsets infected by HIV. Two HIV PIs acted in two complementary ways on cathepsin hydrolytic activities: directly on cathepsins and indirectly on their regulators by inhibiting Akt kinase activities, reducing NADPH oxidase 2 activation, and lowering phagolysosomal reactive oxygen species production and pH, which led to enhanced cathepsin activities. HIV PIs modified endolysosomal degradation and epitope production of proteins from HIV and other pathogens in a sequence-dependent manner. They altered cross-presentation of Ags by dendritic cells to epitope-specific T cells and T cell-mediated killing. HIV PI-induced modulation of Ag processing partly changed the MHC self-peptidome displayed by primary human cells. This first identification, to our knowledge, of prescription drugs modifying the regulation of cathepsin activities and the MHC-peptidome may provide an alternate therapeutic approach to modulate immune recognition in immune disease beyond HIV.

  6. Antigen HIV Markers for Clinical Manifestation and Prevention of HTLV- III/LAV Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-25

    cohort who progressed to non- Kaposis AIDS. For each of the 88 AIDS cases, 5 center-matched controls, who were seropositive at enrollment and did not have...non- Kaposi AIDS (n-88) ____________ HIV seropositive No AIDS 18-24 months Remained Free of AIDS T4 >400 T42 400 CONTROL 0n=192)___________j GROUP HIV

  7. The HIV-1 Glycan Shield: Strategically Placed Kinks in the Armor Improve Antigen Design.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Christina Beatrice; Alter, Galit

    2017-04-25

    Dense glycosylation on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein hampers the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Zhou et al. remove key glycans to unmask sites of vulnerability and enable the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effect of trimerization motifs on quaternary structure, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of a noncleavable HIV-1 gp140 envelope glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Sean X.; Idiart, Rebecca J.; Mariano, Ellaine B.; Chen, Helen; Jiang Peifeng; Xu Li; Ostrow, Kristin M.; Wrin, Terri; Phung, Pham; Binley, James M.; Petropoulos, Christos J.; Ballantyne, John A.; Whalen, Robert G.

    2009-12-05

    The external domains of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain, collectively known as gp140) contain all known viral neutralization epitopes. Various strategies have been used to create soluble trimers of the envelope to mimic the structure of the native viral protein, including mutation of the gp120-gp41 cleavage site, introduction of disulfide bonds, and fusion to heterologous trimerization motifs. We compared the effects on quaternary structure, antigenicity, and immunogenicity of three such motifs: T4 fibritin, a GCN4 variant, and the Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamoylase catalytic subunit. Fusion of each motif to the C-terminus of a noncleavable JRCSF gp140(-) envelope protein led to enhanced trimerization but had limited effects on the antigenic profile and CD4-binding ability of the trimers. Immunization of rabbits provided no evidence that the trimerized gp140(-) constructs induced significantly improved neutralizing antibodies to several HIV-1 pseudoviruses, compared to gp140 lacking a trimerization motif. However, modest differences in both binding specificity and neutralizing antibody responses were observed among the various immunogens.

  9. Upregulated Expression of B-Cell Antigen Family Tandem Repeat Proteins by Leishmania Amastigotes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yasuyuki; Carter, Darrick; Guderian, Jeffrey; Inoue, Noboru; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Reed, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with tandem repeat (TR) domains have been found in various protozoan parasites, and they are often targets of B-cell responses. Through systematic analyses of whole proteomes, we recently demonstrated that two trypanosomatid parasites, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, are rich in antigenic proteins with large TR domains. However, the reason that these proteins are antigenic was unclear. Here, by performing molecular, immunological, and bioinformatic characterizations of Leishmania TR proteins, we found two possible factors affecting the antigenicity of these proteins; one factor is their fundamental composition as TR proteins, and the other is regulation of their expression by parasites. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using recombinant proteins revealed that the copy number of the repeat affects the affinity of binding between antigens and antibodies, as expected based on thermodynamic binding kinetics. Other than containing TR domains, the TR proteins do not share characteristics, such as sequence similarity or biased cellular location predicted by the presence of a signal sequence(s) and/or a transmembrane domain(s). However, the TR proteome contained a higher percentage of proteins upregulated in amastigotes than the whole proteome, and upregulated expression of a TR protein seemed to affect its antigenicity. These results indicate that Leishmania parasites actively utilize the TR protein family for parasitism in mammalian hosts. PMID:20160013

  10. Effect of antigen turnover rate and expression level on antibody penetration into tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Margaret E; Pawlowski, David; Wittrup, K Dane

    2008-07-01

    Poor tissue penetration is a significant obstacle to the development of successful antibody drugs for immunotherapy of solid tumors, and diverse alterations to the properties of antibody drugs have been made to improve penetration and homogeneity of exposure. However, in addition to properties of the antibody drug, mathematical models of antibody transport predict that the antigen expression level and turnover rate significantly influence penetration. As intrinsic antigen properties are likely to be difficult to modify, they may set inherent limits to penetration. Accordingly, in this study, we assess their contribution by evaluating the distance to which antibodies penetrate spheroids when these antigen properties are systematically varied. Additionally, the penetration profiles of antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen and A33, two targets of clinical interest, are compared. The results agree well with the quantitative predictions of the model and show that localizing antibody to distal regions of tumors is best achieved by selecting slowly internalized targets that are not expressed above the level necessary for recruiting a toxic dose of therapeutic. Each antibody-bound antigen molecule that is turned over or present in excess incurs a real cost in terms of penetration depth-a limiting factor in the development of effective therapies for treating solid tumors.

  11. Identification of Antigenic Components of Staphylococcus epidermidis Expressed during Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pourmand, Mohammad R.; Clarke, Simon R.; Schuman, Richard F.; Mond, James J.; Foster, Simon J.

    2006-01-01

    A spectrum of in vivo-expressed Staphylococcus epidermidis antigens was identified by probing a bacteriophage lambda library of S. epidermidis genomic DNA with human serum from infected and uninfected individuals. This analysis resulted in identification of 53 antigen-encoding loci. Six antigenic polypeptides were expressed from these loci and purified. These polypeptides were the propeptide, mature amidase, and repeat sequence domains of the major autolysin AtlE, GehD (lipase), and two members of a conserved family of surface proteins (ScaA [AaE] and ScaB). AtlE, ScaA, and ScaB all exhibit human ligand binding capacity. Screening a bank of human serum samples revealed that there were significant increases in the amounts of reactive immunoglobulin G in infected individuals compared to the amounts in healthy individuals for the repeat sequence and mature amidase domains of AtlE, ScaB, and GehD. Vaccination of mice with recombinant antigens stimulated an immune response which in vitro opsonized S. epidermidis. In this study we identified prospective candidate antigens for prophylaxis or immunotherapy to control disease. PMID:16861652

  12. Expression and functional properties of the Streptococcus intermedius surface protein antigen I/II.

    PubMed

    Petersen, F C; Pasco, S; Ogier, J; Klein, J P; Assev, S; Scheie, A A

    2001-07-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is associated with deep-seated purulent infections. In this study, we investigated expression and functional activities of antigen I/II in S. intermedius. The S. intermedius antigen I/II appeared to be cell surface associated, with a molecular mass of approximately 160 kDa. Northern blotting indicated that the S. intermedius NCTC 11324 antigen I/II gene was transcribed as a monocistronic message. Maximum expression was seen during the early exponential phase. Insertional inactivation of the antigen I/II gene resulted in reduced hydrophobicity during early exponential phase, whereas no effect was detected during mid- and late exponential phases. Binding to human fibronectin and laminin was reduced in the isogenic mutant, whereas binding to human collagen types I and IV and to rat collagen type I was not significant for either the wild type or the mutant. Compared to the wild type, the capacity of the isogenic mutant to induce interleukin 8 (IL-8) release by THP-1 monocytic cells was significantly reduced. The results indicate that the S. intermedius antigen I/II is involved in adhesion to human receptors and in IL-8 induction.

  13. Systematic Cloning of Treponema pallidum Open Reading Frames for Protein Expression and Antigen Discovery

    PubMed Central

    McKevitt, Matthew; Patel, Krupa; Smajs, David; Marsh, Michael; McLoughlin, Melanie; Norris, Steven J.; Weinstock, George M.; Palzkill, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    A topoisomerase-based method was used to clone PCR products encoding 991 of the 1041 open reading frames identified in the genome sequence of the bacterium that causes syphilis, Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Cloning the open reading frames into the univector plasmid system permitted the rapid conversion of the original clone set to other functional vectors containing a variety of promoters or tag sequences. A computational prediction of signal sequences identified 248 T. pallidum proteins that are potentially secreted from the cell. These clones were systematically converted into vectors designed to express the encoded proteins as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins. To test the potential of the clone set for novel antigen discovery, 85 of these fusion proteins were expressed from Escherichia coli, partially purified, and tested for antigenicity by using sera from rabbits infected with T. pallidum. Twelve of the 85 proteins bound significant levels of antibody. Of these 12 proteins, seven had previously been identified as T. pallidum antigens, and the remaining five represent novel antigens. These results demonstrate the potential of the T. pallidum clone set for antigen discovery and, more generally, for advancing the biology of this enigmatic spirochete. PMID:12805273

  14. Secretor status and ABH antigens expression in patients with oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Campi, Carlos; Escovich, Livia; Valdés, Vanina; García Borrás, Silvia; Racca, Liliana; Racca, Amelia; Cotorruelo, Carlos; Biondi, Claudia

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the secretor status of patients with oral pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions and ABH antigens expression in fixed tissue sections of these patients. To reveal A, B and H antigens in tissue sections of patients with precancerous and cancerous oral lesions (n= 54) we used a modified specific red cell adherence technique (SRCA-test). Normal endothelial cells expressed ABH antigens, the presence of indicator erythrocytes at the lumen of the blood vessels served as a built in positive control. The test results were graded from negative adherence to very strongly positive adherence. Negative adherence was defined as a complete absence of adhered indicator erythrocytes. A strongly positive reaction was defined as a sheet of indicator erythrocytes adhered to the epithelia cells. In 31 of the 54 samples analyzed the test showed slightly positive results on atypical areas, and there was a complete antigen deletion in areas histologically affected by neoplasia. Sixteen samples showed a total absence of ABH antigens in both histologically normal and pathological areas. As a working hypothesis, we propose that areas of SRCA-test negative epithelium are closely related to invasive carcinomas and may be their precursor lesions. Further it is suggested that areas of blood group isoantigen negative epithelium showing atypia, or in some instances near normal histology, may give rise to relatively low grade carcinomas. Considering these results we suggest the use of this method to monitor probable preneoplastic lesions in risk population, specially in those with no secretor status.

  15. Inhibition of HIV-1 gp41 expression with hammerhead ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Szymański, Maciej; Głodowicz, Paweł; Gabryelska, Marta; Wyszko, Eliza; Estrin, William J; Barciszewski, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Despite great progress in the treatment of AIDS, HIV-1 remains one of the major concerns as a human pathogen. One of the therapeutic strategies against viral infections is the application of catalytic ribonucleic acids (ribozymes) that can significantly reduce expression of a target gene by site-specific hydrolysis of its mRNA. In the present paper, we report a study on the activity of several variants of hammerhead ribozymes targeting a conserved region within mRNA encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. On the basis of the data from in vitro assays and gene silencing in the cultured cells, we propose a new hammerhead ribozyme targeting the gp41-encoding sequence that can be potentially used as a therapeutic agent in AIDS treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that the hydrolytic activity of the ribozyme in the intracellular environment cannot be inferred solely from the results of in vitro experiments.

  16. Identification of Multiple Antigens Recognized by Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes From a Single Patient: Tumor Escape by Antigen Loss and Loss of MHC Expression

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Hung T.; Wang, Qiong J.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a patient who experienced recurrence of metastatic melanoma after an initial dramatic response to immunotherapy using peptides derived from gp100, MART-1, and tyrosinase emulsified in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, and present data to support the hypothesis that the progression of disease in this patient was due to in vivo immunoselection for immunoresistant tumor variants. The authors previously demonstrated the existence of T-cell clones in this patient’s peripheral blood and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) reactive against multiple antigens, including gp100, the tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2, a novel TRP-2 isoform-TRP-2-6b, SOX10, and the melanoma antigen NY-ESO-1. In addition to the multiple HLA-A2 restricted T-cell clones, the authors have now identified additional HLA-B/C-restricted as well as class II (HLA-DP)-restricted anti-melanoma antigen T-cell clones from this patient’s TIL. One recurrent tumor showed loss of expression of multiple tumor antigens but retention of HLA class I expression. The other recurrent lesion showed total loss of HLA class I expression even though the tumor cells still expressed many melanoma antigens. This paper thus provides evidence for both the effectiveness of the immune destruction of cancer as well as problems associated with antigen-loss tumor escape mechanisms. PMID:15076135

  17. Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus Anthracis in Escherichia Coli . Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001, 283 (2), 308–15. 15. Ivins, B. E .; Welkos, S. L. Cloning and Expression of the...Buffer 4 and bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 37 ºC for at least 2 h. The enzymes were heat -inactivated for 20 min at 65 ºC. The pET-22b(+) vector was...to the previous reaction. The phosphatase was heat -inactivated for 20 min at 65 ºC prior to ligation. For each ligation, T4 DNA ligase and its

  18. Recombinant measles AIK-C vaccine strain expressing heterologous virus antigens.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Sawada, Akihito; Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Ito, Takashi

    2016-01-04

    Further attenuated measles vaccines were developed more than 50 years ago and have been used throughout the world. Recombinant measles vaccine candidates have been developed and express several heterologous virus protective antigens. Immunogenicity and protective actions were confirmed using experimental animals: transgenic mice, cotton rats, and primates. The recent development of measles vaccine-based vectored vaccine candidates has been reviewed and some information on recombinant measles vaccines expressing respiratory syncytial virus proteins has been shown and discussed.

  19. Distinct gene-expression profiles associated with the susceptibility of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haitao; Nau, Martin; Ehrenberg, Phil; Chenine, Agnes-Laurence; Macedo, Camila; Zhou, Yu; Daye, Z John; Wei, Zhi; Vahey, Maryanne; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Marovich, Mary; Ratto-Kim, Silvia

    2013-02-14

    In HIV infection, CD4 responses to opportunistic pathogens such as Candida albicans are lost early, but CMV-specific CD4 response persists. Little is currently known about HIV infection of CD4 T cells of different pathogen/antigen specificities. CFSE-labeled PBMCs were stimulated with CMV, tetanus toxoid (TT), and C albicans antigens and subsequently exposed to HIV. HIV infection was monitored by intracellular p24 in CFSE(low) population. We found that although TT- and C albicans-specific CD4 T cells were permissive, CMV-specific CD4 T cells were highly resistant to both R5 and X4 HIV. Quantification of HIV DNA in CFSE(low) cells showed a reduction of strong-stop and full-length DNA in CMV-specific cells compared with TT- and C albicans-specific cells. β-Chemokine neutralization enhanced HIV infection in TT- and C albicans-specific cells, whereas HIV infection in CMV-specific cells remained low despite increased entry by β-chemokine neutralization, suggesting postentry HIV restriction by CMV-specific cells. Microarray analysis (Gene Expression Omnibus accession number: GSE42853) revealed distinct transcriptional profiles that involved selective up-regulation of comprehensive innate antiviral genes in CMV-specific cells, whereas TT- and C albicans-specific cells mainly up-regulated Th17 inflammatory response. Our data suggest a mechanism for the persistence of CMV-specific CD4 response and earlier loss of mucosal Th17-associated TT- and C albicans-specific CD4 response in AIDS.

  20. Distinct gene-expression profiles associated with the susceptibility of pathogen-specific CD4 T cells to HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Nau, Martin; Ehrenberg, Phil; Chenine, Agnes-Laurence; Macedo, Camila; Zhou, Yu; Daye, Z. John; Wei, Zhi; Vahey, Maryanne; Michael, Nelson L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Marovich, Mary; Ratto-Kim, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, CD4 responses to opportunistic pathogens such as Candida albicans are lost early, but CMV-specific CD4 response persists. Little is currently known about HIV infection of CD4 T cells of different pathogen/antigen specificities. CFSE-labeled PBMCs were stimulated with CMV, tetanus toxoid (TT), and C albicans antigens and subsequently exposed to HIV. HIV infection was monitored by intracellular p24 in CFSElow population. We found that although TT- and C albicans–specific CD4 T cells were permissive, CMV-specific CD4 T cells were highly resistant to both R5 and X4 HIV. Quantification of HIV DNA in CFSElow cells showed a reduction of strong-stop and full-length DNA in CMV-specific cells compared with TT- and C albicans–specific cells. β-Chemokine neutralization enhanced HIV infection in TT- and C albicans–specific cells, whereas HIV infection in CMV-specific cells remained low despite increased entry by β-chemokine neutralization, suggesting postentry HIV restriction by CMV-specific cells. Microarray analysis (Gene Expression Omnibus accession number: GSE42853) revealed distinct transcriptional profiles that involved selective up-regulation of comprehensive innate antiviral genes in CMV-specific cells, whereas TT- and C albicans–specific cells mainly up-regulated Th17 inflammatory response. Our data suggest a mechanism for the persistence of CMV-specific CD4 response and earlier loss of mucosal Th17-associated TT- and C albicans–specific CD4 response in AIDS. PMID:23258923

  1. Differential Gene Expression in HIV-Infected Individuals Following ART

    PubMed Central

    Massanella, Marta; Singhania, Akul; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Pier, Rose; Lada, Steven; White, Cory H.; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Blanco, Julià; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Woelk, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the effect of ART on gene expression in HIV-infected individuals have identified small numbers of modulated genes. Since these studies were underpowered or cross-sectional in design, a paired analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated before and after ART, from a robust number of HIV-infected patients (N=32) was performed. Gene expression was assayed by microarray and 4,157 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified following ART using multivariate permutation tests. Pathways and Gene Ontology (GO) terms over-represented for DEGs reflected the transition from a period of active virus replication before ART to one of viral suppression (e.g., repression of JAK-STAT signaling) and possible prolonged drug exposure (e.g. oxidative phosphorylation pathway) following ART. CMYC was the DEG whose product made the greatest number of interactions at the protein level in protein interaction networks (PINs), which has implications for the increased incidence of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) in HIV-infected patients. The differential expression of multiple genes was confirmed by RT-qPCR including well-known drug metabolism genes (e.g., ALOX12 and CYP2S1). Targets not confirmed by RT-qPCR (i.e., GSTM2 and RPL5) were significantly confirmed by droplet digital (ddPCR), which may represent a superior method when confirming DEGs with low fold changes. In conclusion, a paired design revealed that the number of genes modulated following ART was an order of magnitude higher than previously recognized. PMID:23933117

  2. Myeloid Antigen Expression in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Its Relevance for Clinical Outcome in Indonesian ALL-2006 Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Supriyadi, Eddy; Veerman, Anjo J. P.; Sutaryo; Purwanto, Ignatius; vd Ven, Peter M.; Cloos, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients expressing myeloid antigens on their ALL cells varies between 5 and 36% in several different studies. The clinical relevance of myeloid antigen expression in childhood ALL is controversial. In Indonesian patients, no data were present. Therefore, in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, we analyzed 239 ALL patients who were immunophenotyped including myeloid markers (CD13, CD33, CD117, and/or cMPO). Myeloid antigen expression was found in 25% of patients. Expression of myeloid antigen in B-lineage leukemia was 27%, and in T-lineage leukemia, it was 18% (P = 0.15). No association was found between myeloid antigen expression and clinical or biological features. In the whole cohort of patients we did not find a significant association between myeloid antigen expression and survival, although leukemia-free survival at 3 years was higher in the myeloid-negative patients (73% ± 6%) compared to myeloid-positive patients (67% ± 8%). Interestingly, in T-ALL patients, expression of myeloid antigens was an independent adverse prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 3.26, 95% CI: 1.06–9.98, P = 0.04). Kaplan-Meier analysis for event-free survival was also significant (log rank P = 0.03) in this subgroup. In conclusion, in the Indonesian ALL population, in particular, myeloid antigen-expressing T-ALL patients had a higher chance of having induction failure. PMID:23227046

  3. Expression of cancer-testis antigens in stem cells: is it a potential drawback or an advantage in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) are a group of tumor associated antigens with a restricted expression pattern in normal gametogenic tissues but expression in a broad range of malignancies. Their expression pattern has made them potential targets for immunotherapy. However, expression of some of these antigens has been demonstrated in normal stem cells as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs). As CSCs have been shown to be sources of metastasis and tumor recurrence, novel therapies are being focused on their eradication. On the other hand, CTA expression in normal stem cells raises the possibility that CTA based immunotherapies cause side effects in normal tissues.

  4. Escherichia coli strains expressing H12 antigens demonstrate an increased ability to attach to abiotic surfaces as compared with E. coli strains expressing H7 antigens.

    PubMed

    Goulter, Rebecca M; Taran, Elena; Gentle, Ian R; Gobius, Kari S; Dykes, Gary A

    2014-07-01

    The role of Escherichia coli H antigens in hydrophobicity and attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel (SS) surfaces was investigated through construction of fliC knockout mutants in E. coli O157:H7, O1:H7 and O157:H12. Loss of FliC(H12) in E. coli O157:H12 decreased attachment to glass, Teflon and stainless steel surfaces (p<0.05). Complementing E. coli O157:H12 ΔfliC(H12) with cloned wildtype (wt) fliC(H12) restored attachment to wt levels. The loss of FliCH7 in E. coli O157:H7 and O1:H7 did not always alter attachment (p>0.05), but complementation with cloned fliC(H12), as opposed to cloned fliCH7, significantly increased attachment for both strains compared with wt counterparts (p<0.05). Hydrophobicity determined using bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons and contact angle measurements differed with fliC expression but was not correlated to the attachment to materials included in this study. Purified FliC was used to functionalise silicone nitride atomic force microscopy probes, which were used to measure adhesion forces between FliC and substrates. Although no significant difference in adhesion force was observed between FliC(H12) and FliCH7 probes, differences in force curves suggest different mechanism of attachment for FliC(H12) compared with FliCH7. These results indicate that E. coli strains expressing flagellar H12 antigens have an increased ability to attach to certain abiotic surfaces compared with E. coli strains expressing H7 antigens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression and self-assembly of recombinant capsid protein from the antigenically distinct Hawaii human calicivirus.

    PubMed Central

    Green, K Y; Kapikian, A Z; Valdesuso, J; Sosnovtsev, S; Treanor, J J; Lew, J F

    1997-01-01

    The Norwalk and Hawaii viruses are antigenically distinct members of the family Caliciviridae and are considered to be important etiologic agents of epidemic gastroenteritis, with most studies focusing on the role of Norwalk virus. To further investigate the importance of Hawaii virus, Hawaii virus-like particles (VLPs) were produced by expression of its capsid protein in the baculovirus system and these VLPs were used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that was efficient in the detection of a serologic response to Hawaii virus. The ready availability of Hawaii VLPs should enable larger-scale epidemiological studies to further elucidate the importance of this agent. PMID:9196224

  6. Cell activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes ingesting exosomes from cells expressing defective HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Arenaccio, Claudia; Chiozzini, Chiara; Columba-Cabezas, Sandra; Manfredi, Francesco; Federico, Maurizio

    2014-06-12

    A relevant burden of defective HIV-1 genomes populates PBMCs from HIV-1 infected patients, especially during HAART treatment. These viral genomes, although unable to codify for infectious viral particles, can express viral proteins which may affect functions of host cells as well as bystander ones. Cells expressing defective HIV-1 have a lifespan longer than that of cells producing infectious particles. Hence, their interaction with other cell types, including resting lymphocytes, is expected to occur frequently in tissues where HIV actively replicates. We investigated the effects of the expression of a prototype of functionally defective HIV-1 on bystander, unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. We observed that unstimulated human primary CD4+ T lymphocytes were activated and became permissive for HIV-1 replication when co-cultivated with cells expressing a functionally defective HIV-1 (F12/Hut-78 cells). This effect depended on the presence in F12/Hut-78 supernatants of nanovesicles we identified as exosomes. By inspecting the underlying mechanism, we found that ADAM17, i.e., a disintegrin and metalloprotease converting pro-TNF-α in its mature form, associated with exosomes from F12/Hut-78 cells, and played a key role in the HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. In fact, the treatment with an inhibitor of ADAM17 abolished both activation and HIV-1 replication in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. TNF-α appeared to be the downstream effector of ADAM17 since the treatment of unstimulated lymphocytes with antibodies against TNF-α or its receptors blocked the HIV-1 replication. Finally, we found that the expression of NefF12 in exosome-producing cells was sufficient to induce the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Exosomes from cells expressing a functionally defective mutant can induce cell activation and HIV-1 susceptibility in unstimulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. This evidence highlights the relevance for AIDS pathogenesis

  7. Lewis antigen expression in gastric mucosa of children: relationship with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Ana Margarida; Marques, Terezinha; Soares, Paula Cristina M; David, Leonor; Reis, Celso A; Serpa, Jacinta; Queiroz, Dulciene M; Rocha, Gifone A; Rocha, Andréia C

    2004-01-01

    Lewis epithelial antigen expression has a role in Helicobacter pylori adherence, presumably mainly in cagA-positive strains. The authors investigated whether Lewis antigen expression in children's gastric mucosa was associated with H. pylori infection, cagA status, patient age, or presence of duodenal ulcer (DU). The expression of Lewis A (Le(a)), B (Le(b)), X (Le(x)), and Y (Le(y)) was detected by immunohistochemistry in the antral and oxyntic mucosae of 70 children. Children were divided in four age groups (<4 years; 4-8 years; 9-12 years; and 13-18 years). Forty-seven of the 70 children had H. pylori and 17 had DU. The cagA status was determined by polymerase chain reaction in 34 patients. Le(a) and Le(b) were expressed in 64% and 44% of the patients, respectively; Le(x) and Le(y) were expressed in the glands in all of the patients and in the superficial epithelium. Le(b) expression was more common among patients without H. pylori (15/23, 65%) than in those with H. pylori (16/47, 34%) (P = 0.03). In noninfected patients, Le(b) and superficial Le(y) expression were associated with increased age. Le(b) expression was more common in patients with chronic gastritis than in those with DU. Le(x) superficial expression was significantly associated with DU in patients with H. pylori. In children, the expression of Le(b) and Le(y) in the superficial gastric epithelium depends on age. Other receptors, such as Le(x), may have a role in H. pylori colonization, especially in patients with DU. Studies assessing the expression of Lewis antigens in children may contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of acquisition of H. pylori infection.

  8. Prevalence, serologic and genetic studies of high expressers of the blood group A antigen on platelets*.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna Gomes, B M; Estalote, A C; Palatnik, M; Pimenta, G; Pereira, B de B; Do Nascimento, E M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the distribution of the platelet blood group A antigenicity in Euro-Brazilians (EUBs) and Afro-Brazilians (AFBs). A small but significant proportion of individuals express high levels of A or B antigen on their platelets corresponding to the erythrocyte ABO group. The mechanism of increased antigen expression has not been elucidated. A cohort of 241 blood group A donors was analysed by flow cytometry. Although mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is a typical continuous variable, platelets were screened and divided into two categories: low expressers (LEs) and high expressers (HEs). A three-generation family was investigated looking for an inheritance mechanism. The prevalence of the HE platelet phenotype among group A(1) donors was 2%. The mean of MFI on platelets of A(1) subgroup of EUBs differs from that of AFBs (P = 0·0115), whereas the frequency of the HE phenotype was similar between them (P = 0·5251). A significant difference was found between sexes (P = 0·0039). Whereas the serum glycosyltransferase from HE family members converted significantly more H antigen on group O erythrocytes into A antigens compared with that in LE serum, their ABO, FUT1 and FUT2 genes were consensus. The theoretically favourable, transcriptionally four-repeat ABO enhancer was not observed. The occurrence of HE in several members suggests familial aggregation. Indeed, in repeated measures, stability of the MFI values is suggesting an inherited condition. Factors outside the ABO locus might be responsible for the HE phenotype. Whether the real mechanism of inheritance is either of a polygenic or of a discrete Mendelian nature remains to be elucidated. © 2010 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology. PMID:27050553

  10. Generation of Large Numbers of Antigen-Expressing Human Dendritic Cells Using CD14-ML Technology.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yuya; Haruta, Miwa; Tomita, Yusuke; Matsumura, Keiko; Ikeda, Tokunori; Yuno, Akira; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Hideki; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Senju, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a method to expand human monocytes through lentivirus-mediated introduction of cMYC and BMI1, and we named the monocyte-derived proliferating cells, CD14-ML. CD14-ML differentiated into functional DC (CD14-ML-DC) upon addition of IL-4, resulting in the generation of a large number of DC. One drawback of this method was the extensive donor-dependent variation in proliferation efficiency. In the current study, we found that introduction of BCL2 or LYL1 along with cMYC and BMI1 was beneficial. Using the improved method, we obtained CD14-ML from all samples, regardless of whether the donors were healthy individuals or cancer patients. In vitro stimulation of peripheral blood T cells with CD14-ML-DC that were loaded with cancer antigen-derived peptides led to the establishment of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lines that recognized the peptides. Since CD14-ML was propagated for more than 1 month, we could readily conduct genetic modification experiments. To generate CD14-ML-DC that expressed antigenic proteins, we introduced lentiviral antigen-expression vectors and subjected the cells to 2 weeks of culture for drug-selection and expansion. The resulting antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC successfully induced CD8+ T cell lines that were reactive to CMVpp65 or MART1/MelanA, suggesting an application in vaccination therapy. Thus, this improved method enables the generation of a sufficient number of DC for vaccination therapy from a small amount of peripheral blood from cancer patients. Information on T cell epitopes is not necessary in vaccination with cancer antigen-expressing CD14-ML-DC; therefore, all patients, irrespective of HLA type, will benefit from anti-cancer therapy based on this technology.

  11. Differential expression of lncRNAs during the HIV replication cycle: an underestimated layer in the HIV-host interplay

    PubMed Central

    Trypsteen, Wim; Mohammadi, Pejman; Van Hecke, Clarissa; Mestdagh, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; Saeys, Yvan; De Bleser, Pieter; Vandesompele, Jo; Ciuffi, Angela; Vandekerckhove, Linos; De Spiegelaere, Ward

    2016-01-01

    Studying the effects of HIV infection on the host transcriptome has typically focused on protein-coding genes. However, recent advances in the field of RNA sequencing revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) add an extensive additional layer to the cell’s molecular network. Here, we performed transcriptome profiling throughout a primary HIV infection in vitro to investigate lncRNA expression at the different HIV replication cycle processes (reverse transcription, integration and particle production). Subsequently, guilt-by-association, transcription factor and co-expression analysis were performed to infer biological roles for the lncRNAs identified in the HIV-host interplay. Many lncRNAs were suggested to play a role in mechanisms relying on proteasomal and ubiquitination pathways, apoptosis, DNA damage responses and cell cycle regulation. Through transcription factor binding analysis, we found that lncRNAs display a distinct transcriptional regulation profile as compared to protein coding mRNAs, suggesting that mRNAs and lncRNAs are independently modulated. In addition, we identified five differentially expressed lncRNA-mRNA pairs with mRNA involvement in HIV pathogenesis with possible cis regulatory lncRNAs that control nearby mRNA expression and function. Altogether, the present study demonstrates that lncRNAs add a new dimension to the HIV-host interplay and should be further investigated as they may represent targets for controlling HIV replication. PMID:27782208

  12. Mapping of B-Cell Epitopes in a Trypanosoma cruzi Immunodominant Antigen Expressed in Natural Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lesénéchal, Mylène; Becquart, Laurence; Lacoux, Xavier; Ladavière, Laurent; Baida, Renata C. P.; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; da Silveira, José Franco

    2005-01-01

    Tc40 is an immunodominant antigen present in natural Trypanosoma cruzi infections. This immunogen was thoroughly mapped by using overlapping amino acid sequences identified by gene cloning and chemical peptide synthesis. To map continuous epitopes of the Tc40 antigen, an epitope expression library was constructed and screened with sera from human chagasic patients. A major, linear B-cell epitope spanning residues 403 to 426 (PAKAAAPPAA) was identified in the central domain of Tc40. A synthetic peptide spanning this region reacted strongly with 89.8% of the serum samples from T. cruzi-infected individuals. This indicates that the main antigenic site is defined by the linear sequence of the peptide rather than a conformation-dependent structure. The major B-cell epitope of Tc40 shares a high degree of sequence identity with T. cruzi ribosomal and RNA binding proteins, suggesting the existence of cross-reactivity among these molecules. PMID:15699429

  13. Different serotypes of dengue viruses differently regulate the expression of the host cell antigen processing machinery.

    PubMed

    Gan, Chye Sheng; Yusof, Rohana; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-09-01

    Dengue virus (DV) infection demonstrates an intriguing virus-induced intracellular membrane alteration that results in the augmentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted antigen presentation. As oppose to its biological function in attracting CD8(+) T-cells, this phenomenon appears to facilitate the immune evasion. However, the molecular events that attribute to the dysregulation of the antigen presenting mechanism (APM) by DV remain obscure. In this study, we aimed to characterize the host cell APM upon infection with all serotypes of whole DV. Cellular RNA were isolated from infected cells and the gene expressions of LMP2, LMP7, TAP1, TAP2, TAPBP, CALR, CANX, PDIA3, HLA-A and HLA-B were analyzed via quantitative PCR. The profiles of the gene expression were further validated. We showed that all four DV serotypes modulate host APM at the proteasomal level with DV2 showing the most prominent expression profile.

  14. Regulatory mutations in CHO cells induce expression of the mouse embryonic antigen SSEA-1.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C; Stanley, P

    1983-11-01

    Two rare and dominant mutants of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, LEC11 and LEC12, express the mouse embryonic antigen SSEA-1. Parental CHO cells and the revertants, LEC11.R9 and LEC12.R10, do not express this antigen as detected by a sensitive radioimmunoassay with a monoclonal antibody to SSEA-1. The presence of the SSEA-1 determinant correlates with the apparent de novo expression of specific N-acetylglucosaminide alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase activities not detected in parental or revertant cell extracts. Several differences in the enzymes substrate specificities and their products have been identified. The combined data suggest that LEC11 and LEC12 mutants result from regulatory mutations affecting different fucosyltransferase genes.

  15. Extracellular Expression in Aspergillus niger of an Antibody Fused to Leishmania sp. Antigens.

    PubMed

    Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2017-08-31

    Nucleoside hydrolase and sterol 24-c-methyltransferase, two antigenic proteins of Leishmania sp., were expressed in Aspergillus niger. Genetic transformation of conidia was achieved using underwater shock waves. scFv antibody addressed to DEC205, a receptor of dendritic cells, was fused to two proteins of Leishmania sp. Receptor 205 has a relevant role in the immune system in mammals; it can modulate T cell response to different antigens. Extracellular expression strategy of recombinant antibody was achieved using a fragment of native glucoamylase A (514 aa) as a carrier. Fermentations in shake flasks showed that the recombinant protein (104 kDa) was expressed and secreted only when maltose was used as carbon source; on the contrary, the expression was highly repressed in presence of xylose. Noteworthy, recombinant protein was secreted without glucoamylase-carrier and accumulation at intracellular level was not observed. The results presented here demonstrate the high value of Aspergillus niger as biotechnological platform for recombinant antibodies against Leishmania sp. at low cost. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about the recombinant expression of antigenic proteins of Leishmania sp. in filamentous fungi. The protein obtained can be used to explore novel strategies to induce immunity against Leishmania sp. or it can be employed in diagnostic kits to detect this neglected disease.

  16. Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonist GS-9620 Induces HIV Expression and HIV-Specific Immunity in Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Angela; Irrinki, Alivelu; Kaur, Jasmine; Cihlar, Tomas; Kukolj, George; Sloan, Derek D; Murry, Jeffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation stimulates antiviral immunity and has been shown to induce HIV from latently infected cells. Activation of TLR7 leads to the production of several stimulatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFNs). In this study, we show that the selective TLR7 agonist GS-9620 induced HIV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. GS-9620 increased extracellular HIV RNA 1.5- to 2-fold through a mechanism that required type I IFN signaling. GS-9620 also activated HIV-specific T cells and enhanced antibody-mediated clearance of HIV-infected cells. Activation by GS-9620 in combination with HIV peptide stimulation increased CD8 T cell degranulation, production of intracellular cytokines, and cytolytic activity. T cell activation was again dependent on type I IFNs produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. GS-9620 induced phagocytic cell maturation and improved effector-mediated killing of HIV-infected CD4 T cells by the HIV envelope-specific broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121. Collectively, these data show that GS-9620 can activate HIV production and improve the effector functions that target latently infected cells. GS-9620 may effectively complement orthogonal therapies designed to stimulate antiviral immunity, such as therapeutic vaccines or broadly neutralizing antibodies. Clinical studies are under way to determine if GS-9620 can target HIV reservoirs.IMPORTANCE Though antiretroviral therapies effectively suppress viral replication, they do not eliminate integrated proviral DNA. This stable intermediate of viral infection is persistently

  17. Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonist GS-9620 Induces HIV Expression and HIV-Specific Immunity in Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Angela; Irrinki, Alivelu; Kaur, Jasmine; Cihlar, Tomas; Kukolj, George

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation stimulates antiviral immunity and has been shown to induce HIV from latently infected cells. Activation of TLR7 leads to the production of several stimulatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFNs). In this study, we show that the selective TLR7 agonist GS-9620 induced HIV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. GS-9620 increased extracellular HIV RNA 1.5- to 2-fold through a mechanism that required type I IFN signaling. GS-9620 also activated HIV-specific T cells and enhanced antibody-mediated clearance of HIV-infected cells. Activation by GS-9620 in combination with HIV peptide stimulation increased CD8 T cell degranulation, production of intracellular cytokines, and cytolytic activity. T cell activation was again dependent on type I IFNs produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. GS-9620 induced phagocytic cell maturation and improved effector-mediated killing of HIV-infected CD4 T cells by the HIV envelope-specific broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121. Collectively, these data show that GS-9620 can activate HIV production and improve the effector functions that target latently infected cells. GS-9620 may effectively complement orthogonal therapies designed to stimulate antiviral immunity, such as therapeutic vaccines or broadly neutralizing antibodies. Clinical studies are under way to determine if GS-9620 can target HIV reservoirs. IMPORTANCE Though antiretroviral therapies effectively suppress viral replication, they do not eliminate integrated proviral DNA. This stable intermediate of viral infection is

  18. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Trimeric Envelope Protein from an Indian Clade C HIV-1 Isolate*

    PubMed Central

    Sneha Priya, Rangasamy; Veena, Menon; Kalisz, Irene; Whitney, Stephen; Priyanka, Dhopeshwarkar; LaBranche, Celia C.; Sri Teja, Mullapudi; Montefiori, David C.; Pal, Ranajit; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from India mainly belong to clade C and are quite distinct from clade C isolates from Africa in terms of their phylogenetic makeup, serotype, and sensitivity to known human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Because many of these properties are associated with the envelope proteins of HIV-1, it is of interest to study the envelope proteins of Indian clade C isolates as part of the ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV-1. To this end, we purified trimeric uncleaved gp145 of a CCR5 tropic Indian clade C HIV-1 (93IN101) from the conditioned medium of 293 cells. The purified protein was shown to be properly folded with stable structure by circular dichroism. Conformational integrity was further demonstrated by its high affinity binding to soluble CD4, CD4 binding site antibodies such as b12 and VRC01, quaternary epitope-specific antibody PG9, and CD4-induced epitope-specific antibody 17b. Sera from rabbits immunized with gp145 elicited high titer antibodies to various domains of gp120 and neutralized a broad spectrum of clade B and clade C HIV-1 isolates. Similar to other clade B and clade C envelope immunogens, most of the Tier 1 neutralizing activity could be absorbed with the V3-specific peptide. Subsequent boosting of these rabbits with a clade B HIV-1 Bal gp145 resulted in an expanded breadth of neutralization of HIV-1 isolates. The present study strongly supports the inclusion of envelopes from Indian isolates in a future mixture of HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:25691567

  19. Melanoma antigen expression and metastatic ability of mutant B16 melanoma clones.

    PubMed

    Nozue, M; Sakiyama, H; Tsuchiya, K; Hirabayashi, Y; Taniguchi, M

    1988-11-15

    The biological functions of murine melanoma-associated antigens recognized by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (M562, M622 and M2590) were examined by using mutant clones which differed in their degree of expression of these antigens. Four clones of high expressors of 3 types of antigen (MEA group), 5 clones of low or non-expressors of M562- and M622-recognizing antigens (MEB group) and 4 clones of non-expressor of GM3 recognized by M2590 (MEC group) were used. Attachment of these clones to components of extracellular matrix was different between the groups. Two clones of the MEA group showed the highest ability to adhere to laminin and type-IV collagen, whereas the clones of the MEB and MEC groups significantly lost their ability to attach to laminin and type-IV collagen. In experimental lung metastasis, metastasizing ability of MEA-group cells was higher than that of MEB- and MEC-group cells. Our results suggest that these antigens play some functional role in metastasis mediated by increasing capacity for attachment to laminin and type-IV collagen.

  20. Stage-specific embryonic antigen: determining expression in canine glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    The expression of stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEAs) was determined in several types of canine cancer cells. Flow cytometry showed SSEA-1 expression in glioblastoma, melanoma, and mammary cancer cells, although none expressed SSEA-3 or SSEA-4. Expression of SSEA-1 was not detected in lymphoma, osteosarcoma, or hemangiosarcoma cell lines. Relatively stable SSEA-1 expression was observed between 24 and 72 h of culture. After 8 days in culture, sorted SSEA-1− and SSEA-1+ cells re-established SSEA-1 expression to levels comparable to those observed in unsorted cells. Our results document, for the first time, the expression of SSEA-1 in several canine cancer cell lines. PMID:27456773

  1. Mosaic HIV-1 Vaccines Expand the Breadth and Depth of Cellular Immune Responses in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Barouch, Dan H.; O'Brien, Kara L.; Simmons, Nathaniel L.; King, Sharon L.; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Sun, Ying-Hua; La Porte, Annalena; Riggs, Ambryice M.; Lynch, Diana M.; Clark, Sarah L.; Backus, Katherine; Perry, James R.; Seaman, Michael S.; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G.; Szinger, James J.; Fischer, Will; Muldoon, Mark; Korber, Bette

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide diversity of HIV-1 presents an unprecedented challenge for vaccine development 1-2. Antigens derived from natural HIV-1 sequences have elicited only limited breadth of cellular immune responses in nonhuman primate studies and clinical trials to date. Polyvalent “mosaic” antigens, in contrast, are designed to optimize cellular immunologic coverage of global HIV-1 sequence diversity 3. Here we show that mosaic HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Env antigens expressed by recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 vectors markedly augmented both the breadth and depth without compromising the magnitude of antigen-specific T lymphocyte responses as compared with consensus or natural sequence HIV-1 antigens in rhesus monkeys. Polyvalent mosaic antigens therefore represent a promising strategy to expand cellular immunologic vaccine coverage for genetically diverse pathogens such as HIV-1. PMID:20173752

  2. Mosaic HIV-1 vaccines expand the breadth and depth of cellular immune responses in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barouch, Dan H; O'Brien, Kara L; Simmons, Nathaniel L; King, Sharon L; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F; Sun, Ying-Hua; La Porte, Annalena; Riggs, Ambryice M; Lynch, Diana M; Clark, Sarah L; Backus, Katherine; Perry, James R; Seaman, Michael S; Carville, Angela; Mansfield, Keith G; Szinger, James J; Fischer, Will; Muldoon, Mark; Korber, Bette

    2010-03-01

    The worldwide diversity of HIV-1 presents an unprecedented challenge for vaccine development. Antigens derived from natural HIV-1 sequences have elicited only a limited breadth of cellular immune responses in nonhuman primate studies and clinical trials to date. Polyvalent 'mosaic' antigens, in contrast, are designed to optimize cellular immunologic coverage of global HIV-1 sequence diversity. Here we show that mosaic HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Env antigens expressed by recombinant, replication-incompetent adenovirus serotype 26 vectors markedly augmented both the breadth and depth without compromising the magnitude of antigen-specific T lymphocyte responses as compared with consensus or natural sequence HIV-1 antigens in rhesus monkeys. Polyvalent mosaic antigens therefore represent a promising strategy to expand cellular immunologic vaccine coverage for genetically diverse pathogens such as HIV-1.

  3. Supernatants of human leukocytes contain mediator, different from interferon gamma, which induces expression of MHC class II antigens

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In this report, data are presented on the regulation of MHC class II antigen expression by a mediator present in supernatants of human mixed leukocyte cultures (MLC-SN), and which is different from IFN-gamma. The capacity of supernatants to induce antigen expression did not correspond to titers of IFN-gamma. Removal of IFN-gamma using either dialysis against pH 2 or neutralizing mAb against human IFN-gamma did not abrogate the MHC class II antigen expression-inducing capacity of MLC-SN when tested on adenocarcinoma cell lines, kidney epithelial cells, and fibroblasts in vitro in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. Therefore, supernatants of human leukocytes contain a mediator, different from IFN-gamma, which induces expression of MHC class II antigens. Dose-response studies revealed that the mediator is produced after allogeneic and lectin stimulation of human leukocytes, and by unstimulated leukocytes. Activation of leukocytes resulted in increased titers of the mediator. The mediator markedly enhances expression of both HLA-DR and HLA-DQ antigens, whereas IFN-gamma had a similar effect on HLA-DR antigens, and only a minor effect on HLA-DQ antigens. Interaction of the mediator and IFN-gamma resulted in a potentiating effect of these two factors on MHC class II antigen expression. Biochemical analysis revealed a mediator, distinguishable by FPLC from IL-1, IL-2, and human IFN-gamma, and which has a molecular mass of 32 kD. PMID:2941512

  4. Induction of surface antigen CD69 expression in T-lymphocytes following exposure to actinomycin D.

    PubMed

    Morgan, C D; Greene, J F; Measel, J W

    1999-10-01

    The expression of surface antigen CD69 in immune response cells is typically associated with the early stage(s) of cell activation, with maximal expression levels within 4 h of appropriate antigenic or mitogenic stimulation, and maintenance of these high expression levels for 18-24 h. The expression profiles of CD69 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cultured with actinomycin D prior to mitogenic stimulation were evaluated by direct immunofluorescence using flow cytometry. Pretreatment of PBMC suspensions with low, non-toxic levels of actinomycin D stimulated CD3+ T-lymphocytes to express CD69 in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, CD4+ T-lymphocytes were the primary cells responding in this fashion. Secondary mitogenic stimulation following antibiotic treatment potentiated cellular CD69 expression in these assays. CD69 expression was profoundly suppressed with in vitro actinomycin D concentrations >/=1-2 microg/ml, presumably by interference with cellular transcription/translation mechanisms. Parallel thymidine incorporation assays indicated that actinomycin D effectively inhibited thymidine uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, with complete inhibition at >/=0.1 microg/ml. The evaluation of cell cycling dynamics following antibiotic treatment, with and without secondary mitogen stimulation, indicated no substantial changes in DNA synthesis over controls. The diversity of these responses suggests that expression of CD69 may not solely reflect mitogenic activation status but may, under some conditions, result from induced cellular stress.

  5. Expression Cloning of an Immunodominant Family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens Using Human Cd4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, Mark R.; Bement, Teresa; Day, Craig H.; Zhu, Liqing; Molesh, David; Skeiky, Yasir A. W.; Coler, Rhea; Lewinsohn, David M.; Reed, Steven G.; Dillon, Davin C.

    2000-01-01

    Development of a subunit vaccine for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is likely to be dependent on the identification of T cell antigens that induce strong proliferation and interferon γ production from healthy purified protein derivative (PPD)+ donors. We have developed a sensitive and rapid technique for screening an Mtb genomic library expressed in Escherichia coli using Mtb-specific CD4+ T cells. Using this technique, we identified a family of highly related Mtb antigens. The gene of one family member encodes a 9.9-kD antigen, termed Mtb9.9A. Recombinant Mtb9.9A protein, expressed and purified from E. coli, elicited strong T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PPD+ but not PPD− individuals. Southern blot analysis and examination of the Mtb genome sequence revealed a family of highly related genes. A T cell line from a PPD+ donor that failed to react with recombinant Mtb9.9A recognized one of the other family members, Mtb9.9C. Synthetic peptides were used to map the T cell epitope recognized by this line, and revealed a single amino acid substitution in this region when compared with Mtb9.9A. The direct identification of antigens using T cells from immune donors will undoubtedly be critical for the development of vaccines to several intracellular pathogens. PMID:10662800

  6. Expression of CD3-associated antigen-binding receptors on suppressor T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuchroo, V K; Steele, J K; Billings, P R; Selvaraj, P; Dorf, M E

    1988-01-01

    Three suppressor T (Ts)-cell hybridomas specific for 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl acetyl (NP) hapten were selected for surface expression of cluster determinant 3 (CD3) by using antibody (anti-CD3) or antigen (NP-bovine serum albumin) panning procedures followed by cloning at limiting dilution. The CD3-selected Ts hybridomas showed a 1-2 logarithmic enrichment in suppressor activity when compared to the parent lines; they also specifically bound NP-coupled sheep red blood cells in rosette assays. This antigen-binding ability could be down-modulated by anti-CD3 antibody. Similarly, surface expression of CD3 was specifically down-modulated by preincubation of these hybridomas with antigen. Anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody under reducing conditions coprecipitated a broad band of 38-50 kDa associated with two CD3 (25 and 16 kDa) bands. T-cell receptor, anti-alpha-specific monoclonal antibody also immunoprecipitated a broad band in the 41 to 49-kDa region. The combined results suggest that, like helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, Ts cells also bear antigen-specific receptors associated with CD3 molecules. Images PMID:2973609

  7. Identification of Tannerella forsythia antigens specifically expressed in patients with periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyeong Chan; Zhu, Weidong; Kim, Seon-Mi; Sabet, Mojgan; Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey; Progulske-Fox, Ann; Lee, Seok-Woo

    2007-10-01

    Molecular pathogenesis of Tannerella forsythia, a putative periodontal pathogen, has not yet been adequately elucidated due to limited information on its virulence factors. Here, identification of in vivo expressed antigens of T. forsythia is reported using in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT). Among 13 000 recombinant clones screened, 16 positive clones were identified that reacted reproducibly with sera obtained from patients with periodontal disease. DNA sequences from 12 of these in vivo-induced genes were determined. IVIAT-identified protein antigens of T. forsythia include: BspA, a well-defined virulence factor of T. forsythia; enzymes involved in housekeeping functions (tRNA synthetases, glycine hydroxymethyltransferase, and glucoside glucohydrolase); enzymes implicated in tissue destruction (dipeptidyl peptidase IV); a DNA mismatch repair protein; and putative outer membrane proteins of unknown function. The in vivo gene expression of these IVIAT-identified antigens was confirmed by a quantitative real-time PCR analysis. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first report using IVIAT in T. forsythia. It is anticipated that detailed analysis of the in vivo-induced genes identified by IVIAT in this study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating periodontal infection by T. forsythia.

  8. Adenoviral vectors elicit humoral immunity against variable loop 2 of clade C HIV-1 gp120 via “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Linlin; Krendelchtchikova, Valentina; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Farrow, Anitra L.; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Matthews, Qiana L.

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviral (Ad) vectors in combination with the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy have been applied in developing HIV-1 vaccines, due to the vectors’ abilities in incorporating and inducing immunity of capsid-incorporated antigens. Variable loop 2 (V2)-specific antibodies were suggested in the RV144 trial to correlate with reduced HIV-1 acquisition, which highlights the importance of developing novel HIV-1 vaccines by targeting the V2 loop. Therefore, the V2 loop of HIV-1 has been incorporated into the Ad capsid protein. We generated adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying variable loop 2 (V2) of HIV-1 gp120, with the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy. To assess the incorporation capabilities on hexon hypervariable region1 (HVR1) and protein IX (pIX), 20aa or full length (43aa) of V2 and V1V2 (67aa) were incorporated, respectively. Immunizations with the recombinant vectors significantly generated antibodies against both linear and discontinuous V2 epitopes. The immunizations generated durable humoral immunity against V2. This study will lead to more stringent development of various serotypes of adenovirus-vectored V2 vaccine candidates, based on breakthroughs regarding the immunogenicity of V2. PMID:26499044

  9. HIV Viral Load

    MedlinePlus

    ... Count ; HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) ; HIV Drug Resistance ( Genotypic and Phenotypic ) All content on Lab Tests ... have their therapy changed. They should undergo HIV drug resistance testing to help in the selection of an ...

  10. HIV Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  11. Disulfiram reactivates latent HIV-1 expression through depletion of the phosphatase and tensin homolog.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Geneviève; Zerbato, Jennifer; Mellors, John W; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas

    2013-01-14

    Disulfiram (DSF), an inhibitor of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase that is used for the treatment of alcoholism, was shown to reactivate latent HIV-1 expression in a primary cell model of virus latency and is currently being assessed in a clinical trial for its potential to deplete the latent HIV-1 reservoir in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism by which DSF reactivates latent HIV-1 expression, however, is not known and was the focus of this study. The impact of DSF treatment on HIV-1 latency was assessed in the ACH2, J89GFP and U1 cell line models of HIV-1 latency and in resting CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-negative donors. DSF reactivated latent HIV-1 expression in the U1 cell line, but not in the J89GFP or ACH2 cell lines. Interestingly, we found that DSF significantly reduced phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein levels in U1 cells and in resting CD4 T cells from HIV-negative donors. Decreased PTEN resulted in increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and activation of the Akt signaling pathway. Consistent with these finding, pharmacological inhibitors of Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) block the latent HIV-1-reactivating activity of DSF. Furthermore, we show that HIV-1 expression in the U1 cell line could be activated by a small molecule inhibitor of PTEN or by siRNA knockdown of PTEN expression. Neither the J89GFP nor ACH2 cells express PTEN, explaining the lack of DSF effect on HIV-1 expression in both these cell lines. DSF reactivates latent HIV-1 expression via the Akt signaling pathway through depletion of PTEN.

  12. Genotypic and phenotypic variation of Lewis antigen expression in geographically diverse Helicobacter pylori isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Mary Ann; Zhang, William; Shah, Sunny; Sanabria-Valentín, Edgardo L.; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I.; Blaser, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a persistent colonizer of the human gastric mucosa, which can lead to the development peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinomas. However, H. pylori can asymptomatically colonize a host for years. One factor that has been hypothesized to contribute to such persistence is the production of Lewis (Le) antigens in the lipopolysaccharide layer of the bacterial outer membrane as a form of molecular mimicry, since humans also express these antigens on their gastric mucosa. Humans and H. pylori both are polymorphic for Le expression, which is driven in H. pylori by variation at the Le synthesis loci. In this report we sought to characterize Le genotypic and phenotypic variation in geographically diverse H. pylori isolates. Materials and Methods From patients undergoing endoscopy in 29 countries, we determined Le phenotypes of 78 H. pylori strains, and performed genotyping of the galT and β-(1,3)galT loci in 113 H. pylori strains. Results Le antigen phenotyping revealed a significant (p <0.0001) association between type 1 (Lea and Leb) expression and strains of East-Asian origin. Genotyping revealed a significant correlation between strain origin and the size of the promoter region upstream of the Le synthesis gene, galT (p <0.0001). Conclusion These results indicate that the heterogeneity of human Le phenotypes are reflected in their H. pylori colonizing strains, and suggest new loci that can be studied to assess variation of Le expression. PMID:22059399

  13. Variable expression of activation-linked surface antigens on human mast cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Valent, P; Schernthaner, G H; Sperr, W R; Fritsch, G; Agis, H; Willheim, M; Bühring, H J; Orfao, A; Escribano, L

    2001-02-01

    Mast cells (MC) are multipotent effector cells of the immune system. They contain an array of biologically active mediator substances in their granules. MC also express a number of functionally important cell surface antigens, including stem cell factor receptor (SCFR=kit=CD117), high affinity IgER (FcepsilonRI), or CSaR (CD88). Respective ligands can induce or promote degranulation, migration, or cytokine production. Other integral surface molecules can mediate adhesion or cell aggregation. Recent data suggest that a number of critical molecules are variably expressed on the surface of human MC. In fact, depending on the environment (organ), stage of cell maturation, type of disease, and other factors, MC express variable amounts of activation-linked antigens (CD25, CD63, CD69, CD88), cell recognition molecules (CD2, CD11, CD18, CD50, CD54), or cytokine receptors. At present, however, little is known about the mechanisms and regulation of expression of such antigens. The present article gives an overview of MC phenotypes in health and disease, and attempts to provide explanations for the phenotypic variability of MC.

  14. Simultaneous Quantification of Viral Antigen Expression Kinetics Using Data-Independent (DIA) Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Croft, Nathan P; de Verteuil, Danielle A; Smith, Stewart A; Wong, Yik Chun; Schittenhelm, Ralf B; Tscharke, David C; Purcell, Anthony W

    2015-05-01

    The generation of antigen-specific reagents is a significant bottleneck in the study of complex pathogens that express many hundreds to thousands of different proteins or to emerging or new strains of viruses that display potential pandemic qualities and therefore require rapid investigation. In these instances the development of antibodies for example can be prohibitively expensive to cover the full pathogen proteome, or the lead time may be unacceptably long in urgent cases where new highly pathogenic viral strains may emerge. Because genomic information on such pathogens can be rapidly acquired this opens up avenues using mass spectrometric approaches to study pathogen antigen expression, host responses and for screening the utility of therapeutics. In particular, data-independent acquisition (DIA) modalities on high-resolution mass spectrometers generate spectral information on all components of a complex sample providing depth of coverage hitherto only seen in genomic deep sequencing. The spectral information generated by DIA can be iteratively interrogated for potentially any protein of interest providing both evidence of protein expression and quantitation. Here we apply a solely DIA mass spectrometry based methodology to profile the viral antigen expression in cells infected with vaccinia virus up to 9 h post infection without the need for antigen specific antibodies or other reagents. We demonstrate deep coverage of the vaccinia virus proteome using a SWATH-MS acquisition approach, extracting quantitative kinetics of 100 virus proteins within a single experiment. The results highlight the complexity of vaccinia protein expression, complementing what is known at the transcriptomic level, and provide a valuable resource and technique for future studies of viral infection and replication kinetics. Furthermore, they highlight the utility of DIA and mass spectrometry in the dissection of host-pathogen interactions.

  15. Differential Glioma-Associated Tumor Antigen Expression Profiles of Human Glioma Cells Grown in Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lisheng; Cornforth, Andrew N.; Hoa, Neil T.; Delgado, Christina; Chiou, Shiun Kwei; Zhou, Yi Hong; Jadus, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    Human U251 and D54 glioma cells were tested for expression of 25 glioma-associated tumor antigen precursor proteins (TAPP) under hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) conditions. Hypoxic glioma cell lines increased their mRNA expression for nine TAPP (Aim2, Art-4, EphA2, EZH2, Fosl1, PTH-rP, Sox 11, Whsc2 and YKL-40), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time/polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Increased differences with three hypoxic-induced TAPP: EZH2, Whsc2 and YKL-40 were shown at the protein levels by fluorescent antibody staining and quantitative electrophoretic analysis. Two TAPP (MRP3 and Trp1) were down-regulated by hypoxia in glioma cell lines. Growing the glioma cells under hypoxia for 13 days, followed by returning them back to normoxic conditions for 7 days, and restored the original normoxic TAPP profile. Thus, hypoxia was an environmental factor that stimulated the transient expression of these antigens. Intracranial xenografts grown in nude mice derived from U251 cells that had been cultured under neurosphere stem cell conditions showed increased expression of Whsc2 or YKL-40, demonstrating that these in vitro properties of glioma also occur in vivo. Whsc2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes killed the hypoxic U251 glioma cells better than normoxic glioma cells. The antigens expressed by hypoxic tumor cells may be a better source of starting tumor material for loading dendritic cells for novel immunotherapy of glioma using tumor-associated antigens. PMID:22957023

  16. Differential glioma-associated tumor antigen expression profiles of human glioma cells grown in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lisheng; Cornforth, Andrew N; Hoa, Neil T; Delgado, Christina; Chiou, Shiun Kwei; Zhou, Yi Hong; Jadus, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    Human U251 and D54 glioma cells were tested for expression of 25 glioma-associated tumor antigen precursor proteins (TAPP) under hypoxic (1% O(2)) or normoxic (21% O(2)) conditions. Hypoxic glioma cell lines increased their mRNA expression for nine TAPP (Aim2, Art-4, EphA2, EZH2, Fosl1, PTH-rP, Sox 11, Whsc2 and YKL-40), as assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time/polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Increased differences with three hypoxic-induced TAPP: EZH2, Whsc2 and YKL-40 were shown at the protein levels by fluorescent antibody staining and quantitative electrophoretic analysis. Two TAPP (MRP3 and Trp1) were down-regulated by hypoxia in glioma cell lines. Growing the glioma cells under hypoxia for 13 days, followed by returning them back to normoxic conditions for 7 days, and restored the original normoxic TAPP profile. Thus, hypoxia was an environmental factor that stimulated the transient expression of these antigens. Intracranial xenografts grown in nude mice derived from U251 cells that had been cultured under neurosphere stem cell conditions showed increased expression of Whsc2 or YKL-40, demonstrating that these in vitro properties of glioma also occur in vivo. Whsc2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes killed the hypoxic U251 glioma cells better than normoxic glioma cells. The antigens expressed by hypoxic tumor cells may be a better source of starting tumor material for loading dendritic cells for novel immunotherapy of glioma using tumor-associated antigens.

  17. Immunoselection in vivo: independent loss of MHC class I and melanocyte differentiation antigen expression in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Jäger, E; Ringhoffer, M; Altmannsberger, M; Arand, M; Karbach, J; Jäger, D; Oesch, F; Knuth, A

    1997-04-10

    Peptides derived from melanocyte differentiation antigens have been identified as targets for MHC class I-restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in human melanoma Regression of antigen-expressing tumors as well as selection of antigen-loss variants in the presence of antigen-specific CTLs have previously been reported. In the present study, we determined the expression of the melanocyte differentiation antigens Melan A/MART-1 and tyrosinase by mRNA analysis and by immunohistochemical staining with the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) A103 and T311. Co-expression of Melan A/MART-1 and tyrosinase was detected by both methods in 18/20 melanomas tested. However, immunohistochemistry provided additional information on intensity and microheterogeneity of antigen expression that cannot be detected by mRNA analysis as a molecular basis for the escape from CTL recognition of antigen-negative tumor cells. Comparative analysis of repeated biopsies of metastatic lesions in 5 HLA-A2+ patients showed a gradual loss of Melan A/MART-1 expression in 4/5 and of tyrosinase in 2/5 samples in association with tumor progression. However, 3 of these patients had growing antigen-positive tumors in the presence of antigen-specific CTLs. This led us to assess the expression of MHC class I, the essential restriction element for CTL recognition, and of HLA-A2. We found an unexpectedly high frequency of MHC class I-negative tumors (9/20). Loss of MHC class I expression was detected in 3/5 progressive tumors and isolated loss of HLA-A2 in 1/5 tumors. Our results suggest that strategies enhancing the expression of MHC class I and tumor-associated antigens need to be considered in attempts at making vaccination more effective.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Heterologous HIV-1gp120 Gene Expression Disruption in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Host Strain: A Critical Issue for Engineering Mycobacterial Based-Vaccine Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joan; Fernández-Lloris, Raquel; Pezzat, Elías; Saubi, Narcís; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Mothe, Beatriz; Gatell, Josep Maria

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a live vector of recombinant bacterial vaccine is a promising system to be used. In this study, we evaluate the disrupted expression of heterologous HIV-1gp120 gene in BCG Pasteur host strain using replicative vectors pMV261 and pJH222. pJH222 carries a lysine complementing gene in BCG lysine auxotrophs. The HIV-1 gp120 gene expression was regulated by BCG hsp60 promoter (in plasmid pMV261) and Mycobacteria spp. α-antigen promoter (in plasmid pJH222). Among 14 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pMV261) colonies screened, 12 showed a partial deletion and two showed a complete deletion. However, deletion was not observed in all 10 rBCG:HIV-1gp120 (pJH222) colonies screened. In this study, we demonstrated that E. coli/Mycobacterial expression vectors bearing a weak promoter and lysine complementing gene in a recombinant lysine auxotroph of BCG could prevent genetic rearrangements and disruption of HIV 1gp120 gene expression, a key issue for engineering Mycobacterial based vaccine vectors. PMID:20617151

  19. Relationship between expression of epidermal growth factor and simian virus 40 T antigen in a line of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lafond, R E; Giammalvo, J T; Norkin, L C

    1995-09-01

    The pattern of expression of the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen gene and resultant dysplasia were re-examined in a line of transgenic mice in which the T antigen gene was under the control of the SV40 early promoter. We found that T antigen expression in the kidney, and resulting dysplastic lesions, occurred exclusively in the distal convoluted tubules and the ascending limbs of Henle. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the kidney of normal mice was similarly immunolocalized. The correlation between high EGF immunoreactivity in normal mouse tissues and T antigen expression in the transgenic counterpart was also seen in the choroid plexus epithelium and in the submandibular glands of male mice. T antigen was not found in the submandibular gland of transgenic females. Similarly, EGF was only rarely detected in the normal female submandibular gland. In contrast to the correlation between T antigen expression in the transgenic mice and EGF expression in the corresponding tissues of the normal mice, within the dysplastic lesions of the transgenic mice EGF expression was severely diminished. Adenocarcinomas of the male submandibular gland from another line of transgenic mice that expresses the Int-1 transgene, showed similarly reduced levels of immunostaining for EGF. Thus, reduced expression of EGF might be a general feature of dysplasia and tumorigenesis in those tissues that normally express EGF.

  20. HIV-1 matrix protein p17: a candidate antigen for therapeutic vaccines against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Simona; Giagulli, Cinzia; Caccuri, Francesca; Magiera, Anna K; Caruso, Arnaldo

    2010-12-01

    The success in the development of anti-retroviral therapies (HAART) that contain human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is challenged by the cost of this lifelong therapy and by its toxicity. Immune-based therapeutic strategies that boost the immune response against HIV-1 proteins or protein subunits have been recently proposed to control virus replication in order to provide protection from disease development, reduce virus transmission, and help limit the use of anti-retroviral treatments. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 is a structural protein that is critically involved in most stages of the life cycle of the retrovirus. Besides its well established role in the virus life cycle, increasing evidence suggests that p17 may also be active extracellularly in deregulating biological activities of many different immune cells that are directly or indirectly involved in AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, p17 might represent a promising target for developing a therapeutic vaccine as a contribution to combating AIDS. In this article we review the biological characteristics of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 and we describe why a synthetic peptide representative of the p17 functional epitope may work as a vaccine molecule capable of inducing anti-p17 neutralizing response against p17 derived from divergent HIV-1 strains.

  1. Prognostic relevance of melanoma antigen D1 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Melanoma antigen D1 (MAGED1) is a member of the type II melanoma antigen (MAGE) family. The down-regulation of MAGED1 expression has been shown in breast carcinoma cell lines and in glioma stem cells and may play an important role in apoptosis and anti-tumorigenesis. However, there is no report on its clinical role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods We examined the expression of MAGED1 by qPCR in colorectal cancer tissues and their adjacent non-tumorous tissues taken from 6 cases and performed Western blotting and IHC analyses. In addition, we analyzed MAGED1 expression in 285 clinicopathologically characterized colorectal cancer patients. Results MAGED1 expression was significantly down-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissues and was associated with clinical stage (p < 0.001), T classification (p = 0.001), N classification (p < 0.001), M classification (p < 0.001) and pathologic differentiation (p = 0.002). Patients with lower MAGED1 expression had a shorter survival time than those with higher MAGED1 expression. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that MAGED1 expression was an independent prognostic factors (p < 0.001). Conclusions MAGED1 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker of human colorectal cancer. PMID:22935435

  2. The effects of expressive writing on adjustment to HIV.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Inna D; Gustafson, Julie; Weingarten, Ilene; Chin, Dorothy

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that writing about stressful experiences results in better health and psychological well-being. In the present study, a multi-ethnic sample of 79 HIV-positive women and men participated in a structured interview, and wrote about either their deepest thoughts and feelings about living with HIV (expressive writing) or their activities in the last 24 hr (control). Sixty-two participants returned for the 2-month follow-up and 50 returned for the 6-month follow-up interview. Oral fluid samples of beta2-microglobulin were taken at the baseline and follow-up assessments to examine the immunological effects of writing. No effects of writing condition were found, but expressive writing participants who included increasing insight/causation and social words in their writing had better immune function and reported more positive changes at follow-up. Results suggest that cognitive processing and changes in social interactions may be critical to the benefits of writing.

  3. Ultrasensitive detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen by a hybrid nanomechanical-optoplasmonic platform with potential for detecting HIV-1 at first week after infection.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Priscila M; Pini, Valerio; Calleja, Montserrat; Tamayo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of HIV infection is the best way to prevent spread of the disease and to improve the efficiency of the antiretroviral therapy. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have become the gold-standard for detecting low-concentrations of the virus in blood. However, these methods are technically demanding and cost-prohibitive in developing countries. Immunoassays are more affordable and can be more easily adapted for point-of-care diagnosis. However, the sensitivity so far of these methods has been too low. We here report the development of a sandwich immunoassay that combines nanomechanical and optoplasmonic transduction methods for detecting the HIV-1 capsid antigen p24 in human serum. The immunoreactions take place on the surface of a compliant microcantilever where gold nanoparticles are used as both mechanical and plasmonic labels. The microcantilever acts as both a mechanical resonator and an optical cavity for the transduction of the mechanical and plasmonic signals. The limit of detection of the immunoassay is 10-17 g/mL that is equivalent to one virion in 10 mL of plasma. This is 5 orders of magnitude better than last generation of approved immunoassays and 2 orders of magnitude better than NAAT. This technology meets the demands to be produced en masse at low cost and the capability for miniaturization to be used at the point-of-care.

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen by a hybrid nanomechanical-optoplasmonic platform with potential for detecting HIV-1 at first week after infection

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Priscila M.; Pini, Valerio; Calleja, Montserrat; Tamayo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of HIV infection is the best way to prevent spread of the disease and to improve the efficiency of the antiretroviral therapy. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have become the gold-standard for detecting low-concentrations of the virus in blood. However, these methods are technically demanding and cost-prohibitive in developing countries. Immunoassays are more affordable and can be more easily adapted for point-of-care diagnosis. However, the sensitivity so far of these methods has been too low. We here report the development of a sandwich immunoassay that combines nanomechanical and optoplasmonic transduction methods for detecting the HIV-1 capsid antigen p24 in human serum. The immunoreactions take place on the surface of a compliant microcantilever where gold nanoparticles are used as both mechanical and plasmonic labels. The microcantilever acts as both a mechanical resonator and an optical cavity for the transduction of the mechanical and plasmonic signals. The limit of detection of the immunoassay is 10−17 g/mL that is equivalent to one virion in 10 mL of plasma. This is 5 orders of magnitude better than last generation of approved immunoassays and 2 orders of magnitude better than NAAT. This technology meets the demands to be produced en masse at low cost and the capability for miniaturization to be used at the point-of-care. PMID:28199410

  5. Expression of Heterologous Antigens in Commensal Neisseria spp.: Preservation of Conformational Epitopes with Vaccine Potential

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Clíona A.; Reddin, Karen; Martin, Denis; Taylor, Stephen C.; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Hudson, Michael J.; Brodeur, Bernard R.; Langford, Paul R.; Kroll, J. Simon

    2004-01-01

    Commensal neisseriae share with Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) a tendency towards overproduction of the bacterial outer envelope, leading to the formation and release during growth of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). OMVs from both meningococci and commensal neisseriae have shown promise as vaccines to protect against meningococcal disease. We report here the successful expression at high levels of heterologous proteins in commensal neisseriae and the display, in its native conformation, of one meningococcal outer membrane protein vaccine candidate, NspA, in OMVs prepared from such a recombinant Neisseria flavescens strain. These NspA-containing OMVs conferred protection against otherwise lethal intraperitoneal challenge of mice with N. meningitidis serogroup B, and sera raised against them mediated opsonophagocytosis of meningococcal strains expressing this antigen. This development promises to facilitate the design of novel vaccines containing membrane protein antigens that are otherwise difficult to present in native conformation that provide cross-protective efficacy in the prevention of meningococcal disease. PMID:15501782

  6. Expression of Ia antigens by murine kidney epithelium after exposure to streptozotocin.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, A. G.; Mannschreck, J. W.; Anderson, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    In the normal murine kidney, Ia antigens are expressed by dendritic cells located within the interstitial connective tissue and scattered cells within the glomerulus. After receiving multiple low doses of streptozotocin, a nitrosourea derivative of glucose, kidney epithelium labeled intensely with anti-Ia antibodies. Ultrastructural immunohistochemistry indicated that the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules expressed Ia antigens on their basolateral surfaces while remaining Ia- on their luminal surfaces. This response to streptozotocin does not appear to be related to the diabetogenic potential of the drug, because BALB/cJ mice, which remain normoglycemic after treatment with streptozotocin, also exhibited strongly Ia+ tubular epithelium after treatment with streptozotocin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2950766

  7. Dynamic Post-Transcriptional Regulation of HIV-1 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kula, Anna; Marcello, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a highly regulated process. Basal transcription of the integrated provirus generates early transcripts that encode for the viral products Tat and Rev. Tat promotes the elongation of RNA polymerase while Rev mediates the nuclear export of viral RNAs that contain the Rev-responsive RNA element (RRE). These RNAs are exported from the nucleus to allow expression of Gag-Pol and Env proteins and for the production of full-length genomic RNAs. A balance exists between completely processed mRNAs and RRE-containing RNAs. Rev functions as an adaptor that recruits cellular factors to re-direct singly spliced and unspliced viral RNAs to nuclear export. The aim of this review is to address the dynamic regulation of this post-transcriptional pathway in light of recent findings that implicate several novel cellular cofactors of Rev function. PMID:24832221

  8. Expression of ABH blood group antigens, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, and type IV collagen in the sinusoids of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, T; Nakanuma, Y

    1991-01-01

    The expression of blood group antigens (A, B, H, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen on the sinusoids was examined immunohistochemically in 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 11 cases of cirrhosis, 12 cases of chronic active hepatitis, and in a control sample of 16 normal livers. Sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC characteristically showed a diffuse and strong immunoreactivity to ABH blood group antigens in the specimen with a comparable ABO blood group. The sinusoidal endothelial cells were also diffusely and strongly positive for UEA-I receptors. In contrast, in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-I receptors. In normal livers, only a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-1 receptors. Tests for factor VIII-related antigen and Lewis blood group antigens were almost negative on sinusoidal endothelial cells. Although type IV collagen was distributed diffusely in the space of Disse in these four groups, its expression was strongest in HCC. Blood vessels of portal tracts and fibrous septa were positive for ABH blood group antigens, UEA-1 receptors, factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen, but negative for Lewis blood group antigens. These findings suggest that some sinusoidal endothelial cells undergo "capillarization" in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis, and that the majority of sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC have phenotypic characteristics of capillaries.

  9. Lewis(y) antigen promotes the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer by stimulating MUC1 expression.

    PubMed

    Hou, Rui; Jiang, Luo; Liu, Dawo; Lin, Bei; Hu, Zhenhua; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Danye; Zhang, Shulan; Iwamori, Masao

    2017-08-01

    MUC1 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein and is overexpressed in various epithelial tumor tissues. Some researchers have demonstrated that the glycosylation status of MUC1 can affect MUC1-mediated tumor growth and cell differentiation. In our previous study, we proved that the abilities of cell proliferation, adhesion, invasion and metastasis, and drug resistance were enhanced in ovarian cancer cells stably expressing Lewis(y). Therefore, we hypothesized that Lewis(y) antigen may play a central role in regulating MUC1 expression, and MUC1-mediated cell growth and differentiation may be closely associated with Lewis(y) antigen. This study aimed to examine the correlation between MUC1 expression and Lewis(y) antigen levels in ovarian cancer cell lines and tissue samples. A series of techniques, including RT-qPCR, western blot anlaysis, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry and double-labeling immunofluorescence were applied to detect the expression of Lewis(y) and MUC1. In malignant epithelial ovarian tumors, the positive expression rates of Lewis(y) antigen and MUC1 were 88.33 and 86.67%, respectively, which were markedly higher than those in borderline (60.00 and 53.33%, P<0.05), benign (33.33 and 30%, P<0.01) and normal (0 and 25%, P<0.01) ovarian samples. There was no correlation between the positive expression rates of Lewis(y) or MUC1 and clinicopathological parameters in ovarian cancers (P>0.05). The expression levels of Lewis(y) and MUC1 correlated with the clinical FIGO stage (P<0.05). Both MUC1 and Lewis(y) were highly expressed in ovarian cancer tissues, and their expression levels were positively correlated (P<0.01). In α1,2-fucosyltransferase (α1,2-FT)-transfected cells, the gene and protein expression levels of MUC1 were significantly upregulated compared with the cells that did not overexpress α1,2-FT (P<0.05). The ratio of Lewis(y) immunoprecipitated with MUC1 to total MUC1 increased 1.55-fold in α1,2-FT-overexpressing cells

  10. MAIT cells are depleted early but retain functional cytokine expression in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Amarasena, Thakshila; Kelleher, Anthony D; Rossjohn, Jamie; McCluskey, James; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells home to mucosal sites and exert antimicrobial activity against bacteria and other microorganisms. HIV infection leads to early depletion of gut T cells and translocation of bacterial products. There are reports that MAIT cells, defined by coexpression of Vα7.2 and CD161, are depleted during HIV infection and residual MAIT cells are functionally impaired. However, one study suggested that MAIT cells might remain after HIV infection but evade detection through CD161 downregulation. Thus, the impact of HIV infection on MAIT cells is unclear. We studied longitudinal blood samples from 31 HIV-infected subjects for MAIT cell numbers, phenotype and function using both standard Vα7.2/CD161 surface markers and an MR1 tetramer. We found that MAIT cells were depleted early during HIV infection, and although there was a concomitant rise in Vα7.2(+)CD161(-) cells, these were MR1 tetramer negative, indicating that these are unlikely to be altered MAIT cells. Antigen-mediated activation of residual MAIT cells showed that they remained functional out to 2 years following HIV infection. Although MAIT cells are depleted in HIV infection, residual and functionally active MAIT cells persist and may still be able to assist in controlling bacterial translocation during HIV infection.

  11. Interferon treatment of mice: enhanced expression of histocompatibility antigens on lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, P; Gresser, I; Leary, P; Tovey, M

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of young and mature mice with potent mouse interferon preparations results in a marked enhancement of the expression of histocompatibility antigens on the surface of thymocytes and splenic lymphocytes as measured by an enhanced absorption of alloantiserum. We postulate that such modifications of the cell surface may reflect an effect of interferon on lymphocyte maturation and may be relevant to the effect of interferon on lymphocyte function. PMID:1063409

  12. Decreased neutralizing antigenicity in IBV S1 protein expressed from mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Suenaga, Kiyotaka; Sakaguchi, Masashi; Yamazaki, Kenichi; Honda, Takashi

    2015-10-02

    We evaluated the antigenicity of recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 protein expressed in mammalian cells. Recombinant S1 was expressed as a secreted protein fused with a trimerization motif peptide, then purified using Ni Sepharose. The purified protein was analyzed by Western blotting, mixed with oil adjuvant, and administered to 29-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. Six weeks after immunization, anti-IBV neutralizing titer and anti-S1 ELISA titer were determined; immunized chickens then were inoculated with IBV via the trachea and ciliary activity was observed. Results showed that the recombinant S1 protein was highly glycosylated, and the neutralizing antigenicity of recombinant S1 protein was lower than that of inactivated virus. However, anti-S1 ELISA indicated that the recombinant S1 protein induced antibodies against S1. These results suggest that the recombinant S1 may retain non-neutralizing epitopes but have unnatural glycosylation pattern and conformation, resulting in lacking neutralizing conformational epitopes. In conclusion, the neutralizing antigenicity of recombinant S1 protein expressed from mammalian cells was decreased, and was not sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Signal transduction-associated and cell activation-linked antigens expressed in human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Valent, Peter; Ghannadan, Minoo; Hauswirth, Alexander W; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Arock, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are multifunctional hematopoietic effector cells that produce and release an array of biologically active mediator substances. Growth and functions of MCs are regulated by cytokines, other extracellular factors, surface and cytoplasmic receptors, oncogene products, and a complex network of signal transduction cascades. Key regulators of differentiation of MCs appear to be stem cell factor (SCF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor KIT (c-kit proto-oncogene product=CD117), downstream-acting elements, and the mi transcription factor (MITF). Signaling through KIT is negatively regulated by the signal regulatory protein (SIRP)-alpha (CD172a)-SHP-1-pathway that is disrupted in neoplastic MCs in MC proliferative disorders. Both KIT and FcepsilonRI are involved in MC activation and mediator release. Activation of MCs through FcepsilonRI is associated with increased expression of activation-linked membrane antigens as well as with signaling events involving Lyn and Syk kinases, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-pathway, Ras pathway, and the phospholipase C-protein kinase C pathway. A similar network of signaling is found in SCF-activated MCs. The current article gives an overview on signal transduction-associated and activation-linked antigens expressed in human MCs. Wherever possible the functional implication of signaling pathways and antigen expression are discussed.

  14. Modulation of ABH histo-blood group antigen expression in normal and myasthenic human thymus.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, Victoria S; Marinova, Tsvetana T

    2006-10-01

    The role of ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) in intercellular communication during normal and pathological processes is still uncertain. The present work investigates the expression of ABH HBGA in epithelial cells and lymphocytes in normal thymus, and characterizes the modulation of their immunoreactivity during myasthenic transformation. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were applied on normal young thymus and on myasthenia gravis-associated thymomas and thymic hyperplasias. The Hassall's corpuscules in the thymus of young individuals were homogeneously stained for HBGA, while in hyperplastic glands only their central part was positive. Stromal epithelial cells permanently expressed HBGA in all tissue samples. In thymomas, mainly the lymphocytes in close proximity to antigen expressing epithelial cells were positive, while in the hyperplastic gland the most intensely stained lymphocytes were those within Hassall's corpuscules. Novel evidence for modulation of ABH antigen reactivity in normal and myasthenic human thymus is presented. It suggests that HBGA might participate in the regulation of the cross-talk in the thymocyte microenvironment throughout the ontogeny, as well as during the myasthenic transformation.

  15. Construction of Nef-positive doxycycline-dependent HIV-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements

    SciTech Connect

    Velden, Yme U. van der; Kleibeuker, Wendy; Harwig, Alex; Klaver, Bep; Siteur-van Rijnstra, Esther; Frankin, Esmay; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-15

    Conditionally replicating HIV-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for HIV research. We previously developed a genetically modified HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. The nef gene in this HIV-rtTA variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtTA transcriptional activator. Because loss of Nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on Nef function, we tested different approaches to restore Nef production in HIV-rtTA. Strategies that involved translation via an EMCV or synthetic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) failed because these elements were incompatible with efficient virus replication. Fusion protein approaches with the FMDV 2A peptide and human ubiquitin were successful and resulted in genetically-stable Nef-expressing HIV-rtTA strains that replicate more efficiently in primary T-cells and human immune system (HIS) mice than Nef-deficient variants, thus confirming the positive effect of Nef on in vivo virus replication. - Highlights: • Different approaches to encode additional proteins in the HIV-1 genome were tested. • IRES translation elements are incompatible with efficient HIV-1 replication. • Ubiquitin and 2A fusion protein approaches allow efficient HIV-1 replication. • Doxycycline-controlled HIV-1 variants that encode all viral proteins were developed. • Nef stimulates HIV-rtTA replication in primary cells and human immune system mice.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii: cloning, expression and immunoreactivity of recombinant ROP5 and ROP18 antigens.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Marcin M; Dziadek, Bożena; Dziadek, Jarosław; Gatkowska, Justyna; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Długońska, Henryka

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnosis and determining the infective stage are critical for effective therapy of toxoplasmosis. Owing to the progress in biotechnology, commonly used native, non-standardized diagnostic antigens should be replaced by genetically engineered antigens. The recombinant proteins are also promising components of subunit vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii infections. A strategic biological role of rhoptry proteins (ROP) in parasitophorous vacuole biogenesis and virulence of the parasite creates a necessity for an intensive study on the serological activity and immunogenicity of newly developed recombinant ROP antigens. Our findings indicate that all generated preparations of recombinant ROP5 and ROP18 antigens, expressed in Escherichia coli bacteria, are recognized by specific antibodies produced during acute and chronic infections in inbred laboratory mice. We noticed, for the first time, that ROP5 IgM antibodies are an early and sensitive marker of T. gondii infection. The proven immunoreactivity of the obtained preparations has become a premise for a further study on their utility in routine diagnosis of human and animal toxoplasmosis as well as in the immunoprevention of T. gondii infection (as the main or supplementary component of the vaccine).

  17. Lymphoproliferative response after stimulation with soluble leishmania antigen (SLA) as a predictor of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) relapse in HIV+ patients.

    PubMed

    Castro, Alicia; Carrillo, Eugenia; San Martín, Juan V; Botana, Laura; Molina, Laura; Matía, Belén; Fernandez, Laura; Horrillo, Luis; Ibarra-Meneses, Ana; Sanchez, Carmen; Ruiz-Giardin, Jose M; Moreno, Javier

    2016-12-01

    The introduction of HAART resulted in the decrease of Leishmania/HIV co-infection cases; nevertheless, the number of relapses remains high and secondary prophylaxis is recommended. However, secondary prophylaxis is not necessary in all patients, and presents a high risk of toxicity and an elevated cost. Our aim was to study whether specific cellular response to Leishmania infantum (measured by cell proliferation response after stimulation with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA)), could be a useful tool to attempt a secondary prophylaxis withdrawal. In June 2009 an outbreak of leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum was declared in the southeast of Madrid, and since January 2013, we recruited 10 HIV+ patients that had been treated for visceral leishmaniasis. 6 patients had positive SLA-cell proliferation test. The mean CD4 cell counts of those patients with positive SLA were 140 cel/mm3 and 40 cel/mm3 in those with negative SLA test. 3 patients with positive SLA-cell proliferation test (CD4 count: 336, 307, 625) were not on prophylaxis, and the other 3 patients (CD4 count: 152, 189, 359) were on secondary prophylaxis that was withdrawn after the positive SLA-cell proliferation test with no posterior relapses (mean follow up 60 weeks). From the 4 patients, which had negative SLA-cell proliferation test and continued on prophylaxis, 3 had positive PCR for Leishmania at the end of the follow-up and 2 presented clinical relapses. The performance of SLA-cell proliferation test can be a useful tool that can permit us to try withdrawal of the prophylaxis in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients with low CD4(+) counts under clinical supervision, diminishing risk of toxicity and cost. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of a live recombinant canarypox virus expressing HIV type 1 gp120 MN MN tm/gag/protease LAI (ALVAC-HIV, vCP205) followed by a p24E-V3 MN synthetic peptide (CLTB-36) administered in healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV infection. AGIS Group and L'Agence Nationale de Recherches sur Le Sida.

    PubMed

    Salmon-Céron, D; Excler, J L; Finkielsztejn, L; Autran, B; Gluckman, J C; Sicard, D; Matthews, T J; Meignier, B; Valentin, C; El Habib, R; Blondeau, C; Raux, M; Moog, C; Tartaglia, J; Chong, P; Klein, M; Milcamps, B; Heshmati, F; Plotkin, S

    1999-05-01

    A live recombinant canarypox vector expressing HIV-1 gpl20 MN tm/gag/protease LAI (ALVAC-HIV, vCP205) alone or boosted by a p24E-V3 MN synthetic peptide (CLTB-36) was tested in healthy volunteers at low risk for HIV infection for their safety and immunogenicity. Both antigens were well tolerated. ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) induced low levels of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 MN in 33% of the volunteers. None of them had detectable neutralizing antibodies against a nonsyncytium-inducing HIV-1 clade B primary isolate (Bx08). After the fourth injection of vCP205, CTL activity was detected in 33% of the volunteers and was directed against Env, Gag, and Pol. This activity was mediated by both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. On the other hand, the CLTB-36 peptide was poorly immunogenic and induced no neutralizing antibodies or CTLs. Although the ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) and CLTB-36 prime-boost regimen was not optimal, further studies with ALVAC-HIV (vCP205) are warranted because of its clear induction of a cellular immune response and utility as a priming agent for other subunit antigens such as envelope glycoproteins, pseudoparticles, or new peptides.

  19. Risk factors for increased immune reconstitution in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in tuberculosis HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Tatiana Pereira; Giacoia-Gripp, Carmem Beatriz Wagner; Schmaltz, Carolina A; Sant'Anna, Flavia Marinho; Saad, Maria Helena; Matos, Juliana Arruda de; de Lima E Silva, Julio Castro Alves; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcanti; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves

    2017-09-06

    Little is known regarding the restoration of the specific immune response after combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and anti-tuberculosis (TB) therapy introduction among TB-HIV patients. In this study, we examined the immune response of TB-HIV patients to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens to evaluate the response dynamics to different antigens over time. Moreover, we also evaluated the influence of two different doses of efavirenz and the factors associated with immune reconstitution. This is a longitudinal study nested in a clinical trial, where cART was initiated during the baseline visit (D0), which occurred 30 ± 10 days after the introduction of anti-TB therapy. Follow-up visits were performed at 30, 60, 90 and 180 days after cART initiation. The production of IFN-γ upon in vitro stimulation with Mtb antigens purified protein derivative (PPD), ESAT-6 and 38 kDa/CFP-10 using ELISpot was examined at baseline and follow-up visits. Sixty-one patients, all ART-naïve, were selected and included in the immune reconstitution analysis; seven (11.5%) developed Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS). The Mtb specific immune response was higher for the PPD antigen followed by 38 kDa/CFP-10 and increased in the first 60 days after cART initiation. In multivariate analysis, the variables independently associated with increased IFN-γ production in response to PPD antigen were CD4(+) T cell counts <200 cells/mm(3) at baseline, age, site of tuberculosis, 800 mg efavirenz dose and follow-up CD4(+) T cell counts. Moreover, the factors associated with the production of IFN-γ in response to 38 kDa/CFP-10 were detectable HIV viral load (VL) and CD4(+) T cell counts at follow-up visits of ≥200 cells/mm(3). These findings highlight the differences in immune response according to the specificity of the Mtb antigen, which contributes to a better understanding of TB-HIV immunopathogenesis. IFN-γ production elicited by PPD and 38 kDa/CFP-10

  20. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in the cervical mucosa of HIV-1-resistant sex workers.

    PubMed

    Burgener, Adam; Boutilier, Julie; Wachihi, Charles; Kimani, Joshua; Carpenter, Michael; Westmacott, Garrett; Cheng, Keding; Ball, Terry B; Plummer, Francis

    2008-10-01

    Novel tools are necessary to understand mechanisms of altered susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in women of the Pumwani Sex Worker cohort, Kenya. In this cohort, more than 140 of the 2000 participants have been characterized to be relatively resistant to HIV-1 infection. Given that sexual transmission of HIV-1 occurs through mucosal surfaces such as that in the cervicovaginal environment, our hypothesis is that innate immune factors in the genital tract may play a role in HIV-1 infection resistance. Understanding this mechanism may help develop microbicides and/or vaccines against HIV-1. A quantitative proteomics technique (2D-DIGE: two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis) was used to examine cervical mucosa of HIV-1 resistant women ( n = 10) for biomarkers of HIV-1 resistance. Over 15 proteins were found to be differentially expressed between HIV-1-resistant women and control groups ( n = 29), some which show a greater than 8-fold change. HIV-1-resistant women overexpressed several antiproteases, including those from the serpin B family, and also cystatin A, a known anti-HIV-1 factor. Immunoblotting for a selection of the identified proteins confirmed the DIGE volume differences. Validation of these results on a larger sample of individuals will provide further evidence these biomarkers are associated with HIV-1 resistance and could help aid in the development of effective microbicides against HIV-1.

  1. Expression in yeast of a Plasmodium vivax antigen of potential use in a human malaria vaccine

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    DNA coding for 234 amino acids of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium vivax was incorporated into yeast expression vectors. The DNA encoded all the repeat domain and codons for a highly conserved sequence, KLKQP, found in CS proteins from all malaria parasites. Yeast cells transformed with these autonomously replicating plasmids expressed, upon induction, high levels of the CS polypeptide. The malaria antigen was purified in good yields from yeast extracts and was injected into mice using alum as adjuvant. The antibodies recognized the authentic CS protein, and at high dilutions, they inhibited the invasion of hepatocytes by sporozoites in vitro. PMID:3549959

  2. Mucin-associated sialosyl-Tn antigen expression in gastric cancer correlates with an adverse outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Werther, J. L.; Rivera-MacMurray, S.; Bruckner, H.; Tatematsu, M.; Itzkowitz, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of sialosyl-Tn (STn) antigen was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in primary gastric cancers. Twenty-one of 31 (68%) gastric cancers expressed STn, regardless of tumour location, stage or histological type. Eighty-one per cent of patients with STn-positive tumours died of their disease or had recurrent cancer, compared with 20% of patients with STn-negative tumours (P < 0.002). STn may be a useful prognostic marker in patients with gastric cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:8123499

  3. HIVed, a knowledgebase for differentially expressed human genes and proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Ramarathinam, Sri H.; Revote, Jerico; Khoury, Georges; Song, Jiangning; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the altered gene expression level and identifying differentially expressed genes/proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency is fundamental for broadening our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV infection and T-cell dysfunction. Such studies are crucial for developing effective strategies for virus eradication from the body. Inspired by the availability and enrichment of gene expression data during HIV infection, replication and latency, in this study, we proposed a novel compendium termed HIVed (HIV expression database; http://hivlatency.erc.monash.edu/) that harbours comprehensive functional annotations of proteins, whose genes have been shown to be dysregulated during HIV infection, replication and latency using different experimental designs and measurements. We manually curated a variety of third-party databases for structural and functional annotations of the protein entries in HIVed. With the goal of benefiting HIV related research, we collected a number of biological annotations for all the entries in HIVed besides their expression profile, including basic protein information, Gene Ontology terms, secondary structure, HIV-1 interaction and pathway information. We hope this comprehensive protein-centric knowledgebase can bridge the gap between the understanding of differentially expressed genes and the functions of their protein products, facilitating the generation of novel hypotheses and treatment strategies to fight against the HIV pandemic. PMID:28358052

  4. HIVed, a knowledgebase for differentially expressed human genes and proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Ramarathinam, Sri H; Revote, Jerico; Khoury, Georges; Song, Jiangning; Purcell, Anthony W

    2017-03-30

    Measuring the altered gene expression level and identifying differentially expressed genes/proteins during HIV infection, replication and latency is fundamental for broadening our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV infection and T-cell dysfunction. Such studies are crucial for developing effective strategies for virus eradication from the body. Inspired by the availability and enrichment of gene expression data during HIV infection, replication and latency, in this study, we proposed a novel compendium termed HIVed (HIV expression database; http://hivlatency.erc.monash.edu/) that harbours comprehensive functional annotations of proteins, whose genes have been shown to be dysregulated during HIV infection, replication and latency using different experimental designs and measurements. We manually curated a variety of third-party databases for structural and functional annotations of the protein entries in HIVed. With the goal of benefiting HIV related research, we collected a number of biological annotations for all the entries in HIVed besides their expression profile, including basic protein information, Gene Ontology terms, secondary structure, HIV-1 interaction and pathway information. We hope this comprehensive protein-centric knowledgebase can bridge the gap between the understanding of differentially expressed genes and the functions of their protein products, facilitating the generation of novel hypotheses and treatment strategies to fight against the HIV pandemic.

  5. Novel cancer-testis antigen expression on glioma cell lines derived from high-grade glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yasuto; Komiyama, Masaru; Miyata, Haruo; Yagoto, Mika; Ashizawa, Tadashi; Iizuka, Akira; Oshita, Chie; Kume, Akiko; Nogami, Masahiro; Ito, Ichiro; Watanabe, Reiko; Sugino, Takashi; Mitsuya, Koichi; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Nakasu, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most malignant and aggressive tumors, and has a very poor prognosis with a mean survival time of <2 years, despite intensive treatment using chemo-radiation. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches including immunotherapy have been developed against GBM. For the purpose of identifying novel target antigens contributing to GBM treatment, we developed 17 primary glioma cell lines derived from high-grade glioma patients, and analyzed the expression of various tumor antigens and glioma-associated markers using a quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). A quantitative PCR using 54 cancer-testis (CT) antigen-specific primers showed that 36 CT antigens were positive in at least 1 of 17 serum-derived cell lines, and 17 antigens were positive in >50% cell lines. Impressively, 6 genes (BAGE, MAGE-A12, CASC5, CTAGE1, DDX43 and IL-13RA2) were detected in all cell lines. The expression of other 13 glioma-associated antigens than CT genes were also investigated, and 10 genes were detected in >70% cell lines. The expression of CT antigen and glioma-associated antigen genes with a high frequency were also verified in IHC analysis. Moreover, a relationship of antigen gene expressions with a high frequency to overall survival was investigated using the Repository of Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data (REMBRANDT) database of the National Cancer Institute, and expression of 6 genes including IL-13RA2 was inversely correlated to overall survival time. Furthermore, 4 genes including DDX43, TDRD1, HER2 and gp100 were identified as MGMT-relevant factors. In the present study, several CT antigen including novel genes were detected in high-grade glioma primary cell lines, which might contribute to developing novel immunotherapy and glioma-specific biomarkers in future.

  6. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Guided by the Single-Chain Fv of a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Specifically and Effectively Eradicate Virus Reactivated from Latency in CD4+ T Lymphocytes Isolated from HIV-1-Infected Individuals Receiving Suppressive Combined Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingfeng; Zou, Fan; Lu, Lijuan; Chen, Cancan; He, Dalian; Zhang, Xu; Tang, Xiaoping; Liu, Chao; Li, Linghua; Zhang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Despite the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the persistence of viral reservoirs remains a major barrier to curing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Recently, the shock and kill strategy, by which such reservoirs are eradicated following reactivation of latent HIV-1 by latency-reversing agents (LRAs), has been extensively practiced. It is important to reestablish virus-specific and reliable immune surveillance to eradicate the reactivated virus-harboring cells. In this report, we attempted to reach this goal by using newly developed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell technology. To generate anti-HIV-1 CAR-T cells, we connected the single-chain variable fragment of the broadly neutralizing HIV-1-specific antibody VRC01 to a third-generation CAR moiety as the extracellular and intracellular domains and subsequently transduced this into primary CD8(+) T lymphocytes. We demonstrated that the resulting VC-CAR-T cells induced T cell-mediated cytolysis of cells expressing HIV-1 Env proteins and significantly inhibited HIV-1 rebound after removal of antiviral inhibitors in a viral infectivity model in cell culture that mimics the termination of the cART in the clinic. Importantly, the VC-CAR-T cells also effectively induced the cytolysis of LRA-reactivated HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T lymphocytes isolated from infected individuals receiving suppressive cART. Our data demonstrate that the special features of genetically engineered CAR-T cells make them a particularly suitable candidate for therapeutic application in efforts to reach a functional HIV cure. The presence of latently infected cells remains a key obstacle to the development of a functional HIV-1 cure. Reactivation of dormant viruses is possible with latency-reversing agents, but the effectiveness of these compounds and the subsequent immune response require optimization if the eradication of HIV-1-infected cells is to be achieved. Here, we describe the use of a chimeric

  7. Sialoadhesin Expressed on IFN-Induced Monocytes Binds HIV-1 and Enhances Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Hans; Calosing, Cyrus; Sun, Bing; Pulliam, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Background HIV-1 infection dysregulates the immune system and alters gene expression in circulating monocytes. Differential gene expression analysis of CD14+ monocytes from subjects infected with HIV-1 revealed increased expression of sialoadhesin (Sn, CD169, Siglec 1), a cell adhesion molecule first described in a subset of macrophages activated in chronic inflammatory diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed sialoadhesin expression on CD14+ monocytes by flow cytometry and found significantly higher expression in subjects with elevated viral loads compared to subjects with undetectable viral loads. In cultured CD14+ monocytes isolated from healthy individuals, sialoadhesin expression was induced by interferon-α and interferon-γ but not tumor necrosis factor-α. Using a stringent binding assay, sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes adsorbed HIV-1 through interaction with the sialic acid residues on the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Furthermore, monocytes expressing sialoadhesin facilitated HIV-1 trans infection of permissive cells, which occurred in the absence of monocyte self-infection. Conclusions/Significance Increased sialoadhesin expression on CD14+ monocytes occurred in response to HIV-1 infection with maximum expression associated with high viral load. We show that interferons induce sialoadhesin in primary CD14+ monocytes, which is consistent with an antiviral response during viremia. Our findings suggest that circulating sialoadhesin-expressing monocytes are capable of binding HIV-1 and effectively delivering virus to target cells thereby enhancing the distribution of HIV-1. Sialoadhesin could disseminate HIV-1 to viral reservoirs during monocyte immunosurveillance or migration to sites of inflammation and then facilitate HIV-1 infection of permissive cells. PMID:18414664

  8. Potentiation of anthrax vaccines using protective antigen-expressing viral replicon vectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Chao; An, Huai-Jie; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Xu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    DNA vaccines require improvement for human use because they are generally weak stimulators of the immune system in humans. The efficacy of DNA vaccines can be improved using a viral replicon as vector to administer antigen of pathogen. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the conventional non-viral DNA, viral replicon DNA or viral replicon particles (VRP) vaccines encoding different forms of anthrax protective antigen (PA) for specific immunity and protective potency against anthrax. Our current results clearly suggested that these viral replicon DNA or VRP vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) induced stronger PA-specific immune responses than the conventional non-viral DNA vaccines when encoding the same antigen forms, which resulted in potent protection against challenge with the Bacillus anthracis strain A16R. Additionally, the naked PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines without the need for high doses or demanding particular delivery regimens elicited robust immune responses and afforded completely protective potencies, which indicated the potential of the SFV replicon as vector of anthrax vaccines for use in clinical application. Therefore, our results suggest that these PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax.

  9. Construction of random tumor transcriptome expression library for creating and selecting novel tumor antigens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huizhun; Zhao, Xiuyun; Du, Peng; Qi, Gaofu

    2016-09-01

    Novel tumor antigens are necessary for the development of efficient tumor vaccines for overcoming the immunotolerance and immunosuppression induced by tumors. Here, we developed a novel strategy to create tumor antigens by construction of random tumor transcriptome expression library (RTTEL). The complementary DNA (cDNA) from S180 sarcoma was used as template for arbitrarily amplifying gene fragments with random primers by PCR, then ligated to the C-terminal of HSP65 in a plasmid pET28a-HSP for constructing RTTEL in Escherichia coli. A novel antigen of A5 was selected from RTTEL with the strongest immunotherapeutic effects on S180 sarcoma. Adoptive immunotherapy with anti-A5 sera also inhibited tumor growth, further confirming the key antitumor roles of A5-specific antibodies in mice. A5 contains a sequence similar to protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (PCMT1). The antisera of A5 were verified to cross-react with PCMT1 by Western blotting assay and vice versa. Both anti-A5 sera and anti-PCMT1 sera could induce antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity toward S180 cells by in vitro assay. Further assay with fluorescent staining showed that PCMT1 is detectable on the surface of S180 cells. Summary, the strategy to construct RTTEL is potential for creating and screening novel tumor antigens to develop efficient tumor vaccines. By RTTEL, we successfully created a protein antigen of A5 with significant immunotherapeutic effects on S180 sarcoma by induction of antibodies targeting for PCMT1.

  10. Diversity of Helicobacter pylori isolates in expression of antigens and induction of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ren-Xian; Luo, Dong-Jiao; Sun, Ai-Hua; Yan, Jie

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To obtain evidence for selection of antigens used in genetically engineered vaccine against Helicobacter pylori (H pylori). METHODS: Enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) was established on the basis of recombinant protein antigens rUreB, rHpaA, rVacA, rCagA1, rNapA, rFlaA and rFlaB of H pylori to detect expression rates of the antigens in bacterial isolates as well as positive rates of the antibodies in sera from H pylori-infected patients. PCR was applied to the detection of carrying rates of the genes encoding antigens in the isolates. RESULTS: The outputs of rUreB, rHpaA, rVacA, rCagA1, rNapA, rFlaA and rFlaB were approximately 35%, 32%, 15%, 23%, 56%, 25% and 20% of the total bacterial proteins, respectively. One hundred and fifty-one strains of H pylori were isolated from 347 biopsy specimens of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer or gastric adenocarcinoma, with a positive rate of 43.5%. All of the isolates expressed UreB, HpaA, FlaA and FlaB while 52.3%, 92.1% and 93.4% of the isolates expressed VacA, CagA and NapA, respectively. In the sera of 151 H pylori-infected patients, the positive rates of IgG antibodies against UreB, HpaA, VacA, CagA, NapA, FlaA and FlaB were 100%, 87.4%, 43%, 71.5%, 89.4%, 84.8% and 79.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the expression frequencies of VacA and NapA were found to be relative to the severity of gastric diseases (P = 0.016 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSION: UreB antigen is the top option of developing genetically engineered vaccine against H pylori followed by NapA or HpaA. PMID:18720546

  11. Cloning, auto-induction expression, and purification of rSpaA swine erysipelas antigen.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Adilson José; da Costa Iemma, Mônica Rosas; Luperni Horta, Antônio Carlos; Sargo, Cíntia Regina; de Lima Camargo Giordano, Raquel; de Campos Giordano, Roberto; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina; Marques Novo, Maria Teresa

    2012-10-01

    This work reports the cloning, expression, and purification of a 42-kDa fragment of the SpaA protein from Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the main antigenic candidate for a subunit vaccine against swine erysipelas. The use of an auto-induction protocol to improve heterologous protein expression in recombinant Escherichia coli cultures was also investigated. The cellular growth pattern and metabolite formation were evaluated under different induction conditions. The His-tagged protein was over-expressed as inclusion bodies, and was purified by a single chromatography step under denaturing conditions. Auto-induction conditions were shown to be an excellent process strategy, leading to a high level of rSpaA expression (about 25 % of total cellular protein content) in a short period of time.

  12. HIV-1 Tat regulates the expression of the dcw operon and stimulates the proliferation of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jinsong; Zhang, Yumin; Knapp, Pamela E; Zhao, Tianyong

    2016-01-01

    Infections of pathogenic bacteria are very common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, the biological effects of HIV-1 Tat on bacteria are incompletely understood. In this study, HIV-1 Tat was expressed in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) to investigate its biological effects on bacteria. Bacterial cells expressing either HIV-1 Tat1-86 (Tat1-86) or HIV-1 Tat1-72 (Tat1-72) grow significantly faster than those with either only an empty vector or an unrelated control (GFP or Rluc). Supplementation of purified HIV-1 Tat1-86 or Tat1-101 protein into bacterial culture medium stimulated the growth of both E. coli and PA01. The expression profile of certain cell division-associated genes, such as those in the division cell wall (dcw) operon (ftsA, ftsQ, ftsW and ftsZ), yafO and zipA, was altered in HIV-1 Tat1-86 expressing E. coli BL21(DE3). Furthermore, the expression of firefly luciferase (Fluc) reporter gene, when engineered for control by the dcw promoter and terminator, was enhanced by HIV-1 Tat in E. coli, confirming that HIV-1 Tat transcriptionally regulates the expression of the dcw operon. The finding that HIV-1 Tat stimulates bacterial growth whether it is produced intracellularly or applied extracellularly may have relevance for HIV patients who are highly susceptible to opportunistic bacterial infections. Contents category: Viruses -Retroviruses. The GenBank accession number for the sequence of HIV-1 Tat1-86 is AF324439.1.

  13. Secretory expression of a novel human spermatozoa antigen in E. coli and its application to a protein chip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Zhu; Qiu, Zhuo-Lin; Cai, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Jing-Jing; She, Miao-Qin; Xu, Yuan-Feng; Wu, Ying-Song

    2017-06-09

    To produce a recombinant spermatozoa antigen peptide using the E. coli: PhoA system on a protein chip for screening anti-sperm antibodies (ASA). The purity of the recombinant spermatozoa antigen exceeded 95% after two-step purification, as assessed using SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The diagnostic performance of a protein chip coated with the recombinant antigen peptide was evaluated by examining ASA in 51 infertile patients in comparison with a commercial ELISA kit. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.944, which indicated that the protein chip coated with recombinant spermatozoa antigen peptide was consistent with ELISA for ASA detection. A recombinant spermatozoa antigen was expressed in the E. coli PhoA secretory expression system and its potential application for clinical ASA detection was validated.

  14. Transgenic carrot expressing fusion protein comprising M. tuberculosis antigens induces immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Permyakova, Natalia V; Zagorskaya, Alla A; Belavin, Pavel A; Uvarova, Elena A; Nosareva, Olesya V; Nesterov, Andrey E; Novikovskaya, Anna A; Zav'yalov, Evgeniy L; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Deineko, Elena V

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains one of the major infectious diseases, which continues to pose a major global health problem. Transgenic plants may serve as bioreactors to produce heterologous proteins including antibodies, antigens, and hormones. In the present study, a genetic construct has been designed that comprises the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes cfp10, esat6 and dIFN gene, which encode deltaferon, a recombinant analog of the human γ-interferon designed for expression in plant tissues. This construct was transferred to the carrot (Daucus carota L.) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This study demonstrates that the fusion protein CFP10-ESAT6-dIFN is synthesized in the transgenic carrot storage roots. The protein is able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in laboratory animals (mice) when administered either orally or by injection. It should be emphasized that M. tuberculosis antigens contained in the fusion protein have no cytotoxic effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  15. Comparison of Class II HLA antigen expression in normal and carcinomatous human breast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, D.J.; Maurizis, J.C.; Chassagne, J.; Chollet, P.; Plagne, R.

    1985-03-01

    Class II HLA antigen expression in breast carcinoma and normal breast gland cells was compared using a method more accurate than immunofluorescence. This new method involves labeling membrane proteins with /sup 131/I and the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody with /sup 125/I. The isolation and purification of the doubly labeled (/sup 125/I-/sup 131/I) immune complex was performed by affinity chromatography and chromatofocusing successively. When the specific activity of glycoproteins is known, the amount of glycoprotein which bind specifically to the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody can be deduced. In breast carcinoma cells, 1.5 to 2% of the purified glycoproteins bind specifically to the monoclonal antibody, whereas less than 0.3% of normal breast gland cells binds. In contrast, leukemic cells, of which 80 to 90% possess Class II HLA antigens, 2 to 3% of Class II HLA glycoproteins bind specifically with the anti-Class II HLA monoclonal antibody.

  16. Cyclin-A1 represents a new immunogenic targetable antigen expressed in acute myeloid leukemia stem cells with characteristics of a cancer-testis antigen

    PubMed Central

    Ochsenreither, Sebastian; Majeti, Ravindra; Schmitt, Thomas; Stirewalt, Derek; Keilholz, Ulrich; Loeb, Keith R.; Wood, Brent; Choi, Yongiae E.; Bleakley, Marie; Warren, Edus H.; Hudecek, Michael; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Weissman, Irving L.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted T-cell therapy is a potentially less toxic strategy than allogeneic stem cell transplantation for providing a cytotoxic antileukemic response to eliminate leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, this strategy requires identification of leukemia-associated antigens that are immunogenic and exhibit selective high expression in AML LSCs. Using microarray expression analysis of LSCs, hematopoietic cell subpopulations, and peripheral tissues to screen for candidate antigens, cyclin-A1 was identified as a candidate gene. Cyclin-A1 promotes cell proliferation and survival, has been shown to be leukemogenic in mice, is detected in LSCs of more than 50% of AML patients, and is minimally expressed in normal tissues with exception of testis. Using dendritic cells pulsed with a cyclin-A1 peptide library, we generated T cells against several cyclin-A1 oligopeptides. Two HLA A*0201-restricted epitopes were further characterized, and specific CD8 T-cell clones recognized both peptide-pulsed target cells and the HLA A*0201-positive AML line THP-1, which expresses cyclin-A1. Furthermore, cyclin-A1–specific CD8 T cells lysed primary AML cells. Thus, cyclin-A1 is the first prototypic leukemia-testis-antigen to be expressed in AML LSCs. The pro-oncogenic activity, high expression levels, and multitude of immunogenic epitopes make it a viable target for pursuing T cell–based therapy approaches. PMID:22529286

  17. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells

    PubMed Central

    González, Cecilia; Esteban, Rosa; Canals, Carme; Muñiz-Díaz, Eduardo; Nogués, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs), which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories. Methods We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua). High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment. Results TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies. Conclusions Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs. PMID:27603310

  18. Stabilization of Transfected Cells Expressing Low-Incidence Blood Group Antigens: Novel Methods Facilitating Their Use as Reagent-Cells.

    PubMed

    González, Cecilia; Esteban, Rosa; Canals, Carme; Muñiz-Díaz, Eduardo; Nogués, Núria

    2016-01-01

    The identification of erythrocyte antibodies in the serum of patients rely on panels of human red blood cells (RBCs), which coexpress many antigens and are not easily available for low-incidence blood group phenotypes. These problems have been addressed by generating cell lines expressing unique blood group antigens, which may be used as an alternative to human RBCs. However, the use of cell lines implies several drawbacks, like the requirement of cell culture facilities and the high cost of cryopreservation. The application of cell stabilization methods could facilitate their use as reagent cells in clinical laboratories. We generated stably-transfected cells expressing low-incidence blood group antigens (Dia and Lua). High-expresser clones were used to assess the effect of TransFix® treatment and lyophilization as cell preservation methods. Cells were kept at 4°C and cell morphology, membrane permeability and antigenic properties were evaluated at several time-points after treatment. TransFix® addition to cell suspensions allows cell stabilization and proper antigen detection for at least 120 days, despite an increase in membrane permeability and a reduction in antigen expression levels. Lyophilized cells showed minor morphological changes and antigen expression levels were rather conserved at days 1, 15 and 120, indicating a high stability of the freeze-dried product. These stabilized cells have been proved to react specifically with human sera containing alloantibodies. Both stabilization methods allow long-term preservation of the transfected cells antigenic properties and may facilitate their distribution and use as reagent-cells expressing low-incidence antigens, overcoming the limited availability of such rare RBCs.

  19. Development of an Assay to Detect Antibodies to HIV-2 Using Recombinant DNA Derived Antigens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-11

    CBre3 EIA is sensitive enough to detect envelope antibodies in seropositive patients before the antibodies are detected in a viral lysate Western blot ...induced E. coli were electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels and analyzed by Coomassie blue staining and Western blotting (10). Blots were blocked in 1 X... Western blot analysis was used to show that the induced protein is coded for by the HIV-2 DNA. A duplicate gel, as shown in Figure 3, was blotted and

  20. Inhibition of clinical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 isolates in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes by retroviral vectors expressing anti-HIV genes.

    PubMed Central

    Vandendriessche, T; Chuah, M K; Chiang, L; Chang, H K; Ensoli, B; Morgan, R A

    1995-01-01

    Gene therapy may be of benefit in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals by virtue of its ability to inhibit virus replication and prevent viral gene expression. It is not known whether anti-HIV-1 gene therapy strategies based on antisense or transdominant HIV-1 mutant proteins can inhibit the replication and expression of clinical HIV-1 isolates in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. We therefore transduced CD4+ T lymphocytes from uninfected individuals with retroviral vectors expressing either HIV-1-specific antisense-TAR or antisense-Tat/Rev RNA, transdominant HIV-1 Rev protein, and a combination of antisense-TAR and transdominant Rev. The engineered CD4+ T lymphocytes were then infected with four different clinical HIV-1 isolates. We found that replication of all HIV-1 isolates was inhibited by all the anti-HIV vectors tested. Greater inhibition of HIV-1 was observed with transdominant Rev than with antisense RNA. We hereby demonstrated effective protection by antisense RNA or transdominant mutant proteins against HIV-1 infection in primary CD4+ T lymphocytes using clinical HIV-1 isolates, and this represents an essential step toward clinical anti-HIV-1 gene therapy. PMID:7769662

  1. Analysis of the limitations of hepatitis B surface antigen expression in soybean cell suspension cultures.

    PubMed

    Ganapathi, T R; Sunil Kumar, G B; Srinivas, L; Revathi, C J; Bapat, V A

    2007-09-01

    Soybean cell suspension cultures were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring pHBS/pHER constructs to express hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The transformed colonies were selected and analyzed for the expression of HBsAg by PCR, reverse transcription (RT) PCR, Western blot and ELISA analysis. The maximum expression of 700 ng/g F.W. was noted in pHER transformed cells. The highest expressing colonies were used to initiate the cell suspension cultures and the expression of HBsAg was estimated periodically. The expression levels were reduced drastically in cell suspension cultures compared to the colonies maintained on semi-solid medium. Various parameters were studied to maximize the cell growth and to retain the expression levels. The supplementation of culture medium with a protease inhibitor, leupeptin hemisulfate could restore up to 50% of HBsAg expression in cell suspension cultures. This is the first report to investigate the possible cause and solution to the loss of recombinant protein expression levels in plant cell suspension cultures.

  2. Enhanced expression of codon optimized Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens in Lactobacillus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher D.; Bannantine, John P.; Govender, Rodney; Endersen, Lorraine; Pletzer, Daniel; Weingart, Helge; Coffey, Aidan; O'Mahony, Jim; Sleator, Roy D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that open reading frames containing high GC content show poor expression in A+T rich hosts. Specifically, G+C-rich codon usage is a limiting factor in heterologous expression of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) proteins using Lactobacillus salivarius. However, re-engineering opening reading frames through synonymous substitutions can offset codon bias and greatly enhance MAP protein production in this host. In this report, we demonstrate that codon-usage manipulation of MAP2121c can enhance the heterologous expression of the major membrane protein (MMP), analogous to the form in which it is produced natively by MAP bacilli. When heterologously over-expressed, antigenic determinants were preserved in synthetic MMP proteins as shown by monoclonal antibody mediated ELISA. Moreover, MMP is a membrane protein in MAP, which is also targeted to the cellular surface of recombinant L. salivarius at levels comparable to MAP. Additionally, we previously engineered MAP3733c (encoding MptD) and show herein that MptD displays the tendency to associate with the cytoplasmic membrane boundary under confocal microscopy and the intracellularly accumulated protein selectively adheres to the MptD-specific bacteriophage fMptD. This work demonstrates there is potential for L. salivarius as a viable antigen delivery vehicle for MAP, which may provide an effective mucosal vaccine against Johne's disease. PMID:25237653

  3. Identification of Salmonella enterica Serovar Pullorum Antigenic Determinants Expressed In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiuchun; Hu, Yachen; Chen, Jing; Liu, Zhicheng; Han, Jun; Sun, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum affecting poultry causes pullorum disease and results in severe economic loss in the poultry industry. Currently, it remains a major threat in countries with poor poultry surveillance and no efficient control measures. As S. Pullorum could induce strong humoral immune responses, we applied an immunoscreening technique, the in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT), to identify immunogenic bacterial proteins expressed or upregulated during S. Pullorum infection. Convalescent-phase sera from chickens infected with S. Pullorum were pooled, adsorbed against antigens expressed in vitro, and used to screen an S. Pullorum genomic expression library. Forty-five proteins were screened out, and their functions were implicated in molecular biosynthesis and degradation, transport, metabolism, regulation, cell wall synthesis and antibiotic resistance, environmental adaptation, or putative functions. In addition, 11 of these 45 genes were assessed for their differential expression by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), revealing that 9 of 11 genes were upregulated to different degrees under in vivo conditions, especially the regulator of virulence determinants, phoQ. Then, four in vivo-induced proteins (ShdA, PhoQ, Cse3, and PbpC) were tested for their immunoreactivity in 28 clinical serum samples from chickens infected with S. Pullorum. The rate of detection of antibodies against ShdA reached 82% and was the highest among these proteins. ShdA is a host colonization factor known to be upregulated in vivo and related to the persistence of S. Typhimurium in the intestine. Furthermore, these antigens identified by IVIAT warrant further evaluation for their contributions to pathogenesis, and more potential roles, such as diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive uses, need to be developed in future studies. PMID:23774596

  4. Effect of temperature on the expression of major histocompatibility complex class-I antigens.

    PubMed

    Aboud, M; Segal, S; Priel, E; Blair, D G; O'Hara, B

    1992-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the effect of temperature on MHC class-I gene expression in BALB/C 3T3 cells incubated for 5 days at 34 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 39 degrees C. FACS analysis revealed no significant difference in the cell surface expression of any of the 3 major class-I antigens at 34 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Strikingly, however, when the level of the respective mRNA was determined, only that of the H-2K was comparable at both temperatures, whereas the levels of the H-2D and H-2L mRNA were profoundly higher at 37 degrees C. These data appear to reflect a differential temperature-related transcriptional control of the different class-I genes or a different temperature effect on the stability of their mRNA. The absence of a parallel increase in surface expression of the corresponding H-2D and H-2L antigens may result from some translational or post-translational limiting factors. At 39 degrees C, however, these limiting factors seem to be overcome since the surface expression of all the 3 antigens was remarkably increased although the level of their encoding mRNA was rather lower than in 37 degrees C. This stimulatory effect might be ascribed to heat shock proteins which are known to arise in cells at heat or other stress conditions. They participate in assembly and disassembly of various protein complexes and in transport of certain proteins across intracellular membranes. Such proteins may have arisen in our cells at 39 degrees C and facilitated the intracellular assembly of the class-I molecules and their transport to the cell surface. The possible implication of such heat shock proteins in the anti-tumor effect of hyperthermia is discussed.

  5. Expression of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 and association with B-cell lymphoma in HIV-1 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Virginia A.; Lafferty, Mark K.; Marchionni, Luigi; Bryant, Joseph L.; Gallo, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk for B-cell lymphomas. How HIV infection promotes the development of lymphoma is unclear, but it may involve chronic B-cell activation, inflammation, and/or impaired immunity, possibly leading to a loss of control of oncogenic viruses and reduced tumor immunosurveillance. We hypothesized that HIV structural proteins may contribute to lymphomagenesis directly, because they can persist long term in lymph nodes in the absence of viral replication. The HIV-1 transgenic mouse Tg26 carries a noninfectious HIV-1 provirus lacking part of the gag-pol region, thus constituting a model for studying the effects of viral products in pathogenesis. Approximately 15% of Tg26 mice spontaneously develop leukemia/lymphoma. We investigated which viral proteins are associated with the development of leukemia/lymphoma in the Tg26 mouse model, and performed microarray analysis on RNA from spleen and lymph nodes to identify potential mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. Of the viral proteins examined, only expression of HIV-1 matrix protein p17 was associated with leukemia/lymphoma development and was highly expressed in bone marrow before disease. The tumor cells resembled pro-B cells, and were CD19+IgM−IgD−CD93+CD43+CD21−CD23−VpreB+CXCR4+. Consistent with the pro-B-cell stage of B-cell development, microarray analysis revealed enrichment of transcripts, including Rag1, Rag2, CD93, Vpreb1, Vpreb3, and Igll1. We confirmed RAG1 expression in Tg26 tumors, and hypothesized that HIV-1 matrix protein p17 may directly induce RAG1 in B cells. Stimulation of human activated B cells with p17 enhanced RAG1 expression in three of seven donors, suggesting that intracellular signaling by p17 may lead to genomic instability and transformation. PMID:27799525

  6. Particle-based transcutaneous administration of HIV-1 p24 protein to human skin explants and targeting of epidermal antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Rancan, Fiorenza; Amselgruber, Sarah; Hadam, Sabrina; Munier, Sevérine; Pavot, Vincent; Verrier, Bernard; Hackbarth, Steffen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Vogt, Annika

    2014-02-28

    Transcutaneous immunization is a promising vaccination strategy for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigate the combination of cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) and particle-based antigen delivery to target the HIV-1 p24 protein to skin antigen presenting cells (APC). The CSSS treatment pre-activates skin APC and opens hair follicles, where protein-loaded particles accumulate and allow for sustained delivery of the loaded antigen to perifollicular APC. We found that poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) particles targeted the adsorbed HIV-1 p24 protein to the hair follicles. Small amounts of PS and PLA particles were found to translocate to the epidermis and be internalized by skin cells, whereas most of the particles aggregated in the hair follicle canal, where they released the loaded antigen. The p24 protein diffused to the epidermis and dermis and was detected in skin cells, especially in Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells. Furthermore, the combination of CSSS and particle-based delivery resulted in activation and maturation of Langerhans cells (HLA-DR, CD80 and CD83). We conclude that particle-based antigen delivery across partially disrupted skin barrier is a feasible and effective approach to needle-free transcutaneous vaccination.

  7. HIV-Tat regulates macrophage gene expression in the context of neuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Carvallo, Loreto; Lopez, Lillie; Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Matias; Fiser, Andras; Berman, Joan W.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the success of cART, greater than 50% of HIV infected people develop cognitive and motor deficits termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Macrophages are the major cell type infected in the CNS. Unlike for T cells, the virus does not kill macrophages and these long-lived cells may become HIV reservoirs in the brain. They produce cytokines/chemokines and viral proteins that promote inflammation and neuronal damage, playing a key role in HIV neuropathogenesis. HIV Tat is the transactivator of transcription that is essential for replication and transcriptional regulation of the virus and is the first protein to be produced after HIV infection. Even with successful cART, Tat is produced by infected cells. In this study we examined the role of the HIV Tat protein in the regulation of gene expression in human macrophages. Using THP-1 cells, a human monocyte/macrophage cell line, and their infection with lentivirus, we generated stable cell lines that express Tat-Flag. We performed ChIP-seq analysis of these cells and found 66 association sites of Tat in promoter or coding regions. Among these are C5, CRLF2/TSLPR, BDNF, and APBA1/Mint1, genes associated with inflammation/damage. We confirmed the association of Tat with these sequences by ChIP assay and expression of these genes in our THP-1 cell lines by qRT-PCR. We found that HIV Tat increased expression of C5, APBA1, and BDNF, and decreased CRLF2. The K50A Tat-mutation dysregulated expression of these genes without affecting the binding of the Tat complex to their gene sequences. Our data suggest that HIV Tat, produced by macrophage HIV reservoirs in the brain despite successful cART, contributes to neuropathogenesis in HIV-infected people. PMID:28640909

  8. Surface expression of Mo3e antigen by activated human monocytes and U-937 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R.F. III; Bury, M.J.; Liu, D.Y.

    1986-03-05

    The surface expression of a protease-sensitive antigen, Mo3e, by activated human monocytes and U-937 cells is a plasma membrane feature of the activated state. Mo3e, which is an 80 kD protein on Western blot analysis, may represent the surface receptor for migration inhibitory factor (MIF), as evidenced by inhibition of MIF responsiveness produced by anti-Mo3e monoclonal antibody. Mo3e is barely detectable (by surface immunofluorescence) on freshly isolated monocytes but becomes expressed in high antigen density during 18-24 hrs culture in medium containing E. coli lipopolysaccharide (> 1 ng/ml), 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (5-10 nM), or muramyl dipeptide (0.1-1 ..mu..M). In U-937 cells, Mo3e surface expression is detectable after 24 hrs exposure to PMA and other pharmacological activators of protein kinase C: 4..beta..-phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate, 4..beta..-phorbol 12, 13 didecanoate, mezerein, or Sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol. The biologically-inactivate phorbol compounds, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol 12, 13 didecanoate and 4/sub ..beta../-phorbol do not stimulate Mo3e expression. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, has a synergistic effect on Mo3e expression stimulated by PMA; conversely, calcium antagonists block PMA-induced Mo3e expression. These results suggest the involvement of protein kinase C activation and intracellular calcium mobilization in the stimulated expression of Mo3e by activated human mononuclear phagocytes.

  9. Using multivalent adenoviral vectors for HIV vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Linlin; Li, Zan C; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Krendelchtchikova, Valentina; Wu, Hongju; Matthews, Qiana L

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviral vectors have been used for a variety of vaccine applications including cancer and infectious diseases. Traditionally, Ad-based vaccines are designed to express antigens through transgene expression of a given antigen. For effective vaccine development it is often necessary to express or present multiple antigens to the immune system to elicit an optimal vaccine as observed preclinically with mosaic/polyvalent HIV vaccines or malaria vaccines. Due to the wide flexibility of Ad vectors they are an ideal platform for expressing large amounts of antigen and/or polyvalent mosaic antigens. Ad vectors that display antigens on their capsid surface can elicit a robust humoral immune response, the "antigen capsid-incorporation" strategy. The adenoviral hexon protein has been utilized to display peptides in the majority of vaccine strategies involving capsid incorporation. Based on our abilities to manipulate hexon HVR2 and HVR5, we sought to manipulate HVR1 in the context of HIV antigen display for the first time ever. More importantly, peptide incorporation within HVR1 was utilized in combination with other HVRs, thus creating multivalent vectors. To date this is the first report where dual antigens are displayed within one Ad hexon particle. These vectors utilize HVR1 as an incorporation site for a seven amino acid region of the HIV glycoprotein 41, in combination with six Histidine incorporation within HVR2 or HVR5. Our study illustrates that these multivalent antigen vectors are viable and can present HIV antigen as well as His6 within one Ad virion particle. Furthermore, mouse immunizations with these vectors demonstrate that these vectors can elicit a HIV and His6 epitope-specific humoral immune response.

  10. Diminished CD103 (αEβ7) Expression on Resident T Cells from the Female Genital Tract of HIV-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, David C.; Goepfert, Paul A.; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Saag, Michael S.; Richter, Holly E.; Mestecky, Jiri; Sabbaj, Steffanie

    2017-01-01

    Background Tissue resident memory T cells (TrM) provide an enhanced response against infection at mucosal surfaces, yet their function has not been extensively studied in humans, including the female genital tract (FGT). Methods Using polychromatic flow cytometry, we studied TrM cells, defined as CD62L−CCR7−CD103+CD69+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mucosa-derived T cells from healthy and HIV-positive women. Results We demonstrate that TrM are present in the FGT of healthy and HIV-positive women. The expression of the mucosal retention receptor, CD103, from HIV-positive women was reduced compared to healthy women and was lowest in women with CD4 counts < 500 cells/mm3. Furthermore, CD103 expression on mucosa-derived CD8+ T cells correlated with antigen-specific IFN-γ production by mucosal CD4+ T cells and was inversely correlated with T-bet from CD8+CD103+ mucosa-derived T cells. Conclusions These data suggest that CD4+ T cells, known to be impaired during HIV-1 infection and necessary for the expression of CD103 in murine models, may play a role in the expression of CD103 on resident T cells from the human FGT. PMID:28164171

  11. Analysis of a cDNA clone expressing a human autoimmune antigen: full-length sequence of the U2 small nuclear RNA-associated B antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Habets, W.J.; Sillekens, P.T.G.; Hoet, M.H.; Schalken, J.A.; Roebroek, A.J.M.; Leunissen, J.A.M.; Van de Ven, W.J.M.; Van Venrooij, W.J.

    1987-04-01

    A U2 small nuclear RNA-associated protein, designated B'', was recently identified as the target antigen for autoimmune sera from certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. Such antibodies enabled them to isolate cDNA clone lambdaHB''-1 from a phage lambdagt11 expression library. This clone appeared to code for the B'' protein as established by in vitro translation of hybrid-selected mRNA. The identity of clone lambdaHB''-1 was further confirmed by partial peptide mapping and analysis of the reactivity of the recombinant antigen with monospecific and monoclonal antibodies. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 1015-base-pair cDNA insert of clone lambdaHB''-1 revealed a large open reading frame of 800 nucleotides containing the coding sequence for a polypeptide of 25,457 daltons. In vitro transcription of the lambdaHB''-1 cDNA insert and subsequent translation resulted in a protein product with the molecular size of the B'' protein. These data demonstrate that clone lambdaHB''-1 contains the complete coding sequence of this antigen. The deduced polypeptide sequence contains three very hydrophilic regions that might constitute RNA binding sites and/or antigenic determinants. These findings might have implications both for the understanding of the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases as well as for the elucidation of the biological function of autoimmune antigens.

  12. Sensing of HIV-1 Infection in Tzm-bl Cells with Reconstituted Expression of STING.

    PubMed

    Trotard, Maud; Tsopoulidis, Nikolaos; Tibroni, Nadine; Willemsen, Joschka; Binder, Marco; Ruggieri, Alessia; Fackler, Oliver T

    2015-12-09

    Production of proinflammatory cytokines indicative of potent recognition by the host innate immune system has long been recognized as a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. The first components of the machinery by which primary HIV target cells sense infection have recently been described; however, the mechanistic dissection of innate immune recognition and viral evasion would be facilitated by an easily accessible cell line model. Here we describe that reconstituted expression of the innate signaling adaptor STING enhanced the ability of the well-established HIV reporter cell line Tzm-bl to sense HIV infection and to convert this information into nuclear translocation of IRF3 as well as expression of cytokine mRNA. STING-dependent immune sensing of HIV-1 required virus entry and reverse transcription but not genome integration. Particularly efficient recognition was observed for an HIV-1 variant lacking expression of the accessory protein Vpr, suggesting a role of the viral protein in circumventing STING-mediated immune signaling. Vpr as well as STING significantly impacted the magnitude and breadth of the cytokine mRNA expression profile induced upon HIV-1 infection. However, cytoplasmic DNA sensing did not result in detectable cytokine secretion in this cell system, and innate immune recognition did not affect infection rates. Despite these deficits in eliciting antiviral effector functions, these results establish Tzm-bl STING and Tzm-bl STING IRF3.GFP cells as useful tools for studies aimed at dissecting mechanisms and regulation of early innate immune recognition of HIV infection. Cell-autonomous immune recognition of HIV infection was recently established as an important aspect by which the host immune system attempts to fend off HIV-1 infection. Mechanistic studies on host cell recognition and viral evasion are hampered by the resistance of many primary HIV target cells to detailed experimental manipulation. We describe here that expression of

  13. IgM+ Memory B Cell Expression Predicts HIV-Associated Cryptococcosis Status

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Metzger, Brian; Hanau, Lawrence H.; Guh, Alice; Rucker, Lisa; Badri, Sheila; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2009-01-01

    Background The role of B cells in resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans disease (i.e., cryptococcosis) is unknown. Given evidence that IgM+ memory B cells are required for immunity to other encapsulated pathogens, we hypothesized that these cells might contribute to resistance to cryptococcosis. Methods We compared levels of IgM expression on memory B cells in 29 HIV-infected individuals who had a history of cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN+ group) with levels in 30 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected subjects who had no history of cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN− group) and 20 HIV-uninfected subjects who had no history of cryptococcosis (the HIV− group) (cohort 1). We also determined levels of IgM expression on memory B cells in banked samples obtained before cryptococcosis onset from 31 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, of whom 8 had HIV infection and subsequently developed cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN+ group), 8 had HIV infection and did not develop cryptococcosis (the HIV+CN− group), and 15 did not have HIV infection and did not develop cryptococcosis (the HIV− group) (cohort 2). Results In cohort 1, the percentage of memory B cells that expressed IgM was lower among HIV+CN+ subjects, compared with HIV+CN− subjects (P < .01) and HIV− subjects (P <.05); expression of IgM on ≤50% of memory B cells was a significant predictor of C. neoformans disease status (odds ratio, 5.5; P = .03). In cohort 2, the percentage of memory B cells that expressed IgM was lower in HIV+CN+ subjects than in HIV+CN− subjects (P = .02) and HIV− subjects (P < .01); an IgM+ memory B cell percentage of ≤38.5% was a significant predictor of future development of cryptococcosis (odds ratio, 14; P = .02). Conclusions These findings suggest that HIV-infected persons in whom the percentage of memory B cells that express IgM is decreased might be at greater risk for the development of cryptococcosis. PMID:19527168

  14. Sensing of HIV-1 Infection in Tzm-bl Cells with Reconstituted Expression of STING

    PubMed Central

    Trotard, Maud; Tsopoulidis, Nikolaos; Tibroni, Nadine; Willemsen, Joschka; Binder, Marco; Ruggieri, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Production of proinflammatory cytokines indicative of potent recognition by the host innate immune system has long been recognized as a hallmark of the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. The first components of the machinery by which primary HIV target cells sense infection have recently been described; however, the mechanistic dissection of innate immune recognition and viral evasion would be facilitated by an easily accessible cell line model. Here we describe that reconstituted expression of the innate signaling adaptor STING enhanced the ability of the well-established HIV reporter cell line Tzm-bl to sense HIV infection and to convert this information into nuclear translocation of IRF3 as well as expression of cytokine mRNA. STING-dependent immune sensing of HIV-1 required virus entry and reverse transcription but not genome integration. Particularly efficient recognition was observed for an HIV-1 variant lacking expression of the accessory protein Vpr, suggesting a role of the viral protein in circumventing STING-mediated immune signaling. Vpr as well as STING significantly impacted the magnitude and breadth of the cytokine mRNA expression profile induced upon HIV-1 infection. However, cytoplasmic DNA sensing did not result in detectable cytokine secretion in this cell system, and innate immune recognition did not affect infection rates. Despite these deficits in eliciting antiviral effector functions, these results establish Tzm-bl STING and Tzm-bl STING IRF3.GFP cells as useful tools for studies aimed at dissecting mechanisms and regulation of early innate immune recognition of HIV infection. IMPORTANCE Cell-autonomous immune recognition of HIV infection was recently established as an important aspect by which the host immune system attempts to fend off HIV-1 infection. Mechanistic studies on host cell recognition and viral evasion are hampered by the resistance of many primary HIV target cells to detailed experimental manipulation. We describe here

  15. Specific mutation of a gammaherpesvirus-expressed antigen in response to CD8 T cell selection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Loh, Joy; Popkin, Daniel L; Droit, Lindsay; Braaten, Douglas C; Zhao, Guoyan; Zhang, Xin; Vachharajani, Punit; Myers, Nancy; Hansen, Ted H; Virgin, Herbert W

    2012-03-01

    Herpesviruses are thought to be highly genetically stable, and their use as vaccine vectors has been proposed. However, studies of the human gammaherpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, have found viral isolates containing mutations in HLA class I-restricted epitopes. Using murine gammaherpesvirus 68 expressing ovalbumin (OVA), we examined the stability of a gammaherpesvirus antigenic locus under strong CD8 T cell selection in vivo. OVA-specific CD8 T cells selected viral isolates containing mutations in the OVA locus but minimal alterations in other genomic regions. Thus, a CD8 T cell response to a gammaherpesvirus-expressed antigen that is not essential for replication or pathogenesis can result in selective mutation of that antigen in vivo. This finding may have relevance for the use of herpesvirus vectors for chronic antigen expression in vivo.

  16. Optimization of the expression of surface antigen SAG1/2 of Toxoplasma gondii in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengadam, G; Init, I; Fong, M Y; Lau, Y L

    2011-12-01

    Surface antigens are the most abundant proteins found on the surface of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Surface antigen 1 (SAG1) and Surface antigen 2 (SAG2) remain the most important and extensively studied surface proteins. These antigens have been identified to play a role in host cell invasion, immune modulation, virulence attenuation. Recombinant SAG1/2 was cloned and expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris. We describe here optimization of critical parameters involved in high yield expression of the recombinant SAG1/2. Our results suggest that recombinant SAG1/2 were best expressed at 30ºC, pH 6 and 1% methanol as the carbon source by X33 Pichia cells. Additional optimizations included the downstream process such as ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. The fusion protein was purified using Ni-NTA purification system with 80% recovery. The purified protein was 100% specific and sensitive in detection of toxoplasmosis.

  17. c-Myb influences HIV type 1 gene expression and virus production.

    PubMed

    Churchill, M J; Ramsay, R G; Rhodes, D I; Deacon, N J

    2001-11-01

    c-Myb is expressed in proliferating T cells. Fifteen c-Myb-binding sites can be identified in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR), suggesting that c-Myb may regulate HIV-1 gene expression and virus replication. Increasing the cellular levels of c-Myb by transient transfection of CEM cells resulted in a 10- to 20-fold activation of HIV-1 LTR-driven gene expression and mutation of one high-affinity Myb-binding site within the LTR reduced this activation by 60 to 70%. Conversely, inhibition of c-Myb expression in MT-2 cells by treatment with c-myb antisense oligonucleotides decreased HIV-1 replication by 85%, as measured by reverse transcriptase activity and cytopathic effects. The effect of c-myb antisense oligonucleotides on HIV-1 gene expression and virus particle production appeared to be independent of cell proliferation, but dependent on the presence of c-Myb activity mediated through the HIV-1 LTR. These data show that c-myb expression affects HIV-1 replication in CD4(+) T cells.

  18. Expression of the Major Surface Antigen of Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoites in Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shobhona; Godson, G. Nigel

    1985-05-01

    The circumsporozoite protein, a surface antigen of the sporozoite stage of the monkey malarial parasite Plasmodium knowlesi, was expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using an expression vector containing the 5' regulatory region of the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase I gene. It was necessary to eliminate the entire 5' upstream region of the parasite DNA to obtain the expression of this protein. Only the circumsporozoite precursor protein was produced by the yeast transformants, as detected by immunoblotting. About 55 and 20 percent of the circumsporozoite protein produced in yeast was associated with the 25,000g and 150,000g particulate fractions, respectively. The protein could be solubilized in Triton X-100 and was stable in solubilized extracts.

  19. PD-1 expression conditions T cell avidity within an antigen-specific repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sylvain; Vignard, Virginie; Florenceau, Laetitia; Dreno, B.; Khammari, A.; Lang, F.; Labarriere, N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite its negative regulatory role on tumor-specific T cells, Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is also a marker of activated tumor-infiltrating T cells. In cancer, PD-1 blockade partially reverses T cell dysfunction allowing the amplification of tumor reactive T cells. Here, we investigated the role of PD-1 signaling on effector/memory human T cells specific for shared melanoma antigens, derived from blood. We documented for the first time the existence of melanoma-specific T cell clones unable to express PD-1. This stable feature was due to the persistent methylation of the PDCD1 promoter. These PD-1neg clones were of lower avidity than their PD-1pos counterparts, suggesting that high-affinity-specific T cell clones unable to express PD-1 are not or rarely present in peripheral blood, as they are probably eliminated by negative selection, due to their high reactivity. We also documented the existence of such PD-1neg T cell clones in melanoma tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), which also exhibited a lower functional avidity than PD-1pos TIL clones. This clearly shows that PD-1 expression identifies antigen-specific T cell clonotypes of high functional avidity. Finally, we demonstrated that PD-1 blockade during the in vitro selection process of Melan-A-specific T cells favored the amplification of higher avidity T cell clonotypes. This preferential amplification of high-avidity memory T cells upon PD-1 blockade resonates with the expansion of reactive T cells, including neo-antigen-specific T cells observed in anti-PD-1-treated patients. This feature should also be a useful biomarker of clinical efficiency, while providing new insights for adoptive transfer treatments. PMID:26942093

  20. Mouse models expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a transgene: Evaluation of CEA-based cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hance, Kenneth W.; Zeytin, Hasan E.; Greiner, John W.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, investigators have carried out several studies designed to evaluate whether human tumor-associated antigens might be exploited as targets for active specific immunotherapy, specifically human cancer vaccines. Not too long ago such an approach would have been met with considerable skepticism because the immune system was believed to be a rigid discriminator between self and non-self which, in turn, protected the host from a variety of pathogens. That viewpoint has been challenged in recent years by a series of studies indicating that antigenic determinants of self have not induced absolute host immune tolerance. Moreover, under specific conditions that evoke danger signals, peptides from self-antigen can be processed by the antigen-presenting cellular machinery, loaded onto the major histocompatibility antigen groove to serve as targets for immune intervention. Those findings provide the rationale to investigate a wide range of tumor-associated antigens, including differentiation antigens, oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes as possible immune-based targets. One of those tumor-associated antigens is the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Described almost 40 years ago, CEA is a Mr 180–200,000 oncofetal antigen that is one of the more widely studied human tumor-associated antigens. This review will provide: (i) a brief overview of the CEA gene family, (ii) a summary of early preclinical findings on overcoming immune tolerance to CEA, and (iii) the rationale to develop mouse models which spontaneously develop gastrointestinal tumors and express the CEA transgene. Those models have been used extensively in the study of overcoming host immune tolerance to CEA, a self, tumor-associated antigen, and the experimental findings have served as the rationale for the design of early clinical trials to evaluate CEA-based cancer vaccines. PMID:15888344

  1. Human dendritic cells adenovirally-engineered to express three defined tumor antigens promote broad adaptive and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Leeann T; Landsberg, Jennifer; Messmer, Michelle; Shi, Jian; Pardee, Angela D; Haskell, Ronald; Vujanovic, Lazar; Kirkwood, John M; Butterfield, Lisa H

    2012-05-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy has shown a promising ability to promote anti-tumor immunity in vitro and in vivo. Many trials have tested single epitopes and single antigens to activate single T cell specificities, and often CD8(+) T cells only. We previously found that determinant spreading and breadth of antitumor immunity correlates with improved clinical response. Therefore, to promote activation and expansion of polyclonal, multiple antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as provide cognate help from antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells, we have created an adenovirus encoding three full length melanoma tumor antigens (tyrosinase, MART-1 and MAGE-A6, "AdVTMM"). We previously showed that adenovirus (AdV)-mediated antigen engineering of human DC is superior to peptide pulsing for T cell activation, and has positive biological effects on the DC, allowing for efficient activation of not only antigen-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells, but also NK cells. Here we describe the cloning and testing of "AdVTMM2," an E1/E3-deleted AdV encoding the three melanoma antigens. This novel three-antigen virus expresses mRNA and protein for all antigens, and AdVTMM-transduced DC activate both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells which recognize melanoma tumor cells more efficiently than single antigen AdV. Addition of physiological levels of interferon-α (IFNα) further amplifies melanoma antigen-specific T cell activation. NK cells are also activated, and show cytotoxic activity. Vaccination with multi-antigen engineered DC may provide for superior adaptive and innate immunity and ultimately, improved antitumor responses.

  2. Human dendritic cells adenovirally-engineered to express three defined tumor antigens promote broad adaptive and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, LeeAnn T.; Landsberg, Jennifer; Messmer, Michelle; Shi, Jian; Pardee, Angela D.; Haskell, Ronald; Vujanovic, Lazar; Kirkwood, John M.; Butterfield, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) immunotherapy has shown a promising ability to promote anti-tumor immunity in vitro and in vivo. Many trials have tested single epitopes and single antigens to activate single T cell specificities, and often CD8+ T cells only. We previously found that determinant spreading and breadth of antitumor immunity correlates with improved clinical response. Therefore, to promote activation and expansion of polyclonal, multiple antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, as well as provide cognate help from antigen-specific CD4+ T cells, we have created an adenovirus encoding three full length melanoma tumor antigens (tyrosinase, MART-1 and MAGE-A6, “AdVTMM”). We previously showed that adenovirus (AdV)-mediated antigen engineering of human DC is superior to peptide pulsing for T cell activation, and has positive biological effects on the DC, allowing for efficient activation of not only antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, but also NK cells. Here we describe the cloning and testing of “AdVTMM2,” an E1/E3-deleted AdV encoding the three melanoma antigens. This novel three-antigen virus expresses mRNA and protein for all antigens, and AdVTMM-transduced DC activate both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells which recognize melanoma tumor cells more efficiently than single antigen AdV. Addition of physiological levels of interferon-α (IFNα) further amplifies melanoma antigen-specific T cell activation. NK cells are also activated, and show cytotoxic activity. Vaccination with multi-antigen engineered DC may provide for superior adaptive and innate immunity and ultimately, improved antitumor responses. PMID:22737604

  3. Construction of two Listeria ivanovii attenuated strains expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens for TB vaccine purposes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqing; Zhou, Mengying; Xu, Zongkai; Khanniche, Asma; Shen, Hao; Wang, Chuan

    2015-02-20

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has failed in complete control of tuberculosis (TB), thus, novel tuberculosis vaccines are urgently needed. We have constructed several TB vaccine candidates, which are characterized by the use of Listeria ivanovii (LI) strain as an antigen delivery vector. Two L. ivanovii attenuated recombinant strains L. ivanovii△actAplcB-Rv0129c and L. ivanovii△actAplcB-Rv3875 were successfully screened. Results from genome PCR and sequencing showed that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen gene cassette coding for Ag85C or ESAT-6 protein respectively had been integrated into LI genome downstream of mpl gene. Western blot confirmed the secretion of Ag85C or ESAT-6 protein from the recombinant LI strains. These two recombinant strains showed similar growth curves as wide type strain in vitro. In vivo, they transiently propagated in mice spleen and liver, and induced specific CD8(+) IFN-γ secretion. Therefore, in this paper, two novel LI attenuated strains expressing specific TB antigens were successfully constructed. The promising growth characteristics in mice immune system and the capability of induction of IFN-γ secretion make them of potential interest for development of TB vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Antigen Binding and Site-Directed Labeling of Biosilica-Immobilized Fusion Proteins Expressed in Diatoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Nicole R.; Hecht, Karen A.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas; Rorrer, Gregory L.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2016-01-08

    The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was genetically modified to express biosilica-targeted fusion proteins incorporating a tetracysteine tag for site-directed labeling with biarsenical affinity probes and either EGFP or single chain antibody to test colocalization of probes with the EGFP-tagged recombinant protein or binding of biosilica-immobilized antibodies to large and small molecule antigens, respectively. Site-directed labeling with the biarsenical probes demonstrated colocalization with EGFP-encoded proteins in nascent and mature biosilica, supporting their use in studying biosilica maturation. Isolated biosilica transformed with a single chain antibody against either the Bacillus anthracis surface layer protein EA1 or small molecule explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) effectively bound the respective antigens. A marked increase in fluorescence lifetime of the TNT surrogate Alexa Fluor 555-trinitrobenzene reflected the high binding specificity of the transformed isolated biosilica. These results demonstrated the potential use of biosilica-immobilized single chain antibodies as binders for large and small molecule antigens in sensing and therapeutics.

  5. SURFIN is a polymorphic antigen expressed on Plasmodium falciparum merozoites and infected erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Gerhard; Kawai, Satoru; Haeggström, Malin; Kaneko, Osamu; von Euler, Anne; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Palm, Daniel; Fernandez, Victor; Wahlgren, Mats

    2005-01-01

    The surfaces of the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the merozoite, two developmental stages of malaria parasites, expose antigenic determinants to the host immune system. We report on surface-associated interspersed genes (surf genes), which encode a novel polymorphic protein family, SURFINs, present on both IEs and merozoites. A SURFIN expressed in 3D7 parasites, SURFIN4.2, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis of peptides cleaved off the surface of live IEs with trypsin. SURFINs are encoded by a family of 10 surf genes, including three predicted pseudogenes, located within or close to the subtelomeres of five of the chromosomes. SURFINs show structural and sequence similarities with exported surface-exposed proteins (PvSTP1, PkSICAvar, PvVIR, Pf332, and PfEMP1) of several Plasmodium species. SURFIN4.2 of a parasite other than 3D7 (FCR3S1.2) showed polymorphisms in the extracellular domain, suggesting sequence variability between genotypes. SURFIN4.2 not only was found cotransported with PfEMP1 and RIFIN to the IE surface, but also accumulated in the parasitophorous vacuole. In released merozoites, SURFIN4.2 was present in an amorphous cap at the parasite apex, where it may be involved in the invasion of erythrocytes. By exposing shared polymorphic antigens on IEs and merozoites, the parasite may coordinate the antigenic composition of these attachment surfaces during growth in the bloodstream. PMID:15939796

  6. Structure and expression of a mouse major histocompatibility antigen gene, H-2Ld.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, G A; Margulies, D H; Camerini-Otero, R D; Ozato, K; Seidman, J G

    1982-01-01

    A genomic clone encoding H-2Ld, a mouse major transplantation antigen, has been identified and the structure of the H-2Ld gene has been partially determined. We isolated 35 genomic clones from a BALB/c (H-2d) genomic library by hybridization to mouse or human probes. One of these clones encodes H-2Ld as determined by two criteria. First, the gene encodes a protein that is identical at the 76 known amino acid positions for H-2Ld. Second, when introduced into L cells by DNA-mediated gene transfer, a new H-2 antigen is expressed that is recognized by anti-H-2Ld monoclonal antibodies. The sequence of the H-2Ld protein predicted by the DNA sequences shows more than 80% homology to known H-2 antigens. H-2L-like sequences are found in mutant H-2Kb molecules, suggesting that gene conversion or reciprocal recombination may play a role in the development of H-2 polymorphism. PMID:6952248

  7. Design and Development of Therapies using Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing T cells

    PubMed Central

    Dotti, Gianpietro; Gottschalk, Stephen; Savoldo, Barbara; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2013-01-01

    Summary Investigators developed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for expression on T cells more than 25 years ago. When the CAR is derived from an antibody, the resultant cell should combine the desirable targeting features of an antibody (e.g. lack of requirement for major histocompatibility complex recognition, ability to recognize non-protein antigens) with the persistence, trafficking and effector functions of a T-cell. This article describes how the past two decades have seen a crescendo of research which has now begun to translate these potential benefits into effective treatments for patients with cancer. We describe the basic design of CARs, describe how antigenic targets are selected, and the initial clinical experience with CART cells. Our review then describes our own and other investigators’ work aimed at improving the function of CARs and reviews the clinical studies in hematological and solid malignancies that are beginning to exploit these approaches. Finally, we show the value of adding additional engineering features to CAR-T cells, irrespective of their target, to render them better suited to function in the tumor environment, and discuss how the safety of these heavily modified cells may be maintained. PMID:24329793

  8. Identification and preliminary characterization of Treponema pallidum protein antigens expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, L V; Kerner, T C; Bankaitis, V A; Bassford, P J

    1983-01-01

    We have previously described the construction in Escherichia coli K-12 of a hybrid plasmid colony bank of Treponema pallidum (Nichols strain) genomic DNA. By screening a portion of this bank with an in situ immunoassay, we identified six E. coli clones that express T. pallidum antigens. In this study, the recombinant plasmids from each of these clones have been analyzed in E. coli maxicells and have been found to encode a number of proteins that are not of vector pBR322 origin and are, therefore, of treponemal origin. In each case, several of these proteins can be specifically precipitated from solubilized maxicell extracts by high-titer experimental rabbit syphilitic serum. Certain of these proteins are also precipitated by high-titer latent human syphilitic sera (HSS). The T. pallidum DNA inserts in these plasmids range in size from 6.2 to 14 kilobase pairs, and from the restriction patterns of the inserts and the protein profiles generated by each plasmid in maxicells, it is apparent that we have recovered a total of four unique clones from our colony bank. Recombinant plasmids pLVS3 and pLVS5 were of particular interest. Plasmid pLVS3 encodes three major protein antigens with molecular weights of 39,000, 35,000, and 25,000. These three proteins, which were not recognized by pooled normal human sera, were efficiently precipitated by most secondary HSS, latent HSS, and late HSS tested. These proteins were also precipitated, although somewhat inefficiently, by most primary HSS tested. Plasmid pLVS5 encodes a major protein antigen with a molecular weight of 32,000 and several minor protein antigens that, although efficiently precipitated by experimental rabbit syphilitic serum, were generally not recognized by the various HSS tested. Evidence is presented indicating that the protein antigens encoded by plasmids pLVS3 and pLVS5 are specific for pathogenic treponemal species. We have also demonstrated that immunoglobulin G antibodies directed against these protein

  9. Children with postsurgical capillary leak syndrome can be distinguished by antigen expression on neutrophils and monocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnok, Attila; Pipek, Michal; Valet, Guenter; Richter, Jacqueline; Hambsch, Joerg; Schneider, Peter

    1999-04-01

    Our initial studies indicate that children who develop post- operative capillary leak syndrome (CLS) following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can be distinguished based on their pre-operative level of circulating cytokines an adhesion molecules. We tested flow cytometric analysis of surface antigen expression as a potential assay for risk assessment of CLS. 24th preoperative blood samples were stained with monoclonal antibodies for the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, LFA1, MAC1, (beta) -integrin, activation markers CD25, CD54, CD69, HLA- DR, CD14 or CD4. Cells were measured on a dual-laser flow cytometer calibrated with microbeads. Antigen expression was detected as mean fluorescence intensity. The data indicate, that neutrophils of CLS patients express preoperatively higher levels of LFA1 and monocytes higher levels of HLA-DR and activation markers thus are in a state of activation. This could in combination with surgical trauma and CPB lead to their additional stimulation and migration into sites of inflammation and induce postoperative CLS. It is planned to set up a Flow-Classification program for individual risk assessment. By discriminate analysis over 80 percent of the patients were correctly classified. Our preliminary study indicates that flow cytometry with its low samples requirements and rapid access of the results could be a powerful tool to perform risk assessment prior to pediatric open heart surgery.

  10. B7 expression and antigen presentation by human brain endothelial cells: requirement for proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Prat, A; Biernacki, K; Becher, B; Antel, J P

    2000-02-01

    Interaction between systemic immune cells with cells of the blood-brain barrier is a central step in development of CNS-directed immune responses. Endothelial cells are the first cells of the blood-brain barrier encountered by migrating lymphocytes. To investigate the antigen-presenting capacity of human adult brain endothelial cells (HBECs), we used HBECs derived from surgically resected temporal lobe tissue, cocultured with allogeneic peripheral blood derived CD4+ T lymphocytes. HBECs in response to IFN-gamma, but not under basal culture conditions, expressed HLA-DR, B7.1 and B7.2 antigens. Despite such up-regulation, these IFN-gamma-treated HBECs, in contrast to human microglia and PB monocytes, did not sustain allogeneic CD4+ cell proliferation, supported only low levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, and did not stimulate IL-2 receptor expression. CD4+ T cell proliferation and increased IL-2 receptor expression could be obtained by addition of IL-2. Our data suggests that, although HBECs cannot alone support T cell proliferation and cytokine production, HBECs acting in concert with cytokines derived from a proinflammatory environment could support such a response.

  11. Overview of expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-jun; Guo, Bin; Huo, Yan-lin; Guan, Zheng-ping; Wei, Ya-hui

    2010-10-28

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a pathogen for chronic liver infection, afflicts more than 350 million people world-wide. The effective way to control the virus is to take HBV vaccine. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is an effective protective antigen suitable for vaccine development. At present, "edible" vaccine based on transgenic plants is one of the most promising directions in novel types of vaccines. HBsAg production from transgenic plants has been carried out, and the transgenic plant expression systems have developed from model plants (such as tobacco, potato and tomato) to other various plant platforms. Crude or purified extracts of transformed plants have been found to conduct immunological responses and clinical trials for hepatitis B, which gave the researches of plant-based HBsAg production a big boost. The aim of this review was to summarize the recent data about plant-based HBsAg development including molecular biology of HBsAg gene, selection of expression vector, the expression of HBsAg gene in plants, as well as corresponding immunological responses in animal models or human.

  12. Elevated expression of IFN-gamma in the HIV-1 infected brain.

    PubMed

    Shapshak, Paul; Duncan, Robert; Minagar, Alireza; Rodriguez de la Vega, Pura; Stewart, Renée V; Goodkin, Karl

    2004-05-01

    We determined the extent of expression of three cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-4, and TNF-alpha ) in brain tissue infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). The selections were IFN-gamma as a Th1 cytokine, IL- 4 as a Th2 cytokine, and TNF-alpha as a pro-inflammatory cytokine (and because of its prior implication in brain tissue damage due to HIV-1 infection). Based on current models for pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD), in the periphery, Th1 cytokines are considered to be salutary, whereas Th2 cytokines are regarded as deleterious. However, we hypothesized that in the CNS these roles are reversed. Post-mortem temporal lobe tissue specimens from 16 HIV-1-seropositive patients and 11 HIV-1-seronegative controls were stained for IFN-gamma, IL-4, and TNF-alpha utilizing immunohistochemistry and alkaline phosphatase. HIV-1 infection causes alterations of brain cytokine expression that include increased IFN-gamma expression for HIV-1-seropositive vs. HIV-1-seronegative individuals. There was increased expression of IFN-gamma for HIV-1-seropositive individuals with or without HAD, with or without the broader category of neuropsychiatric impairment (NPI), and with or without opportunistic infections (OIs) compared to HIV-1-seronegatives. A significant inverse correlation between IFN-gamma vs. IL-4 in HIV-1-seropositives with HAD and in seronegative individuals was observed. There was an inverse correlation in seropositives between IFN-gamma vs. TNF-alpha, a positive trend with HAD, significant without HAD, significant with NPI and significant without OIs. Between IL-4 vs. TNF-alpha there was a correlation (trend) in seropositives, a trend with NPI, significant without NPI, and a trend without OI. Due to HIV-1 infection of the brain and neurological disease there is a prominent increased expression of IFN-gamma, an inverse expression of IFN-gamma vs. TNF-alpha, and TNF-alpha vs. IL-4. The inverse correlation between increased IFN-gamma and decreased IL-4

  13. Differential Expression of CD163 on Monocyte Subsets in Healthy and HIV-1 Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tippett, Emma; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Westhorpe, Clare; Cameron, Paul U.; Brew, Bruce J.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Jaworowski, Anthony; Crowe, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    CD163, a haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) scavenger receptor, expressed by monocytes and macrophages, is important in resolution of inflammation. Age-related non-AIDS co-morbidities in HIV-infected individuals, particularly dementia and cardiovascular disease, result in part from effects of HIV-1 infection on monocyte and macrophage biology. CD163 co-expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes has been proposed as a useful biomarker for HIV-1 disease progression and the presence of HIV associated dementia. Here we investigated CD163 expression on monocyte subsets ex vivo, on cultured macrophages, and soluble in plasma, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. Whole blood immunophenotyping revealed CD163 expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes but not on CD14+CD16++ monocytes (P = 0.004), supported by CD163 mRNA levels. Incubation with M-CSF induced CD163 protein expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes to the same extent as CD14++CD16− monocytes. CD163 expression on CD14++CD16+ monocytes from HIV-infected subjects was significantly higher than from uninfected individuals, with a trend towards increased expression on CD14++CD16− monocytes (P = 0.019 and 0.069 respectively), which is accounted for by HIV-1 therapy including protease inhibitors. Shedding of CD163 was shown to predominantly occur from the CD14++CD16− subset after Ficoll isolation and LPS stimulation. Soluble CD163 concentration in plasma from HIV-1 infected donors was similar to HIV-1 uninfected donors. Monocyte CD163 expression in HIV-1 infected patients showed a complicated relationship with classical measures of disease progression. Our findings clarify technical issues regarding CD163 expression on monocyte subsets and further elucidates its role in HIV-associated inflammation by demonstrating that CD163 is readily lost from CD14++CD16− monocytes and induced in pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16++ monocytes by M-CSF. Our data show that all monocyte subsets are potentially capable of differentiating into CD163

  14. Astrocytic expression of HIV-1 Nef impairs spatial and recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Chompre, Gladys; Cruz, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Lucianette; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Porter, James T.; Noel, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy that effectively limits viral replication, memory impairment remains a dilemma for HIV infected people. In the CNS, HIV infection of astrocytes leads to the production of the HIV-1 Nef protein without viral replication. Post mortem studies have found Nef expression in hippocampal astrocytes of people with HIV associated dementia suggesting that astrocytic Nef may contribute to HIV associated cognitive impairment even when viral replication is suppressed. To test whether astrocytic expression of Nef is sufficient to induce cognitive deficits, we examined the effect of implanting primary rat astrocytes expressing Nef into the hippocampus on spatial and recognition memory. Rats implanted unilaterally with astrocytes expressing Nef showed impaired novel location and novel object recognition in comparison with controls implanted with astrocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). This impairment was correlated with an increase in chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) expression and the infiltration of peripheral macrophages into the hippocampus at the site of injection. Furthermore, the Nef exposed rats exhibited a bilateral loss of CA3 neurons. These results suggest that Nef protein expressed by the implanted astrocytes activates the immune system leading to neuronal damage and spatial and recognition memory deficits. Therefore, the continued expression of Nef by astrocytes in the absence of viral replication has the potential to contribute to HIV associated cognitive impairment. PMID:22926191

  15. Aberrant expression of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Globo H in thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Ping; Yang, Po-Sheng; Chien, Ming-Nan; Chen, Ming-Jen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Liu, Chien-Liang

    2016-12-01

    The induction of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen results from altered glycosylation in transformed cells. Globo H is a hexasaccharide glycosphingolipid overexpressed on malignancies of epithelial origin and has become an attractive vaccine target. We aimed to investigate the expression patterns and prognostic value of Globo H in thyroid neoplasms. Globo H expression was examined by immunohistochemical analysis using commercial and in-house tissue microarrays. The expression was correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics in papillary thyroid cancer. Normal or benign thyroid lesions were negative for Globo H expression. Globo H was positive in 33% medullary, 24% papillary, 11% undifferentiated, and 8% follicular thyroid cancer. Globo H expression in papillary thyroid cancer was associated with extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.017), BRAF mutation (P = 0.010), AMES high risk (P = 0.045), and increased ATA risk of recurrence (P = 0.022). Globo H is specifically expressed in a subset of thyroid malignancies. In papillary thyroid cancer, Globo H expression is associated with invasiveness and BRAF mutation. Immunotherapy targeting Globo H may have potential applications in thyroid cancer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:853-858. © 2016 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparison of antibody responses to different forms of HIV-1 core antigens by epitope mapping.

    PubMed

    Truong, C; Brand, D; Mallet, F; Roingeard, P; Barin, F

    1997-03-01

    The specificity of antibodies to HIV-1 capsid (p24CA) and matrix (p17MA) proteins, produced in mice against unprocessed immature assembled polyprotein (wild-type p55 virus-like particles or chimeric p55 virus-like particles) or against the monomeric mature form (rp24CA/rp17MA), was analyzed by a microplate epitope mapping assay using a panel of synthetic peptides covering the entire p24CA plus p17MA sequences of HIV-1LAI. All immunized mice developed anti-p24CA and anti-p17MA antibodies, although the spectrum of specificity of these antibodies was different. Four p24 CA epitopes (residues 176-192, 201-218, 233-253, 285-304) were recognized by anti-rp24CA/rp17MA antibodies, whereas one p17MA epitope (residues 11-25) and one p24CA epitope (residues 176-192) were constantly recognized by anti-p55 virus-like particle antibodies. These results suggest a different specificity pattern of anti-p24CA and anti-p17MA antibodies depending on whether they are produced against the soluble mature form or the immature assembled form of the gag proteins.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction fails to incriminate exogenous retroviruses HTLV-I and HIV-1 in rheumatological diseases although a minority of sera cross react with retroviral antigens.

    PubMed

    Nelson, P N; Lever, A M; Bruckner, F E; Isenberg, D A; Kessaris, N; Hay, F C

    1994-11-01

    To investigate the presence of antibodies to HTLV and HIV retroviral antigens in the rheumatological diseases rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM), primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to seek these exogenous retroviruses in proviral form in cellular DNA from these patients. Thirty patients with active RA, 13 with PM, 14 with pSS and five with SLE were recruited and their sera tested for antibodies to HTLV-I in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Seropositivity to HIV-1 was also sought. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, synovial tissue and muscle biopsies and tested by polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers for HTLV-I and HIV-1. In HTLV-I ELISA, nine rheumatological sera (4/30 RA, 3/13 PM/DM and 2/5 SLE patients) were considered positive; 14 from pSS patients and 30 from normal subjects were negative. In a control group which included osteoarthritis, Crohn's disease and bacterial endocarditis patients, only two of 80 proved positive in this system. Validation of these sera by Western blotting generally revealed weak reactivity against a variety of HTLV-I antigens. PCR of genomic DNA derived from patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not reveal the presence of HTLV-I and HIV-1 target sequences. This study shows that PCR precludes HTLV-I and HIV-1 infection as causative agents in these rheumatological diseases although a minority of patients possess antibodies that are weakly cross-reactive with retroviral antigens.

  18. Expressions of HIV-related stigma among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Danhua; Wang, Jing; Mao, Rong; Yang, Hongmei

    2008-10-01

    In China, HIV-related stigma is considered as a formidable barrier in the combat against the HIV epidemic. There have been few qualitative investigations on HIV-related stigma in China, especially among a vulnerable population of rural-to-urban migrants. Based on 90 in-depth interviews conducted in 2002-2003 with rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing and Nanjing, China, this study examines the forms and expressions of HIV-related stigma from migrants' perspectives regarding HIV infection and individuals at risk of HIV infection. Consistent with the general framework on stigma, Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' attitudes toward HIV infected individuals take forms of denial, indifference, labeling, separation, rejection, status loss, shame, hopelessness, and fear. These stigmatizing attitudes were mainly derived from fears of AIDS contagion and its negative consequences, fears of being associated with the diseases, and culturally relevant moral judgments. In addition to universal AIDS stigma, both traditional Chinese culture and socially marginalized position of rural migrant population have contributed to culturally unique aspects of stigmatizing attitudes among rural-to-urban migrants. These multifaceted manifestations of HIV-related stigma suggest that HIV stigma reduction intervention needs to address multiple aspects of HIV stigma and stigmatization including personal, cultural, institutional, and structural factors.

  19. Expressions of HIV-Related Stigma among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yan; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Lin, Danhua; Wang, Jing; Mao, Rong; Yang, Hongmei

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In China, HIV-related stigma is considered as a formidable barrier in the combat against the HIV epidemic. There have been few qualitative investigations on HIV-related stigma in China, especially among a vulnerable population of rural-to-urban migrants. Based on 90 in-depth interviews conducted in 2002–2003 with rural-to-urban migrants in Beijing and Nanjing, China, this study examines the forms and expressions of HIV-related stigma from migrants' perspectives regarding HIV infection and individuals at risk of HIV infection. Consistent with the general framework on stigma, Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' attitudes toward HIV infected individuals take forms of denial, indifference, labeling, separation, rejection, status loss, shame, hopelessness, and fear. These stigmatizing attitudes were mainly derived from fears of AIDS contagion and its negative consequences, fears of being associated with the diseases, and culturally relevant moral judgments. In addition to universal AIDS stigma, both traditional Chinese culture and socially marginalized position of rural migrant population have contributed to culturally unique aspects of stigmatizing attitudes among rural-to-urban migrants. These multifaceted manifestations of HIV-related stigma suggest that HIV stigma reduction intervention needs to address multiple aspects of HIV stigma and stigmatization including personal, cultural, institutional, and structural factors. PMID:18847389

  20. p24 antigen detection on dried blood spots is a feasible and reliable test for infant HIV infection in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivuyo, S L; Johannessen, A; Trøseid, M; Kasubi, M J; Gundersen, S G; Naman, E; Mushi, D; Ngowi, B J; Mfinanga, G S; Bruun, J N

    2011-12-01

    The difficulty of diagnosing HIV in infants is a major obstacle to early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. As serological tests are unreliable during the first 18 months of life, and the cost and complexity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays limit their access in resource-limited settings, p24 antigen detection has emerged as an alternative diagnostic tool. In this study, the performance of an ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay on dried blood spots was evaluated under field conditions in rural Tanzania. Specimens were stored and shipped at tropical room temperature, and analysed within six weeks. In total, 27 consecutive children aged <18 months and exposed to vertical HIV transmission were enrolled. Overall sensitivity and specificity was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.8-100) and 95.5% (95% CI, 77.2-99.9), respectively. Our findings suggest that detection of p24 antigen on dried blood spots can be a reliable and feasible diagnostic tool for infant HIV infection in rural resource-limited settings.

  1. Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Through Constitutive CD40L Expression

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kevin J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; Nikhamin, Yan; Yeh, Raymond; Usachenko, Yelena; van Leeuwen, Dayenne G; Purdon, Terence; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with genetically modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CAR-modified T cells (CAR T cells) have mostly failed in patients with solid tumors or low-grade B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky lymph node involvement. Herein, we enhance the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells through the constitutive expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). T cells genetically modified to constitutively express CD40L (CD40L-modified T cells) demonstrated increased proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory TH1 cytokines. Further, CD40L-modified T cells augmented the immunogenicity of CD40+ tumor cells by the upregulated surface expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), adhesion molecules (CD54, CD58, and CD70), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules (Class I and HLA-DR), and the Fas-death receptor (CD95). Additionally, CD40L-modified T cells induced maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Finally, tumor-targeted CD19-specific CAR/CD40L T cells exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD40+ tumors and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenotransplant model of CD19+ systemic lymphoma. This preclinical data supports the clinical application of CAR T cells additionally modified to constitutively express CD40L with anticipated enhanced antitumor efficacy. PMID:25582824

  2. Head-to-Head Comparison of Poxvirus NYVAC and ALVAC Vectors Expressing Identical HIV-1 Clade C Immunogens in Prime-Boost Combination with Env Protein in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Heeney, Jonathan; Seaman, Michael; Montefiori, David C.; Labranche, Celia; Yates, Nicole L.; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Foulds, Kathryn E.; McDermott, Adrian; Kao, Shing-Fen; Roederer, Mario; Hawkins, Natalie; Self, Steve; Yao, Jiansheng; Farrell, Patrick; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, Jim; Barnett, Susan W.; Burke, Brian; Cristillo, Anthony; Weiss, Deborah; Lee, Carter; Kibler, Karen; Jacobs, Bert; Asbach, Benedikt; Wagner, Ralf; Ding, Song; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We compared the HIV-1-specific cellular and humoral immune responses elicited in rhesus macaques immunized with two poxvirus vectors (NYVAC and ALVAC) expressing the same HIV-1 antigens from clade C, Env gp140 as a trimeric cell-released protein and a Gag-Pol-Nef polyprotein as Gag-induced virus-like particles (VLPs) (referred to as NYVAC-C and ALVAC-C). The immunization protocol consisted of two doses of the corresponding poxvirus vector plus two doses of a combination of the poxvirus vector and a purified HIV-1 gp120 protein from clade C. This immunogenicity profile was also compared to that elicited by vaccine regimens consisting of two doses of the ALVAC vector expressing HIV-1 antigens from clades B/E (ALVAC-vCP1521) plus two doses of a combination of ALVAC-vCP1521 and HIV-1 gp120 protein from clades B/E (similar to the RV144 trial regimen) or clade C. The results showed that immunization of macaques with NYVAC-C stimulated at different times more potent HIV-1-specific CD4+ T-cell responses and induced a trend toward higher-magnitude HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses than did ALVAC-C. Furthermore, NYVAC-C induced a trend toward higher levels of binding IgG antibodies against clade C HIV-1 gp140, gp120, or murine leukemia virus (MuLV) gp70-scaffolded V1/V2 and toward best cross-clade-binding IgG responses against HIV-1 gp140 from clades A, B, and group M consensus, than did ALVAC-C. Of the linear binding IgG responses, most were directed against the V3 loop in all immunization groups. Additionally, NYVAC-C and ALVAC-C also induced similar levels of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses. Interestingly, binding IgA antibody levels against HIV-1 gp120 or MuLV gp70-scaffolded V1/V2 were absent or very low in all immunization groups. Overall, these results provide a comprehensive survey of the immunogenicity of NYVAC versus ALVAC expressing HIV-1 antigens in nonhuman primates and indicate that

  3. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide modification, Lewis antigen expression, and gastric colonization are cholesterol-dependent.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; McGee, David J

    2009-12-14

    Helicobacter pylori specifically takes up cholesterol and incorporates it into the bacterial membrane, yet little is currently known about cholesterol's physiological roles. We compared phenotypes and in vivo colonization ability of H. pylori grown in a defined, serum-free growth medium, F12 with 1 mg/ml albumin containing 0 to 50 mug/ml cholesterol. While doubling times were largely unaffected by cholesterol, other overt phenotypic changes were observed. H. pylori strain SS1 grown in defined medium with cholesterol successfully colonized the stomach of gerbils, whereas SS1 grown without cholesterol failed to colonize. H. pylori lipopolysaccharide often displays Lewis X and/or Y antigens. Expression of these antigens measured by whole-cell ELISA was markedly enhanced in response to growth of strain SS1, 26695, or G27 in cholesterol. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of lipopolysaccharide in wild type G27 and in mutants lacking the O-chain revealed structural changes within the oligosaccharide core/lipid A moieties. These responses in Lewis antigen levels and in lipopolysaccharide profiles to cholesterol availability were highly specific, because no changes took place when cholesterol was substituted by beta-sitosterol or bile salts. Disruption of the genes encoding cholesterol alpha-glucosyltransferase or lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase had no effect on Lewis expression, nor on lipopolysaccharide profiles, nor on the cholesterol responsiveness of these properties. Disruption of the lipid A 1-phosphatase gene eliminated the effect of cholesterol on lipopolysaccharide profiles but not its effect on Lewis expression. Together these results suggest that cholesterol depletion leads to aberrant forms of LPS that are dependent upon dephosphorylation of lipid A at the 1-position. A tentative model for the observed effects of cholesterol is discussed in which sequential steps of lipopolysaccharide biogenesis and, independently, presentation of Lewis antigen at

  4. Gene-expression reversal of lncRNAs and associated mRNAs expression in active vs latent HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Madhavan; Sagar, Vidya; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh

    2016-01-01

    Interplay between lncRNAs and mRNAs is rapidly emerging as a key epigenetic mechanism in controlling various cell functions. HIV can actively infect and/or can persist latently for years by manipulating host epigenetics; however, its molecular essence remains undiscovered in entirety. Here for the first time, we delineate the influence of HIV on global lncRNAs expression in monocytic cells lines. Our analysis revealed the expression modulation of nearly 1060 such lncRNAs which are associated with differentially expressed mRNAs in active and latent infection. This suggests a greater role of lncRNAs in regulating transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene expression during HIV infection. The differentially expressed mRNAs were involved in several different biological pathways where immunological networks were most enriched. Importantly, we discovered that HIV induces expression reversal of more than 150 lncRNAs between its active and latent infection. Also, hundreds of unique lncRNAs were identified in both infection conditions. The pathology specific “gene-expression reversal” and “on-and-off” switching of lncRNAs and associated mRNAs may lead to establish the relationship between active and HIV infection. PMID:27756902

  5. Chemical synthesis of highly congested gp120 V1V2 N-glycopeptide antigens for potential HIV-1-directed vaccines.

    PubMed

    Aussedat, Baptiste; Vohra, Yusuf; Park, Peter K; Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Alam, S Munir; Dennison, S Moses; Jaeger, Frederick H; Anasti, Kara; Stewart, Shelley; Blinn, Julie H; Liao, Hua-Xin; Sodroski, Joseph G; Haynes, Barton F; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2013-09-04

    Critical to the search for an effective HIV-1 vaccine is the development of immunogens capable of inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs). A key first step in this process is to design immunogens that can be recognized by known BnAbs. The monoclonal antibody PG9 is a BnAb that neutralizes diverse strains of HIV-1 by targeting a conserved carbohydrate-protein epitope in the variable 1 and 2 (V1V2) region of the viral envelope. Important for recognition are two closely spaced N-glycans at Asn(160) and Asn(156). Glycopeptides containing this synthetically challenging bis-N-glycosylated motif were prepared by convergent assembly, and were shown to be antigenic for PG9. Synthetic glycopeptides such as these may be useful for the development of HIV-1 vaccines based on the envelope V1V2 BnAb epitope.

  6. Expression of Cancer Testis Antigens in Colorectal Cancer: New Prognostic and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Czerewaty, Michał; Deskur, Anna; Safranow, Krzysztof; Urasińska, Elżbieta; Starzyńska, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Background. While cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are restricted in postnatal tissues to testes and germ line-derived cells, their role in cancer development and the clinical significance of their expression still remain to be better defined. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of CTA expression in colon samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to patient clinical status. Methods. Forty-five patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer were included in the study. We selected a panel of 18 CTAs that were previously detected in CRC as well as some new gene candidates, and their expression was detected at the mRNA level by employing RQ-PCR. Additionally, we evaluated CTA expression in three colon cancer cell lines (CL-188, HTB-39, and HTB-37) after exposure to the DNA methylation-modifying drug 5-azacytidine. Results. We report that 6 out of 18 (33%) CTAs tested (MAGEA3, OIP5, TTK, PLU1, DKKL1, and FBXO39) were significantly (p < 0.05) overexpressed in tumor tissue compared with healthy colon samples isolated from the same patients. Conclusions. Moreover, we found that MAGEA3, PLU-1, and DKKL expression positively correlated with disease progression, evaluated according to the Dukes staging system. Finally, 5-azacytidine exposure significantly upregulated expression of CTAs on CRC cells, which indicates that this demethylation agent could be employed therapeutically to enhance the immune response against tumor cells. PMID:27635108

  7. Opisthorchis viverrini-antigen induces expression of MARCKS during inflammation-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Techasen, Anchalee; Loilome, Watcharin; Namwat, Nisana; Duenngai, Kunyarat; Cha'on, Ubon; Thanan, Raynoo; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Miwa, Masanao; Yongvanit, Puangrat

    2012-03-01

    Myristoylated alanine rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) has been implicated in PKC-mediated membrane-cytoskeleton alterations that underlie lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage responses. MARCKS is postulated to be involved in inflammation-associated CCA based on its overexpression in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were to investigate localization patterns of MARCKS in hamster and human tissue during cholangiocarcinogenesis and to examine the involvement of MARCKS in inflammation. MARCKS protein expression was found prominently in inflammatory cells of Opisthorchis viverrini-treated as well as O. viverrini plus N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-treated hamsters from week 2 to week 3 of treatment. The positive signal decreased during week 4 to week 12, then increased again at week 26 when CCA developed. At the last time point the expression of MARCKS was observed in both cancer and inflammatory cells. MARCKS protein expression was also found in inflammatory cells, including macrophages in human CCA tissues. O. viverrini excretory/secretory products or worm antigen induced MARCKS mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the human U937 macrophage cell line. The relative mRNA expression of MARCKS in white blood cells of O. viverrini-infected patients was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P = 0.02). Thus, MARCKS is significantly expressed in macrophages and plays a role in inflammation-related CCA induced by O. viverrini.

  8. Expressed var gene repertoire and variant surface antigen diversity in a shrinking Plasmodium falciparum population.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Bianca C; Fotoran, Wesley L; Menezes, Maria J; Cabral, Fernanda J; Bastos, Marcele F; Costa, Fabio T M; Sousa-Neto, Jayme A; Ribolla, Paulo E M; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2016-11-01

    The var gene-encoded erythrocyte membrane protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfEMP-1) is the main variant surface antigen (VSA) expressed on infected erythrocytes. The rate at which antibody responses to VSA expressed by circulating parasites are acquired depends on the size of the local VSA repertoire and the frequency of exposure to new VSA. Because parasites from areas with declining malaria endemicity, such as the Amazon, typically express a restricted PfEMP-1 repertoire, we hypothesized that Amazonians would rapidly acquire antibodies to most locally circulating VSA. Consistent with our expectations, the analysis of 5878 sequence tags expressed by 10 local P. falciparum samples revealed little PfEMP-1 DBL1α domain diversity. Among the most commonly expressed DBL1α types, 45% were shared by two or more independent parasite lines. Nevertheless, Amazonians displayed major gaps in their repertoire of anti-VSA antibodies, although the breadth of anti-VSA antibody responses correlated positively with their cumulative exposure to malaria. We found little antibody cross-reactivity even when testing VSA from related parasites expressing the same dominant DBL1α types. We conclude that variant-specific immunity to P. falciparum VSAs develops slowly despite the relatively restricted PfEMP-1 repertoire found in low-endemicity settings.

  9. Sarcoidosis Th17 Cells are ESAT-6 Antigen Specific but Demonstrate Reduced IFN-γ Expression

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Bradley W.; Ploetze, Kristen; Isom, Joan; Chambers-Harris, Isfahan; Braun, Nicole A.; Taylor, Thyneice; Abraham, Susamma; Mageto, Yolanda; Culver, Dan A.; Oswald-Richter, Kyra A.; Drake, Wonder P.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Many patients with sarcoidosis demonstrate antigen-specific immunity to mycobacterial virulence factors. Th-17 cells are crucial to the immune response in granulomatous inflammation, and have recently been shown to be present in greater numbers in the peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF) of sarcoidosis patients than healthy controls. It is unclear whether Th-17 cells in sarcoidosis are specific for mycobacterial antigens, or whether they have similar functionality to control Th-17 cells. Methods Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of Th-17 cells present in the peripheral blood and BALF of patients with sarcoidosis, the percentage of Th-17 cells that were specific to the mycobacterial virulence factor ESAT-6, and as well as to assess IFN-γ expression in Th-17 cells following polyclonal stimulation. Results Patients with sarcoidosis had greater numbers of Th-17 cells in the peripheral blood and BALF than controls and produced significantly more extracellular IL-17A (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). ESAT-6 specific Th-17 cells were present in both peripheral blood and BALF of sarcoidosis patients (p<0.001 and p=0.03, respectively). After polyclonal stimulation, Th-17 cells from sarcoidosis patients produced less IFN-γ than healthy controls. Conclusions Patients with sarcoidosis have mycobacterial antigen-specific Th-17 cells peripherally and in sites of active sarcoidosis involvement. Despite the Th1 immunophenotype of sarcoidosis immunology, the Th-17 cells have reduced IFN-γ expression, compared to healthy controls. This reduction in immunity may contribute to sarcoidosis pathogenesis. PMID:23073617

  10. Effect of Cocaine on HIV Infection and Inflammasome Gene Expression Profile in HIV Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Garcia, Gabriella; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Yndart, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    We have observed significantly increased HIV infection in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine that could be due to the downregulation of BST2 restriction factor in these cells. In human inflammasome PCR array, among different involved in inflammasome formation, in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine, we have observed significant upregulation of NLRP3, AIM2 genes and downstream genes IL-1β and PTGS2. Whereas negative regulatory gene MEFV was upregulated, CD40LG and PYDC1 were significantly downregulated. Among various NOD like receptors, NOD2 was significantly upregulated in both HIV alone and HIV plus cocaine treated cells. In the downstream genes, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL7 and IL-6 were significantly up regulated in HIV plus cocaine treated macrophages. We have also observed significant ROS production (in HIV and/or cocaine treated cells) which is one of the indirect-activators of inflammasomes formation. Further, we have observed early apoptosis in HIV alone and HIV plus cocaine treated macrophages which may be resultant of inflammasome formation and cspase-1 activation. These results indicate that in case of HIV infected macrophages exposed to cocaine, increased ROS production and IL-1β transcription serve as an activators for the formation of NLRP3 and AIM2 mediated inflammasomes that leads to caspase 1 mediated apoptosis. PMID:27321752

  11. Design and expression of a short peptide as an HIV detection probe

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, Jamie A.; Yu, Zhiqiang; Dedkova, Larisa M.; Chen, Shengxi

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •We designed a short fusion peptide (FP-50) for in vivo expression. •This peptide is a very promising component for detection of gp120 protein. •The detectable level is about 20–200 times lower than previously published methods. •It is a novel probe to detect HIV-1 gp120 during early stages of HIV infection. -- Abstract: To explore a low-cost novel probe for HIV detection, we designed and prepared a 50-amino acid-length short fusion peptide (FP-50) via Escherichia coli in vivo expression. It was employed as a novel probe to detect HIV-1 gp120 protein. The detectable level of gp120 protein using the FP-50 peptide was approximately 20–200 times lower than previously published methods that used a pair of monoclonal antibodies. Thus, this short peptide is a very promising component for detection of gp120 protein during early stages of HIV infection.

  12. Array-in-well platform-based multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection of anti-HIV- and treponemal-antibodies, and Hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Talha, Sheikh M; Saviranta, Petri; Hattara, Liisa; Vuorinen, Tytti; Hytönen, Jukka; Khanna, Navin; Pettersson, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Multiplex assays detecting sets of related clinical analytes simultaneously can save considerable amount of time and resources. Array-in-well (AIW) is a powerful platform for the multiplex detection of different analytes where microarrays can be printed at the bottom of microtiter wells, thus combining the potential of microarrays with the ease of handling microtiter wells. We have developed a single-step AIW assay for the simultaneous screening of HIV, Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (causing syphilis) and Hepatitis B virus infections targeting the specific detection of anti-HIV- and treponemal-antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), respectively, using two different fluorescent label technologies i.e. DyLight 633 and europium nanoparticle. Double-antigen assay formats were used for anti-HIV- and treponemal-antibody detection that can simultaneously detect both IgG and IgM, and thus reduce the window period of detection. AIW assay was evaluated with well characterized serum/plasma samples (n=111), and the qualitative results were in near complete agreement with those of the reference assays. The AIW assay exhibited 100% sensitivities for all three analytes, and 100% specificities for anti-HIV antibodies and HBsAg, and 98.6% specificity for treponemal antibodies. The limit of detection of HBsAg in AIW assay was 0.18 ng/ml. This high performing AIW assay has the potential to be used as a multiplex screening test for these three infections.

  13. High levels of CC-chemokine expression and downregulated levels of CCR5 during HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections.

    PubMed

    Oo, Z; Barrios, C S; Castillo, L; Beilke, M A

    2015-05-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 are common copathogens among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. HTLV-2 may confer a survival benefit among patients with HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfections, along with lower plasma HIV-1 levels and delayed rates of CD4(+) T-cell decline. These effects have been attributed to the ability of the HTLV-2 viral transactivating Tax2 protein to induce the production of high levels of antiviral CC-chemokines and to downregulate expression of the CCR5 receptor, resulting in impaired entry of HIV-1 into CD4(+) T-cells. This study investigated the innate immunity of coinfected HIV/HTLV individuals by testing the ability of patient PBMCs to produce CC-chemokines in association CCR5 receptor modulation. The cellular proliferative responses of HIV/HTLV coinfected versus HIV monoinfected individuals were also evaluated. Higher levels of MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES (P < 0.05) were found in HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfected group compared to HIV-1 monoinfected population. Upregulated levels of RANTES were shown in HIV-1/HTLV-1 after 1 and 3 days of culture (P < 0.05). Lymphocytes from HIV-1/HTLV-2 coinfected individuals showed significant CCR5 downregulation after 1 and 3 days of culture compared to lymphocytes from HIV-1 and uninfected groups (P < 0.05). Lower percentages of CCR5-positive cells were found in HIV-1/HTLV-1 coinfected after 3 days of incubation (P < 0.05). Levels of proliferation were significantly higher in the HIV-1/HTLV-1 group compared to HIV-1 alone (P < 0.05). HTLV-2 and HTLV-1 infections may induce the involvement of innate immunity against HIV-1 via stimulation of CC-chemokines and receptors, potentially modifying CCR5/HIV-1 binding and HIV-1 progression in coinfected individuals.

  14. ABO antigen expression in graft tissue: is titration against donor erythrocytes relevant?

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Lennart; Skogsberg, Ulrika; Mölne, Johan

    2007-12-27

    ABO-incompatible living donor renal transplantation has become an accepted treatment for end-stage renal disease. Two main factors appear to be important when crossing the ABO barrier, the donor organ A/B antigen expression and the amount of recipient anti-A/B antibody. Antigen expression depends on the ABO blood group and subgroup and may vary in different tissues and cells. The amount of recipient anti-A/B antibody, determined by titration, is very variable. One major drawback with titration is the lack of conformity between different laboratories, making comparisons difficult. For clinical use, the anti-A/B antibody titration technique has to be simple, rapid, and cheap, in addition to being accurate. Although there is a need for more standardized procedures for determination of ABO antibodies, existing techniques are sufficient in the clinical care of patients. To illustrate the variation in susceptibility of different graft tissues to ABO antibodies, in this paper we describe a case of an ABO-incompatible combined liver and kidney transplantation.

  15. Functional expression of a cattle MHC class II DR-like antigen on mouse L cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, D.C.; Craigmile, S.; Campbell, J.D.M.

    1996-09-01

    Cattle DRA and DRB genes, cloned by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, were transfected into mouse L cells. The cattle DR-expressing L-cell transfectant generated was analyzed serologically, biochemically, and functionally. Sequence analysis of the transfected DRB gene clearly showed showed that it was DRB3 allele DRB3*0101, which corresponds to the 1D-IEF-determined allele DRBF3. 1D-IEF analysis of the tranfectant confirmed that the expressed DR product was DRBF3. Functional integrity of the transfected gene products was demonstrated by the ability of the transfectant cell line to present two antigens (the foot-and-mouth disease virus-derived peptide FMDV15, and ovalbumin) to antigen-specific CD4{sup +} T cells from both the original animal used to obtain the genes, and also from an unrelated DRBF3{sup +} heterozygous animal. Such transfectants will be invaluable tools, allowing us to dissect the precise contributions each locus product makes to the overall immune response in heterozygous animals, information essential for rational vaccine design. 45 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cross-protective efficacy of dendritic cells targeting conserved influenza virus antigen expressed by Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Shi, Shao-Hua; Yang, Gui-Lian; Jiang, Yan-Long; Zhao, Liang; Li, Yu; Wang, Chun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) can infect birds and mammals, including humans, and are thus a serious threat to public health. Vaccination is vital for controlling AIV circulation. In this study, we generated a recombinant lactobacillus expressing the NP-M1-DCpep of H9N2 avian influenza virus and evaluated the activation effect of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep on dendritic cells (DCs) in a mouse model. The specific mucosal antibody responses and B and T cell responses in lymphoid tissues were also characterized. Importantly, we confirmed that specific CD8 T cells presented in vitro and antigen-specific cytotoxicity (activated the expression of CD107a) and in vivo antigen-specific cytotoxicity after vaccination. The adoptive transfer of NC8-pSIP409-NP-M1-DCpep-primed CD8+ T cells into NOD-SCID mice resulted in effective protection against mouse-adapted AIV infection. In addition, we observed protection in immunized mice challenged with mo